Name: Ch‟ng Pei Ying Class: 4T1/ 2011 I/C Number: 951020-07-5506

1.0 INTRODUCTION Open source software (OSS) began as a marketing campaign for free software. OSS can be defined as computer software for which the human-readable source code is made available under a copyright license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open Source Definition. This permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. It is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open source software is the most prominent example of open source development and often compared to user generated content. Open source hardware (OSHW) consists of physical artefacts of technology designed and offered in the same manner as free and open source software (FOSS). Open source hardware is part of the open source culture movement and applies a like concept to a variety of components. The term usually means that information about the hardware is easily discerned. Hardware design addition to the software that drives the hardware is all released with the FOSS approach. Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artefacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware. 2.0 THE LATEST OPEN SOURCE OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) 2.1 Meaning of open source OS An open source (OS) operating system is a set of programs that schedule tasks, allocates storage and presents a default interface to the user between applications. But this OS is free, user has the right to use, modify and redistribute the software for better interoperability. 2.2 Example of open source OS Example: LINUX LINUX is the name usually given to any Unix-like computer operating system that uses the Linux kernel. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development: typically all underlying source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone.

The name “Linux” comes from the Linux kernel started in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The system‟s utilities and libraries usually come from the GNU operating system, announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. The GNU contribution is the basis for the alternative name GNU/Linux. Penguin is a mascot of Linux. Predominantly known for its use in servers, Linux is supported by corporations such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Novell, Oracle Corporation, Red Hat, and Sun Microsystems. It is used as an operating system for a wide variety of computer hardware, including desktop computers, supercomputers, and embedded devices such as E-book readers, DVRs, video game systems (PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and Xbox), mobile phones and routers. Example: MINIX 3 MINIX 3 is a new open-source operating system designed to be highly reliable, flexible, and secure. It is loosely based somewhat on previous versions of MINIX, but is fundamentally different in many key ways. MINIX 1 and 2 were intended as teaching tools, while MINIX 3 adds the new goal of being usable as a serious system on resource-limited and embedded computers and for applications requiring high reliability. MINIX is a Unix-like computer operating system based on microkernel architecture. Andrew S. Tanenbaum wrote the operating system to be used for educational purposes. MINIX also inspired the creation of the Linux kernel. Its name derives from the words minimal and UNIX. Released under the BSD license, MINIX is free and open source software. EXAMPLE: HAIKU HAIKU is an open source operating system currently in development that specifically targets personal computing. Inspired by the Be Operating System, Haiku aims to become a fast, efficient, simple to use, easy to learn and yet very powerful system for computer users of all levels. 3.0 THE LATEST OPEN SOURCE APPLICATION SOFTWARE 3.1 Meaning of open source application software Open source application software is computer software that is available in source code form for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright

holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, and improve the software. Open source licenses often meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition. Some open source application software is available within the public domain. Open source application software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open source application software is the most prominent example of open source development and often compared to user-generated content or open content movements. The term open source application software originated as part of a marketing campaign for free application software. 3.2 Examples of open source application software Mozilla Firefox 7 (Nightly) An innovative and highly praised open source Web browser for Windows, Mac and Linux from the Mozilla project. Including a search box for Google and other major sites, the Firefox user interface was designed to be easily customizable by adding “extensions,” such as a stock tracker, auto fill and hundreds of others. Open 3.3 3 is the leading open-source office software suite for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, databases and more. It is available in many languages and works on all common computers. It stores all your data in an international open standard format and can also read and write files from other common office software packages. It can be downloaded and used completely free of charge for any purpose. Ardour 3.0 Ardour 3.0 is nearing its first alpha release. It could be substantial enough to become primary music workstation. That could be a good thing for the whole music production ecosystem on Mac and Linux. Ardour 3 have MIDI recording, playback, and editing, the essential feature that kept many people away from the tool. Ardour 3 enables you to edit in the main window, rather than having to juggle a lot of different windows. Ardour could become a showpiece for the small but growing set of exceptional new Linux plug-in instruments, with expanded LV2 support (and VST, which is also key on Linux). For Mac, there‟s plug-in instrument support

for AU. Ardours 3 also have a new matrix editor, which greatly simplifies the deep routing possibilities in Ardour. 4.0 THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN ICT 4.1 Hardware Sapphire Pure Platinum Z68 Motherboard The Sapphire Pure Platinum Z68 is released at 18 August 2011. Four Video output options are provided for the on-chip graphics output of the CPU – VGA, DVI, HDMI and Display Port. The HDMI 1.4a port supports both video and audio. The rear panel has the standard I/O configuration for the on board 8-channel HD 7.1 Audio as well as SPDIF. Add-in graphics support is provided by two PCI-E Gen3 x16 slots, spaced to allow the installation of two dual width graphics cards in CrossFireX. Further expansion is provided by an additional PCI-E x16 slot and three standard PCI slots. Lucid Virtu software is bundled with this board, which provides dynamic switching between the built-in processor graphics and discrete graphics cards. This is ideal for people who want to use high-end, 3D cards for high-resolution gaming and enjoy the power savings of switching to the built-in graphics capability of 2nd Generation Intel processors for 2D or media applications. The Z68 chipset supports performance tuning by allowing separate adjustment of clock speeds, multipliers and voltages, ideal for over clocking. The board has a Dual BIOS, allowing for experimentation and updates, and for the hard-core enthusiast, voltage test pads have been brought out to the edge of the board for the critical voltages on the CPU and memory circuits. Other user friendly features include digital debug display and a push button reset for the BIOS, as well as start and system reset buttons. Hardware monitoring tools and the SAPPHIRE proprietary Main board TriXX software allow users to review and adjust a range of system parameters while optimizing performance of the CPU. Sapphire Pure Black P67 Hydra Sapphire Pure Black P67 Hydra is released to public at 11 January 2011.It‟s from this new focus that the Pure Black P67 Hydra springs - a board which, as canny readers should already be able to tell, sports Lucid‟s Hydra chip. We‟ve been pretty damning of Lucid Hydra in the past as, while Lucid's claim that it enables

cross-vendor multi-GPU setups sounds great on paper, it's been far from simple in practice. The service and associated program has been infuriatingly complex and incredibly reliant on driver support, and we‟ve also seen extremely poor when using mixed GeForce and Radeon multi-GPU setups via the Hydra chip. It‟s a bizarre inclusion then, and one that very, very few people are likely to use - it's only useful if you intend to deploy a multi-GPU setup, but for some reason don't want to stick to just CrossFire or SLI. Fortunately, the Lucid Hydra chip isn‟t the only trump card that the Pure Black can play, as the board comes with a bunch of other premium features to justify its price tag. At the top of this list are the four 16x PCI-E slots. Closer inspection shows that only three of these (in blue) are PCI-E 2.0, with the fourth lane only providing a measly four PCI-E 1.1 lanes. Also useful are the on-board power, reset and CMOS clear switches. Interestingly, Sapphire has also tasked the reset switch as a hard disk activity monitor, as its illumination flickers when the hard disk is accessed. Next to these switches is another useful feature - a dual BIOS switch. This is handy should anything untoward happen to your primary BIOS, and it grants a degree of peace of mind when extreme over clocking or updating the BIOS. Meanwhile, one of the nattiest features on the Pure Black is its POST code readout which is not only useful for diagnosing and troubleshooting problems during startup, but also shows the CPU temperature once the board has booted. This is a brilliant but simple idea, although you‟ll obviously need a side window to be able to take advantage of it once the board is in a case. 4.2 Software BitDefender 2012 BitDefender 2012 is released at 28 July 2011. It has a lot of new features. Integrated cloud services ensure a faster response to new outbreaks, for instance. The Scan Dispatcher automatically checks your system for threats when it‟s idle, minimising any impact on other applications. And if Total Security 2012 finds a deeply-embedded threat which it can‟t remove, then it can reboot your PC to Rescue Mode, a trusted Linux-based environment that makes it much easier to detect and clean up any malware.

Autopilot is another interesting addition, which allows Total Security 2012 to make any security-related decisions on your behalf: perfect for novice users, or anyone else who just doesn‟t want to be hassled with pop-ups or alerts. And a more flexible interface makes it easier than ever to control this functionality, as you can drag and drop modules around and reorganise them to suit your needs. Total Security 2012′s RAM use was occasionally high, for instance, at over 200MB, even when running in the background. But that‟s to be expected with beta code, and normally it was under 35MB. BitDefender 20111sep 2010 BitDefender 2011 is released at 1 September 2011. It‟s features are classified into a few categories. For protection, it has Enhanced Detection, QuickScan and Search Advisor. Every product in the BitDefender 2011 family provides multi-layered, proactive technologies to hunt down and eliminate the latest threats in seconds. The inclusion of the QuickScan feature means better detection and improved response time to the most frequent and riskiest activities on the computer. The entire product line also includes phishing warnings for search results and safety ratings for all websites that may contain spyware or inappropriate content. For speed, it has Smart Scan and Enhanced Game and Laptop Modes. Optimized scanning technology skips known safe files for faster scan speed and lower system load. It prevents slowdown by adjusting settings to match available memory. Special task modes ensure seamless and secure computing, prolong battery life, or reduce system load and interruptions by delaying requests during favourite activities. For personalization, it has Adaptive Design, Dashboard Shortcuts and Smart Tips. The new Adaptive Design user interface streamlines installation into push-button simplicity and allows users to choose Basic presets or move beyond to Intermediate or Expert settings. All BitDefender 2011 products enable users with specific needs. For example, parents and gamers can use it to create their own dashboard and shortcuts to frequently. BitDefender includes a series of personalized suggestions, warnings, and safeguards that are relevant to the user‟s recent activity. 5.0 PERVASIVE COMPUTING

5.1 Meaning of Pervasive Computing Pervasive computing is the trend towards increasingly ubiquitous connected computing devices in the environment, a trend being brought about by a convergence of advanced electronic and particularly, wireless technologies and the Internet. Pervasive computing devices are not personal computers as we tend to think of them, but very tiny or even invisible devices, either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object imaginable, including cars, tools, appliances, clothing and various consumer goods – all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks. Pervasive computing (also called ubiquitous computing) is the growing trend towards embedding microprocessors in everyday objects so they can communicate information. The words pervasive and ubiquitous mean "existing everywhere." Pervasive computing devices are completely connected and constantly available. Pervasive computing relies on the convergence of wireless technologies, advanced electronics and the Internet. The goal of researchers working in pervasive computing is to create smart products that communicate unobtrusively. The products are connected to the Internet and the data they generate is easily available. 5.2 Examples of pervasive computing CCTV Closed Circuit Television, also known as CCTV, is a private or closed video system where viewing of the video is restricted to a specific group of individuals. Systems can range in size from being within a single building, to a complex of buildings, to large campuses and city centres, and can even span across a continent. Such monitoring of areas and/or activities may be used for security, safety, industrial, or private purposes. CCTV system may be viewed while an event is happening or recorded for „after-the-fact‟ review either on-site or off-site. Review is done via the use of VHS videotapes, CD, DVD, and/or other such tape or computer based mediums. Such reviews of pre-recorded visual information may also be done „remotely‟ through the use of telephone lines, fibre optics, microwave, the internet, and/or a host of other such transmission methods according to the design and complexity of the CCTV system.

CCTV is a visual surveillance technology designed for monitoring a variety of environments and activities all at the same time. CCTV systems typically involve a dedicated communications link between cameras in the field and monitors at one or more control centres. Systems can be made up of technically mature analogue cameras and image storage devices, or newly developed digital cameras and image storage devices, or a mix of the two technologies. Human-Computer Interaction An interdisciplinary field focused on the interactions between human users and computer systems, including the user interface and the underlying processes which produce the interactions. The contributing disciplines include computer science, cognitive science, human factors, software engineering, management science, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Recently, the field of human-computer interaction has broadened and become more attentive to the processes and context for the user interface. The focus of research and development is now on understanding the relationships among users' goals and objectives, their personal capabilities, the social environment, and the designed artefacts with which they interact. As an applied field, human-computer interaction is also concerned with the development process used to create the interactive system and its value for the human user. The interfaces and processes that make up human-computer interaction are understood and advanced through a variety of methods. At one level, this interaction can be characterized by the capabilities and processes of the human and the computer to accept input, process that input, and generate output. The computer capabilities include the hardware (input and output devices) such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, and Internet connection. These devices reflect contributions from computer science and engineering, whereas the human capabilities, both mental and physical, are understood through cognitive science and ergonomics. At another level, the interaction between the computer and the human consists of user interface software which governs the meanings of the inputs and outputs for the computer, as well as the corresponding rules and expectations that the user applies to generate meaningful actions. The user's internal model of the interaction is supported by visual cues in the interface and designed in accordance with principles of human factors. At a higher level, this interaction includes the context of goals, motivations, and other people and resources that determine what the person is doing. Understanding the process at this level requires insights from social and organizational sciences.

Developing human-computer interactions involves design on both sides of the interaction. On the technology side, the designer must have a thorough understanding of the available hardware and software components and tools. On the human side, the designer must have a good understanding of how humans learn and work with computers, including envisioning new modes of working. The designer's task is to create effective, efficient, and satisfying interactions by balancing factors such as cost, benefits, standards, and the environmental constraints in which the interaction will take place. 6.0 CONCLUSION Open Software had become a great medium for users to explore the concept of software engineering and programming .It also provides a great deal of information on freedom to modify. Pervasive computing on the other had will help users in various difficulties faced and make our life easier and not complicated. With a simple input command, computers and technology may one day takeover a more sophisticated task like data entry. Reference:
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