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USAR Marksmanship Program

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M-16/M-4 SERIES WEAPONS

References: FM 3-22.9 TM 9-1005-319-10

USAR Marksmanship Program


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Weapons Safety
Always treat all weapons as if they are loaded Never point any weapon at anything you do not intend to kill Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on the target Always be sure of your target, its surroundings and beyond

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Weapons Safety
UNLOAD/SHOW CLEAR

Point in SAFE DIRECTION, selector on SAFE Remove Magazine Lock bolt open, charging handle forward, selector on SAFE. Check receiver and chamber confirming no ammo Release bolt forward, close ejection port cover Point in SAFE DIRECTION, selector on FIRE, press trigger Recock weapon, selector on SAFE, close ejection port cover

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Function Check Clear the weapon first SAFE: Hammer should not fall. SEMI: Hammer should fall. Test disconnector BURST (M16A2, M16A4, M4): Hammer should fall. Cycle three times. Hammer should fall. AUTO (M16A3, M4A1): Hammer should fall. Cycle once. Hammer should not fall.

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CHARACTERISTICS 5.56 x 45mm Semi automatic, burst, automatic Magazine-fed Gas-operated Air-cooled Shoulder-fired

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Ammunition Types

Ref: FM 3-22.9 pg 2.28

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LOADING (Bolt Open) Insert the magazine into the magazine well until the magazine catch locks it into place. NOTE: Do not slap up on the bottom of the magazine when the bolt is in the rearward position as rounds may dislodge from the magazine causing a malfunction. Pull down on the magazine to ensure that it is properly seated. Press the upper portion of the bolt catch to allow the bolt to go forward. Condition RED Rotate to SEMI. Condition BLACK
VGT-7

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LOADING (Bolt Closed) Insert the magazine into the magazine well until the magazine catch locks it into place. Condition

AMBER

NOTE: Seating a fully loaded magazine into a weapon with the bolt closed requires more force than loading a magazine with the bolt locked to the rear. Pull down on the magazine to ensure that it is properly seated Use slingshot method to chamber a round. Condition RED Rotate to SEMI. Condition BLACK
VGT-8

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Correct Malfunctions
STOPPAGE: A stoppage is a failure of an automatic or semiautomatic firearm to complete the cycle of operation. IMMEDIATE ACTION: Slap up on the bottom of the magazine to ensure that it is properly seated Pull the charging handle to the rear Observe for the ejection of a live round or spent case Release the charging handle Tap the forward assist to ensure that the bolt is forward Squeeze the trigger to fire the rifle
VGT-9

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Correct Malfunctions
REMEDIAL ACTION: A continuing effort to determine and correct the cause of a malfunction if Immediate Action fails
Ammunition Mechanical Operator Induced

Clear the rifle and reload

VGT-10

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Fundamentals of Marksmanship Steady Position Aiming Breath Control Trigger Control

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Principles of Steady Position Support Natural Point of Aim Alignment Points of Contact

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Support Bone Support Artificial Support

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Natural Point of Aim

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Alignment

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Points of Contact Stock high and tight on the shoulder Head high and tight on the stock
Firing-hand high and tight on the pistol grip

Non-Firing hand supporting rifle

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USAR Marksmanship Program


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Cheek to Stock NonFiring Hand

Rifle Butt Position

Firing Hand Grip

Firing Elbow Placement

Non-firing Elbow
VGT-18

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Rifle butt placed in the inside pocket of shoulder Allow the head and firing eye to remain upright Head and eye not canted, allowing firing eye to align with the sights or optic Head relaxed to form stock weld
VGT-19

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Good stock weld establishes proper eye relief Start by trying to touch charging handle with nose when building position to achieve repeatability Place chin against stock, apply slight downward pressure, allow cheek to fall naturally, forming a pad Neck relaxed providing a natural line of sight through the rear sight aperture to the front sight post or optic

VGT-20

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Placed in a position either on the handguards or mag well to provide maximum support and control during fire. Constant rearward pressure is applied to assist the firing hand to keep the butt of rifle in place

VGT-21

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Placed high on the pistol grip, using a firm handshake grip Maintain constant rearward pressure to ensure rifle butt stays in place

VGT-22

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Firing elbow establishes balance and bone support Exact location depends on position used Placement should allow shoulders to remain level

VGT-23

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Placed under the weapon to maintain stable position Pivot point for engaging multiple targets, making elevation changes or engaging moving targets
VGT-24

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VGT-25

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VGT-26

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VGT-27

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VGT-28

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VGT-29

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EYE DOMINANCE TEST

Method #1 With both eyes open, look directly at the red circle. Make a SMALL CIRCLE with both your hands at full arm length in front of you. Concentrate on the circle with both eyes open. Close one eye at a time. Which eye did you see the circle out of? Method #2 Make the same hand arrangement and look at your partners face from more than 10 feet away. Ask your partner which of your eyes THEY see.

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SIGHT ALIGNMENT

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Accept your wobble area

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Breath Control It's not why you miss... Fire during a respiratory pause The lungs should not be expanding or contracting during firing Your eyes (and your brain) require oxygen to function properly, take a breath at least every 8-12 seconds Just pause breathing!

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Trigger Control
Move the trigger without moving the sights

Reset the trigger when recoil has settled and the sights are aligned on your Natural Point of Aim

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Trigger Finger Placement


Trigger finger is placed on the trigger between the first joint and the tip and adjusted depending on hand size, grip and so on. It is important to experiment with many finger positions during dry-fire training to ensure there is as little disturbance as possible -FM 3-22.9

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Maintaining continuous and constant tension on the pistol grip Placed the trigger finger through the trigger guard and allow to rest naturally on the trigger

VGT-38

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Trigger Manipulation
Apply a controlled continuous amount of pressure on the trigger straight to the rear and hold Once the weapon has settled after recoil slowly release the trigger to reset the sear Determined by feeling and or hearing the metallic click Once the sear has reset, STOP the movement of the trigger finger Realign the sights and repeat the above steps
VGT-39

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Follow Through
Continued application of the fundamentals throughout the integrated act of firing Avoiding reaction to recoil

Keeping the head in firm contact with the stock Marinating contact with the trigger. Continuing to look through rear aperture or scope. Keeping muscles relaxed. Releasing the trigger only after the recoil has stopped.
VGT-40

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Trajectory

Red: Line of Sights (where the sights are pointing)

Green: Line of Bore (where the barrel is pointing, the path of the bullet without the affect of gravity)

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Trajectory

50m

180m Red: Line of Sights (where the sights are pointing)

300m

Green: Line of Bore (where the barrel is pointing, (the path of the bullet without the affect of gravity)

Blue: The actual Blue: Trajectory (the actual path of the bullet)

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Grouping: 6 consecutive shots within a 4cm circle anywhere on the target. Zeroing: 5 of 6 consecutive shots within the 4cm circle inside the black silhouette. Triangulate and number each shot group

USAR Marksmanship Program

Unit of angular measurement, like degrees and radians Generally considered 1 inch at 100 yards.
Pi inches at 300 yards (1.0476 inches at 100 yards)

Minute of Angle

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Range and size dependent 1 MOA = 1 at 100yd. 2 MOA = 2 at 100yd. 1 MOA = 2 at 200yd. 2 MOA = 4 at 200yd. 1 MOA = 3 at 300yd. 2 MOA = 6 at 300 yd.

1 MOA:

100 yd 1

200 yd 300 yd 2 3

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Front Sight A2/A3: 1 MOA

Elevation Wheel

Windage Knob

BZO 25m

A4 M4:

1 MOA 1 MOA

1 MOA MOA 1 MOA

MOA MOA 1 MOA

3+1 3+2 (Z) 6/3 (300)


VGT-45

USAR Marksmanship Program


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USAR Marksmanship Program


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USAR Marksmanship Program


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RANGE COMMANDS

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Range Commands Insert the magazine at the command: AMBER Chamber a round at the command: RED

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Place the weapon on FIRE at the command:

BLACK Select SAFE, Remove the magazine, inspect the chamber, and ride the bolt forward on an EMPTY CHAMBER at the command : GREEN