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Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research 2001

Report to the Nation
Public Health
Human Drugs

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food and Drug Administration
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research promotes and protects public
health by assuring that safe and effective drugs are available to Americans.
The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 affirmed
the center’s public health protection role, clarified the FDA’s mission and
called for the FDA to:

1 Promote the public health by promptly and efficiently reviewing

clinical research and taking appropriate action on the marketing of
human drugs in a timely manner.

2 Protect the public health by ensuring that human drugs are safe and

3 Participate through appropriate processes with representatives of

other countries to reduce the burden of regulation, harmonize
regulatory requirements and achieve appropriate reciprocal

4 Carry out its mission in consultation with experts in science,

medicine and public health and in cooperation with consumers, users,
manufacturers, importers, packers, distributors and retailers of human

This report is available on the Internet in Adobe Acrobat Portable

Document Format and in hypertext markup language. The charts and
graphs are available as Microsoft PowerPoint slides. The locations are:
„ PDF:
„ Slides:
Suggested citation: Food and Drug Administration. CDER 2001 Report to
the Nation: Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs. Rockville,
Maryland, 2002.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE .............................................................. iii
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1
2000 HIGHLIGHTS....................................................................... 3
Counterterrorism ................................................................. 4
Scientific Research ............................................................. 6
1 DRUG REVIEW ........................................................................ 7
New Drug Review .............................................................. 8
New or Expanded Use Review ......................................... 14
Pediatric Exclusivity ......................................................... 15
Over-the-Counter Drug Review ........................................ 17
Generic Drug Review ....................................................... 18
User Fee Program ............................................................. 20
Manufacturing Supplement Review ................................. 21
Electronic Submissions ..................................................... 22
Assessing Data Quality, Research Risks .......................... 23
Drug Review Team ........................................................... 24
2 DRUG SAFETY AND QUALITY .............................................. 25
Types of Risks from Medicines ........................................ 26
Drug Safety ....................................................................... 26
MedWatch Outreach and Reporting ................................. 28
Drug Shortages ................................................................. 29
Drug Promotion Review ................................................... 30
Drug Recalls and Withdrawals ......................................... 32
Drug Product Quality ........................................................ 33
Drug Product Quality Science .......................................... 36
Export Certificates ............................................................ 37
3 INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ............................................... 38
4 COMMUNICATIONS ............................................................... 40
Where to Find More Information ...................................... 42

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Graphs and Charts

Standard New Drugs.................................................................... 8
Priority New Drugs...................................................................... 9
Standard New Molecular Entities .............................................. 10
Priority New Molecular Entities ................................................ 11
New or Expanded Uses.............................................................. 15
Over-the-Counter Drugs ............................................................ 17
Generic Drugs ............................................................................ 19
Manufacturing Supplements ...................................................... 21
Inspections of Clinical Research ............................................... 23
Sources of Risk from Drug Products ......................................... 26
Post-Marketing Adverse Event Reports .................................... 27
Drug Promotion Review ............................................................ 31
Drug Recalls .............................................................................. 32
Safety-Based NME Withdrawal Percentages ............................ 33
FDA Inspections of Manufacturing Plants ................................ 35
Export Certificates Issued.......................................................... 37
Modular Structure of Common Technical Document ............... 39
Average Monthly Use of CDER Internet Site ........................... 41

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Last year, we at the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research worked hard to:
„ Provide rapid access to new therapies while maintaining rigorous safety and
effectiveness standards.
„ Listen to the voices of consumers, patients and health care professionals as
well as those of regulated industry.
„ Match the effort in premarket evaluation with a vigorous postmarket
monitoring program.
„ Make sure we support the people in CDER as well as serving the outside
However, routine operations were not the hallmark of a year that witnessed the
terrorist attacks on and after Sept. 11. The brutal assaults challenged us to rise to
the defense of the American consumers. In close cooperation with other
authorities, we responded with our traditional vigor, initiative and scientific
We developed strategies to strengthen the protection of drug products against
willful contamination and to improve the availability of drugs for the prevention
or treatment of injuries caused by biological, chemical or nuclear agents.
For example, we took the initiative to publish a notice that the antibiotics
doxycycline and penicillin G procaine are safe and effective for the post-
exposure prevention of inhalational anthrax. This notice included explicit dosing
based on our review of scientific literature and data from the same rhesus
monkey study that had been used to support our August 2000 approval of
ciprofloxacin for post-exposure prevention of inhalational anthrax. The assurance
that the three drugs are safe and effective for this use eased public concerns about
a potential shortage of medication for the victims of the mailed anthrax powder.
We also stepped up our work on measures to encourage the development of new
drugs to counter the toxic effects of chemical, biological, radiological and
nuclear weapons.
In addition to doing our part in protecting Americans against terrorism, we
evaluated many new drugs that advanced the frontier of modern medicine. For
example, we approved a new drug to treat a rare form of life-threatening cancer
in two and one-half months. We are continuing to develop science-based data on
safety and dosing regimens for drugs to treat children.
Once again, we met all of the demanding application review goals of the
Prescription Drug User Fee Act, but we have encountered challenges. Our efforts
to meet goals for drug development may have had an unintended impact on
approval times for standard applications. These approval times have begun to
increase because more applications require multiple review cycles to reach
approval. We are watching trends closely.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Our generic drug program is providing a steady supply of more affordable drugs
that meet our uniform and stringent standards for safety, effectiveness and
quality. We are developing an education program to bolster consumer confidence
in generic drugs.
We continued to enhance our drug safety program. In recent years fully 50
percent of all new drugs worldwide have been launched in the United States, and
American patients have had access to 78 percent of the world’s new drugs within
the first year of their introduction. More rigorous safety monitoring of newly
approved drugs in the first few years on the market is key to detecting
unanticipated problems earlier. We have entered into several agreements that will
give us access to data about the actual use of prescription drugs by children and
adults. This will augment our ability to determine the significance of adverse
events we receive. We will have the benefit of advice about general and product-
specific safety issues from a new panel of experts in areas related to risk
perception and management, pharmacology and other related disciplines.
We launched an important initiative to build the scientific data needed to
modernize American drug manufacturing. While Americans have the highest
quality of drugs in the world, the process used to produce them can be expensive
and wasteful. We have observed an increasing trend toward manufacturing-
related problems, such as recalls, disruptions of manufacturing operations and the
loss of availability of essential drugs. Modern technology holds the promise of
manufacturing to the same or higher quality standards while reducing the
workload for industry and for us and ensuring the highest quality drug products
for American consumers.
We are making strenuous efforts to come to grips with the reality of globalization
in the marketplace. Cornerstones of our efforts are the International Conference
on Harmonization, the Mutual Recognition Agreement with the European Union,
and building relationships with the international regulatory community. We have
begun work to promote harmonization within the Americas.
An urgent priority for us is improving our communications. Information is a key
element in the safe and effective use of drugs. We are collaborating and
leveraging with a broad spectrum of groups to improve information for
prescribers and consumers. Industry and consumers are increasingly turning to
our Internet site for important and up-to-date information on our regulatory
programs and on the drugs they take to improve their health.
As we look to the challenges ahead, we remain steadfast in our commitment to
facilitate the availability of safe and effective drugs, keep unsafe or ineffective
drugs off the market, improve the health of Americans and provide clear and
easily understandable drug information for safe and effective use.

Janet Woodcock, M.D.

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Who we are
The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research is America’s consumer
watchdog for medicine. We are part of one of the nation’s oldest consumer
protection agencies—the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA is an
agency of the federal government’s Department of Health and Human
Prescription drugs
Services. We are the largest of FDA’s five centers, with about 1,800
employees. Approximately half of us are physicians or other kinds of Prescription medicines
scientists. Many of us have experience and education in such fields as must be administered
computer science, legal affairs and regulatory matters. under a doctor’s
supervision or require
a doctor’s
What we do authorization for
Our best-known job is to evaluate new drugs for safety and effectiveness purchase. There are
What is a drug? before they can be sold. Our evaluation, called a review, makes sure that several reasons for
the drugs we approve meet our tough standards for safety, effectiveness requiring a medicine
We regulate drugs and quality. We also make sure that you and your doctor will have the be sold by
used to treat, prevent information you need to use medicines wisely. Once drugs are on the prescription:
or diagnose illnesses. market, we monitor them for problems.
… The disease or
However, drugs Reviewing drugs before marketing. A drug company seeking to sell a drug condition may be
include more than just in the United States must first test it. We monitor clinical research to serious and require a
medicines. ensure that people who volunteer for studies are protected and that the doctor’s management.
For example, fluoride quality and integrity of scientific data are maintained. The company then
… The medicine itself
toothpaste, sends us the evidence from these tests to prove the drug is safe and
may cause side effects
antiperspirants, effective for its intended use. We assemble a team of physicians,
that a doctor needs to
dandruff shampoos statisticians, chemists, pharmacologists and other scientists to review the
and sunscreens are all company’s data and proposed use for the drug. If the drug is effective and
considered “drugs.” we are convinced its health benefits outweigh its risks, we approve it for … The same symptoms
sale. We don’t actually test the drug when we review the company’s data. may be caused by
You can buy some By setting clear standards for the evidence we need to approve a drug, we different diseases that
drugs in a store help medical researchers bring new drugs to American consumers more only a doctor can
without a prescription, rapidly. We also review drugs that you can buy over the counter without a diagnose.
while others require a prescription and generic versions of over-the-counter and prescription
doctor’s prescription. … The different causes
may require different
Some are available in Watching for drug problems. Once a drug is approved for sale in the medicines.
less-expensive generic United States, our consumer protection mission doesn’t stop. We monitor
versions. … Some medicines can
the use of marketed drugs for unexpected health risks. If new,
be dangerous when
unanticipated risks are detected after approval, we take steps to inform the
used to treat the wrong
public and change how a drug is used or even remove a drug from the
market. We also monitor manufacturing changes to make sure they won’t
adversely affect the safety or efficacy of the medicine. We evaluate reports

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

about suspected problems from manufacturers, health care professionals

and consumers. Sometimes, manufacturers run into production problems
that might endanger the health of patients who depend on a drug. We try to
make sure that an adequate supply of drugs is always available.
Monitoring drug information and advertising. Accurate and complete
information is vital to the safe use of drugs. Drug companies have
historically promoted their products directly to physicians. More and more
frequently now, they are advertising directly to consumers. While the
Federal Trade Commission regulates advertising of over-the-counter drugs,
we oversee the advertising of prescription drugs. Advertisements for a drug
must contain a truthful summary of information about its effectiveness,
side effects and circumstances when its use should be avoided. We are
monitoring the industry’s voluntary program to provide consumers useful
information about prescription drugs when they pick up their prescriptions.
Over-the-counter We are watching this program closely to see that it meets its goals for
drugs quantity and quality of information.

You can buy OTC Protecting drug quality. In addition to setting standards for safety and
drugs without a effectiveness testing, we also set standards for drug quality and
doctor’s prescription. manufacturing processes. We work closely with manufacturers to see
where streamlining can cut red tape without compromising drug quality.
You can successfully As the pharmaceutical industry has become increasingly global, we are
diagnose many involved in international negotiations with other nations to harmonize
common aliments and standards for drug quality and the data needed to approve a new drug. This
treat them yourself harmonization will go a long way toward reducing the number of
with readily available redundant tests manufacturers do and help ensure drug quality for Generic drugs
OTC products. consumers at home and abroad. A generic drug is a
These range from acne Conducting applied research. We conduct and collaborate on focused chemical copy of a
products to cold laboratory research and testing. Research maintains and strengthens the brand-name drug.
medications. scientific base of our regulatory policy-making and decision-making. We There are generic
As with prescription focus on drug quality, safety and performance; improved technologies; versions of both
drugs, we closely new approaches to drug development and review; and regulatory standards prescription and over-
regulate OTC drugs and consistency. the-counter drugs.
to ensure that they are Generic drugs
safe, effective and Why we do it approved by the FDA
properly labeled. have the same
Our present and future mission remains constant: to ensure that drug therapeutic effects as
products available to the public are safe and effective. Our yardstick for their brand-name
success will always be protecting and promoting the health of Americans. counterparts.
Getting consumer input. Protecting consumers means listening to them. The biggest difference
We consult the American public when making difficult decisions about the between a generic drug
drugs that they use. We hold public meetings about once a week to get and its brand name
expert, patient and consumer input into our decisions. We also announce counterpart is usually
most of our proposals in advance. This gives members of the public, price. A generic drug
academic experts, industry, trade associations, consumer groups and may be priced
professional societies the opportunity to comment and make suggestions anywhere between 20
before we make a final decision. In addition, we take part in a series of percent and 75 percent
FDA-sponsored public meetings with consumer and patient groups, of the cost of the
professional societies and pharmaceutical trade associations. These brand-name version.
stakeholder meetings help us obtain enhanced public input into our
planning and priority-setting practices.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

We are pleased to present our sixth performance report. Our work last year
offered many Americans new or improved choices for protecting and
maintaining their health or new ways to use existing products more safely.
In the wake of the terrorist attacks, our nation was prepared with an
antibiotic approved to treat inhalational anthrax. We had worked on this
Realignment program for several years and reported on the approval in last year’s
report. We were rapidly able to provide health professionals with
We began the new year additional guidance on using other safe and effective medicines.
with a revised
structure aimed at
aligning similar Drug review
functions and creating People with cancer, heart disease, HIV, AIDS, and other serious conditions
smaller, more have benefited from our approvals in 2001. We met our obligations to
manageable work Congress for prompt and thorough review of drug applications supported
units. by user fees. Our reviews of generic drugs have been prompt and Communications
Our organizational predictable.
We met almost weekly
charts are at http:// We approved 66 new drugs, including 24 new molecular entities. New with outside experts on molecular entities contain an active substance never before approved for difficult scientific and
cderorg.htm. marketing in any form in the United States. We also approved 91 new or public health issues.
expanded uses of already approved drugs. We increased choices for self-
care by approving six medicines for over-the-counter marketing and one We held two week-long
new or expanded use for an existing over-the-counter drug. We approved introductory
234 generic equivalents for prescription or over-the-counter drugs. workshops for our

Drug safety and quality We responded to more

than 52,000 individual
All medicines have risks. With modern, state-of-the-art tools and requests for
techniques, we are able to detect rare and unexpected risks more rapidly information.
and take corrective action more quickly. We augmented our risk-
assessment ability by gaining access to actual use data. We will be able to Each month, our
consult with a new expert panel of advisors. Internet information
site averaged nearly
Last year, we processed and evaluated more than 280,000 adverse drug 550,000 visitors and 10
events. We issued nearly 900 letters to help ensure that the promotion of million hits.
drug products presents a fair balance of risks and benefits and isn’t false or
misleading. We mandated that three drug products be dispensed with We developed public
specific consumer information that will help ensure the products are used education campaigns
safely and effectively. Our review of the safety profile of one approved in areas such as risk
drug resulted in its voluntary withdrawal, and the manufacturer of another management and
drug withdrew it after reviewing safety reports. buying prescription
drugs over the

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

International activities
We worked closely with our colleagues in Japan and the European Union
on finding ways to make the drug development process more efficient and
uniform. We began accepting the first new drug applications in the
Common Technical Document format. The CTD can be used for seeking
approval to market new drugs in the United States, the European Union
and Japan.
We are collaborating on prioritizing issues for our harmonization efforts
among the countries of North and South America. We are leading the U.S. The animal
consultations with the European Union to allow for reciprocal reliance on efficacy rule
manufacturing plant inspections. Last year we began exchanging recall
We are preparing a
information and alerts concerning significant emerging product quality
final regulation to
problems with the European Union.
implement our 1998
proposal, commonly
called “the animal
efficacy rule.” The rule
would permit us to rely
Counterterrorism on animal evidence
when a bioterrorism
The terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax
agent’s mechanism of
contamination of the mail underscored our role in:
toxicity is well
„ Protecting the nation’s drug supply from attack or deliberate understood in humans;
contamination. the efficacy endpoints
in the animal trials are
„ Assuring the availability of medicines to treat victims of terrorist and
clearly related to
bioterrorist attacks.
benefit in humans; the
„ Preparing ourselves to continue operations during a crisis. drug’s effect is
demonstrated in a
The first therapy for those exposed to a terrorist attack or a biological
species expected to
warfare agent is often a drug. We have been taking an aggressive and
react similarly to
proactive approach to getting antibioterrorism treatment information into
humans; and data
the labeling of already approved drugs. We approved the first such drug,
allow selection of an
ciprofloxacin, in 2000 for treating inhalational anthrax.
effective human dose.
The Sept. 11 terrorist attacks and the subsequent anthrax attacks have
Such approvals could
vaulted this work and other actions to protect public health and safety to
include possible
our top priority.
postmarketing studies
On Sept. 11, we continued to communicate with the Centers for Disease when feasible and
Control and Prevention. By that night, the CDC had submitted to us a ethical, possible
“streamlined” investigational new drug application that would allow restrictions on
government physicians to prescribe the antibiotic gentamicin for the distribution and a
treatment of pneumonic plague in the event of a bioterrorist attack. requirement that
information about the
In November, in response to concerns about a potential nuclear event, we
basis of approval be
finalized our guidance on potassium iodide, or KI, as an agent to protect
provided to patients.
the thyroid gland in radiation exposure emergencies.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

for anthrax
Immediate response to the anthrax crisis
We recognized several
„ Published new labeling information for doxycycline and procaine
years ago that no drugs Internet resources
penicillin in post-exposure management to prevent the development of
were specifically
inhalational anthrax. To help prepare our
labeled for the
nation for possible
treatment or post- „ Issued a public health advisory on the use of doxycycline for anthrax
bioterrorism attacks,
exposure prevention of exposure.
we are working with
inhalational anthrax.
„ Coordinated with other agencies to halt the importation of unapproved other federal agencies
We worked on
ciprofloxacin. to make sure adequate
ciprofloxacin first,
supplies of medicines
based on expert „ Posted information on antibiotic use for anthrax on the Internet.
are available to the
assessment that
American public.
anthrax was the most
Ongoing and long-term counterterrorism work
likely biological agent. Our Internet site pro-
We also feared that „ Coordinating with the Department of Defense to develop an vides links to the most
anthrax might be appropriate animal model to study whether available antibiotics, which current information on
modified to be aren’t labeled for pneumonic plague, are effective in the treatment of drug therapy, includ-
resistant to older this highly contagious lung disease. ing information on spe-
antibiotics with an cial populations such
„ Cooperating with the National Institutes of Health, CDC, DOD and
anthrax indication. as children and preg-
sponsors from industry to facilitate development of both investigational
nant women, plus ad-
Ciprofloxacin has an new drug applications and new uses for already approved drugs that
vice on purchasing and
enormous safety could be used as medical countermeasures to a terrorist attack with
taking medication. You
database. It has been agents such as smallpox and plague.
can find it at http://
used for more than 14
„ Assisting the CDC to obtain follow-up drug safety and outcome
years with more than
information for patients treated with antibiotics during the anthrax post- drugprepare/default.
100 million
exposure prophylaxis campaign. htm.
prescriptions in the
United States and 250 „ Expediting work on a final regulation that would allow us to rely on
million worldwide— animal studies and supporting data to approve drugs for bioterrorism
more than 4 million of agents when clinical studies in humans would be unethical.
those for children.
„ Assisting the CDC in managing the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile.
We knew we could get
„ Coordinating with FDA’s field inspectors and manufacturers to help
similar drug levels in
evaluate and resolve any manufacturing concerns that might arise
humans to the blood
during emergency production.
levels in the monkeys
that the U.S. Army had „ Expediting reviews and inspections for manufacturing supplements that
exposed to anthrax. may be required for expanded drug production.
We initiated the „ Working with CDC, DOD and the Department of Veterans Affairs to
identification and implement a shelf-life extension program for stockpiled drugs for
collection of the data. civilian and military use.
The sponsor then
„ Gathering and maintaining information on drugs that might be effective
submitted a
in an attack, including data on manufacturers, bulk suppliers,
inventories and lead times for production.
application, which we

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Leveraging Scientific Research

scientific We advance the scientific basis of regulatory practice by developing and
resources evaluating new scientific methods and regulatory testing paradigms. We
The Product Quality provide scientific support for reviewer training, regulatory decision making
Research Institute is a and the development of regulatory policy. We focus on creating a tighter
unique and innovative linkage between nonclinical and clinical studies, enhancing the
collaboration among methodology for assuring product quality, building databases for improved
our scientists and drug development and review and providing regulatory support through
those from academia laboratory testing.
and industry. PQRI Linking nonclinical and clinical studies
conducts research to
„ Identifying, evaluating and establishing improved protein biomarkers in Studies of drugs
establish better
blood in both animal models and in humans. These will help monitor that affect
testing methods,
the very earliest damage that can be caused by certain drugs to the metabolic
standards and
heart, blood vessels, kidney, immune system and liver. enzymes
controls for assessing
product quality and „ Identifying cellular and tissue biomarkers predictive of safety and We carefully monitor
manufacturing and efficacy, through DNA microarrays and noninvasive imaging. The use the inhibition of drug
management of these novel technologies enables evaluations of their strengths and metabolism in both our
processes (PQRI limitations for practical applications that could improve the interface research and review
update, page 36). between drug development and regulatory practice. programs.
The institute’s „ Elucidating the molecular mechanisms operating in transgenic mice to Clarithromycin is an
research will help us ensure the appropriate use of more rapid and reliable tests that will example of drugs that
develop consistent detect the cancer-causing potential of drugs. have mechanism-based
and reasonable effects on metabolic
„ Developing experimental models for detecting early signals of damage
requirements for enzymes.
in liver cells. This will facilitate understanding why certain types of
product quality
drugs cause liver damage. These often cause
information in
regulatory Clinical Pharmacology longer-lasting drug
submissions. interactions and have
„ Results from St. John’s Wort interaction studies demonstrated that this
resulted in serious
Leveraging scientific herb could reduce the effectiveness of some prescription drugs. The
adverse events when
expertise in this way results also provided the scientific basis for our recommendation to
additional drugs are
contributes to FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the Federal
streamlining the drug Trade Commission on the labeling of St. John’s Wort products.
development and Data on and an
„ Results from studies on the metabolism of hormone replacement
approval processes understanding of the
therapy provided critical information for labeling these products and
for industry and effect and the time-
drugs that will be co-administered with them.
ourselves while course of mechanism-
ensuring the highest „ We evaluated the stability and palatability of ground and dissolved based inhibitors is
level of product antibiotic tablets for use in children in a bioterrorism emergency. critical for providing
quality for American accurate dosing
„ Noninvasive imaging is an emerging technology increasingly used drug
consumers. information when new
development. We are using this tool to extend our long-standing
drugs are co-
interest in the application of dose-concentration-response principles for
administered with
regulatory decision-making by viewing drugs and their actions directly
these agents.
at the level of the drug target, rather than indirectly via plasma
concentrations and/or downstream indicators of target modulation.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

We promote
Drug approvals Many Americans benefited from last year’s timely reviews of new
the public health
for 2001 prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines and their generic
by promptly and
… 66 new drugs efficiently reviewing
We met or exceeded all the performance goals we agreed to under clinical research
… 24 new legislation authorizing us to collect user fees for drug reviews. and taking
molecular entities appropriate action
We approved 24 new medicines that have never been marketed before in
3 orphan new drugs on the marketing
… this country and 234 generic versions of existing drugs. We authorized
of human drugs
91 new or expanded seven medicines to be sold over the counter without a prescription.
… in a timely manner.
uses for already We conducted 463 foreign and domestic inspections that help protect
approved drugs volunteers for clinical trials from research risks and validate the quality
… 3 orphan new or and integrity of data submitted to us.
expanded uses Highlights of new medication options for American consumers include:
… 6 over-the-counter „ Two new drugs to treat cancer.
drugs or Rx-to OTC
switches „ Four drugs to treat heart disease and circulatory disorders.

… 1 new or expanded „ The first in a new class of drugs approved to treat HIV infection.
use for an over-the- „ One new drug for Alzheimer’s disease.
counter drug
„ One new drug for schizophrenia.
… 234 generic
equivalents „ Two new prescription drugs for migraine headaches.
for prescription „ One new COX-2 selective anti-inflammatory drug for arthritis and
and over-the counter menstrual cramping.
„ The first in a new class of antifungals.
„ A synthetic drug to prevent blood clots that is the first in a new class.
„ Two new drugs to treat glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness.
„ Three new or expanded uses to treat breast cancer.
„ New shorter dosing regimens of an over-the-counter treatment for
vaginal yeast infections.
„ A new over-the-counter use for aspirin to treat migraine.
„ Three new drugs and three new or expanded uses of existing drugs for
“orphan” patient populations of 200,000 or fewer.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Standard NDA Approvals

Median tim es, approvals
24 120
102 101
67 78
65 Standard new


55 drugs
12 60
… 56 approvals

Median review






0 0 time: 12.0 months
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
… Median approval
Calendar year time: 14.0 months
Median FDA review time Median total approval time Number approved
… 143 actions

… 91 filings
Standard NDAs
Actions, filings*, approval percentages
300 100%


45% 42% 37% 40% 39%
150 36% 50%






143 Orphan drugs






0 0%
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 We approved three
Calendar year “orphan” products to
*A filing in one year may lead to several actions or an approval in subsequent years. treat disorders with
patient populations of
Actions Filings Percent of actions that are approvals
200,000 or fewer:

… Bosentan (Tracleer)
treats pulmonary
arterial hypertension.

New Drug Review … Imatinib mesylate

(Gleevec) treats
Standard new drugs. We took 143 actions on standard new drug chronic myeloid
applications, of which 56 were approvals. These drugs have therapeutic leukemia.
qualities similar to those of already marketed products. We have a goal of
reviewing 90 percent of these applications within 10 months. … Zoledronic acid
(Zometa) treats excess
Priority new drugs. We took 27 actions on priority new drug applications, calcium in the blood
of which 10 were approvals. These drugs represent significant caused by tumors.
improvements compared with marketed products. We have a goal of
reviewing 90 percent of these applications within six months.
New molecular entities. Twenty-four of the new drugs we approved were
new molecular entities, and seven received priority reviews. NMEs contain
an active substance that has never before been approved for marketing in
any form in the United States.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Priority NDA Approvals

Median tim es, approvals
24 30
29 20 28 20
Priority new drugs 15 25

… 10 approvals 12 15
… Median review
time: 6.0 months






0 0
… Median approval
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
time: 6.0 months
Calendar Year
… 27 actions Median FDA review time Median total approval time Number approved
… 6 filings
Priority NDAs
Actions, filings*, approval percentages
50 100%

66% 57% 65%

48% 54% 49%

Priority new drugs 25 37% 50%







(Lumigan) (N) 0 0%
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Budesonide (Entocort
Calendar year
EC) *A filing in one year may lead to several actions or an approval in subsequent years.
Caspofungin acetate Actions Filings Percent of actions that are approvals
(Cancidas) (N)

Fondaparinux sodium
(Arixtra) (N) Orphan drugs. Three of the approvals were for “orphan” uses in patient
populations of 200,000 or fewer. Sponsors of such products receive
Imatinib mesylate
inducements that include seven-year marketing exclusivity, tax credit for
(Gleevec) (N)
the product-associated clinical research, research design assistance by FDA
Mesalamine (Canasa) and grants of up to $200,000 per year.
Tenofovir disoproxil Review and approval times. Review time represents the time that we spend
fumarate (Viread) (N) examining the application. Approval time represents our review time plus
industry’s response time to our requests for additional information. Our
Travoprost (Travatan)
charts show these times as “medians.” The value for the median time is the
number that falls in the middle of the group after the numbers are ranked in
Valganciclovir order. It provides a truer picture of our performance than average time,
hydrochloride which can be unduly influenced by a few very long or short times.
Actions and filings. An application is “filed” when we determine it is
Zoledronic acid complete and accept it for review. We make a filing decision within 60
(Zometa) (N) days of receiving an application. Approval is one of the actions that we can
take once an application is filed. Other actions include seeking more
information from the sponsor. There is no direct connection between
applications filed in one year and actions in the same year. Filings provide
an idea of what the workload in subsequent years will be.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Standard NME Approvals

Median times, approvals
24.0 40
35 30
16 18 17
14 Standard NME


19 statistics
12.0 20
… 17 approvals






… Median review
0.0 0 time: 15.7 months
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Calendar Year … Median approval
time: 19.0 months
Median FDA review time Median total approval time Number approved
… 26 filings

Standard NMEs
New molecular

20 Almotriptan malate







0 (Lumigan)
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Bosentan (Tracleer)
Calendar year
*A filing in one year may lead to several actions or an approval in subsequent years. Caspofungin acetate
Filings (Cancidas)

Cefditoren pivoxil
Notable 2001 new drug approvals Desloratadine
Last year’s approvals benefited people with cancer, HIV infection, heart (Clarinex)
disease and other disorders. Drospirenone/ethinyl
People with cancer estradiol (Yasmin)
One of our most important approvals last year was for imatinib mesylate Dutasteride
(Gleevec), a new oral treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, (Dutasteride)
a rare life-threatening form of cancer. We reviewed the application for the
Ertapenem sodium
drug in two and one-half months and approved it under a special procedure
that permits the marketing of important therapies on the basis of their effect
on surrogate markers. The sponsor is committed to carry out additional Etonogestrel/ethinyl
studies demonstrating the drug’s long-term safety and effectiveness. The estradiol (NuvaRing)
drug was developed for use in a U.S. patient population of fewer than
Fondaparinux sodium
200,000 and was, therefore, designated an orphan drug.
Zoledronic acid (Zometa) is an intravenous bisphonsphonate for the
Formoterol fumarate
treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, the most common life-
(Foradil Aerolizer)
threatening metabolic complication associated with cancer. This
complication, which is characterized by elevated serum calcium levels,

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Priority NME Approvals

Median times, approvals
24.0 20
18 16
Priority NME

9 9 9
statistics 12.0 10
… 7 approvals







… Median review
0.0 0
time: 6.0 months
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
… Median approval Calendar year
time: 6.0 months
Median FDA review time Median total approval time Number approved
… 4 filings

Priority NMEs
New molecular
entities (continued)

Frovatriptan succinate 12







hydrobromide 0
(Reminyl) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Calendar year
Imatinib mesylate *A filing in one year may lead to several actions or an approval in subsequent years.
Nesiritide (Natrecor)

estradiol (Ortho Evra) affects more than 10 percent of all cancer patients and generally occurs late
Perflutren lipid in the course of the disease.
microsphere (Definity) People with heart and circulatory disease
Pimecrolimus (Elidel) One new approval last year for cardiac patients is nesiritide (Natrecor) for
the treatment of acute decompensated congestive heart failure. The drug,
Tenofovir disoproxil
which was developed with the use of recombinant DNA technology, is a
fumarate (Viread)
synthetic version of a human hormone that dilates veins and arteries.
Travoprost (Travatan)
Perflutren lipid microsphere (Definity) is an ultrasound contrast agent for
Valdecoxib (Bextra) use with suboptimal echocardiograms. It increases the power of heart
ultrasounds and may provide earlier and more definitive diagnoses for
millions of difficult-to-image patients at risk for heart disease. The drug is
the first and only ultrasound contrast agent in the United States that is non-
blood derived, eliminating the risks and concerns associated with the use of
Zoledronic acid blood-based products.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Notable 2001 new drug approvals (continued)

Fondaparinux sodium (Arixtra) is for the prophylaxis of deep-vein
thrombosis, which may lead to pulmonary embolism after orthopedic
surgery for hip fracture, hip replacement and knee replacement. The drug
is a synthetic compound and the first in a new class of antithrombotic
agents that selectively inhibit Factor Xa.
Bosentan (Tracleer) is to improve exercise ability and decrease the rate of
clinical worsening in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with
significant limitation of physical activity. The drug is the first to be Dutasteride
approved in a new class of drugs called endothelin receptor antagonists. (Dutasteride) treats
The disease is a chronic, life-threatening disorder that can severely benign prostatic hyper-
compromise the function of the lungs and heart. plasia, a non-cancerous
enlargement of the
People with HIV and AIDS
prostate gland, which
The first in a new class of drugs to combat HIV was approved, a once- can lead to the mani-
daily medication that blocks an enzyme involved in the replication of the festation of lower uri-
disease. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) is for the treatment of HIV nary tract symptoms.
infection when taken in combination with other antiretroviral agents. The The pathological
drug is the first nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor changes of this disor-
approved for the treatment of HIV. The drug works by blocking reverse der are found in about
transcriptase, an enzyme involved in the replication of HIV. As a 50 percent of men in
nucleotide, the drug remains in cells longer than many other antiretroviral their 50s and up to 90
drugs, allowing for once-daily dosing. percent of men in
Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte) treats the eye infection their 90s.
cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS.
People with arthritis
Valdecoxib (Bextra), a COX-2 specific inhibitor, is for treating the signs
and symptoms of osteoarthritis, adult rheumatoid arthritis and the pain
associated with menstrual cramping.
People with glaucoma
We approved two ophthalmic solutions for reducing elevated intraocular
pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Bimatoprost (Lumigan) and travoprost (Travatan) treat patients who are
intolerant of, insufficiently responsive or inadequately controlled using
other intraocular pressure-lowering medications. Glaucoma is a leading
cause of preventable blindness.
People with mental and neurological disorders
Ziprasidone hydrochloride (Geodon) is for the treatment of schizophrenia,
a life-long illness that strikes men and women in their late adolescence or
early 20s, often with multiple relapses and impaired daily functioning.
Galantamine hydrobromide (Reminyl) is for the treatment of mild to
moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Notable 2001 new drug approvals (continued)

We approved two drugs for the acute treatment of migraine with or without
aura in adults: almotriptan malate (Axert) and frovatriptan succinate
Infectious diseases
Caspofungin acetate (Cancidas) is for the treatment of invasive
Women aspergillosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other
therapies. The drug is the first in a new class of antifungals and works by
We approved three attacking the fungal cell wall. Aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal
contraceptives, infection in high-risk patients, especially cancer patients, organ and bone-
including two that marrow transplant recipients, and patients with HIV/AIDS.
deliver continuous
doses of the hormones Cefditoren pivoxil (Spectracef) is a cephalosporin antibiotic for the
progestin and estrogen treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, pharyngitis/
in new ways to prevent tonsillitis and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in adults
pregnancy: and children 12 years and older.

… Etonogestrel/ethinyl Ertapenem sodium (Invanz) is a long-acting injectable antibiotic for

estradiol (NuvaRing), treatment of adults with moderate to severe bacterial infections, including
the first monthly complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin and skin
vaginal ring for birth structure infections, community-acquired pneumonia, complicated urinary
control, delivers the tract infections and acute pelvic infections.
hormones through a People with respiratory diseases and allergies
flexible, transparent
Formoterol fumarate (Foradil) is a fast-acting, long-lasting bronchodilator
polymer ring inserted
for the maintenance treatment of asthma and the prevention of
in the vagina.
bronchospasm in reversible obstructive airways disease. The drug provides
… Norelgestromin/ both long-lasting symptom control and rapid bronchodilation from a single
ethinyl estradiol (Ortho product.
Evra), the first skin
Desloratadine (Clarinex) treats nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal
patch approved for
allergic rhinitis in adults and children 12 years of age and older. The drug New drug
birth control, releases
is a once-daily, nonsedating antihistamine. statistics on
the hormones through
the skin into the blood People with skin disease
stream and has to be Pimecrolimus (Elidel) is the first non-steroid cream for mild to moderate Other statistics are
changed each week. atopic dermatitis in patients 2 years and older. Commonly known as available on our Web
eczema, atopic dermatitis is an itchy skin condition that primarily affects site at http://www.fda.
Both the ring and the
children and may last until the late teen-age years or even for life. gov/cder/rdmt/default.
patch have to be
removed one week People with gastrointestinal disorders
each month when the
Mesalamine (Canasa) is a suppository for the treatment of active ulcerative
woman menstruates.
proctitis, an inflammation of the rectum.
We also approved a
Budesonide (Entocort EC) treats mild to moderate active Crohn’s disease,
new low-dose oral
an inflammatory disease, involving the ileum and/or ascending colon.
estradiol (Yasmin).

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

New or Expanded Use Review

Applications for a new or expanded use, often representing important new
treatment options, are formally called “efficacy supplements” to the
original new drug application. When studying approved drugs in children
(page 15), sponsors often learn new information about the drug's safety and
the doses that should be used. An efficacy supplement changes the labeling
information to reflect the new discoveries, even if there is not a new or
expanded use.
Last year we took action on 213 applications for new or expanded uses of
already approved drugs. We approved 91, including six that were given Priority new or
priority reviews of six months or less. Three of the approvals were for expanded uses
orphan uses in patient populations of 200,000 or fewer.

Notable 2001 new or expanded use approvals Letrozole

We approved capecitabine (Xeloda) when used with docetaxel for the Pantoprazole sodium
Orphan new or treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure to Sodium ferric
expanded uses respond to anthracycline-containing cancer therapy. The drug was also gluconate
approved for first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma when
Somatropin [rDNA] Somatropin [rDNA
treatment with fluoropyrimidine therapy alone is preferred.
(Genotropin) is for origin] for injection
long-term treatment Letrozole (Femara) is for first-line treatment of postmenopausal women
of growth failure in with hormone receptor positive or hormone receptor unknown locally Verteporfin
children born small advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
for their gestational
Verteporfin (Visudyne) is for the treatment of patients with eye disease
age and who fail to
affecting the central, clearest portion of vision, specifically for those with
manifest catch-up
predominantly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to
growth by the time
macular degeneration, presumed ocular histoplasmosis or pathologic
they are 2 years old.
Pantoprazole sodium (Protonix I.V.) is an injection for the treatment of the
(Topamax) treats
pathological hypersecretion of stomach acid associated with Zollinger-
Ellison Syndrome.
syndrome, a severe
seizure disorder that
occurs in children
(two approvals).

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

New or Expanded Use Approvals

Median tim es, approvals
24 140
118 108
69 97 134
124 91
New or expanded

uses (efficacy 12 70
… 91 approvals







… Median review 0 0
time: 10.1 months 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Calendar year
… Median approval
time: 11.3 months Median FDA review time Median total approval time Number approved

… 6 priority reviews
New or Expanded Uses
… 3 orphan uses Actions, approval percentages
250 100%
… 213 actions
60% 53% 65%

125 50%
37% 43%






0 0%
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Calendar year
Actions Percentage of actions that are approvals

Pediatric Exclusivity
The 2002 Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act renewed our authority to Pediatric
grant six months of marketing exclusivity to manufacturers who conduct exclusivity
and submit pediatric studies in response to our written requests. It also cumulative
allows us to collect user fees for reviewing these pediatric supplements and statistics
requires they be reviewed as priority supplements. The law also authorizes
the federal government to contract for pediatric studies for drugs that lack … 300 proposed
Internet resource
patent protection or other marketing exclusivity. pediatric study
Our pediatric medicine requests received
page is at http://www. Pediatric exclusivity has helped us uncover important new dosing and
safety information that will help pediatricians and other prescribers use … 241 written requests
drugs to treat children more confidently. As of March 2002, we had issued
received 300 proposed pediatric study requests from manufacturers and … 31 labeling changes
had issued 241 written requests. These studies could potentially involve
more than 32,000 children. Pediatric studies have already been conducted
on more than 65 drugs. Reports from these studies have been submitted,
exclusivity granted to 56 drugs, and new pediatric labeling in 31 as of
March 2002.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Approved information to treat children’s illnesses

Of the 31 drugs with newly approved pediatric information in their labels,
nine had significant changes for dosing, safety or use, and one drug Approved
conditions with
available in several different products was not recommended for pediatric information
approved labeling
use. The nine with significant changes were: recommends
Drugs with newly against pediatric
„ Gabapentin (Neurontin), a seizure drug, requires higher doses in
developed approved use
children younger than 5 years in order to control seizures, and new
pediatric use
adverse events such as hostility and aggression were identified in Newly approved
information in their
children younger than 12. labeling shows that
labeling are used to
„ Propofol (Diprivan), an anesthesia drug, showed higher death rates several products with a
treat conditions such
when used for sedation in pediatric intensive care units compared with specific topical steroid
standard sedative agents (9 percent vs. 4 percent); serious slowing of are not recommended
… Abnormal heart the heart rate can occur when the drug is coadministered with fentanyl, for pediatric use. They
rhythms a pain drug. are:

… Allergies „ Sevoflurane (Ultane), used for anesthesia, had rare cases of seizures Betamethasone
reported in children without a previous seizure history. (Diprolene AF,
… Anesthesia and
Diprosone Cream,
sedation „ Ribavirin/Intron A (Rebetron), a treatment for chronic hepatitis C,
Ointment, Lotion), used
showed increased suicidal ideation or attempts among pediatric
… Diabetes mellitus to treat corticosteroid-
patients compared with adults (2.4 percent vs. 1 percent) and
responsive skin
… Heartburn decreased the rate of linear growth and weight gain during therapy,
disorders, is not
with general reversal in the post-treatment period.
… High blood pressure recommended in
„ Pimecrolimus (Elidel) is for short-term and intermittent long-term
patients younger than
… High cholesterol therapy in mild to moderate eczema in non-immunocompromised 12 because it
… High eye pressure patients older than 2 years, but it is not recommended in patients suppressed adrenal
younger than 2 for safety concerns including infections, fever and axis activity and
… HIV infection diarrhea. caused local adverse
… Inflammation „ Midazolam (Versed), used for sedation and to reduce anxiety, showed reactions, including
higher risk of serious life-threatening situations in children with signs of skin atrophy.
… Juvenile
congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Studies
rheumatoid arthritis Betamethasone/
identified the need to begin therapy at the lower end of the dosing
… Low levels of range in these patients to prevent respiratory compromise.
(Lotrisone), a
calcium associated „ Etodolac (Lodine), when used in the management of the signs and treatment for
with severe kidney symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis for children 6 to 16 years ringworm infections, is
disease old, requires higher weight-adjusted doses in younger children that is not recommended in
… Obsessive about twice the lower dose recommended in adults for effective patients younger than
compulsive disorder treatment. 17 because it
„ Fluvoxamine (Luvox), when used to treat obsessive compulsive suppressed adrenal
… Pain
disorder, requires higher doses in adolescents than previously axis activity.
… Seizures recommended; however, girls ages 8 to 11 may require lower doses.
… Skin disorders „ Studies of buspirone (Buspar) failed to establish safety and
effectiveness in patients 6 to 17 years old for treatment of general
anxiety disorder at doses recommended for adults.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

OTC New Approvals & New Uses


drug statistics
… 6 new drugs or Number 12
Improved labels
Rx-to-OTC switch for OTC
approvals medicines





… 1 new or expanded 0
American consumers
use approval for an 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
are benefiting from
OTC drug Calendar Year easy-to-understand
New approvals or Rx-to-OTC sw itches New uses labels on drugs they
buy without a
Titled “Drug Facts,”
the new labels become
Over-the-Counter Drug Review mandatory in May
In 2000, we approved six new drugs and one new use for over-the-counter
marketing. These new labels
Public meeting improve a consumer’s
New OTC medicines and new uses ability to use an OTC
airs OTC
antihistamine Miconazole nitrate (Monistat 3) is to treat vaginal yeast infections and drug safely and
issues external itching associated with a vaginal yeast infection. This is not the properly and to find
first OTC approval for this compound. and understand its
A citizen’s petition
benefits and risks.
submitted in 1997 Miconazole nitrate (Monistat 1). This is a one-day treatment regimen vs. a
asked us to consider three-day treatment regimen under Monistat 3 (above) and a seven-day
switching the treatment regimen under Monistat 7.
antihistamines The combination clemastine fumarate, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and
loratadine, acetaminophen (Tavist A/S/H) treats symptoms of hay fever and other How we regulate
fexofenadine and seasonal allergies. This is the first approval for this combination but not the OTC drugs
cetirizine to OTC first time for any of these compounds on the OTC market.
marketing status. We publish
Chlorhexidine gluconate and ethyl alcohol (Avagard-CHG) is for use as a monographs that
Last year, our advisory surgical hand scrub or hand wash for healthcare personnel. This is not the establish acceptable
panel of outside only chlorhexidine product available OTC. ingredients, doses,
experts concluded that
formulations and
these drugs would be a Aspirin, 500 mg, (Bayer Extra Strength Aspirin for Migraine Pain) is for
consumer labeling for
reasonably safe the treatment of migraine headaches. This represents a new OTC use for
OTC drugs.
alternative for aspirin.
consumers to treat Products that
A cream with 1 percent butenafine hydrochloride (Lotrimin Ultra) is an
nasal symptoms of conform to a final
Rx-to-OTC switch for the use of this drug product to treat jock itch,
seasonal and monograph may be
athlete’s foot and ringworm.
nonseasonal allergies. marketed without
A nasal spray containing cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom) is now approved prior FDA clearance.
We and the for OTC use down to 2 years of age.
manufacturers are Drugs can also be
considering their approved for OTC
recommendation. sale through the new
drug review process.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Generic Drug Review

We received 320 submissions and approved 234 generic drug products in
2001, including 40 separate molecules in 55 products that represent the How we approve
first time a generic drug was available for the brand-name product. The generic drugs
median approval time for generic drugs was 18.1 months. Generics are not
We are making changes to decrease the overall time to approval of required to repeat the
applications. The median statistic for total approval time has hovered at extensive clinical
about 18 to 19 months for five years. Planned changes include several trials used in the
efficiencies in the review process and hiring of additional chemistry development of the
reviewers. original, brand-name
drug. Instead, they
must show
Notable 2001 generic drug approvals bioequivalence to the
Examples of first-time approvals for the brand-name equivalent are: brand-name reference
listed drug.
„ Fluoxetine (Prozac) used to treat depression.
Scientists measure the
„ Buspirone (BuSpar) used to treat anxiety disorders. amount of the generic
„ Famotidine (Pepcid) used to treat ulcers. drug that reaches the
bloodstream and how
„ Lovastatin (Mevacor) used to control lipid profiles. long it takes to get
„ Omeprazole (Prilosec) used to treat ulcers. there. This rate and
extent of absorption is
Our approval of generic versions of these drugs last year could save called bioavailability.
Generic drug American consumers and the federal government hundreds of millions of The bioavailability of
Web site dollars each year. the generic drug is
You can find more We also issued 73 tentative approvals and 13 approvables last year: then compared to that
information about our of the brand-name
„ Tentative approvals. The only difference between a full approval and reference listed drug.
generic drug program a tentative approval is that the final approval of these applications is
at http://internet-dev. delayed due to existing patent or exclusivity on the innovator drug The generic version product. These and other legal issues continue to be a challenge to the must deliver the same
htm. generic drug review program. While tentative approvals represent a amount of active
full workload for us, they are only displayed in the chart on the next ingredients into a
page once they are converted to full approvals. For example, some of patient’s bloodstream
the 234 approvals in 2001 represent conversions of tentative approvals and in the same time
granted in 2001 or previous years. as the brand-name
reference listed drug.
„ Approvables. Approvable applications are reviewed and ready for full Brand-name drugs
approval except for a pending labeling issue, generally related to legal are subject to the
matters such as exclusivity. These also represent full workload but are same bioequivalency
only displayed once they are converted to full approval. tests as generics when
their manufacturers
reformulate them.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Generic Drug Approvals

Median tim es, approvals
36 300
207 225 244
212 273 234
Generic drug 24 200

… 234 generic drug 12 100







… Median approval 0 0
time: 18.1 months 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Calendar year (tentative approvals)
… 320 submissions
Median approval times Number of generic approvals
… 73 tentative
Generic Drugs
… 13 approvables Subm issions*







… 1995: 15
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
… 1996: 25 Calendar year
… 1997: 40 *Submissions = w orkload in subsequent years
… 1998: 40

… 1999: 56
Building consumer confidence in generic drugs
… 2000: 61
To promote consumer confidence in the safety and effectiveness of generic
… 2001: 73 drugs, we are developing a multimedia education program. The goal will
be to educate health care practitioners and consumers about the rigorous
review and approval process that generic products undergo before we
approve them for sale in this country. We are creating partnerships and a
network with other government agencies. The efforts will include:
„ Focus groups to determine what information is needed.
„ Print media public service announcements.
„ Radio public service announcements.
„ Presentations at organizational meetings for health-care professionals.

Electronic submissions
The electronic submissions initiative is a continuing priority. We
developed and issued a draft guidance on a standardized format for
application submission that will be compatible for both new drug and
generic applications. This should promote industry participation in the

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

User fee review

goals User Fee Program User fee report
Under PDUFA II, our We met all of the demanding review goals of the Prescription Drug User Our full report to
review goals Fee Act for applications submitted in fiscal year 2000, the latest year for Congress on our user
continued to shorten. which there are meaningful review statistics. We are on track for meeting fee performance is at
By fiscal year 2002, them in fiscal year 2001.
the goals called for us
The law, first enacted in 1992, was renewed for an additional five years in pdufa/report2001/
to review and act on
1997. Under the law, the drug industry pays user fees for new drug pdufareport.html.
90 percent of:
applications, efficacy supplements and some other activities. User fees
… Priority new drug helped us hire additional scientists to perform reviews. As a result, we are
applications and able to respond more rapidly to new drug applications without
efficacy supplements compromising review quality. That means more quality drug products are
(those for products reaching American practitioners and consumers more quickly.
providing significant
therapeutic gains) We agreed in 1992 to specific performance goals for the prompt review of
within six months. four categories of submissions: original new drug applications,
resubmissions of original NDAs, efficacy supplements to already approved
… Standard new marketing applications and manufacturing supplements to already
drug applications and approved new drug marketing applications.
efficacy supplements
within 10 months. With the 1997 reauthorization, known as PDUFA II, we committed to
additional goals intended to improve our responsiveness to and
… Manufacturing communication with industry sponsors during the early years of drug
supplements not development. These goals specify timeframes for activities such as
requiring prior scheduling meetings and responding to various sponsor requests. While the
approval within six intent of the 1992 law was to speed up the review process, the intent of
months, and those PDUFA II is to speed up the entire drug development process.
requiring prior
approval within four We have encountered challenges in trying to meet the PDUFA II goals.
months. The fees we collected have been significantly less than expected due to a
reduced number of new drug applications and an increased proportion of
… Class 1 submissions whose fees were exempted or waived. At the same time, the
resubmissions of number of goal-driven tasks for which we collect no fees increased
original applications substantially under PDUFA II. So far we have been able to meet most of
(those involving our performance goals.
minor changes) within
two months, and Our efforts to meet the PDUFA II goals may have had an unintended
Class 2 resubmissions impact on approval times of standard new drug applications. These
of original approval times have begun to increase because more applications require
applications (those multiple review cycles to reach approval. This may be due to the fact that
involving changes not reviewers have been pressed to meet the additional PDUFA II goals for
specifically identified drug development, such as meeting management, special protocol
in the user fee goals assessments and responses to clinical holds. Reviewers have had less time
document) within 6 for resolving last-minute problems with these standard applications before
months. the action goal date. Such applications must undergo an additional review
cycle with its attendant timeframes and goals. Statistics on this trend are
preliminary, and we are watching it closely.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

NDA Manufacturing Supplement Approvals

Median times, approvals
12 1,422 1,419 1,600
1,024 1,178 1,375 1,345 1,394
New drug

supplements Months 6 800

… 1,394 approvals







… Median FDA review 0 0
time: 4.4 months 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
… Median total Calendar year
approval time: Median total approval time Number approved
4.5 months
NDA Manufacturing Supplements
Actions, approval percentages
2,000 100%
80% 72% 83% 81% 84% 81%

1,000 50%
Generic drug






0 0%
… 2,333 approvals 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

… 2,453 receipts Calendar year

Actions Percent of actions that are approvals

Generic Drug Manufacturing Supplements

Manufacturing 4,000
Approvals, receipts

Supplement Review 3,036

2,370 2,522 2,453
We review many types of changes in the

manufacturing of drugs and their 2,000
packaging, including location, machinery,
processes and suppliers of raw materials.





We do this so that American consumers

can trust the high quality of FDA-
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
approved medicines. Manufacturers
notify us in advance of certain Calendar year
manufacturing changes. These are known Number of supplements approved Number of supplements received
as “manufacturing supplements” to new
drug or generic drug applications. In
many cases, they represent the industry’s
efforts to modernize plants and equipment
or to make manufacturing more efficient.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Antimicrobial resistance
Pregnancy The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is considered to be a major
labeling threat to the public health. We play an active role in the federal
We have reviewed the government’s efforts to address this growing problem and its effects on
current system of drug development and regulation.
labeling drugs for use We are developing approaches to provide education and information on
by pregnant women the appropriate use of antibiotics to health care professionals and
and are developing an consumers.
improved, more
comprehensive and Details of our efforts and other resources are at
clinically meaningful drug/antimicrobial/default.htm.

We are consulting with

multiple government
agencies, medical
experts, consumer
Electronic Submissions
groups and the Currently, the entire archival copy of the new drug application,
pharmaceutical postmarketing safety reports and advertising and promotional material can
industry to develop be submitted in electronic format without paper. We find submissions
this new labeling provided electronically as described in our guidance documents both
format. easier to process and more efficient to review.
While the number of electronic submissions continues to increase each
year, only 15 percent of supplements and amendments are submitted in
electronic format. Over the next year, we look to industry to increase the
number of electronic-only submissions.
Over the past year, we have worked on and begun evaluating electronic
submission projects that will:
„ Provide a Web-based tool for companies to register establishments
and list products.
„ Make use of standardized study data submissions to improve the
review process.
„ Improve the way we process and review labeling changes.
We also are working on the ability to accept the following documents in
electronic format:
„ Abbreviated new drug applications for generic drugs.
„ Annual reports for marketing applications.
„ Investigational new drug applications for premarket clinical studies.
„ Individual case safety reports for marketed drugs (page 27).

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Inspections of Clinical Research


Inspections of 200
clinical research
in 2001














We conducted a total










of 463 inspections of 0
clinical research: 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Calendar year
… 258 U.S. clinical U.S. clinical investigators Foreign clinical investigators
investigators Institutional review boards Sponsors, monitors, CROs
… 38 foreign clinical

… 139 institutional
review boards
Assessing Data Quality, Research Risks
… 28 sponsors,
To protect the rights and welfare of volunteers and verify the quality and
monitors or contract International
integrity of data submitted for our review, we perform on-site inspections
research inspections of
of clinical trial study sites, institutional review boards, sponsors, study
organizations clinical research
monitors and contract research organizations. Our programs to protect
volunteers are challenged by increases in the number of clinical trials; the We have conducted
types and complexity of products undergoing testing; and the increased 457 inspections of
number of trials performed in countries with less experience and limited or clinical research in 47
no standards for conducting clinical research. countries from 1980 to
Top 5 deficiency When obtaining data about the safety and effectiveness of drugs, sponsors 2001.
categories for rely on human volunteers to take part in clinical studies. Protecting We participate in
clinical volunteers from research risks is a critical responsibility for us and all international efforts to
investigator involved in clinical trials, including manufacturers, institutional review strengthen protections
inspections boards, study sponsors, clinical investigators and their staffs, monitors, for human volunteers
contract research organizations, hospitals and other institutions. worldwide and
… Failure to follow
the protocol Sponsors and clinical investigators protect volunteers by ensuring that: encourage clinical
investigators to
… Failure to keep „ Clinical trials are appropriately designed and conducted according to conduct studies
adequate and good clinical practices. according to the
accurate records highest ethical
„ Research is reviewed and approved by an institutional review board.
… Problems with the principles.
„ Informed consent is obtained from participants.
informed consent These efforts include
form „ Ongoing clinical trials are actively monitored. our work with the
… Failure to report Special attention is given to protecting vulnerable populations, such as International
adverse events children, the mentally impaired or prisoners. Conference on
… Failure to account We require sponsors to disclose financial interests of clinical investigators (page 38) and the
for the disposition of who conduct studies for them. This helps identify potential sources of bias Declaration of
study drugs in the design, conduct, reporting and analysis of clinical studies. Helsinki.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Drug Review Team

We use project teams to perform drug reviews. Team members apply their
individual special technical expertise to review applications:
Scientific training
for reviewers „ Chemists focus on how the drug is manufactured. They make sure the
manufacturing controls, quality control testing and packaging are
Our systematic, adequate to preserve the drug product’s identity, strength, potency,
internal training purity and stability.
program in science,
policy and job-related „ Pharmacologists and toxicologists evaluate the effects of the drug on
skills for reviewers is laboratory animals in short-term and long-term studies, including the
based on core potential based on animal studies for drugs to induce birth defects or
competencies, cancer in humans.
learning pathways „ Physicians evaluate the results of the clinical trials, including the
and individual drug’s adverse and therapeutic effects, and determine if the product’s
development plans. benefits outweigh its known risks at the doses proposed.
… The program grew „ Project managers orchestrate and coordinate the drug review team’s
from seven courses interactions, efforts and reviews. They also serve as the review team’s
offered in 1997 to primary contact for the drug industry.
more than 20
currently offered. „ Statisticians evaluate the designs and results for each important clinical
Existing courses were study.
also revised. „ Microbiologists evaluate the effects of anti-infective drugs on germs.
… Reviewer These medicines—antibiotics, antivirals and antifungals—differ from
participants increased others because they are intended to affect the germs instead of patients.
six-fold, from about Another group of microbiologists evaluates the manufacturing
250 in 1997 to 1,500 processes and tests for sterile products, such as those used
currently. intravenously.

… Last year, we „ Biopharmaceutists evaluate the rate and extent to which a drug’s active
brought in 44 visiting ingredient is made available to the body and the way it is distributed,
professors to talk metabolized and eliminated. They also check for interactions with other
directly to individual drugs.
review divisions about „ Clinical pharmacologists evaluate factors that influence the
critical, new drug- relationship between the body’s response and the drug dose. They
related research and assist physician members of the team in assessing the clinical
techniques. significance of changes in the body’s response to drugs through the use
… We collaborate of exposure-response relationships.
with five local
universities to present
special courses. Last
year we examined the
effects of drug
therapy on the heart.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

DRUG SAFETY Protect the public

health by ensuring that
human drugs are safe
and effective.
The practical size of premarketing clinical trials means that we cannot
learn everything about the safety of a drug before we approve it. Therefore,
a degree of uncertainty always exists about the risks of drugs. This
uncertainty requires our continued vigilance, along with that of the
Actual use data industry, to collect and assess data during the post-marketing life of a drug.
now available
We monitor the quality of marketed drugs and their promotional materials
We awarded three con- through product testing and surveillance. As Americans are increasingly New expert panel
tracts that give us ac- receiving the benefits of important new drugs before they are available to
We will be able to
cess to commercial da- citizens of other countries, we must be especially vigilant in our
consult with a new
tabases that contain surveillance. In addition, we develop policies, guidance and standards for
Drug Safety and Risk
non-patient- drug labeling, current good manufacturing practices, clinical and good
identifiable informa- laboratory practices and industry practices to demonstrate the safety and
Subcommittee to the
tion on the actual use effectiveness of drugs.
Advisory Committee
of marketed prescrip-
Highlights of drug safety and quality activities include: for Pharmaceutical
tion drugs in adults
and children. „ Processing and evaluating 286,755 reports of adverse drug events,
including 19,324 submitted directly from individuals. The new panel is
This information will
composed of nationally
significantly augment „ Accepting 15 percent of expedited adverse event reports electronically.
recognized experts in
our ability to deter-
„ Issuing “cyber letters” and warnings to 11 Internet sites selling the areas of risk
mine the public health
unapproved foreign ciprofloxacin in the wake of the anthrax- perception, risk
significance of reports
contaminated mail. management,
we receive through
AERs and other „ Issuing 880 letters to help ensure that the promotion of drug products
ology, clinical
sources. presents a fair balance of risks and benefits and isn’t false or
pharmacology, clinical
research and
„ Mandating that three drug products be dispensed with specific medication errors who
consumer information to help make sure that they are used safely and will advise us on
effectively. general and product-
specific safety issues.
„ Evaluating results of 822 preapproval inspections of new drugs, 1,268
preapproval inspections of generic drugs and 1,497 postapproval
„ Issuing 4,542 export certificates for U.S. drug products.
„ Launching a major initiative to assist industry in improving the
capability and efficiency of drug manufacturing while maintaining or
improving quality for consumers.
„ Evaluating the first scientific recommendations from the Product
Quality Research Institute.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Sources of Risk from Drug Products

Known side effects Medication Product quality

Unavoidable Avoidable errors defects

events Remaining
„ Unexpected side effects
Injury „ Unstudied uses
or death „ Unstudied populations

Types of Risks from Medicines

Product quality defects. These are controlled through good manufacturing Medication errors
practices, monitoring and surveillance.
We help ensure the
Known side effects. Predictable adverse events are identified in the drug’s safe use of drugs we
labeling. These cause the majority of injuries and deaths from using approve by
medicines. Some are avoidable, and others are unavoidable. identifying and
„ Avoidable. In many cases drug therapy requires an individualized avoiding brand names
treatment plan and careful monitoring. Other avoidable side effects are that contribute to
known drug-drug interactions. problems in
„ Unavoidable. Some known side effects occur with the best medical dispensing or
practice even when the drug is used appropriately. Examples include administration of the
nausea from antibiotics or bone marrow suppression from product.
Our comprehensive
Medication errors. For example, the drug is administered incorrectly or Web site on
the wrong drug or dose is administered. medication errors is
Remaining uncertainties. These include unexpected side effects, long- at http://www.fda.
term effects and unstudied uses and populations. For example, a rare gov/cder/drug/
event occurring in fewer than 1 in 10,000 persons won’t be identified in MedErrors/default.
normal premarket testing. htm.

Drug Safety
We evaluate the ongoing safety profiles of drugs available to American
consumers using a variety of tools and disciplines. We maintain a system
of postmarketing surveillance and risk assessment programs to identify
adverse events that did not appear during the drug development process.
We monitor adverse events such as adverse reactions, drug-drug
interactions and poisonings. We use this information to update drug
labeling and, on rare occasions, reevaluate the approval or marketing

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Post-Marketing Adverse Event Reports 286,755

300,000 278,143 266,991
191,865 212,843

Adverse event 150,000
In 2001, we received
286,755 reports of
suspected drug-
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
related adverse
events: Calendar year
Direct (MedWatch) 15-day Nonserious periodic Periodic
… 19,324 MedWatch
reports directly from
Report types
… 115,012
manufacturer 15-day … Direct reports from
(expedited) reports. As we discover new knowledge about a drug’s safety profile, we make risk MedWatch. An
assessments and decisions about the most appropriate way to manage any individual, usually a
… 152,419 new risk or new perspective on a previously known risk. Risk management health care
manufacturer methods include new labeling, “Dear Health Care Practitioner” letters, practitioner, notifies
periodic reports restricted distribution programs or product marketing termination. us directly of a
(70,306 serious and
suspected serious
82,113 nonserious)
Information technology adverse event.

A powerful drug safety tool is the Adverse Event Reporting System. This … 15-day (expedited)
computerized system combines the voluntary adverse drug reaction reports reports.
from MedWatch and the required reports from manufacturers. These Manufacturers report
reports often form the basis of “signals” that there may be a potential for these serious and
serious, unrecognized, drug-associated events. When a signal is detected, unexpected adverse
further testing of the hypothesis is undertaken using various events to us as soon as
epidemiological and analytic databases, studies and other instruments and possible within 15
AERS on Internet
resources. AERS offers paper and electronic submission options, days of discovering
You can learn more international compatibility and pharmacovigilance screening. the problem.
about the Adverse
… Manufacturer
Event Reporting
Electronic submissions periodic reports. These
System at http://www.
report all other AERS was designed and implemented so that the majority of the reports adverse events, such
default.htm. would be entered electronically. We are in the process of migrating the as those less than
reporting format from paper to electronic. In a pilot program, we are serious or described
accepting electronic individual case safety reports from five major drug in the labeling. These
firms. In 2001, electronic submissions into AERS represented 15 percent are submitted
of the total expedited reports we received. We estimate the cost of quarterly for the first
receiving a report is cut from $18 per report to $5 per report for those three years of
submitted electronically. marketing and
annually after that.
Nonserious reports
are displayed
separately starting
with 1998.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Adverse event reporting enforcement

We enforce regulations on postmarketing adverse event reporting to ensure
Risk management
that reports are accurate, timely and complete. We develop regulatory
case study
strategies and initiate inspections to determine industry compliance with
the regulations. We use a risk-based approach to identify firms for We have learned in
inspection. We focus on firms with: recent years that our
traditional methods for
„ Reporting deficiencies.
informing prescribers
„ Drug products that pose a significant health risk. of changes in a drug’s
risks and benefits have
„ Other priority issues that impact the public health.
little effect once
We evaluate the inspection findings and determine if enforcement action is prescribing patterns
appropriate. have been well

One example is the

new risk management
program for
MedWatch drug
The drug is very
safety Internet
resources MedWatch Outreach and Reporting effective in treating the
most serious form of
The latest medical We administer the MedWatch program that helps promote the safe use of acne, but its use carries
product safety drugs by: significant potential
information can be „ Rapidly disseminating new safety information on the Internet and by risks, including birth
found at http://www. providing e-mail notification to health professionals, institutions, the defects and even fetal public and our MedWatch partners consisting of professional death.

You can sign up for societies, health agencies and patient and consumer groups. In recent years, as
immediate e-mail „ Providing a mechanism for health professionals and the public to more women receive
notification of voluntarily report serious adverse events and problems with all FDA- prescriptions for
MedWatch safety regulated medical products. Reports can be filed by mail, fax, isotretinoin, the risk
information at http:// telephone or the Internet. that pregnant women may be inappro-
medwatch/new.htm. „ Educating health professionals and consumers about the importance of priately using the drug
recognizing and reporting serious adverse events and product has increased.
problems, including medication errors. Our education program
includes Internet outreach, speeches, articles and exhibits. On advice from our
expert panel and in
Last year, subscribers to our e-mail notification service more than doubled consultation with us,
to about 20,000. the manufacturer
We issued about 40 safety alerts for drugs. Notifications were posted on made significant
the Internet and e-mailed to individuals and our 190 MedWatch partner changes to
organizations. isotretinoin’s risk
management program
Each month, our subscribers and partners received 25 to 45 safety-related for pregnancy
labeling changes for drugs. prevention.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Drug shortages on
the Internet
Drug Shortages
We have a Web site
We work to help prevent or alleviate shortages of medically necessary that lists current drug
drug products. Drug shortages occur for a variety of reasons including shortages, describes
Drug-induced liver manufacturing difficulties, bulk supplier problems and corporate efforts to resolve them
injury decisions to discontinue drugs. and explains how to
Drug-induced liver Because drug shortages can have significant public health consequences, report them.
injury is the most we work with all parties involved to make sure all medically necessary … The site is at http://
common cause for products are available within the United States.
removing approved
Drug shortage program aids counterterrorism effort drug/shortages.
drugs from the market,
limiting a drug to Utilizing data obtained from manufacturers and distributors, our drug … We have an e-mail
second-line use or shortage program provides supply and production information in response address to provide the
requiring special to federal government requests in relation to counterterrorism efforts. public a
monitoring or communication tool for
restricted use. drug shortage
information at
We cosponsored a two-
day conference and
workshop to help Cyber Letters for Foreign Ciprofloxacin
foster consensus on
principles and areas In the wake of the public health crisis surrounding anthrax-contaminated
for research and mail, we issued “cyber letters” to 11 Web sites selling unapproved foreign
further work. ciprofloxacin (page 5). We issued warnings to Internet vendors abroad who
Conference materials were offering ciprofloxacin to American consumers. We informed
are available at http:// consumers that they should be aware of these risks associated with obtaining a prescription drug over the Internet:
livertox/default.htm. „ The product could be contaminated and harmful.
We have been working „ The product could be a counterfeit and not contain the drug’s active
with manufacturers to ingredient.
address how to carry
out studies in patients „ The product could contain the wrong dose of the drug.
with impaired liver „ Without adequate screening by a health care professional, the product
function to provide may not be safe and appropriate for the user.
information on dose
adjustment in such „ The consumer may not have access to a health care professional if a
patients. serious side effect occurs after taking the product.
„ The consumer may receive no product at all after sending payment.
Buying medicines online
Many consumers find it saves time and money to buy their medicines
online. We have information to help consumers determine whether a Web
site is a licensed pharmacy in good standing. You can find out more about
buying medicines online at

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Drug Promotion Review

The information about a drug available to physicians and consumers is just
as important to its safe use as drug quality. We promote and protect the
health of Americans by ensuring that drug advertisements and other
promotional materials are truthful and balanced. We operate a
comprehensive program of education, surveillance and enforcement about
drug advertising and promotion.
Launches and advisories
When requested, we review advertisements and other promotional
materials before drug companies launch marketing campaigns that
introduce new drugs or campaigns that introduce new indications or
dosages for approved drugs. In fiscal year 2001, we issued 178 advisory
letters to companies regarding their promotional materials for launch
We issued 313 other advisory letters to the industry regarding proposed
promotional pieces, both professional and consumer directed. In addition,
we issued 284 other types of correspondence to the pharmaceutical
industry, such as letters of inquiry, closure letters or acknowledgement
Regulatory actions
We issued 105 regulatory action letters to companies for prescription drug
promotions determined to be false, misleading, lacking in fair balance of
risks and benefits or that promoted a product or indication before approval.
These were either “untitled” letters for violations or “warning” letters for
more serious or repeat violations. Examples of specific types of violative
promotions include promotional exhibit hall displays (20 letters), oral
representations (11 letters), Internet Web sites (10 letters), plus traditional
materials such as journal advertisements and sales brochures.
Direct-to-consumer promotion
Included in our letters were 190 regarding direct-to-consumer promotion.
This compares with 215 letters in 2000. Of last year’s letters, 50 were for
launch campaigns, 123 for non-launch advisories, and 16 were regulatory
letters. Of the regulatory letters, seven were for advertisements broadcast
on television or radio, five for print advertisements, three for a
combination of broadcast and print advertisements, and one for a Web site.
We initiated two national telephone surveys. One is a follow-up to our
1999 survey of patients’ attitudes and behaviors associated with direct-to-
consumer advertisements. The other is a new survey of physicians’
attitudes and behaviors associated with direct-to-consumer advertisements.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Drug Promotion Review


Drug promotion
review statistics
We issued a total of
880 drug promotion






letters last year.
… 105 regulatory 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
action letters Fiscal year
Regulatory actions Launch campaigns Other letters
… 178 launch

… 597 advisory
acknowledgement or
closure letters Patient information for prescription drugs
We continued our research activities in support of the private plan to
provide patients with useful information about their prescription drugs.
The target goal is for 75 percent of patients to receive useful information
with new prescriptions. This past year we worked on evaluating the
written patient medication information materials received.
Additionally, we carried out a telephone survey of U.S. consumers about
where they get their information about prescription drugs.
Medication Guides Medication
We may require specific written patient information for selected Guides issued
prescription drugs that pose a serious and significant public health in 2001:
concern. These are called Medication Guides. They must be distributed to
… Bosentan
patients with each prescription dispensed. We determine if a drug requires
a Medication Guide because information is necessary for patients to use
the product safely and effectively or to decide to use or continue to use the … Ribavirin
product. Last year we issued Medication Guides for three products. (Rebetol)
Proposed rule to revise prescription drug labeling … Ribavirin and
We received more than 100 comments on our December 2000 proposal to interferon alfa-2b
revise the content and format of prescription drug labeling. Companies, (Rebetron), a
associations, academicians and individuals commented, and we will combination drug and
respond when we publish the final regulation. biologic product

The main purpose of labeling is to communicate essential information

about prescription drugs to health care providers. The proposal would add
a highlights section of critical prescribing information and an index. It
would reorganize and reorder labeling to make the information easier for
practitioners to find, read and use. We expect the proposed changes to
contribute to our risk communication efforts by improving the
accessibility of labeling information and consequently enhancing the safe
and effective use of prescription drugs.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Drug Recalls












1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Fiscal year
Prescription Over-the-counter Top 10 reasons for
drug recalls in
fiscal year 2001:
… Deviations from
How we
Drug Recalls and Withdrawals current good
coordinate drug In some cases, a drug product must be recalled due to a problem occurring
recalls in the manufacture or distribution of the product that may present a
significant risk to public health. These problems usually, but not always, … Subpotency
We coordinate drug
occur in one or a small number of batches of the drug. The most common
recall information, … Stability data fail to
reasons for drug recalls include those listed in the column at the right. In
assist manufacturers support expiration
other cases, a drug is determined to be unsafe for continued marketing and
or distributors in date
must be withdrawn completely.
developing recall plans
… Failure of drug to
and prepare health
dissolve properly
hazard evaluations to Recalls
determine the risk … Correctly labeled
Manufacturers or distributors usually implement voluntary recalls in order
posed to the public by product in the wrong
to carry out their responsibilities to protect the public health when they
products being carton or package
need to remove a marketed drug product that presents a risk of injury to
consumers or to correct a defective drug product. A voluntary recall of a … Strength of product
We classify recall drug product is more efficient and effective in assuring timely consumer incorrectly labeled
actions in accordance protection than an FDA-initiated court action or seizure of the product.
… Microbial
to the level of risk. We
contamination of
participate in
determining recall
Safety-based withdrawals in 2001 nonsterile products
strategies based upon In some cases, there is an intrinsic property of the drug that makes it … Drug product
the health hazard necessary to withdraw the drug from the market for safety reasons. For marketed without an
posed by the product example, these drugs were withdrawn from the U.S. market last year for approved new or
and other factors safety reasons: generic application
including the extent of
„ Cerivastatin (Baycol), a cholesterol lowering drug, was voluntarily … Lack of assurance
distribution of the
withdrawn because of reports of sometimes fatal rhabdomyolysis, a of sterility in
product to be recalled.
severe muscle adverse reaction. production or testing
We determine the need of sterile drug
„ Rapacuronium (Raplon), an injectable anesthesia drug, was
for public warnings products
voluntarily withdrawn from the market after its manufacturer received
and assist the recalling
reports indicating that the drug might have been associated with … Discoloration
firm with public
bronchospasm, a mild to severe inability to breathe normally that can
notification about the … Counterfeit dosage
lead to permanent injury or death.
recall. form

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Safety-Based NME Withdrawals

Based on year of approval


Recent safety- Recent safety-
based drug 1.5% based drug
withdrawals withdrawals
2.7% 2.7% (cont.)
Drug name
(year approved/ 0.0% … Dexfenfluramine
year withdrawn) Pre-PDUFA PDUFA (1996/1997)
(13) (7) (not an NME)
… Phenylpro- Approval periods (number withdrawn as of April 30, 2002)
panolamine … Bromfenac
Percentage withdrawn (1997/1998)
(never approved … Cerivastatin
by FDA) (1997/2001)
… Fenfluramine Record of safety-based market withdrawals … Grepafloxin
(1973/1997) When drug withdrawals are compared based on year of approval, the (1997/1999)
… Azaribine recent period when we applied user-fee review goals is similar to the … Mibefradil
(1975/1976) previous period. (1997/1998)
… Ticrynafen „ Pre-PDUFA period. Between Jan. 1, 1971, and Dec. 31, 1993, we … Troglitazone
(1979/1980) approved 477 new molecular entities, and 13 (2.7 percent) were (1997/2000)
… Zomepirac eventually withdrawn. Nearly all the drugs we approved in this period … Rapacuronium
(1980/1983) were received before we implemented PDUFA review goals. (1999/2001)
… Benoxaprofen „ PDUFA period. Between Jan. 1, 1994, and Dec. 31, 2001, we approved … Alosetron
(1982/1982) 258 NMEs, and 7 (2.7 percent) have been withdrawn. Nearly all drugs (2000/2000)
… Nomifensine we approved in this period were reviewed under PDUFA goals.
… Suprofen
… Terfenadine Drug Product Quality
We provide comprehensive regulatory coverage of the production and
… Encainide distribution of drug products. We manage inspection programs designed to
(1986/1991) minimize consumer exposure to defective drug products. We have two
… Astemizole basic strategies to meet this goal:
„ Evaluating the findings of inspections that examine the conditions and
… Flosequinan
practices in plants where drugs are manufactured, packed, tested and
… Temafloxacin
(1992/1992) „ Monitoring the quality of finished drug products in distribution,
… Cisapride
through sampling and analysis.
(1993/2000) We identify, evaluate and analyze inspection findings for trends in
deficiencies. We develop guidances to assist drug manufacturers in gaining
a better understanding of our regulations. We communicate the
expectations of compliance through outreach programs. We review all
international pharmaceutical inspection reports. We determine which
foreign manufacturers are acceptable to supply active pharmaceutical
ingredients or finished drug products to the U.S. market.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Reporting systems for drug quality problems

Two important tools help us rapidly identify significant health hazards
associated with the manufacturing and packaging of drugs:
„ Drug Quality Reporting System. Through MedWatch (page 28), we
receive reports of observed or suspected defects and quality problems
associated with marketed drugs. We evaluate and prioritize the reports
to determine potential health hazards and industry trends and to
develop special programs and surveys. We identify significant health
hazards associated with drug manufacturing, packaging and labeling
and initiate field inspections assignments. We review inspection
reports and recommend appropriate corrective action. We maintain a
central reporting system to detect problem areas and trends.
„ Field Alert Reports. Firms are required to notify FDA promptly of any
significant problems that may represent safety hazards for their
marketed drug products. FDA’s district offices evaluate these reports
and conduct follow-up inspections. We review and evaluate the
inspection findings to determine if firms are complying with reporting
requirements. We review and approve enforcement recommendations
for failure to meet these requirements.

Risk-based surveillance sampling of drugs

Sampling criteria We monitor the quality of the nation’s drug supply through surveillance
Criteria for our risk- and sampling of foreign and domestic finished dosage forms and bulk
based surveillance shipments of active ingredients. The drug products surveyed are selected
sampling of drugs according to a risk-based strategy that targets products with the greatest
include: potential to harm the public health. FDA district offices conduct follow-
up inspections to determine the cause of sample failures and to assure
… High-volume/high- corrective action by the firms.
risk products
… Therapeutic Prescription drugs sold without approved applications
We identify drugs that are marketed without an approved new or generic
… Emerging problems drug application. We assess unapproved drugs to maximize protection of
… Dissolution issues the public health and make best use of FDA’s limited resources. We
prioritize drugs that may be subject to compliance actions into risk-based
… New molecular categories. These begin with those posing the most saftey considerations
entities and effect on public heatlh.
… Method validation
… Counterfeit drugs
… History of violations

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

FDA Inspections of Manufacturing Plants


Number 1,000








1999 2000 2001
Fiscal year
New drug preapproval Generic preapproval Current good manufacturing practice

Manufacturing plant inspections

FDA field offices conduct inspections of domestic and foreign plants that
manufacture, test, package and label drugs. Before a drug is approved,
FDA investigators must determine if data submitted in the firm’s
application are authentic and if the plant is in compliance with good
consumers from
manufacturing practices. After a drug is approved, FDA conducts an
fraudulent drugs
inspection to make sure a firm can consistently manufacture the product.
Finally, routine inspections evaluate the firm’s entire operations. We protect U.S.
consumers from
„ Preapproval inspections. During fiscal year 2001, FDA evaluated 822
fraudulent or
plants in support of new drug applications. Also, FDA evaluated 1,268
hazardous drug
domestic firms in support of generic drug applications.
products by:
„ Good manufacturing practice inspections. There were 1,497 good
… Issuing enforcement
manufacturing practice inspections in fiscal year 2001. We reviewed 48
letters to firms or
field recommendations for regulatory action and approved 18. These
individuals marketing
included two injunctions, eight seizures and four warning letters. We
fraudulent products.
reviewed 249 foreign establishment inspection reports. These reviews
Last year, more than
resulted in 10 warning letters.
50 such letters were
issued based on
Unsubstantiated claims; fraudulent, hazardous products unsubstantiated claims
found in product
We often encounter products marketed to U.S. consumers that make illegal
labeling and on
and unsubstantiated medical claims. These may include claims to treat
Internet sites.
serious diseases that have proven effective treatments. Products making
unproven claims may, therefore, pose a significant health risk. Consumers … Pursuing
may use a fraudulent product in place of an effective treatment or may enforcement actions.
delay the use of effective treatment. On occasion, fraudulent products are These include seizures
found to contain toxic components that are likely to cause serious illness or of violative products
injury. and injunctions against
firms or individuals
In addition, the marketing of products making unsubstantiated claims
who continue to
threatens to undermine the U.S. drug development and approval process by
market violative
interfering with the incentive for new drug development.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Drug Product Quality Science

PQRI update Microbiology
We conduct scientific research on drug product quality issues. Last year
We are evaluating the We assess product
our efforts included:
first scientific sterility, maintenance
recommendations from „ Developing and validating methods for testing the quality of drug of product safety and
the Product Quality products and rapid identification of counterfeit products. This included the microbiological
Research Institute work on near-infrared spectroscopy and near-infrared imaging. controls used by firms
(page 6). These are for drug development
„ Approving shelf-life extensions for drug products on the joint FDA
aimed at ensuring and manufacturing.
and Department of Defense Shelf Life Extension Program. We assess
thorough mixing of a
stability profiles of stockpiled drugs for risk management. Our microbiology
drug within the blend
and dosage unit. review assures the
Process analytical technologies initiative safety of sterile and
PQRI has a number of non-sterile products
working groups We launched an initiative to assist manufacturers in improving the through scientific
addressing the issues capability and efficiency of the pharmaceutical process while maintaining evaluation and
such as: or improving product quality. Known as process analytical technologies, communication with
these are systems for continuous analysis and control of manufacturing the industry and
… Methods for
processes based on real-time or rapid measurements during processing. assures consistency
determining physical
attributes of drug To assist in this effort, we are bringing together experts in the areas of through guidance
substances starting analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, pharmaceutical technology, documents.
with particle size regulatory compliance, chemical engineering and international We promote the
pharmaceutical manufacturing. These include experts from industry and development of
… Impurities and how
academia along with our own and those from other FDA components. uniform and practical
best to detect, identify
and quantify them test methods and
Product quality scientific workshops criteria for our own
… Reliance on product use and through the
specifications We cosponsored two scientific workshops to bring together our scientists U.S. Pharmacopoeia
with those from academia and industry to discuss our approaches and and the International
… Qualifying changes
industry’s experiences and perspective. Conference on
to container/closure
systems - solid oral The workshops were: Harmonization
dosage forms (page 38).
„ Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled
… Leachables and Release Parenterals. This workshop covered dispersed systems We initiated a new
extractables in orally (microspheres, liposomes, gels and suspensions) as well as implants of program to advance
inhaled and nasal drug small molecule and peptide therapeutics for human and animal use. rapid microbiology test
products methods. This included
„ Streamlining the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls Regulatory advisory committee
… Particles size Process for New and Generic Drugs. This workshop discussed meetings and a
distribution scientific criteria for establishing a class of drugs considered to be low proposed sub-
comparisons risk with respect to product quality. committee to resolve
administrative and
technical hurdles.

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Export Certificates Issued

Export certificates 5,000
issued in fiscal
year 2001:

… 4,542 2,500







1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Fiscal year

Export certificates issued

Export Certificates
We promote goodwill and cooperation between the United States and
foreign governments through the Export Certificate Program. These
certificates enable American manufacturers to export their products to
foreign customers and foreign governments. The demand for certificates by
foreign governments remains high due to expanding world trade, ongoing
international harmonization initiatives and international development
The certificates attest that the drug products are subject to inspection by the
FDA and are manufactured in compliance with current good
manufacturing practices. Export certificates verify that drug products being
„ Were freely marketed in the United States.
„ Were in compliance with U.S. laws and regulations.
„ Met certain national or international standards, such as quality stan-
„ Were free of specific contaminants.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Highlights from 2001 include:
„ Accepting the first new drug applications in the Common Technical
Document format. The CTD can be used for seeking approval to
market new drugs in the United States, the European Union and Japan.
„ Nearing completion of the electronic CTD.
„ Prioritizing issues for our harmonization efforts among the countries of
We participate North and South America.
through appropriate
„ Leadership of the U.S. consultations with the European Union to allow
processes with Internet sources
for reciprocal reliance on manufacturing plant inspections.
representatives of
… More information
other countries to „ Exchanging recall information and alerts concerning significant
about our international
reduce the burden of emerging product quality problems with the European Union.
activities, including
regulation, harmonize
Spanish language
International Conference on Harmonization materials, is at http://
requirements and
achieve appropriate Harmonization—making the drug regulatory processes more efficient and
reciprocal uniform—is an issue that is important not only to Americans, but to drug
arrangements. regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies throughout the world.
The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical … We have published
Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use has ICH documents as
worked to bring together government regulators and drug industry experts guidances to industry.
from innovator trade associations in the European Union, Japan and the These are on our Web
United States. site at http://www.fda.
We are leading the FDA’s collaboration with the ICH. This work will help
make new drugs available with minimum delays not only to American
consumers but also to patients in other parts of the world. … PAHO information
is at http://www.paho.
The drug regulatory systems in all three regions share the same
org. Information on
fundamental concerns for the safety, efficacy and quality of drug products.
PANDRH is at http://
Before ICH, many time-consuming and expensive technical tests had to be
repeated in all three regions. The ICH goal is to minimize unnecessary
duplicate testing during the research and development of new drugs. The
ICH process results in guidance documents that create consistency in the … The Mutual
requirements for product registration. Recognition
Agreement is at http://

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Modular Structure of Common Technical Document

Module 1
and prescribing
(not harmonized)

Module 2
General introduction and overall
Common summaries of quality, nonclinical
Technical and clinical information
Document Nonclinical Clinical
update written and tabulated written and tabulated
summaries summaries
The ICH Common
Module 3 Module 4 Module 5
Technical Document
Quality Nonclinical Clinical
allows data in the data study reports study reports
same format to be
submitted to drug
review authorities in
all three ICH regions. Harmonization initiative in the Americas MRA update
… We have received We are working with the Pan American Health Organization to promote A planned three-year
five new drug regulatory harmonization within the Americas. PAHO is part of the United transition to full
submissions in CTD Nations system, serving as the World Health Organization’s regional office implementation has
format, several for for the Americas. The initiative, called the Pan American Network for not proceeded as
new dosage forms. Drug Regulatory Harmonization or PANDRH, will search for common smoothly as
Some submissions use ground on various topics in a prioritized work plan. anticipated, but both
paper for some parties remain
sections and We are the lead for two topics of high priority—good manufacturing
electronic media for practices and bioequivalence. We are working with the countries of Latin
others. America to provide training on these two important issues. Training to the … Last year, we
same standards should help lead to harmonization. Other urgent issues are began exchanging
… Work on making good clinical practices and counterfeit drugs. recall information
the document suitable and alerts concerning
for electronic significant emerging
submission is nearing U.S.-European Union Mutual Recognition Agreement product quality
completion. This agreement provides for reciprocal reliance on inspection systems in problems.
the United States and each of the 15 member nations of the European
… We proposed
Union. The globalization of the pharmaceutical industry is outpacing our
exchanging inspection
resources to inspect pharmaceutical manufacturing plants worldwide. Once
reports on a pilot
fully implemented, the agreement will allow us to base our regulatory
basis and audited the
decisions on inspection data from “equivalent authorities” in the European
first E.U. member
Union. Equivalent authorities are those with regulatory systems for good
manufacturing practices that we have assessed and determined will achieve
a comparable level of public health protection. … A team of E.U.
officials audited our
While the agreement will allow us to use an inspection report from one of
regulatory system for
our European counterparts as though it were our own, the actual regulatory
good manufacturing
decision will be up to us. Our experts in good manufacturing practices are
practices with a
leading the FDA team that is working with a team from the European
positive outcome.
Union to implement this agreement.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Stakeholders in
Highlights from 2001 include: drug review, drug
„ Meeting almost weekly with outside experts on difficult scientific and quality and safety
public health issues. We work closely with
„ Responding to more than 52,000 individual requests for information. many organizations on
issues of public health
„ Launching twice-yearly, week-long introductory workshops for our and safety, including:
Mission stakeholders.
… Consumers,
Carry out our mission „ Receiving nearly 6.6 million visitors and about 111 million hits on our patients and their
in consultation with Internet information site, which has 40,000 pages and documents, five organizations
experts in science, databases and 175,000 hyperlinks.
medicine and public … Scientific and
health and in professional societies
cooperation with Public participation
… Industry and trade
consumers, users, We confer with panels of outside experts in science, medicine and public associations
manufacturers, health in meetings open to the public. We assure that patient
importers, packers, representatives are included on advisory committees considering medicines … Universities,
distributors and for HIV, AIDS, cancer and other serious disorders. We analyzed public hospitals and health
retailers of human comments on proposed new rules, and we sought and received comments care professionals
drugs. on our guidances to industry. … Federal, state and
In special public meetings, we received valuable input from outside local government
scientists, consumer and patient groups, professional and scientific agencies
societies, industry and trade associations about: … Foreign
„ Converting certain prescription antihistamines to over the counter sales governments
Internet updates (page 17).
We have 40,000 „ The effects of medication on vehicle operators. This was our first joint
subscribers to our meeting with the National Transportation Safety Board. It was held in
service that provides response to the board’s request for warning labels on medicines that
daily and weekly may impair a person’s ability to drive, fly, sail or operate vehicles.
e-mail updates of new
content on our Web
site. Workshops
To subscribe, visit „ CDER 101. We inaugurated a workshop for external stakeholders including foreign regulators. Our cosponsors were two non-profit
cder/cdernew/listserv. organizations and an academic institution. The workshop features many
html. of our experts in a week-long introduction to our mission, organization
and regulatory processes. We held two workshops in 2001 and will
continue to offer them twice a year.
„ Scientific workshops. We cosponsored one workshop addressing drug-
induced liver damage (page 30) and two addressing product quality
issues in manufacturing (page 36).

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Average Monthly Use of CDER Internet Site

1,000 10

Visitors (thousands)

Hits (millions)
500 3.1 5
Partnering to 1.3
reduce medical 156 226 406 549
gas mix-ups 32 72
0 0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
We developed an
Calendar year
outreach plan to
Visitors (thousands) Hits (millions)
eliminate deaths and
injuries occurring
when incorrect medical Consumer and industry outreach
gas tanks are „ Regulations. We published seven regulations, and we sought public
connected to oxygen comment on another five proposed regulations. Public education
lines in hospitals and
„ Guidances. We published 15 guidances for industry that explain our campaigns
nursing homes. This
involved more than position on best practices in scientific and technical areas. We In response to
two dozen health care published another 16 in draft form seeking public comment. expressed need for
organizations and „ Manual of Policies and Procedures. To foster transparency of our information from the
several accreditation operations, we publish our internal operating policies and procedures public and health care
organizations. on the Internet. We added 20 documents last year. professionals, we
developed campaigns
„ Trade press. We responded to more than 2,340 telephone and e-mail about:
Ombudsman’s requests from the specialized press covering the pharmaceutical
industry. … Benefits vs. risks of
activity medication use
In its sixth year of
„ Exhibits. We exhibited at 23 conferences, reaching an estimated
audience of over 100,000 consumers, educators and health care … Buying prescription
operation, our medical products over
ombudsman helped
the Internet
settle issues between us „ Videoconferencing. We held about 100 domestic and foreign
and industry, health videoconferences for academia, industry and associations. … Aspirin therapy to
professionals and reduce the risk of heart
„ CDER Live! We conducted a satellite television broadcast and webcast attacks and strokes
for more than 5,000 industry employees in which we discussed our
… The ombudsman proposal to improve the format and content of the prescription drug … The new over-the-
handled about 100 label. counter medicine
disputes. labels
„ Drug reviews on Internet. We posted on our Internet site our reviews of
… He answered more more than 200 approved new drugs or new uses for approved drugs. … Misuse of
than 1,300 e-mails, prescription pain
approximately 1,000
„ Information requests. We responded to 6,000 requests under the relievers
telephone calls and 20
Freedom of Information Act and more than 16,500 e-mail requests
from industry, consumers, patients and health care professionals. … Drug interactions

… In addition, the
„ Other communications. We answered more than 34,000 telephone
ombudsman held
inquiries, 1,100 faxes and 8,800 written requests. We responded to
about 20 meetings with
nearly 6,000 requests for documents and guidance publications.
external parties.

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

Where to Find More Information

We support multiple ways to obtain information about drug products and
the laws, regulations and guidances concerning them.
Selected Internet sites
„ FDA Internet home page:
„ CDER Internet home page:
„ CDER’s consumer drug information sheets for new medicines
approved since January 1998:
„ FDA Modernization Act of 1997 CDER-related documents:
„ From Test Tube to Patient: New Drug Development in the United
„ CDER Handbook: http://
„ CDER organizational charts:
„ CDER key officials:
We respond to specific questions about prescription, over-the-counter and
generic drugs for human use. You can telephone us toll free at
1-888-INFO FDA or directly at 301-827-4573.
We can be contacted at
Regular mail
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
Drug Information Division
HFD-240, Room 12B-05
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857

Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs

Organizational Structure of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

American Consumers

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food and Drug Administration

Office of the Center Director

Office of Executive Programs Director
Executive Operations Staff
Office of Medical Policy
„ „ Deputy Director
„ Review Standards Staff „ Controlled Substances Staff „ Div. of Drug Marketing Advertising &
„ Advisors and Consultants Staff „ Associate Director for Policy Communications
„ International Program „ EEO Staff „ Div. of Scientific Investigations
„ Information Management Program „ Ombudsman

Office of New Drugs Office of Pharmacoepidemiology Office of Pharmaceutical Science

„ Pharmacology/Toxicology Staff & Statistical Sciences „ Informatic Computation Safety Analysis
„ Program Management Team Staff
„ Reports & Data Management Team Office of Regulatory Policy „ Quality Implementation Staff
„ Div. of Regulatory Policy I „ Operation Staff
„ Div. of Regulatory Policy II
Office of Drug Safety „ Div. of Information Disclosure
Office of Drug Evaluation I Policy
„ Div. of Surveillance, Research
„ Div. of Neuropharmacological & Comm. Support Office of New Drug Chemistry
Drug Products „ Div. of Medication Errors & „ Microbiology Team
„ Div. of Oncology Drug Products Tech. Support „ Div. of New Drug Chemistry I
„ Div. of Cardio-Renal Drug „ Div. of Drug Risk Evaluation Office of Management „ Div. of New Drug Chemistry II
Products „ Div. of New Drug Chemistry III
„ Div. of Management and Budget
„ Div. of Management Services
Office of Biostatistics
Office of Clinical Pharm. &
Office of Drug Evaluation II „ Quantitative Methods &
Research Staff Biopharmaceutics
„ Div. of Pulmonary Drug Products Office of Training &
„ Div. of Metabolic & Endocrine „ Div. of Biometrics I „ Div. of Pharmaceutical Evaluation I
Drug Products „ Div. of Biometrics II Communications „ Div. of Pharmaceutical Evaluation II
„ Div. of Anesthetic, Critical Care „ Div. of Biometrics III „ Project Management Program „ Div. of Pharmaceutical Evaluation III
& Addiction Drug Products Staff
„ Div. of Training & Development
„ Div. of Drug Information
„ Div. of Public Affairs Office of Generic Drugs
Office of Drug Evaluation III „ Div. of Library and Info. Services „ Div. of Chemistry I
„ Div. of GastroIntestinal & „ Div. of Chemistry II
Coagulation Drug Products „ Div. of Bioequivalence
„ Div. of Reproductive & Urologic „ Div. of Labeling & Program Support
Drug Products
„ Div. of Medical Imaging & Office of Compliance
Radiopharmaceutical Drug
„ Div. of Labeling and
Products Office of Testing and Research
Nonprescription Drug
Compliance Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology
Office of Pediatric Drug Div. of Prescription Drug
„ „ Div. of Applied Pharmacology
Development & Program Compliance and Surveillance Research
Office of Drug Evaluation IV
Initiatives „ Div. of Manufacturing & Product „ Div. of Pharmaceutical Analysis
„ Div. of Anti-Viral Drug Products Quality „ Div. of Product Quality Research
„ Div. of Anti-Infective Drug „ Pediatric Therapeutics Staff
Products „ Program Initiatives Staff
„ Div. of Special Pathogen &
Immunologic Drug Products
Office of Information
„ Quality Assurance Staff
Office of Drug Evaluation V „ Technology Support Services
„ Div. of Anti-Inflammatory, Staff
Analgesic, & Ophthalmologic „ Div. of Infrastructure
Drug Products Management and Services
„ Div. of Dermatologic & Dental „ Div. of Applications
Drug Products Development Services 1-888-INFO FDA
„ Div. of Over-the-Counter Drug „ Div. of Data Management &
Products Services

CDER 2001 Report to the Nation

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food and Drug Administration
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research