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# http://www.math.unipd.it/~bottacin/algantag1.

htm

## Algebraic Geometry 1 (ALGANT  course)

Course description
Algebraic geometry is the study of solutions to systems of polynomial equations. It is a central and very active area of modern mathematics with deep connections to commutative algebra, complex analysis, number theory, combinatorics, and topology. It has applications in physics, robotics, coding theory, optimization theory, and more recently in biology and statistics. We will begin by developing the standard "dictionary" for translating between algebraic properties of polynomials and geometric properties of their solution sets. In the rst part of the course we shall present classical algebraic geometry, in order to develop intuition and give a feel for the eld. The second part of the course will discuss schemes, to introduce this important concept of modern mathematics.

Oce hours
Wednesday 2:30-4:00pm, or by appointment.

Syllabus
Ane space, algebraic sets, Zariski topology, irreducible algebraic sets, ane varieties. The ane coordinate ring of an ane variety. Regular functions. The dimension of an ane variety. Projective space, algebraic sets, Zariski topology, projective varieties. Relations between projective space and ane space. The homogeneous coordinate ring of a projective variety. Regular

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functions. Morphisms of varieties. The d-uple embedding and the Segre embedding. The ring of germs of regular functions, the eld of rational functions of a variety. The product of two ane varieties. The product of two projective varieties. Rational maps, birational maps, birational equivalence. The blow-up of an ane variety at a point. Singular and nonsingular points, regular local rings. (Zariski) tangent and cotangent spaces. Finite morphisms: denition and main properties (the bers of a nite morphisms are nite, a nite morphism is surjective, a nite morphism is a closed map, niteness is a local property, projections are nite morphisms). Presheaves and sheaves of abelian groups. Morphisms of sheaves. The sheaf associated to a presheaf. Kernel, cokernel and image of a morphism of sheaves. Subsheaves and quotient sheaves. Direct images and inverse images of sheaves. Ringed spaces, locally ringed spaces. The spectrum of a ring, ane schemes, distinguished open subsets. Morphisms of ane schemes. Schemes, morphisms of schemes. Glueing of schemes, glueing of morphisms of schemes. The Proj of a graded ring. Subschemes: open immersions, open subschemes, closed immersions, closed subschemes. Basic properties of schemes and morphisms: connected schemes, reduced schemes, irreducible schemes, integral schemes, (locally) noetherian schemes. Morphisms locally of nite type, of nite type, nite. Fibred product of schemes, bres of a morphism of schemes, families of schemes. Normal schemes: the normalization of an integral scheme. Separated schemes, separated morphisms. The valuative criterion of separatedness.

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Textbooks
R. Hartshorne, "Algebraic Geometry", Springer-Verlag, 1977. I.R. Shafarevich, "Basic Algebraic Geometry 1 and 2", second edition, Springer-Verlag, 1994.

## Other useful references

D. Mumford, "The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes", second edition, Springer-Verlag, 1999. D. Eisenbud, J. Harris, "The Geometry of Schemes", SpringerVerlag, 2001. Q. Liu, "Algebraic Geometry and Arithmetic Curves", Oxford University Press, 2002. The Stacks Project , an open source textbook and reference work on algebraic stacks and the algebraic geometry needed to dene them. F. Bottacin, "Introduzione alla Geometria Algebrica"  (pdf, 908Kb), 2010. (if you read italian) Looking for a book? Have you tried the Library Genesis ?

Homework
During the lectures some homework will be assigned. This homework has to be handed in the next week. While cooperation is encouraged when thinking about the problems, students are required to write up and hand in the homework individually. Copying from others is not cooperation and will not be condoned. Late homework is not accepted.