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ABOUT BIOFERTILIZERS

INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

BIOFERTILIZERS ARE MICROBIAL INOCULANTS SUPPORTED ON CARRIERS AND MAKE AGRICULTURE: # environmentally sustainable, # economically rewarding, # intellectually stimulating.

WHAT ARE BIOFERTILIZERS [BF]?


Microbial inoculants that are carrier-based preparations containing beneficial microorganisms in a viable state. Intended for seed or soil application. Designed to improve soil fertility in N and P Provide growth promoter substances.

Microbial inoculants Artificially multiplied cultures of certain soil organisms that can improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Rhizobia were discovered in 1895, followed by the Azotobacter and then the blue green algae and a host of other micro-organisms. Azospirillum and Vesicular- Arbuscular Micorrhizae (VAM) are fairly recent discoveries.
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BIOFERTILIZERS: USE IN INDIA

# First commercial production of legume


Rhizobium symbiosis was done in 1956 # Ninth Plan initiated National Project on Development and Use of Biofertilizers (NPDB). # To supplement chemical fertilizers that become expensive and deteriorate soil.
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Factors affecting Performance of biofertilizers: Host plant Soil fertility Cropping practices Biological & environmental factors
Survival and efficiency of BF are

affected by the above factors


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Bacteria that grows in root nodules of legumes [soya bean, etc.] Rhizobium INOCULANTS: Use of Rhizobium culture in legumes is most promising. On average, its use can supply 15-20 kg N/ha to legumes: increase yield up to 20 per cent.

Rhizobium

Rhizobium
Rhizobium bacteria in roots of legume plants fix atmospheric N2 in nodules formed on the roots of plants. A pure and efficient strain of Rhizobium multiplied in the lab on a suitable medium by using shake flask technology or fermentation technology and inoculated into seed or root.

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Inoculum Application

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Inoculum Application

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Non-legume INOCULANTS Azotobacter


# These bacteria enhance the plant growth and finally yield. A highly efficient strain _ Azotobacter chrooccocum is grown in the lab either as shake culture or using fermenter.
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Azotobacter:
Free living micro-organisms, that grow in the rhizosphere and fix atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically Makes it available to particularly cereals. Promotes seed germination, initial vigor of plants- by producing growth producing substances
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Azospirillum
Azospirillum, [ Azospirillum lipoferum, biological nitrogen fixing grasses; enhance biomass-root system] Associative endo-symbiont on roots of grasses and similar types of plants. Also fixes atmospheric nitrogen and benefits host plants by supplying growth hormones and vitamins.
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Azospirillum

Commonly used for preparation of commercial inoculants on a large scale, for cereals and grasses as it produces growth promoters in addition to fixing N2. Has good adaptability to temp, soil pH and wide host range.
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Cyanobacteria INOCULANTS::
Biological nitrogen fixing ; photosynthetic also; Some free living cyanobacteria like Nostoc, Tolypothirix etc and other symbiotic like Anabaena-Azolle_ useful for rice
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Cyanobacteria An important group of micro-organisms, fix atmospheric nitrogen nonsymbiotically mostly in rice fields in heterocysts cells, specially known as sites of nitrogen fixation.

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Cyanobacteria: Preparation

Efficient strains_ used for multiplication on a large scale in field. Production of inoculum in artificially controlled conditions is defined but more expensive. Open air soil culture_ most simple, less expensive_ easily adaptable by the farmers.
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Cyanobacteria: Preparation
# Based on use of starter culture that is multi-strain inoculum of_ Aulosira, Tolypothrix, Scytonema, Nostoc and Anabaena.

# In rural areas, unskilled labour can undertake the multiplication of blue green algae as a paying industry.

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Phosphate SOLUBILIZING INOCULANTS


Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are Bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and / or fungi (Aspergillus awamorii) Secrete organic acids - dissolve bound phosphate in soil
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Phosphate Solubilizing bacteria / fungi: Phosphorus_ required for plant growth and water yield. It is also essential for nodulation by Rhizobium. Phospho-micro organism are mostly bacteria and fungi. Mycorrhizae have high potential of phosphorus accummulation in plants.

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VAM fungi [Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza]

Intracellular, obligate, fungal endosymbiont - glomus etc.- transfers phosphorus, zinc & sulfur from soil to root.

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A schematic diagram of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza

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Mycorrhiza
Colonise 85% of land plants_ offers 50 % saving in chemical P fertilizer_ higher resistance to soil-and-root borne pathogens_ helps in wasteland reclamation by providing extended arm to plant root system. # A broad-spectrum mycorrhizal biofertilizer is available.
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Mycorrhiza Produced by:


# M/s Cadila Pharamaceutical

Ltd., Ahemdabad, and KCP

Sugar and Industries (Pvt.) Ltd.,


Chennai [DBT-TERI, New Delhis technology].
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Award for Producer of Mycorrhiza


KCP Sugar Industries received the All India Biotechnology Association Award for production and marketing of the mycorrhizal bio-fertilizer.

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Estimated potential Demand for Biofertilisers by 2000-2001


Type of Biofertiliser Rhizobium Azotobacter Azospirillum Blue green Algae Phosphate solublising microorganism Demand (Tonnes) 34,999 145,953 74,342 251,738

255,340

Total:

762,372
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Biofertilizer Production Support: GOI- 1999-2000 National Biofertilizer Development Centre- established at Ghaziabad with 6 Regional BF Development Centres each at Jabalpur, Hissar, Nagpur, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar and Imphal. Under this scheme 74 BF-production units established with central assistance having annual production capacity of 8475 tonnes.
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Promoting Bio-fertilizers: Current Situation


A limited extent of success till date (2000). There has been no accelerated growth in distribution with time. Inadequate spatial diffusion. Despite entry of small private units into the industry there is no clear indication of the success of privatization.
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Progress of the bio-fertilizer Industry

Based on the data for 1995, 1997 and 1999, the industry witnessed a steady increase in the number of units producing the BF ; the bulk of the growth took place by 1992-95 of the sample period and stagnated thereafter.
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Changes in the share by type of BF

moderate success in AZT and by far the best performance by PSB decline in RHZ indicated success in groundnut and pulses was below expectation.
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Main constraints in spread of BF as an Industry: 1. Inadequate production and supply of efficient cultures of microorganisms to farmers well before sowing.
2. Quality control aspect

3. Lack of publicity, communication.


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Marketing: Host, soil & climate specific BF: Receive user feedback To cover the vast areas of legumes, pulses and oil seeds cereals and horticultural crops- to train users to apply and to receive feedback info. from them. More manufacturer-distributors needed_ to prepare the bio-fertilizers in particular locality and supply to farmers as per farmers need, while earning profit.
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Marketing of BF: Logistics


# Prepared bio-fertilizers should reach farmers prior to sowing. # If given free of cost, that lowers down the importance of product and farmers dont use them carefully. # If bio-fertilizers are supplied after expiry date_expected results are not obtained.
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Steps in biofertilizer production

Strain selection, Mass Culture, Carrier preparation and Inoculation Quality testing. Packaging Distribution
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NATURE OF BF INDUSTRY:
Indigenous technology Scientific aspects: Standardized by Agricultural Universities and Research Labs. Machineries and laboratory equipments are of BIS standards.

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Manufacturing equipments: Laboratory equipments, Autoclaves, Fermenter assembly, Boiler, Broth dispensers, Plant for sterlisation, deminralising Air compressor
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The size of a Biofertiliser unit:


Capacity of production of various types / strains of bio-fertilizers per annum. The projects so far set up in our country vary from 75 TPA to 300 TPA. Expandable by adding a few additional equipment like a fermenter and / or adding another shift.
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Requirements of
1 Land 2 Layout and buildings 3 Plant and Machinery

BF Projects

4 Manufacturing process and Source of technology

5 Infrastructural Facilities for raw material, carrier material


and utilities (Power, Water, Compressed air, Vehicles) 6 Manpower Unit Size 7 Business Prospects And Marketing and Selling Arrangements
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SOME OF BIOFERTILIZERS IN THE MARKET

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Dr Bhabani Dikshit

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Extension work needed for popularizing BF Visits to areas of undivided Puri district comprising of Pipli , Khurda and Nayagarh belt, showed that a large number of farmer of Chandanpur area applied biofertilizer in their betel vine crops by using Azatobactor and PSB (Phosphates soluble bacteria) and yielded good results. A senior Government agronomist of the Fertilizer Promotion and Agricultural Research Division (FP & ARD) based in Puri, Simanchala Panigrahi, said that as biofertilizer was a new concept to the farmers of Orissa, it needed further vigorous extension work for popularizing its use.

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BOOKS ABOUT BIOFERTILIZERS

CONTINUED

Indian Books on Biofertilizers-1


Biofertilizer - Technology, Marketing and usage, a source book-cumGlossary by Dr. M R Motsara et al (1995) - Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization publishers, New Delhi 110048 (India)
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Indian Books on Biofertilizers-2


Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Forestry by N S Subba Rao, Oxford & IBH, New Delhi. Biotechnology of Biofertilizers Edited by S. Kannaiyan, Narosa Publishing House, N. Delhi, 2002

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Indian Books on Biofertilizers -3


Recent Advances in Biofertilizer Technology/ Edited by A.K. Yadav, S. Ray Chaudhuri and M.R. Motsara, 2001, Society for Promotion and Utilisation of Resources and Technology, New Delhi. [Vedam Books] Phosphatic Biofertilizers / Laxmi Lal. Udaipur, Agrotech Pub., 2002.

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Handbook of Biofertilizers
Handbook of microbial biofertilizers, M. K. Rai,

Routledge, 2006 - 579 pages,


Sharply focused, up-to-date information on microbial biofertilizers--including emerging options such as "Piriformospora indica" and "Matsutake" The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers provides in-depth coverage of

all major microbial biofertilizers (rhizobia, arbuscular


mycorrhizal fungi, and cyanobacterias well as new and emerging growth promoters (endophytes).
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It examines the role of microbes in growth promotion,


bioprotectors, and bioremidiators, and presents protocols and practical strategies for using microbes in sustainable agriculture. An abundance of helpful charts, tables, and figures make complex information easy to access and understand. In this first-of-its-kind volume, contributors from 11 countries and several continents address important

issues surrounding microbial biofertilizers,


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including: the rhizobium-host-arbuscular mycorrhizal"


tripartite relationship, mycorrhiza as a disease suppresser and stress reducer mycorrhiza helping bacteria the impact of functional groups of soil microorganisms on nutrient turnover PBPRs as biofertilizers and

biopesticides the potential of wild-legume rhizobia for use


as a biofertilizers, the expanding role of blue-green algae in sustainable agriculture, the role of microbial fertilizers in sustainable plant production new and emerging endophytes the commercial potential of biofertilizers
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In this young century, the use of biofertilizers is already


growing rapidly. It has been recognized that these environment-friendly bioprotectors, growth boosters, and

remediators are essential for soil / plant health. The


Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers is designed to fit the expanding information needs of current and future biotechnologists, microbiologists, botanists, agronomists, environmentalists, and others whose work involves

sustained agriculture.
Handbook of Biofertilizers
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