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Galanta - Slovakia
The 3rd F Linguistic and the 4th C Linguistics High School “Artemisia Gentileschi” Milano Head Master Mr Agostino Miele Students Mattia Baroffio Jerome Capino Valentina De Gregorio Andrea Zuppardi Sabina Bajaracktari Albera Ndoja Mariachiara Meani Silvia Robbiani Marina Santinato Alice Vidali 4^Cl 4^ Cl 4^ Cl 4^ Cl 3^ Fl 3^ Fl 3^ Fl 3^ Fl 3^ Fl 3^ Fl Teachers Ms Annamaria Giurgola Ms Francesca Giorgetti Ms Anna Gagliano Ms Daniela Faganel Mr Stefano Gorla Ms Leigh Halstead Mr Paul Smith Ms Daniela Strano Mr Marco Valtolina Mr Thomas Jurish

Slovakia in general and Galanta in particular. The State High School for Tourism "Artemisia Gentileschi" was founded in 1982 to satisfy the growing demand for education and training in tourism and modern languages. Our school offers two courses: Tourism and Modern Languages. The Tourism Course aims at the acquisition of knowledge and effective skills usable in the tourist industry: travel agents, the hotel sector, transport and territorial services. The curriculum of the Modern Languages course aims at the acquisition of a solid cultural base and three foreign languages. For both courses the school leaving certificate enables students to enrol in University faculties. Artemisia Gentileschi High School has always tried to be a multilingual school, and to encourage the integration of different cultures. For this reason we believe that European projects are an opportunity for growth for our students. Participation in the Comenius Partnership “The energy way: a path connecting cultures. A link forging Europe’s stakes, a step to European sustainable citizenship” allows it to continue this way: Italian students learn to compare themselves to foreign students, especially through student exchanges and visits to partner schools. In this Partnership Gentileschi students from the modern languages course, class 3F (Sabina Bajaracktari, Albera Ndoja, Mariachiara Meani, Silvia Robbiani, Marina Santinato and Alice Vidali) and class 4 C (Mattia Baroffio, Jerome Capino, Valentina De Gregorio and Andrea Zuppardi) have prepared a brochure on Galanta including details of its history, its geography, its monuments, and a study on the use of renewable energy in

Self portra it of

Artemisia Gentileschi at the beginning of the 17th century. For a woman being a painter in that period was a difficult choice.

GALANTA

Galanta is a small town in Slovakia between the rivers Váh and Dudváh. It is an important administrative and cultural centre of the district of the same name. It is the seat of the bodies of state administration. It has 16,365 citizens, 90% of whom speak Hungarian as first language. It is situated in Central Europe, in the south-eastern part of the Slovak Republic. It is 50 km from the Slovak capital Bratislava. It is located approximately 50km north of the Hungarian border. The town is surrounded by a lot of rivers and streams – Váh, Malý Dunaj and Dudváh. This city lies in the Danubian Lowland, the warm southern part of Slovakia. For this reason there are plenty of thermal springs in the area of the town. These springs are used by the city to heat blocks of flats and the hospital. There are many agricultural fields around Galanta, where wheat, corn, and other vegetables and fruits are grown.

History
The archaeological finds from this

area have revealed traces of settlements from the Neolithic period. The first written document about the town can be found in Béla IV‘s decree, 1237. The financial status of the family lines living in this area is known from a written report coming from the 13th Century. Till 1421, the property of the town was owned by various noble dynasties. From then on, the Esterházy family became the majority owner and the members of this family determined the way and rate of development for almost six centuries. The most significant changes in the life of Galanta and its surroundings appeared after The Battle of Moháč, 1526. Approximately during the years 1564 – 1570, Galanta was granted the right to hold two annual fairs. In 1613 or 1614, Galanta was granted the status of town by a royal decree. The town gained the right to hold another two annual fairs in 1635. Ferdinand II granted the right at the request of Daniel, Pavol and Wolfgang Esterházy. In the 17th Century, Galanta was dominated by the Esterhazy family. They were owners of two castles – the lower castle, which was considered to be the older one, and the upper castle, smaller and later owned by the branch of the Esterhazy family line from Zvolen. As a consequence of the Turkish invasions in 1672, Galanta was described as abandoned and unpopulated. In the 18th century, Galanta was already considered to be an aristocratic place because some aristocratic families were living there. The 19th Century brought important changes into town life. Connecting to the Austro-Hungarian railway network offered numerous possibilities for development. Galanta became the centre of cultural and social life. Thereafter Galanta became an important junction because of the railway from Sered’ to Leopoldov, where an industrial estate was established.

A large contribution to town development was made by the establishment of financial institutions, which were opened in the 2nd half of the 19th Century. Foreign companies have successfully settled in the town during the years. The most important investor is Samsung.

composer who spent a part of his childhood in Galanta and dedicated one of his works to the town, the worldfamous “Dances of Galanta”.

Historical architecture
In the year 2007 Galanta commemorated the 770th anniversary of the first written document about the town. The first written reference to Galanta was the decree written by king Béla IV, between 1237 and 1240. However, the most important event in town history was the fact that the Esterhazy family owned most of the property in and around the town, and they left here significant architectural monuments: a) The Neogothic Esterhazy Castle is an imitation of the Tudor gothic style. The Family Esterhazy built this castle and in 1860 Jozse, an Esterhazy heir, rebuilt this architectural monument. It is surrounded by a park, which has many exotic plantations and oaks dating from thesecond half of the 19th century. There is a monument in the park with the bust of Zoltán Kodály, the famous

b) The Renaissance Castle was built on older foundations in 1633 by Ferenc Eszterhazy and rebuilt in the Baroque style in 1736. Part of the manor is exploited by the town hall for representative events and the other part hosts exhibitions of the Museum of Homeland Studies.

The

Roman Catholic Church of King St Stephen was completed and consecrated in 1805. It is a monumental two-steeple classical construction with baroque elements. The interior is notable for the altar from 1741, which was transferred from the baroque Chapel of Our Lady of Sorrows after it had been pulled down.

high attendance rate. Galanta Summer Fair is held in August, and is enriched by cultural and sporting events as well as a beer festival. The May Festival of Choirs is called Kodályove dni (Kodály Days) in memory of Zoltàn Kodály. It is thanks to his musical composition Dances of Galanta, that the town is also known abroad. The Cultural Centre organizes social and cultural events and it contributes to the development and creation of a cultural way of life in the Galanta region by increasing the cultural and educational level of citizens. Thermal centre Galandia As the city lies in the warm southern part of Slovakia, Galanta has geothermal water. For this reason the town and its surroundings offer relaxing facilities in the Thermal centre Galandia and in the thermal swimming pools Vincov les (6 km) and Horné Saliby (10 km).

At the turn of the 20th century, old rural buildings were replaced by urban buildings. The appearance of the main street changed only slightly during the interwar years. The most radical changes were realized after the end of World War II. During the Communist era of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989) the architecture of the town further deteriorated as historic buildings were razed and replaced by prefabricated concrete apartment complexes and buildings. For this reason Galanta has lost a part of its historical buildings, the only ones present have remained only as solitary edifices surrounded by modern architecture.

Culture and education
The town has a rich cultural and social life. The regularly repeated annual events are very successful and have a

At the water reservoir Kráľová, which is only 4 km far

from the town, you can find the recreational and educational complex Kaskády. It provides excellent conditions for water sports such as windsurfing, water skiing and scooter riding.

city was the capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, a part of the larger Habsburg Monarchy territories from 1536 to 1783. The historic centre is characterized by many baroque palaces. Queen Maria Theresa, the castle became a prestigious royal seat. In 1811, the castle was inadvertently destroyed by fire and lay in ruins until the 1950s, when it was rebuilt mostly in its former Theresian style The Grassalkovich Palace, built around 1760, is now the residence of the Slovak president and the Slovak government. The Nový Most (New Bridge) across the Danube is one prominent 20th-century structure. In the early 21st century, new edifices have transformed the traditional cityscape. The construction boom has spawned new public buildings, such as the Most Apollo and a new building of the Slovak National Theatre.

BRATISLAVA
Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and, with a population of about 431,000, also the country's largest city. The city is the political, cultural, and economic centre of Slovakia. It is the seat of the Slovak president, the parliament, and the executive branch of the government. It is home to several universities, museums, theatres, galleries and other important cultural and educational institutions. The history of the city, long known by the German name Preßburg, has been strongly influenced by people of different nations and religions, namely by Austrians, Czechs, Germans, Hungarians, Slovaks, and Jews. The

Cityscape and architecture
The cityscape of Bratislava is characterized by medieval towers and huge 20th century buildings. Most historical buildings are concentrated in the Old Town. Bratislava Castle is situated on a plateau 85 metres above the Danube. The cas-

tle was formerly the acropolis of a Celtic town, a huge Slavic fortified settlement and a political, military and religious centre for Great Moravia. A stone castle was not constructed until the 10th century, when the area was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The castle was converted into a Gothic anti-Hussite fortress under Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1430, became a Renaissance castle in 1562 and was rebuilt in 1649 in the baroque style. Under The Slovak National Mu-

seum, founded in 1961, has its headquarters in Bratislava on the riverfront in the Old Town, along with the Natural History Museum, which is one of its subdivisions. It is the largest museum and cultural institution in Slovakia. The Bratislava City Museum established in 1868, is the oldest museum in continuous operation in Slovakia. Its primary goal is to chronicle Bratislava's history in various forms from the earliest periods using historical and archaeological collections. Bratislava is the seat of the Slovak National Theatre, housed in two buildings. The theatre has three ensembles: opera, ballet and drama. Music in Bratislava flourished in the 18th century and was closely linked to Viennese musical life. The landscape is completed by the parks. Due to its location in the foothills of the Little Carpathians and its riparian vegetation on the Danubian floodplains, Bratislava has forests close to the city centre..

The largest city park is Horsky park (literally, Mountainous Park), in the Old Town.

BANSKA ŠTIAVNICA
This is a town in central Slovakia, in the

middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano. Due to its size, the caldera is known as the Štiavnica Mountains. Banská Štiavnica has a population of more than 10,000. It is a perfectly preserved medieval town. Because of its historical value, the town was proclaimed by Unesco to be a World Heritage Site. The heart of the town is the historical Trinity Square dominated by a monumental plague column. The square is used for frequent cultural events and there is also a mineralogical museum. Two castles, the so called “old” one and the “new” one, have been transformed into museums. The open air mining museum offers a two kilometer long underground excursion in mines dating from the 17th century. The town is surrounded by ancient artificial mining water reservoirs called “tajchy”. Sixty reservoirs were built in the 15th through 18th centuries in order to provide energy for the booming mining industry.

RED CASTLE
This is situated in Častá Village, Pezinok District, western Slovakia, 40 km from Bratislava. It was built in 1240 on Queen Konstanz’s land. Originally the medieval castle was part of a network of border fortifications consisting of castles on the western borders of Hungary. In the short period before the 13th century until the beginning of the 16th century the castle had several owners from the Hungarian nobility, such as Matthew Csak of Trenčín, Ján Zápoľský and the Thurzo family. In 1535 the Thurzo family sold the Red Stone Castle to their business partners, the Augsburg Fugger family. The Fugger family tried to rebuild the Red Stone Castle into a comfortable mansion with a modern Renaissance fortification system. From 1580 until 1954 the Red Stone Castle was owned by several owners. In 1945 it became a property of the Pálfy family who rebuilt the castle several times and turned it into a comfortable home for their family. In 1949, the Red Stone Castle was declared part of national cultural heritage and made available to the public as a museum presenting the historic accommodation of the aristocracy and military development.

because of its low wages, low tax rates and well educated labour force. In recent years, Slovakia has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. Although Slovakia is involved in the tertiary (services) sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy. The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering. There are currently three automobile assembly plants: Volkswagen in Bratislava, PSA Peugeot Citroen in Trnava and Kia Motors Žilina Plant.

2. Renewable energy in Slovakia
Renewable energy sources in the energy balance play a fairly positive role in Slovakia. The trend at EU and global level, however, tends toward a more intense use of clean alternative energy. In line with these trends, the strategic objectives of energy policy in Slovakia are directed toward ever greater exploitation of new sources of energy. The overall potential of renewable energy in Slovakia is estimated at about 100,400 TJ energy per year, of which at present only about 25% is used. Renewable energy sources produce a total of 24,740 TJ energy per year and account for 3.5% of the total consumption of all kinds of energy. Slovakia currently draws mainly from renewable energy from water flow, while the use of wind energy and biomass is still at an early stage. Solar energy is also used minimally. a) Hydroelectric power

ECONOMIC RESOURCES
1.Economic resources.
The Slovak economy is considered an advanced economy, nicknamed the "Tatra Tiger". Slovakia has shifted from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands and foreign investment has risen. Slovakia is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly

In the Slovak Republic, large-scale hydro energy is the only renewable energy source with a notable share in total electricity consumption. Hydropotential in Slovakia is used at 51%. Hydro power plants produce 21% of electricity every year. An extended development programme with 250 selected sites for building small hydro plants has been adopted. Hydro Power Plants belong to Slovenské elektrárne. The history of hydro power plants dates back to 1912 when the small HPP Rakovec on the river Hnilec was commissioned, later in 1931 another SHPP Krompachy on the river Hornad followed. Both large and small watercourses are used, from the east to the west of Slovakia: Hornád, Hnilec, Orava, Hron, Váh and Danube. The Váh river is after the Danube the second largest river in Slovakia and is the most important one from the point of view of hydro energy potential. Big reservoirs on the upper course of the river play an important role in flood prevention and discharge regulation. Close to these reservoirs there are peak hydro power plants providing electricity, preventing against floods and releasing water for downstream hydro power plants as well as providing water for industry and irrigation. The two most important hydro power plants in the Slovakian power system are: -Gabčíkovo HPP: is built on the border Danube river and is the country ´s largest hydroelectric power plant in terms of electricity generation. Even following Hungary´s withdrawal from the construction of the System of Water Works Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros, the Gabčíkovo stage is the same as designed in the original contract -Čierny Váh HPP is the country´s largest pumped storage power plant and with its installed capacity also the largest hydroelectric power plant.

b) The production of energy from biomass Biomass in Slovakia is becoming an increasingly popular source of renewable energy, and plants of this kind are springing up all over the country, announced to replace old technology with modern biomass incinerators. The most common form of biomass in Slovakia are chips (made from wood chips), pellets and briquettes made of wood (pressed logs). But biomass also includes waste from agricultural production, such as animal droppings. These resources are still underutilized in Slovakia, and are therefore expected to be exploited more fully. Thus Slovakia has only just begun the development of special plants linked to production for the biomass industry.

c) Wind energy production Slovakia as an inland country has rather limited potential in utilizing wind energy in comparison with other western European countries. It has been estimated as 600GWh/r which, in

comparison with other renewable energy sources potential (biomass, water), is very low, despite relatively large occurrences of wind during the year. At present, there are only 3 existing wind projects in Slovakia (Cerová, Ostrý vrch and Skalité). The projects are surrounded by environmental controversy both due to their age, with higher levels of noise production, lower bird collision, higher turbine speed, but also their location in or near protected areas without previous serious environmental impact assessment. Over 40 new wind projects are now awaiting or undergoing Environmental Impact Assessments at the Slovak Ministry of Environment. All of the projects involve erection of new wind turbines: Vestas, Nordex, Enercon. The company Green Answers Sk is building a wind power

plant in the the village of Zlatna na Ostrove in the south of Slovakia. The company also plans another wind farm planned near Calovec. Investors plan to build approximately 290 wind power units in Slovakia. d) Geothermal heat Slovakia is a country rich in geothermal sources and there are good conditions for developing and using energy from thermal water. Geothermal water is used for recreation, agriculture and district heating. The potential of geothermal energy is about 21,456 TJ/year. In Slovakia, the temperature rises on average 3°C per 100 m of well. The most abundant of them is the Kosice. At the present time there are 172 public swimming pools with the total number of 404 pools in Slovakia. Effective use of this renewable energy resource might have economic significance for the Slovak Republic, considering traditional energy sources conservation and opportunity to enhance tourism and recreational capacities in more Slovakia regions.

THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
Slovakia, founded on 1st January 1993, is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The Constitution of the Slovak Republic, ratified on 1st September 1992, became effective on 1st January 1993. The President of the Slovak Republic The Slovak head of state is the president -

currently Ivan Gašparovič - elected by direct, popular vote, under the two round system, for a five-year term. The President represents the country both inwardly and outwardly and through his decisions ensures the proper functioning of constitutional authorities. The National Council of the Slovak Republic (Parliament)

The unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic (the Parliament), based in Bratislava, is the country’s constitutional and legislative body. Members of the National Council of the Slovak Republic are elected in direct elections by secret ballot on the basis of proportional representation. The National Council has 150 members elected to serve a four-year term. The National Council passes laws, approves the state budget, considers and approves the Constitution, and monitors governmental activities. The Speaker and the Deputy Speakers preside over the National Council while Parliamentary work is carried out mainly in committees The Government of the Slovak Republic The Government of the Slovak Republic is the supreme body of the Executive. It consists of the Prime Minister who is the head of government and government ministers. A new government is formed after parliamentary elections. The winning parties form a coalition while the political parties with the minor party representation in Parliament form an opposition. Currently the prime minister is Iveta Radičová, who is usually the leader of the winning party, but she needs to form a majority coalition in the parliament. The prime minister is appointed by the President of the Slovak Republic. Upon recommendation of the Prime Minister, the President of the Slovak Republic appoints and recalls other members of the Government and entrusts them with the management of ministries. The Government is accountable for the execution of its duties to the National Council of the Slovak

Republic. If the National Council passes a vote of no confidence in the Government, the Government must resign.

THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC

Italy has been a unitary parliamentary republic since 2nd June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by a constitutional referendum. Italy has a written democratic constitution, which became effective on 1st January 1948 and results from the work of a Constituent Assembly, formed by the representatives of all the anti-fascist forces. The Italian Parliament.

The Italian parliament is bicameral (in contrast to the Slovak Parliament, which is unicameral).

The two houses, the Chamber of Deputies (that meets in Palazzo Montecitorio) and the Senate of the Republic (that meets in Palazzo Madama) have the same powers and so they realize a perfect bicameralism. Parliament exercises the legislative function: it writes, reviews and approves the laws, exercises control over government by questions, amendments and motions. With a motion of confidence Parliament promotes a discussion which ends with a vote which may confirm or bring down the Government. The members of parliament (630 ‘deputati’ and 315 ‘senatori’) remain in office for five years, this period is known as the “legislature”. The President of the Italian Republic. The President of the Republic, as the head of state, represents the unity of the nation and has many duties. The president serves as a point of connection between the three branches: he is elected by the Parliament, he appoints the executive, and is the president of the judiciary. The president is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Italian President is elected for a single seven year mandate by Parliament.

composed of the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) and the ministers, who together form the Council of Ministers (Cabinet). It has its registered office at Palazzo Chigi in Rome. The Prime Minister is head of government. The Prime Minister and the cabinet are appointed by the President of the Republic, but must pass a vote of confidence in Parliament to come to office. The prime minister with his ministers writes the political program and national policy, organizes the administrative activities of government, directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers. The Government may exercise the legislative function in two cases regulated in the Constitution: when Parliament gives the government the special delegation of the law or in case of decree-laws.

Giorgio Napolitano is the 11th President of the Italian Republic and his office is in the Quirinale Palace in Rome. The Italian Govenment. The Government of the Italian Republic represents the executive power. It is

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