Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation August 9  12, Changchun, China
Qingnian Wang, Kun Yan and Hongyan Li
Department of information engineering University of Nanchang Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China
sophia_ncu@ 126.com
Abstract  The problems on motor noise source identification are discussed in this paper. The reasons of motor vibration and species of motor noises are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of some usual noise source identification methods
are also clarified in this paper. As an emphasis, the basic theory and methods about frequency domain analysis are studied. Use
MA TLAB software
to process collected data and do frequency
domain analysis. Do an experiment to confirm the frequency domain analysis method of this paper, and the experiment shows that this method is effective in motor noise source identification, and can use to practical situation.
Index
Terms

noises source detection, frequency
analysis, spectrum analysis.
domain
I. INTRODUCTION
Motor is the main source of power presently, and it is also the important equipments in people's daily life. But motor noise takes people a lot of inconvenience during production. So, motor noise source detection and motor noise eliminating are becoming a pop problem. The motor noise is a admixture of different frequency and different intensity noise, and sometimes can go upwards to 110 decibel[I]. This affects operators' health seriously. To control motor noise effectively, detecting and searching main noise source are very important.
II. MOTOR NOISES DETECTION
A. Reasons of Motor Vibration Motor is a kind of energy transforming setting. Its
vibration comes down
to every parts of it, because of the
complex configuration. The research of motor vibration relates
to a lot of aspects, such as electromagnetism, energy
transforming, mechanism vibration etc
..
Generally, the reasons
of motor vibration includel"; 1) Electromagnetism Force: Electromagnetism force acts in the air gap which between stator and rotor of the motor, and its force wave is revolving or pulsant in the air gap. The magnitude of the force is related to electromagnetism load, some configuration of motor's effective parts and calculation parameter. The magnitude of the vibration which engendered by electromagnetism force is related to the stator which in the motor's surge system. the frequency of most motors'
electromagnetism vibration is in a range of 100""4000 hertz. 2) Bearing: The vibration which engenders by bearing is related to a lot of factors, such as the quality of the bearing, the machining precision of bearing copulate surface and the
Meiling Yuan
Department of Science University of Nanchang Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China
yankun 198404196666@ 163.com
machining precision of bearing cap's surface which towards motor base etc .. 3) Mechanism Imbalance of Rotor: The mechanism imbalance of rotor can bring distinct vibration, especially some high speed motors with 3000 revolutions per minute or higher are more distinct.
B. Species of Motor Noises
When motor running, there are kinds of noises source exist at the same time. Generally, they can divide them into three kinds: mechanism noises, electromagnetism noises and air motivity noises. These noises are ineluctability. 1) Mechanism Noises: Rotor running unbalance is the usual causation of engendering mechanism noises. When motor fix not well, the connatural frequency of rotor and stator is same with circumgyration frequency, then cause mechanism noises. Mechanism noises take about 5% in total noises. 2) Electromagnetism Noises: When motor running, electromagnetic force act on air gap between stator and rotor. This engender circumgyration force wave, the wave cause stator vibrate to engender noise. Electromagnetism noises take about 20% in total noises. 3) Air Motivity Noises: There are three main components of air motivity noises: circumgyration noises, vortex noise and fluting noises. Air motivity noises is the main component of motor noise, it take about 75% in total noises.
C. The Methods of Noise Source Detection
Noise source detection is an analysis on every sound source which exist on motor, to know why engender vibration and noise; Then analyze the characteristic of sound source, arrange the noises from big to small; Finally, confirm the place where the vibration source exist and which is the main
noise source. There are several methods of noise source detection in common use, such as surface vibration speed measurement, sound intensity method, vibration measurement, signals disposal method and so on. The precision of sound intensity method is lowness, because other noises affect it a lot in reverberation situation. So we use sound intensity method to evaluate approximately. Vibration measurement uses digital signals disposal technology to work out the radiant efficiency of different surfaces. But it is still hard to confirm the radiant efficiency of different parts of motor accurately in theory. Surface vibration speed measurement uses vibration measurement to detect noise source. There is no requiring to any
9781424426935/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE
_{2}_{3}_{7}_{3}
acoustics environment, so it is convenience and practicality. Signals disposal method use sound source signal timedomain values which are recorded in noise measurement. Then use one certain signals dispose method to analyze out main sound source signal according to a certain characteristic of sound source signal timedomain. Frequency domain analysis method, concern function method and inverted spectrum method all belong to signals disposal method, and they all have the strongpoint of exactitude. So this paper uses frequency domain analysis to detect motor noise source.
III. FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS
Most circumgyration mechanism always engender periodic vibration signal. This signal is not a single frequency signal, but contains kinds of frequencies. These frequencies components always have relationship with some parts of physical characteristic of the motor. Take frequency (F) as abscissa, amplitude (A) as longitudinal coordinates; make a relationship fig between frequency and amplitude. Analysing this relationship fig is called frequency domain analysis. The frequency domain analysis used in this paper is mainly about spectrum analysis. The aim of spectrum analysis is using Fourier Transform to analyse the complicated time course wave, and tum this wave into some single harmonic wave. Use spectrum analysis, we can obtain frequency configuration of the complicated signal and amplitude or Phase information of every single harmonic wave. Spectrum analysis in noise source detection is to know further about the composing of signal base on timedomain analysis, and find the relationship between motor noise signal and electromagnetism field or rotor, stator configuration, to diagnose the place and reasons of vibration. According to the character of signals and the differences of the transform methods, Spectrum analysis
can
be
expressed
by
power
spectrum,
holospectrum,
amplitude spectrum, phase spectrum, Refinement spectrum, inverted spectrum and so on. Power spectrum and holospectrum are analysed in this paper.
A. Power Spectrum Analysis
Power spectrum is a description of signal energy or power distributing. It not only describes some diagnostic frequency, but also can describe the energy distributing status in a certain frequency domain. Power spectrum contains self frequency spectrum and frequency spectrum. Self frequency spectrum
contains the same information with amplitude spectrum, but it is clearer than amplitude spectrum in the same condition. Self frequency spectrum can be obtained by Fourier Transform of interrelated function or calculating from amplitude spectrum. Suppose a flash timedomain signal x(t) , its period is infinite, and its math expression by Fourier Transform is:
F(f) = (2Jrfl/2 [
x(t)e ^{J}^{J}^{t}^{j}^{i} dt.
(31)
Suppose a noise vibration signal x(t) turns into X(f) by Fourier Transform, namely:
X 
(/) = [ 
x(t)e  j2Jtji dt . 
(32) 

Commonly, 
X(f) 
is 
a complex 
function, 

make X(f) = R(f) + iI(f) , namely: 

IX (f)1 = .JR(f)2 + I (f)2 
. 
(33) 
IX(f)1 is a amplitude spectrum function. So the estimate
value of power density (Sx) is:
Sx = ~ IX(!)1 ^{2}
•
qJ(f) = arctg[I(f)IR(f)IJ
qJ(f) is the function of phase'".
(34)
(35)
We can get every frequency component, distributing
domain of frequency and
the amplitude or energy of each
frequency component via spectrum analysis. Accordingly, we can get the main frequency and its amplitude which affect
the motor running. Base on a lot of experience and system analysis, Table I collect motor vibration noise sspectrum analysis. Table I provide favourable basis for examining motor noise and vibration.
TABLE I MOTOR VIERA TION NOISES FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
Mainly 

frequency(Hz) 

f 
inside 
2kHz '"" 
5kH have 
obvious 

peak value 

f 
inside 1kHz '"" 

1.5kHz have obvious peak value 

f 
inside 500Hz '"" 

1kHz have 
obvious 

peak value 

f 
inside 
50Hz '"" 
400Hz have obvious peak value 
Vibration parts
Reason analysis
Noise
vibration
and
of
bearing itself
l.Bad quality of bearing itself 2.Improper cooperation of bearing and bearing Room
Noise
vibration
bearing's
orientation
and
of
axis
I.No axial flexible settings or the settings are badness 2.Moter techniques quality axis orientation is locked 3.Radius of curvature of bearing rolling road is small
Noise
and
vibration of motor
shell syntony
Syntony
with
electromagnetism vibrational harmonic wave
Noise
vibration
fleeing
and
of axial
I.No axial flexible settings or the settings are badness 2.Big warp of techniques quality 3.Eccentricity inside, outside pellet is irregular or have scar
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/= fa, 
Noise 
and 

vibration 
of 
Stator or rotor is eccentrical 


^{G}^{r}^{i}^{d} 
unilateral 
or syntony 

_{f}_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c} _{y} 
magnetic pull 

/=2 10 , 
Noise _{a}_{n}_{d} vibration of pole 
The intensity of Motor shell 

or Stator 
is 
not strong 

radial magnetic pull or pulse 
enough lThreephase is asymmetric of rotor, such as out of slot, 

_{/}_{=}_{2} _{s}_{f}_{o} _{,} 
_{N}_{o}_{i}_{s}_{e} 
_{a}_{n}_{d} 
Empty slot, bars broken, 

SSlip frequency 
^{v}^{i}^{b}^{r}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{o}^{f} ^{s}^{l}^{i}^{p} 
shrinkage cavity, _{e}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} 2.Rotor is not strong enough 3.Fixing problem of bearing 

f = %0 ' n rotate 
^{N}^{o}^{i}^{s}^{e} 
^{a}^{n}^{d} 

vibration 
of 
Rotor imbalance 

_{s}_{p}_{e}_{e}_{d} 
imbalance 

f=mxz%Oha ve 

I.Problems 
on 
number of 

obvious peak value ventilation ^{r}^{o}^{a}^{d} ^{o}^{r} 
vane, ventilation 
road and 

n rotate speed; 
thermal tendons 

_{m}_{} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{v}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{,} 
Resonance(fluting) 
2.Problems of vane 
on and 
cooperation ventilation 

thermal tendons; zti me of harmonic wave 
^{s}^{e}^{t}^{t}^{i}^{n}^{g}^{s} 
B. Holospectrum Analysis
Holospectrum analysis fully uses the phase information which is neglected by power spectrum analysis, and dispose the signal integratedly which transmits by sensors, that the sensors are 90 degree apart in the space. This solves the problem omitted by power spectrum analysis effectively. Process of constructing holospectrum:
I) Vibration signal which transmits by single sensor is decomposed into harmonic component by improved Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (FFT) arithmetic. 2) Dispose the harmonic signals integratedly , that the signals are the same frequency of uprightness and level in the same bearing surface. Then put that into a movement tract. The figure of holospectrum changes into ellipse from traditional figure, and the ellipse figure have some characteristics of Eccentricity, obliquity and veer besides size. So the ability of trouble distinguish ability is improved a lot. This paper uses planar holospectrum (PH). PH bases on spectrum. Its abscissa is frequency of vibration, and its ordinate is rev. On PH, one beeline is composed by level parameter and apeak parameters which phase difference is 0 degree or 180 degree. The obliquity of this beeline depends on the amplitude ratio of the two parameters. When the amplitudes of the two parameters is equal and phase difference is 90 degree or 270 degree, this PH is a circle. In the rest situation, there are ellipses of different excentricitys. The eccentricity direction of ellipse means the action of axes vibration.
Holospectrum analysis gathers amplitude, phase and frequency of dynamic signal in the space, integratedly reflect the complete movement of research object inside its plane. This describes the signal's movement character of different frequency straight as well as exactly.
IV. EXAMPLE VALIDATIONS
In
order
to
detect
a synchronism motor with
noises
source,
we
analyze
an
noise overproof. The type of this
motor is Y100L2, rated power is 3 kilowatt , and rotate speed is 2880 revolutions per minute. Firstly , put thre e acceleration sensors which type is Le0103 on motor be aring separ ately . The concrete places are axis direction, radial level and radial plumb'' which are shown in Fig 1. Point 3, 4 and 5 shown in Fig 1 are the con crete places. Signals from sensors are collected , and then d ispose the signals to distill the paramet ers. Do frequencydoma in analy sis on vibration signal to obtain the main noise source finally. Fig 2 is the flow chart of the entire experiment system. Analyze the acceleration signals which colle ct by the sensors, and read the vibration signals of three points:
axis direction , radial level and radial plumb of motor bearing . As shown by Figs 3, 4 and 5.
Fig I Measuring points positioning
Motor
_{M}_{a}_{i}_{n}
_{n}_{o}_{i}_{s}_{e}
source
Obtain
Noise
signal
Data
collection
frequency
domain
_{a}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{y}_{s}_{i}_{s}
 Signal
disposal
Fig 2 Flowchart of experiment system
Fig 3 Acceleration wave of axial detected point
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Fig 5 Acceleration wave of radial plumb detected point
The three acceleration waves above show that radial vibration is stronger than axial vibration, and radial level vibration is stronger than radial plumb vibration. In order to find the reason of the high noise, we analyze the vibration signals of the motor. Firstly , do power spectrum analysis on the vibration signals of those three points, from the main peak frequency segment of spectrum to [find reasons of vibration preliminary. Fig 6, 7 and 8 show the power spectrums of three points . The rotate speed of this motor is 2880 revolutions per minute, so its frequency is 48 hertz. From the power spectrums of three detected points above, we can find that the main wave energy of the three detected points fasten on radix frequency, and accompany with twice and triple of radix frequency. From Table I we can know that obvious peak value of noise signal in radix frequency segment means rotor imbalance. But power spectrum is calculated by ignoring phase information. When there is a situation that vibrates strong in radix frequency segment but the phase difference between radial level and radial plumb is 0 degree
or nearly 180 degree , this means there are other reasons of
the
vibration , such as eccentricity. In order to estimate this,
Fig 6 Power spectrum of axial detected point
Fig 8 Power spectrum of radial plumb detected point
From Fig 9 we can see that the ellipse is bigger in radix frequency segment, the other component is smaller. So combine with time domain wave, power spectrum and holospectrum analysis of motor vibration, we can ascertain that the reason of abnormal vibration is the imbalance of motor rotor. After investigation, the judgment above is right.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Frequency domain analysis is a common and effective method of noise source detection. Do power spectrum analysis to the vibration signal of motor, ean detect noise source effectively. But if combine power spectrum analysis with holospectrum analysis, we can find the reason of abnormal vibration of motor more exactly. The experiment validates that frequency domain analysis is simple and effective, it provides technology basis to motor noise controlment, also provide a simple and effective way of motor diagnosis by noise source detection.
ACKNOWL EDGM ENT
Qingnian Wang, Kun Yan, Hongyan Li and Meiling Yuan thank the sponsors of ICMA 2009. Thank Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Changchun University of Science and Technology and Kagawa University.
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