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Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation August 9 - 12, Changchun, China

Motor Noise Source Identification Based on Frequency Domain Analysis

Qingnian Wang, Kun Yan and Hongyan Li

Department of information engineering University of Nanchang Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China

sophia_ncu@ 126.com

Abstract - The problems on motor noise source identification are discussed in this paper. The reasons of motor vibration and species of motor noises are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of some usual noise source identification methods

are also clarified in this paper. As an emphasis, the basic theory and methods about frequency domain analysis are studied. Use

MA TLAB software

to process collected data and do frequency

domain analysis. Do an experiment to confirm the frequency domain analysis method of this paper, and the experiment shows that this method is effective in motor noise source identification, and can use to practical situation.

Index

Terms

-

noises source detection, frequency

analysis, spectrum analysis.

domain

I. INTRODUCTION

Motor is the main source of power presently, and it is also the important equipments in people's daily life. But motor noise takes people a lot of inconvenience during production. So, motor noise source detection and motor noise eliminating are becoming a pop problem. The motor noise is a admixture of different frequency and different intensity noise, and sometimes can go upwards to 110 decibel[I]. This affects operators' health seriously. To control motor noise effectively, detecting and searching main noise source are very important.

II. MOTOR NOISES DETECTION

  • A. Reasons of Motor Vibration Motor is a kind of energy transforming setting. Its

vibration comes down

to every parts of it, because of the

complex configuration. The research of motor vibration relates

to a lot of aspects, such as electromagnetism, energy

transforming, mechanism vibration etc

..

Generally, the reasons

of motor vibration includel"; 1) Electromagnetism Force: Electromagnetism force acts in the air gap which between stator and rotor of the motor, and its force wave is revolving or pulsant in the air gap. The magnitude of the force is related to electromagnetism load, some configuration of motor's effective parts and calculation parameter. The magnitude of the vibration which engendered by electromagnetism force is related to the stator which in the motor's surge system. the frequency of most motors'

electromagnetism vibration is in a range of 100""4000 hertz. 2) Bearing: The vibration which engenders by bearing is related to a lot of factors, such as the quality of the bearing, the machining precision of bearing copulate surface and the

Meiling Yuan

Department of Science University of Nanchang Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China

yankun 198404196666@ 163.com

machining precision of bearing cap's surface which towards motor base etc .. 3) Mechanism Imbalance of Rotor: The mechanism imbalance of rotor can bring distinct vibration, especially some high speed motors with 3000 revolutions per minute or higher are more distinct.

  • B. Species of Motor Noises

When motor running, there are kinds of noises source exist at the same time. Generally, they can divide them into three kinds: mechanism noises, electromagnetism noises and air motivity noises. These noises are ineluctability. 1) Mechanism Noises: Rotor running unbalance is the usual causation of engendering mechanism noises. When motor fix not well, the connatural frequency of rotor and stator is same with circumgyration frequency, then cause mechanism noises. Mechanism noises take about 5% in total noises. 2) Electromagnetism Noises: When motor running, electromagnetic force act on air gap between stator and rotor. This engender circumgyration force wave, the wave cause stator vibrate to engender noise. Electromagnetism noises take about 20% in total noises. 3) Air Motivity Noises: There are three main components of air motivity noises: circumgyration noises, vortex noise and fluting noises. Air motivity noises is the main component of motor noise, it take about 75% in total noises.

  • C. The Methods of Noise Source Detection

Noise source detection is an analysis on every sound source which exist on motor, to know why engender vibration and noise; Then analyze the characteristic of sound source, arrange the noises from big to small; Finally, confirm the place where the vibration source exist and which is the main

noise source. There are several methods of noise source detection in common use, such as surface vibration speed measurement, sound intensity method, vibration measurement, signals disposal method and so on. The precision of sound intensity method is lowness, because other noises affect it a lot in reverberation situation. So we use sound intensity method to evaluate approximately. Vibration measurement uses digital signals disposal technology to work out the radiant efficiency of different surfaces. But it is still hard to confirm the radiant efficiency of different parts of motor accurately in theory. Surface vibration speed measurement uses vibration measurement to detect noise source. There is no requiring to any

978-1-4244-2693-5/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

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acoustics environment, so it is convenience and practicality. Signals disposal method use sound source signal time-domain values which are recorded in noise measurement. Then use one certain signals dispose method to analyze out main sound source signal according to a certain characteristic of sound source signal time-domain. Frequency domain analysis method, concern function method and inverted spectrum method all belong to signals disposal method, and they all have the strongpoint of exactitude. So this paper uses frequency domain analysis to detect motor noise source.

III. FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS

Most circumgyration mechanism always engender periodic vibration signal. This signal is not a single frequency signal, but contains kinds of frequencies. These frequencies components always have relationship with some parts of physical characteristic of the motor. Take frequency (F) as abscissa, amplitude (A) as longitudinal coordinates; make a relationship fig between frequency and amplitude. Analysing this relationship fig is called frequency domain analysis. The frequency domain analysis used in this paper is mainly about spectrum analysis. The aim of spectrum analysis is using Fourier Transform to analyse the complicated time course wave, and tum this wave into some single harmonic wave. Use spectrum analysis, we can obtain frequency configuration of the complicated signal and amplitude or Phase information of every single harmonic wave. Spectrum analysis in noise source detection is to know further about the composing of signal base on time-domain analysis, and find the relationship between motor noise signal and electromagnetism field or rotor, stator configuration, to diagnose the place and reasons of vibration. According to the character of signals and the differences of the transform methods, Spectrum analysis

can

be

expressed

by

power

spectrum,

holospectrum,

amplitude spectrum, phase spectrum, Refinement spectrum, inverted spectrum and so on. Power spectrum and holospectrum are analysed in this paper.

  • A. Power Spectrum Analysis

Power spectrum is a description of signal energy or power distributing. It not only describes some diagnostic frequency, but also can describe the energy distributing status in a certain frequency domain. Power spectrum contains self frequency spectrum and frequency spectrum. Self frequency spectrum

contains the same information with amplitude spectrum, but it is clearer than amplitude spectrum in the same condition. Self frequency spectrum can be obtained by Fourier Transform of interrelated function or calculating from amplitude spectrum. Suppose a flash time-domain signal x(t) , its period is infinite, and its math expression by Fourier Transform is:

F(f) = (2Jrfl/2 [

x(t)e- JJtji dt.

(3-1)

Suppose a noise vibration signal x(t) turns into X(f) by Fourier Transform, namely:

 

X

(/) = [

x(t)e - j2Jtji dt .

 

(3-2)

Commonly,

X(f)

is

a

complex

function,

make X(f) = R(f) + iI(f) , namely:

 
 

IX (f)1 = .JR(f)2 + I (f)2

.

(3-3)

IX(f)1 is a amplitude spectrum function. So the estimate

value of power density (Sx) is:

Sx = ~ IX(!)1 2

qJ(f) = arctg[I(f)IR(f)IJ

qJ(f) is the function of phase'".

(3-4)

(3-5)

We can get every frequency component, distributing

domain of frequency and

the amplitude or energy of each

frequency component via spectrum analysis. Accordingly, we can get the main frequency and its amplitude which affect

the motor running. Base on a lot of experience and system analysis, Table I collect motor vibration noise sspectrum analysis. Table I provide favourable basis for examining motor noise and vibration.

TABLE I MOTOR VIERA TION NOISES FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

 

Mainly

frequency(Hz)

f

inside

2kHz '""

5kH

have

obvious

peak value

f

inside 1kHz '""

1.5kHz have obvious peak value

f

inside 500Hz '""

1kHz

have

obvious

peak value

f

inside

50Hz '""

400Hz have obvious peak value

Vibration parts

Reason analysis

Noise

vibration

and

of

bearing itself

l.Bad quality of bearing itself 2.Improper cooperation of bearing and bearing Room

Noise

vibration

bearing's

orientation

and

of

axis

I.No axial flexible settings or the settings are badness 2.Moter techniques quality axis orientation is locked 3.Radius of curvature of bearing rolling road is small

Noise

and

vibration of motor

shell syntony

Syntony

with

electromagnetism vibrational harmonic wave

Noise

vibration

fleeing

and

of axial

I.No axial flexible settings or the settings are badness 2.Big warp of techniques quality 3.Eccentricity inside, outside pellet is irregular or have scar

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/= fa,

Noise

and

vibration

of

Stator or rotor is eccentrical

  • 10 --Power

Grid

unilateral

or syntony

frequenc y

magnetic pull

/=2 10 ,

 

Noise

and

vibration of pole

The intensity of Motor shell

or

Stator

is

not

strong

 

radial magnetic pull or pulse

enough

lThree-phase is asymmetric of rotor, such as out of slot,

/=2 sfo ,

Noise

and

Empty slot, bars broken,

S-Slip frequency

vibration of slip

shrinkage cavity, eccentricity 2.Rotor is not strong enough 3.Fixing problem of bearing

f

= %0 ' n-- rotate

Noise

and

vibration

of

Rotor imbalance

 

speed

imbalance

f=mxz%Oha ve

 

I.Problems

on

number

of

obvious peak value

ventilation

road

or

 

vane,

ventilation

road

and

n-- rotate speed;

thermal tendons

m- number of vane,

Resonance(fluting)

2.Problems

of

vane

on

and

cooperation

ventilation

thermal tendons; z-ti me of harmonic wave

settings

  • B. Holospectrum Analysis

Holospectrum analysis fully uses the phase information which is neglected by power spectrum analysis, and dispose the signal integratedly which transmits by sensors, that the sensors are 90 degree apart in the space. This solves the problem omitted by power spectrum analysis effectively. Process of constructing holospectrum:

I) Vibration signal which transmits by single sensor is decomposed into harmonic component by improved Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (FFT) arithmetic. 2) Dispose the harmonic signals integratedly , that the signals are the same frequency of uprightness and level in the same bearing surface. Then put that into a movement tract. The figure of holospectrum changes into ellipse from traditional figure, and the ellipse figure have some characteristics of Eccentricity, obliquity and veer besides size. So the ability of trouble distinguish ability is improved a lot. This paper uses planar holospectrum (PH). PH bases on spectrum. Its abscissa is frequency of vibration, and its ordinate is rev. On PH, one beeline is composed by level parameter and apeak parameters which phase difference is 0 degree or 180 degree. The obliquity of this beeline depends on the amplitude ratio of the two parameters. When the amplitudes of the two parameters is equal and phase difference is 90 degree or 270 degree, this PH is a circle. In the rest situation, there are ellipses of different excentricitys. The eccentricity direction of ellipse means the action of axes vibration.

Holospectrum analysis gathers amplitude, phase and frequency of dynamic signal in the space, integratedly reflect the complete movement of research object inside its plane. This describes the signal's movement character of different frequency straight as well as exactly.

IV. EXAMPLE VALIDATIONS

In

order

to

detect

a synchronism motor with

noises

source,

we

analyze

an

noise overproof. The type of this

motor is Y100L-2, rated power is 3 kilowatt , and rotate speed is 2880 revolutions per minute. Firstly , put thre e acceleration sensors which type is Le0103 on motor be aring separ ately . The concrete places are axis direction, radial level and radial plumb'' which are shown in Fig 1. Point 3, 4 and 5 shown in Fig 1 are the con crete places. Signals from sensors are collected , and then d ispose the signals to distill the paramet ers. Do frequency-doma in analy sis on vibration signal to obtain the main noise source finally. Fig 2 is the flow chart of the entire experiment system. Analyze the acceleration signals which colle ct by the sensors, and read the vibration signals of three points:

axis direction , radial level and radial plumb of motor bearing . As shown by Figs 3, 4 and 5.

/= fa, Noise and vibration of Stator or rotor is eccentrical unilateral or syntony magnetic pull

Fig I Measuring points positioning

Motor

Main

noise

-

source

Obtain

Noise

-

signal

Data

collection

frequency-

domain

anal ysis

1

  • - Signal

disposal

Fig 2 Flowchart of experiment system

0.2 N <II E0.1 C ~ 0 e .. 0; \).1 u u <l: 02L- _.
0.2
N
<II
E0.1
C
~
0
e
..
0; \).1
u
u
<l: 02L-
_.
l-_-l-_--'-_---'_---'L-_~-~---'-----l.-_7}
o
~
Time(s)

Fig 3 Acceleration wave of axial detected point

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03 5 Time!sl Fig 4 Acceleration wave of radial level detected point
03
5
Time!sl
Fig 4 Acceleration wave of radial level detected point
0.3';= = 'F"'= "i"""<=-"F'= "-F= "'F = =r = 9 -= -=r= = r= 91 ;
0.3';= =
'F"'=
"i"""<=-"F'=
"-F=
"'F =
=r =
9
-= -=r=
=
r= 91
;
.)
.)..:
~:..:;..:.;
;.:..:.:
:.:········· [··· ···i
N
O.2
..
..
•.•. J
~
01
e-
.g
0
1!
~
-0.1
f
t:
!
!
.'
.'
I
,
!
i
,
,
I.
!
.
!
'
!
I
.
"!"
I
"'02
"1""
"!""
:
.
J
5
..
-'Ti""m"'el""s ,_,
....

Fig 5 Acceleration wave of radial plumb detected point

The three acceleration waves above show that radial vibration is stronger than axial vibration, and radial level vibration is stronger than radial plumb vibration. In order to find the reason of the high noise, we analyze the vibration signals of the motor. Firstly , do power spectrum analysis on the vibration signals of those three points, from the main peak frequency segment of spectrum to [find reasons of vibration preliminary. Fig 6, 7 and 8 show the power spectrums of three points . The rotate speed of this motor is 2880 revolutions per minute, so its frequency is 48 hertz. From the power spectrums of three detected points above, we can find that the main wave energy of the three detected points fasten on radix frequency, and accompany with twice and triple of radix frequency. From Table I we can know that obvious peak value of noise signal in radix frequency segment means rotor imbalance. But power spectrum is calculated by ignoring phase information. When there is a situation that vibrates strong in radix frequency segment but the phase difference between radial level and radial plumb is 0 degree

or nearly 180 degree , this means there are other reasons of

the

vibration , such as eccentricity. In order to estimate this,

we do holospectrum analysis on radial level detected point and radial plumb detected point. Fig 9
we do holospectrum analysis on radial level detected point
and radial plumb detected point. Fig 9 shows the
holospectrum analysis result.
0.1 r- --r-
---,-
-r -
-, -
...
, ..-
.,- -
,- -
,- -
,- ---,
z- 0.08
ij 0,06
~ 0,0.1
c.
50
100
150
250
300
350
400
450
500
FrequencylHZ)
----

Fig 6 Power spectrum of axial detected point

5 r x 10 : --r- : .. ...· --r- """'T- --.,.- ---r- ---,- ----,r- -
5
r x
10 : --r-
:
..
...·
--r-
"""'T-
--.,.-
---r-
---,-
----,r- -
.---
.------,
.1
&3
:c
~
2
a.
1
O l!::::t:!.A.Io!!!~~ .!&:.II~ djf!::.~ .t:!'i.I.:i~~ l.::!:::L~ ::!:!::<!!l.i l
...
..~
o
50
tOO
150
200
250
300
350
450
500
FrequencylHZ)
Fig 7 Power spectrum of radial level detected point
2 [~~;.~~~.'~,.~~4,.J Ii o 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 FrequencylHZj
2
[~~;.~~~.'~,.~~4,.J
Ii
o
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
FrequencylHZj

Fig 8 Power spectrum of radial plumb detected point

From Fig 9 we can see that the ellipse is bigger in radix frequency segment, the other component is smaller. So combine with time- domain wave, power spectrum and holospectrum analysis of motor vibration, we can ascertain that the reason of abnormal vibration is the imbalance of motor rotor. After investigation, the judgment above is right.

V. CONCLUSIONS

Frequency domain analysis is a common and effective method of noise source detection. Do power spectrum analysis to the vibration signal of motor, ean detect noise source effectively. But if combine power spectrum analysis with holospectrum analysis, we can find the reason of abnormal vibration of motor more exactly. The experiment validates that frequency domain analysis is simple and effective, it provides technology basis to motor noise controlment, also provide a simple and effective way of motor diagnosis by noise source detection.

ACKNOWL EDGM ENT

Qingnian Wang, Kun Yan, Hongyan Li and Meiling Yuan thank the sponsors of ICMA 2009. Thank Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Changchun University of Science and Technology and Kagawa University.

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