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Introduction Technology remains as the fountain head of human development and economic growth. It helped us to live a better life with the available resources. But the uncontrolled exploitation of resources led to the rise of various problems like Global warming, Climate change, diminishing of natural resources, deterioration of environment, etc. If the present trend continues, it will result in the worse. Rise of sea level, extinction of various species, droughts, floods, change in season patterns are some of the observed signs of it. Thus it demands us for Sustainable Development. Sustainable development (SD) is a pattern of economic growth in which resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. The term 'sustainable development' was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs or the ability to meet the needs of the present while contributing to the future generations needs."[3] There is an additional focus on the present generations' responsibility to improve the future generations' life by restoring the previous ecosystem damage and resisting to contribute to further ecosystem damage. Inclusive growth basically means, broad based growth, shared growth, and pro-poor growth. It decreases the rapid growth rate of poverty in a country and increases the involvement of people into the growth process of the country. Inclusive growth by its very definition implies an equitable allocation of resources with benefits incurred to every section of the society. But the allocation of resources must be focused on the intended short and long term benefits of the society such as availability of consumer goods, people access, employment, standard of living etc. It sets a direct relationship between macro and micro determinant of the economy and its growth. Appropriate climate-responsive technologies can play the decisive role in balancing the conflict between inclusive growth and sustainable development. Appropriate Technology is considered as the key-enabler to achieve sustainable livelihood, reduction of drudgery and improvement of quality of life for the underprivileged section of our society within the limited natural and financial resources, at a lower cost and with less impact on the environment. With larger participation of the so far excluded section of the society through participatory approach of planning and development, it has now become extremely crucial that they are sensitized about labour intensive, region-specific, Ecofriendly technologies and Green (renewable) energy sources so that they can adopt those in their process of sustainable development.

Green Energy
Green energy is a very broad term. It can be used to describe many different sources and methods of extracting energy sometimes mistakenly. Solar power and wind power are some of the greenest energies that are available today. The most destructive part of both of these energies comes from the production of the materials that are used to make them, silic one for solar panels and metal for wind towers. New designs and scientific breakthroughs are lowering the impact of both of these technologies making them an even better source of green energy. Solar panels are beginning to be incorporated into different building materials such as glass and metal, even paint and ink has the potential to be a photovoltaic cell. Wind towers are being retrofitted with radars that sense birds and turns off the rotors when a flock migrates through the area. It is estimated this will prevent over 700,000 bird fatalities every year. Other forms of green energy are water power which uses the movement of waves, tides and currents to produce power. Passively safe nuclear reactors (they can shut down without an operator, preventing meltdowns) are sometimes considered green, but they are still affecting their environment, adding heat to the surrounding air and water sources which can be detrimental to certain types of wildlife. 1.) Solar Power The main way of harnessing solar power is by using photovoltaic cells that convert photons sent millions of miles from the sun into electricity that is instantly usable. As materials improve and become less expensive solar panels become more readily available. The more that are installed the less anyone has to rely on destructive forms of power such as coal and oil fueled power plants and engines. 2.) Solar Lighting Every day the earth is lit by solar lighting. Many house and building designs incorporate open floor plans to increase the amount of natural light that is allowed into the interior of the building. This can greatly save on lighting costs but it doesnt solve the main problem lights were invented for, lighting areas when the sun is not shining, either because it is night, overcast or in an area without windows. Another form of solar lighting uses solar panels and highly efficient lights and batteries. During the day the lights are off, but the unit is still working, converting sunlight into power and then storing it in a battery. When the sunlight has faded, which is sensed naturally by the photovoltaic cell, the battery is switched on and the unit emits light. These are often used to light pathways and yards, but can be used in almost any circumstance.

Solar lighting is a energy efficient way of lighting any area at night. Even if the panels are big enough to power many electrical appliances, lights will be the most commonly used. Used in combination with ultra-high efficiency bulbs such as light emitting diodes and compact fluorescent bulbs can give them enough energy to keep a light burning brightly all night long. 3.) Photovoltaic Energy Photovoltaic energy is a form solar power. Photovoltaic cells react with photons that are sent from the sun and generate a charge that can easily be converted into usable alternating current electricity. Solar panels are groups of photovoltaic cells linked together to produce more output. They are typically matte black to encourage light absorption which can increase their output as well. Photovoltaic energy is one of the cleanest ways of producing electricity requiring no moving parts, no transportation of fuels and a good amount of output compared with their cost. The cost of a photovoltaic array is high, but there are many ways to get them at a discount or subsidized by governments and local power companies. Once installed, which is simple as well, they continually work for at least 25 years with simple cleaning and maintenance. Photovoltaic energy is increasing in efficiency very rapidly while oil and coal have reached their maximum efficiency. To go faster in a gas powered car more fuel is used while to go longer distance without having to constantly refuel dips into the performance of the car. Photovoltaic cells of upto 80% efficiency are now available. Solar panels are getting more powerful and more efficient which could eventually make a vehicle not only very efficient but as fast as the light thats powering them, or at least close. 4.) Hydrogen Conversion Another form of harnessing solar power converts the suns energy into hydrogen gas by using tiny particles of titanium dioxide commonly called Titania. This material is used in white paint, toothpastes and many other household items and it may revolutionize solar power. Hydrogen gas can be stored and shipped very easily, unlike electricity which requires complex and expensive batteries that lose their charge over time. Hydrogen produced from solar power is clean burning and very efficient. Producing it is the difficult part. The more titanium dioxide that can be fit onto the panel the more gas can be produced and nano-technology is providing the engineering prowess to get as much Titania onto the surface as possible. Solar panels in the future might not be producing electricity at all, hydrogen gas has a fighting chance to take the lead as the most efficient way to harness the suns energy. 5.) Wind Energy

Wind energy has been used since the dawn of civilization. The first took the form of sails on boats which were used to travel around the world. No fuel is required on a sailboat, but they were often stranded in the sea on calm days. Even then wasknown that the wind was powerful and it could be harnessed for good and bad, but extra wind power could not be preserved. The next form of harnessing wind energy came with the introduction of windmills. They were constructed on land instead of sea this time, and were used to turn heavy millstones that grind wheat and other grains. Again these only worked on windy days, a mule would have to turn the millstone on calm days. Very windy days could make the millstone turn faster potentially allow more grains to be ground, but energy still could not be preserved. Wind energy was revived recently because of the high and ever rising costs of fossil fuels. Now it is not directly used to push a boat, or turn a millstone, but to generate electricity. The great advantage that generating electricity has over those older methods is that the power can be preserved and sent across thousands of miles without losing its effectiveness. 6.) Water Energy There are many ways to get water energy. It has been harnessed for thousands of years in the form of dams and waterwheels that can turn any number of devices from millstones to machinery. It is incredibly efficient and constant when applied in the right way and a large enough space. A small stream may not have enough power of consistent flow to make it worth it, but big rivers can produce huge amounts of power. Water energy can be harnessed by damming a river and allowing a lake to form. The weight of the water pushes a lot of pressure through giant turbines that spin to create electricity and the water is emitted back into the river, usually much cooler than before because it has come out of the bottom of a big lake and been cooled. The surface water is still just as warm as the river feeding it, and many reservoirs are used for recreation as well. Other forms of water energy are vortex power which creates a vortex and then harnesses its energy, tidal power which uses the movement of the tides to generate electricity, wave power which collects the energy coming in from waves, marine current power and underwater ocean thermal power which collects heat from deep underwater volcanic vents. 7.) Biomass Biomass as a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel. In the first sense, biomass is plant matter used to generate electricity with steam turbines & gasifiers or produce heat, usually by direct combustion. Examples include forest

residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gasalso called "landfill gas" or "biogas." Crops, such as corn and sugar cane, can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Also, Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research 8.) Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy can be considered as a green energy source, but there are threats of radiation , thermal pollution, etc. Its one of the major source in the future. There are two ways to create nuclear energy. Fission splits atoms and is currently the only way nuclear power plants operate. Fusion is the combining of atoms which produces the most power and is the process fueling every star and creating every heavy element in the universe. Progress has been made harnessing fusion power but so far they have required just as much energy to produce as they have given off. Radioactive decay can also be used to create power. Nuclear energy for utility purposes such as electricity for a city is produced through fission which boils water. The steam is used to drive turbines that produce electricity. Currently about 15% of the worlds electricity comes from nuclear power. The last nuclear power plant to go online opened in 1996 and many people believed that nuclear power was over, but there are already plans to begin retrofitting and increasing the size of existing plants as well as adding many more. 9.) Geo Thermal, Tidal & Wave Power Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. At the core of the Earth, thermal energy is created by radioactive decay[1] and temperatures may reach over 5000 degrees Celsius. From hot springs, geothermal energy has been usedfor electricity generation. Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity.Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). Machinery able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC). Its also in the developing stages. Tidal mills and Wave farms are installed in various coastal regions, and continuous to give greener form of energy.

Energy Efficiency Good energy efficiency is what determines what fuels will be used. Hardly anyone could use solar power twenty years ago because it was wholly inefficient, costing much more to make and install a solar panel than the amount of energy it could produce during its working lifetime. This is why fossil fuels have been used so prolifically, they provide a significant amount of energy compared to how much they cost to extract. The main factor that has been limiting new energy sources is their lack of energy efficiency. Even ethanol, a biofuel made from corn and other plants, requires complex processes that are expensive as well as driving up the cost of corn causing mass starvation in many poor corn producing countries. The pros have to outweigh the cons for a energy source to be efficient. Is starving already impoverished third world countries worth having a fuel like gasoline that still emits just as much CO2? The good news on energy efficiency is coming from the solar power sector. The first solar panels had less than 1% efficiency. Of all the sunlight that hit those photovoltaic arrays less than 1% was converted into electricity. Now solar panels are on average over 50% efficient and that number is rising everyday with some solar panels passing the 80% efficiency mark. New technologies, especially Nano-engineering, are providing the boost that solar greatly needs. Energy Management Energy management is the systematic use of management and technology to improve the energy performance of an organisation. The fundamental goal of energy management is to produce goods and provide services with the least cost and least environmental effect and thus Sustainable Development. Its the strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output from these systems Energy Management Techniques: 1) Self knowledge & Awareness among the masses 2) Re-engineering & evaluation 3) Technology Upgradations The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that insulates the Earth from the cold of space. As incoming solar radiation is absorbed and reemitted back from the Earths surface as infrared energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere prevent some of this heat from escaping into space, instead reflecting the energy back to further warm the surface. Human activities that produce GHGs (anthropogenic) amplify the greenhouse effect. Anthropogenic GHG emissions are modifying the Earths energy balance between incoming solar radiation and the heat released back into space, resulting in climate change.

Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) There are ten primary GHGs; of these, water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are naturally occurring. Perfluorocarbons(CH4, C2F6), hydrofluorocarbons(CHF3, CF3CH2F, CH3CHF2), and sulfur hexafluoride(SF6), are only present in the atmosphere due to industrial processes. Water vapor is the most abundant and dominant GHG in the atmosphere. Its concentration depends on temperature and other meteorological conditions, and not directly upon human activities. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas, accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse effect in 2004. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) indicate the relative effectiveness of GHGs in trapping the Earths heat. For example, the GWP of SF6 is 23,900, indicating that its radiative effect on a mass basis is 23,900 times as powerful as CO2 over the same time horizon. 3 CO2 is typically used as the reference gas, and has a GWP of one (see Table). GHG emissions are typically discussed in terms of mass of carbon equivalents or carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e), which are calculated by multiplying the mass of emissions by the GWP of the gas.

Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

From 10,000 years ago until 150 years ago, atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O were relatively stable. During the last 150 years, concentrations of CH4 and N2O increased 148% and 18%, respectively. Pre-Industrial Revolution, the concentration of CO2 remained around 280 parts per million by volume (ppm).3 By 2011 the concentration had increased to 392 ppm, which is about 2 ppm higher than in 2010.

Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Cement production and changes in land use, e.g., deforestation, are other significant sources of CO2 emissions. CH4 and N2O are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Agriculture (domestic livestock), landfills, and natural gas systems are the primary anthropogenic sources of CH4. Agricultural soil management (fertilizers) contributes 69% of anthropogenic N2O. Other significant sources include mobile and stationary combustion, and livestock. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are now used in refrigeration, cooling, and as solvents in place of ozone depleting Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are used primarily for manufacturing semiconductors, and SF6 is used in electricity distribution equipment, as well as the magnesium and aluminum production industries. To Reduce Green House Effect Inorder to reduce green house effect we should rely upon renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, tidal, geothermal etc.Also treat the industrial and automobile exhaust before releasing to atmosphere. Reducing usage of fossil fuel can reduce green house gas emission by a large extent. Increase awareness among the masses to use Green Energy resources.

Recent Technology for Sustainable Development In 1987, the United Nations released the Brundtland Report, which included what is now one of the most widely recognised definitions: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Sustainable development (SD) is a pattern of economic growth in whichresource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be

met not only in the present, but also for generations to come (sometimes taught as ELFEnvironment, Local people, Future. The Role of Technology in Sustainable Development Sustainable development policies seek to change the nature of economic growth rather than limit it. They are premised on the belief that continual growth in a finite world is possible through the powers of technology, which will enable us to find new sources or provide alternatives if a particular resource appears to be running out. Otherwise, technology will help us use and reuse what we have left in the most efficient manner. Recycling, product redesign, conservation, substitution of materials, changed production processes, pollution control and more efficient usage of resources. and low-waste technology can interrupt the flow of wastes to these resources, and that is perhaps the major feature of a sustainable development path of economic progress. There is a great reliance on technology to solve environmental problems around the world today, because of an almost universal reluctance by governments and those who advise them to make the social and political changes that would be necessary to reduce growth in production and consumption. At the heart of the debate over the potential effectiveness of sustainable development is the question of whether technological change, even if it can be achieved, can reduce the impact of economic development sufficiently to ensure other types of change will not be necessary.

CLEAN TECHNOLOGY In the past, efforts to clean up the environment have tended to concentrate on 'cleaning technologies' rather than 'clean technologies', that is, on technologies that are added to existing production processes to control and reduce pollution (end-of-pipe technologies and control devices). The alternative to end-of-pipe technologies is to adopt new 'clean' technologies that alter production processes, inputs to the process and products themselves so that they are more environmentally suitable. Clean technologies are preferable to endof-pipe technologies because they avoid the need to extract and concentrate toxic material from the waste stream and deal with it. Professionals in this field suggests that process technologies should be used that require less water (for example, by alternative drying techniques), energy and raw materials, and that reduce waste discharges (for example by developing detection and separation machinery and process-integrated flue-gas cleaning and filter systems). Also, raw material inputs and processes can be changed so that, for instance, solvent-free inks and paints, and heavy metal-free pigments are used. The end products can be redesigned to reduce environmental damage during both manufacture and use, and waste flows can be reused within the production process rather than dumped.

The problem with measures such as end-of-pipe technologies is that they are technological fixes that do not address the cause of the problem. Such fixes can often cause other problems; A target for improving the efficiency of the combustion of fossil fuels is to convert all available carbon in the fuel into carbon dioxide. On the other hand, carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas. Moreover, our means of achieving better thermal efficiencies is by increasing the temperature of the combustion process. A result of increasing temperature, however, is that more oxides of nitrogen are formed from the air used in combustion. Oxides of nitrogen are an important element in the formation of photochemical smog. Thus, in the pursuit of more efficient energy usage, it is possible other potentially undesirable side-effects may arise.

WHY ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES ARE NOT ADOPTED Not all technological options and alternatives are developed or explored. Although this is often because alternatives are more expensive or less economical, there are often other reasons, too. Even today many firms are not implementing technologies aimed at waste reduction and minimization. The purchasing power of the average person is expected to increase by 70 per cent by the year 2010, they argue that "an incredible reduction in discharge levels and waste flows per product unit would have to be realised to achieve the aim of a sustainable society". But this is not realistic. On top of this, production would need to increase ten times if everyone in the world were to live at the same standard of living as those who live in rich countries. CONCLUSION Unless substantial change occurs, the present generation may not be able to pass on an equivalent stock of environmental goods to the next generation. "Firstly, the rates of loss of animal and plant species, arable land, water quality, tropical forests and cultural heritage are especially serious. Secondly, and perhaps more widely recognised, is the fact that we will not pass on to future generations the ozone layer or global climate system that the current generation inherited. A third factor that contributes overwhelmingly to the anxieties about the first two is the prospective impact of continuing population growth and the environmental consequences if rising standards of material income around the world produce the same sorts of consumption patterns that are characteristic of the currently industrialised countries." The purchasing power of the average person is expected to increase by 70 per cent by the year 2010, they argue that "an incredible reduction in discharge levels and waste flows per product unit would have to be realised to achieve the aim of a sustainable society". But this is not realistic. On top of this, production would need to increase ten times if everyone in the world were to live at the same standard of living as those who live in rich countries.

Environmental Sustainability Air pollution and sustainability

One of our planets most important natural resources is its atmosphere. The atmosphere contains air without which plants and animals could not survive. If we are to protect and preserve this unique natural resource for future generations, we must continue to address the problem of air pollution which affects the atmosphere from the local to the global scale. Sustainability Sustainability is a concept which deals with mankinds impact, through development, on the environment. Sustainable Development is development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Todays environmental problems, like air pollution, are largely a consequence of the unsustainable consumption of natural resources and the mismanagement of waste products. Sustainability is about environmental protection, sustained economic growth and social equity. Air pollution from energy production, transportation and the consumption of natural resources and production of waste is reducing air quality in many areas, and causing acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion.

PREVENTION There are many things we can do to become more sustainable. We can cut down on our use of energy, which comes from the burning of nonrenewable fossil fuels in power stations, and use what energy we do need more efciently. We can recycle some of the waste we generate and try to limit the amount we produce in the rst place. And we can consider adopting more environmentally friendly forms of transport, such as walking and cycling or public transport. At thesame time, Governments and industries can investigate cleaner ways of generating electricity, using renewable energy resources like wind power, solar power, hydroelectric power, bio-fuels, geothermal energy, tidal power and wave power.

Water pollution and sustainability

There are many ways that our nations water is being polluted. Scientists have specified eight general categories for the major kinds of polluntants. These categories include sediment, sewage and organic wastes, plant nutrients, infectious agents, organic chemicals, salts and mineral substances, radioactive substances, and thermal (heat) pollution. We need to do our best to help keep these and other polluntants out of our streams, rivers, and lakes. Sediment runoff is when the loose, rich top soil erodes, and is washed into rivers, streams and lakes. Much of the sediment runoff comes from poorly managed land in rural areas. A good portion of sediment run off also comes from unprotected areas in or near cities.

Water is not only a resource, it is a life source. We all share the responsibility to ensure a healthy, secure and sustainable water supply for our communities, environment, and economy our quality of life depends on it. The renewed strategy better reflects the population increase and economic growth around globe has seen over the past years, and humans changing water needs. As in the original, the renewed Water for Life strategy has three main goals.

Safe, secure drinking water; Healthy aquatic ecosystems; and

Reliable, quality water supplies for a sustainable economy. These goals will be met through knowledge and research, partnerships, and water conservation.

Climate Change and Global Warming Issues

The climate is changing. The earth is warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening, and human-induced. With global warming on the increase and species and their habitats on the decrease, chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally are diminishing. Many are agreed that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet. Recent years show increasing temperatures in various regions, and/or increasing extremities in weather patterns.

Burning coal, oil and natural gas releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere. On average, this may warm the earth and change the climate in other ways. For example, it might change the severity and duration of storms or droughts. Other human activities, such as cutting down forests, and growing rice, and raising cattle, may have the same effect, but are less important. If the climate changes heating, cooling, water use, and sea level will be affected. In wealthy countries, the average cost would probably be small, although some people and regions might have high costs and others might receive large benefits. In some poor countries, the cost could be very high. A large or fast change in climate will have a big effect on plants and animals in the natural environment. Very rapid climate change is unlikely, but could be disastrous, even for wealthy countries. We could reduce the rate at which we add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere by burning less coal, oil and natural gas. If climate changes, we could adapt by changing agriculture and other human activities. Many plants and animals in the natural environment might be unable to adapt. If warming is large and costly, some people might want to make changes to the atmosphere or oceans in order to cool the earth. This is very controversial.

The term greenhouse gases refers to certain atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, tropospheric ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons, which trap the suns heat and energy within the Earths atmosphere. Normally, when energy from the sun strikes the Earths surface, a large portion of this energy is radiated back into space. But greenhouse gases effectively trap this excess energy and reflect it back to Earth (1). But this is not necessarily a bad thing. Greenhouse gases are one of the qualities which make Earth habitable for life; without them, Earth would become an arctic wasteland. But an excess of these greenhouse gases can cause global warming and changes in Earths climate. According to the EPA website for climate change, it is an "unequivocal" fact that humans have caused an increase in the global levels of greenhouse gases. It is also a fact that the average temperature on Earth has risen 1 to 1.7 F from 1906 to 2005 (2). However, keep in mind that the Earth has experienced multiple climate changes in its history. Although the average global temperature is higher than it has been in thousands of years, the Earths temperature has been much higher in the distant past, long before humans began burning fossil fuels. The question then becomes: to what extent are we causing global warming? As the EPAs website points out, it is very likely that human activity is causing global warming; however, it is not known with absolute certainty to what extent we are contributing to global warming. However, it is certain that our current energy program is not sustainable. The supply of non-renewable fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline are not infinite. What are needed are sources of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, hydrogen, hydropower, and geothermal energy. These forms of renewable energy are also good sources of clean energy, meaning they do not produce greenhouse gases. Only by replacing fossil fuels with renewable forms of clean energy can we stem the tide of global warming .

CONCLUSION By analyzing the major points such as

Green Energy & Energy Management Green House Gas Emission Recent Technology for Sustainable Development Environmental Pollutions and Sustainability Climate Change and Global Warming Issues

which influences the climate responsiveness we were able to analyse the different challenges faced in the current technology inorder to achieve an inclusive growth and sustainable development. Also we were able to understand that, by developing and implementing the new innovative and clean technologies in the society, we are able to give our future generation a clean earth where a sustainable development is further possible. REFERENCE

Prepared By :- JOSEPH JOHNSON (