\

AUTO-POWERED ARC WELDER
By Norman E. Schuttz

to be hidden S'MALL ENOUGH electrodes yet beneath the hood of a passenger car, powerful enough to handle up to3/16-

in. dia., this 200-amp. welder is powered by the engine of the car in which it is installed, and can be taken anywhere that an automobile can be driven. The main component of the welder is a war-surplus Delco Remy P-l aircraft generator that is rated at 24 v. and 200 amp. at 2500 to 4000 r.p.m. Since this generator has a counterclockwise rotation, it must be turned end for end and driven from the commutator end when rotated by a car engine. This requires that the floating shaft, which drives the free-turning armature, be removed from the generator and modified. First, cut this shaft about 1 1/2 in. from the driving spline. Next, center-drill the end of a 7-in. length of 3/4-in. steel shafting to provide a press fit for the cutoff shaft. Force the 1 1/2-in. length into the hole in the new shaft and braze or weld it in place. Mill a 3/16 x 3/16-in. keyway 4 in. long in the end of the shaft to hold the pulleys and bore a clearance hole for the shaft in the end housing of the generator opposite the original location. The shaft

Above, welder connected and ready to run. Below, support frames bolted to head, ready for welder

WELDING MACHINES
generator, One flange of the 1/8 x1 1/2 x1 1/2 in, channel is cut back to 1/2 in. as indicated. When assembling the frame, first mount the two self-aligning, pillow-block bearings on the shaft; then adjust the various frame members to keep the shaft aligned properly while they arc welded together. Front and rear supports for the generator frame are shown in Fig. 5. These supports were designed to hold the Frame above the spark plugs when they arc bolted to the head of a 1953 or 1954 "flathead'1 V8 engine, Fig2. Supports for bolting the generator frame to in-line-type engines and overhead-valve V8 engines will have to be modified or redesigned to suit a particular engine. Steel angles, spaced by lengths of 3/4-in. pipe, were used on the original supports. Holes in the bottom angles are 1/2-in, dia. to fit over the head bolts while holes in the upper angles are 3/8-in. dia., and are matched by holes in the generatorsupport frame. When considered necessary for more rigid mounting, a center support also can be used. Drive Pulleys A 3-in.-dia. double V-pulley is fitted on the welding-generator shaft. A 6-in.-dia. double V-pulley is welded to the crankshaft pulley of the car engine. Care must be taken in the latter operation to make sure the double pulley is centered on the crankshaft pulley to prevent misalignment. The center of the double pulley is cut out to permit tightening the pulley nut on the crankshaft Because the engine-fan will strike the modified pulleys, it is necessary to reposition it. Remove the blades from the fan hub, insert spacers and rerivet the blades to the hub as shown in Fig. 8. On a different type of engine, more or less modification of the fan may be required. When the fan is. moved forward it requires that the radiator be moved forward a similar distance to keep the fan blades clear of it. On the original car, four 5/8-in. hardwood blocks were used as spacers to relocate the radiator. Sheet-metal pans at the top and bottom of the radiator may require cutting or bending to allow the forward movement of the radiator. Arc Stabilizer and Rheostat To assure that the welder produces a steady arc, an arc stabilizer must be wired into the welding circuit. The stabilizer, Figs. 3 and 7, consists of a core of 2-in.-dia. cold-rolled steel approximately 5 1/2 in. long. First, a layer of insulating cloth is wrapped on the core, then five layers of 4ga. enamel-coated copper wire are wrapped on the core, each layer being separated by insulating cloth. Finally, the completed core is wrapped with tape and tied to make sure the wire stays wrapped tightly. The beginning and end leads are left about 9 in. long to permit attaching them to the terminals. Make sure the ends of the stabilizer core make good contact with the metal frame which is made of double 8-ga. sheet steel. Short flanges are bent along the edges, then mitered at the corners and welded to provide additional strength as shown in Fig. 7. The frame for the stabilizer also is used to support the rheostat, terminal connections and throttle for controlling engine speed, Figs. 3 and 7. The rheostat is a heavy-duty type, rated at 6 ohms, 11.1 amp. Fig. 6 is a wiring diagram, showing the connections between the stabilizer, welder and rheostat. Note that all wires in this circuit are 4 ga., except the lines to the
Arc-stabilizer-rheostat assembly. Note how flanges are bent on stabilizer frame for added rigidity

WELDING MACHINES

Original engine fan was modified by removing blade

from

hub,

adding

spacers, then

reriveting

blades

One method of controllong engine speed requires choke cable to which linkage is welded as shown

rheostat which are 14 ga. As shown in Figs, 1 and 2, the stabilizer-rheostat assembly is bolted to the inside of a fender. Large washers on the underside prevent the bolts from pulling through the sheet, metal of the lender. Throttle Hookup To control the speed of the car engine and thus the r.p.m. of the welding generater, it is necessary to add an auxiliary throttle control to the carburetor. As shown in Fig. 9. some cars are equipped with throttle linkage that has springloaded connectors that easily snap off without tools. An extra piece of the linkage is welded or brazed to the end of a choke cable that leads to the stabilizer frame where it is easy lo reach when operating the welder. To change from control by foot throttle inside the car to hand control at the welder' rcquires only unhooking one control and hooking on the other, On engines with other types of linkage connectors it may he possible to locate the
2436

choke cable so that it can he hooked onto the throttle lever without the necessity of removing the regular foot-control linkage, hi some cases, the latter-type linkage is bolted together and requires the use of wrenches for disassembly, The less time required to connect the welder to the engine, the more time used profitably for welding, so it is important that any shortcut in making the hookup be considered, Operating the Welder Two heavy-duty V-belts are used to drive the welder from the crankshaft. Belts for the original installation were 54 in. long. Belts for other type installations are selected by measuring the distance around and between both sets of pulleys. To install the belts on the generator pulleys, the front pillow-block bearing is removed, both belts clipped over the pulleys, then the bearing is reinstalled. To fit the belts on the crankshaft pulleys, tip the forward end of the welder frame down, loop the belts over the crankshaft pulleys, then level the welder. Belt tension is adjusted by fitting thin washers or sheet-metal shims between the forward ends of the welder frame and the support frame. When the welder is to be run. continu ously for some time on a big job, connect the air scoop of the welding generator. Fig, 5. to the air horn of the carburetor with flexible tubing. Carburetor vacuum will draw air through the generator housing, thus cooling the generator. An ammeter and voltmeter are not wired into the welder, and since each welder will differ in characteristics due to being custombuilt, no precise calibration of the rheostat is suggested, After a few jobs with the welder, the operator will become familiar with the machine and can make his own calibrations, which can be marked on the frame under the rheostat dial, * * *

WELDING MACHINES-

HIS bandsaw, made largely of %-in. fir Tplywood, has a 12-in. swing, a tilting . table and cuts 2-in. stock with ease and accuracy. If it is carefully constructed, so that both wheels are in perfect alinement, you will have no trouble with the saw blade r q m b g off. The cost of building the original saw from wgch these plans were taken was four dollars. -.- For the base and core of the vertical frank pfeee, F g l,l%-in. yellow pine is i. used. The pattern for t i part is laid out hs on a piece of heavy wrapping paper, as in Fig. 3. Cut the piece about I/s in. oversize, to Leave emugh stock for finishing. The plywood ,sides are then cut to size and glued to the core, using casein glue, after which additional strength at the edges is obtained by driving in wood screws. After the glue has dried, the edges of the £rame should be sanded on a drum or spindle sander. W e wheels are bhilt up of four 12-in.
e

plywood

-5,

with the grain running crosswise to prevent warping. If desired, the outer, exposed disk may have its center cut out to £ o m a ring. Th6 6-in. pulley is similarly built up from.pl$wood disks, but the edge,

which are glued together

instead of being flat and covered with a rubber band, should have a V-groove. The hubs for the wheels and pulley are 4-in. ceiling-outlet covers, used in electrical conduit work. Drill a %-in. hole through the exact center of each, and screw them to the wheels as shown in Fys. 4 and 7, t a k i i care to get them on coricentrically. If a %-in. bolt, with the head
11

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BATTERY CHARGERS

DONT BE CAUGHT WITH A DEAD BATTERY

BUILD YOUR OWN QUICK-CHARGER
By Patrick K. Snook

FEW MOTORISTS are able to put back what they take out of a battery during winter driving- The extra drain of coldmorning starts, increased use of lights and added heater consumption takes its toil and unless you do lots of highway driving, you can't hope to keep the battery up to par by mere driving alone. The in-town driver, particularly, will do well to have his own quick-charger which he can use on occasion to keep up with the increased battery drain that comes with winter driving. A simple quick-charger can be put together at little cost from odd parts that can be found in almost any junk yard. If possible, select a generator and voltage regulator from the same car—the generator being of the same voltage as that in your own car. You'd also better see if you can't

you've cleaned the generator thoroughly, make sure that the pulleys on both the generator and the motor are equal in size. The carriage, or dolly, which makes the charger portable, consists of a 3/4-in. board measuring approximately 12 x 27 in, which is mounted on an axle and two 8-in. wheels and provided with a handle. Mount the motor on blocks of 2 x 4 cut to conform and bolt this assembly to the dolly. To find the proper position for the generator, bolt it to its single mounting block, slip the 3/8 x 36in. V-belt over the pulleys and move the generator assembly back until the belt is snug when the generator inclines about 15 deg. toward the motor, This will enable you to mark the assembly's exact position. The generator then may be removed from its mounting block and the block bolted

BATTERY CHARGERS

the wiring, at) that remains to be done now is to fit the foot block and handle. The heavy-duty, two-wire power cable {No. 12 ga.) runs through the conduit and out of a hole drilled near the base, then under the dolly and up through a hole near the motor to which it is connected. Since most 1/4-hp, motors can be reversed make sure to connect the wiring so that the motor runs counterclockwise, viewing it from the shaft end. There are probably half a dozen different generator-regulator wiring set ups depending on the make and vintage of the car.

One possible set up is shown in the dia gram below. The generator terminals as well as those on the regulator are letter coded so that there should be no problems involved. One word of caution: On some models the field terminal is grounded by way of a resistor to the generator shell. In this case, mount the negative lead of the battery power cable to the screw that an chors the resistor, not to the field terminal. The direct lead from the field terminal should be attached to the F-post of the voltage regulator. * * *

201

OLD MAGNETO PROVIDES PARTS FOR BUILDING

Small
Workshop Compressor
M
ADE entirely out of scrap materials, the small compressor illustrated will raise a pressure of 25 lb. per sq. in. in a 6-cu. ft. tank in 25 minutes, which is ample for the average small gas torch. The consumption of line-shaft power is very small, an important consideration in many small shops. Construction of the compressor is clearly shown in the photograph and large drawing below. Simplicity is the keynote of its construction throughout. The magneto which supplied most of the larger parts was purchased for fifty cents. The method of procedure will be governed to some extent by the type of magneto available. Assuming the gear housing to be of cast iron and the end bearings to be of brass, it is a simple matter to saw and file out the gear housing to fit on the end bearing housing as shown. The two are fastened by a machine screw after being sweated together with soft solder. To do this successfully, the cast iron must be thoroughly cleaned and well tinned. The axis of the shaft hole in the gear housing must be kept parallel with the finished face of the brass base, Do not fasten these

The compressor partly disassembled to show piston, connecting rod, and crank disk made from contact breaker

parts together permanently at this stage. Chuck the base in the lathe and bore for the cylinder. The size depends upon the bushing used for a cylinder, but the drawing indicates the proportionate allowances to be made for shoulders and the like. The next step is to turn, bore, and lap the cylinder to an inside diameter of 7/8 in., with other dimensions to suit the actual bushing available. The cylinder bottom is soldered into place after fitting the simple ball valve. Make the valve seat very narrow, use a new ball, and tap the ball lightly on its seat before assembling to insure a tight valve. Mount the cylinder in the base and solder as shown. Care must be taken to see that the bore is at right angles to the finished face of the base. Note the aluminum cooling fins, which can be turned in the form of washers and threaded on the cylinder before mounting, with aluminum separators between them. The piston is built up from 1/8 in. sheet aluminum cut into disks 7/8 in. in diameter and riveted together. The rivets must be so placed that they will not interfere with the ring grooves or the piston-pin hole. The inlet valve in the base of the piston is retained with two turns of very light steel spring sprung into a groove just above the valve seat. The ring grooves are turned 1/16 in. wide and 1/16 in. plus .002 in. deep. The rings are 7/8 in. in diameter and 1/16 in. thick, split at an angle of 45 deg. and sprung over the body into place, care being taken not to deform them. The connecting rod is also built up out of the 1/8-in. aluminum sheet, two pieces being riveted together through the center section. The ends are left square in section as shown in the photograph and are fitted with bronze bushings for suitable pins, as indicated in the drawing. Care is necessary to insure that all joints are air-tight, because with such a small displacement a very small leak will seriously cut down the efficiency of the compressor. The best running speed is about 500 r.p.m. The lightness of the oscillating parts and the comparatively heavy driving pulley, acting as a flywheel, reduce vibration to a minimum, but the braces shown are necessary to give general lateral stiffness. They are bent out of 5/8-in. flat steel 1/8 in. thick, and fitted into place. 251

WORKSHOP HINTS

DRIVEN by means of a I - h p . electric
motor, this homemade drillpress, built mostly from old auto parts and a few items obtainable from your local dollar store, is sturdy, accurate and smooth in operation. A cut-off portion from an axle housing is bolted to a brake drum, which, in turn, is bolted to the bench top. The spindle bearing is a small grinder head and is

w

-

shown. The lower end of

direct to the motor. In either case it is advisable to use a three-step pulley on the motor to provide speed adjustment. Accessories such as the V-pulleys, belts and chuck can be obtained from almost any
*

Receptacle Built in Workbench 'it Extinguishes Lighted Matches -To avoid fires being started by matches thrown about his shop, after lighting gas burners and torches, one tinsmith installed this receptacle. It c o n s i s t s of a length of pipe run throughthebench top to end in a pail or can underneath t h e bench. A flange at the upper end of t h e pipe holds it in place. The lower end of the pipe must rest on thebottom of th into the pipe are and when filled, th the matches in the
+

*

For Lathe Operators
If you occasionally have a lathe job that requires resetting chucks frequently for

wire remo small work, this simple speed wrench will save considerable time. It is nothing more than an ordinary hand drill with the chuck removed and the end of the shaft squared to fit the chuck screws. (rpunches and chisels for model makers can be had by grinding ice picks to shape,

d&.
Just mount it on the cross slide and do keyway cutting, end milling and surfacing
HIS handy milling unit for small
metal-turning lathes consists simply

ILLING

a

f a drill-press vise mounted on the
of the carriage. The vise is a disk similar to the index disk ound rest, Figs. 1 and 2. Thus 0th the lateral and traverse e depth of the vise jaws gives a considerable range of vertical adjustment. Also the unit can be swiveled to any degree desired to handle angular work. Figs. 1 and 3 show typical operations on parts of small models. Milling cutters should be held in a collet chuck but if the lathe is not fitted with chuck and suitable collets, you can grip the cutters in a threejaw scroll or center chuck and, by working carefully, get very good results on light work. Figs. 4 and 5 show the base or pad on which the drill-press vise is mounted. It is turned from a single piece of cold-rolled steel and all the dimensions given adapt it to use on a well-known make of home workshop metal-turning lathe. Notice in Fig. 4 that the base is held in place with a hardened pointed setscrew bearing against the beveled projection on the underside of the disk. The setscrew lock is regular equipment on this particular lathe and the beveled projection on the vise mounting simply duplicates that on the regular compound supplied with the lathe as you see in Fig. 2, where the two parts are shown

-

.

Soldering With a Lead Pencil
For small soldering jobs, you can effectively use an automatic lead pencil.

Wire the metallic part of the pencil to the negative pole of a 6-volt storage battery, and connect the positive pole to the work to be soldered. Then, touching the

point of the lead to the spot you wish to solder and then drawing it away slowly, will create a tiny arc. Use hard lead in the pencil, which should be a handle of bakelite or other heat-proof material. -Charles A. Younger, Somerville, N.J.

is, n o t d r i l l e d c through and are thre with a bottom tap. take full advantage of

chining the base so

much louder than a sigh. The barrel is encased in concrete 4 in. thick, the concrete assuring a good mufffer long after the thin sides of the barrel have rusted away.

+

am---- you want a smooth, polished finish on w turnings such as tool handles, first sand them carefully and then hold an oiled strip of cloth or leather against the work as it rotates in. the lathe.

,,

leg on which the coil is to be wound, multiplied by the thickness. In the case of the core shown, the center leg is .25 sq. in. The
number of turns required is, therefore 493 divided by -25, or 1972. The y i r e size is calculated from the

length of the magnetic path, as shown in the upper detail of Fig. 7. The wire size in circular mils is found by multiplying the

length by 50,000, and then dividing by the number of turns. For a magnetic path of 3% in., the wire size required is 3.25 times 50,000, divided by 1972, or 82.5 circukr mils. The required gauge number is then found from any magnet wire table, which will show that No. 31 has an area of 80 circular mils, and No. 30 has an area of 101 is circular m l . In such a case, the larger

- kbsg,

'

Bage number) should be Tha c d l will, therefoh, be wound with iPt2 tof No: 30 enameled wire. transformersap & mast g i v q Nos 3Q wire ere a heavy-duty @ * built'kom large %stamplarlargm will Be necessary. WW

size

@WW

\

'

The d tg wauhd on a woodan form a9

The armature is fastened to its b r d with two flat-head rivets, counbrsunkL ia - ' the a~matupe.Clearances and specified should be followed cItre&By. & Eggraving tooh can be made o %-b, f &.- , larger drill rod. The tips can be ground t~ various shapes, as shown in Pig, 2. After - ,. ~ough-grindingto shape, tb. end. shu]$ be hardened by heating to a straw yellow
hb

color and pl-g
,

5 w d 6. The form should b a h * Iarger thanthe 16g Qn which the cd*, rrnrl ,sh&tafso have a slight tag& e, so th@the fbidhd,-coil & , #pmd ,can b , r d l p g d - ' d readily aft@ misaving '
shorn in

be h d e d ctnd l~crewed t o the_end af h the amnature; a h k nut and bc& w d i q
are b hold theni f r d y .

the aut'thg end om& into cold water. After hardening&er are An&& ground. The shank of the W1 can

-

"

.

If & a & I -

..

gle engraving bit is to be used, it can be held permanently in place by peening. The completed tool can be mounted on a semi-circular wooden block, and placed inside a fiber tube. See Figs. 1and 4. Another way to make a simple engraving tool is to take an inexpensive vibratortype (labeled' a.c. only) electric razor, of the kind which contains an electromagnet instead of a motor. See the left detail of

Fig. 7. Remove the cutter head from the shaver and, if necessary, saw off the end of the Bakelite case. An engraving tool can be attached to the vibrating shaft of the shaver. One way to do this is to swage the shank of the tool flat, and drill it to fit the shaft. It can be held in place by peening, or the shaft can be threaded and the tool tapped and held with a lock nut.

'

,

Jackshaft on Motor Makes VariableflSpeedUnit

on an electric motor, The unit can be fastened in a fixed position for driving power tools, such as metal-turning lathes, drill presses, etc., where various speeds are required, or it can be carried about for operating a flexible shaft as shown. By using two 5-in. cone pulleys and a motor of 1,750 r.p.m. on the original unit a speed range of 700 to 4,375 r.p.m. was obtained.

Pillow blocks serve as bearings for the shaft, and they are bolted to angle-iron supports, which are attached to the motor' by placing them under the nuts of the tie rods that hold the motor housing together. In some cases, it may be necessary to substitute longer tie rods for the original ones. -Kent H. Alverson, Niagara Falls, N. Y.

Small Paper Cups Have Many Uses in the Home Workshop
An inexpensive convenience in your home workshop is a supply of small paper cups. They are particularly handy when
doing small jobs of finishing, er i mixing n

away when a job is finished. Labels and measures can be marked on them easily with a pencil, and liquid levels show clearly through the translucent sides.

paints and stains. When tin cans are used for this purpose they always must be cleaned for the next job, and frequently bits of skins or traces of the old color remain. But paper cups are merely thrown

(TTo remove rust from the flutes of an auger bit use a small rope which is coated with glue or shellac and sprinkled with fine emery.

.

C

+

Rubber Heels Cushion Motor
the heel and plate to line up with rail clips. Countersink the flat-herd bolt6 in the plate and bolt the three together. Fasten the heels to the bench with three screws or bolts, using washers under the heads.

to a minimum, eksek-absorbing

To reduce vibration of electric motors motor mounts for floating-type rails can be made from a pair of rubber heels. Cut a metal plate to fit the recess in the top of the heel and drill two holes through

*

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supports the intermediate and top pulleys turns in sets of %-in: babbitted split bearings. Note that setscrew collars are used on each shaft. One face of the top or driving pulley is fitted with a counterbalancing steel plate as in Figs. 2 and 3.. The counterbalance is bolted to the pulley. Con-

and screwed into a tapped hole in one end of the counterbalance and through the pulley. This crankpin is secured with a

serves as a driver for the connecting rod !-n which is made from a length of +!i . standard pipe. The forward end of the connecting rod is drilled for a %a-in. steel wrist pin threaded at both ends for lock nuts. The assembly is made as in Fig. 3. To guide the hack saw in a straight path,

an S-shaped bend in the arm as in Figs. 2

and bend carefully in a vise. Brass tubing

can be bent cold. The surface of the pipe which supports the hack-saw guide should be polished smooth. The slide is a length of brass tubing which will telescope over the polished section of the supporting arm. The hack-saw frame is fastened to the guide with the aid of clamps as in Fig. 2. These can be riveted to the saw frame or held with small bolts. The pressure applied to the blade when cutting is regulated by weights on the outer end of the supporting arm as shown in Fig. 1 These weights can be made by . drilling a hole in cold-rolled steel plate of such a size that the piece will slip easily over the pipe. Setscrews 'or pins can be

screws. Fig. 4 shows the assembly of the speedreducing drive. All pulleys are of the V-type for %-in. belt.

Shaped from a p i e c e of t h i n ent materials require slight variations in blade pressure for the best-cutting action. The support-arm guide, Fig. 3, can be made .from %-in. flat iron, the slot being of the3 same width as the diameter of the aipe. If necessary, the guide should be blocked up on .the bench, so that the arm will reach the bottom of the slot just as the saw breaks through the work. A standard toolmakers' vise can be used to hold the work. A slotted plate fitted in you to start Screws in places where it is impossible to reach with
the hands- A slot

with a hole at one end permits a screw head to be inserted and held true for starting it straight.

Power unit is simple box built from scrap to house small transformer and silicon rectifier. Cord at right plugs into wall outlet. Center cord (from rectifier) is positive, clips to work; one at left, to stencil pad.

Make an Electric
You use a common mimeo stencil, but the printing agent isn't ink —it's an electrochemical flow
By ROLAND LOEWEN

on tools, or decorating aluminum sheets. The stencil pad consists of a metal plate (copper, aluminum—even a scrap of tin can) covered with felt that's saturated with a solution of table salt (or with liquid Sani-Flush). Over this pad you smooth a section of an ordinary mimeograph stencil (available at any office-supply store) which you have typed on a typewriter set for stencil cutting, or with a hand stylus—just as if you were preparing it for inking. Clip the leads from a DC power source to the stencil pad and the workpiece and press the two together for 10 to 90 seconds. This power source can be your auto battery, a battery charger, or an electroplating unit. Or, to use house current, you
154 POPULAR SCIENCE

You can to work "branding" your name easily—and safely—put electrochemistry

can easily assemble a unit costing under six dollars from a small transformer, a silicon rectifier, a few feet of insulated wire, a male plug, and two alligator clips. The power needed is at only six to 12 volts low amperage. I use a filament transformer from Allied Radio (their stock number 54C1420) that's rated 110-120 volts primary, and 12.6 volts at two amps secondary. I get about 12 volts, which speeds up etching jobs. I made two types of stencil pads—a oneliner to hand-hold against tools and a block against which metal plates can be pressed. Both are sketched at right. For the one-liner, glue the metal plate to the slightly rounded edge of the wood strip with epoxy cement, letting it extend at one end and bending it up as shown for attaching an alligator clip. Fasten a strip of felt over the metal, gluing it lightly. To use, soak the felt in the salt solution, then dab with a cloth to remove excess. Center stencil over felt so the lettering is backwards as you look at it. Tuck ends under a big paper clamp. The larger rig has two spring-loaded bars for this purpose; they seat in rabbets. Be sure your stencil is large enough to cover the felt or you'll leak current at the ends.

One-line stencil pad (left) is secured by spring clamp, as shown in sketch below. It's fine for applying name to hammer (above, with clip applied) or to steel punch and chromed tape case (far left, facing page).

Block-type stencil pad offers etching area about 2½" by 4"—ideal for address plates shown above. You induce electrochemical flow by holding positive clip in contact with back of plate centered on stencil.

Stencil to Etch Metal
How electrochemical etching works
Metal plate of stencil pad becomes cathode, charged with negative electricity (electrons). Above this (in cross sections below) is felt pad soaked in salt solution (sodium chloride: NaCl) plus a waxy stencil. Where latter is pierced, chlorine ions flow through to carry electrons to anode. Iron workpiece reacts with chlorine to form iron chloride (FeCl3), which dissolves, leaving mark. Other metals react similarly.

NOVEMBER 1968

155

Engineer's Level
D
ESIGNED to be easier to operate and capable of taking more abuse than a transit, this engineer's level can be used for such outdoor j o b s as landscaping, septic t a n k installation, drainage ditching, setting c o n c r e t e forms or any task requiring level or grade s i g h t i n g Using engineer's level on a camera tripod to set concrete forms. (Fig. 1). It can be made in o n e By THOMAS E. RILEY evening with hand tools. The instrument consists of two major parts: The sighting level tube or telescope to which a level vial is attached, and the level bar. It. is supported by a camera tripod with or without a tilting head. The tilting head will enable the user to set up the instrument more easily but, on the other hand, detracts somewhat from the stability. Make the level bar (Fig. 2) first. Use angle iron taken from an old bed rail because structural angle iron is too heavy and thick at the corner. With a hacksaw make a cut 2 in. long as close as possible to the vertical side. Then bend up the 2 in. cut end. blunt knife edge. Finally draw the file lightly Since the bed rail steel may be brittle, heat the across the length of the knife edge to be sure the area to be bent to a dull red. Check the bent end edge is a straight line parallel with the bottom. with a square to make sure it is exactly 90° and This knife edge is the one crucial point in the saw off the extending vertical side 1/8 in. beyond construction of the instrument because it serves the bent section. File the top edge of the bent as the "Y" support of the level, the pivot bearing end down to 1 3/4 in. above the bottom edge of the and horizontal crosshair. Drill the two 9/32 in. bar and parallel to it. Then file both sides to a holes and tap the middle hole 1/4-20 to fit any camera tripod head. To make the level tube, cut pipe threads on one end of a 14 in. length of 3/4 in. standard pipe and saw the other end at an angle as in Fig. 3. Scribe a line lengthwise on the bottom of the pipe parallel with the sides. Measure and mark 11 15/16 in. from the threaded end for the location of the center of the pivot slot. Cut this slot 1/8 in. wide and file to the wedge shape (Fig. 3A). Round the bottom of the cut with a small rat tail file or abrasive cloth around a nail. The slot should extend exactly halfway through the pipe. Now lay out, drill and tap the two mounting holes on the scribed line and mark the optical center point. 128
SCIENCE AND MECHANICS

An ordinary 3-3 1/2 in. replacement level vial for a carpenter's level is to be used. Purchase the vial first then secure a piece of copper or brass tubing just large enough so the vial will slide into it. Cut the tubing off 1/2 in. beyond each end of the vial and file an oval hole in the middle of the tubing to expose the vial bubble as in Fig. 4. Drill parallel 1/8 in. holes in each end of the tube for supporting bolts and cement the vial in the tube with household cement. To locate the exact position the vial is to be fastened to the sighting level tube, hold the center of the vial bubble marking at the optical center mark scribed on the sighting tube and spot mark the locations of the two 1/8 in. holes in the copper or brass tube on the sighting tube. Drill and tap the sighting tube for 5-40 threads. Make the sighting disc Fig. 4 next. Cut a 15/16 in. dia. disc from 1/16 in. thick brass or steel. File and fit this disc to fit snugly inside a 3/4 in. conduit pipe bushing. Drill a small hole (about #55 to #60 drill) through the exact center of the disc and assemble to the threaded end of the sighting tube. It is important that the disc be secure. If the small hole is slightly off center, the final adjustment of the instrument will correct the error; but, if the disc moves after adjustment, the instrument will give false readings. Before assembling the parts give them a coat of paint. A crackle finish type of paint used by radio repairmen will give the instrument a professional appearance. Do not paint the knife edge or pivot slot. After the paint dries, cut the heads off two 5-40 x l 1/4 in. long machine screws and screw into the tapped holes in the sighting tube. Lock the screws to the tube with a nut on each one (Fig. 4). Place another nut on each screw, then the level vial tube and fasten with a third nut on each screw. Adjust the nuts on either side of the vial tube until the vial appears parallel with the sighting tube. Next, cut the head off a 1/4-20 x 2 in. bolt and screw into the tapped hole nearest the sighting disc or eyepiece of the sighting tube. Lock in place with a nut on the outside of the tube. Slip a lV4-in. compression spring and washer over the bolt and assemble the tube in its position on the level bar with another washer and wingnut. Attach another 1/4-20 x 2-in. bolt into the tapped hole nearest the pivot slot with a nut on the outside as before. Place a 5/8-in. compression
AUGUST, 1956

spring, washer and nut underneath the level bar (Fig. 4). Screw the bolt into the tube until the spring exerts tension on the knife edge bearing. Then lock the bolt to the sighting tube with the nut on the outside of the level tube and the instrument is assembled. The level is adjusted by the collimation or peg adjustment. The object is to place the axis of the level vial exactly parallel to the line of sight through the level tube. You will need a surveyor's level rod for this adjustment and also for your surveys. One can be made inexpensively by purchasing a level rod ribbon and gluing it to a 1x3-in. board. These ribbons are l 1/2 in. wide cloth tapes with easily read graduations in hundredths of feet instead of inches. They may be purchased in any engineer's supply store. Set up the level in a convenient area outdoors. To set it up properly, place the legs of the tripod or adjust the tilt head by eye so that the bar seems level. Next, sight the instrument on the level rod and then center the bubble in the vial by means of the wing nut. Have an assistant balance the level rod on top of a stake driven in the ground fifty feet in front of the instrument. Sight through your level at the rod, and, after carefully centering the bubble, record the reading made by the knife-edge on the rod. The assistant rodman, then picks up his rod without disturbing the stake and moves to a point fifty 129

feet behind your instrument. Here he drives a second stake in the ground and balances his rod on it. You now swing your level around and sight on the rod again. Record this second reading after readjusting the bubble. Next, pick up the instrument and set it up directly alongside the second stake. Measure up from the top of the stake to the small hole of the eyepiece after the level bubble is centered. Even though your instrument was not yet in adjustment, your first two readings gave you the actual difference in elevation between the two stakes Why? Because equidistant level shots eliminate the collimation error and your two shots were equidistant. Now, if you add or subtract the difference in elevation (whichever it is) to the height of your instrument above the second stake, you will know what the instrument should read on the rod when the rod is on the first stake. With the rod balanced on the first stake, adjust the level tube with the wing nut to the correct reading, disregarding the bubble in the vial. Then without disturbing the level tube, carefully adjust the level vial with the four nuts until the bubble is centered. Your instrument is now in adjustment and ready to use, but the procedure may be repeated for a check. When observing through the level, always sight so that the rod is in the center of the horizontal knife edge. At that point any possible divergence of the knife edge from a horizontal line will be zero. A few hours study of a manual on surveying will acquaint you with the many uses of an engineer's level and with the procedures used by surveyors on complicated layouts of grade.

spark has an intense heat and actually eats into the metal, thus causing a permanent mark on the metal. To write well with the electric pencil will require a few minutes of practice. At first you will notice that the point tries to stick to the metal tool. You will learn to write with just the correct pressure so that an arc is continually jumping the gap. An electric welder must learn to strike and hold an arc as one of the first lessons in welding.

Fig. 15-21. An electric pencil is a useful tool for writing names or identification marks on tools and metal objects.

ELECTRIC PENCIL
Project IX
This is a real practical project. You will find many uses for it around the home and shop. By means of the electric pencil, you can write your name on any metal object. Tools with your name permanently etched on them are easily identified. See Fig. 15-21. Two additional electrical principles are demonstrated in the construction of this project. First, a current flowing through a coil or inductor resists a change in the value of current. This property of a coil is called inductance. In the electric pencil when the circuit is broken as a result of magnetic action, the current attempts to continue flowing as a result of the inductance of the coil. This results in a small spark which jumps across the gap between the pencil point and the tool on which you are writing. Second, an electric
COIL-#18 WIRE
16 D NAIL

Construction Hints:
1. Your first consideration in making this pencil is to keep the size small enough so that it may be easily handled as a pencil. 2. Fig. 15-22 gives you a detailed drawing of one way that this can be accomplished. 3. The core is a 16-d. nail, threaded on one end, on which is cemented two 3/8 in. fiber or plastic washers, to act as coil ends. The coil is wound with two layers of #18 enamel covered wire. One coil end runs to the connecting terminal at the end of the pencil. The other coil end is attached to the moving armature. 4. The armature is made of 20 ga. spring brass 1/4 in. wide, cut to suitable length. 5. The end of the brass armature is drilled for a 1/4-6-32 bolt. The bolt serves two purposes. It provides a piece of iron which the magnet can attract and also provides a means of attaching a short

DOWEL

BRASS ARMATURE WASHER FLAT ON ONE SIDE TO ALLOW ARMATURE MOVEMENT

FIBER WASHER

Fig. 15-22. Construction plan for an electric pencil.

94

Electricity - PROJECT SECTION piece of copper wire to be used as a writing point. 6. After the pencil assembly has been made, it can be fitted into a 6 in. length of 3/4 in. dowel. See Fig. 15-22. Mount the dowel in a lathe and bore a 3/8 in. hole in one end of sufficient depth to take the coil. Then drill a 1/8 in. hole all the way through the dowel for the connecting wire. 7. To use the pencil, connect one terminal of a 6 v battery to the tool on which you wish to write. Connect the pencil to the other battery terminal. When the pencil touches the tool, the circuit is closed and a current will flow, creating magnetism which draws the point from the tool, which opens the circuit. The point then touches the tool again. The resulting arc will mark the tool.

SPRING HOLD-DOW

I

can is splashed by the crankshaft to keep the mechanism weII lubricated. The complete drive unit is shown in Fig. 1, partly cutaway so that you can get a better idea of its assembly. Bronze spindle bushings (Ford model-T type) are used as sleeves for the vertical shaft and also as SCARCITY of metal leed not keep you a bearing for the crankshaft. Fig, 3 shows from having a scroll 'saw, as this one is how the channel is clamped to flattened mqde mostly of wood. Abide from the bolts places on the shaft, and how the lower and bushings required, t p few other pieces bushing is mounted in a flat-iron bracket. of metal needed can be,salvaged, in most Note from Fig. 4 that the bolts in the latter cases, from odds and efnds found in the fasten both it and the can to the wooden junk box. If plywood i;s not available in base. YOUcan work the channel to shape your particular locality,l you can resort to by hand using a hacksaw, chisel andefile, solid stock by gluing up panels of sufficient or YOU can have the channel and crankwidth. The crankshaft mechanism of the shaft made. Thick felt washers prevent drive head operates in la bath of oil and leakage of oil at points where the two , is sealed inside an ordingry 1-qt. paint can shafts pass through the can. The oil level, of the type having a p ess-fit lid. Fig. 4 of course, should be kept below the hole will give you an idea o how it works. A in the side of the can, as shown in Fig. 4. crankshaft, entering the side of the can, It is important that the block holding the rth crankshaft bearing be rigid. Fig. 2 show a way of bolting thii, which allows it be retightened easily if it should w loose. When insfaJling the crankshaft must be no end play, as the face of the

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TO LEG REACH

27

the top of the plywood sides. With this filler block in place, you can go ahead and add the blade chuck to the slotted end of the shaft. This consists of a hexagon nut screwed and soldered to the end and then drilled and tapped crosswise for a setscrew to clamp the blade as shown in F g 7. The i. blade can be made self-centering in the width as the blade. pipe shaft by two floar flanges which are centered and screwed opposlte each other. One end of the shaft is threaded to pass throu+hGp flanges far enough to permit
c.z:*-

a %-in. elbow to be pinned to the projecting end and soldered to'the flange. If you are unable to have the bushings turned of metal to fit the pipe shaft, satisfactory ones

i f short pipe arms make a neat job. to the size of the plywood drive you'll have to true it on the outer . the lathe as shown in Fig. 10.

ins Hold Bandsaw Blade in Vise While BI
Instead of making up a special jig to hold the ends of broken bandsaw blades in perfed alignment while brazing, just slip a couple of large cotter pins over the blade and clamp them in a vise as shown. To protect vise jaws against excessive heat from them in the visl

, ; : b 4

:

S O PERMITS ' LT TILTING T O ANGLE O TABLl F

tracking without twist by engaging a cross pin in the shaft in slots in the tube. Needless to say, the slots in the tube must be cut down each side exactly in the center, otherwise the pin is apt to bind or prevent assembly. The shaft, with the cross pin either threaded or pressed into it, must be slipped inside the tube and both inserted in the hole at the same time, after which'the spring is added and the lower bushing and its

As - portan ant that the holes be in lime , centrally through the block, a drill press, is preferred to boring them by hand, although the Iatter can be done fairly accurately if you are careful to keep the bit running as straight as possible. Bore the top hole 3 in. deep, then turn the block end for end, and with a 1-in. bit, bore through to meet the first hole. Next, groove the rear edge of the block to take the holddown, after which the uppet. corner is notched according to the dimensions given in Fig. 15. The cutaway sectional view in Fig. 15 ahows what the tension mechanism looks like when installed in the counterbored housing. Bronze bushings of the type that were used in the drive head are used here to carry the shaft; the upper bushing being pinned to the block through the flange and the lower one bushed centrally in the hole with a turned wooden sleeve. Fitting the

..

sleeve are pressed in the end to hold the tube in place. The width of the slots in the tube should equal the diameter of the cross pin. Note that a thick felt washer is provided between the bushing and the metal plate which holds the former in place, to prevent oil from being thrown out through the shaft clearance in the plate. The upper blade chuck is made the same way as the lower one, which was described previously, the end of the shaft being threaded for the nut before the shaft is installed in the housing. A turn of a handwheel clamps the unit securely-in the arm. This can be made of wood and fitted with a carriage bolt to engage an embedded nut in the opposite side as shown in the top view of Fig. 15. The completed unit must be mounted in the arm so that the upper chuck will be directly in line with the lower one. You can do this best by clamping the unit ten

porarily in place with a C-clamp or a handscrew and checking it for alignment with a square held along the underside of the arm. When centered, the frame core piece along the top of the arm is fitted and bolted in place behind the unit and filler blocks or stops are glued between the sides at the front. See top view, Fig. 15. The work hold-down, Figs. 15 and 16, is improvised from an old table fork having the two center tines removed. It is soldered to a 1%-in. disk slotted crosswise, to permit the hold-down to be adjusted to whatever slant the table may be tilted. The fork and disk are held to a wood shaft by a bolt blade guide. Several of these guides will be needed to accommodate blades of various thicknesses. .You can make them easily from %-in. carriage bolts by slotting the heads the required depth with a hacksaw and then closing the slot slightly by peening it to suit the blade thickness. A thurnbnut fitted as shown in Fig. 15 serves to lock the hold-down at the desired height, and wax applied to both the shaft and the channel in which it moves will make it slide easily. Making the trunnions for the tilting table will require the use of a lathe, as a groove must be turned in them to take guides on which they move. Both trunnions can be had from one plywood disk by sawing it carefully in half after turning to size. Note in Fig. 18 that the bolt slots through $he trunnions must be cut on opposite sides of the centerline to obtain right and left-hand units. Use hard-pressed board from which to turn a ring to fit the trunnion grooves nicely and then screw - 3-in. segments of the ring flush with the top of the frame at the front and back as shown in Figs. 19 and 20. Notice that the square heads of the trunnion bolts are embedded under the guides before screwing the latter in place. A wing nut and washer are provided on each bolt to lock the trunnions in position. Wax applied to the trunnion grooves and the guides will make the table tilt smoothly. Plywood is preferred to solid stock for the table, as it will stay flat. It is attached to the trunnions with cleats as shown in the upper detail i F g n i. 18. You will have to do this, of course, while the trunnions are in place on the guides. The recess for the metal table insert is formed easily by pressing a turned ring in the hole as shown in Fig. 17. Hera you also can see how the frame extensions

( @$ FRONT VIEW SHOWING TABLE TILTING TRUNNION
provide stops to permit returning ble quickly to a horizontal position. it is desired to have the table so it tilted 45 degrees to the left ako, th can be cut off. With this arrangeme clamping-bolt slob are extended an trunnion indexed 90 degrees for ra settitig. If you are unable to buy an endless belt long enough to reach the drive pull you can resort to round leather belting even sash cord, applying belt dressing slippage develops. ,
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Ball-Bearing Mandrel From Bike Pedal Hanger

With very little olterotion, o bicycle hanger assembly provides o rugged, inexpensive boll-bedring mandrel for a homemade power grinder, circular saw and similar high-speed tools

If you are planning a homemade tool that requires the use of a mandrel, such as a grinder, table saw, etc., the pedal-bearing assembry of a discarded bicycle will provide a ball-bearing mandrel that is free running,and dust tight. Saw the frame to sever the hanger and weld the remaining stubs to a metal plate to simplify mounting the assembly. Then remove the pedal

cranks and turn down the projecting ends of the shaft to the desired diameter; usually a %-in. diameter is the most suitable. Threading the turned ends of the shaft so that nuts can be driven on in the direction opposite that of the rotating saw or grinder, completes the job. If desired, a grease fitting can be fitted on the housing to simplify lubricating the bearings.

Drill to Use in Model Making Assembled From Scraps.
This handy drill for use in making model ships, planes, etc., is constructed easily. A 7-in. length of %-in. brass or steel rod is used for the shaft, and a spiral, removed from an automatic lead pencil, serves as a rotating device, which is soldered at the ends to the brass shaft. A finger grip, which rotates the drill when moved up and down the spiral, is made from a %-in. length of brass rod. This has a hole drilled through the center so it will slide loosely over the spiral, and is fitted with a pin, which extends slightly into the center of the hole to engage the spiral. The chuck is one removed from a small pin drill. Drill bits are made from steel sewing needles. r

Here's the completed furnace set up ready for use. The burners have separate gas valves to provide precise adjustment of the flame. A single valve controls the air supply from the vacuum cleaner. Although not pictured, the molding flask should be placed near the furnace

Gas-fired smelting furnace
By E. R. HAAN
W I T H THIS SMALL FURNACE you can melt down aluminum, brass and copper; preheat small, thick pieces of iron and steel for brazing or forging; caseharden soft steel; make up alloys and bake vitreous enamels on metals. You can use either LP or city gas. The cost runs from $25 up. The refractory lining: Build the refractory lining inside a sheet-metal can from 11-1/2 to 14in. in diameter, and from 14 to 17 in. high. Drill and ream two 3/4-in. holes diametrically opposite each other as indicated. Then cut 5 pieces of firebrick to the sizes given for the furnace floor. To

cut firebrick neatly you score it all around at a marked line by tapping with a sharp cold chisel to form a groove 1/16 to 1/8 in. deep and then break with a heavier blow. The refractory lining consists of ganister and pieces of firebrick. Ganister is a mixture of equal parts of pulverized firebrick and either prepared refractory cement or fire clay. The mixture should have the consistency of rather stiff mortar. If you use prepared cement, you will need two 1-gal. cans. If you use fire clay, you add water sparingly. Pieces of firebrick usually can be had at little or no cost from a brickyard. Pulverize these with a hammer. Cover the bottom of the can with ganister about 1-1/4 in. deep, and tamp it down to eliminate air pockets. Place the 5 pieces of firebrick in the positions shown, press them down into the ganister so that their top surfaces will be level 1/4 in. below the holes in the sides of the can. Press ganister into the spaces between the pieces of firebrick to come 1 in. from their tops. Next, make the cylindrical inner form of sheet metal.This is 7 in. in diameter for a can of 11-1/2 to 12 in. in diameter so the lining will not be less than 2-1/4 in. thick. The inner form is 8 in. in diameter for a 12 to 14-in. can. Hammer the seam moderately tight so that it can be pried open for removal of the form. Drill and ream

two 3/4-in. holes diametrically opposite each other and 1/4 in. above the bottom edge. Place the form centrally on the furnace floor so the holes are in line with those in the can, and push an 18-in. length of 3/8-in. pipe through all the holes. Now you build up the lining. Set 8 to 12 lengths of wire or old hacksaw blades vertically at the center of the lining for reinforcement. Tamp the ganister into all voids and in good contact with the can, inner form and pieces of firebrick. After the lining has dried overnight, turn out the pipe and remove the form. Then let the lining cure for three days. Burner details: The 3/8-in. nipples of each burner should come 1/4 to 3/8 in. inside the surface of the lining. A similar amount of clearance is allowed between the reducers and the outside of the furnace. The brass half unions fitting the tees are the kind used to attach 3/8-in. copper tubing with compression nuts. Enlarge the inner part of the hole at the beveled end with an 11/32 in. drill to a depth of 1/4 in. To do this you mount the fitting at a true perpendicular in a drill vise and do the drilling on a drill press. Tap the enlarged portion of the hole with a

Tongs should be designed to grip the crucible firmly when removing it from the furnace. Be especially careful when pouring hot metal into the flask

1/8-in. pipe tap to take a nipple which should extend 1/4 in. inside the end of the burner when it is assembled. The nipple has four No. 45 holes drilled equidistantly through its wall as shown. A steel sleeve fits the burner end of the nipple and a brass bushing, drilled centrally with a No. 45 drill, fits into the other end of the nipple where it screws into the half union. Pipe and tubing unit: Use 1/2-in. pipe for the air supply line and 3/8-in. copper tubing for the gas supply line. Compression fittings were used on the tubing in the model shown. For these the ends of the tubing must be flared carefully with a flaring tool to produce tight, nonleaking joints. Each burner has a separate gas valve for individual adjustment of each flame but a single air valve serves both burners. Having the air and gas supplies connected midway between the burners equalizes the resistance of pipe and tubing.

If the rubber hose for the gas line is too small to fit on 3/8-in. tubing, make an adaptor from short lengths of tubing, one fitting inside the other, then sweat-solder together. Also make an adaptor of close-grained hardwood to fit into the end of the vacuum-cleaner hose. Pipe-joint compound is used only at the tees where the half union and reducer screws into the tees, and where the 3/8-in. burner nipples screw into the reducers. All the joints of the gas line should be tested. Crucible, tongs: A graphite-clay crucible is best, but for economy you can use one made up from a malleable-iron pipe cap and nipple of suitable size. A 3-1/2-in. pipe cap provided with a 6-in. nipple were used for the model shown. By providing the pipe cap with 4 machine-screw legs turned into tapped blind holes in the bottom to raise the crucible 1/2 to 3/4 in., the flames will meet under it and the heat will be absorbed faster than if the flames contact only the side of the crucible. Curvature of the jaws of the tongs depends on the crucible diameter. The contact should be, uniform and the tongs should be tested for holding before being used. Curing the lining: After the 3-day drying-out period you ignite the gas and allow small flames to burn without any air blast for about an hour to complete the curing of the lining. To ignite the furnace place a lighted match inside near a burner and turn on the gas supply slowly to produce a small flame. Then turn on the other burner to ignite from the first and turn it down for a small flame. After an hour's time the air blast is used for about 10 minutes. First open the gas valves farther so that the flames will rise above the furnace top. Then, while the air-supply valve is closed completely, turn on the vacuum cleaner, after which you open the air valve slowly until the flames become light blue. Too much air in proportion to gas will extinguish the flames. Avoid this by turning the gas valve almost fully open, then turn the air valve wide open after which you gradually decrease the gas supply to each burner to reach the point of maximum blast without flame flutter. After 10 minutes close the air valve first and then the gas valves. When the furnace has cooled you inspect the lining for cracks which are almost certain to develop. Fill the cracks with prepared refractory cement or fire clay and allow this to dry out before the next firing. Crack filling is repeated if more cracks develop. When operating at maximum blast, the furnace can be covered almost

entirely with a piece of asbestos-cement board to retain heat. To inspect the charge you remove the cover with a pair of tongs and observe the contents of the crucible through colored glasses. Use the skimming ladle to drop some borax into the molten metal. Use technical grade borax available at photo-supply houses. Skim off the resulting dross or scum before removing the crucible for pouring. Safety rules: An LP gas tank should be located outside the building, and the gas piped through a 3/8-in. copper tube provided with one gas valve at the tank and another inside the building. Locate the furnace on an earth or concrete floor that slopes away from walls or combustible material. The latter should be kept a safe distance from the furnace. A sheet-metal box about 6 in. high and about 3 ft. square, two-thirds full of dry sand, should be located next to the furnace. The molding flask is set on the sand. The crucible is held over the sandbox on its way to the molding flask for pouring.

TURDINESS and accuracy are incorporated in this inexpensive, rollerbearing grinder, which you can make from an old auto-differential assembly. The grinder will take wheels up to 12 in. in diameter, and it can be made either in a floor or bench type. The work can be done with ordinary tools with the excep-

Use glue between the

angle, it -is best to drill them with a -in. bit, and then. enlarge them with a earner. In order to tighten the bolts efively, sleeves are cut from M-in. pipe placed over the threaded ends of the between the kt-iron supporting bars the housing as in Figs. 4 and 6. One of each sleeve is beveled so that it fits ugly against the housing. The assembly f the wheel guards is shown in Figs. 8 9, the latter giving the essential disions. The wheel guard is bolted to supporting bar at the back. It is not ened to the housing. The balance of assembly for the floor-type grinder overhead belt drive is clearly shown ig. 5, while the bench type is shown y requires that the speed of 12-in. g . wheels should not exceed 2,000 1,800 r.p.m. is better for a wheel diameter. Smaller wheels can be proportionately higher speeds.
f you have occasion to use a drill that is

Indicator for Setting Tailstoc Of Lathe at Zero Position
After turning a taper on work by means of the tailstock setover method, you can move the tailstock back to align the centers without loss of time if this in-, dicator is used. It consists of a sheetmetal pointer pivoted to a pin in the .lathe bed, and a., length of spring wire, which is fastened rigidly in the pin and wrapped around wire causes the point stop pin in the tailstoc follows the pln. A f t r perfectly, mark the po end on the tailstock Then if the tailstock it back to bring the and !he centers will .

small to fit pour brace, slip a piece of

WELDER'S LRILLami G K 3 E R
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By F. Gage
PERATING on cur-

:

O rent produced by a welding generator, this
grinder and drill, Figs. 1 and 2, will be helpful to owners of motor-driven electric welding outfits who take them to farm

enpenditure is the cost of old auto starters. The drill and grinder shown here were made from model-T Ford starting motors, which are rugged and do not burn out easily. They can be operated safe1y on any d.c. welding generator having an open vdtage range-from 0 to 40 volts. When using the drill or grinder, b run the generator at idling speed of the motor that drives it so that voltage delivered will be low. A . little experimenting will enable vou to determine at what soeed

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. After obtaining the s t a r t i n g
motor, take it apart and clean it thoroughly, washing the parts with gasoline if necessary. Then inspect the bearings, and replace them if they are worn. If desired, you can s u b s t i t u t e ball bearings for the bronze ones already in the motor. Also, check the brushes and replace them if they are worn down. If the commutator is worn, turn it 'down in a lathe, and undercut the mica, or else replace the armature with one on which the commutator is in good condition. Now, before reassemblini the motor,
euk

,,,, , ,,

If-

FROMWELDING

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off the end slate and armature shaft as

11

%Ef?,O%ac

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indicated in ~ i g3. Be sure that the arma. ture shaft is straight and true. Then thread the end of the shaft to take a drill chuck. As these motors rotate in the opposite direction of a drill, they must be reversed. This is done as in Figs. 5 to 8

inclusive. The end cover is given one quarter turn to the left as you face the closed end of the cover. In this way, the cover is turned so that the screw holes are moved to line up with the next holes in the housing. This makes it necessary to cut a

ackets to which they were connect, and then resolder them. In exing the brush brackets, you will e that two of them are insulated th fiber strips from the c-opper ring which they are mounted. The ds are connected to these brackBefore replacing the cover, drill a small hole in the end so that the hearing can be lubricated frequently. A little felt placed inside the cap in front of the hole will help distribute' oil to the bearing. This completes changes in the motor. Next, comes a pair of handles. These are pipe nipplks, which are screwed into sockets arc welded to opposite sides of the motor housing. The original sockets were made by sawing a pipe cou-. pling in half. Be very careful in doing this welding job to see that the motor housing is not heated enough to damage the insulation of the coil wires inside. One of the handles is fitted with a switch made as in Fig. 4, using heavy copper contacts. This gives instant control of the drill as the switch really becomes part of the handle and must be gripped to keep it closed. If the motor is to be used as a grinder, ,the treatment is the same except that the a r m a t u r e shaft i s threaded for nuts to clamp on a grinding wheel, and the hanare shaped from flat iron to provide s suitable for manipulating a grinder.

Notches Cut in Eye of Lathe Dog Adapt It for Square Stock
new notch in the cover to straddle the terminal that projects from the housing. You can do this easily with a file or hacksaw. After the cover has been shifted, you will find that one of the coil lead wires is too Sometimes it is handier to drive s q u a r e stock i n a metal-turning lathe by using a dog instead of a chuck. Any dog suited for round work can be made to hold square stock by filing two small notches in the position shown. In most small dogs, several sizes of squares can be held in one pair of notches.

short to connect to its brush bracket. You

can lengthen it with a short piece of wire, of course, but a neater and better way to do the job is to unsolder the leads where they are connected to the field coils, and shift them as shown in Figs. 7 and 8, until both will reach the two insulated brush

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Right: Boring tough automobile spring leaf with ordinary carbon drill after it has been case-hardened in a home workshop. Above: Samples of what case-hardened objects can do.

Photos by Panlel Hubin

HARDENING STEEL
in the home workshop
By Albert A. Brandt
times have you wished you could put a tough edge an HOW manyand drive it through aon that ordinary nail piece of—say, 1/8-in. steel plate? Now, using a non-poisonous alloy powder developed by Samuel D. Necamp, known as Hi-Speed-It you can do just that. The powder fuses into the metal and increases its surface hardness in a matter of seconds. No special equipment of any kind other than a gas ring or Bunsen burner is required. To harden iron and low-carbon steel with the Necamp powder, you first heat the object to a cherry-red color (between 1,400 and l,700°F). To ensure even heating, it should be turned or rotated while heating. [Continued on page 158]

1. First step in case-harden ing; heat object to cherry red. 2. Object is then dipped into powder and stirred to insure even coating. 3. After reheat ing the object is quickly quenched in brine or clean cold water. 4. For greater depth of hardness the process is repeated again. 5. A Bunsen burner is being used to heat a dentist's burr for hardening.

Hardening Steel
[Continued from page 107] The object is next dipped into the powder and stirred about until a thick coating adheres. From 15 to 30 seconds is allowed for the powder to fuse into the metal. The object is then reheated to a cherry red color and quenched quickly in brine or clean cold water. A second fusing and dipping into the alloy powder before quenching will give greater depth of hardness. The same procedure may be followed to case-harden cold-rolled or machine steel. After the powder is well fused into the metal, when case-hardening high-carbon steel, the object should immediately be brushed thoroughly with a wire brush or emery stick to remove excess coating. It should then be reheated to cherry red and quenched. With high-speed steel, the object is heated to a somewhat higher temperature— between 1,800 and 2,200°F (white-hot)—and is quenched in oil. Fantastic as it may seem, an ordinary nail can be hardened by this process so that it can be driven through cold steel plate, while chisels can be made out of ordinary bolts or cold-rolled rods. It is possible to harden a carbon-steel tool so that it will do the work of a high-speed tool and give a carbon drill sufficient hardness so that it will shear through automobile spring leaf, blue spring steel and other tough alloy metals. •

HIS utility bench not only supports T y o u r iqthe with unequaled stability but also provides plenty of storage space for accessories and other tools under a bench top of generous yet convenient dimensions. As an added attraction, we have installed a built-in air compressor for spray painting, but this is optional. The six slide-through drawers are accessible from either side of the bench and their interiors are fitted with partitions, blocks, clamps, etc., for the

orderly storage of tools and lathe accessories. Lathe-turning tools can be stored' in one of the shallow drawers to the right and within easy reach of the operator. These drawers will also house honing stones of various .sizes and shapes, rulers, calipers, tool rests, lathe centers, face plates and most of those other small and frequently used lathe parts. The deep drawers accornmodate grinding wheels, buffing wheels, sanding disks and other larger jigs and

TYPICAL DRAWER CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

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MASONITE

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SLIDE-THROUGHDRAWERS can be opened from either side. Note dividing pdtion. built-in tool rack.
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attachments for the lathe. C o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e bench is c o m p a r a t i v e l y simple: there is no complicated joinery involved. All joints are either butted or lawwed. The bench can be b d t entirely with hand tools although power tools simplify the job. Any s e a s o n e d lumber will m a k e a s u i t a b l e bench. In this case fir was used for the heavier members of the frame and No. 5 white pine for the drawers and drawer supports. A really good top can be .
made by using hard maple

REAR VIEW of lathe bench shows the ample space available for the compressor mounted behiid motor.

strips assembled on edge and bolted together. The height of the bench is 32% inches, which is about right for the average operator.-H. R. Clark

Lathe Milling Attachment
By L C. MASON

Milling attachment in use on 7-in. lathe for milling out parts in the manifold of a model 4-cylinder gas engine. One holding clamp removed for clarity.

B

Y CLEVERLY stacking cold-rolled flat stock together, T-slots and slide for this lathe milling attachment are made without costly machinery. In fact, only two tools, a drill press and lathe, are needed to make the attachment. Shown mounted on the cross slide of a lathe (Fig. 1), the attachment features a swivel base and tilting slide which has T-slots for clamping the work securely in place. Although this attachment was made for a 7-in. Atlas lathe, the overall dimensions could be increased 25% for use with a 9 or 10-in lathe. Start by cutting the stock size cold-rolled flat stock for T-slot pieces A, B, C and D in Fig. 3 to 3-in. lengths. Then lay out and drill the #21 holes. Pieces A and B, and C and D can be clamped together when drilling so that they will line up properly when assembling later. Next, hacksaw the slide plate E in Fig. 3 to shape and trim up the cut edges with a file. Lay out and scribe lines on the slide plate for locating pieces B and D. Be sure these lines are square with the sides of the slide plate. Clamp the B and D pieces to the slide plate and drill the 12 #21 holes. Then open the holes with a #9 drill and countersink the holes on the back of the slide plate to sink 10-32 fh screws just below the surface. Tap the #21 holes in pieces A and C with 10-32 NF threads. Now cut the back plate pieces (F and G in Fig. 3) to length. Since stock size cold rolled
120

does not come 2 3/16 and 1 11/16 in. wide, you will have to machine them. Clamp them on the lathe faceplate with a 90° angle block and turn the 2 3/16-in. piece about 1/64 in. undersize. Set these pieces aside for the moment, and make up and drill pieces H, J and K in Fig. 3. Note that the ends of piece H are filed to take the brass gib L, which should also be made up at this time. To assemble, first clamp piece J to the back and right side of the slide plate. The top and bottom screws securing piece J will run into the B pieces, so bolt these pieces on the front of the slide plate. Spot drill the slide plate through the #9 holes in piece J, then remove it and drill through with a #21 drill. Tap 10-32. To be certain of getting piece H parallel with piece J, place piece F between them. Be sure that the gib, piece L, is between pieces H and F also. Clamp piece H to the slide plate and test piece F to see that, it slides up and down smoothly. Then spot drill the slide plate through the holes in piece H and drill and tap as you did for piece J. Assemble the K pieces with the F piece in place. Now, place piece G, the other back plate you machined to 1 11/16 in. wide, on piece F between the K pieces. There should be 1/32 in. clearance on each side between the K pieces. Clamp the G piece in place, and drill the 3/16 in. rivet holes deep enough to spot drill the hole locations on
SCIENCE AND MECHANICS

the F piece. Then remove the pieces and continue drilling the holes through the F piece. Countersink the rivet holes on the F and G pieces a good 1/16 in. and fasten with rivets cut from 3/16 in. dia. soft steel rod. Heat rivets red hot before setting. When cool, file or grind flush at both ends. Your next step is to true up the front, or top surfaces of the T-slot pieces A and C so that they will be parallel with part G of the back plate that fastens to the angle on the lathe cross slide. First remove pieces H, J and K on the back of the slide plate. Then permanently fasten T-slot pieces A, B, C and D to the slide plate. File projecting 10-32 screws flush with A and C pieces. Reassemble the riveted back plate to the slide with pieces H, J, K and L. Tighten the screws so that the back plate will not slide. Now clamp the assembly to the lathe faceplate, so that the back plate is against the faceplate and T-slot pieces facing outward. Take a series of light cuts off the surfaces of pieces A and C, which will true up the front and compensate for any difference in the thicknesses of the flat bar stock. For the feed screw, make up piece M in Fig. 3 and fasten to the top of the slide plate with two 10-32 fh screws as in Fig. 2. Do not drill the ¼-in. hole in piece M at this time. Also make the nut, piece N in Fig. 3, and fasten to the top of piece G with two 10-32 fh screws. Since the holes for the feed screw through pieces M, N and the back plate must be aligned and parallel with the slide ways, clamp the assembly in the upright position on the drill press table so that the front of the slide plate and right side of the slide way is parallel with the drill bit. If the drill press has a tilting table, be sure to square the table with the drill bit first. Using a #21 drill, bore a hole through piece N and M, and into the back plates about ¼ in. in depth. The hole should land right between the riveted back plates. Remove the #21 drill, chuck a ¼in. drill and bore through piece M only. Then, without removing the assembly from its clamped position on the drill press table, take off pieces M and N and bore a 9/32-in. hole 3 5/8 in. deep into the riveted back plates. While you have piece N off tap the #21 hole with 10-32 threads and reassemble to the back plate. Turn the feed screw, O in Fig. 3, from 3/8-in. steel rod, reducing the thread little by little until you have a shakeless fit with the nut. Note that the other end of the screw is threaded ¼-28 for the handle and dial. Turn the dial, P in Fig. 3, and scribe the graduations on the bevel with a screwcutting tool bit turned sideways in the 121

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tool holder set at center height. Twentyfive divisions on the dial will indicate slide movement of .002 in. for each division. A 25-tooth gear fastened on the lathe spindle was used for indexing. Scribe every fifth line (.01) the full width of the bevel. Make the handle pieces Q and R as detailed in Fig. 3, and turn the thrust washers from bronze or brass. Before assembling the feed screw to the slide and back plate, turn the mounting bolt 5 in. (Fig. 3). Use a stock ½-20 hex. nut with the bolt. Then remove the back plate from the slide and bore the ½-in. hole, countersinking the widest of the back plates to the same taper as on the mounting bolt. Try to arrange the work so that the taper on the bolt and back plate can be turned without changing the angle of the lathe compound rest. When assembling the feed screw to bearing block M on the slide plate, place a thrush washer on the feed screw shaft at each side of block M. Then screw on the dial and handle on the feed screw, allowing just enough play for easy turning. With the handle and dial locked together like locknuts, hand solder or braze the handle to the dial. Drill a 1/16-in. hole through the handle and feed screw and drive a pin through it. Scribe an index mark on the slide plate as on E in Fig. 3. When assembling the mounting bolt to the back plate, file notches in the bolt heads as in Fig. 3. Then, after inserting the bolt in the back plate, raise burrs with a centerpunch at the edge of the hole to fill the filed notch. This will keep the bolt in place and prevent its turning. Now place the back plate in the slide ways, engage the feed screw and work it back and forth a few times to test the slide ways. If the K pieces are too tight, place a paper shim under each for clearance. If too loose, file or grind down the thickness of pieces H and J. Adjust the gib screws for a smooth sliding fit without play. The completed milling attachment mounts on a 3-in. length of 3/8 x 3 x 3-in. angle iron bolted to lathe cross slide in place of the compound rest as in Fig. 1. The size of this angle iron will vary depending upon the make and: model of the lathe it is to be used with. Regardless of the size of angle iron needed, first face off the two outside surfaces of the angle by clamping it on the lathe face plate with an angle block. Then cut a ¼ in. thick steel plate and rivet it to the inside surface of one leg of the angle as in Fig. 2. Again clamp the angle to the lathe face plate and bore a hole through the angle and ¼-in. plate large enough to fit on the compound mounting lug on the lathe cross slide. Clamp the angle iron to the lug in the same 122

way the compound rest was clamped, drilling and tapping needed holes in angle iron, to take the plunger pins and clamp screws used to fasten the compound rest. To drill the ½-in. milling attachment mounting hole in the angle, clamp it so that the vertical face is exactly at right angles to the lathe bed ways and bore with a drill chucked in the lathe headstock. This will place the pivot point of the attachment on the lathe centerline which is advantageous for some types of milling operations. Work to be milled is clamped against the machined surface of the slide as in Fig. 1. Use ¼ in. squarehead machine bolts with heads placed in T slots for clamping.

No. Req.

MATERIALS LIST—MILLING ATTACHMENT All Dimensions in Inches Size and Description
3/16 x 5/8 x 4 cold rolled steel ¼ x 3/8 x 4 cold rolled steel ¼ x ½ x 3 cold rolled steel ¼ x 5/8 x 3 cold rolled steel ¼ x ¾ x 3 cold rolled steel ¼ x 1 x 3 cold rolled steel ¼ x ½ x 1¼ cold rolled steel ¼ x 3 x 5 7/8 cold rolled steel ¼ x 2¼ x 4 1/8 cold rolled steel ¼ x 1¾ x 4½ cold rolled steel 3/8 x ½ x 1 cold rolled steel 1 dia. x 2½ cold rolled steel 3/8 dia. x 8 cold rolled steel 3/8 x 3 x 3 x 3 long angle iron ¼ x 2 x 3 cold rolled steel 3/16 dia. x 7 mild steel rod for rivets 3/8 x ½ x 1¾ bronze or hard brass 1/16 x ¼ x 4½ hard brass 10-32 x 7/8 fh machine screws 10-32 x ¾ fh machine screws 6-40 x 5/8 headless flat-point socket setscrews 6-40 hex. nuts ½-20 hex. nut

Use K H and J B A D C Q E F G M P and S 0 and R mounting angle mounting angle N L

2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14

JUNE,

1958

-1
A

front and rear views of which are shown in the photos above, has a capacity of diameters up to 4% in. and a maximum distance between centers of about 5% in. The tools 'required to build it are a hacksaw, breastdrill, files, clamps and a few drills, taps and dies. Assemble the legs and feet of the bed, shown in Fig. 1, and then assemble these to the top angles, with the whole in an inverted position on a good flat surface. Clamp together and drill the bolt holes through the three pieces at one time, bolt-. ing before removing the clamps. Have the holes a snug fit for the bolts. This procedure will insure the bed top being true and flat. The cone pulley and a chuck, of about %-in. capacity, can be purchased from the stores selling the small popular woodworking machines and accessories. I f you build the headstock shown in Fig. 2, it will be well to buy one of the small polishing-head spindles that are already threaded with the special thread to fit the chuck, together with a collar to fit. The spindle is .cut off to the required length.

HIS metal-turning lathe, the

Only a few hand tools are needed to build this lathe, the headstock itself being used for turning and drilling other parts

Be sure that the spindle hole is parallel to the bottom surface, and ream it to fit the, spindle without shake. The washers shown should be of brass if the head is steel, and steel if the head is bronze. They may be left off until you can turn them up yourself after completing the machine. Making the head of bronze gives the .best spindle bearing. The headstock may be made of an old bearing of suitable proportions, blocking it up to the required height and fitting any available chuck to it, or it cen be made up specially from 2% by 2% %-in. piece of cold-rolled steel. An 01 hole or cup should be provided on the to1 to oil the spindle. Bolt the completed headstock to the left end of the bed with a 3h-in. bolt, 1% in. long, and a washer, and line it up with the spindle parallel to the bed slot.
A good method of oheokidg this alinemenL

is indicated in Fig. 4. A straight rod, abou 1/4 in. in diameter and 10 in. long, is clamped in the chuck so that it does not show eccentricity when the spindle is revolved. A square, standing on the bed, is

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HOLE

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HEADSTOCK
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set so that it touches the rod, and the distance from the square edge to the bed slot is measured in severa1 places along its length. The alinement is true when this measurement is the same when taken at an9 place. It is a good plan to put in a couple of dowels to maintain this setting. Set up the lathe with the countershaft and motor. A general arrangement of the drive is shown in Fig. 6, together with the pulley sizes to obtain the right speeds. The motor should be at least % hp. Pulleys and countershaft are of the type used on small woodworking machines, and will cost about $3.75. V-shaped r u b b e r belts are the best, as they will not cause loss of power through slippage. T h e tailstock, in Fig. 5, is first built' up complete, but the spindle hole is not drilled until later. The dowel'sizes are not given in any of the drawings, as these can be made to suit materials at hand. To bore the tailstock, place it on the machine, with the stud nut just tight enough to prevent shake and still permit sliding forward onto the drill. A temporary screw feed is rigged up to slide the tailstock forward by clamping a piece, with a long screw in it, to the bed end with the .screw end pushing against the tailstock. Thread the spindle hole from the
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in thefront end of the spindle. The taper is reamed with a %-in. drill or reamer ground to thi? required angle. The slide rest is shown in Fig. 3. The angular faces of the parts composing the dovetail slides are beveled with a file and should be smooth and flat. All the sliderest screw and dowel holes can be drilled, using the lathe and tailstock as a drillpress. The outside beveled pieces are attached to the undersides of the respective plates, and these, with the gibs and adjusting screws in place, are used as gauges for the mating inner parts. The sides of the inner dovetail parts are filed parallel, which is determined when these pieces will slide through the gauge with the same feel all the way. Blue paint will aid, used i the manner of fitting bearinge. The aon sembly of the lower slide is completed fist, and the inner dovetail part of the upper, or cross, slide is fastened on at 90°, using a square to set it and omitting the dowels at this time. Complete the upper/

slide assembly, and, as in the case of the tailstock, the handwheels can be temporarily omitted by locking two nuts as a substitute, until the wheels can be turned up on the completed lathe. The h a 1 setting of the slides at 90' is done with the slide rest on the lathe, by feeding the cross slide across under a scriber, set up and clamped solidly to either headstock or tailstock, so that it scratches a line on the top surface of the cross-slide plate. A line is then scribed by hand on the same surface accurately at right angles to the fist. Next, with the scriber set up as an indicator on the second line, feed in the lower slide so the second line follows under the point. If the setting is correct, khe point should follow the line.
Play in the screw holes should permit the

slides to be moved by light taps of a hammer, until lined up properly, after which they are doweled. The key should be filed from a piece wider than ?$ in. SO that it will fit snugly in the bed slot, and drilled

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for a snug fit on the stud. Angles arg obtained by rotating the key around the stud, and the screw holes for holding the key at different locations can be laid out close enough. The indicator lines must be , carefully located by adjusting the slide $6"around until it will turn a piece of rod the same diameter for the whole travel of the cross slide. At this setting, lock the key lie. with the screw and scribe the line along K,;r the side of the key for the zero angle. $4,c From this line, set the key at whatever other angles you may expect to use, and ? scribe the other lines. For clearness of i1f ;: 1 5 lustration, only two angle settings are 4 - shown, but these m a y be as many as one for each degree, by putting two arcs of staggered screw holes in the base to obtain half-hole spacing, and slotting the 'zap' holes in key. The toolpost is easily made from a flat-head machine screw of %+in. diameter, long enough so that the threads are removed when cut to the 1%-in. length. Make the slot in this by drilling a series of
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e ' between. ~ i l e t h head of the post so it is : slightly below the surface of the metal around the countersunk hole. The small . segment can be cut from a large washer of 1%-in. diameter, Ys in. thick, and should move freely in the post .slot. Make a tool bit by grinding up a piece broken from a %-in. square file and clamp it temporarily in the post to turn up the small round concave spacer. Assemble the post complete and drive in the pins at each end of the segment to act as retainers. The turning of the three handwheels makes the final step in completing the machine. File the grooves in the rims of the slide-rest handles, and pin them in place, allowing free turning without play. Any shake at this point will cause chattering on heavy cuts. The tailstock wheel is held with a setscrew, and a slight depression is drilled on the spindle for this screw to enter. Tools and fittings for this lathe are described on the following pages.

@,Circular +. : Saw Serves as Grinder and Sander

F :

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$ power tools in your shop, yo
_, saw
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When you have a limited

can be used for some gr

. sanding jobs. For example, if you nee

a shallow rabbet ground accurately on a piece of flat steel, just substitute a -- grinding wheel for the saw blade, lower the arbor or raise the table the desired height and grind the rabbet. If ; you have no disk sander, you can use the saw as one. Just cut a metal disk to the required size and drill the center to fit over the saw arbor. Then cement fine sandpaper on one side and coarse on the other. This gives you a sander with a

machined table and a miter gauge for sanding the edges of work at an angle or so they are square.

will need tools and equipment. The first essential is the cutting bit. For a generaluse tool, it is best to have a clearance angle of lo0,a back slope of 5" and side slope of 10". Experience will teach just how much to vary these for different kinds of work. Material for these bits can be purchased in the form of high-speed steel bars, already hardened and ready to grind, from supply houses handling jewelersy equipment. The rough bit for the lathe described should be l/a in. square and about 1in. long. Of course, boring tools will have to be longer to suit each case. Next in importance, from the standpoint of frequent use, is a small drill chuck for the tailstock. This will be used whenever holes are drilled in a piece held in the headstock chuck. Any type chuck of %-in. capacity will suffice. Only enough of the inside threaded shaft is required to cover the full range of chuck adjustments, and a small taper shank is turned up and pressed into a hole drilled in the chuck. The taper must fit the'hole in the spindle. The faceplate is another part used frequently. This is best made in two pieces. The hub can be made from a nut, or from
a similar piece, a hole being threaded to

A er's lathe, previously described, you

FTER building the small model mak-

,

fit the shaft. The plate is laid out for the holes, and these are drilled and tapped before being mounted on the hub. Although the illustration shows the use of screws in

mounting, pressing, riveting or soldering are equally good. True up the plate by facing and turning the diameter. Centers are made from drill rod hardened after turning. They are polished with fine emery cloth after hardening. Two sizes are shown, together with an adapter, to make the small ones fit the large taper. The larger fit the spindles, and the lesser ones are used in the small driving plates and centers. At this time a taper hole is drilled and reamed in the headstock spindle, as you now have the tailstock chuck to hold the drill and reamer for this operation. This hole is identical with that in the tailstock, so that all tapers will be interchangeable.

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driving plate and dog are used when diameters are turned between cen. It is well to have more than one size, suit your own conditions. The smaller size fits in the tapered hole, while the larger is screwed on like the faceplate. Arbors are used in innumerable ways, and for this reason it is advisable to have quite a range of sizes. They make good mountings for saws, small emery wheels and cutters, and may be used to hold small pieces

for turning when these have a concentric hole in them. Collars or spacers are included with each arbor to accommodate varying thicknesses to be held on them. Light milling or slotting can b the saws and cutters by clampi to the slide-rest top, with the moved; a few tapered holes top will aid in clamping. T makes a fine drillpress if provided with a plate having a taper shank. Make the plate of brass and solder the shank in. Face it true, and you will have a good surface to drill against. You are now equipped to do all kinds of ordinary metal-turning jobs of small size, and in special cases extra ac- cessories can be made to suit.

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-- This Simple Jig for Cutdng Tenons Fits Any Circular Saw
Here's a jig for safely cutting tenons on your circular saw. It consists of three blocks; one is 'the base and the other two are fastened together at right angles as in-. dicated. The underside of the base is slotted for an oak runner, which slides in the miter-gauge groove of the saw table. The upper surface of the base and the lower surface of the horizontal block that fits on the base, are each grooved at right angles to the f i s t groove, to fit a runner which permits lateral adjustment. The horizontal block is fastened to the base with bolts which slide in slots to permit adjusting the jig for cuttiig tenons of different thicknesses. A C-clamp will hold the work.

- sizes. For a 7-in. swing, omit the block in thousandths of an inch, as the .20 threads and attach the key and stud directly to the per inch on the lead screws permit ,050 in.
bottom surface of the lower slide. Fig. 5 shows the swivel arrangement for making angular cuts, using two metal disks. The handles shown for the lead screws may be replaced by turned handles and dial indicators, which can be marked

turn of the screw. Thus, fifty equal spaces on the longitudinal dial and one hundred equal spaces on the cross-slide dial will give .001in. cut at the tool. The reason for twice as many marks on the cross slide is

movement of the elide for each complete

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tool post and holder, Fig. 3, permit the top surface of the slide to be cleared for clamping down work to be milled. For this use, the spindle rotation is reversed, the work is fed with the cutter teeth pushing toward the travel and pressure, and the speed is reduced greatly. About 60 r.p.m. works well with small cutters. It i s important that the work be fed to the cutter uniformly throughout the length of the cut. Any irregularity in the feed is likely to cause breakage.

Bluing and Blackening Brass Ware
Brass articles may be given a blue or black color by first cleaning and then immersing them in a solution made by dissolving hypo, H lb., and lead acetate, 2 oz., in 1gal. of water. More lead acetate may be added to deepen the color and to speed up the action. To use the solution, heat it a.host to the boiling point and immerse

Live End Boring Bar and Lathe Swivel
By JOEL B. LONG
MATERIALS LIST—BORING BAR 1— 6" x ¾" C. R. steel stock 1— ¼" tool bit of desired length 1—¼" - 20 Allen set screw LATHE SWIVEL 1— 6" angle plate 2— . 375" - 24 " x 2" cap screws 3—10 - 32 x ¾" Machine Screws Drill rod for pins Round stock, 3½" 0. D. (brass, aluminum or steel)

W
152

ORK that's too big to clamp to a face plate can often be bored by clamping to an angle attachment on the cross-slide and using a tool holding bar mounted in an end mill arbor in the lathe's livecenter. You can also bore two or more holes in line and accurately located from the micrometer ring on the cross-slide, like reboring

the cylinders of an outboard en¼" ½" gine (Fig. 1). While the boring bar does not have the adjustability of a micrometer head, it can handle many of the same jobs at .500 only a fraction of the cost. To make the boring bar, cut a 6 in. length of ¾ in. cold rolled 1" steel rod, grasp it in a 3-jaw chuck and center drill one end. Shift the rod's position in the chuck to allow you to machine the 4½ in. length while supporting the end in the tail center. Knurling the section indicated in Fig. 3 adds to the appearance but isn't necessary. Turn the rest of the body to .687 in. dia. and the end to exactly .500 in. for a snug fit in the end mill arbor that attaches the boring bar to the lathe's live-center. With the diameters machined, remove the tail stock and cut the rod off with a cut-off tool. Rechuck the cut-off rod and finish the end. At the end of the body, drill a ¼ in. hole for the tool bit and either file it square for regular cutter bits or make round DRILL EVENLY SPACED bits from drill rod HOLES3 FOR MACHINE stock, hardened by SCREWS COUNTERSUNK heating to a cherry red and quenching BORE HOLE FOR CLOSE in water. Drill and FIT OVER POST ON LOWER CARRIAGE tap the hole for SWIVEL the Allen set screw UNTAPPED to hold the tool HOLES WITH bit. Mill or file the DRILLDRILL USE "Q" SIZE A BOTTOMING TAP 45° flat slot on the ½ 2 HOLES - 24 in. shank for the set screw on the end mill arbor as shown in Fig. 3. The boring bar makes a rigid tool and should not chatter or spring if used correctly. You'll need care and patience to readjust the cutter bit after each cut. Loosen the set screw that holds the bit slightly and, by "feel" or gently tapping it from the rear, advance it a few thousandths. Take light cuts except the first cut on a casting to get under the scale. As the hole nears the desired diameter, check after each cut with a telescope gage and micrometer. For the final light finishing cuts, hone the bit to a sharp edge and you'll find you can work to a .001 in. tolerance. Retract the tool from the bore using power carriage feed on finishing cuts to clean up the surface and leave a smooth finish. The holding fixture for lathe's carriage is made from an inexpensive 6 or 8 in. angle plate and can save you much time and trouble when boring, milling or drilling odd-shaped pieces that would be difficult or impossible to fasten on the face plate. Make sure the faces of the angle plate are smooth, flat and exactly at a 90° angle. Turn the tool post ring to size and drill (size Q) and tap the two .375 - 24 holes with a bottom-tap, stopping the threads about .125 in. before going through. Make up two pins from drill rod (Fig. 4) and turn down end of .375 - 24 bolt to fit in the hole. If
HOME-BUILT POWER TOOLS

¼"

KNURL SECTION TO SUIT

DRILL AND TAP ¼" - 20 FOR SET SCREW

¾"

¾"

DRILL, FILE OR BROACH

HOLE FOR

TOOLBIT

4¼"

the outside of the ring extends beyond the front edge of angle plate, saw it off so that it is even with the edge. The ring is positioned and fastened to the bottom of the plate with three 10-32 machine screws. Three sets of holes for fastening the angle plate to the ring permit greater flexibility and more working surface. Counterbore for screw heads. Fig. 1 shows how an engine block, clamped to the plate, can use the micrometer collar on the carriage feed to locate and evenly space the cylinders. Holes may be drilled through the plate at
SECTION A-A

60°
A
45º

½"

.320

3½"

DRILL ROD PIN (HARDENED)

DIA. x

24 THREAD TURNED DOWN TO SOLID POINT SLIGHTLY ROUNDED

45º MACHINE TRUE SURFACES

any convenient location for hold-down bolts or machinist's clamps.

153

156

HOME WORKSHOP HANDBOOK

How to Bore the Big Ones T
HERE'S a secret to boring up to 1-in. dia. holes through steel with a ½-in. capacity drill press. You reduce the speed of the drill bit and increase the torque with a speed-reducer. The speed-reducer is simply a jack-shaft consisting of a mandrel with a 4-step cone pulley on one end and a 12-in. pulley on the the other end as in Fig. 1. This reduces the drill press chuck speed to a low of about 125 rpm and a high of about 600 rpm, depending on how the cone pulleys are belted. Cut the mounting board and spacers to size as given in Fig. 2 and the Materials List, and bolt the assembled mandrel and pulleys to the mounting board with the spacers under the mandrel. The spacers are needed to provide clearance between the drill press post and the 12-in. pulley. Then remove the motor from the drill press and temporarily fasten the mounting board to the motor bracket with c-clamps. Hold a straightedge across the two cone pulleys and align them by repositioning the mounting board so that the V-belt will run true. Mark the location of the
MATERIALS LIST—DRILL SPEED-REDUCER No. Req. Size and Description Use 1 ¾ x 6½ x 1 7 " plywood mounting board 2 ¾ x 4¼ x 6½" plywood spacers 1 ½ x 37" V-belt drill press pulley 1 ½ x 46" V-belt motor pulley 4 5/16 x 4" carriage bolts mandrel 4 5/16 x 1½" fh bolts mounting board 4 ¼ x 1¼" fh bolts motor (the following parts made by Chicago Die Casting, available from your local hardware store) 1 #1560, 5/8" shaft dia. ball bearing mandrel 1 # 1 4 0 , 4-step, V-grooved, 5/8" bore step pulley 1 #1200A 5/8" bore x 12" dia. V-grooved pulley

Drill bits having ½-in. shanks for chucking are available for boring 9/16 to 1-in. dia. holes.

slotted bolt holes in the motor bracket on the mounting board, remove the board and drill the 11/32-in. holes, countersinking them on the side the mandrel is fastened. Now, place the motor on the board so that a 46-in. long V-belt will go around the 12-in. pulley and the smallest pulley on the motor cone pulley. Align the pulleys, and mark and drill the board for motor mounting bolts. Countersink these holes and bolt the motor to the board. Since the motor must be turned upside down from its normal operating position, it will have to be reversed. Remove the plate covering the electrical connections and change the wiring as noted on the diagram on the back of the cover plate. If your drill press motor has a double ended shaft, it will not have to be reversed. Simply use it in its normal position and place a 2-in. pulley on the lower end of the motor shaft to drive the 12-in. pulley. When boring a hole, start with a 3/8-in. drill bit and enlarge the hole with 1/8-in. larger drill bits until the required size is reached.—ART
YOUNGQUIST.

Offset Tailstock Center
ATHER than offset the lathe tailstock when turning tapers, after it has been adjusted to accurately turn work between centers, make up an offset center as shown in sketch. This can be quickly set at any position from zero to .625 in. on either side of center, allowing tapers to be turned with either the large or small end at the tailstock of the lathe. Make the offset center from an ordinary drill pad, with a slotted crossbar supporting a short lathe center screw-fastened to its face. Cut the slots in the crossbar with an end mill and drill a hole in the center to receive the 60° hardened point. Turn the short lathe center point from toolsteel to 60° on one end and shoulder down on the other for a press fit in the crossbar. Harden, draw the temper and cool the piece before mounting in the crossbar. Mill .125 x 1-in. cross groove accurately in the center and a flat across the top parallel with groove. Top flat will aid in setting up center in same plane as lathe bed ways and at right angle to center axis of lathe headstock. Drill and tap the screw holes in the drill pad, then attach the crossbar with washers under the screw heads.—C. W. WOODSON.

R

SET IN SAME PLANE AS LATHE BED WAYS WITH LEVEL INDEX MARK

SCALE

60°

CENTER-HARDENED

NO. 2 MORSE TAPER

DRILL PAD

DIA.

137

8 BANDSAW
from Pipe Fittings and Auto Parts
c

>

,

OU can build this efficient ball-bearing bandsaw easily from standard ironpipe fittings, two discarded model-T Ford front wheels, a single piston from the same car, and a few other pieces of scrap materials. The frame is assembled from 2-in. pipe fittings as in Fig. 1. First drill and tap the tees and the single elbow for 1/4 by 1-in. set screws, placing these as in Fig. 8 to prevent the parts of the frame from shifting out of line. Screw the parts together tightly, line up the upper arm with

'

e

"

I I

birch plywood, each 12% ;?r, and the center is bored out to nr " ~ e rthe wheel hub as in Figs. 6 and 8. Remove the hubs from the spindles and bolt the disks Now bolt the lower spindle to the frame as in Fig. 8. Make sure that the spindle is square with the frame both ways so that the wheel will run true. This will likely require some filing on both the spindle and the frame. Then fit the upper slide as in Fig. 8, from which you will see that a single bolt passes through the slide bar with a nut on each side; a set screw is tapped through the tee from the opposite side and bears against the lower end of the slide bar. Polish the bar so that the slide -will move freely U and down. Fig. 3 dimenP sions the two parts of the slide which carries the upper wheel when assembled as in Figs. 5 and 8. Flat iron % in. thick is used for both pieces. Bend the slide over a piece of % by 2-in. iron to get the proper size and fit. Smooth the corners with a file
7

the lower cross member, and then tighten the set screws. Next, you remove the spokes from the hubs of the two model-T Ford front wheels. Drive the outer flange up to the inner flange on both hubs, then with a hacksaw cut the spindle-bolt housings as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 4. The exact size of the remaining portion of the housings is not important as filing will be necessary in fitting the spindles to the frame and the upper slide. Two disks are cut from 1-in.

turned from hardwood with a V and improvise a rest for a wood-t

special cement made for this purpose. bands and cement may be purchased

until

tne part slides easily on the bar that has been attached to the upper arm of the frame. The slide should fit the bar snugly so that there is no side play. Unless otherwise indicated, all

Two short lengths of 1% 1%-in. anby gle iron are riveted to the back of the slide to form lugs for the handwheels. To make the latter, turn out two hardwood disks and drive these onto %+in. carriage bolts. Or, you can use a rod of the same diameter and bend the end to 'form a crank. In either case the threaded length of the tension screw should be 7 in. and the tilting screw 4 in. The tilting screw is tapped through the angle-iron lug and is the setting. provided with a nut to l ~ c k The lower end of the tension screw bears on a spur attached to the bolt holding the slide bar as in Fig. 8. The tension spring is 2% in. long. The upper wheel spindle is attached to the yoke with a %-in. cap screw tapped into the end of the spindle, A d also a %-in. stud, which is tapped into the flat section of the yoke as in Fig. 5. It is likely that some filing will be necessary to assure a true fit of the spindle housing against the yoke.

for use. The table trunnion, Figs. 2, 7 and 8, consists of two flat plates and a section cut from a model-T Ford piston as in Fig. 8. These three details show the construction of the trunnion clearly. The important thing is to position these parts so that when the table is tilted, the blade will remain in the center of the slot. To do this you first drill the plates at the ends, cut the piston and slot it as indicated, then clamp the whole table assembly in posi-

'-

.
\

'

-

:

.

.

untersunk screws. If desired, the

the table in place of the pin guide

are standard parts of a wellof small bandsaw. Purchase

bracket is held in place with set screws tapped into the short section of 1by 2-in. pipe screwed into the reducer at the end of the upper arm of the frame. Adjust the guide pins so that the blade passes freely through, and set the thrust roller so that the gullets of the teeth clear the corners of the guide pins. See that the blade tracks in the center of the tread on both wheels.

*: .
-,

''

9

i

Spindle Sander Has Flexible Shaft
For edge-sanding irregular work, an efficient spindle sander can be made from a table, a small sand drum, a length of flexible shafting and a %-hp. motor. Bore a hole in the center of the table top just large enough to admit the drum. From 1%-in. hard-maple stock cut a 4 by 6-in. block, and from 1-in. stock a triangular brace. Screw these parts together as shown. Drill the block to receive two %-in. iron rods, 7 in. long, bent to form a hook a t one end and threaded for wingnuts at the other. Drill and saw out a slot as shown and also drill and slot a 4 by 5-in. block of %-in. stock to correspond with the hole and slot in the 4 by 6-in. piece. Attach the flexible shaft by means of the hooked rods and wingnuts to the block assembly and tighten the sanding drum in the chuck, after which the drum is inserted through the hole in the table from the underside and the whole is fastened securely with heavy screws countersunk in the table top and projecting into both brace and Mock. Connect the end of the flexible shaft to the motor mounted

ASSEMBLY OF WHEEL &BLADE

-UPPER
/

BLADEWIDE

guard is in position the top will clear the upper band wheel by a t least 1 in. This will allow sufficient space for the necessary up-and-down movement of the wheel. Blades for the standard 12-in. bandsaw can be used on this machine. These are 78 in. long, measured around the wheels, and come in widths from % to 4f3 in. Your machine should be mounted on a solid bench or stand and should be driven with a xh.p. motor of 1,750 r.p.m. Use a 2-in. Vpulley on the motor to give proper blade speed. When using the machine, the blade should be drawn just tight enough to prevent its vibrating when the machine is running. To get the proper tension adjustment, start the motor and draw up slowly on the tension screw until the blade runs smoothly through the guides.
aAn excellent bright dip for iron and steel consists of sulphuric acid, 7 oz., , slowly added to water, 2% pints, zinc, M oz., nitric acid, 3 oz., and a small piece of

Inexpensive spindle sander with flexible shaft for edge-sanding curved and irregular work

La'the Centers rrc . Drills Broken taper-shank drill.. ,an be ground easily to provide good lathe centers in less time than they can be made from rough

D
CONSTRUCTED almost entirely from pipe fittings, this drill press will be found exceptionally rigid, neat in appearance and quiet in operation. First get a cone pulley having a thick hub to allow a slot for the key. Refer to Figs. 1 and 6, and construct the frame. Drill through for the spring-assembly tube before screwing on the table support. Bush the 1-in. tees with 1-in. pipe as shown,

cut off and carefully drive in model-T Ford spindle bushings after having reamed to fit %-in. drill rod. Insert the shaft and aline the bearings by tapping the shaft. With the shaft in place, pour molten babbitt around the spindle bushings. Now fasten a pulley on the shaft, take up the end play with a shaft collar, place it under

power and turn down a groove as shown in Fig. 3. The long slot ig cut easily with a plane made of two hack-saw blades clamped between two thin boards and a third board extending below to guide against the shaft. Make a key to fit this slot as in Fig. 4, and drive it into a slot cut in the top of the pulley. The upper puLley grease retainer is made by cementing a ?&-in. aluminum disk tb the pulley. Allow 24 hours for drying and then cement a %-in. plywood ring to the disk. Turn this true and cement the upper disk, which ia out o u t t o clear the tee. Turn the whole assembly true with a file. The lower grease retainer is simply a brass cup, Fig. 2, made by wiring sheet brass around a %-in. pipe and soldering

'

bearing grease retainer assembly as s h m . m e coveralides to a tiglit fit on the %..in.. pipe. Cut off a Ford spindle bushing and &ive it into the %-in. pipe after bushing with split tubing or tin. Drill through and tap. for %-in. studs. The studs must have cut threads to avoid turning through into the shaft. See that all pivoting points in the handle lever are in alinement by inserting long rods in the holes and sighting aldng' .these. I not lined up' properly the f top bearing will heat up rapidly. Constru'ct the spring plunger "assembly next as in Fig. 3. Us6 a spring having at least a 12 to 15-lb. L4TTEN SIDE pull when extended 1in. The tube -inclosing the spring is

FORD' SPINDLI BUSHIN

rf"

the joints. Cement a wood
plug in the bottom as showd. M a k e a l a r g e aluminum washer to support the lower ball-bearing assembly. To assemble the shaft, drop the lower ball-bearing cup down into the tee and slide the pulley in place. Raise the grease retainer cup into place and slide the washer beneath. Then insert the shaft upward through the pulley. Refer to Fig. 3 to make the upper ball-

r/

LIPPER

1'rE 41

BUSHING

By Walter E. Burton
ACKSAWING is the one onerous shop job for which there is no inexpensive and readily available power tool to ease the sweat. Commercially made power hacksaws are costly and aren’t found in most home shops. Here, however, is a new answer. After several years of building and experimenting, P OPULAR S CIENCE experts have come up with a simplified design for a homebuilt power hacksaw at a cost that makes it a practical tool for any shop. All parts, except for the motor land pulley drive, can be assembled for less than $20. Any % to 1/2-hp. motor will run the machine. Any standard 12” hacksaw blade can be used in it. In speed, accuracy, and capacity, the saw rivals even big commercial machines. It will cut stock of any size and shape up to 3” high and 4” wide. In tests, it proved so precise it sliced off disks from a solid steel bar as thin as .050”. The secret of the saw’s low cost is the use of stock materials plus’ a pair of old automobile connecting rods for the main rocker arms-the heart of the machine. No

H

Rocker-arm action is key to the saw’s sim licity and accuracy. It keeps the bla$e rigid and at the same time lets it move back and forth parallel to the base.

. .. 4
. .

3 .

machining is necessary, and all parts are fastened easily with bolts or rivets. The base is simply a pair of 2”-by-2” steel angles pinned back to back to form a sturdy Trail backbone. Four short sections of the same angle provide “feet” for the T rail, Everything else mounts on top. The overarm that supports the blade is a similar T rail made of two lengths of l”by-l” angle. It’s connected to the base rail at only one point-the pair of con-rod rocker arms. The rocker arms support the rear end of the overarm while a motordriven crank moves the blade back and forth across the work, something like the piston in an engine.
CONTINUED

163

Big saw with a hi

bite: This solid-aluminum

Lower pipe bearing is notched s” deep to fit over the base. Sleeves of X” pi e keep the clamping bolts from distorting the %earing.

Fitting the rocker arms. The auto connecting rods give you a ready-made way of pivoting the saw’s overarm rigidly and accurately. They can be scrounged from an auto junkyard for about $1 apiece. Those shown here are from a ‘56 Chevy and have an operating length’between centers of 7”. Exact length, however, is not critical. The saw’s height can easily be adjusted to suit any con rods you can find that are within an inch or so of the dimensions shown here. The rods are used just as they come except for drilling one hole in each near the large end for the %” cross bolt that serves as a spacer. The lower ends of the con rods pivot on a bearing of 2” pipe. The pipe’s outside diameter (2%“) is slightly larger than the openings in the con rods and must be slimmed down at the ends to a smooth, sliding fit. This can be done on a lathe or by careful hand filing. The upper wrist-pin ends of the con rods pivot on a similar bearing of !h” pipe bolted to the back end of the overarm. This, too, must be smoothed at the ends to a close fit in the rods’ openings. Large washers or steel disks are used as end caps on both the upper and lower pipe bearings to keep the con rods from sliding off. Lubrication is through the existing oil holes in the con rods. You can enlarge them if you wish to admit an oil-can spout easily. Assembling the crank drive. T h e ?P crankshaft runs in two bronze pillow-block bearings mounted 4” apart on a ,platform

164

POPULAR SCIENCE FEBRUARY 1964

CONTINUED

.
made ot t\vo thicknesses of 3/4” plywood. The platform measures 4” by 5%” and is bolted rigidly to the T-rail base. ’ Position the crankshaft so that when the arm is at 3 o’clock the front blade holder lines up with the front end of the T-rail base. The crank arm is pinned firmly to the crankshaft with a %“-20 setscrew that locks into a hole drilled part way in the side of the shaft. The connecting rod from the crank arm to the blade frame is a ‘/2”-by-l” steel bar notched at the end to fit between the two bars that form the rear blade-holding leg. The con rod is linked to the &ank and the blade frame by two 3/s” drill-rod pins. The holes for these pins should be fitted with brass or bronze bushings reamed to a close fit. A brass or fiber washer l/32” to l/16” thick provides clearance between the crank arm and con rod. Note that the T-rail base must be notched out at the left side to allow clearance for the swing of the crank. Rigging the V-belt drive. A n 11” pulley is mounted on the crankshaft at the opposite end from the crank arm. One belt runs from this to a 2%” pulley on a jackshaft mounted in pillow blocks on a platCrankshaft is mounted in pillow-block bearings on a platform. A 14” pulley is on the other form of doubled 8” plywood. It’s important that the platend of the jackshaft, and a second form be bolted securely to the T-rail base, with the belt runs from this to a 2%” pulley crankshaft precisely at right angles to the blade. on the motor. The result is a powerful twostage reduction that, with a standard 1,750-r.p.m. motor, gives the saw a cutting speed of about 60 strokes a minute-correct for hacksawing. You can use any combination of pulleys and jackshafts that result in a similar ratio. While the crank drive will work in either direction, it’s best to rotate it counterclockwise as viewed from the crank end of the shaft. This causes the connecting rod to put a downward pressure on the blade on the forward cutting stroke. The platform that supports the jackshaft is simply a wood box screwed loosely to a wood base so Simple crank mechanism moves the blade back and forth as the crankshaft is turned by the motor. Drawings below it tilts slightly forward under belt show how crank arm and connecting rod are linked by tension on the shaft. By tightening drill-rod pins running in brass or bronze bushings. or loosening the two rear screws, you can adjust the tension perfectly. The overarm support. To keep the overarm from dropping.all of the way down when the blade cuts through the work, a small roller is mounted on a bracket at the front. [Continued on page 2161
166 POPULAR SCIENCE FEBRUARY 1964

Homemade Power Hacksaw for Less than $20 [Continued from page 1661

PROTECT IT!
Keep wood young-and prevent unnecessary maintenance, premature replacement. Just make it a practice to treat all raw wood with WOODLIFE@, the original water-repellent preservative. Retards shrinking and swelling, reduces warping. Guards against checking and splitting. Protects against decay, fungi, termites. Improves paintability. Uyited States Plywood, Protection Products Div., 2305 Superior Ave., Kalamazoo, Mich.
riiiiELCYWOODi

WOODLIFE” KLEAN-STRIP
l l l l

As the. blade cuts through, the overarm drops gently onto this roller. A sealed ball bearing makes an excellent roller, although you can use any small metal or plastic wheel. A short section of rubber tubing fitted into the roller’s hole makes a cushioned hub for the axle bolt. To increase cutting pressure, the overarm is weighted with a steel block. The one used here measures 1” by 2” by 4”. It slips over two pins made of headless bolts screvi;ed into the top of the overarm. You can experiment with other sizes of blocks. Making the uise. This consists of a fixed jaw and a movable jaw made of 2”-by-2” steel angles. The jaws are mounted on two bars that serve as rails. The movable jaw can be locked with a cap screw and, for extra holding power, can be braced against pins dropped into holes in the rails. A pressure plate on the movable jaw is adjusted independently with two cap screws after the jaw has been locked at a rough setting. A third cap screw in the fixed jaw bears against the pressure plate and keeps it from cocking when small stock is gripped. NW

Fast, clean, safe

No afterwash n e e d e d
Non-flammable

Refinish immediately

THE

K L E A N - S T R I P CO.,INC.
l

What’s so tinusual about UNIMAT?

MEMPHIS 6. TENNESSEE

WINNIPEG, CANADA

I

AMERICAN EDELSTAALINC, Dept.H-B3MBrordway, N.Y.13, N.Y. 216 POPULAR SCIENCE FEBRUARY 1964

Its the only high precision metal-working lathe in the. world that converts instantly into a sensitive drill press. 10,000 Unimat Owners also use their machines for milling and surface grinding. Attachments permit sawing wood, metal and plastics; polishing, tool sharpening and grinding, Price of complete basic machine is only $139.50. Write for Free. Catalog, or read the whole story in “Miniature Machining Techniques” manual only $1.00.

Four-pulley jackshaft drive brings motor speed down to sawing speed. Note how jackshaft platform is tipped. B y ti htening its rear screws, you can vary the angK e to adjust belt tension.

By Alexander Maxwell
Table is elevated with hand control to feed work against drill held in stationary chuck

Y HAVING the table travel up and down instead of the chuck? the construction of the little drill press shown in Fig. 1 is simplified to the point where all , the parts can be machined completely on any small screw-cutting lathe. Standard stock materials are used-namely, the pipe fittings, bearings and chuck, while the rest of the parts are turned to size from odd

umn. Ikdless rubber belts of the type used on vacuum cleaners provide a slip-free

pieces of steel, brass and flat iron. Any small utility or sewing-machine motor will do to drive the press, although it is advisable to use a motor of the induction type

having end thrust bearings, if i t is to be mounted in a vertical position beneath the bench as shown. From Fig. 3 you can get a general idea of how the parts fit together, and how the chuck and motor are belted to a central jackshaft enclosed in the col-

Fig. 6, and in Fig. 10. The flange is chucked to the faceplate and the threads are bored out to make a wringing fit over the column. When turning cast iron, remember to take a deep initial cut to prevent the hard surface crust from taking the edge off your cutting tool. Machining the pipe reducing tees to fit the column requires care. You will notice that one end of the upper tee is turned down to fit squarely in the shoulder cut

of the bearing block. h hothe W, eentet them on the thre8d.s pather than on the outSi* dbme*. I t beat t to out @way the 6.lst thread completely before mmnsenciqg to cut

and-try method. The 1 - n dimension %i. given i only appreximgte. You w-iU have s to cut back the shoulder a Wtle at a time until the point is reached where the shaft seats perfectly and runs freely without end play. Every 100 hrs. or so of operation, the bearings &ould be removed, waahed in kerosene and repacked with @ease. The threads oh t e head a i d the table h bracket should be lathe-cut to make a wringing fit in the tee fittings. Setscrews dmowgh i sid- of the h Iock the brackets i place. The head, detailed i n n Figs. 5 and 9, may be turned from a mill end of mild-steel rod, or from a piece of 2-in.&&rig. Chucking the head for boring the bracket hole is done best with a four-jaw independent chuck as shown in

Fig. 8. Start the hole with a d i l aad t e other rod pointed slightly, pass it through rl hn use a boring tmil to eut a force-fit hole for the bushing and center punch the underthe bracket. A rawhide mallet is used tb side of the carriage. The parts f ~the table r drive the two together, after which they raising mechanism are detailed in Figs. 6, &e pinned. When properly bored and 13 and 1P, while Figs. 2 and 15 shbw how oounterbored to receive the bearings and they will Look when assembled. The drillthe spindle, the head should look like the rod .washer should bear against the showl. s e e t i 4 view in F3. . 9. The 1-degree taper g der of the cr and not the end of the bushing, so that the acarn nut when taght, ?n We lower end of the spindle must be cut accurately Bo seat the drill chuck perf*. ened wiU hold the crank in place, The chu* which should be of the highe -- mdkdamed type, is premed on the spin- Pattern Is Fastend to Plastic , I by hand. The preloading nut is screwed With Rubber Cemgnr ;8own to provide eonstant pressure an the ': .badqgs. T i w n it until the bearings I n s t e a d of bim& then 1 ~ xit1 l y until they will h soratohing a design In the surface 'just turn freely.L large enough to swing If y w hthe of hard plastics like Bakelite for a : the a l e bacliet, drill the holea fer the brame sleeve bush@ with a drill held i n guide in cutting it, '. .the tailstock & & u. The k t bushing i s glue paper over the wurk, using . '9 p%& hthe beket, while tbe othm . -.cplecan~kbtsli~tlyloosetoco~te rubber cement,
+A,* I

-

I

':Em mxy a& % h d-r Pip. 14 . - 8hms how the tahle may be held a the t cornem with screws and surfaced, both sides, orr the faceplate. The best way t m
regbter the holes in the Qarriage with them

.

in the bracket is to bore oBe hole &at and . insert the md. Then with one end o the f
-

giga a pattern on it plen, if oeeesmry, r a correction be made in the. design atithaat mazing the d c e d %he wurk. Tbe paper mn be removed without any tJmuhle after the cutting or tmlbg bas h e n dam.

d &&&&Be-

MAKE THIS BENDING BRAKE

206

POPULAR MECHANICS

FOR YOUR SHOP
By Fred C. Iglehart

has had to improvise methods of bending. It takes light sheet metals up to 17 in. wide. The hold-down blade moves at an angle of 45 deg. to the bed and adjusts automatically to the thickness of the materials to be bent. The blade is slotted to provide the clearances necessary to permit raising, in successive steps, ½-in. flanges on the four sides of the work, as in forming a box or tray, radio chassis, motor base, or similar work. A retractable stop at the 90-deg. position permits the operator to make repetitive right-angle bends. The throat opens to 5/16 in. to admit flanged parts. All main parts except the table, or base, are made from cold-rolled stock. These include the parts detailed in Figs. 1 and 3 and parts A to E inclusive in Fig. 2. Note that parts A, B and C are shown assembled in the upper left-hand sectional view in Fig. 2. See also Figs. 4 and 5. Stock 3/8 and ½ in. in thickness is used for the right and left end plates and the hold-down supports and guides. The bending-bar brackets also are of ½-in. stock. Note in the right-hand detail, Fig. 2, showing end plate and holddown support assembled, that the right end plate is a duplicate of the left plate with the exception of the lug formed on the lower edge of the latter. Note also that screw holes are counterbored to take socket-head screws flush. The hole pattern for 5/32-in. steel dowels is not dimensioned; only the approximate positions are shown. Where a lathe is not available use a straight 3/8-in. rod for the stop and substitute 5/16-in. capscrews for the spring-tensioning screws. This will simplify construction without affecting operation of the brake. SEPTEMBER 1958

is small-shop size, makes those clean, in sheet T HIS BRAKEsharp bends craftsmanmetal that will delight the eye of a who

Above, brake and examples of flanged work done in light sheet metals. Below, brake assembly with left end plate, handle and 90-deg. stop removed to show hold-down support and spring-tension device

207

By H. J. CHAMBERLAND
APABLE of exerting a pressure of 4,000 ibs., this husky little screw press can be put to a number of uses in the small machine shop. Besides being useful as an arbor press as shown in Fig. 1, it also can be used for forming and for stamping medium-gauge sheet metal, using special-shaped dies as in Figs. 2 and 3. Dimensions for the various parts are given in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. Holes in the base, ram and beam of the press must register ac&l il curately. To . these in line, the ram, which rides the vertical posts, is clamped temporarily to the top surface of the base. Locations of t h e t h r e e holes a r e prick-punched. c m e r .- ,. .n . .

.

drilled a n d b o r e d through into the base with a %-in. bit. Then the ram is removed a n d clamped t o t h e beam, which i s t h e crosspiece at the upper end of the posts, and holes are duplicated in this, using the holes in t h e r a m as a guide. This should give you t h r e e accurately aligned holes in each of the three parts. Next, s the outer h ~ l e in the base are drilled out to 3964 in. and tapped to receive the threaded ends of the posts, Fig. 5. The center hole in the base is enlarged to 1in. The holes in the ram are likewise bored out, using a %-in. bit in the post holes. W e center hole is enlarged to receive the casehardened tool-shank adaater, while the center hole in the beam is bored on the lathe to receive tightly the 1%-in. screw-housing bushing, shown in section in Fig. 6. Both the tool-shank

MARCH, 1941

end to accelerate the screw for rapid adjustment. These are flattened and soldered to squared blocks which in turn are pinned to the threaded ends of the two vertical arms. In place of the lead balls, steel or cast-iron blocks having a corresponding weight can be substituted, attaching them by allowing the tenoned end of the vertical arms to pass completely through the end blocks and into the ball.

T i t Handle Loosens Star Dil ws rl
If you are often annoyed by having a star drill wedge in the hole so that it is difficultto loosen or remove, drill a hole in t h e e n d of t h e shank and insert a hook bent from %-in. s t e e l rod about 8 in. long. A r u b b e r band slipped over t h e drill will hold the rod out of the way when not needed, and t h e rod may be swung out quickly to horizontal position.

.

Compass Helps LocateSwitch Box
When a wall-switch box has been plastered over, I find its exact location with a small compass. This is moved along the wall and when the compass .passes over the box the needle will deflect strongly. -Robert K. Urie, Enumclaw, Wash.

POPULAR MECHANICS,

Sand Blaster
By Channing B. Mould

For quick removal of paint and grease from metal surfaces, you can't beat a sand-blast machine. E VER try to clean the paint off a motorcycle wheel? Or, for that matter, any other metal object? Well, if you have occasion to do such work, you will find a small sand-blast machine worth its weight in gold. If you have a handy source of sand and a reasonably good supply of compressed air, the rest is simple. A sand blaster is merely a tank that will safely withstand the pressure of the air supply. It has provisions for pouring sand into the top and allowing it to trickle out the bottom, where it is entrained in a stream of air. It is necessary that the tank be pressurized to prevent the air that flows to the nozzle from blowing up through the sand supply instead. The machine illustrated was constructed of a 14-in. length of 6-in. pipe with 1/4-in. plate for the ends. The only part of the machine that cannot be made with hand tools is the filler hole in the top plate. This hole must be made to properly fit whatever object is used as a stopper. The author found a 3/4-to-2-in. reducing pipe coupling
154

to be the simplest thing to adapt. The stopper must have a tapered portion that will produce a wedging action when air pressure is applied. The hole in the top plate, then, is machined to the size that will allow the tapered section of the stopper to seat. The underside of the hole should be chamfered a little so the gasket won't be cut by the pressure. A little allowance (about Vs in. on the diameter) is made for the gasket material, which, in this case, was two layers of automobile inner tube cut in rings and slipped down over the stopper. Weld in the bottom plate first by recessing it sufficiently to allow a good fillet weld. Now is a good time to drill the holes for the piping because it is easy to burr the inside and clean out the chips. With the stopper and its lever assembly in place on the top plate, tap the plate down into the tank an inch or more before welding to allow a place for the sand to pile up while running through the filler hole. If there seems to be any danger that the gaskets will be burned by the subsequent welding operations, they can be added after the complete assembly is made. The piping of the machine is perfectly straightforward and the choice of valves is up to the builder with the exception of the sand valve in the bottom of the tank. This must be of the gate type since such a valve provides a [Continued on page 195] Mechanix Illustrated

155

Sand Blaster
[Continued from page 154] clear path through which the sand can flow freely. The valve seat need not be in good condition. If cocks are available for the rest of the valves, they are desirable since they make for quick action. The cocks on this machine are air-brake valves from a tractor-trailer. Although the photos show a petcock on the nozzle, it is a convenience rather than a necessity in that it allows the nozzle to be removed for clearing without the waste of bleeding the tank. When construction has progressed to the point where it can be done, it is well to test the tank for a value well above the pressure of the proposed air supply. Fill the machine completely with water and apply the test pressure with a hand tire pump via an inner-tube valve soldered into a pipe fitting. If a gauge is available, fine, but if not, the author found the practical limit of a tire pump to be about 150 lb., which should be enough to insure safety on an 80 to 100-lb. air supply. Nozzles are obtainable from Granite City Tool Co., Barre, Vt., for 15 cents each and are classified as "Standard Steel Lettering Nozzles—3/32" Pipe or tubing with a similar inside diameter will make a very good substitute nozzle. With a 3/32-in. aperture, the air consumption is approximately 14 cu. ft. of free air per minute with a supply pressure of 80 lb. per sq. in. Even if the available air supply has somewhat less capacity, it will serve satisfactorily if it has a sufficiently large receiver in which to store air during "down" periods of the sand-blast machine. Operating procedure is as follows: Close the sand valve in the bottom of the tank and fill the machine with dry sand that's been carefully sifted through window screen. Any oversize material is sure to cause annoying stoppages at the nozzle. Close the petcock at the nozzle, seat the filler plug (shaking down any sand left on the gaskets), and open the air-supply cock. The filler plug should promptly jam into its seat and seal completely. Aim the nozzle at the work, open the nozzle petcock wide, and adjust the sand valve until the desired amount of sand is flowing. Just a few moments of experimentation will determine the best amount; but one hint: work the volume up slowly because too heavy a flow will probably clog the nozzle even though it produces quick results. A little rocking of the tank will help to get the flow going evenly. When shutting down, close the sand valve first to prevent sand from piling up in the pipe after air has stopped flowing. Some sort of eye protection is absolutely essential. •
November 1953

SAW-SANDER UNIT

By Carl W. Bertsch HIS combination workshop unit features an ,-in. saw having a 30 by 36-in. table that tilts 45 degrees, Fig. 1,a swinging saw mandrel, and a direct-drive disk . - Sander. A %-hp. motor operates both machines as shown in Fig. 2. Construction b e g i n s w i t h the stand. From Fig. 7 you can see clearly how it is put together with %-in. carriage bolts. All stock Measures 2 by 3 in., and note that the upper ends of the legs are notched for rigidity. The position of the two-piece front and rear trunnion supports can be marked at this time, and the holes drilled, but it is best not to bolt them to the stand until after the complete trunnion assembly has been attached. The saw hinge support, detailed in Fig. 5, is set 4% in. in from the
end of the rails between which it in belted.

should equal the curve of the trunnion so that the latter will not bind. To the back side of each trunnion and its slide, guides of %-in. hard-pressed board are fitted as shown in Fig. 6. These are cut as indicated to overhang the edge of the trunnions 1 in., forming a lip which overlaps the slide. Use flat-head screws for attaching the guides, countersinking the heads flush with the surface. The trunnion-bolt holes through the supports are bored 3940 in. down from the top. In locating the holes for bolting the slides to the trunnion supports, place the trunnion on its bolt and then with a thin cardboard shim between the slide and the support, center the slide beneath it and clamp the latter temporarily to the support. When you have the slide adjusted so
that the trunnion works smoothly, drill

,

Now for the trunnions and their slides. Make these of %-in. birch or maple and take pains in laying them out from the pattern given in Fig. 8. The concave edge of the slide must make a perfect rubbing fit with the trunnion, and the curved bolt slot

four holes through both pieces for Y4-in. bolts. A semi-hard brass strap attached to the edge of each slide to bear against the edge of the trunnion (see side view Fig. 8) takes up the thrust of the table when tilted. In place of the cardboard, thin washers are

d on the bolts to provide the necessary Fig. 3 gives a general idea of how the blade is raised and lowered. Essentially, it consists of a swinging mandrel which is elevated by a lug traveling on a vertical spindle. Fig. 10 shows how the block is made up of two pieces of oak which are recessed to house the tenoned ends of a turned lug. Dimensions for the block and the lug are given in Fig. 11. The latter should move freely in ,the routed opening with very little side play. Standard bronzebushed pillow blocks set end to knd serve as a bearing for the saw mandrel and as a hanger for pivoting the block between the arms of the saw hinge support. ,See Figs. 5 and 7. The exact position fo: mounting the pillow blocks is given in Fig 11. To align each pair of blocks it may bc necessary to shim them with thin pieces of metal. Fig. 4 details the saw mandrel which can be made by threading the end of a length of standard steel shafting and fitting it with a flange. Collars are used on the mandrel at each end of the bearing. The mandrel block must swing with. out side play and for thi; reason the holes in one o the flat-iron arms of the hinge support should be slotted to permit adjustment. The vertical spindlc passing through the lug i: turned down at the uppe: end to engage a hole in a~

@

HlNGF

SUPPORT

side rails should be notched at once to ascur* identical spacing of the cross rails. The table can k of solid maple, or simplified by using a plywooc

d

T M S powerful --ollsaw cuts
1%-in. stock with ease at 1,400 strokes per minute,-and is designed to be used with either the heavy saber-type of blades f or the finest jewelers' blades. I you have an old sewing-machine head and a +hp. motor, the total cost should not exceed $5. THe sewing-machine head is adapted to its new use by first removing the needle shaft and holder and substituting a blade holder, @e head is then invertIed and securely bolted between two lengths of 2 by 4-in. maple Which are supborted on two hardwood blocks bolted either to a separate base or directly to the bench top. Due to variations in the size and needle stroke of didferent types of sewing-machine heads, slight alterations may be found necessary when assembling, and for this reason some of the dimensions have been omitted as they depend on the particular installation you will use. Pipe and fittings are used for the frame. When wembling it, the joints should be turned in as tightly as possible. The flange is murely bolted to the base. A saw
$ -

-

-- /'

table of %-in. hardwood is made to fit over and around the base of the sewing-machine head. It is covered with a 10 by 20;in. plate of No. 12-gauge aluminum. A %-in. hole is drilled in the plate to form an opening for the blade. The upper slide shaft, or plunger, is made from a 9-in. length of %-in. seamless-steel or brass,
tubing. The lower end i~ bushed with n

piece of brass tubing soldered in place and tapped to take a 1%-in. length of %-in. bolt. The shaft guide is then drilled as shown. It is held against the end of the tubing with a thin nut. A wooden disk,
'

23

I

hub. The rubber hose is led from the blower through the fr the nozzle as shown.

Stepped Bushing Driver Ha For Various Sizes
ger. aspiece of flat steel,

the other end is sawed in steps, progressively

SHOP NOTES

METAL SHAPER FOR YOUR SHOP
By S. S. Miner

A METAL SHAPER is indispensable for certain machining operations where flat surfaces must be produced within very close limits, such as machining flats on castings, cutting keyways, rabbets and grooves and reducing the thickness of stock to a given dimension. This one has a 3-in. stroke, is manually operated and has been especially designed to reduce machine operations in the construction to the minimum. Cold-rolled-steel flats and squares are utilized for nearly all operating parts and the frame and base. These parts you can purchase cut to size with "store" edges at a very reasonable cost per piece. Joining edges and flat surfaces can be finished by hand to remove saw or flame marks and square the surfaces for fitting. One thing to keep in mind before beginOCTOBER 1955

ning the construction: Hole layouts are given on the parts dimensioned on the following pages, but the hole sizes have been omitted. The reason is that you have a choice of two methods of assembly. On the original machine the parts were joined with socket-head screws, the screwheads countersunk flush. The alternate method is to drill the body and tap holes only, omitting the counterbores. This latter method effects a considerable saving in construction time and does not impair the efficiency of the machine in any way. Use 1/4-in. socket-head screws or hex-head screws except where other thread sizes are given. The length of the screw is determined by the thickness of the stock and also the location of the screw. Begin construction with the base plate,
227

the two side plates and the feed block: Only the front edge of the base plate, the bottom edges of the side plates and the front end of the bed block are finished. This must be done with care to assure flat true surfaces. Next, lay out and drill the body-hole pattern in the base plate and side plates and then use these three members as jigs when drilling the tap holes in the ram guides and the bottom edges of the side plates. Note the location of the dowel-pin holes in the various parts. Holes for the dowel pins are drilled and reamed so that the pins are a medium-tight drive fit. When body holes and holes for the dowel pins are drilled the parts must be clamped together securely. Then drill and ream the pinholes first. Drive the pins in part way before drilling the tap holes. When the side plates and bed block are in place on the base plate the next parts to make and fit in place are the ram, the operating lever and the crossrail and saddle. The saddle cannot be made complete until the cross-feed screw bracket has been made and fitted. Note that the ram is slotted for the operating lever, counterbored, and that a round, 63/64 in. long and 1 1/2 in. in dia., is turned on one end. This must be done in a metal lathe to assure the necessary accuracy. The ram must be a smooth sliding fit in the guides. Some light filing and smoothing with abrasive will be necessary to achieve the required fit. Note in the ram detail that section A-A gives the oilhole plan. These holes must be drilled before final assembly. Make the operating lever and link next. Note in the lever detail that it consists of] three parts, two of which are brazed to the third at a 45-deg. angle. Section A-A shows how the meeting edges are beveled before brazing. Form a radius on the body of the lever to provide a landing for the stop screw. Top end of the lever can be fitted with a plastic knob, or a handhold is easily shaped by grinding and filing. The link, which is a part of the lever assembly, consists of two steel squares pinned and screwed to a spacer. In this case the heads of the socket-head screws must be countersunk flush for clearance. Note also that the link pivot pin is grooved to provide a seat for the end of the retaining screw. The link is provided with bronze bushings. The head assembly consists of the head block and the toolhead slide, the latter built up from steel squares and flats as detailed, the parts of the slide being assembled with screws and pins. The head block is a swiveling clamp which fits over the round turned on the end of the ram. When the assembly is complete with the down-feed bracket and tool block the entire assembly can be swiveled on the ram to locate the cutting ,

tool at any desired angle with the work. Note that the toolhead is fitted with a spring-loaded drag, which has the effect of taking slack out of the down-feed screw and also to prevent chattering on heavy cuts. Beginning construction of the assembly with the head block, bore the block to 1 1/2in. dia. before slotting. The slot is cut with two hacksaw blades placed side by side in the saw frame. Take time to assure a straight cut and finish with a file. Then counterbore and tap for the clamping screw, the counterbore on one side of the slot, the tap hole on the other. Next, turn and thread the down-feed and cross-feed screws in the lathe. Now, note that the end of the toolhead is drilled to take the end of the down-feed screw and that the lower end of the down-feed screw is grooved to take the shouldered end of a retaining screw. Drill this hole to a depth of about 9/16 in. and test-fit the end of the down-feed screw before final assembly. There will be a slight amount of end play in the screw and it is necessary to make sure that it will clear when run up or down. If it should bind on the bottom of the hole you will have difficulty adjusting the cutting tool. With the toolhead and slide completed and the parts fitted in the final assembly, dis-

assemble and fit the down-feed screw bracket. Note that it is both pinned and screwed in place and care must be taken to assure a true fit on the upper end of the head block. The head assembly is completed with the addition of the tool-holding block. Note especially the elongated hole in the upper end of this block. The elongation permits the block to swing outward on the back stroke of the ram. The counterweight drops it into cutting position again as it clears the edge of the stock being cut. This elongation of the hole must be worked with a file and several tests made as the job progresses to assure just the right amount of clearance. The cutting tool is held in place by means of the washer detailed and a socket-head screw turned into a tapped hole near the lower end of the block. The cross-feed screw bracket is made by notching and bending a length of square stock. Note in the details that one leg of the bracket (after bending and brazing) is drilled 7/16 in., the other 3/8 in. Note also that the screw is shouldered to three diameters to permit it to be slipped into place after the bracket is bent to form. However, before assembling the screw in the bracket it is necessary to make the lug through which the screw is threaded at assembly.

This lug has a bottom hole which fits over a fillister-head screw turned into a hole tapped into the bed block. When making these parts a careful layout is essential to assure correct location of the holes so that the screw runs freely throughout the length of the threaded section. This is important as it should be remembered the feed of the work is by hand. If the screw is correctly aligned when assembled, but still has considerable drag, disassemble, and remount the screw in the lathe. Take a light cut over the threads to reduce the contact to about 60 to 70 percent. Usually this will ease the fit sufficiently so that the screw will run freely. Three handwheels are required, one for the down-feed screw, the other two for the cross-feed screw. The stop-screw bracket is not detailed as it is necessary to fit it to the machine in order to assure that the stop is correctly positioned to assure contact with the landing on the operating lever. Take measurements from the assembly and make the bracket accordingly from 1/2-in. stock. The saddle and clamp plate are the last parts to be made and fitted. The clamp plate is carried on four studs made as detailed and screwed into holes tapped in the saddle. Clamping is done by tightening nuts run onto the threaded ends of the studs. After assembly, test all parts. * * *

Photo shows head assembly and crossrail, saddle and clamp plate in position with work clamped in place

Above, method of clamping parts in position for fitting and drilling screw holes. Below, head assembly removed showing round turned on end of square ram

~ a l e c t r c u : ~
ASSEMBLED entirely from discarded materials, this forge consists essentially of an old vacuum-cleaner motor and blower, and a cast-iron sink. The dimensions given may be altered to suit the material at hand. The air blast from the blower is divided, half of the air being diverted up the stack to keep the shop clear of smoke, the Y-fitting for this purpose having been taken from a Ford V-8 exhaustpipe. The original strainer in the sink serves as the tuyere iron, and a 1%-in. street elbow connects the sink with the draft pipe. The cast iron ring that originally held the lead pipe to the sink outlet canbe used to hold the street elbow if it is enlarged slightly. By using wingnuts on the bolts, it is an easy matter to remove the elbow for cleaning out ashes and cinof ders. A ~ i e c e flexible tubing run up the hood from the Y-connection and strapped to it completes this part of the job. The hood itself is made from a single piece of sheet metal. The addition of brackets and a "douse" tank completes the forge. The switch for controlling the motor is protected with a sheet-metal cover and gives three speeds. It is a good idea to line the inside of the sink with fire clay or some other refractory material.

SHOP FORG

\

SINK 18~x30
,>

x

II 1 1

Tabs around the smoke opening of the hood are drilled for screws to attach a ring and collar assembly, which takes a smokepipe

JULY, 1941

By Harold P. Strand

T

HERE are many uses for an electric oven of the industrial type in small shop and laboratories, where moderate baking temperatures, a c c u r a t e l y controlled, are necessary. Small parts, Which have been painted or lacquered often require baking. Damp or wet pieces of equipment may require drying out. Windings, after dipping in insulating varnish, need a certain amount of baking. Then too, an oven may be required in laboratory work of a special nature. The oven illustrated was built in an electrical engineering laboratory and has proven invaluable. Measuring 24x18x16 in., this oven is small enough to be used on the bench, yet it will accommodate quite a bit of work. Heat is provided by two 350 watt strip heaters, which are mounted to the inside surface of the oven, at each side and quite near the bottom. Control is provided by a Fenwal Thermoswitch, which is mounted on the end of the oven. This device has a brass
140

tube projecting into the oven space in which thermal contracts are built. With an arrangement of a dial and knob, as shown, it is possible to accurately control a range of settings to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. The material used for the sides, top and bottom of the oven is ¼ in. asbestos-cement board, known as Transite. Angle iron is used as a framework and the cover is equipped with strap hinges and a wire pull handle. This insulating and heat resisting material is adequate with moderate temperatures of 140 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit. But at higher temperatures there will be too much heat loss through the material and added insulation will be necessary. A temperature of 200 degrees Fahrenheit is about the limit that can be obtained with the wattage mentioned and the insulating material shown. To go above this, an outer casing can be made from sheet metal, about 3 to 4 inches (Continued on page 142) Mechanix Illustrated

larger all around than the oven. Into the space between, rockwool insulation should be placed. With a well-insulated cover, temperatures considerably higher should be possible and safe. One of the drawings illustrates this suggestion. Strip heaters of increased wattage can also be obtained if desired. To start work on the oven cut two pieces of Transite 24x18 in. and two additional pieces measuring 18x15½ in. Next, cut four pieces of ¾ in. angle iron 21¼ in. long, to make up the four corner braces. Extending 3¼ in. below the sides, they also serve as legs for the oven. The sides are positioned on the angle iron and C-clamps used to hold them in place. With a portable electric drill, make four holes to a side through both the angle pieces and the side material, to receive 3/16 in. stove bolts. Make sure the surface of the irons is exactly ¼ in. in from the edge of the Transite, as shown in the drawings, so the end sections can be fitted in flush. The end pieces are then placed in position, holes drilled and bolts used to make the assembly firm. The bottom section is fitted flush with the bottom edges and angle irons, cut as required are used to secure this section to the sides and ends, using bolts as before. Take care to fit this section tightly, to keep escapement of heat at an absolute minimum. Angle iron (½ in.) is used to form a frame around the top edge. The oven will now take the form of a large box and should be rigid and firm. The cover is a piece of the same material and should measure 24x16 in. This cover is fitted with an angle iron frame on the inside surface as detailed in a drawing, which adds to its strength and rigidity. Two strap hinges and a wire pull handle, fitted as shown, complete the cover. A chain, secured at one end to the cover and at the other end to the inside of the oven, serves to prevent the cover from going too far back. The strip heaters, which can be purchased from any large electrical supply house, are of 350 watts, 115 volt rating. Two are required. These should have the terminals at one end of the strips and should be so specified when ordering. They are mounted to the sides, about 2 in. up from the bottom, one on each side. The Thermoswitch is mounted in the center of the right hand end by drilling a 5/8 in. hole through the insulating material to receive the brass tube. In addition, a hole must be drilled through the metal base of the switch, just to the right of the dial, which should be about 7/16 in. in diameter. This hole is [Continued on page 150] Mechanix Illustrated

Electric Oven fox Shop
[Continued from page 142] carried through the Transite and serves as an opening for the entrance of the wires from the strip heaters. Two small holes to fit stove bolts should also be drilled through the end, which should be in line with the mounting holes provided in the base of the switch. Wiring is carried out with No. 16 asbestos stranded wire or cable from each heater terminal to one of the switch terminal screws, as shown in the drawing. The remaining wires from the heater terminals, also carried into the base of the switch, connect to one side of the asbestos heater cord as a soldered and taped splice. The other side is attached to the switch terminal. In this way the switch is cut in series with the line and the two heaters, which in themselves, are wired in parallel. The wires inside the oven should be neatly placed from the opening back of the switch, down to the bottom and then bent at right angles to supply each heater. A small curved clip and a bolt serves to secure the wires. Angle pieces, made from sheet steel or aluminum and 2 in. wide, are placed over the terminals of the strip heaters to prevent accidental contact with the live terminals, When mounting the hinges it will be necessary to file a slight recess in the top edge of oven to clear the raised part of the hinge at the pin. The latter should be in a line with the top edge of the back side, bending the strap, as required, over the top of the cover. The Thermoswitch has a dial numbered from 1 to 7. It is possible to loosen two setscrews in the knurled knob and with a screwdriver in the slot in the end of the shaft, the latter can be turned clockwise to reduce temperature and counterclockwise to increase temperature. With this changed setting, the pointer will indicate an entirely new range of temperatures. It is thus possible to adjust the oven to about any degree desired, within the specified limits. Once set properly, the switch will maintain the temperature within about plus or minus of .1 degree Fahrenheit. The switch, a No. A-7700 Thermoswitch, manufactured by Fenwal, Inc., Ashland, Mass., should be ordered with "Regular" contacts, which means that the contacts will close on a decrease in temperature. It will be found in adjusting this switch that one revolution of the sleeve adjustment will provide about 125 degree change in setting. By carefully checking temperatures it is possible to make adjustments on the Thermoswitch so that current will be cut.off at the right point. The switch will then maintain this temperature accurately for an indefinite period. •
150

Spot welder works three ways
By J. NAUTA and J. FERRY

For just a few dollars you can quickly build this combination unit that will join ferrous metals and is cool enough for stainless steel

As A SPOT WELDER this combination unit will join ferrous metals up to 3/32 in. thick. It works especially well on stainless steel due to low heat and electrical conductivity of this metal. For heavier work it is used as an arc welder. A carbon-arc torch may be plugged in and used for brazing, silver soldering, aluminum welding and welding thin sheet metal as well as heating metals for bending. The voltage booster can be used to eliminate power-robbing voltage drop when portable electric tools and equipment must be used

on a long extension cord. The voltage booster requires no extra coils, only a switch and receptacle connected into the circuit. The original welder was operated on 115-v. circuits without damage to wiring of service box. Miniature 30-amp circuit breakers are substituted for ordinary fuses which won't take the momentary heavy current surges. The shell-type transformer core used on the original welder was purchased from a dealer in scrap metals. The core should weigh about 30 lb.

RUBBER BUMPER

V x V x 17%"

SCREW IS INSULATED I FROM ALL OTHER METAL INSULATING STRIP FIBER

and the cross-sectional area of the main center leg should be at least 6 sq. in. or slightly more. There also should be about 2 in. of space separating the legs so there will be room for the coils. A wooden form slightly larger than the center leg of the core will be needed for winding the primary and secondary coils. The primary and secondary should be wound adjacent to each other with an insulating separator between. They may be wound one on top of the other but this will make it more difficult to control the arc-welding current. For operation on 115 volts the primary consists of 104 turns of No. 10 magnet wire. For operation on 230 volts, 208 turns of No. 13 magnet wire should be used. When winding the coils, thin fiberglass cloth and polyester resin are used as insulation between the layers of wire and also to wrap the coils. The arc-welder secondary requires 42 turns of No. 6 wire while the spot-welder secondary consists of a double strand of No. 00 flexible welding cable, three turns, the ends of which are connected directly to the spot-welder arms with heavy copper lugs. Three strands of No. 4 cable could be substituted for each No. 00 cable if

necessary. If there is a lack of winding space, it will be necessary to strip the heavy rubber insulation from the cables and wrap the bare wires together with adhesive tape. This winding is put in place after the transformer laminations are assembled and permanently clamped together. The reactor, which is wound on one of the outside legs of the core after assembly, consists of 14 turns of No. 8 rubber-covered wire. This coil is connected in series with the arc-welder secondary to oppose the welding current. As the reactor is wound on the outside leg of the core, 14 turns are necessary to reduce the welding voltage by 7 and the welding current is reduced about 40 percent as the heavy current flowing through the reactor greatly reduces the magnetic flux flowing through the leg on which it is wound. The spot-welder arms can be made of 3/4-in. square aluminum or copper. Brass is not suitable as it will quickly overheat. The lower arm is mounted directly on the transformer top as in the details and is insulated from it with a piece of 1/8-in. fiber. The mounting screws must also be insulated with fiber washers and short lengths of fiber tubing as in the pulled-apart detail. No 2957

insulation is necessary for the top arm and when mounted, it is grounded to the transformer frame and core. A rubber bumper forced between the two arms serves as a spring to open the arms when the cam handle is moved back. Berylliumcopper electrodes for the spot welder should be about 1/2 in. in diameter and about 2 or 3 in. long. The tapered shank may be cut and threaded 7/16 in. to turn into tapped holes in the welding arms. The holes in the arms should be drilled at a slight angle to cause the points of the electrodes to close at an angle rather than in line. The arms should be coated for a distance of about 6 in. from the ends with a heat-resistant epoxy cement to prevent sparking and burning should the work accidentally touch the arms. need auto-starter relay An auto-starter relay is needed to control the momentary heavy surge of current when the spot welder is turned on and off. The top cover is removed, drilled through the center and reamed out to about 3/4 in. This allows the solenoid armature to open about 3/8 in. and stops arcing at the contacts. A rubber button is cemented to the exposed end of the armature and serves as a push button for manual operation. Automatic electric operation of the relay is also provided by connecting a 6-volt battery and snap switch in series with the solenoid winding. The switch is actuated when the cam handle is moved. The switch must be adjusted to close after the work is held firmly between the electrodes. It should open just before the electrodes release the work to prevent sparking and burning. The arc welder has two heat ranges, high, which is over 100 amp with 1/8-in. a.c. electrodes, and low, which gives about 60 amp with 3/32-in. electrodes. Don't tap the arc secondary for lower current ranges as this will increase, not decrease, the current draw. With a shell-type transformer the orthodox magnetic-leakage method of current control cannot be used, so a reactor is used to decrease the magnetic flux through one leg of the core when the low range is plugged in. The reactor, of course, is connected to oppose the main secondary. This welder is designed only for intermittent use, such as it would get in the average small shop. If it is used for too long a period at a time, the 30-amp circuit breakers will trip. When first testing out the transformer the primary should be checked for no-load current input. This should be 1 amp or less.

Switches and taps on insulating panel should be labeled for easy identification and to prevent error. Do this with masking tape and a pen

A 6-V. battery provides automatic operation of the relay. Relay also can be operated manually. Drawing below shows the wiring diagram of welding unit

has played a historic role in steam-power development. The engine is a double-acting noncondensing one that exhausts directly into the air with the familiar puff-pup of a donkey engine or steam shovel. With its l?:" cylinder bore and 1" piston stroke, and with 75 or 80 Ib. of steam in its boiler, the little engine will turn over at 1,500 r.p.m. Actual power will depend much on the boiler used and on t h e work.manship in the engine itself. The design is for heavy duty, however, with main bearings and other working parts larger than scale, and the engine will stand up well under hard, continuous runs at full working load, developing enough power to drive a quite large model boat, a small dynamo, an air fan, or other light equipment of Fractional-horsepower rating. Much exacting work is required in building an engine of this type, espe-

Although it is not a-:$tale reproduction of any particular engine, it has the same general appearance and eye-taking appeal of the picturesque old-timers so hard at work about the turn of the centuiy. The model is equipped with the linkmotion reverse gear perfected by George which also provides a variable steam cutoff,
shaper, +he work clamp=d to +he faceplate.

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MAIN BEAR
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S T A hl O A R 0

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cially since the reverse gear and crankshaft, to be described in a later installment, and other small parts must be machined from 'steel. However, it is enjoyable work for the modelmaker, and it is of a kind well within the scope of anyone who has become proficient in the use of a screw-cutting lathe. If you are experienced in ~voodworking, you can build the necessary patterns and have iron or bronze castings made at your local foundry for the base, standard, cylinder, cylinder head, steam chest, and flywheel. Or you can even make up the sand molds and pour bronze castings yourself. The pattern work, however, is by no means a one-evening project, and castings can be supplied for those who want to get right at the machining. Dimensions shown in the drawings are for the finished parts. If patterns are made, an allo\vance of 3/32" must .be added to surfaces to be machined. Shrinkage allowance need not be considered. h4achining operations are possibly best begun on the base since many of the parts can be fitted on it and temporarily assembled as the work proceeds. The casting is easily handled in a shaper, but if your shop boasts only a lathe, the facing can be done with the work clamped to the faceplate and the milling can b e done with the lathe milling attachment. Since the casting is open at the center, only the bottom and top need be faced and slots milled for the bearings, after which the pin holes are drilled and the piece cleaned up with a file. Drilling and tapping the screw holes should wait until the mating parts are fitted, when both can be drilled at the same time. Two identical main bearings are made up from X" by X" brass bar stock cut to length and soldered together in pairs. Mounted in the four-jaw chuck, each bearing is drilled and reamed to size for'the crankshaft and the ends faced smooth. The halves are then melted apart and the parts filed to shape and to a good snug fit in the base. Save drilling them and the base for screws until the crankshaft can be set in place. The standard or main column is held in the three-jaw chuck, and the solid body is bored smoothly and accurately to take the crosshead. With the piece on a mandrel, the head is faced square with the bore and turned to diameter; then the work is reversed on the mandrel and the feet are trued. Screw holes are next drilled in the head to hold the cylinder in place and in the feet for mounting on the base. The tapped holes in

Slots are machined across the top of the base t o take the main bearings, which will be made a snug fit. If a shoper is not available, the work can b e done on a lathe with a milling attachment.

Since the top p a r t of the standard or main column is cast solid, it must b e drilled and bored out t o take the crosshead. The operation i s performed in the lathe with +he work in the three-jaw chuck.

the base are spotted from those drilled in the feet. In making the crosshead, a short piece of cold-rolled sreel or bronze is held in the three-jaw chuck and turned to a nice sliding fit in the main-column bore. Next, the upper end is recessed hnd turned to shape, and it is also drilled and tapped for the piston rod while still chucked so the outer diameter and the piston-rod hole will be concentric. The part is then cut off and the opposite end faced smooth. Grooves are cut on both sides in the shaper or with the milling ~~ttachment, lenving a 96" thick web to take the forked end of thc connecting rod. The hole for the connecting-roc1 pin is then cross-drilled in the lower end. TO BE CONTINUED.

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H e r e the base casting i s clamped t o the f a c e p l a t e o f the lathe, a n d the t o p is machined smooth a n d t o height. A heavy cemented c a r b i d e t o o l is used. A n y r o u g h spots are cleaned u p w i t h a file.

Halves f o r the m a i n bearings a r e drilled a n d reamed while soldered t o g e t h e r , then s p l i t a p a r t a n d each h a l f filed t o shape. H e r e the lower halves are i n their slots, t h e u p p e r ones beside t h e base.

The column is then mounted on a m a n d r e l held between centers f o r f a c i n g the h e a d square with t h e bore a n d t u r n i n g t o diameter. It is next reversed on the mandrel a n d t h e f e e t f a c e d smooth a n d true.

Drilling the h e a d f o r screws t o hold t h e cylinder i n place, a n d t h e f e e t f o r f o u r mounting screws apiece, completes the standard. T a p p e d holes in t h e base a r e spotted f r o m those drilled in t h e feet.

Stock f o r the crosshead i s turned t o a sliding fit i n t h e main-column bore; then one end is recessed a n d turned t o shape. The piece is also d r i l l e d a n d t a p p e d f o r the piston r o d while chucked.

Grooves milled i n opposite sides o f the crosshead take the forked end o f the connecting rod. This o p e r a t i o n m a y b e done in a shaper, as shown here, or with a lathe m i l l i n g attachment.
APRl L 1947

193

Machining Gylillder
By C. W. WOODSON
PART TWO

the perM UCH of depends formance of a steam engine on the accuracy and smoothness of the cylinder bore. This is as true for the miniature reyersing engine here described (see PSM, April '47, p. 190) as for full-size engines. The casting for the cylinder is first mounted in the the three-jaw chuck and a roughing cut taken across the bottom so it can be reversed and held squarely for facing the top. If you have available an expanding mandrel, the cylinder is best bored after the rough facing and then mounted on the mandrel, where its ends can be faced smooth and squared accurately with the bore. Lacking such a mandrel, face the top smooth first, and then reverse the piece and face the bottom smooth and square before attempting to bore. Although the cylinder may be held in the three- or four-jaw chuck for these operations, there is less likelihood of slipping if it is clamped to the lathe faceplate with lugs over its flange. Bore the cylinder first with a heavy

roughing cut to get the bit under the hard surface scale and bring the hole nearly to size. Then, with a freshly ground bit inserted in the boring bar, take light finishing cuts while using very fine- power feed. If care is taken in sharpening the bit and setting it to eliminate chatter, an almost mirrorlike finish can be obtained. The steam-port face can be machined in the shaper or, as shown in one of the photographs, while mounted on an angle plate in the lathe. Again take a heavy roughing cut first to get under the scale, and then, with the bit freshly ground and honed to a keen edge, finish with light cuts and a fine feed. Remove the work to the drill press, clamp in the vise, lay out the steam and exhaust ports carefully, and drill a series of holes for each. Chip out the intervening metal and file the resulting slot to shape. Then mount the work in the angle vise and drill four holes for each of the two angle ports to meet those in the face. Chip and file out as before. A chisel made from 3/32" drill rod and hardened may be used for chipping. The cylinder is next remounted in the vise and

M A Y 1947

193

In boring -the cylinder, take a heavy roughing cut to g e t under the surface scale. Finish the bore with light cuts and a freshly ground bit.

1

2

If an expanding mandrel i s available, bore the cylinder before finish-facing the flanges; if not, machine-the flanges first and then bore.

5 Drill and tp i

one hole in the flange, and then bolt the cylinder head on before spotting the others. Use a clamp a t the opposite side.

6

Face the steam chest on both sides, taking a heavy roughing cut on each first and finishing with light cuts t o assure a steamtight joint.

the exhaust port drilled in from the side to meet that in the face. Don't drill the 4-48 holes until the covers have been made. Mount the cylinder-head casting in the three-jaw chuck and turn the chucking lug straight so the casting will run true when reversed. Machine the top and outer edge to circle on shape, and then score a light 1%" the faee for locating the bolt holes. Again reverse the piece in the chuck, take off the chucking lug, face smooth, turn the step to a good snap fit in the cylinder bore, and drill a 7/16" hole ?&" deep to clear the nut on top of the piston. The bolt holes are then stepped off accurately with dividers, centerpunched, and drilled clearance size. Snap the head in place, spot one of the holes in the flange with a clearance-size drill, drill tapping size, and tap. Next, insert the bolt and spot the remaining holes. Make a file mark on meet-

ing edges so that the head can be replaced in the %me position; then finish drilling and tapping the flange. In machining the lower cover, it is important that the step fitting in the cylinder bore be concentric with the piston-rod hole so there will be no binding ,at that point. Equally important it is to turn the step on the outer face, or bottom, concentric for fitting the shouldered bore in the standard. One way is to turn the gland stem and shoulder on the outer face first, bore and counterbore the ?iN hole, and then mount the piece on a stub arbor or in a step chuck to face and step the inner side for a snap fit in the cylinder bore. In counterboring for th'e gland, be sure to start carefully in the pistonrod hole to assure concentricity. Snap the lower cover on the column, clamp, and spot the bolt holes through the column flange. Then snap the cover on the

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3

Machine the steam-port face with the cylinder mounted o n an angle plate, finishing with very light cuts. A shaper will also d o the iob.

4

Ports are bored a t an angle from both ends of the cylinder t o connect with the steam ports i n the face. C h i p and file them t o shape.

7

Chucked gland end out, the steam chest can be drilled and reamed f o r the valve stem and t h e hole then opened out t o take the gland.

8

Corner holes are completed first i n the steam chest and cylinder steam-port face; then the parts are bolted and the remaining holes drilled.

cylinder and repeat as for the head. Put witness marks on the .column, cover, and cylinder flange, making certain that the valve face is at 90 deg. to the crankshaft centerline of the base. Face the steam-chest casting on both sides, holding it in the four-jaw chuck, and bring it to proper thickness. A heavy roughing cut followed by several light finishing cuts will assure a steamtight joint. Some difficulty may be encountered in drilling for the valve stem, since the inner surfaces of the steam-chest casting will have a slope. If you have a hand grinder, a small flat can be ground inside the stem-guide end for a drilling surface, after which the steam chest can be chucked and the hole drilled all the way through from the gland end. Otherwise it may be best to lay out the holes as accurately as possible on the outer surfaces, drill each from the outside with

a n undersize drill, and then ream from the gland end. In this case, drill the gland end first, counterbore, and support it with the tailstock center when drilling from the sternguide end. Finish by enlarging the upper hole with a No. :3 drill and tapping %"-28. Lay out the 14 bolt holes, drill the four in the corners clearance size, and spot, drill, and tap the corner holes in the cylinder steam-port face. Bolt through the four holes, and drill the remaining 10 tappinq size through the steam chest into the cylinder. Separate the parts, tap the cylinder holes, and open up those jn the steam chest. Face the steam-chest cover in the lathe, mill the recess, clamp the steam chest to it in the drill press, and drill the bolt holes. The valve-rod and piston-rod glands, valve-stem guide, and steam-pipe flange are turned from bronze bar stock to dimensions on page 193. TO BE CC)NTINUED
M A Y ,947

195

laking the
ACCURATE, true-running crankshaft is necessary if the model steam engine is to work freely and use steam with maximum efficiency. This part is assembled from a shaft, two webs, each with an integral counterbalance, and a crankpin. All are made up from solid steel stock, the webs cut with a hacksaw and filed to shape from two 5/16" disks and the shaft and pin cut from drill rod. Clamp the webs together and drill them at the same time for a drive fit on the shaft and pin. Because the shaft is cut as one piece 416" long and must be driven a considerable distance, it may be necessary to ream t h e . %" holes for it slightly. Press both webs on the crankpin first. Next, with a block between the webs to prevent bending the pin, drive the crankshaft through. Then drill and pin all parts. Pieces of bicycle spoke make good pins. The assembled crankshaft is next mounted between centers in the lathe and with the block still between the webs. Face the outer web sides smooth, form the 1/32" collars, and turn the outer rim of the balance weights and the ends of the webs smooth and to exact diameter. Finally cut out the part of the crankshaft between the webs and file the inner faces smooth. Key-

AN

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Alignment o f the t w o ends o f the shaft is assured if it is made as one piece and c u t when pinned i n place. The flywheel is turned from a casting.

Mounted between centers, the crankshaft is faced smooth on the webs and the collar turned. A block between the webs prevents distortion.

Holes f o r the bearing bolts are drilled through t h e bearing caps while the crankshaft i s in place t o assure alignment o f the bearing halves.

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Ru~ningGear

All

dimensions for t h e crankshaft, flywheel, connecting rod, piston. a n d piston rod are shown in the drawing. The reverse-lever ring is also shown a n d m a y well be m a d e a t this time.

ways or setscrew flats are optional, depending on the use the engine is meant for. Fit the finished crankshaft into the bearings next, clamp on the bearing caps, and rotate the shaft to make sure it turns freely. There should be no binding, since shaft alignment is insured when the webs are pinned before cutting out the center portion. With the shaft in place, drill and tap the bearing holes and bolt both caps down. The connecting rod is rough-turned to shape from X" by R" steel bar in the fourjaw chuck. I t is removed and heated to a bright red, and the small end is twisted 90 deg. This can be done with a heavy wrench while the work is held in the vise. Then the piece is rechucked, its tapered section turned to shape and polished bright, and the work cut off. Drill, saw, and file the forked end to shape, and drill for the connecting-rod pin. Turn the pin to a force fit in the fork or thread it for a retaining nut.

Make up the connecting-rod brasses from flat bar bronze stock and the connectingrod keeper from steel. Cut to length and drill for the screws that hold them to the connecting rod. Drill and tap the end of the rod and with two 4-48 steel screws assemble brasses and keeper on the rod. The crankpin hole is then drilled and reamed through the bearing brasses, and the end assembly is filed accurately to size. Centerdrill a 2%" length of drill rod for the piston rod, thread both ends, and screw it into a hole drilled and tapped in a rough piston blank made from a ?6" steel disk. Mount the work between centers and face both sides of the piston so it will run dead true. Then turn it to a nice sliding fit in the cylinder bore and cut the groove to width and depth for the piston ring. This ring, being a standard size, can be purchased, though one can be made up in the lathe from a short bar of cast iron if the

Steel bar stock i s rough-turned to shape for the connecting rod, removed from the lathe, heated a bright red, and the small end twisted 90 deg.

Back in the four-iaw chuck, the connecting rod is turned for the taper, which i s polished bright, and the piece i s then cut off t o length.

This i s the connecting-rod assembly. The brasses are drilled and reamed while screwed together t o give a nice running f i t on the %" crankpin.

The piston i s turned from- a blank that has been drilled, tapped, and screwed t o +he piston rod. I t i s faced true, turned to size, and grooved.

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modelmaker is experienced in ring turning. Enough of the parts will now have been completed so that you can make a trial assembly and test the piston travel. Assemble the base, the column or stancl:~rcl, the bottom cylinder cover, the cylinder itself, the piston ancl piston rod, and the connecting rod. Leave off the top cylinder cover so the movement of the piston can be checked. Likewise it will be unnecessary to put in the glands for the test. If the machining has been accurately done, the assembled engine should work freely when the crankshatt is turned. Note carefully the travel of the piston, which should be the same distance from the top and bottom of the cylinder, clearing at both points by 1/32". If it should hit at the bottom, the piston rod can be turned n little further out of the crossheacl. Place the top cover on the cylinder nncl again move the piston through its travel. Any bincling at

the top will indicate that the piston is striking there, and a shortening of the piston rod will be necessary. T h e reverse-lever ring is a section of a circle turned from a square piece of ?6" steel pli~te. It is first chucked in the four-jaw chuck, where the center is bored to size. Rechuckecl in the three-jaw with the espancling jaws gripping inside the hole, it is brought to proper outside diameter. A section of the ring is nest cut out, and the holes are drilled for mounting the part on the engine l~nse. After so much work on bar stock, machining the flywheel will be a pleasant relief. This is made from a fine gray-iron casting. I t is rough-turned to size in the three-jaw chuck, and the shaft hole is then tlrilled and reamed. T h e work is next mounted on : mandrel held between centers, and the 1 hub, edges, and inside of the rim are faced to run dead true. TO BE C ~ N T I N U E D

Shaping of the forked end i s begun with a drilled hole and rough sawing, and the fork i s brought t o final dimensions by hand filing or milling.

H e r e the connecting rod is shown with its keeper, brasses, pin, a n d screws, together with the crossh e a d , which was described in Part I.

I t will hardly pay t o make your own piston ring, which i s a standard size readily available. I t i s shown here with the completed piston and rod.

Rough-turned t o size from o casting, drilled, and reamed, the flywheel i s next mounted on a mandrel a n d its rim a n d hub a r e faced t o run d e a d true.
JUNE 1947

193

Building the
Here's the finished i o b as she'll look when you makethe parts described in this last installment

The slide valve i s located on the valve rod b y a pair of locking nuts that provide travel adiustment. The nuts must be a tight fit on the thread.

Steam chest and valve assembly. The valve i s not clamped .snugly but floats between the nuts so that steam pressure can hold it against the port face.

ONCE the most fascinating and the most difficult part of this engine to build, the reverse gear is derived from Stephenson's famous link motion. The valve rod, which moves the slide valve over the ports, is not connected directly to an eccentric at all, but to a small block that slides in a slotted quadrant or link. Two eccentrics, oppositely offset to give the correct advance for both forward and reverse running, are connected to the two ends of this link. A control lever connected through a drag link can shift the slotted quadrant and its connecting eccentric rods one way or the other, bringing the link block and consequently the valve into line with either the forward or the backward eccentric, and so determining which way the engine will run. When the link block is midway in the slot, no motion is imparted to the valve even if the crankshaft is turning, and the engine will soon stop. Either side of this position, though, the valve will operate with reduced travel. Steam will be cut off during a greater part of the stroke, saving on fuel, a condition analogous to high gear in an automobile transmission and precisely that which obtains in a steam locomotive running at high speed with a moderate load. The slide valve consists of two pieces of bronze, the face a piece of %" plate in which a rectangle is cut by drilling and filing to form the steam cavity or recess. To this is silver-soldered a bronze block. The hole for the valve rod is filed slightly oval with a needle file so that the valve has some slight play against the port face and may be held on it firmly by steam pressure. Turn the valve rod from 5/16" square steel rod, shouldering the end to a sliding fit in the guide atop the steam chest and threading the stem with some fine thread such as 8-36 or 6-40. Drill the square end for the 3/32" pin that will connect it to the link block, cut the slot, and file to shape. Eccentrics can be turned from short ends of stock. Chuck a piece 3/32" off center, turn the hub, and drill and ream the '9 shaft 6 hole. Then chuck the piece truly in the three jaw to turn the 1" outside diameter and the 76" groove, and cut off. Make a sec~ ond eccentric with no hub. [ T u T the page.]

AT

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Precise work in laying out, machining, a n d hand fifting

will be

rewarding w i t h these parts.
JULY 1947

175

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Face both smooth, slip them on a short piece of %'/ rod, and rivet together at exactly the angle shown in the drawings. To make the eccentric straps, cut two pieces 1%" long from 3/16" by Y" cold-rolled steel for each strap. Lay out, drill, and tap the bolt holes for fastening the two halves together. Those in the lower half are drilled out to clear the 7/64" bolts. With the halves bolted together, each blank is chucked and bored to a running fit on its eccentric. The outside is then roughly sawed and brought to final shape by hand filing. Eccentric rods are turned from T" square i steel. They should be cut slightly long to allow for shortening in the bend. Lay out the hole in the fork end after bending, measuring from the shoulder at the threaded end. Drill, slot, and file the fork to shape. With dividers, carefully lay out the reverse link on %" steel plate. To make the slot, drill a series of undersized .holes, drill between to overlap them, and finally file to the radiuses. Drill for the eccentric-rod pins and finish ihe outside by filipg to shape. Note that the link block has sides of the same curvature as the link slot, in which it should be a perfect sliding fit, without play. The reverse lever and its quadrant, drag link, and clamping nut offer no special difficulties. With the various short pins and the valve-rod nuts, you are ready to assemble the valve gear. One of the photos shows it in a trial assembly, less the reverse lever. Assemble the steam chest, valve, valve rod and adjusting nuts, and gland as in the photo on page 174. Be sure the valve rides freely on the rod so that its face may be lifted a trifle above the bolting surface of the chest in the position shown-enough to allow for more than the thickness of a gasket between chest and port face. To allow full contact with the port face, the adjustment nuts should be drawn up only to position the valve, not to clamp it. Either tap the nuts somewhat less than full thread depth for a tight fit on the rod, or make two thin nuts out 6f each one to provide locking. With the cylinder and running gear assembled, mount the steam chest temporarily without the cover and connect the eccentric rods to the link. Set the two eccentrics on the shaft so that the crankpin throw bisects the angle between the eccentrics. You can then observe the valve travel by turning the crankshaft. Steam ports should just begin to open as the piston reaches top or bottom dead cen-

ter. The valve should uncover both ports to an equal degree, and at no point expose the exhaust port. These conditions will best be observed at full forward and full reverse setting, with the link block at the two ends of the slot. At intermediate positions valve travel will be shortened, and cutoff-the closing of the port last admitting steam-will occur earlier in the stroke. If setting the valve nuts does not correct valve 'travel, it

!

1

Each eccentric is turned separately. Round stock off. center and the shaft hole is drilled. I t is then centered and the outside turned.
i s chucked 3/32"

The eccentrics, one without a hub, a r e then riveted or pinned together. A f t e r each pair of strap halves i s bolted together, the inside diameters are bored.

O n e o r both eccentric rods are offset slightly so as t o bring the centerlines of their forks directly over the centerline of the assembled eccentric.

may be necessary to reset the eccentrics, or even shorten or lengthen their rods. Assemble the engine, using oil freely on all moving parts, with gaskets and graphited gland packing. Run it in at low speed on steam or air, or by outside power, until the parts have worn to a good fit nncl lost any, initial tightness. The steam line shoulcl have a lubricator to oil the cylinder. Beware the temptation to throw over the

reverse lever at high speed. While the engine should stop at mid-clu:~drnnt setting, you'll want a throttle valve for fuller control. It's well to add asbestos lagging and a sheet-metal jacket to the cylincler to minimize condensation, and to start up slowly until the cylinder is hot and any condensate has escaped via the exhaust. Being of cast iron, the engine will safely stand presEND sures up to 100 lb.

A short pivot stud connects the d r a g link t o t h e
reverse link. Also above is t h e link block, shaped t o match t h e slot, which fits the valve-rod fork.

Chucked i n the four-iaw, a piece o f '/4" square steel i s turned down t o f o r m the handle o f t h e reverse lever. Holes must b e l o c a t e d as in the drawing.

H o w the reverse gear will b e assembled on the engine. The q u a d r a n t on the steam chest receives the clamp screw t h a t locks t h e reverse-lever setting.

A t its lower end, t h e lever pivots on a stud t h a t
screws i n t o t h e ring, which will itself b e bolted t o the bare. The c l a m p nut is f i t t e d with a handle.

k
REVERSE
LEVER Sfee/
DRILL 3 3 / y

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1

I

an set up the frame by joining the o the channel-iron stretchers with . stove bolts, the nuts drawn down at the ends as in Fig. 5. With the rame set up, drill a line of small holes, spaced 8 in. apart, through the top of the upper angle-iron rails to take screws driven into the top. If the machine is to

be taken about to the job or operated on- . an uneven floor, saw one of the front legs about 1in. short, cut two %%-in.slots in a piece of 4/4 by %-in. flat iron and bolt it ' to the leg as i Fig. 3 Thls will give y a u n . an adjustment to take care of any unevenness in the floor. The top thickness is given as 1% in. bul this may be 1% in. to allow a greater range

ADJUSTMENT

FROM MAPLE, KEYED

of adjustment on the dado and molding heads. To build up the top of 1%-in. stock rip six 2% by 38-in. strips of hard maple and five strips of black walnut the same size. Run a 3/8 by %-in. rabbet on the edge of one of the maple strips. Lay out and drill %-in. holes for staggered 2-in. dowels as shown in Fig. 1. The table opening should be wide enough to take the length of the mandrel so that the saw will raise high enough to give the full cutting capacity of the blade. Cut the stock for the table top accordingly and assemble as in Fig. 1 with waterproof casein glue in all joints. Allow ample time to dry before you loosen the clamps. To finish, first plane
48

the table crosswise to even up, then plane lengthwise with the jointer plane and sandpaper on both sides to a uniform thickness. Square up to size, plane all edges at right angles and be sure that the sides and ends are parallel. Apply two coats of white shellac to both sides and finish with wax. A %-in. rabbet is cut around the top edge of the opening. In this you fit two %-in. steel plates, one slotted for the saw blade, the other with a wider slot for the dado and molding cutter. Fasten with short screws. The %-in. groove for the crosscut guide may be located on either side of the saw nr one an each side. Next you make up the base tor the motor and saw mandrel. This is made 3-ply of %-in. hardwood. The exact size of the base depends on the type of motor and saw

1

mandrel you use. The forward end of the base is beveled for the mandrel which is, usually f a s t e n e d w i t h bolts or heavy screws. As you will see from Figs. 3 and 6 the base is pivoted on a 1%-in. steel shaft supported in two split bearings bolted to the back legs. ThB base is attached to the supporting shaft with 3%-in. U-bolts, or you can use two additional split bearings for this purpose. The motor is bolted in place with a %-in. V-belt running over a 2-in. diameter V-pulley on the mandrel and a 5-in. V-pulley on the motor. These pulleys will give proper saw speed with the.motor turning 1,750 r.p.m. This done, you are ready for the tilting device shown in Figs. 4, 6 and 7. It is important that the

'

,

runs in clockwise direction, it should be turned end for end so that the pulley and belt are on the opposite side, or the belt may be crossed. no end play. Set the table on the frame, a l i n e i t with the saw blade, place strips of thin felt between the table and the frame, and fasten the table in place with screws. Fig. 3 details the ripping fence and Fig. 2 the crosscut guide. Both sides of the fence should be finished true throughout the length. The wood is then sanded smooth, shellacked two coats and waxed. Two 1%in. shaft collars are placed tight against the bearings on the shaft supporting the motor baae. A l bolts, including those an l the split bearings, are then drawn tight. The motor and saw-mahdrel mounting, as shown in the drawings, is correct for motors that run in anti-clockwise direction as you are facing the pulley. If your motor

Shop Light Has Clampeon Socket
When y o u a r e working a r o u n d machinery t h a t requires a light in many unusual positions, it will be a big help to have tlie l a m p f i t t e d with a fastener as shown. T h i s i s nothing more than a spring b a t t e r y clip attached to an ordinary l i g h t socket by the bushing screw and then soldered to make it secure. -Albert Mihalovich, Rathbun, Ia.

.

place with a rivet. The housing is also drilled and tapped for a pressure grease fitting. Right at this stage the spindle, Fig. 4, should be made. Check the dimension through each of the inner ball races before you turn down the spindle between the cutter flange and the shouldered lower end, for this section must fit the inner ball

races in a snug, press fit. Thread the upper end of the spindle while in the lathe as the thread must be true. When you assemble as in Fig. 2 make sure, before seating the retainer, that the spindle turns freely, without perceptible binding at any point, through a complete revolution. Next, you bore out the threaded sleeve of a pipe floor flange so that the spindle

.

to the lower end of the flange as in Fig. 3. One of the clamp projections is tapped; the other is drilled to take the shouldered end of the clamp screw, Fig. 4. A coil spring is placed between the ends of the clamp when the screw is turned into place. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 show how the spindle may be mounted on a convenient floor stand and driven with a Y4-hp. motor. Fig. 6 suggests a good method of mounting the motor with the shaft in the horizontal position and driving with a half-crossed round leather belt. But, if you have a ballbearing motor, you can simplify this installation by mounting the motor with the shaft in the vertical position. In either case, with a motor running at 1,750 r.p.m., you can use a 7-in. V-pulley on the motor shaft and a 2-in. pulley on the spindle. This combination will give the proper speed for the average work. The stand, as you see, is a very simple affair made from angle iron. The table top requires a little more care. It should be made of strips of hardwood glued together and drawn tight with iron rods threaded at both ends for a nut and washer. For accurate work it's essential that the table ' top be surfaced

smooth and flat on both sides. Finish it with shellac. Notice the guide pin, Fig. 7, which is necessary for starting the work when no fence is used. It should not be more than 3 in. from the center or axis of the spindle. When using the pin as a guide for the edge of the work when starting the cut, it is essential that the uncut portion of the stock ride on a guide collar as in the detail, Fig. 1. Although the pin can be used when starting either straight or curved work it's best to use a fence when molding straight stock. Fig. 5 suggests a simple type of fence, although it does not have an adjustment for offsetting the two halves which is necessary on certain kinds of work. A ready-made fence having this feature can be purchased at nominal cost. Throe-lipped cutters should be used. They may be purchased ready-ground in a great variety of shapes together with suitable guide collars. Always use double nuts on the spindle and be sure that they are tight before starting the machine.

A Quick-Acting Tap Holder In addition to several turning jobs on hand for the lathe, there was one piece drilled, on the end, which required to be tapped. Being anxious to do this without changing the setting, the quick-acting tap holder shown in the drawing was devised. The square shank of the tap is held in a swinging PIN piece, clamped SWINGING PIECE to t h e t a i l stock center, so that, when TAP in use, the center fits into the center hole in the tap HEADLESS shank. When SCREW PIN the tap is in position for use, it is located accurately by the pin, which also prevents it from lifting. When the tapping operation is finished, it is only necessary to pull out the pin and swing the holder aside.

[Arrangements have been made to supply the necessary castings for this lathe, at a low figure, to any who are interested. This magazine has no financial or other interest in this, beyond that of service to the reader. The name and address of the maker will he furnished, upon request, by the Shop Notes Department, Popular Mechanics Magazine, 6 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago.—Editor.]

large quantities, a 6-in. lathe of the type described in this article will be found exceedingly useful in the small experimental shop. With a center held in the main turret, the machine may be used as a simple engine lathe, and when a number of similar pieces are to be turned out in a hurry the work may be performed in almost as expeditious a manner as on a commercial turret lathe. This machine was built and used by the author in his own workshop, on fine precision work, and many accurate jobs have been done with it very quickly. Most of the work of building can be done in a workshop equipped only with a vise and bench drill, with the necessary small tools, as flat cold-rolled steel is used for the ways, carriage, and other parts of that character; it will be necessary, however, to have certain things, such as the machining of the as Workshop: It headstock and the cutting Photograph of the Completed LatheBothUsed in the Author'sWork Is Capable of Performing Fast and Accurate of the feed screw, done in a machine shop, but this is a small item. retaining rings are fitted at the rear, The headstock is made of gray iron, and clamping the outer race of the bearing is fitted with an overarm steadyrest, firmly, and taking up the end thrust. which allows the carriage to travel the These are fitted with felt dust rings, bearfull length of long work, as the work is ing on the collars on the spindle; the supported from the top and rear. The rings at the front are also fitted with dust spindle is carried, at the rear, by a double- rings, running on the spindle, but these row ball bearing, .75 in. wide, of the com- rings do not clamp the single-row bearbined axial and radial-load type, and at ing, which is permitted to float. the front by a single-row bearing, .629 in. When the headstock is assembled, the wide. Both of these bearings have an bearing housings should be packed with outside diameter of 2.441 in., and an inside a good grade of vaseline, which will last diameter of 1.181 in. Care must be taken a long time; see that the vaseline supply to bore the bearing housings a push fit is at all times sufficient for good lubricafor the bearings, and to have all faces tion. Spindles fitted in this manner are square and parallel with each other. far superior to those fitted with plain The spindle should be made of a good bearings, as they consume less power, are grade of steel, of about .3-per-cent carbon free from vibration, and allow of accurate content, and is hollow. It is best to bore as well as heavy work. The writer has
3841

turret lathe is WHILE the the production essentially a tool for of work in

the spindle first, then re-center and finish the outside. The nose is taper-bored to take the collets, and threaded eight threads per inch, U. S. standard, to fit the faceplates and chucks. The taper seat for the collets should not be finished until the lathe has been completely assembled; it should then be machined with tools held in the toolpost of the lathe itself. The inner races of the ball bearings should be a good fit on the flat threads on the rear of the spindle, and on the outside of the spindle at the front. Bearing-

3842

POPULAR

MECHANICS

taken a 1/8-in. cut on a piece of 1/2-in. must be as true and straight as it is poscold-rolled steel at a distance of 5 in. sible to make them, as upon their truth from the collet, the reduced diameter depends the accuracy of the lathe. When trued, all surfaces should either be frosted being very accurate as to size. The drawbar for the collets is a tube, or polished. The shear anchor bolts should now the outer diameter of which fits the bore of the spindle. It is threaded at the front be screwed home, the pipes, leg and rear to fit the collets, and is fitted with a hand- leadscrew-bearing bolts placed in posiwheel at the rear. A tiebar at the top of tion, and a wooden form made to fit the headstock keeps the two arms stiff closely around shears and legs, in which and rigid. The cone pulley is fastened to to pour the cement. The cement used is the spindle by a setscrew, spotted into a mixture of one part Portland cement the spindle; two cone pulleys, of the same to three parts clean, sharp sand, mixed size, should be cast and machined, one with just enough water to enable a handbeing used on the countershaft. The arm ful of the mixture to be picked up and for the steadyrest is a length of 1-in. squeezed and to leave the impression of the fingers in it. cold-rolled This cement is s t e e l ; it is t a m p e d down clamped in posifirmly in the tion by 3/8-in. form, poking it capscrews, a r o u n d the w h i c h comscrews and into press the the c o r n e r s slotted headw i t h an ice stock arms. pick, or some The headstock s i m i l a r tool. is fastened to When the conthe bed by two crete has set 1/2- i n. b o l t s , thoroughly, the running up b o a r d s are rethrough pieces moved and the of pipe cast incement thorto the bed; by oughly wetted this means no twice a day for strains are put about a week; on the cement. this will temper The conthe cement, and struction of the is a very imbed is someportant part of what of a novthe work. The elty, although it resulting bed is has been thoro u g h l y t r i e d Method of Making the Bed: The Bolts for the Rear Leadscrew as s t r o n g as Bearing are Not Shown, but should be Cast anyone could out by the In like the Leg Bolts wish. Reinforcwriter in this and other machines, and found to be very ing rods may be laid down in the cement, satisfactory. This method of making the as it is being placed, or wires twisted bed eliminates the hardest work of mak- throughout the bolts, adding further to ing a small lathe, as it does away with the strength of the bed. The main member of the carriage is the bed casting and the necessary mamade of cold-rolled steel, 1/2 by 5 by 5 1/4 chining. A piece of 1/2 by 4-in. cold-rolled steel, in. in size, machined as shown in the 30 in. long, is used for the shears. This carriage-detail drawing. A piece of 1/4 is first drilled and tapped for a number of by 2-in. cold-rolled steel, 7 in. long, is 3/16-in. stove bolts, of varying lengths, fastened to the top of the main member which are used to anchor the shears to by 3/16-in. screws; on this piece the cross the cement, also drilled and countersunk slide runs. The cross slide is also made for the leg screws and for the 1/2-in. head- of steel, machined as shown, and is fitted stock bolts. It is next carefully straight- with a turret toolpost. The cross slide ened and scraped to a true surface on top is held to its ways by means of angle and sides, testing the width throughout pieces, as shown in the front view of the with a micrometer, and using a knife- carriage. The turret is made of steel, and edge straightedge on the surfaces; these is casehardened; four tools can be

3844

POPULAR

MECHANICS
against the edge of the shears. Brass shims, or wearing pieces, 1/32 in. thick, are set in the ends, to take the wear on the filler piece. The rear angle is plain, machined as shown in the drawing. Behind the apron is fitted a bronze nut; this rotates in a bearing fastened to the apron, and is screwed into one of a pair of miter gears, which, in turn, are driven by 3-to-l spur gears; the larger gear is pinned to the handwheel, and the smaller is pressed onto the hub of the second miter gear, which runs in the apron. The handwheel runs on a stud screwed into the apron; this stud is fitted with a knurled friction nut, so that, if

mounted in this at once. On the boss of the cross slide is mounted a small index post, into the countersunk top of which the elevating screws fit, allowing each tool to be adjusted to its correct cutting height. A spring pushes the turret upward when the clamping handle is loosened, allowing the turret to be turned to bring another tool into cutting position. A 1/4-in. square-thread screw operates the cross slide, and the tools are held in the toolpost by 1/4-in. square-head setscrews. The apron of the carriage is made of steel, 2 in. wide, and is fastened to the main carriage member by flat-head machine screws. The front angle piece of

Full Details of the Carriage and Apron Mechanism: Note the Employment of the Small Index Post and Elevating Screws in the Toolpost to Secure the Correct Height for Each Tool. The Post is Set in the Inner Left-Hand Corner of the Turret Base

the carriage is built up, as shown, the filler piece being slit at each end, so that wear may be taken up as it develops, by tightening the adjusting screws. The holes for these screws do not go clear through the filler piece, but stop at the slits, so that, by screwing the screws in, the inner ends of the filler are pressed

change gears are fitted to the lathe or it is desired to feed by means of the handwheel on the end of the leadscrew, the nut can be tightened and the whole assembly of spur and miter gears and nut locked firmly. The rear, or main-turret, base and slide are made of cast iron, a dovetailed slide

Details of the Headstock and Main Turret, and Side Elevation of Completed Lathe: When a Center is Used in the Turret, as Shown, and the Gib-Locking Screw Tightened, the Tool can be Used as an Ordinary Bench Lathe, for Turning Work between Centers. Five Tools can be Used in the Main Turret, and Four in the Toolpost Turret, Making for Speed in Production
3843

being used, fitted with a 1/8-in. gib. The front gib-adjusting screw is fitted with a handle and is used to lock the turret in position for plain turning operations. The turret pivot pin, of cold-rolled steel, casehardened, is 5/8 in. in diameter, with a 5/8-in. U. S. standard thread cut on the upper end, and fitted with a clamping handle. The turret is made of steel, undercut as shown in the drawings, and has five equally spaced slots milled around the lower surface for the index finger. One side of each slot is radial, the other being tapered, and the index finger is made to correspond. By making the finger and slots of this form, the radial side does the actual locating, and the tapered side moves the turret to position; only the radial side need be of great accuracy, while the wear is chiefly on the inclined side, where it does no harm. The holes for the tools should not be bored until the indexing mechanism has been assembled and the lathe set up; then, by boring the holes with a tool held in the chuck, and correctly supported, the greatest degree of accuracy is obtained. The details of the indexing device are so complete that little description is necessary; care should be taken, however, to see that the coil spring is heavy enough to prevent the index finger from being withdrawn from the turret until the stop pin on the back of the turret base strikes the pin on the slide; the backward movement of the lever will thus move the whole turret back until the stop pins engage; further movement disengaging the index finger, and allowing the turret to be revolved to the next position. The index finger slides between beveled strips of 3/16-in. steel, and must be a good fit; both slides and finger should be casehardened to insure long life. The speed of the lathe, and the arrangement of the countershaft, will be determined by the work to be undertaken and the shop conditions. A reversing countershaft should be fitted if tap and die work is to be performed on the lathe. A quadrant and stud can be fitted on the head end, and a set of change gears provided, if the lathe is to be used for screwcutting; in this event, no care should be spared to secure an accurate leadscrew. The builder of this lathe will have a very efficient machine, one that could not be purchased for many times the cost of building.

Arc welding gun
By PHILLIP M. WILSON

You can spot weld, tack weld and burn holes in metal with this welding gun you can make yourself

AFTER YOU BUILD this arc-spot welder, you'll find that you can spot weld sheet metal without a back up, also tack weld, and burn holes in sheet metal faster than you can drill them. And, as you use the gun, you'll discover many more jobs it will do faster, easier and better. The "secret" of its operation is the copper nozzle that acts as a shield and heat sink for the arc. The tremendous heat is concentrated on a small area for a short length of time, and with the springs tending to push the gun back at the same time the rod is burning off, a spot, plug, or tack can be made in less than a second. You have a lot of leeway when rounding up

the materials; in fact, your scrap box probably contains some parts that can be used. Just as an example, the handle on this welder was originally part of a toy machine gun. Incidentally, if you can manage to wangle your son's tommy gun, the handle will probably need some beefing up. The best bet is to fill it with epoxy after adding hardener. If you prefer, pieces of plywood can be sandwiched together with epoxy to form a handle like this prototype. When the cement has hardened, the block can be sawed to shape and sanded smooth. A saw slot cut in the rear of the handle allows the clutch knob to tighten the hairpin-shape slide rod. The knob should be tightened just enough so that the electrode can be fed with an easy downward push. An electronic supply house or radio repair shop can supply a knob of this type

Set the heat as you would for regular welding, push the nozzle down and then let up for a tack joint. Wear goggles when working with the arc-gun

or you can improvise one from a l-in.-diameter plastic medicine-bottle cap, filled with epoxy. Before the cement hardens, embed a 1/4-20 bolt, head down, to serve as a stud. The knob on the conductor screw that holds the electrode can be made in the same way. Keep in mind that both the knob and the stud are part of the electrical circuit and therefore must be made of some insulating material. A 3/8-in. hole drilled in the side of the handle accepts the fiber or plastic sleeve that provides insulation for the welding cable. Drill a 3/8-in. hole in the side of the sleeve to take the conductor screw, then drill and tap the front of the handle for the threaded brass rod that holds the electrode. Since no great pressure is required, it is all right to tap the wood, but you can use a Tee-nut instead. If you do, remember to check to see that it doesn't make contact with the slide rod and short it out. The next step is to drill two holes in the handle

for the slide rod. The holes are 1/4 in. on 1-1/4in. centers and must be drilled exactly parallel. The cable used here is an extra-flexible no. 4 rubber-jacket type, but no. 6 superflex would have been easier to handle. Attach a 100-amp lug to one end of the cable and at the other end slip on a 1-in. length of 3/8-in. copper tubing to withstand the pressure of the conductor screw. The nozzle holder is 3/4-in. black pipe, 1/2 in.. long. The slide made from a 3/4-in. length of 1/8-in. pipe is reamed out to 1/4 in. i.d. After riling both slide pieces to the required 1-1/4in. center measurement, clamp them to the nozzle holder and braze the joints. The nozzle is secured by two socket-head setscrews inserted in holes tapped in the nozzle holder. A rod guide formed from 1/8-in. steel is press fitted to a depth of 3/8 in. inside each nozzle. This keeps the rod centered and prevents arcing against the side of the nozzle. The slide rod is 1/4 in. o.d. and is made of brass, bronze, stainless steel or other noncorrosive metal. After assembling all the parts, clip the cable lug onto your electrode holder. Use the ground of the welder in the usual way. Slip a match tip, self-starting arc-welding rod (available from mail-order stores) into the conductor tube and adjust the clutch knob for 1/8 to 1/4-in. space between rod end and nozzle tip. Then set the heat at 75 amps and press the nozzle down against two pieces of sheet metal that are to be tacked. There will be a slight hiss and a little smoke. Release the pressure to stop arcing and inspect the joint. If penetration is insufficient, increase the heat and the pressure time. For burning holes it's best to use high heat and a short pressure time.

When welding together two pieces of sheet metal remember that timing of dwell determines the type of weld. Momentary contact will produce a spot weld, longer contact a plug weld on metal Tacking two pieces of plate before making a conventional weld can be accomplished without the use of a welding mask because the nozzle acts as a guard. For safety wear flash goggles

Spot or plug welding an inside corner calls for the use of a special-purpose nozzle

This nozzle holds the welding electrode at a 45-deg. angle for tacking or spot welding of an outside corner
4 5 ° OUTSIDE NOZZLE

Welding a stud to a sheet or light plate stock is possible by completely penetrating through to the stud from the reverse side of the work
STRAIGHT NOZZLE

The welding gun, shown below with its four quick-changeable nozzles, can handle a multitude of jobs

Self-containedunit has four-speed V-belt drive, rigid iron bed, and a quick-actingtailstock
W I T H this lathe you can swing a disk 12 in. in diameter on the headstock or turn down a full-length table leg between centers. The headstock spindle, Fig. 1 is supported , on auto connecting rods bolted to a short length of channel which forms the base and is bolted to the bed. A hardwood spacer between the rods holds the whole thing rigid. The &-in. spindle runs in Ford spindle-bolt bushings which are pressed into the upper ends of. the c o n n e c t i n g rods and then reamed to give the spindle a freerunning fit. The spindle also carries two ball thrust bearings, one on each side of a four-step V-pulley. Polished flat washers are used to take out the end play, if any. The inner end of the s p i n d l e should project about 3/4 in. to take :a hollow-sleeve spur center of the type which locks in place with a headless set screw. This and the drive pulley, also the thrust bearings, can be purchased a t little cost. Faceplates are also available. The bed is simply two channels of the size given in Fig. 3. They are bolted together with spacers cut from pipe, the latter of such length as to leave the top flanges of the channels exactly 1in. apart when the bolts are drawn tight. Now, the stand consists of two end members joined directly to the bed as in, Fig. 3, and to a lower shelf as in Fig. 4. The motor shelf is assembled from three pieces of 1%-in. angle as in Fig. 3. It's a good iclea f~ make up the s!qd fixst, the11

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cut these pieces to suit the motor and V-belt you are to use. Fig. 2 shows a trick in fitting angle iron that should be used in
bulldlng this stand, as it reaults i a rigid n

joint. After the pieces are cut to required length, file one end of the angle which meets the corner of the second angle, in this case the leg, to a contour which allows i_t t~ fit snugly. Then clamp the pieces to-

The top flanges of the bed channels can be trued by draw filing, then finished smooth with emery cloth wrapped around a block of to the bed in the same way

gether and drill the hole for the stove bolt. If one piece is tapped as shown, use the tap drill first, then ream the outer hole with a body drill for the bolt. Or drill through with the body drill and tighten with a nut and lock washer on the stove bolt. Either way will do. Note that the hardwood shelf is braced to the foot, Figs. 3 and 4, and 'that the shelf rests on an angle-iron rail to which it is bolted. ~~~t pieces of 11/2-in. angle are bolted to the ends of the legs. A machine bolt or capscrew is put through near the ends of each foot piece and held in any position with 'two nuts, one on each side of one leg of the angle as shown. This gives adjustment for leveling the lathe on any floor. Finally, the tailstock and toolrest. Fig. 6 suggests a method of making the latter. You can purchase this item ready-made also. Figs. 5 and 7 show clearly how the tailstock is made. As you will see, it is very similar to the headstock. The quill is turned out of 1-in. cold-rolled steel shafting, the ends being shouldered back the length and diameter of the upper connecting-rod bearings, leaving a center section 4% in. long. The quill is counterbored as shown and a portion tapped to take the
60

threaded section of the spindle. The locking device consists of a cam rolling in slots C U ~ the channel-iron base as in Fig. 7 in and actuated by a ball handle. The cam is made by filing slots in a piece of 3/4-in. shafting. These slots cause the shaft to move eccentrically, lifting the U-bolt and the plate which bind against the flanges of the bed and tighten the tailstock at any position. A Y'-hp. motor of 1,750 r.p.m. will furnish sufficient power for ordinary work. By using matched 4-step cone pulleys on motor and headstock you will not have to shift the motor to change the spindle speed. By making up hinged motor rails out 6f strips of hardwood or %-in. flat iron it will be much easier to shift the belt when changing speeds. Hinged motor rails can also be pu:chased ready-made.

3

>

.. .. . .

This Lathe Sanding Table Fits T~cllr
3/4"

Hal(

a

PLYWOOD

.

on a lathe + g disk it is very often an advmta~e, have a table tbat can be adto &d quickly to the best workh g &&&% in refation to the, disk. I(lla8e 3mm a piece 6f plywood of a convenient

When --*aFing up small piecea o -stock f

size a short length of pipe and a m e , you have a table that is adjustable bbth vertically and horizontqlly. The bk& base fomns the holder, and the sanding table is held in the desired posftim by simply running up the clamp screw.

You need not go without a lathe as you can make this sturdy one of wood. Swings 12 in. over bed and 30 in. between centers. A heavy, balanced countershaft provides uniform spindle speed with moderate pedaling

p"""*"G

$*** @4

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d

ITH the exception
of turned wooden pulleys and the form to cast a flywheel, you can b u i l d t h i s e f f i c i e n t a*i- \ treadle lathe with a few h a n d tools. D i s t a n c e between centers can be increased to accomrnodate turnings more than 30 in. long, but in doing so, the treadle, which must be

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ward strokes of the trea give a spindle speed turning. Common 2-b cut each member. Note how the h is incorporated in the twin front legs. E: cept for fastening the bed pieces, the type of assembly shown to the right of Fig. 3 is used throughout, which permits tightening joints that may become loose. The small pin indicated is provided to keep the members in line when drawing up the bolts. Endless V-belting or round leather

belting, joined, will do to rig the countershaft. As no tension adjustment is provided, it will be necessary, if an endless belt is used to drive the headstock spindle, to vary the position of t h e r e a r countershaft pulley to be able to stretch the belt snugly

Inexpensive Sanding Disks Made From Plywood and Tin
Small sanding disks for a lathe are made easily from plywood disks. After cutting to size, make a sheet-metal disk to match. Drill one wood disk and countersink the hole to take a nail. Then punch the metal disk for the nail and solder the two together. Drill screw holes through both metal and wood disks for attachment of second wood disk to which abrasive paper is glued.

LAO -4

T L A i L R S -

over it. Belt dressing can be used if slippage develops. Ball bearings in both the headstock and countershaft make the lathe exceptionally smooth running and are preferred t o bronze bearings, although Ford model-T spindle body bushings can be used if you are unable to secure ball bearings. Fig. 1 details the headstock. The holes for the bearings must be centered an equal distance above the bed and counterbored on facing sides to provide a press fit for the bearings. An auto-generator bearing will do for the inner bearing, but the outer one should be of the type to take end thrust when pressure is applied by the tailstock.

the momentum. Collars are used against each bearing to take up end play. The flywheel detailed in Figs. 5 and 6 provides the necessary momentum to keep the spindle turning at a uniform speed. Extra care must be used in centering the hub to have the flywheel run fairly true. About the easiest way to do this is to first mark a 17-in. circle on the plywood bott m of the form by which it o
oaxl

be oen-

tered when fastening it in place with screws. Then a hole is drilled in the exact center to take the %-in. pipe hub snugly. A cleat across the top of the form holds the upper end of the pipe in position, while at the bottom a small block and a coupling

are used. The pipe should extend about 1/2 in. above the top of the form. As the drive pulley is fastened directly to the flywheel, greased dowels are placed in the form to provide bolt holes for this in the casting. Use a fairly rich aggregate consisting of cement, 1 part, sharp sand, 3 parts, and place pieces of wire mesh in the form as the pouring progresses to reinforce the work. Allow the concrete to set several days until fully cured. The flywheel is fastened to the pitman crank by a setscrew tapped in the coupling. Note in Fig. 8 that the point of fastening the pitman to the treadle should be directly in line with the flywheel shaft. Bearings for the countershaft assembly are fitted the same as those in the headstock. Plywood is best for the countershaft pulleys, the two rear ones being turned and grooved separately, screwed together and pinned to their shaft. Here collars are used as before to take up end play. ~ i gLdetails the tailstock and shows the . progressive steps to follow in shaping the glued-up block. The spindle hole, which is bored while the block is still square, is bushed on each side of the handwheel opening with a M-in. pipe nipple to receive a M-in. threaded shaft. Note that one side the handwheel. The latter is of wood and has a threaded bushing le. Washers center it in the t clamp in place by hand-

This home-made 3-1/2in. lathe has
first of four articles by GEORGE B. ROUND, in which he gives an account of the construction of a basic piece of machinery machine to be described is not put forward as an “ ideal ” lathe, but as an example of a plain lathe of simple and straightforward construction to which additions can be made as time, fancy, or necessity dictates. The lathe came into being through the acquisition of a set of Stuart No 10 engine castings and the realisation that I had no means of machining.
centres, with a bed 27-1/2 in. long, the extreme overall length being 2 ft 11 in. and the overall width 15) in. It is fitted with a form of back gearing together with a worm drive to mandrel, is screwcutting and has a back-shaft drive for power traverse. Fig. 1 shows the general arrangement and end view, and collectively these show the main features of the machine, which started as a plain lathe and has gradually acquired considerable elaboration. To return to the bed, trouble was encountered straight away. The maximum traverse of the milling machine was only about 20 in., and this was not nearly long enough. A large diameter plate was fixed to the milling spindle with a single inserted fly cutter, and with this a length of 27-1/2 in. could be machined. This had to suffice although I would have preferred a few more inches of bed. No attempt was made to machine the sides of the bed to a definite dimension, care only being taken to clean off all rough scale and to get true parallel surfaces. The four corners were machined to clean up the welds and to remove sharp edges. Beyond drilling and tapping eight holes, this finished the bed, the fly cutter leaving the faces very smooth and requiring little hand work. The actual finished section of the bed is shown in Fig. 2. The headstock was the next consideration. It was fabricated by arc welding mainly from angle and plate, and is shown in Fig. 3. It was formed from two 3/8in. thick plates cut to a V at the bottom to fit over a 6-1/2in. length of 2-1/2 in. angle with two smaller angles between to act as stiffeners. The bosses were formed of slices of 2 in. dia. b.d.m.s. bar, the whole being welded up into a strong and rigid unit. Holes 3/8in. dia. were drilled through the centres of the bosses and at appropriate places in the plates and bolted together for location in weldine. Thicker plate would have been used but it was not available and 3/8 in. has proved to be amply rigid in use.

novel features

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Certain” limited facilities became available, and it was decided to make up a simple lathe rather than deal with the engine castings, as this would leave me with a lathe after the engine was finished. As things turned out, this was a wise decision, the facilities for machining ending much sooner than was expected. Only a plain lathe was needed and something on the lines of Maudslay’s triangular bar bed was favoured, a type I had always wanted to try out. I dislike anything that looks obviously home-made, however good its performance may be. As castings were out of the question for a variety of reasons, commercially obtainable sections, plus the junk heap had. to provide the materials for construction. They required careful selection to ensure that appearance did not suffer. It was decided to keep costs down to the minimum, and in fact, the only items purchased specially for the machine itself, were Allen-type screws and the mandrel ball-thrust bearing. Design of the bed The first item to be considered was the bed, and the proposed design was quickly modified for triangular section bar is not readily obtainable, nor particularly easy to machine from round bar. The use of two round bars was then considered but rejected in favour of a square bar bed as approximating more to the original idea. No square bar over 1 in. being to hand. the idea of arc-welding two mild steel angles to form a square tube was quite sound, and 2 in. x 2 in. x 3/8 in. thick angle was made the basis of the design. The lathe itself is 3-1/2 in. centre height, taking about 13 in. between
22 OCTOBER 1959

General view of the 3-1/2 in. lathe to be described in these articles 293
MODEL ENGINEER

The milling machine was fitted with a universal vertical milling attachment. This was really accurate so that the headstock was completely machined in only two settings, first, set upside down to machine out the underside, using the vertical attachment set alternately 45 deg. each side of the centre. Without disturbing the setting, a vertical and horizontal datum surface was machined on each side of the V, as shown in section x-x, Fig. 3. This was used for locating squarely on the table in the second set-up, using the milling machine as a boring machine, to bore and face the housings for the bushes parallel with the V-base, as with this form of bed any angular adjustment of the headstock for lining up is virtually non-existent. The accuracy achieved with these set-ups fully justified the trouble taken. It will be seen from Fig. 4 that the mandrel front bearing is of substantial dimensions, 1-1/4 in. dia. x

2-1/4 in. long, the back bearing being 1 in. dia. x 1-5/16 in. long; the latter would have been made longer had material been available. If it becomes necessary to fit a replacement, it will be made 1-3/4 in. long, the mandrel being turned down to suit. Bearing bushes The gunmetal bearing bushes are solid and without a means of adjustment. This may cause some lifting of eyebrows, but in my experience with lathes of various makes and sizes, only two were entirely free from chatter and they were the only two fitted with solid bushes. Admittedly, both had taper front bearings for endwise adjustment, but a Pratt and Whitney 4 in. had a parallel rear bearing, and the other, a 5 in. Pittler, was, I think, tapered though I never removed the mandrel and so cannot be certain. However, the parallel bushes fitted in my lathe show no signs of play after nearly seven years of use. The

rear bush was fitted with the flange between the housings to form a shoulder for the thrust bearing to bed against. The front bush was flanged only for appearance. Bright mild steel bar was used for the mandrel and it was intended to make the nose suitable for Myford backplates and to take No 2 Morse taper drills and centres, hence the

Headstock in closeup. Angle and plate were the main items used in fabrication

F A S T HEAD STOCK

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OCTOBER 1959

17/32 in. dia. hole through the body of the mandrel. This was hurriedly altered to 1 in. Whit. to use commercial hex. nuts welded to steel discs as chuck backplates, which also meant a change to No 1 Morse for the taper. But 1 in. nuts are easily obtained whereas specially threaded backplates are not, except at a price. A 1 in. roller thrust bearing of cheap manufacture was used to take care of thrust from drilling, etc., and a plastic washer for the opposite thrust. I was presented with some difficulty in getting material for the bed section of the tailstock. Eventually a cast iron firebar was located which machined up into a nice rectangular bar 1-1/4 in. x 1-15/16 in . x some 27 in. long. A piece 5 in. long was milled out to fit the bed and a tailstock body welded up from mild steel tube and flat section bar. The tube was reamed out to 7/8 in. dia. to take a lever-

Lathe mounted on a metal cabinet with a self-contained countershaft unit

operated barrel, 7/8 in. dia., this being to the barrel. This is crude but easier to make up than the screw- effective, and about the only suitable operated pattern. It was also more method m the circumstances. handy for drilling, as the machine * To be continued on November 5 would have to do duty as a driller. The bottom face was machined to The Festiniog Railway, Vol. II, suit the headstock centre height by J. I. C. Boyd. T h e Oakwood when bolted to the cast iron block. Press, price 30s. Two 5/16 in. hex. head setscrews were R BOYD'S second volume used and fitted solely for lining up carries the history of the purposes. I rarely require the tailFestiniog Railway from 1889 to stock to be set over for taper turning, the present time. It thus covers and the extra refinement of a crossthe period from the death of guide was felt to be unnecessary in a Charles Spooner, the dynamic plain lathe. Clamping of the barrel is force behind this little railway, by a thumbscrew and brass pad on the Colonel Stephens era, the post-war slump of 1923-1928, the partial closure of 1939 and the closure of 1946, and finally the re-opening during 1955. The author has made a lifetime’s study of the Festiniog Railway and its associated lines, and this book covers its subject most thoroughly. Appendices are included giving full details of the locomotives, passenger coaches and goods wagons; the track, stations, yards and shops, as well as a chronology from the original Authorisation in 1832. Excellently produced, and well illustrated with 47 photographs, 28 drawings, maps and plans, this new book will appeal to all who are interested in the fascinating narrow-gauge railways of this country.-R.M.E.

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22 OCTOBER 1959

295

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3-1/2 in, SCREWCUTTING LATHE
Continued from 22 October 1959, pages 293 to 295

Constructing a suitable slide-rest, cross-slide and tool block
this stage the whole affair was somewhat unwieldy, so two temporary bench legs were made up out of 1-1/2 in. slices of angle welded to bits of 1/4 in. plate. These were bolted to the ends of the bed providing a support while the head and tailstocks were fitted. The headstock was secured by four 3/8 in. Whit. Allen screws and the tailstock by a forked clamp tightened with a 2-1/2 in. dia. black moulded plastic handwheel, as shown in Fig. 5. Attention was next turned to the question of a suitable slide-rest. After giving much consideration to
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By G.B. ROUND

A

Cutting change gearwheel using vertical slide and directing attachment

various schemes to get the longest t raverses, it was realised that in the bed itself lay the obvious answer to the problem, for here was the basis of a slide the fulllength of the machine. A V-groove was, therefore, milled in each of two 6 in. lengths of the firebar and bolted to a piece of thick plate surfaced on both sides, with a cutaway to clear the tailstock. The bolt holes in the front piece were slotted for adjustment and an angle fitted to take the screws for adjusting purposes. Two strips were

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machined and screwed to the top face with 3/16 in. Allen screws and this made an excellent saddle. The arrangement was as shown in Fig. 6 and also in the photograph. It was at this stage that a most unexpected snag developed, for the firm which had given me machining facilities closed down and I had barely time to finish off the mandrel. However, a cross-slide was made up from a chunk of cast iron and operated by a long 3/8 in. Whit. bolt threaded its full length, giving about 3 in. of cross traverse. A piece of 1/2 in. round bar threaded 1/2 in. Whit. was pressed into service to operate the saddle up and down the bed, both being operated by handwheels salvaged from the junk heap. A tool block was fashioned out of an offcut from the firebar, and a tryout to ascertain what could be anticipated, seemed advisable. The drive This meant that a drive had to be arranged and for this I used an 1/8 h.p. Brook Cub motor together with a 9 in. V-pulley and belt. The 9 in. pulley bore just fitted the end of the mandrel. With the l-1/2in. pulley already on the motor, it was felt that it would do to just turn it round and perhaps handle a 1/8 in. drill, and in no time it was connected up and running. The motor was very large for such a small rating, and as the 1/8 in. drill seemed to have little effect on the motor, a 1/4 in. drill was tried. This too, was well within its stride, so
MODEL ENGINEER

SCREWCUTTING LATHE
continued

turning was gingerly attempted with complete success. In this state the lathe was used for a considerable time, machining up the Stuart engine castings with no difficulty, the motor giving ample power to turn the 3 in. dia. flywheel. One speed was a handicap and eventually a 5 in. dia. pulley was acquired which gave a much faster speed for small drills and turning. But it was awkward to change as it involved moving the motor as well as changing the pulley. So two fourspeed pulleys were turned up from mahogany with diameters of 3 in., 4 in., 5 in., and 6 in., arranged in an angle iron frame on two 1/2 in. shafts, one above the other. The drive from the motor was on to the lower shaft and a single V-belt drive from the upper shaft went to the mandrel, the diameter of the four-

speed pulleys being too large to be fitted between the headstock bearings. Lignum vitae blocks were used for the countershaft bearings and 1/4 in. round leather belt for the cone pulleys. A 4-1/8 in. dia. V-pulley was secured in the normal position on the mandrel with a 5/16 in. Allen grubscrew, and an A size V-belt drive from the countershaft completed the arrangement. Square threaded screw This extra load had little effect on the motor, and it was much more convenient in use. As the end of the mandrel was now free, I had thoughts of making some sort of automatic traverse. At this stage a friend produced a square threaded screw #in. dia. It was too short for a normal leadscrew, too long for the available traverse of the saddle, being screwed for its entire length. Above all, it had seven threads per inch, but it was much better than the 1/2 m. screwed bar I was using, and extended my plans to include screwcutting.

All turning had to be done on the lathe itselfand to fit this screw called for careful planning. Once the existing traverse screw was removed the lathe was out of action as far as turning was concerned. Because of this new dwarf legs were first made, the one at the headstock end being of box form, and welded up from angle, channel and flat bar, as shown in Figs 7 and 8. Next a nut was cast in white metal, as there was no nut with the screw and cutting a nut in the normal way was out of the question. A mould was made by cutting a recess in a block of wood, with holes at each end through which to pass the leadscrew, the recess being twice the required length of nut, and forming an open topped mould. The white metal used was a mixture of all the broken diecast toys I could find, melted in a tin can on the gas stove and poured into the open mould. As soon as it was set, the mould was split off and with little trouble, the

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5 NOVEMBER 1959

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cast nut was screwed off the leadscrew, which had been “ smoked ” to prevent sticking, and then cut into two, thus providing a spare nut when required. The resulting thread was good, and the metal stands up well to wear, so that it will be a long time before the spare is needed. *To be continued on November 19
WORKING DRAWINGS FOR A MARINE BOILER

OPEN LEG

For the ship modelling enthusiast who is seeking a suitable boiler to power the engine of his tug the Scotch return-tube marine boiler has a lot to recommend it. Being of compact design it fits snugly in the limited length of a vessel such as Gondia, which has a length of 42in., a beam of 10 in. and a draught of 5 in. Working drawings for a Scotch marine boiler are now available. The details are contained on one sheet, price 6s. 6d. including postage, and may be had from the Plans Service, Percival Marshall Ltd., 19-20 Noel Street, London Wl. Plans for Gondia are also obtainable, price 14s. 6d. 355
MODEL ENGINEER

5 NOVEMBER 1959

3-1/2 in. SCREWCUTTING LATHE
Continued from 5 November 1959, pages 353 to 355

Fitting a new cross-slide and other units
By G. B. ROUND
leadscrew brackets were made up from mild steel angle. At the tailstock end a steel sleeve made from scrap with a brass bush was used. This was secured with a fine thread locknut, the sleeve being already threaded to suit. For the headstock end bracket, brass bushes forced into suitably sized holes were used. Two bushes were fitted to enable a reduction gear to be added at a future date, to give the equivalent of an 8 t.p.i. leadscrew for changewheel calculations. It also helped to offset the shortness of the leadscrew and provide room for a clutch instead of the more usual split nut arrangement. This is shown in Fig. 9 whichillustrates the final form of leadscrew and clutch.
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Adapting the leadscrew To adapt the leadscrew, it was necessary to turn down a plain portion at each end. This was done by fitting .a brass bush in place of the tailstock barrel and using the tailstock body as a steady while the screw, held in the four-jaw chuck, was being turned down. Both ends were thus treated, the small portion of screw held in the chuck being cut off afterwards. A plain extension piece was then fitted and pegged at the tailstock end. It was left on the long side to take a handwheel and leave room for possible future developments. The nut was secured to the saddle by means of a cage, bent up from 16-gauge sheet riveted to an angle bracket and attached by a couple of
19

NOVEMBER 1959

421

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Allen screws. It allows for the nut being readily removed and at the same time restrains it from turning and moving endwise, see Fig. 10. An apron or cover, Fig. 11, was also fitted to keep swarf off the leadscrew as far as possible. This was sprung

into place and secured endways by means of a tab, held by two screws at the right-hand end. A chip tray, Fig. 12, was made and fitted between the lathe and the bench to help retain turnings and keep things tidy.

Being restricted for bench space, it was felt that a separate stand for the lathe would be a valuable asset and as a quantity of 20-gauge galvanised sheet offcuts were to hand, a cabinet stand was designed to suit the sizes available. The arrangement and

SHELF

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19 NOVEMBER 1959

details of this are shown in Fig. 13 and also in the photograph of the complete machine. With the exception of the 14-gauge backplate and the angle feet, it was constructed throughout from 20-gauge sheet fastened together with 1/4 in.

galvanised gutterbolts. It has proved to be rigid and yet is much lighter than cast or angle iron legs and provides ample storage space for tools and equipment belonging to the machine. The construction was simple, only

plain bends being used. Although I had the use of a hand-folding machine, all bends can be done between two angles. All pieces were formed, drilled, and finally bolted together. The countershaft angle pillars were bolted to the cupboard sides through

19 NOVEMBER 1959

423

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the 14-gauge plate, thus making a solid unit. The object of the thicker plate for the back of the cupboard was to carry the motor and so form a selfcontained unit, but for a number of reasons this has not been done. To give a professional touch a monogram plate was fitted over the cupboard door. It was cut from plywood with two of the plies cut away to leave raised letters and surround. It was in fact a pattern for a casting, used as the casting. The lathe was mounted with 1/4 in. plywood packings between the feet and chip tray, and also between tray and cabinet top. It has proved very satisfactory, 1/2 in. thick rubber pads being inserted between stand and floor as it is used in an indoor workshop Changing power units At this stage I acquired a Leyland Barlow 6 in. power shaper with a traversing head, complete with stand and 1/2 h.p. motor. The first thing to be done was to arrange a drive to the lathe from the shaper motor and so free the lathe motor to work a sensitive drilling machine which had been made up in the meantime from oddments. Up to this time all drilling had been done on the lathe. With the advent of the shaper, a new cross-slide was made up in steel, as shown in Fig. 14. It has a number of tapped holes instead of T-slots, and the fitting of a topslide was now I wanted to get ample essential. clearance between the tailstock and topslide handle and also to try out a square guide in place of the usual V-pattern. As I still had some of the firebar left, a piece was machined as detailed in Fig. 15. The slide pivots on a 3/8 in. Allen screw, which was also used as the main fixing, with an angleplate attached to the side, and curved slots with setscrews to facilitate setting for taper turning. These are clearly shown in the photograph. * To be continued on December 3

Saddle and topsIide with four-tool turret. Note offset topslide screw
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424

19 NOVEMBER 1959

3-1/2 in. SCREWCUTTING LATHE

Continued from 19 November 1959, pages 422 to 424

Completing the vertical slide, back gear and change wheels
By GEORGE B. ROUND topslide nut was formed in one piece with the keep plate and brings the operating screw well clear of the tailstock. There is no tendency to bind and the slide operates smoothly and does not require to be adjusted as tightly as is necessary with a V-slide. The success of this topslide prompted the making up of the vertical slide shown in Fig. 16. Construction was similar to the topslide, except for a single 1/2 in. bolt which is used to ‘allow for angular
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setting when required. Again a number of tapped holes are used instead of T-slots. All feed screws are 3/8 in. dia. x 16 t.p.i. as I prefer to work in sixteenths rather than tenths of an inch. I am considering the advisability of changing to 20 t.p.i. so as to fit feed dials graduated in thous. But I feel that this thread is too fine for feedscrews, and a lot of work is involved in making 10 t.p.i. square-thread screws for all Slides. A small electric motor from a Burroughs calculating machine had been obtained to drive the drilling machine before I had the shaper. This was fitted with a gearbox which yielded a bronze worm wheel and steel worm with a ratio of approximately 10-1/2 : 1. It also had a peculiar clutch arrangement fitting on a shaft of the same diameter as the leadscrew extension, which gave promise of a fine feed a la Pittler. The worm was made in one piece with the shaft, but was detachable from the motor armature? and fitted into a piece of 1 in. x 14-gauge steel tube, secured to the end leg of the bed by an odd aluminium casting. An extension shaft allowed for the fitting of a pulley at the rear of the machine to
MODEL ENGINEER

482

3 DECEMBER 1959

View of the handandpower drive to leadscrew at tailstock end of bed clearly shows this arrangement, together with the finalised form of power drive to give a longitudinal feed. The vertical slide in use with the side and face milling cutters of 3 in. and 4in. dia., emphasised the need for a back gear. This was also a necessity for screwcutting, which by this time was deemed to be essential. Screwcutting meant change wheels. These in turn, meant some form of indexing the blanks for cutting the teeth, all of which I was determined to produce on the lathe itself. These additions were more or less fitted concurrently as the various requirements were dependent on one another. Sorting out the gears In the search for a wormwheel suitable for dividing, a broken circular knitting machine was discovered. This provided a worm and wheel, but of 77 teeth-too large for a dividing head, but big enough to fit on the mandrel of the lathe. Although this was an awkward number for dividing purposes, it was better than nothing. Also discovered were two gearwheels of 80 and 90 teeth and 1.5 module pitch, of which size I had a milling cutter: No 8 for 135 teeth and over. These, together with some useful bits and pieces from the knitting machine, were all the ready-made parts available. Laying out these items in various ways. I suddenly realised that by breaking away from tradition an effective backgear was possible. An article in MODEL ENGINEER by George Gentry many years ago provided the solution, viz, an independent drive for the mandrel when slow speeds were required. Other additions (or complications) suggested themselves at the same time, and Fig. 18 shows the final scheme, also seen in the
MODEL ENGINEER

VERTICAL SLIDE

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enable a power drive to be arranged later. The worm wheel, together with the centre portion of the clutch, revolves loosely on the shaft, and the outer portion, to which a handle is fixed, was pinned to the shaft, thus driving the leadscrew through the medium of a removable pin. As the worm has seven starts this gearing is reversible. After a slow traverse with the handwheel or power feed, the saddle can be returned for another cut by means of the handle without
3 DECEMBER 1959

the necessity for disengaging the clutch. This is an advantage when screwcutting as it is not essential for the wormwheel to be disconnected from the leadscrew. This was a fault on my 5 in. Pittler, where it was possible to get the wormdriven screwcutting gears engaged at the same time as the worm-driven feed at the opposite end of the leadscrew. No doubt Pittler fitted some sort of device to prevent this occurring, but if so, it had been removed from my machine. The picture on this page 483

second picture given here. The 80 T wheel would just fit on the mandrel if a slight clearance was cut in the stiffening angles of the headstock, allowing the 90 T wheel to be used as an idler wheel between an 18 T wheel on the drive shaft, giving a ratio in the region of 4-1/2 : 1. At the same time the worm and wheel together with their cast iron frame, were fitted with their integral bevel gear drive to give an extra low gear when desired, i.e., for circular milling. Both were driven by a 3-3/4 in. dia. V-pulley, also off the knitting machine. All this was carried by two plates secured to a channel bracket bolted to the box leg at the rear of the headstock. Fixing the 80 T gear Brass was used for the 18 T gear, this being easier to cut in the circumstances. With a little touching up with a fine file to remedy the deficiencies of the shape of the teeth as left by the cutter, the basic elements were complete. Fixing the 80 T gear to the mandrel was something of a problem, as owing to the solid bearing bushes for the mandrel, raised keys could not be fitted until the mandrel was in place. Furthermore, the keyway had to be cut by ha d. So as the pulley had previously b een secured with an Allen grubscrew, it was decided to use the same method with the addition of a dimple in the mandrel for greater security. The wormwheel and 80 T gear were, therefore, bored a close fit to the mandrel and before final assembly, the pulley and wormwheel were drilled with clearance holes, and the 80T gear with tapped holes for four 2 BA hex. head bolts to secure all three together as one unit. These were assembled individually on the mandrel and the four bolts tightened up. At the same time a new 1 in. ball-thrust was fitted. It was felt the arrangement deserved a

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thrust race that was above suspicion, and that it would avoid the necessity for dismantling later to fit a new race. Assembly went well, tightening up being a bit tricky owing to the confined space. Finally, the whole unit was solid with the mandrel, and not until the reduction gearing had been in use for some time was it discovered that the grubscrew in the pulley had not been tightened. Friction alone had provided an adequate drive due no doubt to slight inaccuracy in facing the bosses. Changing gear The gear unit has proved most effective and rigid in use, backgear being engaged by sliding the 90 T idler wheel into mesh with mandrel and drive shaft gears. Withdrawing a spring-loaded pin in the countershaft V-pulley drives the mandrel direct, two movements only being necessary as in normal backgearing. The bevel gears for the extra low ratio gearing are only in mesh when required, being secured by a grubscrew. The frame carrying the worm is secured by a locknut in the engaged or disengaged positions,, this frame being pivoted on the drive shaft. A detachable handle on the drive shaft allows the mandrel to be turned slowly by hand for special operations, and a 3 in. dia. pulley screwed to the upper four-speed countershaft pulley 484

Reduction gear drive to mandrel MODEL ENGINEER

provides an adequate range of speeds. It is a reduction gear rather than a backgear. The drive shaft is, of course, always revolving whether the gear is in use or not-unless the belt is removed. But this is not a serious drawback. Provision has also been made for fitting a handle at the top of the vertical worm shaft. To cut the gears a dividing head on the direct indexing principle was made. A gear cutting set-up on one of the change wheels is shown in the issue for November 5. A block of duralumin was used for the body. Two interchangeable spindles were used, one with a 3/8 in. dia., and one (as drawn) with a 5/8 in. dia. seating for the gear blanks being cut. Division plates, four in number so far, are in 1/8 in. thick hard aluminium sheet, brass not being available. Steel was considered too hard and troublesome in which to drill a large number of small holes. The aluminium has proved to be quite satisfactory. I made a drilling spindle to drill the holes, the body being formed from a piece of 1 in. dia. round brass bar, with a No 0 size Jacobs chuck fitted to a taper on the spindle. When in use, the gadget is clamped on the topslide and driven by a spring belt from the 1/8 h.p. drilling machine motor, set up in a convenient position. * To be continued on December 17 3 DECEMBER 1959

3-1/2 in. SCREWCUTTING LATHE
Continued from 3 December 1959, pages 482 ta 484

Fitting the gears and other parts
By GEORGE B. ROUND

gearwheels were borrowed and fixed on an extension of the lathe mandrel to divide the plates during drilling, the plates being held on a stud in the centre hole to ensure concentric rings of holes. These were first “ spotted ” with a l/32 in. centre drill a n d then opened out to 5/64 in. dia. using the same set-up.
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The drawing shows the details of the spring-loaded plunger. dividing head has also been used on the shaping machine, with equal success for gearcutting as on the lathe. The fly cutter is mounted in a toolholder and fed downwards for each tooth. This makes an interesting variation in the method of cutting the teeth involved in a set of change wheels. All change gears are 20 d.p., this being settled by a Myford gear of

65 T that was already to hand. It was used as a gauge in grinding the flv cutter and it also meant one gear less to cut. A small amount of easing with a fine file was necessary for the smaller gears to ensure smooth running. Various materials were used for the gears, brass, steel, cast iron and Tufnol, and the complete set consists of 20, rising by fives to 80, plus 63 and 100 and duplicates of 20 and 30. All are 3/8 in. wide x 5/8in. bore, the 100 wheel being made from two 3/16 in, thick layers of Tufnol riveted together. The cluster gear Fig. 21 shows the arrangement of the cluster gear, which is of the fivewheel type, a design I wanted to try out as it is considered to be free from the “ gathering into mesh ” effect of the four-wheel pattern. The cluster gears are of Tufnol and the mandrel and stud wheels of steel. All are of 20 d.p. x 3/8 in. face and have proved exceptionally smooth in action.

Detailed in Fig. 22 is the pivot pin for the cluster frame. The leadscrew clutch is detailed in Figs. 9, 24 and 25. It is of steel throughout and 1/8 in. dia. stop pins are provided in the box leg to limit the travel of the operating lever. Details of the quadrant and change gear studs are given in Figs. 26, 27 and 28, these. again being in steel. The quadrant has a separate arm and curved slot for locking in position, an Allen screw in the boss being used for temporary adjustment when meshing the gears. The boss is a separate item riveted to the quadrant. An odd shaped bracket from the knitting machine, together with a pair of dural bevel gears from a scrapped aero engine, finalised the longitudinal power feed. These were fitted as shown in Fig. 29 and Fig. 7. An aluminium packing block suitably cut to shape furnished the bracket at the tailstock end of the bed. The backshaft is 1/2 in. dia. x 16-gauge drawn steel tube, with solid ends pegged to the tube, and a cork washer 1 in. dia. recessed into one of the bevel gears, making an effective clutch. The pulleys A hardwood pulley, Fig. 30, is fitted in place of the change wheel on the stud- and drives by means of a spring belt to the pulley on the backshaft. This belt is crossed to clear the driveshaft for the mandrel reduction gear. The backshaft pulley is “ rubber ” and was a moulded castor wheel with an inserted boss of steel, turned down and grooved for the belt and has exceptional gripping power. The lever fed tailstock barrel was at some disadvantage since drilling was now normally taken care of by a separate machine. It had insufficient control over the drill for heavy drilling in the lathe and so a new barrel, operated bv a handwheel and screw. as shown in Fig 31, was made and fitted. It can, however, be withdrawn by loosening two grubscrews and the lever-operated barrel can then be inserted in a couple of minutes whenever required. With the change in driving motors came the problem of continually stopping and starting. The 1/8 h.p. motor was dealt with by a 5 amp.
17 DECEMBER 1959

Change gears, feed shaft drive, reduction and worm drive

MODEL

ENGINEER

544

F EE D PULLEY

26 0

tumbler switch in a metal case mounted on a length of steel conduit bolted to the cabinet stand at the right-hand end, [ME, October 22]. This proved to be unsuitable for the 1/2 h.p. motor and for a short time, recourse was had to flicking the round belt on and off the four-speed pulleys. This was a most unsatisfactory arrangement which frequently resulted in the belt breaking at the fastener, usually when one was in a hurry to complete the job in hand. Some form of clutch was obviously called for, as owing to the use of

a new four-speed pulley was turned up from mahogany, and fitted with ball races so as to run freely on the shaft, and having a lining piece of 1/8 in. plywood on the large face. To this was glued a disc of sheet cork, 1/4 in. thick, to provide the friction drive. A 6 in. dia. light alloy V-pulley was fastened to a shouldered steel sleeve and faced off true with the bore of the sleeve, and suitably marked for reassembling. The 1 in. roller thrust race originally fitted to the mandrel was placed between the pulley and shoulder of the sleeve, with a light

in conjunction with pulleys grooved to the same angle as for A-size Vbelts. These too, have proved to be capable of transmitting all the power required to drive the mandrel. While the work the lathe has done does not, of course, compare with factory production speeds and feeds, it has handled work up to its maximum capacity in steel. The machine incorporates a number of controversial features, some intentionally and some due to the fact that this was the only available means of construction. The parallel non-

rubber pads under the cabinet shaping machine stands, a flat with fast and loose pulleys unsuitable since neither machine fastened to the floor.

and belt was was

Trouble free As an experiment, the arrangement shown in Fig. 32, and in section in Fig. 33 was made up. After more than two years in use, it has proved completely effective and trouble free, while at the same time being smooth in operation and yet simple to make up. The 1/2in. dia. lower shaft of the countershaft unit was replaced by one of 5/8 in. dia. running in die-cast alloy bearings, located at each end by collars, and having a ball-thrust washer at the right-hand end. Next,
MODEL ENGINEER

aluminium casing to carry two withdrawal pins, the sleeve being keyed to the shaft, but free to slide endways. Another collar and a spare valve spring completed the set-up. A clutch lever made up from 5/8 in. x 1/8 in. flat bar, with a leverage of 4 : 1 was pivoted below the 1 in. thrust race. It was controlled by a handle having a boss with a pin arranged to give an over-centre movement to a connecting link with the top of the clutch lever, the amount of axial movement at the clutch being about l/32 in. It has not been found necessary to modify the original arrangement and there is complete absence of slip under any load. Round belts 1/4 in. dia. are used for both main and reduced speed drives, 546

adjustable bearings are perhaps the most outstanding matters of controversy, but the fact remains that they have proved eminently satisfactory with complete freedom from chatter. The square edge slides also, have been so successful that I prefer them, wherever possible, to V-slides. They are much easier to make up and still give that smooth silky action so desirable. In use, the bed has proved to be very rigid, the square tubular section being, of course, highly resistant to torsional strains, and possibly the strongest form for this purpose. My only real regret is that it is not several inches longer, but that was not possible under the circumstances. * Concluded next week
17 DECEMBER 1959

3-1/2 in. SCREWCUTTING LATHE
Concluded from 17 December 1959. pages 544 to 546

Machining the guide ring and base block
By GEORGE B. ROUND
Oval-fuming chuck in operation

general arrangement of the chuck together with details of the moving parts, are shown in Fig. 34, and Fig. 35 shows details of the fixed items. The maximum amount of eccentricity that can be given to the guide ring is 1/2 in., giving a difference of 1 in. between the major and minor axes of the ovals. This allows quite a wide range of work to be done. It was constructed mainly of steel, the backplate being cut from a 5 in. dia. circle of 3/8 in. thick plate to which a boss had been welded. After the guides and cover plates had been secured in position, the whole was turned up to give a clean finish, hence the odd dimension of 4-15/16 in. for the overall diameter. Bright mild steel bar 2 in. x 3/8 in. was used for the slide and a piece of the same material, sawn lengthwise, for the guide pieces. The cut was made off-centre in order to allow for the gib strip, and at the same time keep the chuck symmetrical and in balance. The cover strips were cut from 2 in. x 3/16 in. bright mild steel bar, and the gib strip from 3/16 in. thick brass bar, the latter being located endwis e by means of dimples for the ends of the adjusting screws. The screwed nose, of similar size to the mandrel nose, was shrunk into the slide, lightly riveted at the back, faced off flush and drilled and reamed with a 5/16 in. dia. hole for locating the slide centrally on the backplate during construction. This was done by means of a plug with a spigot, registering in the same recess that locates the backplate to the mandrel nose. A strip of tissue paper under each cover plate provided just enough
HE

T

PLAN

IN PART SECTION 578 24 DECEMBER 1 9 5 9

MODEL

ENGINEER

clearance for a nice sliding fit. Before finally removing the centre plug, a hole 1/8 in. dia. was drilled and reamed in a convenient position so as to locate the slide at any time in a central position. Each guide was also fitted with two dowels to the backplate to ensure permanent alignment. To the back of the slide are fixed two shoe guides made of 3/4 in. x 3/16 in. brass T, with 3/8 in. thick mild steel packing blocks between them, to clear the backplate. Each is secured by four 3/16 in. roundhead screws in lightly counterbored holes, and finally located with dowel pegs to prevent lateral movement in operation. The shoe is of 1/2 in-thick Tufnol, the impregnated linen grade, two opposite edges being made parallel and then bored exactly central to a nice running fit on the guide ring. This guide ring was turned from a 2-1/2 in. mild steel shafting collar, the grubscrew hole forming an excellent oil pocket, although larger

than necessary. It is clamped in position in the fixed backplate by a 2 BA Allen screw, at exactly the height of the lathe centres. The backplate rests at the bottom upon a base block shaped to suit the bed section, and is secured to a clamp bar of 1/2in. square bright mild steel bar. This in turn rests upon, and is bolted to, a lower clamp bar of similar section provided with slots screwed to the base block, thus providing for the adjustment of the guide ring relative to the axis of the mandrel in a horizontal plane. The base block is, of necessity, peculiar to the requirements of this particular bed, and is made up from mild steel angle and channel sections welded together and clamped to the bed in the manner of the tailstock. This clamp also secures a similar block carrying a small hand-rest when required for hand turning. In operation, the chuck is smooth and easy running, taking good cuts

without chatter. It was made up for plain oval turning only. For ornamental work an independent rotary movement of the nose would be necessary, but as this was not required, the extra rigidity of the fixed nose was considered a more desirable feature. Other equipment, in addition to that already mentioned, includes 3 in. “ Scintilla ” and 2-1/2 in. “ Burnerd ” three-jaw chucks, 49 in. “ Burnerd ” four-jaw chuck, 6 in. dia. faceplate, driver plate, tailstock drill pad, and a sliding centre for taper turning. Side and face milling cutters up to 4 in. dia., and a special 2 in. dia. facing cutter,, are held on stub mandrels in the four-jaw chuck, and a 6 in. x 1/16 in. cutter is used for deep cuttingoff or slitting. The four-jaw chuck, I would add, is still accurate and in first-class condition without shake in the jaws, despite 20 years’ service. It is amazing value for the 25s. it cost in 1939. Cover plates are fitted to the cross-

Below: Body of oval-turning chuck. It has been unscrewed to show guide ring and shoe

24 DECEMBER 1959

579

MODEL ENGINEER

B ACK

PLATE

BASE

slide and the leadscrew gears to exclude swarf, and there are also removable shields at the back and front of the chip tray, to confine turnings, as far as possible, to the tray. The machine and stand are finished in an eau-de-nil green enamel paint, making it easy to wipe down and clean, besides looking effective. The switch which formerly did duty as a starter switch now carries an electric light mounted on a flexible hoIder. A 40 w. bulb at 12 v. is used, operating through a transformer, to prevent risk of shock through shorting of cables. With regard to cost, the only items purchased specially for this machine, were the 1 in. ball-thrust race for 10s., and the various Allen screws and paint about 35s. in all. My own scrap box, and those belonging to friends, provided the rest of the materials. q

SIMPLE and inexpensive to build the power sander described here finds hundreds of uses around the shop, especially in surfacing large .areas such as boa ~lanking.interior floors, and the larger -. furniture projects. The sander can be readilv fitted with a bench stand for edging &d jointing straight stock. It tak&

1
BELT

the standard 3 by 2Pin. sanding belt, and

a large variety of grits for wood or metal cutting can be obtained.
The framewark im made &om a length of

frame carries the two pulleys and their respective supporting arms. These are made from bicycle pedals and cranks in a manner which should be fairly apparent from the pictures. Each pulley is made from hardwood and to the same dimensions, with the exception that the rear pulley has-a groove at one end to take the WO-in. sewing-machine belt. Considerable machining is necessary on the two pulley arms. These can be made from the original pedal cranks or made up
trom suitable stock In any
case I t 1%im-

2%-in. angle iron to which is welded a shorter metal plate of the same width to make a U-shaped frame. A length of channel iron or a casting to the same general dirnetlgians could also be used. The

portant that the pulley spindle and the supporting arm be perfectly square, and a constant check should be kept to see that everything lines up right. The sander, whw &ai&e&, bas a spring tensioner to
#

1

must have right hand or clockwise rotation as viewed from the pulley end. Sweeper motors of,high speed should be avoided since they cannot be geared low enough to supply the power required. In operation, the belt sander is held much like a plane, with the notable exception that the cutting stroke is always made

Photo above rhows bow the front pulleytensioner spring is compressed with the hands to permit the belt (o be slipped into position; the detail at the right shows the general comtfudion

take up belt s&kness, but it has no alinement &vicehence the importance of getting the spindles squarely mounted to start with. The rear pulley spindle is fixed solid; thh forward spindle arm is housed in a f/4in. pipe t& which can be readily reamed out t~ the required size. A close fit is essential. The shoulder on the short arm of the pipe tee is machined off and then -threaded so that it can be held in place with a suitable nut, as shown in the inset. A good fit is necessary between the slotted end of the crank and. the supporting angle iron. A wooden shoe is fitted to the underside of the framework. This supplies the actual-sanding surface, and, for average work, should be slightly curved. A straight shoe is useful for rough work with mars0 belts. Curved shoes can be used for l working on concave surfaces. A l shoes should be hardwood .and carefully polished to minimize .friction. Power is an important item. The object sought for is a light motor with sufficient
strength t meke the & k r ~go. 6o
of the

as the sander is pulled toward you. Some workers use a sweeping, circular motion, but the beginner will do best to stick to straight strokes. A certain amount of practice is necessary for the successful operation of any belt sander-don't work on a finished product until you learn a thing or two from practice on scrap stock. The bearings should'be kept well lubri-1 cated, and, if you are udng a h i g h - s p d motor,. the sander should not be kept in continuous operation for longer thaq haffi hour periods.

Hypo Silver Plates Metal
Acid hypo photo-fixing solutions t h a t have become too exhausted for further photographic work contain silver dissolved from nopativan a n d prints that can be deposited on b r w and iron by simply immersing the work in it for several minutes.

larger vacuum-sweeper motors work well, using a 1 to 2% reduction with a belt drive. The motor should develop sufficient po-r so that the sander will "walk away" in the familiar tractor fashion. The motor

You can learn some new tricks by

Machining Your Own Milling Attachment
By Harry Walton
do begin get full use from YOUWithnot you cantodoaslotting, keywaya lathe until you have milling attachment. it cutting, gear shaping, slitting and grooving. You can saw stock square or at angles, and spot holes in work with pinpoint accuracy. A milling attachment costs a handful of
214 POPULAR SCIENCE .

folding money. But here is one you can make from two castings. They cost about a fourth what a finished attachment would. Machining them is fun, and may even teach you a few handy dodges. For instance, you mill parts of the castings to make the attachment you're going to mill with! When finished you have a husky, welldesigned lathe accessory that will not let

Two kinds of castings fit different compound mountings

HERE ARE CASTINGS for a popular 9" lathe having the dovetail post on the underside of its compound rest and a recess in the top of the cross slide. The base casting (at left above) therefore has metal for a similar post, while the vise casting to right of it has a cored hole to be bored out for a recess.

OPPOSITE TYPE of castings will fit a popular 10" lathe, which has the dovetail post on top of the cross slide and a recess to fit it in the compound rest. The base casting (at left above) therefore has a cored recess. Vise casting has metal for a post. Kits include screws and stock for vise jaw and locking pins.

GRIP THE BASE in a four-jaw chuck if available, centering it to make round end run fairly true. A universal chuck can be used by laying a bar of suitable thickness across two jaws. Centerdrill the outer end deeply and engage the tailstock center to support it. ROUGH OUT with a fairly deep cut at low speed to get under casting scale. Swing the compound rest to 30° and turn post to same shape as that on the compound. Face off the bottom to leave post the same height also. Finally, turn outer rim of the base true.

TURN A 60° POINT on a 3/8" rod. Chuck the base casting, centerdrill deeply, and support it with the pointed rod in the tailstock. Bore recess a close fit on the cross-slide post. For the offset tool shown, clamp a bit with a setscrew in a hole drilled across a 3/8" bar. FACE OFF with a cut straight across from recess to rim. Be careful not to remove much metal after first deep cut to get under scale, or recess may become too shallow for the post. Recess is cored deeply enough not to require facing inside if carefully machined.

you down. The castings are plenty rugged, and there is only I" overhang between the outside of the vise and the base. This remarkably small offset reduces the tendency to chatter, which otherwise means milling at a snail's pace with light cuts, or getting a rough finish. The jaws are 3 1/2" wide and they open to 2". Both the vise and the base can be swiveled for angular milling, as shown in the large photo on page 214.

What makes construction easy is the neat trick of using the compound rest for the vertical milling feed. The base casting fits on the cross slide, the compound is clamped on it in an upright position and the vise is mounted on the compound. Castings are available* for 9" and 10" lathes, and for both the common compound mountings. To check yours, just take off the compound-.
•Sold by Fiord McGu •kin, 314 N. Monroe Ave., Ridgeiaoml, N.J.; 57.50 postpaid.

VISE CASTING can be gripped with chuck jaws either outside as above, or inside its own jaws as at right. Bore the recessed type a close fit for the compound post. Then face off, taking care to leave recess deep enough.

OTHER TYPE of vise casting is first centerdrilled for tailstock support. Then the compound is swung to 30° for turning the post to a duplicate of the one on the cross slide. Facing (above) completes work on this side.

MOUNT POST-TYPE BASE on the drill press as above, align drill on the slope and set the depth stop short of it. Clamp the vise on as in the center photo. Drill 5/16", remove vise to drill into recess, and tap 3/8 "-16. Then re216 POPULAR SCIENCE

clamp the vise on the base to drill screw holes through the bosses provided (right above). The recess type of base is itself tapped for screws. Cut and shape locking pins, chamfering 60° corners to prevent burring.

MOUNT THE BASE on the cross slide with locking pins and screws, web side toward the spindle and square to the ways. Chisel a mark at zero and any other graduations wanted. Set a fly cutter to swing just above the webs. Face TURN TWO BUTTONS from steel rod to just enter the narrow part of the compound slot. Drill them 1/4 " and recess for the screws that hold them on the faced upright, as below. Slip the tool post through the large center hole from the headstock side. Then slide the compound slot over the buttons and the foot of the post as in the bottom photo. Tighten the tool post against a tool holder slipped into its slot on the right-hand side.

by advancing the cross feed (left above). With a big drill or a fly cutter, make a hole to fit the lathe tool post in the center of the faced side. Then drill a No. 7 hole 3/8 " from each edge as at right above and tap 1/4"20. MOUNT THE VISE on the compound rest, its jaw horizontal. With a milling or a fly cut ter, face the inside as shown below, using slow speed and feed. A straight milling cutter is good for machining the lower jaw. To at tach a movable jaw to the vise screws (han dier than a loose piece) grind the screw ends flat to get under casehardening. Then drill and tap them 8-32. Drill, counterbore and countersink the jaw piece as shown. END

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