ASSESSMENT OF AEOLIAN VIBRATION SEVERITY

Umberto Cosmai Convenor CIGRE WG B2.25

Bangkok 28 February 2009

Study Committee B2 Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Modern structures slender plain with low structures, slender, plain, internal damping, are very sensitive to windwindinduced motions motions.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The overhead transmission lines are the mechanical structures with the greatest extension of slender flexible elements:

the conductors

highly exposed to natural wind
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Overhead conductors are subjected to various wind induced vibrations and oscillations. Those called “aeolian vibrations” are th most recurrent and Th ll d “ li ib ti ” the t t d the most dangerous

for the fast accumulation of fatigue cycles (vibration frequencies 5÷120 Hz) and hi h b di stress at th fitti clamps. d high bending t t the fitting l
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

can determine fatigue failures of the conductor strands. d black t f th li blackStudy Committee B2 . damages to other line components and bl k-out of the lines. if not mitigated within safety limits.These motions.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Fatigue failure of a conductor strand due to aeolian vibration Typical fragile shape i.e. Study Committee B2 . without deformation of the material near th f t the fracture area.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Fatigue failures can interest several strands Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .in the outer and inner layer of the conductor Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . damper and p p . spacer clamps.Fatigue failures develop at points where the motion is constrained e. Study Committee B2 . etc. where the conductor is secured to fittings Typical location are: suspension clamps.g.

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . Study Committee B2 .Another damaging effect of conductor vibration is the loosening of fittings clamps not suitably designed or incorrectly installed.

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . at the beginning. the abrasion of the conductor outer layer due to th l t the clamp sliding movements. determines. lidi t Study Committee B2 .The loosening of a spacer damper clamp. for example.

If left unattended this process will lead to the complete conductor failure.Increasing the looseness. Study Committee B2 . the strands are broken by the hammering of the clamp.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Night Ni ht warning d i i device Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Fittings whose natural vibration frequency fall in the range of conductor vibration frequencies may fail for fatigue.

Vibration dampers incorrectly dimensioned or wrongly distributed can fail for fatigue while protecting the conductor. Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Laboratory tests on short spans 4.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . their limitations and concepts interare somewhat different different. Study Committee B2 . Analytical prediction of vibration intensity 2. 4 Vibration measurements on actual lines 5. Conductor inspections on actual lines Each method offers its own contribution to the total picture. Although they are inter-related. Tests on outdoor experimental spans 3.Five methods are commonly used for the assessment of vibration severity on overhead transmission line conductors: 1.

Analytical prediction of vibration intensity Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .11. For example. f db f ifi t Others methods based on abacus diagrams and abacus. Study Committee B2 . the procedure proposed by CIGRE TF 22.The most comprehensive medium to predict the vibration behaviour of a conductor is the computer simulation performed by means of specific computer programs. nomographs can only provide qualitative information.04 in the brochure titled “Safe Design Tension with Respect to Aeolian Vibration” can usefully determine whether additional Vibration damping (normal or special) is required or not but can not provide data about the damping system to apply.

Calculations are based on the energy balance between the energy introduced by the wind and the energy dissipated by the vibrating conductors with and without and relevant damping units. th most suitable d h the t it bl damping i system.Computer analysis is mainly used at design stage to anticipate the vibration behaviour of single and bundled conductors and t d fi d to define. when necessary. Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Vibration analysis of a bare conductor Analytical model y of the conductor Model of the wind Analytical model of suspension arrangement Computer analysis Vib. frequencies and wave lengths Antinode vibration amplitudes Max strains at the suspension clamp Study Committee B2 .

Vibration analysis of a single conductor with additional damping Analytical model of the conductor Model of the wind Analytical model of the damper(s) Analytical model of the suspension clamp Computer p analysis Vib. Vib amplitude of the antinodes and of the dampers Strains at suspen. frequencies Vib f i and wave lengths Vib.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . & damper clamps Number and positioning of the p dampers Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . amplitude of the antinodes Max M strains at i suspension and spacer clamps p p Max spacer clamp amplitude and arm rotation Computer p analysis Study Committee B2 . Vib frequencies and wave lengths Max and min vib.Vibration analysis of a bundled conductor with spacer dampers Analytical model of the conductor Model of the wind for bundles Analytical model and distribution of the spacer dampers Analytical model of the suspension arrangement Vib.

Outdoor test stations O td t t t ti Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Outdoor test stations exposed to natural wind have been built in several Countries worldworld-wide for research and development purposes and for the comparative evaluation of damping systems proposed f t d for important transmission line projects.

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .These stations allow an accurate investigation of t i ti ti f conductor vibrations as they can be fully instrumented with recording and monitoring systems. Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .The high costs involved in these test stations can be afforded only by Power Authorities and Research Institutes or justified in some major j j transmission line projects. Study Committee B2 .

Laboratory test spans Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Vibration tests on laboratory spans (30÷90 m) (30÷ Tension clamp Rigid clamp Tension clamp Rigid clamp Shaker Constant tension C t tt i device Conductor Concrete block Free span 30÷90m Concrete block provide data about conductor self-damping. Study Committee B2 . fatigue selfendurance of conductor-clamp systems conductorand effectiveness of vibration dampers.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Extremity block of a laboratory test span
Tension T i device Tension clamp Rigid Ri id clamp

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

accelerometer conductor clamp load cell spring steel bands

flexible connection between shaker and conductor

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

InIn-span transducers
For the measurement of vibration levels along the span miniature accelerometers are normally used used.
accelerometer

Contactless displacement transducers (laser or eddy current based) are also used on very light conductors.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Test span layout for conductor self-damping measurements self damping in accordance with IEEE 664 Standard
Test span Accelerometers Shaker

Load cell

Power amplifier Waveform generator g Oscilloscope

Computer

Transducer amplifiers

DAC interface
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Effectiveness test on vibration dampers in accordance with IEC 61897 and IEEE 664 Standards The power dissipated by the conductor p p p y plus damper is compared with the p p power introduced by the wind for a certain number of tunable harmonic vibrations of the span. at constant speed or constant bending strains. Strain gauges Tension clamp Rigid clamp Conductor C d t accelerometers Tension clamp Rigid clamp Shaker Constant tension device damper load cell Free span 30÷90m Concrete block Concrete block The power dissipated by the conductor plus damper shall be greater than power introduced by the wind.

Characterization of the fatigue behaviour of a Ch t i ti f th f ti b h i f conductor Pneumatic tensioning system Dynamometer Amplitude measuring system Rubber dampers Wire break detection Slider 2m Vibrator Active length : 7 m 5.5 2m Suspension clamp End clamp Turnbuckle Laboratory fatigue tests y g Resonant type test benches Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Vibration measurements on existing OHTL Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .to compare different damping systems On lines in operation p .for assessment of vibration intensity .to evaluate the conductor residual life .to investigate the cause of damages Study Committee B2 .as final check of the damping system .Conductor vibration measurements on actual lines are usually performed: On O new lines li .

had been used for a limited period of time but then was abandoned in favour of methods more suitable for field fi ld application. performed by means of strain gauges glued on the outer layer strands strands. This technique.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . li ti Study Committee B2 .The direct method to evaluate the conductor vibration severity is the measurement of the conductor bending strain at the clamp mouth mouth.

Aeolian vibration measurement on actual lines performed by means of specific recorders has been widely used for the last 45 years.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . Study Committee B2 .

156 1965 Yb 89 mm The bending amplitude Yb is the peak to p g p p peak vibration amplitude measured at 89 mm (3.These vibration measurements are based on the bending amplitude method proposed by the IEEE paper 31 TP 6565156.5 inches) from the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp clamp.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . Study Committee B2 .

the bending amplitude can be converted into b di i t bending strain using th P ff b t i i the Poffemberger and S d Swart (P&S) t formula. In other cases. the conversion factor can be determined by means of laboratory t t fl b t tests.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .The bending amplitude is easier to measure than the bending strain bending amplitude 89 m bending strain In a number of cases. Study Committee B2 .

Study Committee B2 .Bending Amplitude Recorders Ontario Hydro Recorder HILDA TVM 90 Scolar III Ribe LVR Pavica Vibrec 400 Vibrec 500 Only Vibrec500 and Pavica are still available on the market market.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

The battery selfautonomy is 3-6 months 3. battery powered. self-contained devices. Vibration b at o sensor Temperature probe Wind sensor Study Committee B2 .Modern aeolian vibration recorders are a microprocessor based.months.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

The Th autonomy is extended above one year. t i t d d b Study Committee B2 .VIBREC|500 WT The most recent version of the vibration recorder Vibrec 500 allows wireless connection with the ground instrumentation.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .VIBREC|500 WIRELESS CONNECTION SEARCH FOUND VR500WT Study Committee B2 .

The recorder is installed on the suspension clamp. 89 mm The vibration sensor is positioned at 89 mm from the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp. Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .On small conductors and shield wires as well as at damper and spacer clamps vibration recorders with split sensor can be used. Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . Study Committee B2 .Another type of vibration recorder is installed on the conductor. with the clamp positioned at 89 mm 89 mm from the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp.

This vibration recorder measures the so-called “inverted sobending b di amplitude”.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . lit d ” Study Committee B2 .The tip of the vibration sensor is positioned at the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp.

spacers and other fitting clamps. Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .6Kg) this recorder can be installed along the span near dampers.Due to its low weight (about 0. For small conductors a version with split sensor is also p available.

IEEE Par P1368 2006 Guide for Aeolian Vibration Field Measurements of Overhead Conductors Study Committee B2 . 1979 n° CIGRE SC22 WG11 Guide to vibration measurements on overhead lines ELECTRA n°163 1995 n°163. Standardization of conductor vibration measurements CIGRE SC22 WG04 Recommendations for the evaluation of the lifetime of transmission line conductors ELECTRA n°63.International Standards and recommendations for aeolian I t ti l St d d d d ti f li vibration measurements on overhead transmission lines IEEE paper 31 TP 65-156 1965 65-156.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Evaluation criteria of conductor vibration severity Study Committee B2 .

Criterion of the maximum allowable bending amplitude. Criterion of the accumulation of fatigue (lifetime calculation based on Miner hypothesis and a “Universal” conductor S-N Curves called Safe Border Line) Line).Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 CIGRE . Criterion of the maximum allowable bending stress. Study Committee B2 .Evaluation it i f th ib ti E l ti criteria of the vibration severity for it f aluminium based conductors IEEE 1966 EPRI & IEEE 2006 Criterion of the maximum allowable bending strain.

The P&S formula is valid only for solid metal to metal suspension clamps without armour rods. No internationally accepted reference limits are available for other conductors and conductor /clamp combinations.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Bending stress/strain safety limits Bending stress/strain values can be derived from the measured bending amplitudes using the Poffemberger and Swartz (P&S) formula or through lab tests. General reference limits are available for conventional aluminium based conductors. Study Committee B2 .

09 MPa and to a bending strain of 264 µε peak to peak. This value correspond to a bending stress of 9.7 Mpa 150150-200 µε peak to peak 150 150-300 µε peak to peak Bending strain 247µε peak to peak 247µε 165 µε peak to peak A bending stress/stain endurance limit can be derived from The CIGRE Safe Border Line and usually taken at 5x108 cycles.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .5 MPa 5. Study Committee B2 .Bending stress/strain endurance limits for aluminium based conductors IEEE (1966) Utilities Technical Specifications EPRI & IEEE 2006 Bending stress MultiMulti-layer ACSR MultiMulti-layer AAAC 8.

40 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .214 steel conductors (7 strands) (0 96 -1 67 mm) (0.32mm) (0.96 1.23mm for ACSR conductors is also provided) The limits are valid only for conventional suspension clamps with and without armour rods.Bending amplitude endurance limits (EPRI) Available for 74 ACSR conductors (0.21. No specific values are available for other conductors and conductor /clamp combinations.59 mm) (a general limit of 0. These values can be obtained through laboratory tests.67 2 AAAC conductors (7 strands) (0.0. tests Study Committee B2 .0.

can be used to define the curve of the stresses accumulated by the conductor in one year of y y service.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Conductor lifetime estimation Miner’s cumulative damage theory for elastic structures is suggested by CIGRE to evaluate the conductor lifetime. derived from field measurements. Study Committee B2 . Bending stress/strain values.

The curve shows for each stress level “σ” the number of “σ cycles “n” to be expected in one year. Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

The stress curve is compared with a “universal” S-N curve Sknown as “safe border line” (or with the S-N curve of the Sspecific conductor) showing for each stress level “σ” the “σ number of cycles “N” that can be endured indefinitely. Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

in years.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .The life time. conductor life expectancy is considered to have only qualitative significance. Study Committee B2 . is then calculated as follows 1 Lifetime = i ni ∑1 N i Considering the remarkable scatter in the conductor C id i th k bl tt i th d t fatigue characteristics.

Bending amplitude P&S or lab tests Miner’s rule Bending stress/strain Lifetime EPRI IEEE CIGRE limits EPRI limits Utility limits Evaluation f ib ti E l ti of vibration severity it Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Inverted bending amplitude P&S or lab tests Bending amplitude Miner’s rule Bending stress/strain Lifetime EPRI limits EPRI IEEE CIGRE limits Utility limits Evaluation f ib ti E l ti of vibration severity it Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Criteria adopted by the industry for the evaluation of vibration severity of overhead conductor Study Committee B2 .

resulting from the review of 80 Utility Specifications Max bending amplitude Max bending strain 16% 58% Lifetime 6% No requirements 0% 20% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Study Committee B2 .Criteria for the C it i f th assessment of aeolian vibration severity t f li ib ti it on aluminium based conductors.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Required values of maximum bending strain 60% 50% 40% 30% 51% 20% 27% 10% 18% 4% 0% 150 200 247 300 * * corresponding to 8.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .5 MPa p g microstrain peak to peak Study Committee B2 .

Criteria for the assessment of aeolian vibration severity on steel based shield wires.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . found in 15 Utility Specifications Max bending amplitude Max bending strain Lifetime 0% No requirements 0% 13% 67% 20% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Required values of maximum bending strain for steel based conductors (13 specs reviewed) 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 30% 20% 10% 30% 10% 5% 10% 0% 300 400 450 600 1000 microstrain peak t peak i t i k to k Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .During the survey. Study Committee B2 . in the industry. d t / l bi ti CIGRE SC B2 and IEEE WG on Conductor Dynamics are y committed to provide the industry with detailed and comprehensive guides on this subject. evaluation criteria of vibration severity are frequently p y q y prescribed with no consideration of whether the relevant reference limits. a ailable in literat re are applicable or not to the specific conductor and/or conductor/clamp combination. it was found that. available literature.

Subspan oscillation measurements Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Recently.Subspan oscillation has been studied extensively in p y wind tunnels and outdoor test laboratories but to a much lesser extent on actual transmission lines for lack of suitable instruments instruments.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . a subspan oscillation recorder has been made available on the market market. Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . t Study Committee B2 .The subspan oscillation recorder consists of a displacement transducer installed between a pair of conductors h i i f d t horizontally aligned t ll li d and connected via cable to the recorder body installed on the nearest spacer.

Layout of the subspan under test displacement transducer spacer subspan recorder body spacer connecting cable Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Study Committee B2 .Vibration recorders are generally installed during an outage of the line.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .The installation of the recorders can be also performed on live p lines using the bare hand technique.

Conductor inspections Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

for assessing the occurrence of conductor damages produced by severe wind induced vibrations. They are: Visual inspection Thermographic inspection e og ap c spect o Radiographic inspection Electro-magneticElectro-magnetic-acoustic inspection Study Committee B2 .Some general procedures are available that are suitable. to a limited extent.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Visual inspection It is appropriate when there is a specific evidence that damages or at least severe vibrations have occurred occurred. For example. black spots on the surface of the conductors may i di t severe vibrations. indicate ib ti Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Study Committee B2 .However. stand failures in inner layers can not be visually detected and strand failures inside clamps and or below armour rods can be overlooked unless these components are removed.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Thermographic inspection Can be performed from the ground but can only detect joints j i t problems and not strand f il bl d t t d failures. Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . Study Committee B2 .Thermographic inspection Tests demonstrated that failures of up to three strands do not produce appreciable temperature variations variations.

Radiographic inspection Can detect strand failures but it is costly complex and not completely reliable. Strand failures are sometimes overlooked.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 . Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Radiographic inspection Can be performed on energized lines also. Study Committee B2 .

Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .Radiographic inspection Example of strand failure detected by radiography Study Committee B2 .

f il d t l t d i Study Committee B2 .Electro-magneticElectro-magnetic-acoustic inspection Can be performed on energized lines to detect strand failures and steel strand corrosion.Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

Thank you for your attention ! Study Committee B2 .Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06 .

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