tbere be wbtcb are desirous to be strangers in soile, ano forrainers in tbeir owne Cftie, tbeg mas so continue, ano tberein flatter tbemselves. ffor sucb like 5 bave not written tbese lines nor taken tbese CAMDEN. .'















' 'THOUGH KNEELING NATIONS WATCH AND YEARN.tbeir 3f ans tberc be wbicb are desirous to be strangers in owne soile. tbeg mas so continue.' . ano tberein flatter themselves. ano forrainers ijt tbeir owne Citie. DOES THE PRIMORDIAL PURPOSE TURN?' 'ONE ETERNAL AND IMMUTABLE LAW EMBRACES ALL THINGS AND ALL TIMES. ' TURPE EST IX P ATRIA PEREGRINARI. jfor sucb like 5 bave not written tbese lines nor taken tbese 4 patneS.VM AD PATRIAM PBKTINENT HOSPITEM ESSE. ET IN EIS REBUS Q.' ' IN NOVA FERT ANIMUS MUTATAS DICERE FORMAS CORPORA.' CAMDEN.


O S O H g a <n > < w * .

R. Pagan Ireland.TRACES OF THE ELDER FAITHS OF IRELAND * A FOLKL ORE SKE TCH ~^.I.) Sligo and the Enniskilleners arc.. G. M. tontiboofc of Ertsjj $re= Christian Cratuttong BY W. The Lake Dwellings of Ireland The Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland (Co. WOOD-MARTIN. II. County and Town (3 vols. Sligo and the Island of Achill) History of Sligo. A. . S*c. IN TWO VOLUMES VOL.


tjje JHemors of JHotfjer .









27. . : Dolmens u f Ireland. 225.. . OMISSION FROM BIBLIOGRAPHY. for 90. 1897.. .. " Senanus" read " Senan". . ^ C. 23. 12. for "kittling" read "killing ".. for 31. for A.. London.. for 18. . 125. 16.. line 2. 212. ./or " Yates.. 731A BORLACE.EERAT Page 26." read Yeats ". .. 320. with their Legends and Folklore. . . . "us" read "it". lines 4 and 13. " Fachnan " read " Fachtnaii ". "scafolding" read "scaffolding". for "Form" " read "From".

n. Although we speak of distinct ages. even in the complicated circumstances of modern life. THE interest of this branch of archaeological study arises from recognition of the fact that the present is the outcome of the past. or Headless b. CHAPTER FAIRY LORE. Having once obtained a knowledge of these instances.TRACES OF THE ELDER FAITHS OF IRELAND. no line of fixed VOL. they form a valuable clue to the understanding of human actions. Fear of the Unseen the The Fairies The " Grogan " of Ulster religious framework of society Emigration of the Fairies from Ireland Fairies invisible in daylight Observant. and infants Fairy Changelings Fairy Revels Fairy Music Fairy Battles divided into Fairy Mounds Hermit Fairy Rewards offered for their future The Leprechaun. In the savage mind no distinction drawn Great advance made when they become two classes The Key to the Religion of Savages is Fear Fear of the Living preserves the social framework. girls. or e The Dullaghan. of everything that takes place Ill-omened to speak of them Partake of a mixed Human and Spirit Nature Libations and Sacrifices made to them Fairy Cavalcades Fairy Hunting Parties Fairy Malice Fairy Visitors Iron employed as a Charm against their influence Fairy Assaults Fairies abduct young matrons. The main cause of the great interest of the past is owing to the fact that it is easier to trace the actions of human principles and instincts at a time when the conditions of life were less complex than they now are. nevertheless. there is in truth no real distinction. The Present the outcome of the Past between Good and Bad Spirits I. Spirits cannot cross a stream of running water Animals announce the presence of Spirits by showing signs of great terror Will-o'-the-wisp and his pranks. in their simpler action. B * . and that an adequate apprehension of the past is necessary to the understanding of human life under present conditions.

who combines in himself the functions of priest. believing that the ghost of the slain would haunt the spot and frighten away treasure-seekers. now separates fairies. demarcation. and have to be overcome by the same means. for the older period glides into the next as imperceptibly as an old year is followed by the new. underlying the worship of the ancient Irish. prophet. the Buccaneers. They " kill some slave prisoner on the treasure grave. the spirits of their creation use the same artifices. who in sickness or in health. unless. but only an The spirits of the dead of another tribe all-prevailing dread. in peace or in war. and the mad pranks of the revivalist have a common origin. From his appearance into this world until his exit from it. the ecstasy of the saint. And bid bis discontented ghost Stalk nightly on his lonely post. confin'd" within a mould of The line of demarcation which clay. we can afford to laugh at ourselves also. when hiding their spoil. an undisciplined imagination. So late as the sixteenth century.2 FAIRY LORE. These probably varied in proportion to the . one of these old heathens was probably as completely enslaved by his supersti" medicine tions as is. has been the gradual outcome of Christian teaching. were the dead who had belonged to his own tribe. for the philosophy of savages mingles them together indeed it seems entirely foreign to the mind of primiThe tive man to conceive the idea of a beneficent spirit. The keystone of this description of religion is fear fear of This feeling was probably the moving principle the unknown. in the savage mind. and similar emanations of the human mind. cribb'd. by his man. or spirits. killed a slave or a Spaniard that is a stranger or an enemy and buried the corpse over the hidden booty. and physician. from the souls of men. who have never been " cabin'd. or a combination of both." an American Indian. between supernatural beings. indeed. The only supernatural beings. characters they ascribe to spirits are unconscious reflections of their own natures. no distinction is made. would of course be considered inimical. for the frenzy of the medicine man. the primitive savage believed in. or feared. In the earlier stages of human civilization. looks for guidance and counsel to an arrant impostor. At this stage of superstitious bondage we cannot afford to laugh. About these he had no definite belief. either in self-deception. . and the spirits of the dead. as would be employed in earthly contests." Or With the savage there was no great distinction between good and bad spirits.

and very strong: or. : B2 . on a day of " The mingled rain and sunshine. . " There 's days. gravely divides fairies into two distinct classes. to his mind. It has been remarked that fear of the living preserves the social framework. demonstrate the still continued sentiment which seems to have been the principal element of most primitive religions. or a disordered stomach.GOOD AND BAD SP1RUS. many who deny. alluding to the unlimited supply of water for the purpose of moistening the flour and of the sun-heat for baking the fairy dough." In Ulster. is also occasionally met with amongst uncivilized. the alleged apparitions of ghosts or spirits. In India. . In the north of Ireland. after being conquered by the Milesians. in popular parlance. hairy. as also amongst semi-civilized races. Professor O'Curry. or gross imposture. yet confess. and offers sacrifices to it. may be generally resolved into two categories those produced by religious fraud. The fairies are not as numerous as forAn Ulsterman asked why they were not seen now-amerly. and the fear with which an uneducated person passes through a churchyard by night. also. the good and the malignant a still greater advance is made when they further develop into beings of an altogether superhuman On the character. with broad shoulders." but " terrible strang. and occasioned by anxiety of mind. The fear betrayed by a child when alone in the dark. in modern times. thought for a little while and then replied . i. the existence of spirits. conveys an idea of fear or dread but the custom of worshipping that which contributes to his wants and necessities. the bond fide fairies or demons and the magic race of the Dedanann. who. who may be described as gods or demons. with their tongue. trowel . . . ships the being that. overwork of the brain. and offers sacrifice to them a Brahmin does the same to the style with which he is going to write a a mason to his soldier to the arms he is to use in the field and a ploughman to his plough. fear of the unseen preserves the religious framework of society. great advance when spirits are divided into two classes. In the present day. The savage worfears.e. other hand. "unco wee bodies. sometimes say. transformed themselves into fairies. good people are baking to-day". a woman adores the basket which carries necessaries. in his Lectures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish History. . fairies appear to have been of larger stature and more uncouth than elsewhere there the fairy called " " Grogan is low of stature. as well as to the rice mill and the other by their . the peasantry. 3 It is therefore a characters borne by them when in the flesh. their belief in their presence. homage implements which mitigate household labour a carpenter pays to his tools. and those which are the product of the imagination.

and addressed it with uncovered head. in Scott's novel of The Monastery. The Greeks denominated "the furies. characterises people of very high civilization. Allah being merely his human title. raised in their flight was long referred to by the peasantry as the " Night of the Big Wind. Their last great assembly was in the year them that says the wee wrang. Ceara. just as the Jews held that Javah had an unconimunioable name. they are observant of all that takes place. A similar desire to propitiate beings of malignant nature. and old Jewish legends recount how Solomon. but they're This country's full o' them only there's so much scripture spread abroad that they canna get making themselves visible.4 FAIRY LORE. by the generally " reputed prosaio Saxon. violent disputes arose among prominent fairy and the night following a large portion of the fairy host The hurricane they quitted the Green Isle. especially of anything that seems to concern themIt is extremely inadvisable to mention them by name selves. make light of it. the " Cape of Storms" has been metamorphosed. but he nevertheless adhered to his assertions. on the subject to a person who would probably. The Mahommedan thinks that God's real name is known only to his prophets. that when he was a lad." and that he and his comrades ran away as fast as 1839. the Feast of St. commencing only to utter it. the fairies used to hold high revel throughout the length and breadth of Erin. folk's gone to Scotland. on which so many of their friends and relations lost their lives. when leaders." On the night of the 5th January. It should be always borne in mind that. he considered. He was loath to enlarge youth. in his people appearances of the had direct experience himself. the The ceremony being evidently of a propitiatory character. though the fairies are generally invisible in daylight. when reciting the precautions she had taken against fairy " And I wish to know of influence." " the benevolent ". were greatly " terrified by the sudden appearance of a company of wee people in scarlet. Dame Glendinning." A correspondent living in the north of Ireland states that he obtained various accounts of " " wee from an old man who. made heaven and earth tremble. or a wish to avoid words of ill omen. concluded thus your reverence if there be ony thing mair that a lone woman can do in the matter of ghosts and fairies ? Be here that I should " have named their unlucky names twice ower . antithesis of this is shown even now-a-days amongst sailors who they could. into the Cape of Good Hope. the "kind" gallows. for instance." Sir Walter Scott describes how the highlanders called the gallows. never to return. he and his companions who were playing around a holy well one summer's evening. : ! 1 .

are greatly dreaded by the peasantry. lakes and seas. driven from heaven. are often as vindictive as their inclinations are generous and humane. thivs "described : " That which is neither ill nor well That which belongs not to Heaven or Hell. and to be endowed with power to injure both man and beast. they have a remote chance of salvation. and their passions . At the termination of the struggle those who sided with the Almighty remained in heaven. that he seeks to appease. unfitted for either heaven or hell. are 5 imbued with a superstitious feeling regarding the ill-luck attendant on a ship which bears what is considered an auspicious In many localities weasels. whom they acknowledge to be certain of living Thus the actions of the fairies are eternally in a future state. were compelled to dwell in rocks and hills. others sided with Lucifer. Finvarra. for on seeing a stoat a countryman will raise his hat and address it in Irish as " " for what a man dreads. Yet here again the idea of propitiating malign influence is apparent. A form that men spy With the half shut eye. to spit fire. They are supposed to steal milk from cows. a bubble of the stream.FAIRIES DESCRIBED. . but the saint answered that hope there was none. but feels he is powerless pretty lady to control. like many mortals. a great fairy chief. A wreath of the mist. although they have undefined hopes of being restored to happiness hence their enmity towards mankind. In the beam of the setting sun am I. The legend runs that at the time of Satan's rebellion some angels remained true to their allegiance. . once asked St. where they must remain until the day of judgment. The fairies are thought to partake of a mixed human and These curious creations of the fancy have been spirit-nature. even then. their doom was fixed. or more properly or lucky name. bushes and forests. Colunibkille if there were any hope that the fairies would gain heaven. balanced by an intermixture of good and evil." tried to reconcile heathen and Christian imagination. stoats. and condemned to dwell on earth until the day of judgment. whilst a third party remained neutral. grave doubts regarding their future. and at the great judgment day they would not merely . those who fought but those who against Him were cast into the nether regions remained neutral. They themselves are said to entertain. and hold an ill-defined belief that fairies are fallen spirits. and it is a moot point amongst rural theologians as to whether. The peasantry have apparently . 'Twixt a waking thought and a sleeping dream.

"No. and their blood earth. The fairy. lay a pot of gold. Some labourers thought they would " wee red man " dig for it. A libation of some of the thick new milk given by a cow after calving. If it recovered. as it would be dishonouring the saint to suffer it to die any save a natural death. labourers thereupon sent for permission to kill a dog belonging to the gentleman owning the farm. you will all be damned. in the north of Ireland. however. . one night. and pour the remainder on the Men and women were also bled. bleed them. though sacrifice through blood. or forts. There is a great similarity in the imagery concerning these imaginary beings among nations that. on a farm. but that he would give day. it is well to immolate a black cock or a black a similar sacrifice is deemed necessary before the comcat mencement of any important operation it is also certain to remove ill-luck from a house. but he refused and stopped the exploration. it is believed. On May eve the peasantry used to drive all their cattle into old raths. for buried treasure. happened to pass a hill in which music. The following story occurs in Danish popular folklore A priest. is still considered sacred and beneficial. did not say whether the life was to be that The of a human being. The ceremony was performed by letting a few drops of blood from the cow in honour of the saint. and is firmly believed to be true." Upon this the entire hill became suddenly enveloped in bright flames. for a lengthened period. A correspondent states that there is a tradition of long standing. stopped the carriage. The priest kept his promise and returned at the appointed time. thought to be much frequented by the fairies. die but would suffer annihilation. in the west of Ireland. if poured on the ground. that at the roots of a certain tree.6 FAIRY LORE. but as soon as they began work a and told them they need not proceed unless they first appeared sacrificed a life. or the taking away When seeking of life. the animal was never either sold or killed. Some fairies dancing. issued suddenly from the hill. but if they did so they would find the gold. When a cow fell sick through fairy malice. This episode is supposed to have happened about the year 1840. Martin. more especially in the : . taste the blood. when the fairies repeated the question to which he answered. now died out. and asked the priest whether he thought they would be saved in the last He replied that he did not know. sprinkled on the ground but this practice has. have had but little intercourse. or that of one of the lower animals. to devote the ailing animal to St. them an answer that day twelvemonth. and other merry making were going on. it was formerly by no means an uncommon practice.

but no one was seen. knew this was the spirit that had been scalded by the woman. and eat the remainder." the rosy god. and finally. It was either poured out on the cup was ground or waved towards the heaven. the mother says. In the Kev. for that would bring ill luck to the household.FAIRY SUPERSTITIONS. cup. The chiefs all drank a portion of the same Some of the North American Indians. when the charm is complete. and Then they all it lay down moaning by the hearth and died. as a complimentary libation to the good people. Instantly a cry was heard as of a person in pain. lift the mouthpiece of the pipe heavenward to allow the Great Spirit the first whiff of the : : fragrant weed. reminding us again of the Mosaic ceremonies." for the fairies might be passing. This process must be gone through on three successive days. chip the shell and throw the first spoonful on the ground. in purposely spilling milk or other drink. by the strength of his exorcism. 1 interior of a rath or fort. it " As in ancient Greece so in is stated that Samoa. Yet every night at the same hour it walked again into the house and lay down and moaned and died. the Italian peasant invariably throws the first drop or so of common country wine from the big bottle covered with straw which he This is a relic of a libation to uses." is for heartburn. If a child accidentally spills her mug of milk on the ground. the spirit of the dead was laid to rest and the black lamb appeared no more." before commencing smoking. just as the Irish peasant. One should never throw slops out of door or window without calling out." The child should not be reproved. spill a small portion of the draught on the earth. However. on consulting an "herb-doctor. And they carried the dead lamb out reverently and buried it deep in the earth. George Turner's Nineteen Years in Polynesia. offended fairies. In the present day. ejaculating "Per Bacco. " That 's for the fairies leave it to them and welcome. according to rank. is supposed to appease the anger of the Before drinking. "Take care of the water. given an egg. The same principle of a first oblation is carried out in a cure The sufferer. " One dark winter's anecdote on this subject night a woman threw out a pail of boiling water without thinking of suddenly the warning words. a peasant will in many cases. the next night a black lamb entered the house. with instructions to boil it. the first in honour of the God." : . And after this had happened many times. the priest was sent for. quite unconsciously sacrifices to the ancient gods of the land. and would resent the drenching and soiling of their Lady Wilde recounts the following gay caps and clothes. having the back all fresh scalded.

in the imagination of the peasantry. xviii. of the Revue Celtique. In the calm summer go out hunting. night after night. sometimes labour in the quern. or even small pebbles into the centre of the dusteddy. but a blade of grass. is gravely alleged to have been occasioned " Fairies killed him. The same The fairies often hunters of bees may be distinctly heard. the eddies of dust raised by the wind along the roads are regarded by the peasantry as occasioned by a fairy cavalcade travelling from one rath to The same marks of respect are observed towards the another." Like Puck the fairies are said to " Skim milk. childlike mischief ascribed to them. fern roots or cabbage stalks must. i. but as an offering to appease the good of fairy cavalcades. evening the faint sound of tiny horns. air their rapid motion through the air occasions a noise resembling the loud humming when swarming from the is upon rushes. not as an insult. because Cormac had revolted against the Wizard." This can be prevented. a straw. instead of upon occurrence in fairy history. the cracking of whips. considering the very diminutive stature assigned to them. Another remedy is. after he was by the malice of the fairies. of a strange. to bar every door ." edited by Whitley Stokes.8 FAIRY LORE. is looked upon as a potent charm to keep fairies away. grandson of Conn the Hundred Fighter. and mounted on cabbage stumps. whilst a hive. by for an iron nailing a horse-shoe on the bottom of the churn horse-shoe. pieces of sticks. the galloping of horses. Persons afflicted with " Travelling through of borrowed horses. And bootless make the breathless housewife churn. or indeed an iron article of any kind. a fern root. the baying of hounds. betrayed by Maelcenn the Wizard.e. is wonderful. directly after sunset. or a cabbage stalk are equally adapted for aerial steeds these latter articles. In the Dublin fragment fairies are objects The fear. . unreasoning. in vol. with the fairies. however. be cut into a rude sicksimilitude of a real horse. and worshipped God in lieu of them. and the butter be made to rise. and the shouts of the people. and the amount of of" Tighernach's Annals. the death of Cormac. invisible horsemen as if the dust had been raised by a company of the most exalted persons and some will throw tufts of grass. Harvest-time is remarkable for affording frequent glimpses On a stormy day. superstition prevails in the East. common falling ness" are supposed to be merely suffering from fatigue attendant on the lengthened journeys which they are constrained to take.

a hint to leave in future plenty of pure spring water for the selfinvited guests. come. before retiring good drinking water in the kitchen. and through the key-holes sling. and the farmer will enjoy. come " ! As the irons become heated a great noise will be heard without. two industrious women. in Irish.." came the reply from a pot in the corner of the kitchen in which . The next morning everysome of thing in the kitchen appeared undisturbed. in undiminished quantity. to rest. years ago. gentle or simple. in the necessary labour. whilst churning is going on. except the large vessel used for holding drinking water. come. whilst the following charm ia recited. Feet-water ? lam. so no one. light a great fire of turf on the hearth. Many district. " Come butter." . so she wisely retired again to her bed.. " Are you within. and on entering her kitchen found the fairies in possession. as they are burning her. and stroke the cattle Steal sucklings. In any case a careful housewife should always. the witch. will omit to share. or appear to share. or will be abstracted in some mysterious way. One night a woman was awakened by a great noise. Finding all attempts at entry useless. whilst others were preparing the food. and a witch will try to force an entrance. The good people cautioned her to go back. when a shrill voice out" " side inquired in Irish. From the Irish Hudibras we also learn that fairies : " Drink dairies dry. If a neighbour or a stranger enter a cottage. the product of his cows. leave a large vessel full of them cooking victuals before the fire. he should put his hand to the dash. and mountainoua were suddenly disturbed by a loud knocking at the door. which was full of blood. engaged one night in spinning flax. Toping and dancing in a ring. her torments will cease. butter. The irons may then be removed from the fire.FA IR Y SUPERSTITIONS. Come Come "Waiting for a buttered cake. and window in the house. The affrighted women made no reply. in a cabin in a remote. wild. as otherwise the butter will not come. beseeching the occupants of the house to take the irons off the fire. and place nine irons in the fire. will return to her house and bring back all the butter. butter. either from coiirtesy or in consideration of the farmer's feelings. shrieking with agony. Peter stands at the gate.

They were scarcely in bed when the mysterious visitors were heard outside calling in Irish as before. . exclaiming. and strangely attired.Feet" water but now the response from the pot was. is supposed to be sacred to the fairies. broom in. one of the inmates walked out of the opened door. " Let me in. in The Spectator (9th April.water. J. thinking they would like some refreshment. and a fairy's spinning-wheel is somewhere concealed there." plucked a quill from the wing of a speckled hen (almost needless to explain that fowls always roost in the cabins). and an eel-like form rose from the pot. object replied that it was powerless to obey. " No. in this story. . oi splashing had washed their feet before retiring to bed. again. threw a glowing ember from the hearth into the " feet. . The fairies thereupon raised a yell of disappointed fury. but immediately rushed " The mountain is on fire. laid the broom against the door. : . from the assurance that the house is thus impregnable to the assaults of the " good . Several women of small stature. " " " " Let me Let me in. A sound was heard in the water. of extraordinary appearance. placed the carded flax under a weight. too. speckled hen" tongs " 41 " Let me in carded flax. owing to the precautions which had been taken. removed the band from the spinningwheel." On the success of the stratagem. the women of the house lost not a moment in resorting to the usual precautions against fairy influence. and stretching forward. May your tutor meet her reward. . . 1897). The unwelcome intruders at once ran out of the house " shrieking and exclaiming. unbarred the door. and began to use the spinningwheel. My husband and my children are burnt. with the " imprecation. for there is a spark in me. recounts a modified version of the same story as occurring in Connemara " The mountain overlooking the beautiful Bay of Killary is called Mweelrea (The Bald King) and it. They made fast the door with the iron tongs." Mr." back. people. entered." The fairy women then addressed " Let me their applications to all the other objects in turn in. C. went out to get water for making tea.10 the family FAIRY LORE." Let me wheel-band Each . I cannot. . and made up the fire. iron is employed as a charm against fairy-influence and fairy-assaults but the strange legend also may be instanced as descriptive of the custom of throwing a piece of burning peat into any vessel in which feet have been washed and to this day the fizzing of an ember in a pot of water is music in the ears of an old crone. One . in. They began to spin. and took their departure. when two old women carrying wheels came in." Here. and their hostess. Under pretence of fetching turf for the fire. Hamilton. One day a woman who lived near was spinning in her cabin.

' ' What will I do. leaving them to be discovered in the . Hall's Irish Sketches. limb. Tell them Mweelrea is on fire. at Shure. I'm going ' ' ' the cabin went back crying two women got up and ran them. dairy." ' : Mweelrea is on fire. to give two dacint little women a cup of tea. "When the friends of a person who has been carried off by the good people venture into their underground retreat to bring back the captive to upper air. it is a certain preventive against their milking the cows. they 're fairies. exhausted and bathed in charm against fairies. A small piece of iron should be sewn into an morning trembling sweat . of her neighbours ' 11 her. or a . From Mrs. The Rescue from the Fairies. who are supposed to be fond of lurking in fishing boats drawn up on the seashore. . it prevents the fairies from entering the house and doing mischief to the inmates in the second. taking tlfe liorses out of the stable and riding them over hill and dale the long night through. and asked her what she was doing. or steel. in every in the third instance it is a infant's clothes. leaving their wheels behind A horse-shoe is often to be seen nailed over the door of a dwelling-house.' And the out. they arm themselves with a missal.' all at all ? So the owner of saw Faith. The fairies are reputed to have been conquered by a race using iron weapons. so they dread that metal.FA IR Y SUPERSTITIONS. or stable. and delight in hindering fishermen in their toilsome avocation. or to the mast of a fishing smack.' said the other. In the first instance.

With her long golden locks trailing down on the One bright My steps led . to languish and mourn. laid on the thresprayer-book. neither. And shone all alone like a lamp in a dome. my Fair One I found. This latter. O'er moorland and mountain. seated anear it. through greenwood and grove. The fairies are thereby compelled to surrender any human being . you are burdened with sorrow and care But whence do you come? From Clar Luire or elsewhere? Are you Blanaid the blooming. 1). The poem is entitled. and the gazer be enabled to recognise the prisoner by a A sudden gust of wind peculiarity' of dress. Touch I belong to this Eath. the fairies will become visible as the fairy troop sweeps past the spot. the watchers gather up the dust from under their feet and throw it at the procession. Another practice adopted by persons who wish to recover a spell-bound friend from a state of durance. ' ' ' ' ! me not. indicates -the near approach of the elves stooping. Having rubbed a special ointment on the eyelids. But she said. Poetry of Ireland. I feel sad and forlorn To see your bright cheeks fairy-stricken and worn. years ago dwelt in yon green-hillocked glade. in check. appears in Mangan's collection of Poets and Of the author nothing further is known. Come ! take off your arms I '11 be late for my home. prevents the fairies from pursuing the rescue-party when they have found the prisoner." and presents a good specimen of the idea entertained by the peasantry regarding the abduction by the fairies of young and good-looking country lassies. Or the dame brought by Paris aforetime to Troy ? ' .' ' my . but a meek Irish maid. and an iron knife. long have I wandered in search of my love.' she said. . From your kindred and friends far away were you borne To the Hill of Cnoc-Greine. " Summer evening alone on my path. with its English translation. ground. me on to the Dark Fairy Rath And. following Irish ballad. is to stand on All Hallows Eve at a cross-roads.' ' 'I'm Who ! pearl of soul. yet coy.' Ah I spake. though bashfulness held me I put my arm gently around her white neck . or by some token. the queenly. hold of the entrance into the rath. " The Dark Fairy Eath. by George Koberts. When I met her. in their custody (fig. and are in the act of carrying him off.12 FAIRY LORE. or at such spot as may be pointed out by a wise woman or a fairy doctor. or throw milk from a vessel they carry for the purpose. From the banks of the Maig unto Finglas's flood I have ne'er seen the peer of this Child of the Wood. The ^ Long. and approach me not near and the Fairy Host here.

as 1 thought on her charms. and never more see his kindred or home. I see Queen Mab hath been with you. sweetly singing round about thy bed. ! ! Young mothers are supposed to be carried off to nurse fairy children. and were so shocked at his . behold nought could I see. son. after the birth of her child.held by a heretic. some of his clothes should be spread over the mother and infant. for at thy birth The faery ladies dane'd upon the hearth The drowsy nurse has sworn she did them spie. at any rate. full of radiance and mirth. According to Shakspeare.FAIRY CHANGELINGS. then. Like new-risen stars that shine down upon earth. . of Milton is express " Good luck befriend thee. the English fairies. auditors of an argument against transubstantiation. she is the most dangerous being on earth. 13 How I'd love her deep eyes. And. who henceforth will live entirely in fairyland. Come tripping to the room where tliou didst lie. by accident. until the priest comes and sprinkles holy water over her. ever since the mark of Christ's fingers was on them. and cannot bear to be touched by unholy hands. Even if she goes to the river to wash. Strow all their blessings on thy sleeping head. No one should eat food from her hand." If a man leaves the house after his wife's confinement. the fish for fishes are a will all go away from her in tremor and fear very pious race. she will gladly change it for the beautiful human babe." Lady Wilde remarks that: "Until a woman has gone through the ceremony of churching. and myriads of demons are always around her trying to do harm. And I said to myself. Indeed. above all things. fondly emhraced her to make her my own But when I glanced up. : . they were once. It is well known that the ministry of well-disposed fairies was The testimony peculiarly conversant with the birth of children. She had fled from my sight as the bird from the tree " Then And I . how fondly I'd lock this young lass in my arms. a mortal woman as a nurse for her fairy And if her own child happens to be an ugly little offspring. language that they all left the river." . for in Romeo and Juliet the following description of the "-Mistress " Fairy occurs " : 0. and the disappointed angler could not help regretting that the fish were so very particular as to the tenets of Holy Church. or the fairies will carry them both off for the fairy queen desires. are provided with a properly-qualified midwife of their own. sprite. She is the fairies' midwife. I twined round her waist my two arms as a zone.

but fairy changelings are easily recognised by their tricky habits. the unfortunate child is often so dreadfully burned that it dies in great agony. Spenser. as already stated. the proceedings of a fairy troop are thus described " "When larks 'gin sing fling steal as : Away we And babes new born bed we go. and by constantly complaining and crying for food. but it is an unfavourable sign for men. It 's only an ould fairy. venting all sorts of anathemas on the household that has so treated it but while waiting for the solution of the enigma. in the Faerie salt on the cradle . In remote parts of the country it is still believed that the fairies change children in the cradle therefore. when with wild shrieks the fairy vanishes up the chimney. : A Such. and if remonstrance is made. . her base elfin brood there for thee left . who imagine that it is the fairy child. an infant commences to pine or becomes peevish. so changed by Fairies' theft. Under any circumstances it is a favourable omen for women to dream of fairies. thus describes the incident : ". not their own offspring. the answer is. its cries being heard with callous indifference by its parents. if Queene. babies should be carefully watched until they are christened. it is a sure sign that an exchange has been effected. Shure it 's not him (or her as the case maybe) at all. is to place it over the fire.' plan.' Even medicine ordered by the doctors has not been given. in which : ' ' . that is tortured. another remedy is to put and kept there until it is baptized . men do changelings call. " SomeThis idea of fairy possession is still quite common times a sickly invalid is entirely neglected by his or her friends. a piece of iron should be sewn into the infant's clothes. There as thou And fairy thee unweeting reft. and no man should undertake any important matter for several days after such a dream. Crofton Croker quotes Robin Goodfellow's song. An elf in We leave instead And wend us laughing Ho Ho Ho " ! ! ! . on an iron shovel. lest they be carried off or changed . on the " A ground that It 'ud be no good it 's not them is in it. For a girl to dream she sees a fairy is a sign that she will soon be married." Therefore. or it will surely end in disappointment. which at once demonstrates the nature of the child. . .14 FAIRY LORE. Detailed narratives of the removal or substitution of a fairy for an earthly child are not uncommon. slept in tender swaddling band.

in the cradle. and lively dance The inmates of the cottage are forced. Then give me back my only son. or the noise occasioned by a passing vehicle. The sits 15 up music. the assembled party walk to the manure heap. For on tbe dunghill's top he lies Beneath the wide inclement skies. greatly against their inclination." Crofton Croker's legend of by the " Changeling may be given as a typical example of this class of A young married woman went with several companions stories to bind up the wheat in harvest time. closed. fairy changeling often produces a set of tiny bagpipes. Then come with coach and sumptuous And take him to your mote again For if ye stay till cocks shall crow. together with some verses in Irish. who declares that the true child has been returned " The " good people. to commence dancing. You robbed my infant's cradle bed. nightly for your sportive crew. and the poor emaciated baby is handed to the deluded parents by the fairy doctor. your baby's call . The cabin door is then cautiously opened. and give back mine. and this enforced amusement continues until they sink from exhaustion. the door additional incantations are recited. but in place of her own. whilst rhymes are recited by the fairy doctor directing the operation. is regarded as heralding the arrival and departure of a fairy host. and left the infant she was nursing in a sheltered corner of the field well wrapped up " When her work was finished she returned to in her cloak. And I '11 forgive the harm you 've done . . Restore the child you took instead When like a thief. of which the following. John O'Hanlon. and plays jigs. . I '11 sweep the hearth and kitchen too . You But '11 find him A pallid lump. she found a thing The ceremony completed. whilst carefully : . And leave you free your tricks to play. it is removed on an iron shovel from the cabin. and placed on the centre of the dunghill. A monstrous brat of fairies born. the other day. train. according to the Rev. Whene'er you choose to pass this way. And Then like good people. ere you bear the boy away. like a thing of snow . Any sound made by the wind." ' is all retire into the cottage. is a correct translation " Fairy List ! : men and women it is all. where the child was.' do incline To take your child. a child of scorn. When the infant is thus known to be undoubtedly a changeling. reels.FAIRY CHANGELINGS.

2). When an older child loses his first teeth. who understood how to treat it. Lux cum redeat Aurorae. in its place did not like the usage it got from Mary Scannell. guessed how the case stood. and. and to beat and pinch it without mercy. these must be at once drawn by the nearest blacksmith the representative of the ancient caird. that FAIRY LORE. without stop or stay.16 in the cloak. for the fairies. and touch the green blades of grass so delicately." If a child accidentally falls. it would entail even worse luck to refuse the gift of salt. an infant afterbirth is frequently Salt in itself is considered very lucky. care is taken to make him throw them into the fire. . Though it be the last in the house. Spica vernal altiore . not to give it enough to eat. and salt is a well-known antidote against fairy influence for this reason. in trying to carry it off. or the first glow of the morning. . lest it fall into the hands of the fairies or of ill-wishers. . or else evil will befall him. she found her own The fairy that had been put child lying by her side in the bed. If an infant is born with teeth. away she took it in her arms." That treads its circle elfin sports continue during the summer and autumn but the first crow of the cock. . Molle grarnen nee curvamus Pede festo quod calcatum. which Mary Scannell did and just in one week after to the day. The fairies are supposed to issue by moonlight from their underground dwellings. These . was not half the size. nights " Graciles tripudiamus. like a sensible woman as she was. no person ever refuses it to a neighbour for. when she awoke in the morning. for nothing belonging to the body should be parted with. caused it to tumble. to a wise woman. Choris noctu consecratum. given salt." . and that kept up such a So Mary Scannell crying you might have heard a naile off. although it is unlucky to give away the last of anything. that they never shake off the dewdrops. and away it went after a week's trial. pretending to be mighty fond of it all the The wise woman told her in a whisper while. is a signal for instant retreat to their underground dwellings. and disport themselves on the green sward of the raths (fig. even during their wildest gyrations. They are so tiny and lightfooted. it should at once be given three small pinches of salt. and sent her own child back to her. " But woe betide tlie wand'ring wight in the night.


: They are generally clad in green. Hall's Irish Sketches. The young and tender stalk Ne'er bends when we do walk Yet in the morning may be seen. So nimbly do we pass. Their queen is in youth and beauty there. 3). may " On be thus rendered tops of : This dewy grass. And they trip it at ease in the clear moonlight. to the accompaniment of fairy bagpipes (fig. they endeavour to entice them to visit their subterranean FIG. And the friends of thy youth shall not know thee again. For dancing by brake and by bower. "Where we the night before have been. 4). 4." . The Fairy Piper. abodes (fig. If espied by earthly beings. She will take thee to ramble by grove and by glen.18 FAIRY LORE. 3. From Mrs. the large umbrella-shaped mushrooms growing on old forts. ** " They endeavour to to visit entice them their subterranean abodes. On clear moonlight nights they are often seen dancing on and around clothes." " The fairies are this in their land is the merriest hour. or white silver-spangled with high-peaked and wide -brimmed scarlet caps. Such visitors have need of the practice of the greatest asceticism to extricate themselves from fairydoni. Their steps are soft and their robes are light. And the daughters of earth are not half so fair. FIG.

If you procure a box of fairy ointment. and of sheeaun. " the is styled in Irish. one ' . mere illusions. if you atfe or dlirink bit or sup in this house ye '11 niver get out ov it So he went away. fairy mound of laughter. I '11 ask to sit down and git an air of the fire. and rub it on the eyelids. you instantly see everything as it really is. C. the Irish for a fairy mount. and as he passed Crukuaragh he saw a house. frequented by these beings. He thought. The picturesque and beautiful appearance of the " c2 ." and there are several places in the south of Ireland called by the pseudo" but "Mount "is only a scriptural name of "Mount Sion " Sion" an translation of the Irish name for a hill. They send forth three wild shrieks .FAIRY MOUNDS. tricks to perplex 'em. J. noise of the locking and unlocking of their great treasure chests. an artificial mound in the county Sligo. Hamilton states that on the road from fairy fare. have a cup of tea and. are. of . and their treasure chests are filled. and sitting by the fire were The woman asked him to the two boys that were drowned. and the next time he passed that way agin. adaptation There was a strange notion held by the peasantry that two straws put across the path used by the fairies caused them to . the splendid halls are damp earth-floored caverns. 19 Whether above or below ground one should never partake of Mr. but with mere heaps of withered leaves and other rubbish. not with gold. In some raths the fairies are of extra jovial disposition. it is alleged. drowned near Crump Island. and the ' ' ." their splendid halls wee folk. where the Some years ago two boys were fairies are supposed to live." and magnificent feasts. The finely-dressed little people are wizened and deformed imps. the sumptuous feasts are a meagre supply of squalid food. Of uttermost giie vang For Hugh was their neighbour. stumble : " Then raising their voices Beyond all believing. For. I 've niver seen a house there afore anyway." If you place your ear to the ground when the fairies withdraw. while she went out to fill the kettles.' says he. " is a hill called Clifden to Letterfrack Crukuaragh.the boys gave him a hint to be off. By Or such the crossing of straws.' there was not a sign of a house there. And he would not vex 'em. and shortly afterwards a man was coming back from a fair.' He went in and he saw an old woman. you can hear them moving about in the subterranean chambers you can also recognise the clink of money.

and the more melodious sound of the fiddle. they are never allowed to return to their earthly homes. On inquiry. where.PI* . chanting a melancholy-sounding song. that she had lost her memory. a cabin in a remote district. on entering of these lively and unearthly strains. took no interest in what was going on around. and heard continually the soft and plaintive music of the wee folk.K.K.20 FAIRY LORE. if Well-known pipers or ground dwellings. are often to be heard in the stillness of night issuing from the innermost recesses of raths. The cheering (?) notes of the bagpipes.S. offered to fiddlers are also transported to underthey eat and drink of the good things them.K. he learned that the sufferer had overheard fairy music. observed a young girl crouched before the fire. f\\ S.K. the invisible denizens of these retreats footing it in the dance to the cadence A gentleman.

"though in the morning they are found fast asleep in bed. The hawthorns on the fences were broken. and. and to render the recitation of the tale more effective. Kilkenny between two fairy hosts. In the islands off the west coast the peasantry believe that the witching power of the underground music is so strong that whoever hears it cannot choose but follow the sound. The Breton legend . and dance all night with Finvarra the King. music. he went on with the tune. a battle was fought in the county . are not always given to amusement. are haunted by the melody. and furnishes an exact parallel in nearly every detail it is also more complete. and long to return and listen to it. watched his opportunity. to reward him for his musical skill. are but the remembered echoes of that spiritmusic which had power to draw souls away to the fairy mansions. Young girls are drawn away by the enchantment. and after the pause. and hear the music of the fairies. the rude melody is usually sung to^tiie listeners by the story-teller. had been sung three times. The fairies were so delighted at this change that they conveyed the hunchback into their underground hall. when Da Liian. and hold them captive by the sweet magic of the melody. the public thoroughfare being the debatable ground. People who chance to be on a rath at night. finishing the melody when the pause again came with Agus Da Cadine (fig. as if crushed beneath the feet of infantry and cavalry . About the year 1800. ." The fairies. are terrified by shrill screams and all the various noises which accompany a fiercely-contested battle in the morning the scene of the struggle is covered with tiny pools of blood. . and tear-compelling. and generally either become mad or commit suicide. by which they can work spells and dangerous charms over those whose love they desire. and gaiety. These encounters generally take place during the night-time. and sanguinary conflicts ensue.FAIRY MUSIC. The opposing armies "lined the ditches " on either side of the road. living in the vicinity. and poor mortals. so plaintive. removed his hump. adding the words Agus Da Cadine. however. 5). while with the fairies. 21 same round sung over and over without change. Various raths in different parts of Ireland are assigned as the scene of this story. and he emerged from fairydom a well-shaped dapper little fellow. or upon any who has offended and spoken ill of them. It is a beautiful idea that the Irish airs. yet with a memory of all they had heard and seen and some say that. mournful. and other traces of the fight. Da Mort. the young women learn strange secrets of love potions. and then continued accompanying the voices inside the moat. is almost identical with the Irish. Very often the tiny inhabitants of two neighbouring forts quarrel.

are met with in great profuin fact. of peculiar habits. the county Kilkenny must have been their favourite exercising ground. and this was at once corroborated by his companions." or fairy mounds. and although the previous evening hedges and fields were uninjured and blooming. who stated that they had observed a field covered with them. here and there. Although the gentleman imme50 for a. supposed to be held sacred by the "good people. This appears strange for William Allingham. He shall find their sharpest thorns In his bed at night. Their numbers must have been diminished by their internecine feuds. or hermit-fairy." One rather rare kind of fairy also to be described the Leprechaun. at Ballyfriar. Is any man so daring As dig them up in spite. in the same locality in fact. They have planted thorn trees For pleasure. marching up this tree. there stood a solitary hawthorn. he fled into his cabin but. at one time. In the year 1797. a great number of fairies were observed at midday marching in military array across a bog between Maryborough and In 1836. the " " poet. each individual only the size of an ordinary mortal's little . : " By the craggy hillside. he has not yet had the opportunity of paying the reward. another party was seen crossing the hills Stradbally. their number sion. and powers . he. particularly in the west of Ireland would lead one to believe that some parts of the country must " have been. on emerging from his shelter some time afterwards. as the place was so full of " the " good people as to be hot. Seized with sudden terror. yet in the morning the branches of trees. Through the mosses bare. beheld many hundreds of little men creeping like bees along the boughs of the hawthorn. from numerous recorded instances of armed parties of the fairy host appearing in this neighbourhood.22 FAIRY LORE. to his great astonishment. Quite recently a patriarchal peasant informed a gentleman that he had seen a number of fairies around him. diately offered 100 if a fairy was shown to him. tastes. more thickly peopled with fairies than with human beings. In a place called Cashel. finger. saw soldiers. whose house stood opposite this bush." On a fine summer's day a peasant. bushes. and photograph of one. and the green sward were dyed with blood. describes the good people as being everywhere . whilst others engaged in quarrying left off work. Sheeauns. about a mile from Ballyroar. many hundred in number.

cranium. appears to be a comparatively modern kind of spectre. Denis. & Mrs. characteristic of the beaux of the last He possesses the power of century. as St. who strolled along for three miles carrying his head in his hands. however. 6. by some device. St.From Mr. Nearly always. The Leprechaun loves solitude and a solitary . Burns. and headless phantoms are not confined to Ireland. " for in Leprechaun history there is." . no one will question. Hall's Ireland. do And win thy speedy utmost." Other legends of saints demonstrate that many of them can dispense with a. pursued : The Leprechaun. that of a brogue. shoes. 6). it is doubtful if the Dullaghan has ever been observed with his cranium properly placed on his body. or produces it from his capacious pockets. whose veracity.or shoe-maker (fig. he is described as wearing the red square-cut coat and long waistcoat ricUy laced with gold. frequenting undisturbed nooks. and breeches. without his head. he gives the ransom demanded for his liberty. . This remarkable performance is quite eclipsed by that of the patron saint of a Spanish church at Saragossa. without fear of interruption. and indifferent) cannot cross a stream of running water. actually " et vidimus ibi multos preached to beings of whom it is said homines ac mulieres capita non habentes. bestowing unbounded wealth on what. in Tarn o' Shanter. The same idea prevails in Scotland. Augustine. he makes his captor avert his gaze. A running stream they dare na cross. and talking all the time. until. This. when he instantly vanishes. FIG. bad. the knee- cocked hat. who is generally seen without his head in fact. if only for a moment. who walked from Paris to the place which now bears his name. by the witches. it is to be supposed. weary of human observation. Though carrying on this humble trade.THE LEPRECHA UN. There is another gruesome spirit of the hobgoblin species. at life no recorded instance of two of this class of " good people ever having been seen together. retirement. thus adjures the mare on which Tarn. where he can sit in perfect quiet. in the pursuit of his usual occupation. is riding : " Now. the key-stane of the brig There at them thou thy tail may toss. Spirits (good. lives present. as he generally carries it under his arm. Meg. ever mortal can catch and keep him under his eye.

on account of the air-current. the calcined bones are carefully collected and carried back to his village." or the bog spirit. so the . whose dancing light lures its folloAvers into miry places. returning again and again. Will-o'-the-wisp. When this light reaches the edge of a stream of running FIG. often sees ghosts and Animals apparitions when they are invisible to the human ken. or the Bog Sprite. The idea that spirits cannot cross running water may have originated in a curious phenomenon with regard to the movements of " Will-o'-the-wisp. generally announce their presence by showing great terror. the phantom of the moors. water. it then makes several essays. 7. On the death of a man of the Khasi tribe away from his native district. A dog or a horse. but it cannot pass a river. especially a mare. the dog whimpers and trembles. the horse is almost paralysed with fear. it is driven backward by the currents of air accompanying the flow of the water.24 1< AIRY LORE. before it finally glides along and down the banks of the stream which. after the corpse is burnt. The spirit follows the remains. it cannot cross.

In either of the above instances. or the mud stirred up." and the spirit of the deceased takes advantage of it to glide over. pole is thrust into the mud at the bottom of a pond. now known vicinity. large air bubbles are seen locked up here and there in the heart of the ice. which issues from " " becomes will-o'-the-wisps boggy ground and constitutes ignited. to be due to the decomposition of certain animal substances. and stagnant water. when the surface of the water is frozen. . this gas will rise in large bubbles to the surface. swamps. This is alleged. if a light be applied to the gas as it escapes from its imprisonment in the water or from the ice. it will take fire but a Difficult problem to solve is how the gas.WISP. and in the winter season.WILL. the gases from which mingle with and ignite those from the decaying vegetable remains in their It is . by some. 25 people carrying the bones stretch a cord across the stream styled the " string bridge. that marsh gas is due to the decomposition If a of vegetable matter in bogs.O' -THE. in the summer season.

in particular. " Soon the saint. MARRIAGE LORE. fate. Kevin. Descent still traced in the Female AN old Icelandic author states that. ah ! Felt her love. St. into a certain island in one of the Irish lakes. including the human was allowed to enter. and Irish Saints in general. a Mythical Tradition of Wives by Physical Force Rape of Wives by the Picts from the Gaels Ancient Irish Laws defining the penalties conse- quent on the different recognized modes of Abduction Irregular or Tem"The Straw Boys" Traces of porary Marriages Wedding Festivities the ancient custom of the Couvade. This rule seems to have been enforced.CHAPTEU II. Women St." Moore has immortalised this idea in the legend of Glendalough. or from Exclusion of washing in them Separate Burial-places for Men and for Women Imagined Polution by Contact with Women The subject of Ancient Marriage Customs in Ireland has not been grappled with by Antiquarians Marriage Portions Marriage by Capture Pursuit and Capture of the Bride Bringing the ancient Home way tbe Bride of Procuring Rape of the Sabines. St. yet. woman's foot. inexIrish Saints of most exemplary character orably repelled the Fair Sex Women from Sacred Localities. no female of any animal. Columbkille. in his Monasteries of the Levant. " no female Curson. prohibited from setting foot on certain Holy Islands Senanus." . where St. a practice far older than " Sure Saints' or Priests' " Beds Christianity specific to remove Barrenness As effective as the prolific Shadow of Rabelais' Abbey Steeple Females prohibited from drawing water from certain Holy Wells. Kevin hurls Kathleen into the waters for daring to intrude on his presence and on his mediations yet . and mourned her too late. . or "Hatching" Women after marriage retain their maiden names Line. states that animal of any sort is admitted to any part of the peninsula of Mount Athos and since the days of Constantino the soil of the holy mountain has never been contaminated by the tread of a species. not only in Ireland. but in various parts of Europe.

wild wishes glow. and rock pillow'd his head. They were prohibited by the Komans from entering the temples of Hercules. he surely gained heaven For on rock lay his limhs. and where there is a woman there must be mischief. because. whose sober brow Whose Oft shrouds such thoughts as thou hast now. The monks Irish examples could be multiplied to any extent. Whether the long past " lent enchantment to the view. they possible to say. under sad and solemn show Vain hopes are nursed. and would not allow one to come within sight of the walls of his "Where there is a cow monastery." fair sex St. he replied have women to do with monks? We will neither admit you or " If you any other woman into the island." The lady replied believe Christ will receive my soul. hearts within are seldom cured When Of passions by their vows abjured . strictly 27 moral . And # given the saint one rosy smile." women from sacred localities is a practice than Christianity.WOMEN AND THE It ' ' SAINTS. it 'm sure he could never have thrown away." and ages in which they lived hid from modern gaze little episodes in the lives of other saints not quite as correct as the two foregoing examples. even to his last day. Whenever this good holy saint kept his hed . He detested even cows on their account. Columbkille seems likewise to have been credited with a horror of women." Writers. almost without exception. has been wittily remarked of this most man If hard lying could gain it. it is now imLet us suffice that. the reason for which is given by Plutarch and Macrobius. why do you turn away my The exclusion of far older ." She ne'er had St. as he explained: there must be a woman. left his lonely isle. depict the early Irish saints as of most exemplary character. contrast most favourably with the picture drawn of Scottish monks by Sir Walter Scott : " The living dead. in point of morality. " What lady having requested speech with a monk. of Iniscathy Abbey from its foundation to its demolition are A said never to have permitted a woman to enter the island. Senan also inexorably hunted away the " But legends hint that had the maid Till morning light delay'd. And keep For I it he must.

a favourable answer would be granted to their maternal . ." he answered. Ne sis nobis in scandal um : Et si es casta pectore Sexum habes in corpore. . meum ad Episcopum . Tune Si ilia credis spiritum Posse Christum suscipere." There are. a visit to one of their usually a favourite exercise of devout women.'' " Cui Praesul.early Christian missionaries are reputed to have held women in holy " beds " was abhorrence. as well as in Africa. describing the Island of Devenish in the year 1815. body ? verily believe. at the same time repeating certain prayers. Molaise's house is his bed. near Lough Ree. the woman's family are bound to take her back and repay her price to the disappointed Benedict. : Redi iterum ad saeculum. although the. " " or " Priests' Beds Almost any number of Irish " Saints' might be enumerated a few shall suffice. after that.28 " MA RRIA GE L ORE. proved as effective in removing barrenness as did ever the prolific shadow of Rabelais' Abbey Steeple and is it not strange that. However. Return to the world lest you be a scandal to us. " "I That. est cum monachis ? nee ullam aliam -Admittimns in insulam. Quid faeminis Commune Nee te. some still surviving fragmentary relics of ancient customs pointing to a state of things having formerly existed in Ireland resembling those still prevalent in some parts of the East. Quid me repellis corpore? Credo inquit. Amongst some African tribes a man is at liberty to return his wife to her family and demand repayment of her purchase money if she bear no children. who imagined that by lying religious in it and turning thrice round. he must send her to the " bed " of a fetichman but if. for however chaste you may be you are a woman. by a married woman who had not been blessed with issue." which is a stone . however. Sed nullae unquam faeminae Hue ingressam concedimus Esto salvet te Dominus. A night spent in one of the old churches at Termonbary. requests. or passed in a cleft in the rock at the source of the river Lee. so God preserve you. but we never permit any woman to enter this place. hoc optime. she still remains barren. ' . says that " a few paces to the north of St. before doing so. A writer.

the island is no longer used as a burial place. in which people lie down and repeat some prayers. are the ruins of a church founded by St. now called Church Island." stones on the top of the Bally mascanlan Cromleac. in the sixth century. is St. Loman In a rock. locally known as the " Pulleek Stone. This station course is forty yards in circumference. near the door of the church. and at the same time repeating certain prayers. not far distant is called "St. no decent woman would do this in public. or take home a handful of the earth from the for the purpose of rubbing it around their bodies in the name of the Holy Trinity. a favourable answer would be granted to their maternal requests. six feet and fifteen inches wide. An oblong hole in the ground are still paid. turning thrice round. who believe that if one rests there the thrower will be married before the expiration of the year. in its most degraded state. Nicholas's Well. in hope of relief from any pains with which they may be affected. repeat some prayers. there used to be a depression or cavity in a slab of rock called " Our This was a favourite resort of devout Lady's Bed. to which many resort for relief. Ita's Bed." About the year 1873 the Rev." are thrown by the credulous. Bound this they go seven times. and leave a rag suspended on a bush near it. Mary's Abbey is St. in order to prevent barrenness." women. This is an The small . or cannot now be identified. James Page thus describes a scene at the station called " St." birth. then enter the bed. and to banish rats and mice.SAINTS' OR PRIESTS' "BEDS. who imagined that by lying in it. and bring them home. but I am ' ' On Inishmore." In the parish " of Killady." Many people go from the mainland for the Holy " " it bed. Patrick's Bed. and the " Bed" has disappeared. " Lady Wilde." on Croagh All the devotees do not go there Patrick none but those that and the abominable practices committed there ought are barren to make human nature. About 100 paces north of St. they will not suffer the pains of child- where "rounds Needless to add." believing that purpose of passing a night in this " it luck to all. In one of the wild desolate islands off the Western coast there is. blush. The greater part of those who go through this station stop upon the hill all night that they may sleep in the bed. turn round seven times." and that brings good according to of the women the blessing of children. This belief has long ceased." trough (coffin) 29 in length sunk level with the surface of the ground. county Sligo. and to heals all diseases. in Lough Gill. take up some small pebbles. told several come here privately on by-days for that " Bed " purpose. Ita's Well. county Cork. near Dundalk. " if child-bearing women roll themselves." where. a stone receptable called The Bed Ghost.

whose hand she should place within her own in laying hold of the vessel when drawing the water which may be afterwards used for the ordinary purpose of everyday life. According to an ancient legend. F. A successful shot implied the attainment of the spitter's wish. and that on each occasion it was full of blood and corruption. quoted by Professor O'Curry. Numerous anecdotes are recounted of the misfortunes which have happened to women who persisted in drawing water from this well. for the Irish held a great many r superstitions relative to water in which feet had been dipped. in Lower Brittany. Campbell records having found in Japan small piles of stones at the foot of every image and memorial stone. and the like practices exist almost all over France. In Upper Brittany pins are thrown into the holy well of St. It must be handed to her by a male. The postulant. Poitou and Alsace. excellent example of a world-wide superstition. at Tokio. describing the ceremony which gives birth to these heaps of stones. and on every altar hy the way- Another traveller. on several occasions. 011 whose knees women fling stones with the same object. for J. side. her prayer concluded. In an island near Achill there is a holy well at which no female is allowed to draw water. Goustan by those who wish to be married within the year the pins stick point downward into the bottom of the well if the prayer is to be granted. only recently. but as soon as the cleansing was finished. Women w ere not permitted to wash their feet in holy wells. cleaned out the well after women had taken water from it. clever at the game. or have died out. . states that women who desire children make pilgrimages to a sacred stone on the holy hill of Nikko and throw pebbles at it. in many places. which is riddled with pin-holes. be he even an infant. no water flowed into it. and her wish for a husband Similar rites are observed in is infallibly granted within a year. From the time he commenced to clean out the well until the task was accomplished. . He also describes a seated statue of Buddha. If they succeed in hitting it He maliciously adds that they seem very their wish is granted. Girls still resort to a little shrine on the beach at Perros Guirec. An old man who lived for many years on this solemnly declared that he had.80 MARRIA GE L ORE. clear spring water immediately burst island forth. and further relates that the grotesque statues guarding the entrance of another temple were covered with pellets of chewed paper shot through the bars of the railing which surrounded the idols. though men were allowed to do so. the River Shannon originated from the profanation of a sacred pagan well by a woman. sticks a pin into the wooden statue of the saint.

and that is most modern which is . thehillmen of India. in some instances. styled in Irish " the mound of the boys. at Inishniurray and it is an almost universal belief that if a woman be buried in the men's ground. A little to the separate burying places for the two sexes.SEPA RA 2E B URIAL-PLA CES." A tumulus of corresponding dimensions. ' ' farthest removed from that beginning. This idea of supposed pollution by contact with women appears to be much the same in all ages." is in the immediate vicinity. and vice versa. 'old' means not old in chronology. to the women's cemetery.M. in a sense. the Mill of Kilkeary in Ossory described as the thirty-second wonder of Ireland. says that there . county Donegal. of America. and the Pacific Islanders. No woman is allowed . and the only acknowledged blood relationship " These facts of that through females. and during the entire period of absence the leading men in each canoe must abstain from all intercourse with the fair sex. A. In the present day the movements of the fleet of trading canoes belonging to some of the natives of New Guinea are governed by minute and elaborate regulations on this subject. on a height overlooking the road. nor is there any the meaning of which has been less studied. on ancient customs in the parish of Culdaff. north of Buttevant. formerly existed in Ireland. The custom of separate burial is derived from very ancient times." In the whole range of legal symbolism there is no trait more remarkable than that of capture in marriage ceremonies. and women dare not enter it. The Rev. semi-sacred edifice is now occupied by a modern building. In the science of law and society. by unseen hands.. Edward Chichester. to-day are. the family system undeveloped. for the old pagans had. In many localities it was forbidden to bury men and women in The prohibition still occasionally survives as the same cemetery. but in structure that is most archaic which is nearest to the beginning of human progress considered as a development. on board any canoe for two months previous to its sailing. we must look to the tribes of Central Africa. With many of these we find marriage laws unknown. stands an ancient conical sepulchral tumulus. the most ancient history. nor would it grind The site of this stolen grain. and for its present characteristics the miller can answer. is 31 In Nennius' Historia Britonum. and all the world over. called " the mound of the girls. This ancient mill would neither grind on the Sabbath. that the ethnological differences they exhibit are of little weight when what they possess in common is taken into conTo unravel the tangled skein of primitive life as it sideration. So much similarity and so many correspondences exist in the every-day routine prevailing among races generally considered distinct. writing in 1815. the corpse will be removed during the night.

and published in Collec. " that he should take who had the " that wives were first power. The father or next of kin to the bride sends to his neighbours and friends ." what as follows : In the present day the routine is some- . which is generally a determinate number of cows.. after a contract of marriage. heifer. if the weather be cold. in which it was with women as with other kinds of property. or. i. it is necessary for the constitution of the relation of husband and wife that the bridegroom or his friends should go through the form of feigning to steal the bride. then by theft. the case is one of actual abduction. were many which appeared extraordinary. The question of ancient marriage customs in Ireland has not been grappled with by antiquaries.' as they call it. The test then of the presence of the symbol in any case is. " especially in those p. vol. and he should keep who can obtained by force. Sir Henry Piers. in a Description of Westineath written about the year 1682. The marriage is agreed upon by bargain. and everyone gives his cow or and thus the portion is quickly paid. little care is taken. when the solution has been attained. and in this case every man's own beast is Thus care is taken that no man shall grow rich by restored. " The symbol of capture occurs whenever. says regarding Irish marriages. they drink the agreement bottle. limited by agreement . it will exhibit matrimonial alliance in the Emerald Isle in a very different light from that in which it has been hitherto depicted by an extravagantly eulogistic school of writers. which is a bottle of good usquebaugh (whiskey). the most singular he mentions being elopement previous to matrimony.. and that notwithstanding the absence of all difficulties which might stand in the way of the union of the lovers. in some place of shelter about midway between both dwellings. If agreement ensue. the parents and friends on each side meet on the side of a hill. de Rebus-Hi^. that counties where cattle abound." Those who approach the study of this interesting subject with unbiassed minds will readily perceive that there must have existed an early period of lawlessness. or carry her off from her friends by superior force. preceding contract. caution is taken from the bridegroom on the day of delivery for restitution of the cattle in case the bride dies childless within a certain day. Nevertheless. though not confined to any one district of Ireland. and preceded by a contract of marriage. frequent marriages. and later by trade and bargain. and this goes merrily round. and the theft or abduction follows as a concerted matter of form to make valid the marriage. For payment of the portion.32 MA RRIA GE L ORE. ' sub mutuae vidssitudinis obtentu. 122. and it is probable that. that the capture is conIf there is no certed.

If the girl is possessed of a fortune. not into the estate of the young couple. he calls as if by accident. Others rattled slates and bones between their fingers. A the wild chorus of dancers and singers closed the procession chorus of the epithalamium and grotesque figures. - fessional "match-maker " is usually elderly. as the dowry passes. A boy followed. bearing high over the heads of the young couple a sieve filled with meal. a sign of the plenty that would be in their house. or the land she possesses. near a stream. and beat time. r> . calculating. after the manner of the Crotolistrai which appears amongst all nations of the earth. attendants. the novelty of the transaction comes in. was hung all over with bits of coloured stuff. marching slowly with flutes and pipes made of hollow reeds. and here occurs the match-maker's opportunity. Negotiations and the all-important question of the fortune follow. Wilde: "A large hawthorn tree that stood in the middle of a field. of course. to symbolise. no doubt.ANCIENT MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. n. . shrouded and Behind the pair followed two veiled from the prying light of day. a rude attempt at music. nymphs and bacchanals. and an omen of good luck and the blessing of children. traveller in Ireland. as his services are . while lighted rush candles were placed here and there amongst wilds the branches. in consideration. mingledtogether with mad laughter and shouts and waving of green branches. generally strangers to each other it becomes necessary to engage the services of an intermediary to The proplace the proposal before the young woman's parents. to put the matter in train. 83 Some desirable partner for their son is discovered by his parents desirable either in respect of the amount of her fortune. agree to assign the farm to their son. bearing a lighted torch of bog-wood. VOL. and one struck a tin can with a stick at intervals. . charged with certain payments. in cash or kind. and without making any definite proposal. the new life of brightness Then came a procession of boys preparing for the bridal pair. so ample play is given to his powers of "blarney" and wealth of argument. sketches an outline of the desired arrangement. shrewd. and versed in all the arts of country diplomacy. large square canopy of black stuff being held over their heads the emblem. probably the traditional fauns andsatyrs. a nisance. The families are so. of the mystery of love. The commission given. who. and the flame of love was his cogAfter him came the betrothed pair hand-in-hand. even the most savage.]jsually rewarded in proportion to the terms he obtains. but into the pocket of the bridegroom's parents. Evidently he was Hymen. describes a rustic marriage festival which he came on by chance one evening in the A The account is thus summarised by Lady of Kerry. This represented the plectrum. with a strong rhythmical cadence. about the year 1830.

the custom was of old to cast short darts at the company that attended the bride. for a quarrel would be considered a most unlucky omen. The procession then moved on to a bonfire. while the bride and bridegroom remained seated The chorus of one of these ancient at the head of the table. A wet day was also held to be very unlucky. the black shroud was lifted from the bridal pair. as the bride would But the assuredly weep for sorrow throughout the year. the traveller left them. On occasion. "Then the preparations for the marriage supper began on which. and having gone round it three times. All fighting was steadily avoided at a wedding. and they kissed each other before all the people. saying : " ' Happy is But blessed the the bride that the sun shines on is the corpse that the rain rains on. and the golden harps are ringing twelve comely maidens deck the bride-bed for the bride. the bridegroom and his and meet the bride and her friends at the place " of meeting. according to the old . Having come near to each other. however. having laid some money on the altar as an offering of good-will for the marriage future. with much speech-making and drinking of poteen. songs may be thus literally translated from the Irish . . " the day of bringing home. It is not day. lost an eye." . : " ' It is not day. on such an friends ride out . nor yet day.84 11 MA RRIA GE L ORE. but at such distance that seldom any hurt ensued yet it is not out of the memory of man that the Lord of Howth. " A beautiful new dress was presented to the bride by her husband at the marriage feast. and the feast was prolonged till near morning. who shouted and waved their branches in approval. bright warm sunshine was hailed joyfully. nor yet morning It is not day.' .' " Another marriage song was sung in Irish frequently. each verse ending with the lines : " ' And There is sweet enchanting music. evidently the ancient altar.' . nor yet day. At the wedding supper there was always plenty of eating and drinking and dancing. at which also the father paid down and all the place round her dowry before the assembled guests the house was lit by torches when night came on. when the wedding song was sung by the whole party of friends standing. For the moon is shining brightly. and the song and the dance continued till daylight.

He leads her away in triumph. When they have fatigued themselves and their horses. to the no sinall amusement of the spectators. countrymen. the bride and bridegroom. the story.THE Even at when going the ' ' STRA W BOYS. an order which usually depends upon the respective merits and " speed of their horses. This drive was sometimes called draghome the bride. the bridegroom is suffered to overtake his bride. who are likewise on horseback.drive from the parent's house to that of her husband. They are usually well entertained and treated to drink." In Roman history. The bride. In remote parts of the country. as might naturally be expected. Her friends. decorated with stripes of red and green cloth they also wear white shirts and red petticoats set off with many coloured ribbons. on horseback." Sometimes the term was applied to ging the. f Weddings were made the occasion of great festivities. states that the following marriage ceremony was in his day (1807). The latter pretended to run ture of the bride. is to be found in the folk-lore of many tribes and in . the bridegroom. crossing and jostling. the guests following in to a marriage.shaped straw masks (fig. 8). then still existed. being on the first car. mounted behind upon which a mock scuffle ensues. in Sketches of the History of Man. and the scene is concluded : with feasting and festivity. rode That old world relic of barbarism. or had till shortly before. and indulged in boisterous play but in most localities this is a thing of the past. usually followed by a dance kept up till the greater number of the guests were stretched upon the floor through the combined effects of fatigue and other causes. however. away. . on such an occasion. Lord Kames. demands the bride. give a positive refusal. is carried off. to see two or three hundred sturdy CambroBritons riding at full speed. differing slightly in form. and the remainder of the band find partners as best they can. The leader dances with the bride. accompanied with his friends on horseback. her nearest kinsman. generally rode . each the bride was having behind him a woman seated on a pillion mounted behind the best man the bridegroom. " straw boys " still appear at the house disguised in tall conical. bridesmaid and best man. It is not uncommon." . In the Irish Nennius there is a . They formerly demanded money. . 85 commencement of this century. pursued by the bridegroom and even yet the bridal party usually set out for a long drive.many places. the story of the rape of the Sabines should be accepted as a mythical tradition of the ancient way of procuring wives by force. and is pursued by the bridegroom and his friends with loud shouts. been customary among the Welsh " On the morning of the wedding day. the pursuit and capalone. the next in rank with the bridesmaid. . and.

11WW''V'V WB A ^-HW ' Fio. Wedding Dance M. . 8.isk.i 1 I i' . Welch's Irish Views. Slightly less than quarter real size.

conditional on the succession to the crown amongst the Picts being through females only : " ' There were oaths imposed on them. forcible abduction. unless begotten more than a month ' after the abduction. wife of Hermion. was wanting also when the consent of the woman had not been obtained. which.WEDDING FESTIVITIES. and abduction without leave of her family. Where there had been an abduction without leave.' it is said that the child of a woman who had been abducted without leave from her family. form alliances with the original tribes of Ireland : " ' There were no charming noble wives For their young men Their women having been stolen. her family lost their Here we have different phases of right to the offspring. and the woman remained with her abductor longer than that period. a fable to explain the descensus per umbilicum of the Picts. and they might refuse to sell it to the abductors but if the mother had consented to the abduction he could force her family to sell. If the mother had been forcibly abducted it belonged to them absolutely. If there was no contract. the ' 11 Pints' are represented as stealing the three hundred wives : " 'Cruithne. or to reclaim her. under the head of leave. From the reference to the consent which was necessary to take the children from the woman's family and give them to their father it may be thought that abduction with the leave first had of the woman's family . being left wifeless. the stars. By 1 The story of the oaths is. reciting the same event. and the Irish are also represented as giving three hundred women to the Picts. With the TuathaDea. abduction without marriage by capture the consent of the woman herself.' a poem on the origin of the Gaedhel. the woman's family were allowed a month to bring the man to terms about her. ' ' . remarks " In the Book of Abduction without Aicill. Son of Miledh. by the earth. belonged not to the abductor. son of Cnig. the Gael. Staniland Wake. But in Duan Gircanash. in Marriage and Kinship.' And had to in consequence of the capture. 37 rape of wives by the Picts from the Gael. took their It is directly stated women from them Except Tea. no doubt. That from the nobility of the mother Should always be the right of the sovereignty. C.'" : Mr. they made alliance . no doubt. but the mother's family.

the system of kinship through females only. with varying rapidity. ever. or the woman brought was recognised. There was actual capture. that they very religiously observe their -matrimonial contracts for the space of a year. to make valid the marriage. and there is no trace of the exercise of that arbitrary power which was wielded by a Roman father over the members of his family." The Editors of the Senchus Mor appear to be of opinion that Patria Potestas did not enter into old Irish law." any such symbolical capture. as Dr. a In this case there does not appear to be back by her family. always tending upwards from that condition..A. is identical with one of the Arab methods of terminating the widow's period of seclusion and aUowing her to marry again. 4. after the abduction. MacLellan's theory requires. and the theft or abduction follows as a concerted matter of form. taken as a whole. may be interpreted as evidence of a gradual progress from a state of Totemism and female kinship. it is sufficient to reply that this : . exhibiting the development of human society as an evolution. even to the paring of the nails of the captive before marriage." In the laws of Ireland there was thus. Mr. according to this evidence. no trace of Patria Potestas. John F. " With for he remarks regard to what is charged upon the Irish by other writers. It comes rather within the statement that if there is no preceding contract. MacLennan. M. howmonth being fixed by custom as the term within which it ought to be come to. but as the contract came after the abduction. and think they may then lawfully dissolve them. The general conclusion which may be drawn from these and other allied facts. The Irish law demands for the mother a position equal with the father. at different epochs. points out that " as civilization advanced. p. the case is one of actual abduc- was afterwards compounded ' tion. Keating admits the accusation.' " In the 21st chapter of Deuteronomy. moving.. Many English writers allege that in former times the population living in remote parts of Ireland paid very little attention to the tie of matrimony in fact. verses 10-14. for they say " the provisions of the Irish family (vol. Every detail. ii. in Primitive Marriage. preface) that law do not appear to have any connection with the ancient Eoman law. The arrangement referred to was made.88 MA RRIA GE L ORE. which for. and which in most cases passed into a system which acknowledged kinship through males only. or abduction by arrangement. we have the full description of marriage by capture as practised amongst the Israelites. the facts do not come within the theory according to which " the marriage is agreed upon by bargain. was succeeded by a system which acknowledged kinship through males also.

and it was immediately afterwards suspended by the upper jaw upon the midwife's fore-finger. they returned to Teltown. or witches. 89 opinion prevailed only among the rude and unpolished part of the people. and part of England till very lately. as in many localities it is believed that the first to go out will be the first to die. . so that throughout the entire ritual of wedding observances. At the commencement of this century it was customary. Other traces of Pagan wedding customs still linger. When his parishioners brought children to be baptized. at one time. a piece of bread and cheese was concealed in the infant's clothes. This ceremony was performed for the purpose of preventing a disease which the people styled " headfall. placed themselves back to back. in the parish of Culdaff.A NCIENT MA RRIA GE CUSTOMS. the other the south. for an infant at its birth to be forced to swallow spirits. who by weaving spells during the wedding service prevent any children being born of the marriage. no mere form the bride's veil is a reminder that in days of old she was really shrouded from head to foot rice poured over the newly married couple is ." Another custom. there is probably nothing that has not been hallowed by centuries of Paganism. " " is a relic of the time when the bride Giving away the bride was really sold the promise of the bride in the marriage service to obey her husband was. Edward Cupples in the county Antrim. and a token of a hope that they may always have a sufficiency old shoes were thrown after brides long before the introduction of Christianity. and denied the authority of their ecclesiastical superiors. to the centre of a fort styled Eathdoo. the males were first presented to the clergyman. and the bride and bridegroom should go out of the church door together." A " Teltown Marriage " is an expression often used in Meath to describe an irregular marriage in the present day. and a somewhat similar custom to that now to be described existed in If a Scotland. . who despised the discipline of the Church. county Donegal. There are also ill-disposed women. . . but found in other parts of the kingdom. If several children were brought to the font at -the same time. (What numbers would now take advantage of this simple ceremony were it but legally efficacious !) Another ancient idea was that people should not marry in the autumn in "binding" time. Wales. one facing the north. for they were sure to be unbound afterwards. doubtless a substitute for the staple food of the country. was noticed" by the Rev. not -merely local. Their general manner of proceeding is to tie a knot on a string for every word uttered during the ceremony. couple who had been married for a twelvemonth disagreed. and walked out of the fort a divided couple free to marry again.

It may be well to explain that the term Couvade or " hatch- . at a certain season. for in one of the early centuries of the Christian Era. F. mentions the fact of all the married women calling themselves by their maiden names. it is believed. and lightly introduces the first particle (auspicium) of nourishment into the little child's mouth with the point of the sword." The Eev. To the present day. expresses a wish that he may never meet death otherwise than in wars and amid wars. the woman to nurse. After she had passed the goal she gave birth to twins. but the prominent position held by the mother in Irish birth-rites is very remarkable. the Irish mother puts the " food on the sword of her husband." In the Book of Leinster it is recounted that Macha. and this is still common in Ulster. and his friends to visit him. This incident is nights). in his description of the parish of Eathconrath. in the county Westmeatn. recited to account for the debility of the Ulstermen. The study of this habit may. so that no one. Her prayers were unavailing. were able to defend the country against the invaders. This singular inaction is accounted for in a tale entitled CeasnaiiUtean Uladh. sets the doctor to dose him. or the " Childbirth debility of the Ulster- men. This inactivity and inertia of the Northerns was interpreted by the light of a custom which seemed to render it intelligible. A. in many places. retain their maiden names. when the Northern Province was invaded by Maev. before the Christian era. women. notwithstanding her earnest entreaty for a postponement of the contest on the plea that she was soon to become a mother. the custom which obliges the husband to take to his bed when a child is born. when the Province was invaded by the celebrated Connacian Queen. and with gentle vows. and in times not very remote often followed their mother's rather than their father's kindred. unravel the tangled skein of this folk custom but apparently the Couvade was prevalent in Ulster at a very remote period. upon which she cursed the Ulstermen. Potter. Queen of Connacht or the Western Province. wife of Crunniuc. Strangest of all strange customs is that of the Couvade. and inflicted them yearly. in time to come. been obtained relative to the present continuance of this custom in Ireland.40 MA RRIA GE L ORE. No certain information has as yet. . in the year 1819. she found all the adults confined to bed. although married. with labour pains for five days and four nights (or four days and five This was styled the Noinden Ulad. Solinus recounts how. was compelled to run in a chariot race with the horses of Conor. save the champion Cuchullin (Coolin) and his father.

the doctor. made either of the fin of a fish or the tooth of some animal. where the custom is so named. women before childbirth often wear the coat of the father of the expected arrival. During this time he is not allowed to eat venison. often place the trousers of the father of the child round their neck. the custom may be safely regarded as a remnant of savagery for it should be borne in mind that in primitive times a child was considered to belong to the tribe generally. When a state of society was reached in which the father took the place previously held by the mother. and thus mitigate those of the mother. swallows the medicine. in the present day in Ireland. not the The custom of the Couvade is patient. they cut him in several parts of his body with some sharp instrument. and in this way the curious ceremony of the Couvade may have originated. and quit his wife for some months. still practised in Southern India. a tribe on the south coast of the . . and he is suffered to have no nourishment but a little cassava wheat and some water. pork. Kamschatka. Guiana in the year 1763 thus describes the " When the wife lies Couvade there prevailing in for the first time." " ing 41 comes from Beam. in India. in Yunnan. sound whipping. the husband is obliged to keep his hammock. at hurt the infant. under a.THE ANCIEN1 CUSTOM OF " HATCHING. the effect of which is also to lighten their pains. This servitude is terminated which the husband is again put into possession of his liberty and his wife. be bound by this idea to be careful of what he did or what he ate. amongst the Kukis. impossible to know the paternity of an infant. with the idea that this will make the father share some of the pains of Women also labour. When they let him down. Till this ceremony is performed upon the birth of the first child. which is draw n up to the ridge of the house. In the same way. so also among the Tibareni. the father instead of the In the altered state mother came to be regarded as the parent. the husband is the slave of his father-inlaw. as a general rule. of the case the father would. then of the father. on the birth of the child. whilst it is only in modern times that it is looked on as related to both. for fear the child might be injured. Sometimes also they give him a. Whenever relationship is traced through females only. in Borneo. Greenland." Descent can be easily proved from the mother. and by many tribes of North and South Even America. In classical literature there are clear illustrations of it. nor game of any kind neither is he allowed to cleave wood. *~A traveller in custom of the r : : notion that it may by a great festival. in China. whilst it is. and as soon as it is over he is obliged to enter into the service of some old Indian. afterwards it came to be looked on as the property of the mother.

it is most strongly pronounced among peoples having preferably a system of kinship through females. make a martyr of himself till he made himself really ill. Tylor was of opinion that the custom " implicitly denies that physical separation of individuals which a civilized man would probably set down as a first principle common by nature to all mankind. With some of the Brazilian tribes. duty. and it was not a true instance of the Couvade. C. This among was with a people who recognised relationship through both father and mother. The French writer " shows that " adoption by the imitation of nature was practised the Eomans down to the first century of the empire. He then began to and afterwards frightened into superstition. but that their very bodies are joined by a physical bond. change was made. M. or took to his bed in self-defence. and was for it a second mother. a mere relation of parentage.42 MARRIAGE LORE. when a man becomes a father he goes to bed instead of his wife. directs attention to the fact that Dr. writing on the Couvade. among the Cantabri in the North of Spain and in Corsica. the father would naturally be very careful what he did. " So far. It shows us a number of distinct and distant tribes deliberately holding the opinion that the connection between father and child is not only." Muller offers the curious suggestion that the Couvade custom " " secret which led the arises from some spring in human nature husband at first to be " tyrannised over by his female relations. moreover. affection. intended to give a colour to the fiction that the father had brought forth the child. Black Sea. the father would take the place held previously by the mother." Sir John Lubbock sees in that custom a connection with the change which he supposes to have taken " As soon as the He says place from female to male kinship. and all the ' " This ' . who regards the Couvade as an imitation of nature. on the birth of a child. so that what is Professor Max done to the one acts directly upon the other. as we think. would be regarded as the parent.." reproduction furnishes the explanation of the custom in question. from this custom having any relation to a ' ' : change from female to male kinship. E. and what he ate. Giraud-Teulon. and he." The suggestion made in this passage is carried further by M. . Mr. Hence. such a pretence being the only way in which a bond between the father and his child could be established. for fear the child be injured. Giraud-Teulon dwells on the domestic superiority of women among the Basquees with whom a husband n'entre dans la maison que pour reproduire et travailler pour la bien de sa femme. This is the case with the Arawaks and Caribs of British Guiana. instead of she. and probably with the Abipones of Paraguay. Staniland Wake..

legal and religious codes. if the child is thought capable of doing it harm.. and that any harm happening to the father will affect injuriously the well-being of the infant'. Tomlinson. a notion which is supported by the fact. and in modern times by savages in many widely separated countries." Thus we see that the Couvade was practised by tribes represented then as backward in civilization. the mother being merely its nourisher.S. under more favourable conditions. which. however absurd the custom may appear. as among the Abipones. as the reincarnation of the father.E. women qu'il a 43 of the village come to console eu de faire cet enfant. that in the Couvade the parent identifies himself with the infant child. of which it is the ' ' . partly on the idea of the child belonging exclusively to the father. When such an idea is held.' or if the father abstains. it is not surprising if. This curious custom has been found at all times in many parts of the world. . when the man shared . F. and in countries so distant from one another as to preclude the idea of imitation hence it seems that. yet there must be a sentiment in human nature. Douglas of the transformed. life of the father and child is one. daily life routine of a present day savage is regulated by strange customs. whilst it has been also suggested that the malignant demons plotting against mother and child were considered to be tricked in this substitution of the man for the woman but C. pointed out by Mr. Couvade as practised by the aborigines in the Chinese province of He states that the father Kwei-chow agrees with that view. the idea being that the goes to bed with the infant for a month.' la peine et douleur This agrees with the idea enter' him for tained by so many peoples that the child is derived from the father only. however foolish they may appear to us. but rather in the necessities of humanity in the early history of the race. " could not have suggests that such a practice originated in the motives above referred to. and partly on the want of distinction in the savage mind between objective and subjective relations. into which he has been typically The explanation given by Prof. either before or after the child's birth. have in civilized communities evolved into highly complicated The many . from eating any food or performing any actions which are Still more so. Gerald Massey. Finally the practice of the Couvade may be accounted for. at some stage of its development. as is sometimes the case. are regarded by the practiser as of vital importance to his own welfare and these customs are in reality but the sterile or growth-arrested germs which. regarded. from a natural bond and sympathy of both. the the father's carelessness influences the belief is formed that new-born offspring.THE PRACTICE OF 2HE COUVADE. outcome.

578-580. M. and to which the reader is also referred. he proceeds immean account of his descent. the lacteal organ has become rudimentary in men generally. in the south of Ireland. but occasionally exceptions are to be met with." A very common superstition is that a marriage lacks validity unless solemnized with a gold ring. and when couples.. M. 2nd ed..). wife of Pythagoras.I.." He then enumerates many instances. which is peculiar to themselves they their mothers.44 with the MA RRIA GE L ORE. in which this subject is treated at length. evidently invented to account for the peculiarity of having descent reckoned through females only. has lately appeared in the Medical Press. The old-world idea of pollution through contact with women is neatly ridiculed in the reply of Theano. vi." by JohnKnott. From long disuse. and states that on submitting to a physiolo- gist the question whether at some remote period of the history of the human race man did not share with woman the task of suckling the infant. Herodotus descent through the female line only. until moved by the supplications of the female population. &c. woman the exhausting function of suckling the child. no time will make her : : .. a woman presided who had the care and management of the whole family this female government arose from their pretended descent from Thetis. Classic antiquity presents instances of nations tracing their For examples. a local jeweller used to keep a few wedding rings for hire. that they should take their names from their mothers and not from their fathers. (Clio.R. however. but who nevertheless gave him no reward for the exploit. According to Plutarch. clxxiii) states that the Lycians "have one distinction from which they never take their If names from is deviate. The story is. cxix. which the god did. he was referred to Darwin's Descent of Man (chap. . and not from their fathers. C. anyone diately to give asked concerning his family. both with regard to tribes and to individuals.P. To commemorate this a law was enacted amongst the Xanthians. so. to a person who inquired of her what time was required for a woman " She is to become pure pure immediately if the man be her husband but if he be not her husband. who were too poor to purchase .. Bellerophon prayed a second time to Neptune to remove the curse." Over the different companies into which the Cretans were divided.D. A most interesting Paper on "Lactation. In a small country town. 608-610. pp. He thereupon prayed Neptune to blight their crops. mentioning the female branches only. vol. Bellerophon slew a wild boar which had destroyed the cattle and crops of the Xanthians.

it might be conveyed. for a small sum. the woman or the husband will die. question of modern days. it being returned to the jeweller immediately after completion of In very poor localities it is customary the marriage ceremony." The wedding ring is. " is now contradicted but several eminent by experience. to the heart. from thence. and therefore they thought this finger the properest to bear the pledge of love. says. one 45 of the necessary precious metal. as it were. as well physicians as . Why do ladies encumber themselves Another common notion is. authors." According to the old proverb : " As your wedding-ring wears." . we have here an answer to the often-asked passu^. that the wedding ring and married life wear away pari " Perhaps. Your cares will wear away. it is stated. ' ' divines. for the same gold ring to do duty for many marriages.2HE WEDDING RING. she will shortly lose her husband. as well Gentiles as Christians. that. were about to be married." Wheatly artery ran direct from this finger to the heart. It is regarded as most unlucky if the wedding ring slips off the finger of the newly married wife either through accident or another superstition is that when a wedding ring carelessness has worn so thin as to break in two. were formerly of this opinion. worn on the fourth finger. in accordance with a very ancient but erroneous belief that an " This. for which purpose it is placed in the custody of some fairly comfortably circumstanced individual. with such heavy wedding rings ? that if a wife should be unfortunate enough to break her wedding ring. they procured. the temporary loan of a ring.

or rivers. so to make them free.tied on Bushes. hair. &c.worshippings. From dying flesh and dull mortality. fire. &c. the sun or moon. springs that were transferred from pagan to so-called Christian uses and thirdly. &c. Maledictive or Cursing Hound in Ireland in Scandinavia Ceremonial employed in anathematizing enemies The Private Curse The Public Curse Enumeration of all known Cursing Stones and Cursing Altars How the Curse may be averted Some Sacred Stones still their Species employed to believed to contain the Spirits of Ancestors They propagate Were invoked for good as well as for evil purposes Were cure Diseases Straining Strings Amulets and Charms- Strings. in Ireland may be roughly divided into three namely. both in ancient and modern times. by Conclusions to be drawn." and heathenism is very properly denned as the worship of idols.CHAPTER WELL WOKSHIP Holy Wells divided of the Process III.. dipping oftentimes Their stolen children. A]S 7 D ITS CONCOMITANTS. rags.wells. accommodated to heathen superstitious The Desiul. believed. In the alleged ecclesiastical canons of Edgar it is ordered " that every priest forbid well. shreds. HOLY WELLS " The nimble-footed fairies dance their rounds. stones.. ." Secondly. to be of Eastern origin its concomitants. around Holy Wells Their signification Accounts of Wells in various parts of Ireland Altars and Wells decorated with Fruit and Flowers Wind Wells Sacred Fish Salmon Trout Eels Well-worship and some. those which derive their reputed virtues from pagan superstition. By the pale moonshine. . and forest trees. a few which may lay claim to a merely Christian origin.. or Holy Bound as practised in Ireland in ancient and in modern times amongst the Greeks and Romans in the Tyrol in Portugal by Irish Bishops The Tuapholl. water. into three classes Are still very numerous Illustrations by which Christian Observances were. where even yet classes.

Anna. " Church of all the all the Gods. . they are still numerous probably there are not less than three thousand throughout Ireland. and the roadside shrines of the goddess of mercy are easily metamorphosed into shrines of the Blessed Virgin Mary. we can see how heathen customs and ideas. lost their sacred character. or " Temple of usage. bells. In Ceylon. in Ireland. in ancient times. there are allusions to this pre-Christian worship for example. tole- rated. converted pagan into Christian festivals. when in the country of the Picts. localities. accommodated their teaching to pre-existing observances. in modern times. are. the first expounders of the New Faith . and from one religion to the other. Patrick. Holy wells are resorted to for purposes of prayer. heard of a notable fountain to which the pagans paid divine honour. came to a fountain called Slaun. conciliated popular prejudice. to which the Druids offered sacrifices. 47 Although many holy wells have now. accompany the processions alike of heathen gods and of those of Christ and of Christian saints. to be also found. . shrines of Astarte. but which were evi- dently. In the same chapel." at Home. It is stated that in ancient Phoenicia there are grottoes dedicated to the Virgin Mary. altars. in his progress through Ireland. whilst a mingled throng of Hindoos." In many Irish MS. objects. censers. . vestments. are transformed into images of Christ. would be planted and cultivated in popular Christian On this principle the pagan Pantheon. or for the performing of certain penances either voluntary or imposed evidently a survival of the old heathen adoration of "water-wells. and days which had been previously dedicated to an older worship. by whom miracles are believed to have been wrought. or even encouraged the continuance of long established institutions. This is no new thing. With the process here visible before us. from the temples of Siva. Buddhists. smoothing the work of the missionary. in both early and modern times. in ancient times. for they still bear . and apparently receive equal adoration. rosaries. became the Christian Saints. and which they worshipped as a God and in Adamnan's Life of St. Columkille it is recounted that this saint. Illustrations of the process by which Christian observances were." and. Tirehan relates that St. nearly everyIn China and where. accommodated to heathen superstitions and customs. Japan the paraphernalia of Buddhism have proved most convenient temples.CHRISTIAN OBSERVANCES. are all ready at hand for transfer from one set of priests. and Christians pay their vows together at the shrines of St. and consecrated to the service of the new God. with a slight application of the chisel. Images of Buddha. shrines. images of Buddha are placed opposite images of the Virgin. in a greater or less degree. devil dancers. but the mere repetition of an old story. holy-water vessels.

turned into churches. as formerly. Not in Ireland only. by transformation into Christian rites. and constituted them into a numerous array of saints. as an demption. nessed this in early Christian days. or even to use these customs. which shall be killed by them. in fact. for he says that the writer evidently understands neither the Catholic missionary priest. so . fell into .48 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. the reintegration of many old religious ideas. The service of many modern shrines is. a Franciscan. and to the praise of God. you will the more easily lead them to relish internal . to a non-theologically trained mind." inevitable corollary. Christian Rome adopted most of the gods that came in its way. There is a very remarkable and apposite passage bearing on this aspect of the introduction of Christianity into the British He was counIsles. that modern Christianity is. and America. to assemble there. to build their huts of boughs round these same churches. no longer as offerings to the devil. it follows. in fact. wherever a Jesuit. to whom they shall render thanks when they have satisfied their hunger. and were unable to distinguish between local worship and the worship of a One and universal God. of which. Like Pagan Rome. whose relics shall be there deposited. Augustine. The Israelites. too. they shall be allowed. as well as of the feasts of the saints. This custom must be changed into a Christian solemnity. and on the days of the dedication of their temples. and the religious feasts celebrated at them had much in common with the idolatry of the land indeed " many of the "high places were old Canaanite sanctuaries. in the instructions given to St. the symbols of the ancient worship of Canaan. in reality gives away the " position. The order of the Jewish local sanctuaries. not. the very religious Kome witones. or a Dominican. brought the Cross of ReIf we accept these premisses. nor the Catholic people in his treatment of paganism becoming absorbed by Christianity. like many worshippers of the Christian God. By reserving something for men's outward joy. and to bring their animals. but as Christian banquets in the name." An American reviewer while contesting facts and traversing arguments similar to the foregoing. the early preachers were willing to allow to the people whatever was harmless in their pagan customs. some writers allege that it is the historical continuation. selled not to destroy the temples of the Britons. but to consecrate them to the service of Christianity . : joy. to interfere in any way with firmly established customs his course of action in " It is said to be the custom these matters was thus laid down of the men of this nation to sacrifice oxen. almost indistinguishable from polytheism. by the absorption on the part of the Church. but in all lands. of numerous pagan usages. a state of syncretism.

or a crooked pin into the well. to wean the natives from paganism by admitting such sought of their existing customs as. from the then Christian standjust as the before-cited American point. or dropping a cake. The same transformation scene which we have described in A money offering having Ireland took place also in Britain." is The holy spring. the residuum is pure . country people drink of the sacred water. : paganism. small and forbidding pool. The past thus stands side by side A railway in the South of Ireland runs with the present. n. all this it follows that if we subtract what appears to be the result of distinctly mediaeval Christianity from the ordinary so-called superstitions of the peasantry. a small coin. still supposed to effect the cure of disease. the chain of primitive customs and thoughts thereby engendered. wells the spirit of the well is propitious. that every that he is 49 member " of the Church is bound in principle to say intolerant to none. extending from pagan times.CHRISTIAN OBSERVANCES. At the foot of the embankment is a directly over a holy well. all due ablutions. and hang their rags on the In early days enthusiastic missionaries tree beside the well. Whatever shape the pious rite may bear. and it is a good omen if the waters appear clear it is a favourable sign. youth. while trains thunder by overhead to catch the mail-boat for England. Hilda had no favour to bestow on anyone who stooped at the brink of her fountain without a gift. or . . pray for release from their afflictions. The sick girl. E'en the poor pagan's homage to the sun I would not harshly scorn. as well as a connecting link in. but vindictive if neglected hence no devotee approached the sacred precincts empty-handed. who had performed VOL. . the Cornish folk might visit their springs and offer pins or pebbles to the imaginary divinity. appeared harmless From critic admits is the case in times comparatively modern. and had gone through E . but if muddy it denotes accruing vexations and troubles. or draw what conclusions they pleased from the bubbles which rose on the water as they stamped on the ground at the side. been left at the shrine erected for the purpose. To the Irish peasant wells were the haunts of spirits that proved propitious if remembered. is unconsciously worshipping the old presiding pagan genii of the It is still thought that if you dream of one of these holy place. lest even there I spurn'd some elements of Christian prayer. a material outcome of. but St. the principle being "no gift no cure" therefore the modern devotee when tying up a fragment torn from the clothing. fed by a never-failing spring here.

whom St. and the genuineness of a spurious correspondence between him and the Apostle Paul has been gravely maintained in our own times by some writers. And sheepishly shook his head. . . not in Ireland springs that were swift. is There divinities of the Irish pantheon. rivers. universal on the contrary. it may be almost said. betimes ? countryman said But the countryman smiled as the stranger spoke. i' faith. blessing of wells by early saints and thus spread downwards. it began from the people. St. and springs converted into holy wells and adopted in the most wholesale manner into Christianity. or a river flows. but. " sained three hundred wellSt. in every county. but smiling." he but expressed a popular article of faith of the old but dying religion. as we possess them. would never make the malady of which they suffered. 9). I warrant. unless the necessary fee had been previously deposited in St.' " ' my Seneca. though it is obvious that the letters. she had been wiser than I . in It evidently did not originate in the the United Kingdom. he was even claimed as a Christian and was placed among the saints by the Fathers of the early Christian Church. who were being christianized. and returned heated from exertion. a distinct line of demarcation between the greater and the crowd of minor divinities who never rose above being genii locorum. . ' You drank ' He to the : " I hasten'd as soon as the wedding was done. pass into the fowl. and thence permeated the entire system of Irish Christianity. the necessary ceremonials. before drinking of the well of Tegh. And left wife in the porch : But. Columbkille alone is said to have Well worship prevails. When Seneca said. lakes. thus unites the sentiments of the two eras in fact.50 all WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. are worthless religion." alone. the spirits of particular trees. after a wedding in the parish church. pointed husband to an inquiring stranger the shrine. For she took a bottle to church. in Denbighshire. the bridegroom rushed out of the building. and was met by his The result is thus narrated by the disapequally smiling bride. which was adopted by the then lately born and fiercely persecuted new forgeries. or shire. Jerome respected. On one occasion. if not quite. rocks. which they held under their arms. who ran to : " of the well. Keyne would ignore either bride or bridegroom win mastery at home by being the first to quaff at her spring. situated not far from the well (fig. " where a spring rises. there should we build altars and make sacrifices. until it became almost. unless their footing had been previously paid.

in imitation of the diurnal motion of the sun. " a number of children were brought to be baptized. This must be from the north side. such being the right or lucky way. and. custom of the gods.THE "DESIUL. Elworthy recounts that. were ranged in a group round the font. of course. in Somerset. : SE . Keyne's Well. 9. a bride approach her husband an infant be carried to the baptismal font. hence the proverb Cuir an ijloine thart fa dheas." OR HOLY ROUND. quite recently. Mr. the festive board in the same manner . i. Site of St. FIG. not being accustomed . to its last resting-place. in 51 A curious remnant of Paganism may be seen in the manner which a peasant always approaches these holy localities. F. for Homer describes Vulcan as filling a bumper to his mother Juno : : Avrap 6 TCHS aAAoKTt $eots ev8eia Tracriv O. Similarly a corpse should be carried . e.TTO The hands of clocks and watches turn from east to west like the sun we deal round playing cards in the same fashion thus is ancient thought found crystallized in modern custom. and he must move from east to west. T. The officiating minister. send round the glass to the south. Cornwall. and within his own knowledge. and the glass be circulated round *im. From the Royal Magazine. the It was also the opposite being the wrong or unlucky way.

I attempted twice to go from Ilia to Colonsay. whilst oil the way to the cemetery." To the south of the old church of Car ran. neglected they are afraid their voyage may prove unfortunate.52 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. when they set out to and if this be that the boat be first rowed about sunways sea. though I forbid them to do it and by a I took contrary wind the boat and those in it were forced back. and at both times they rowed about the boat sunways. when being put to sea. for I did not care for it but she insisted to make these three ordinary turns. or not knowing the custom. This action caused great indignation parents. county Clare. . boat again a third time from Jura to Collonsay. . were quite sure that : now they had not been done properly. Scotland. . and must be taken to Thus it was held of another church. I desired her to let alone that compliment. which they obeyed. Martin describes the custom as existing in the Hebrides. I had this ceremony paid me (when in the Island of Ilia) by a poor woman after I had given her an alms. In the * In Moray. began with the child on his right hand. there is a small earn. to be done over again. : . wrap the parings in a rag torn from his clothes. county Dublin. In connection with events of moment.' far greater moment that the parson should proceed from left to right than it was that the children should be baptized or not. and at the same time forbid them to row about their boat. as the necessity for turning . ' . the patron saint of that island.and toe-nails of the patient suffering from consumptive diseases. which some of the crew did not believe possible for want of the round. carried desiul-wise around the cross at Monkstown. and prayed that God and Mac Charmaig. "then wave their hand with the rag thrice round his head. well as Scotland. might bless and prosper me in all my designs and affairs. around which the corpse is carried before burial in the churchyard and the writer has seen coffins. and even yet this superstition directs the course of many a fishing boat. of course following on in order. who had never before seen the importance of having their children baptized at all. This is a practice similar to that recorded by Pliny. and going round to the child on his left. and then we landed safely at Collonsay without any ill adventure." : . and the following are his experiences in the matter of the desiul* or " Some are sun-wise round very careful. as practised by the magicians and druids of his time. sunways was felt to be specially binding but even in matters of no particular importance the rule was held to apply. crying Deas Soil (desiul) after which the rag is buried in some unknown place. in Ireland. to such a number." Formerly when starting on fishing expeditions the crews of Irish boats were very careful that their craft should leave the shore in a direction sunways. the natives cut the finger.

if the last arrival were baptized " North East. rife throughout Ireland. in his prayer before the contest. and recounts how a child. at one time. in worship. Joyce. then rife in many parts where it has ii^rw died out. Allusion to this ceremony is made by Dr. In " Waverley" Sir Walter Scott describes how the old Highlander. From left to right has ever been the processional order to go to the right is tantamount to a malediction. iompodh meaning turning. . turning sunways. In Gerald Griffin's novel." infants having died. W. . St. was christened "North East." from the Saxon English u-idher. from left to right. the writer. the Cinel Conaill\ and an old Irish MS. called in to attend the wounded Edward. and is called in " " withershins. according to the course of the sun and this ceremony was considered a matter of the utmost importance towards effecting a cure. from left to right. 58 Vision of Mac Conglinne. from east to west. By the strange irony of fate the saint's manuscript of portion of the Holy Scriptures the origin of the " book of the battle "conflict. or became the battle-standard of his tribe. the host which has taken judgment from us. Columbkille. dextrosum. . should (desiul) stream. who describes his countrymen from real life. OR HOL Y RO UND < ' ' > .e. went right-hand wise round the cemetery." At the battle of Cooldrumman." the curse would be removed from their household. they break silence during the ceremony. i." or widdershins.e. who states that Tempo in Fermanagh. afflicted children were led with a halter hanging about their necks before sunrise to a south-running Many pains and penalties are incurred. alludes to the ritual of the desiul. " is called in Irish an t-Iompodh deisiol (an timpo deshil). hence styled the Cathach. county Sligo. in the year 561. and deisiol. A i. the unlucky parents imagined that. no doubt. from the ancient custom of . fought near Drumcliff. " and then he goes sunwise (desiul) round Senchan and his people. Cormac's In Glossary the spirit of poetry is stated to have met Senchan Torpeist. " host that marches round a earn performs the desiul. denounces his adversaries for employing pagan rites to assure victory. that . Implicit belief in the efficacy of the desiul was. or lucky round. against." If the mumps were rife. further. P. recounts that before a fight "it was proper the " Cathach should be carried round the army and. the hero when parting from his tutor dollincl desel relce. The place received its name. and anathematizes : " . in compliance with Three popular superstition. The -Colleen Bctmi.THE DESIUL. walked round the patient three times.

: . Camden an earth Caesars. Marcellus fearing that this. while pursuing a stag. quickly pulled the rein. and forcibly carried him back. which may be thus translated : When " Call it not Piety that oft j'ou're found Veiled." " Which In a comedy by Plautus. interpreted by superstition. being displeased. adrersits solem ne loquitor (speak not against the sun). it is nevertheless quite possible that the adage may originally have had also reference to a caution against making disparaging remarks against sun-worship. upon rising." . that "the turning round in adoration is He also said to represent the circular motion of the world. but design for the Eomans always turn round when they worship the gods. Arge's offence appears to have been that she referred in a profane manner to the desiul." relates that Marcellus. dug the soil. Hyginus relates that Arge. I apprehend. in them. paid his adorations to the sun. would cause some wonder in his troops. not by accident.54 if WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS." at which the sun. or the observance of the desiul. when leading the Roman legions against the Gauls. as if that movement had been made. quotation that can be advanced is one from Lucretius. " carried three times to the right around the army of the Cinel Conaill at going to battle. it became customary to pay divine honours to the they were approached with veiled head. way to turn myself I know not "If you worship the gods. then. right-hand wise. to fall. and then prostrating himself. cutting a sod from it this latter part of the ceremony seems to imply belief in . a huntress. part of the ceremonial of religious worship. is generally understood in the sense that one should not argue against that which is as clear as the sun shining at mid-day. with his sword or knife. Plutarch remarks." The desiul was an act of worship also among the Greeks and Eomans classical and gentile antiquity abounding with evidence of some kind of rotation forming." : . Although the Latin proverb. or act of solar adoration. at the standing-stone to make your round. turned three times to the right. . changed her into a doe. when an Irishman happened he immediately. spirit. and. in his day. terrified with the shouts of the Gauls. one of his characters says " the other jestingly replies. " his horse. relates that. turned short. said "Although thou folio west the course of the sun. turning his horse again towards the enemy. yet will I follow thee. the suppliant The most apposite turning round. it was certain they would return victorious.

" " widdershins. " cheats." or reverse order from desiul and the reversal of all ceremonies ' . were accustomed to look upon all Scotic pilgrims. in the tuapholl.THE " TUAPHOLL. are taken sun-wise round some favourite .. which permitted the unhappy shade to cross over in Charon's barge and enjoy the. not content with laughing at his ignorance of their language. i. had to put up with derision from the vulgar crowd. and walk round the churchyard three times. where cattle. Borlace remarks that " Irish bishops. according to the peasant Then shall all go well. The old pagan custom of the desiul. homeless ghost. or right-hand ways. who." If the Irish peasant wishes to curse his enemy. hold an office. " which may be paraphrased. and amongst the most unlikely people.' dancing dervishes. as deceptores. shivering. in the struggle entered upon by the Tyrolese for the independence of their country." i. Eight-hand. i. generally appalled some near relative by its ghastly presence. In 1809. et cursores. phetic utterance the attack was delivered and was successful. as they call on their travels. burn them. will yearly. the patriot Hofer was foiled in two attempts to capture Innsbruck. relates that : ' ' describing a marriage ceremony. to collect. universally practised in Ireland around wells. At a council of war even the patriot appeared irresolute. mortal remains (see vol. 242). W. p. themselves. then three times sunwise round the pyre. enemy thou and thy people. performing the desiul." This was regarded as a procustom. withershins. And Pollux advanced the nuptial torches' ray. or moving sunways. mixed with the blood of Irish chieftains. he proceeds. and all the members of right-thinking possible. that if the attack succeeds.e. although of royal Frankish stock. parishes (communes). gyrovagi. while in holy round. on this day." if a corpse had not obtained sepulchral the poor. in 55 whilst Valerius Flaccus. its move : . is found also in Portugal.e. comforts of Elysium. if With the Eomans." OR UNHOLY ROUND. "Poor Saint Eudbert. until a grey" Attack the haired peasant stood up. churches. in order that they may escape the murrain. and rude stone monuments. round some venerated object. the capital of the Tyrol. very questionable. were popularly supposed to be infected with this demonstrative form of heresy.ways they together tread the ground." that is. or charm. entreating him. The old heathen custom of the desiul survives in the most unlooked-for places. C. . rites. and thus addressed him once more but make a vow. and running lackeys. ritual water. shrine. and pronounce the farewell prayer.

wood out of the (burning) . as was the unhallowed contrary one by tuapholl Widdershins " . The raging waves did flout. Lecan there is a reference to the famous fair of Teltown in Meath and it is stated that there were three prohibitions (f/eis) laid on anyone visiting the locality one being that the visitor was not to look at it " over the left shoulder. an' his bonnie ship Turned widdershins about. this latter was geis." In Hoensa Thoris Saga a warrior. as quoted by W. doing.e. Wakeman. unorthodox. : : . or refrain from. thus " The never describes the two ceremonial rounds vulgar come to the ancient and fire-hallowing earns. possibly. and Then to appropriated the most paying tricks of her opponent.e. the obligation being either taken voluntarily or imposed on them by others. or lines of conduct. This sanctified tour. as O'Donovan legends it signifies an injunction. or unholy ground. certain things. people were often put under gets to observe. The following lines from an old Scottish ballad. F." perhaps points to a step in the struggle between Christianity and Paganism. An' my love. demonstrate that the unholy turn. Even In the Book of to look left-hand-ways was considered unlucky. the adopted pagan way) was to indulge in magic in later times the same train of reasoning originated the idea that the devil appeared to anyone who recited the Paternoster backward. . defines the expression. . Toland." as it is here spelled. in the opposite direction of the sun's course. according to the course of the sun. as having "walked backwards around the (tree) stump. the former seated herself in her adversary's place. : . "withershins" or "widdershins. written in 1718. or. was considered as unfortunate on sea as it was ashore " The stormy winds did loudly blaw. which may be paraphrased as contrariwise. but they walk round them from east to west. a prohibition. i.e. (sinistrorsum). a thing or act forbidden." The Norsemen held the same idea as the Irish regarding the In Grettis Saga a witch is described tuapholl. at a military funeral may." or withershins. i. or round by the south is called deixeal (dextrorsum). a "taboo". having obtained the upper hand.56 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. in his History of the Druids. be a remnant of this custom of " withershins. "pulled a rafter of birch. when." or the unlucky way. and pronounced many powerful incantations thereover. because of the ill-luck which would result from its In the old written Geis also means a charm or spell. do anything opposed to the Church was to make oneself an enemy of the Church to go the holy round against the Church-way (i. acts. left-hand-wise".

if it has not." as was customary in malific incantations. could approach without being instantly deprived of sight. The curse of a father was believed to be especially fatal." his View of Ireland. not only approached the well. There still exists a survival of a remarkable ceremonial employed by the ancient Irish for anathematising their enemies. we may " designate the private curse. through the room. but. but passed three times round it to the left." In the Eyrbyggja an apparition is described as moving "backward. after describing the ritual. and " turned himself round thrice forward and thrice backward. They compare it to a wedge with which a woodman cleave th timber. and still is. that a If it has curse. If it has room to go. and which. amongst others. . who is driving it. states that. for convenience. for it was thought that the gods were always ready to execute the imprecations of parents upon disobedient children. between the eyes. to which no one. against the course of the sun. Uptm the completion of the third round the spring burst forth in a raging torrent. The tlesiul and tuaplioll rounds formed apparently portion of the inauguration-ceremony of an Irish chief. and three enormous waves dasbed over the hapless queen. and then rode against the sun (from west to east) round the houses with the burning brand. particularly in the East. determined to test the mystical powers of its waters. it will fly out and go. in stone on which he had been inaugurated. for Spenser." . : been deserved by him on whom it is pronounced. The if it Irish peasants believe that a curse must fall on something does not descend on the person on whom it is evoked. then it will return upon the person who pronounced it. 57 house. must fall in some direction. sooner or later. imprecations were supposed to possess extraordinary power. save the monarch and his three cup-bearers. . that of their manner of cursing to be regretted that he never carried this idea into execution. when it was concluded. and cleave the wood strike the woodman himself. The queen.THE PRIVATE CURSE. once pronounced. 0' Donovan thus defines the effect of a well-delivered curse " The belief among the ancient Irish was. or " withershins. where it is recorded that a king of Leinster had a magical well in his garden. the newly-created chief descended from the In ancient times. who was thus carried right out to the ocean." Perhaps one of the oldest written Irish accounts of the tuapholl occurs in the Book of BaUymote. it will fall upon him. which apparently may be sometimes employed unconnected with holy wells or sacred localities. it will but if it has not." The poet Spenser had intended to treat "more at large" of the semi-pagan social customs of the and it is Irish. it will .

it swoops instantly on his head. homely proverb.. for seven years in the air. collects as many water-worn stones as will cover the hearth-stone of his cottage these he piles up as he would arrange turf for making a fire. however. though now rapidly dying out. as to prevent rash anathemas. until the heap before him burns. and scattered over the face of the country. and his enemy's family to untold generations. but this opinion does not affect the theory of a " well-delivered anathema. the curse of another (see vol.58 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. p. i. will gather ten pebbles from a well or brook one he at once throws back into the water. it is is as follows at the foot of the tree the leaves fall. being cast into places from which it would be difficult. A " herb-doctor. or of life. prevailed at one time amongst the Irish-speaking population. An Irish proverb. styled the "Fire of Stones. or at least mitigate. the blessing of one person may cancel. The desirous of cursing his enemy. showing itself immediately in the loss of The peasantry. simple. The rite of the " Fire of Stones " is grossly malevolent. i." one by one in a certain position." is of "the private curse" type. believe that wealth. as the swallow by flying. The affected part is then rubbed ." There is an ancient. ready to alight on the head of the individual who provoked the malediction. stones are then carried out of the house. Fa bhun chrainn a cuiteas a duilleabliar. e. and original ceremony. each stone being thrown away with the imprecation that the curse may last until the entire series thus scattered to the four winds are again gathered individual. which conveys the idea that curses are apt to fall on the person who has rashly uttered them. lakes and rivers. and if his guardian spirit abandons him. but a very similar proceeding for merciful and healing purposes is as follows. It hovers over him like a hawk over its quarry." as erysipelas is styled by the peasantry. streams. he prays that. . or even impossible to recover them. but for an instant." . 275). every description of misfortune may befall his The enemy. . such as bogholes. together. like " and the dread of retribution of chickens. : : remain A peculiar pagan manner of cursing. "if called in to cure " the rose. Then dropping on his knees. health. The primitive. 2. the other nine are carried to the patient's bedside. come home to roost this nature inspires such an amount of awe. watching its opportunity. Having muttered spells over them. pools. they are placed by the "doctor. If we are to judge by Proverbs xxvi. that "curses. the Jews seem to have been imbued with much " As the bird the same idea by wandering. so the curse causeless shall not come.

about ten feet square. On arrival he lay down on his back. a sacred tree. turns. rose and flung the stones. : " And They loosed their curse against the King. a flat stone on his chest. another over his heart. his head to the south. turning on his way three times against the course of the sun. These ceremonies Orkney." for The convenience. and occasionally curiously These possess maledictory properties they wrought stones. the curse will take effect. They turned ever in the mystic ring. anyone who is falsely maligned. Then opening his eyes he turned on his left side. the postulant went to the seashore at midnight. 59 with each stone in succession. The ceremony completed. with the wish that the patient " so as the stones remain there never have " the rose may long un gathered. devoting himself to the evil spirit of the locality. there are a holy well. from which they had been taken and thrown in again. and taking care that the place was situated between high and low water inajfe He then placed one oval stone at either foot. and are believed to be endowed with miraculous powers of healing sickness. and grasped an oval stone in either hand. into the sea with certain stereotyped forms of maledictions and imprecations. one by one. . used power of witchcraft. which. called " the cross. The turning of the " cursing stones of Kilmoon. overlooking the are numerous globular." if In the graveyard of Killeany. be designated the "public curse. and " false accuser. on the top of which . and remained silent and motionless for a prescribed period." A number of oval or circular stones may be observed around the margins of holy wells. The late Sir Samuel Ferguson thus alludes to what appears to be the primary object to which these articles are applied well. together with numerous white pebbles scattered over the bottom. at the same time anatheevil befall the matising his maligner. Connemara. Here county Clare. and a pillar-stone. to acquire the resemble the formulae of old. in the same county.THE PUBLIC CURSE. whilst on some altars. Provided with in five oval-shaped and two flat stones. One example has been given of the " following are examples of what may. twisted the mouths of the victims awry. private curse. were also used for swearing on. the stones are carried to the stream or well. They cursed him in his flesh and hones. Shutting his eyes he repeated a long incantation. oval. the maledictive stones. with arms and legs stretched out." There are two stones in the Joyce Country. there is a remarkable altar.

J. According to a correspondent. at Ross. T. Though In a is there FIG.60 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. Westropp." Formerly a considerable number of round stones were piled on the slab.. county Sligo. M. with Stones. FIG. though in each case rounded stones lie upon the altars. field near the graveyard of Foyoges." Can this have anything to say to " the fire of stones " ? . R<pr<duced frcm the Journal of ihe present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. are many rounded " cursing-stones. Kinallin. they be taken away. split by their having been employed in forming a fireplace. or Killowe. near Blacklion. and many still remain. Killinagh. there are no very definite traditions of the practice of "cursing" at other sites.A. 10. they are sure to be found the next morning " some are in their usual place." According to Mr. a "great long slate" which marks what is styled the " Bishop's grave. 11. St. The Little Altar. Island of Inishmurray. Reproduced from the 'Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Bridget's Stone.

a matter of course. its greatest diameter being ten and a half inches. A young lady then determined to test the truth of the legend. 12. however. in the Island of Inishbe noticed collections of these globular stones. almost needless to explain that a servant in the house replaced The young lady. with Cursing Stones. eleven inches and a half in diameter. 1 of fig. the fragments were to be seen on the slab. which she concealed in a box. known as " the Cursing Stone " (fig. despite which it reappeared three mornings in It is succession. shaped boulder. The most ornate of these symbols (see No. is egg-shaped. took two of the stones to a bridge close by. 11-18) murray. when it was commonly of these depressions contains a stone. and its table-like surface displays nine cavities. on the same altar. is St." a. abstracted one of the stones. Each smooth and oval. 8. and. and broke them in pieces. Island of Inishmurray. 10). had great bad luck. may . who lived in the neighbourhood. Clocha-breacha-Altar. 61 Many years ago a young gentleman. accordingly. Near the shores of Lough Macnean. Bridget's Stone. tion were formerly carried on about it. a few of them ornamented with what may be styled Early Greek Crosses enclosed by a circle. Ceremonies of some descripwhich nearly fills the depression. was attributed to this attempted larceny of the ^sacred stones. Next morning. 2. Upon the various altars (figs. after three futile attempts. a stone on Clocha-breacha. in after-life. in its former place. globular- 1''IG. No.CURSING-STONES AND CURSING-ALTARS. measuring fifteen and a half inches in diameter. not far from the village of Blacklion in Fermanagh. measures No. 14) occurs on a stone. globular in shape. off the coast of Sligo. which. as it. in the form of a globe. where he hurled them on to the rocks in the bed of the stream beneath.

shaped like a cube. it was probably intended to serve some portion purposes in the ancient ritual of St. the upper inches in height. . Nos. in point of dimensions. 9 six No. Eastern Altar. but as its principal surfaces have been carved with a number of very early crosses. the design resembling crosses engraved 011 Coptic and Syrian churches of about the No. 5. might be compared to an ordinary beehive. In size some are no larger than a walnut. rounded principally in the west. 8. the smallest of the inscribed cursing fifth century. and was furnished with a covering or stopper of stone. They were. lo. 9. Molaise's establishment. and also upon similar structures distributed over several districts of Ireland. No 8 is eight. 4. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. The diameter of the circle by which the figure is encompassed is about five inches.62 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. sand or gravel of some sea or lake shore. The cube has been hollowed to some extent. while the lower presents the appearance of a shaft intended for insertion in some socket. and 10 represent average examples of the ordinary undecorated stones on the altars of Inishmurray. No. which completely fills the There is no tradition in connection with this relic. also bears a Greek cross. 6 is a block of sandstone. stones of Inishmurray. with Stones. in all probability. and smoothed by the action of water. No. or by friction with the FIG. depression. Island of Inishmurray. while others. exhibits a plain Greek cross enclosed by a circle. the diameter of which is five inches and a half.

as is also No. &c. (For the .. Cursing-Stones. is a great puzzle to archaeologists. No 7. which also completely fills the FIG. furnished with a stopper. 14. The stone 63 is about two feet in length. Island of Inishmurray. another hollowed stone. 7 measures three feet ten inches in circumference. depression. its fellow.CURSING-STONES.

A. In the townland of Ballysumniaghan. FIG. These cursing stones are still in great repute. The stones on the altar of Clocha-breacha are arranged in such a manner as to render it difficult to reckon them indeed. Altar Stone from Trummery Church. 4 inches long. from Trummery Church.I. 17 is decorated with an irregular pattern. The ceremony appears to have closely resembled that observed on the Island of Inishmurray but. From the From the Catalogue of the the Catalogue of the FIG.I.A. there were originally stones also used for the purpose of cursing. they can never be correctly counted. 16. asseverated that it was true. FIG. Altar Stone in the collection R. . In the year 1886. theory on the subject of its original use. 15. four indentations somewhat resembling finger-marks. Museum. 4J inches long. A. has on one side. and to have have a grave dug. they were most probably previously employed for pagan purposes. A. is peculiarly ornamented on one side only. R. used for Christian rites. 16. County Antrim. during the anti-Protestant riots in the town of Sligo. Altar Stone in the collection R. according to the statement of the natives. 17. in their origin.64 WELL WORSHIP A AW ITS CONCOMITANTS. in the county Sligo. FIG. From Fig. 16. R.I. to . the postulant was required to go through the ritual. see p. at one time. 15. FIG. 15. R. One mode of averting the curse bare-footed and bare-headed.I. in addition. FIG.) Although Nos. an aged countrywoman was heard to threaten that she would go to the Island and " turn the stones against the In another instance a countryman after the Protestants." writer's . Museum. " to was for the person against whom " the stones were turned cause himself to be laid in it. and upon the other a cross. Fig." recitation of a story. Fig. county Antrim. 6 and 7 were undoubtedly. A. 17. and in that of Barroe. which his auditors did not appear to " that it implicitly believe. to the stones be it said. and about 2 inches thick. Catalogue of the Museum.I. and was so. On the obverse it bears the figure of a cross. 68.

If the patient survived this treatment he was disinterred. with the aid of her son. yet were found next morning in their accustomed places. the infant laid in it. and accused one of his neighbours of 0' Summaghan then the larceny. and broke out in another spot. the grave-diggers at the same time reciting certain rhymes. he lost his reason." They are said to have been cast into the neighbouring lake. His wife and son both died. with certain attendant last : *For other examples of this grave-digging ceremony. Early liaces of F . near Bloomfield. for it was his wife who. Fechin's Stone. II. but with an unexpected result. Near Castle Kirk. VOL. missed a firkin of butter. abstracted the firkin of butter. there was a similar Under the shade of some ash-trees is the dried-up set of stones. site of a holy well for. only his afifieTthan before his burial. otherwise the spells were of no avail. in Barroe. The 0' Summaghan victims were members of the sept." the "touchstone and terror evil-doers for miles around for. originally seven in number. had. 65 three shovelfuls of earth cast over him.* In the case of a child born at Whitsuntide that most illfor anyone to arrive in this world a grave is dug. Although it saved the person's life. not far from Lough Corrib. behind the rock that shelters the church and glebe from the north. a spring pours into a natural rock basin. omened time . and sold it to pay her bills. whoever was accused or suspected of a crime was " dared to the Leac-na-Fechin. Close by lay an oval-shaped flagstone. were styled " the Summaghan Stones. generally more mad nights. " performed stations" at Barroe and at Ballysummaghan. and the evil hanging over the babe is thus averted. " to all called " St. conveyed it into Sligo. Both here and at Ballysummaghan the stones have now disThe two cursing sites seem to have been the special appeared. It is recounted that the heritage of the Summaghan family. About two miles distant from the foregoing site. in burying the unfortunate patient for three days and three head being left uncovered. unknown to the husband. Scotland and Pitcairn's Criminal Trials may be consulted.HO W THE CURSE MA Y BE A VERTED. or voluntarily underwent the ordeal of turning the flag. being in debt. no one was permitted to speak to him silence being strictly enforced during all heathen ceremonies. but only for a short time. The terrible ordeal consisted either temporarily or permanently. This custom of burying the patient was a rite commonly employed in olden days as a cure for insanity or to ward off illluck. which was stoutly denied. the waters left it. owing to its profanation by unbelievers in its sanctity. During this entire time he was allowed no food. The stones at Ballysummaghan.

where the people Here they formerly had a stone called perform their devotions. in Donegal. in Wales. and probably there still is. Elian's to put those they hated under the ban of the saint. Cloyne and Ross. " the flagstone of the seven daughters. mentions a sacred stone to which great veneration was paid. and on which the country folk took solemn oaths. On W. no legend throws light on the origin of these seven amiable .66 rites WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. Dr." which was used as a cursing-stone. and then dropping it into the water.) . There is a cursing-well at St. 104-108. i. . pointed at either end) by the action of the sea . natural block. The pilgrims. women. i. repeating prayers or curses. Not long ago vindictive people from all parts of the Principality went to St. a cursing stone at the mouth of a holy well. there used to be. pass it round their bodies." Cursing-stones are by no means confined to Ireland. the material being dark slate. Boiiace. Anybody who wanted the immediate gratification " turn it round three of vengeance must go to the stone. who instructed postulants in the mysteries of the procedure. about 18 inches long.e. is a holy well held in great veneration called Cobcip no Seacc n-lngean. about two miles from Colwyn Bay. which had been rolled into its present shape (that of a long egg." (See pp. It was a boulder. in his Records of Cork. Leac na Seacc n-lngean. remarks C." There was a guardian of the stone. and an account of the ceremony of "turning the anvil" are given under the heading of "Wind Wells. In the island of Iniskea. lifting it off the rock. Vincent. the sacred Promontory of Portugal. Unfortunately. Elian. some great calamity or sudden death is ensured to the person thus pointed out to the spirit of the spring." Close to the old castle of Einville.* the island of Iniskill.e. times. * A description of the cursing stone on Caber Island. By placing the initials of the names of the individual to whom evil is desired upon a pebble. . traversed by four bands of quartz. in Algeria) placed with many others on the upper surface of a large. Maziere Brady. and pray that his enemies might not prosper or get length of life and their means would melt away like snow before the sun their days would be shortened till in the end they would get a miserable death in fact it is a stone that would put an end to bad people in a short time. much reverenced by the pilgrims who periodically visit the place in the summer months. adjoining that of Achill. just such a practice as Strabo mentions in the case of the stones at Cape St. " I sa\v a very similar stone (to that at Djidjeli. and incantations. near Port Noo. square. near Salrock Harbour. "the well of the seven daughters ".

on which were deposited stones in which the natives supposed the spirits of their On Vati Island are still to be obdeparted relatives resided. on the eastern side of the island of was not allowed to build on the site he had selected. of his occupation to search for pebbles bearing the initials of any one who wished to be relieved from the curse. in general. that but little reliance can be placed upon them on the one hand. the Boroditch Islanders. smeared before the fire with butter or grease. there is. and from two to three inches in diameter. Every Thursday evening they were washed. Inquiries amongst the peasantry yield. then dried and laid in the seat of honour at certain seasons they were steeped in ale. in some mountainous districts in Norway. as it was sacred ground. A sacred stone on the Island of Inisgloria used to be treated in a somewhat similar manner.CURSING-STONES. Nelson says that even so late as the close of the eighteenth century. so unfortunate as to be thus condemned. " with the curse of St. so to speak." there is an earnest appeal to supernatural powers. in . as means to take to evade the curse. behind the scenes but ordinary archaeological students are only favoured with glimpses of the truth through occasional side-lights. if so treated. three to four inches Similar stones long. when the missionaries first arrived." as it was called. the antiquary. relates that he was threatened by a man. most certainly. A missionary who settled Tanna. . Elian. addition. and the F2 . in the New Hebrides. and into which the spirits of their departed Most of the stones friends or relatives were supposed to enter. . careful concealment. The custodian of the well also advised the persons. were ordinary smooth water-worn boulders. The real facts are well known to those who have studied the subject. or "taken out of the well. . 67 and the dread entertained of this proceeding was almost beyond There was a custodian of the spring. but it is not to the Christian's God. were the only form of gods the natives possessed. . Pennant. regularly clothed. whom he had offended. archaeological deductions are so tainted with religious prejudice and partizanship. peasants used to preserve and reverence certain stones of a round form. there may be exaggeration on the other hand. would bring luck to the house. were reverenced by the Karens. and to those who are. served a collection of stones and rudely-cut shells which. Prof. Up to the present. and was. little result suspicion is only aroused. and it formed part belief." In all these cases of the use of " cursing-stones. All this was done with the idea that the stones. and with an intimation that he would journey to the well to put the curse into to the best effect.

they told us. When . smear them with oil. they were either broken When any were reto pieces or thrown contemptuously away. who presided over most of the games of Haiwaii. the stones of which were reported to possess very singular properties. amongst others. and other places. under certain circumstances. called Koroa. in addition. moved for the purpose of being transformed into gods. and thence on to recent times. After a certain time they said a small stone would be found with them. Afterwards. he imagined he was approaching and appealing to the spirits of his ancestors. 4. an Irish aborigine approached sacred stones at wells. whilst others. of the manner in which the natives of Haiwaii regarded certain stones. ." writes Ellis. pp. for supplying the stones employed in making small adzes and hatchets before they were acquainted with the use of iron but particularly for furnishing the stones of which their gods were Some made. powers of discrimination.68 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. one of each sex was generally selected these were always wrapped very carefully together in a piece of native cloth. promoted to be the prehence he felt a wholesome fear which siding spirits of the place was transmitted. and afterwards made to preside at games. a small village on far. May not the same ceremonies that prevailed in the East. adhered to. Fijians. . when dressed and taken to the place where the games were practised. were necessary to discover the stones which would answer to be deified. and there several ceremonies were performed over them. celebrated 011 account of a short pebbly beach. and still prevail in the islands of the Pacific have obtained in Ireland ? (See page 64. Several tribes of the Pacific chip these stone to permit. the sea-shore. the spirits they contain to have free exit and entrance." expressed it. as they think.) The following account. springs. their fame was established but. was taken to the Heiau. or Temple. When selected they were taken to the Heiau. as they " grew. 218-214). along with the cult. to early Christian. when grown to the size of its parents. Many Irish specimens have circular indentations sunk in them. which. might. with but change in names. We were really surprised at the tenacity with which this last opinion was : . . that of propagating their The natives told us it was a Waki pana (place famous) species." It was formerly a belief firmly held by the Irish peasantry that some kind of stones. if the parties to whom they belonged were successful. if unsuccessful for several times together. be ap" We had not travelled plied to many remote parts of Ireland " before we reached Ninole. from Polynesian Researches (vol.

reverence. when it is returned to its resting place. found a wretched substitute for them. Reproduced from the Journa i of the present Society of Antiquaries of house. Conall. on the northern side of Donegal Bay. thither ancient * This was also customary in the island of lona a rite either imported by Irish missionaries or indigenous." and is regarded with the greatest also may small. or fossil. 69 These stones. and a tradition prevailed that the day of judgment would come when the pedestal upon which they : moved was worn out. p. were as we have seen invoked for evil purposes. 18). had the reputation of curing diseases it is even alleged that the stone was once sent to America. it is kept in the hollow of a broken cross on the summit of the earn at " the Relig. On the altar at Toomour." .. . At a site called " TheEelig. to which in shape long. . Pennant. also resembling a dumb-bell in shape. IMG. i. it is now well to demonstrate that they were also invoked for good purposes. for centuries. medicinal. but Mr. Conall (fig. Ihe Healing Stone of St. composed of the pedestal of a broken cross and the supporters of a gravestone. 18. The stone was honourably returned. These stones were then turned round as formerly. and very like the healing-stone of St.e. 15). but when borrowed. the Island of the Druids. hollows also fig. The sick person has the Stone Conveyed tO his . it is stated that before the Scottish Eeformation there were in the island "three noble marble globes. ml . according to the course of the sun. It has. and to return it to its original place is a matter of duty. to cure a native of this portion of Donegal who had emigrated and desired to utilize its healing powers possibly the patient had no faith in the medical skill of the physicians in the land of his adoption. or magical stone of St. where it is retained until the cure is effected." nearBruckless. there is a most interesting relic of paganism a healing. In Toland's History of the Druids (edition 1814. . Conall's Well. turned from left to right when he was praying. as some writers state that the name of the place was Inis-Dniineach. which the inhabitants turned three times round. be attributed three on the shaft (see When not in use.WERE EMPLOYED TO CURE DISEASE. placed in three stone basins. dark brown in colour. 356). about five inches and size somewhat like an ordinary dumb-bell. Conall on the wall behind the altar are seventeen globular stones designated " dicket . in 1772. notice is given to the people living near. in the county Sligo.but from right to left when cursing. close to St. The stone probably owes its peculiar form to the action of water. These were thrown into the sea at the Reformation.. is a natural fragment of rock. There is no custodian.

surdities of country charlatans. Altar at Toomour. saying Jb'iG. and casts them in different directions." The Duibhin Deaglain. St.worn pebbles employed in the usual manner by those seeking restoration of their health Stones occupy a prominent position in the empirical ab(fig. 20. i. . with Dumb-bell Stone. . To cure a person who is delirious from fever. county Sligo. It is composed of in Irish : " The . Altar at Toberaraght. deserves more notice than it has hitherto attracted. The well of Toberaraght reputed to cure many forms of disease in the half-barony of Coolavin. 19).70 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. recites certain charms over them. 19. and "dicket stones. Declan's Black Kelic. a "fairy doctor" takes three oval stones. on the top FIG. with Globular Stones. first I throw away for the head the second I throw away for the heart the third I throw away for the back. stones" by the peasantry (fig. 20). is surrounded by a low wall.e." of which are placed thirteen round water.

account of the curious crux ansata which it bears. The believer to the flagstone. of string " infallible cure A few years ago a young lady. suddisappeared.. 22. Co. and repeats certain prayers whilst turning it from left to right between his fingers (fig. -. 22). replacing it by a new one. p. is a thin flag. Half real size. i. 217). and the cord was immediately bound round the disabled limb. Sligo. and aches. 21). At all times may i be seen around it a piece SOil. and removes from the " straining " He then takes the old string. either by self or deputy. -I and back view of St Sedan's Black Relic. County Sligo. who was devotedly attached to her. headaches. and the family doctor."* denly and was FIG. not seen until the following morning. who lived about twelve miles from the with locality. for in some parts. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. to which she had walked during the night. Lying on the ground in the graveyard of the old church of Killery. Killery. procured from Killery. ' . &c. Straining Stone and Straining String. Egg-shaped Stones. * exists in Scotland. seven egg-shaped stones. employed to cure sore eyes. a sound constitution. and at its south-eastern corner there is a small rectanular stone projecting about six inches Qnrfapp of tllP SUriaCe Fl Frollt - 21." supposed to be an for strains. Her old nurse. met a bad sprain. when " an individual it is customary to consult .STRAINING STRINGS. from Italy to Ireland. called the straining string. which It is here reproduced on acted as ship for its conveyance. Youth. stone each stone in succession between the thumb and second finger of the left hand. and was brought. on which lie repairs. pains. 71 black marble. on the great rock in Ardmore Bay. as already stated (vol. and other ail- ments (fig. when she with a reappeared " straining string. A very similar superstition a person has received a sprain. It was employed to cure sore eyes. headache.

On the top of the a cord largest boulder there is placed a piece of limestone with The man living in the nearest house to rolled loosely round it. all the same. on which are cast nine knots. this rude stone monument would not say what the small stone leac. Welch there is at the Killowen CromKenmare. and when examining her he found that she had a scarlet worsted thread tied round the throat and another round the wrists. ITS CONCOMITANTS. A dispensary doctor narrates that a woman consulted him " about a severe affection of the throat. she believed in the scarlet thread. is. and who place more reliance on the benefit to be derived from them than on the skill of the New World physicians. a mere adaptation of an old pagan . But. in the County Sligo Infirmary. what is called the ' wrested thread. to bone. These straining strings or threads are sent for from far distant America by those who have emigrated from the neighbourhood. " Roan tree and red thread. He And Bone lighted. E. the foal slade (slipped).' This consists of a thread spun from black wool. he repeats.72 WELL WORSHIP AND . During the time the operator is putting this on. but nothing would persuade the old effected a speedy cure nurse but that it was to the efficacy of the " straining string" young charge owed her rapid recovery. Put the witches to their speed. a ruined circle of stones.' for. to sinew. though meanwhile and under the usual medical I added what I considered best treatment she soon became quite well. inaudible even to the bystanders. thirty instances of patients suffering from sprains lately admitted. and secretly thought that by its " power she was cured of her ailment. she said that the old wise woman of the place had given So as theydid them to her the night before as a certain cure. no harm. she righted. have been and treated. I left them on. and is tied round the sprained limb. Asking the meaning of this. in a muttering voice. This ceremony at Killery may be regarded as one of the most perfect that her representations of the survival of the semi-Christianization of a Pagan custom. theoe words practised in casting : ' The And lord rade (rode). ' ! ' And sinew This charm. Upwards of and wearing strings from this site." According to Mr. Heal in the Holy Ghost's name with a slight change of words.' added the doctor. ' ' .

J. a string is twisted into a knot . and when the cure is completed. who must be under fourteen years of age. spins a thread dry. In the Western Isles a strand of black wool is wound round and round the ankles. if a cow becomes restive. A similar charm was used in Germany and many other countries in fact the custom is widespread. observed in Sligo. though repeatedly asked. On the top of the largest boulder there is a small stone. worm or serpent. 73 and cord rolled round it were for. Lady Wilde also recounts another cure for a sprain. without saliva then she ties it round the leg or the arm afflicted.Flo. Amongst the means employed by the Babylonians off for warding attacks of evil spirits during the hours of darkness were magical threads. 23. Photo. near Kenmare. but " stated that they had been always there " in his time (fig. Part of Stone Circle. St.STRAINING STRINGS. A young girl. on which were written sentences from a holy book." . which has a cord always rolled round it. wound round the limbs. For instance. by J. to which phylacteries were attached. To cure this. Certain kinds of strings appear to cure both man and beast. miraculously disappears. as a charm to cure a sprain. "that is. 23). the thread : . plunges about and refuses food. while the The same has also been operator mutters some doggerel lines. she is said by the country people to have the peist. Phillips.

said to have kept pestilence from the parish. One very celebrated specimen was located in the neighbourhood of Oughterard. a hole is made in the dewlap. and Mr. It was in great request there. Angues innumeri testate convoluti. a charm against the disease styled "blackleg" in calves. salivis tancium. Of all materials appropriated to the uses of superstitious medicament. 29. Experimentum ejus esse. is passed. sagoque oportere intercipi ne tellurem attingat. resembling a coiled worm. county Clare. Nat. Atque. Profugere ruptorem equo serpentes enim insequi.' indeed few objects have obtained a more remarkable notoriety than wonder-working crystals. certa Luna .74 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. capiendum censent. Another " doctor stone belonged to a family who resided in the Co. glass were pre-eminent. si contra aquas fluitet vel auro vinntum. It was considered unlucky to keep it in a house. ac regum aditus. " still certain definite powers. J. T. even at the time of the Great Cholera." and of its origin Pliny has left a marvellous product account . donee arceantur amnis alicujus interventu. Druidae sibilis id dicunt sub- lime jactari. insigne Druidis. corponim que Spumis artitici complexu glomerantur. and in later time. with raised one forming a Celtic cross. Mayo. Hint. tit habentem id in lite. It seems so firmly knotted as to defy untying. crystal. Vidi equideni id ovum cartilaginis. as for instance " doctor stones used in many parts of Ireland. nrbitrii. velut acetabulis .." Cases occur in which the lithic object is found entirely removed from its hallowing surroundings. and those who used it hid it until it was again required. though it possesses . Westropp states that. crusta brachiorum Polypi crebis. at the parish Church of " the Tomfinlough. iu sinu Equitem Eonianiuii e Yocontiis. through which a red string allowed to remain. The material is styled splendid of the adder. Wicklow the eldest male member of the family was held to be able to effect cures by its means. 3. omissum Graecis. Ad victorias litium. . anguinum appellatur. chap. Their fortunate . Galway. tanquam congruere operationem earn serpentium human! sit. ut est Magorum Solertia occultandis fraudibus sagax. mire laudatur: tantae vanitatis. This custom is paralleled by the superstition which makes a " after she has countryman avoid encountering a "wise woman effected the cure of a patient. This is repeated three times. For leaving the string quite free. in niagna Galliarum fama. yet there is a knack of drawing out the two ends. Co." Plin. Of the former material were the " adder stones " or serpent's " the eggs of pseudo-archaeology. a Divo Claud io Principe interemptum non ob aliud sciam. plague-stone.: * " Prseterea est ovorum genus. is built into the wall it is circles. and also in the neighbouring portion of the Co. mali orbiculati modici niagnitudine. lest she should impart to him the disease which she is believed to have more or less absorbed in " her own person. lib.

through reland. The Imokilly Amulet. due to the presence of some metallic oxide. 25). The Garnavilla amulet is a crystal ball. Half real size. and legends without are recounted of the cures which it effected when in the possession of St. Atkinson as a sphere. it is still entire. There are two very slight marks of circles on it (fig. are in still believed in by the country people. " a polished ball of tricciated or banded agate. 75 possessors were believed by their means to obtain superiority over their adversaries and when placed under the pillow were of benefit to women in childbirth. There are several ap- fracture .lines the ball. dark grey in colour. a vessel containing water. weighing five ounces. It is streaked with white lines fading away.. . M. and Front and side view. with a loop for suspension. of Antiquaries oflrel perhaps. nnrl ana al->mif tl\e aDOUt fim inches in Dasait. a-half diameter. probably iron. halt real size. clouded. The Imokilly amulet (fig. Gobnate. and there is a : roughness at the bottom. I am happy to say. and the centre part is of a red colour. resembling The Garnavilla Amulet. A hole is pierced through the middle possibly it was worn slung round the neck. Atkinson. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society parent . From a M. The curative virtues of this stone coloured drawing by G.A M ULETS A ND CHA RMS. leading to a supposition that a metal band had been fastened little it around formerly. caused. number Many virtues are ascribed to it. 25) is described by G. to disease effect a in cure it was tied round the neck of the beast and thus dropped into the food-. by its being heated and immediately immersed in cold water but. the water is By being placed supposed to get . 24). as the animal sto'bped to eat (fig. To The murrain sphere of Ballyvourney stone is a *'* 24 - some hard brOWn Viaaalr Stone. set in a bronze frame. almost two inches in diameter. Reproduced from the Journal of the pres ent Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. It was frequently borrowed by the country people of the neighbourhood as an antidote cattle.

in Egypt. .. consecrated by the immersion in it of these sacred relics. and present remarkable appearances. .) These stones found in India are possessed of similar properties. like the stones of Cyprus. first found in Sicily near a river of that name. 4 is Carthy Amulet. " Atkinson. the " the Mac stone Amulet. p. (St. make other distinctions they tell us those which have spots upon them. 26. ." It is interesting to find Pliny's ideas about the virtues of the agate still water. he mentions corallo achates. a certain cure in cattle. these stones are vised by way of fumigation for arresting tempests and hurricanes. is good Crete." Plin. After being kept for a couple of hours gently on matter. immersed in water.. the boil. and also for hydrophobia. but now held in none. in his account of the Island of Arran. are destitute of red and white veins. of its own accord. restored ailing human beings. they say." Water. In fig.* In the county Clare an amber bead was formerly used for the cure of sore eyes. and in Persia they say. spotted all over like sapphires. 185). 37. it is thought. for ' murrain ' existing in Ireland. The very sight of them is beneficial for the eyes held in the mouth they allay thirst. as about the size of a goose's egg.. i. In later times it removed internal pains. It was thrown among the enemy in battle. Hist. left the sick man. The stone that is of a uniform colour renders athletes The way of testing it is to throw it.) Coral agate. These last are good as a counterThe magicians poison to the venom of the scorpion. 2 and 3 " Bloodrepresent the front and back view of an Irish charm. (After enumerating the different descriptions. lib. . great and marvellous. as being a promotor of discord in families. Bede states that amongst his Saxon countrymen a portion of King Oswald's Cross. impregnated with the healing powers. however. if genuine.76 WELL WORSHIP AND is ITS CONCOMITANTS. A stone formed of crystal is described by Martin. figs. of the hyaena is held in abomination for this purpose. Those found in Phrygiahave no green in them. The hair. and for stopping the course of rivers. or cattle to health. and always gave victory to its owners. To be duly efficacious they must be attached to the body with hairs from a lion's mane. in his description of the Imokilly Amulet. and those of Thebes. into a pot full of oil. and possibly some other stones not now included under the name) was a stone formerly in high esteem. 54. retained its supposed efficacy in Christian quite as fully as in Pagan times. it will impart an uniform colour of vermilion to the mixture. for wounds inflicted by spiders and scorpions. chap. If the stone failed to effect a cure. with drops of gold. and for other purposes (see vol. A similar property was supposed to reside in * G. Nat." Fig.. like the spots on the lion's skin. and the water then given to the stricken. M. the Mac Donalds of the Isles. it. mixed with more administered to the suffering cattle. which. and turn water cold if thrown into a boiling caldron. for the moment they breathe the air of that province scorpions lose their venom. as follows: "Achates (a general name for agate.. where it is also known as sacred achates. are efficacious as a protection against scorpions ." quotes Pliny (Bostock and Eiley's translation) on the properties of the agate. a property which I could really believe to belong to the stones of Sicily. along with colouring invincible. Patrick must have transferred this virtue to 'ould' Ireland. and commonly found in This last. etc.

.FIG. County Cork. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. County Cork. Fig. i. The MacCarthy Amulet. 4. 5 is like fig. Fig. found at Timoleague Abbey. Irish Medical Amulets. formed of silver. i. Front and back view of the Bloodstone Amulet. Fig. 26. found near Doneraile. Slightly more than half-size. Connoch. or Murrain Caterpillar Charm. Figs. 2 & 3.

Of course. amulet of shining crystal. You havn't de faith (laughter). an '' a weeny recovery. I say dis. ma'am ? " Owner. " Attorney. on a summons to show cause why an information should not be taken against a man for unlawfully possessing himself old of. who sought spake de word. was many years ago in the possession of a Mrs. Philip Noonan. Atkinson believed that this amulet was the the water. came on for investigation at Cork." were being constantly requisitioned as An ." the sign of the cross by rubbing it to the back of the ailing animal three times on three consecutive mornings. steeped in water. shreds of which. Gould. Of course not. " Attorney. used to dip the charm in water in the presence of her neighbours. about the size of a large marble. described it as stone. subject of the foregoing lawsuit. and I gave it to him of course I daren't refuse it when he ..78 WELL IVOR SHIP AArD ITS CONCOMITANTS. Its owner added. " Attorney. And they are all well ? " Owner. " a friend of mine in de country had his cattle sick. M. Noonan." " Attorney. " Attorney. A charmed word I suppose ? " Owner. and gave it to Con Sheehan." The attorney having thus closed his case the Bench declared it had no jurisdiction. a "murrain stone. to whom she then distributed G. When de miracle was worked he sent home de sthone. He gives no sattysfaction at all. and detaining. in the latter part of the " Lee seventeenth century. "its possessor at present (1876) is Mrs." which suggested to Sir Walter Scott the idea of his Romance " The entitled Talisman. To be sure he did. What became of the stone ? " Owner. who. and one listened to with deep interest by a crowded court. at all. A case that created much amusement. the services of the famous Penny. dat I had de stone he came and borrowed it of me." When the plague raged in Scotland. parings from old Irish MSS. if he don't send it home to me he and all belonging to him will taw like ice. in 1840. Have you anything more to say. And Con refuses to return it ? " Owner. and then given to the patient. but de garsoon (boy) mistook de house. Well. a daughter of the above-mentioned Mrs. once a year." its The owner. were a certain antidote to many poisons. did he rub it to the cattle ? " Oicner. and he adds. " Attorney. You mustn't hear it. of Liscarroll. woman. which was kept in an ancient silver box so that the daylight To cure a beast it was only necessary to make couldn't see it. and learning through a gossip.

" reputed It would be interesting to know how the effected several cures. for cursing and for the cure of ailments. Lanarkshire a large sum of money as guarantee of its safe return a very necessary precaution. for on the eve of her execution. found in the county Cork. the remedy is more difficult of attainment. and when it crossed the border into " Lee Penny" was promptly borrowed by the England the municipality of Newcastle. appears to have been paid by the ancient. for it consists in giving the afflicted beast to drink from a vessel. in the bottom of which is placed a silver model of this murrain-caterpillar. obtained in Spain by Sir Simon Lockhart. The sick beast is given a drink from a vessel in which is placed a stone axe. the disease is diagnosed by the implement. for so convinced were the good people of Newcastle of its plague-curing efficacy that they actually wanted to retain the charm and forfeit . swallowed by the animal and . one in the old . however. is simply a small triangular pebble.. when that knight accompanied Lord James Douglas in the abortive expedition to bury the heart of Bruce in the Holy Land. and if any are now used. has been transplanted from its native land. as we have seen (vol. in a great ranching country. which had been employed for generations by a family in the county Limerick. 79 a charm against the plague. set in an old silver coin.AMULETS AND CHARMS. and valuable for the health. Madstones were employed in Ireland. and indeed by many of the modern Irish. The " Lee Penny " We and ceremonials. a supposed fairy-doctor peculiarly poisonous caterpillar. For cattle-murrain a plague emanating from fairy malice the remedy. A charm for farcy. to various inanimate in nothing is this so remarkable as in the objects and materials lithic objects which were used for purposes of prayer. pages 79-81). in the north-west territory of Canada. " " as proceeding from the connoch. a flint arrow-head. of France. who deposited with its owners the Lockharts of Lee House. generally of a fatal character. to be a perfect remedy for hydrophobia. i. or some such ancient lithic When. Henry III. which stone. within the shadow of the Kocky Mountains. and this latter popular Irish charm. subject to certain conditions the deposit. is now used by a member of that same family on his horses. and has taken root and flourished on the An Irish emigrant to Texas had a " MadAmerican continent. Truth is often stranger than fiction. believed to produce internal disorder." bequeaths to him " in token of true love towards him. or cure. she " two rare stones. $fary Queen of Scots appears to have been a firm believer in the efficacy of healing stones. Two of these amulets. when writing to her brother-in-law." asking him to accept them see then that great veneration. is simple. as part ransom of a Moorish chief.

and sulphur. the other near Doneraile. on Tory Island. turmeric." generally order medicine of a yellowish colour. Wishing W ells are to be met with in most counties the wisher on bended knee. Thus there are two schools of medicine even amongst the Irish Fairy Doctors. it is difficult to tell. employs other remedies. Shakspeare adverts to the same principle when he says that the toad carried in its head an antidote to its own poison. or the flint axe or arrow-head which produced symptoms of disease. until the wound healed. and turns round three times. of a young ash which soon puts an end to the caterpillar. whilst working on a rick. such as saffron. clearly enough. like things are cured by like. a On the summit of one of the lithic object or from a well. figs. yet the idea has the sanction of classical antiquity and of modern homoeopathy. or asking certain gifts or favours from. Throughout Ireland there are many traces of the former custom of praying to. when they cleft The practice among the peasantry. with a steel hay-fork." They allege that whoever stands on this stone. Horace alludes to the superstitious belief that only the same weapon that inflicted the injury could heal it. larvae of the larger sphinx-moth one very like that of the elephant hawk-moth. find one of these latter grubs. 1 and 5) represent. death's-head hawk-moth. The Allopathic school. is to insert it in the sapling. a large stone is shown " the by the natives who call it wishing stone. His wife kept the prongs of the implement bright and polished. the wound would suppurate. should be selected as the means of procuring a recovery. you see this caterpillar betokens ill-luck and misfortune. 26. . and we are still frequently recommended to "take a hair of the dog that bit Homoeopathic adepts amongst the Irish Fairy Doctors you. in ITS CONCOMITANTS. on the contrary. as was the case with the wounded Telephus. A country man had the misfortune to be badly wounded in the chest. if the steel of the fork became rusty. pinnacles of Tormore. Each charm is about three inches in length. The basis of homoeopathic treatment is sintilia simililits curantur. whatever effect it may have on the murrain-epidemic. and pays no regard to colour. are formed which is embedded a amber and azure coloured crystals. The figures of the two silver connochs (see fig. for the jaundice. Even to dream.80 WELL WORSHIP AND of silver. as she said that otherwise. and with . Why the form of the grub. series of burying place of Timoleague Abbey. common in Ireland the other resembles that of the (in Ireland) comparatively rare . . which is supposed to have produced the distemper. " 7 " will obtain whatever he wishes for.

their eyes raised to heaven in silent prayer. which was protected by a grey stone hood. festooned with manycoloured rags. says "I remember. white. 81 hands clasped behind his back. so many times round the well. or comfort for the . creeping on their sorrowing : knees. with the crucifix in their clasped hands. the antique stone cross at which the pilgrims kneel. more frequent among devotees at the holy wells than are the mutterings of male" At these sacred diction. green. in voluntary devotion. for this reason. but which. on the spines of which fluttered innumerable shreds of frieze and varied coloured rags. form a scene of wonderful poetic and dramatic interest. a finale to the " rounds " and prayers. and then silently essential that the supplicant should not make known his wishes till they are granted. ? The picturesque grouping round the holy well. to be cured of whooping cough. Q . the wife for her praying husband. by an Irish nurse. is a cult not yet extinct these wishing wells belong however to a class from which the heathen ideas. with their long dark hair and purple Irish eyes. II. - . the costumes and often the beautiful faces of the praying women. at all times. the girl for her lover. Aghada. as a child. and had a few white thorn trees growing near it." A contributor to Xotes and Queries. there are but few female votaries amongst the successful postulants. and women would go. of love. to The immediate surroundings of a right courses. have now vanished to a greater extent than from those adopted into Christian usage. and piety are. the background of purple mountains. to St. county Cork. Scenes of faith." trifling Thus we see that whilst many superstitions may be considered and silly. for places may be seen the mother for her child. or in obedience to enjoined penance. to whisper their wish and drink in good hope of a fortunate result. celebrated and much frequented holy well are. others are really useful so far as they influence those who thoroughly believe in them. apparently half ashamed. if the action of attaching them VOL. to have been surreptitiously taken. red. on the vigil of the saint's day. but it is ON BUSHES. in a modern sense. going the rounds on their bare knees. These wells had a wonderful reputation. and ill-natured people allege that.worship. kaleidoscopic in character tied up to denote.OFFERINGS TIED wishes. with a divine faith that their prayer will be answered and who an say but that the fervour of the supplication has often brought down the blessing of healing for the sick. takes a draught. John's Well. recommended by Seneca and by the Church. that in days of yore clung around them. I shall never forget the strange spectacle of men and women. black in fact. writing in 1876. Thus water. the votive offerings of devotees and patients. by drinking three times of the water of the holy well. happily. ETC. blue.

believed that all human ailments were owing to the machination The ceremony for a cure for warts was to wash of evil spirits. . wash a sick person. where these are not at hand. 1900. an upright weed. was in the habit of passing.82 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. to briars or stalks of grass. for some unknown reason. and thereby become possessed of all the maladies with which they were stored. has a deeper and more mystic If there are no trees or bushes. strange and meaningless until one has learned that almost all old customs have a reason for their origin and existence. in the belief that the sickness will be . brambles will do as well. rag. There are many wells into which it was usual to drop pins. bushes. for a similar purpose. meaning. in the old churchyard. Fig. It is alleged that the inhabitants of the Orkneys. exorcise the evil spirit afflicting the person who threw in the It is hardly necessary to add that in former times it was pins. is viewed somewhat in the light of a scapegoat. or a strong stalk of rags are to be met with everywhere in the vicinity of these springs. taken in the month of November. on the open mountain slope. or ribbon. tied up to a tree. bushes. one to the left front of the boy seated on the ground the second stretched between the two dark tree trunks to his left the third row suspended to the left of the tree overhanging the rivulet the fourth group tied on the brambles at the base of this tree. This custom of tying rags to trees. in the hope that he might pick them up. crooked pins are supposed to bring good luck if you wish a person good luck. near This collection consists of four groups the town of Sligo. beneath the shade of trees. in the secluded glen. stick a crooked pin in his sufficient. which were It has been suggested that the intention was to generally bent. grass is to the trees or bushes be analysed. To this practice may be added These practices seem that of throwing pins into sacred wells. of some of the rags attached to trees. : deemed The . against whom he bore ill-will. fluttering in the breeze. and brambles around the Holy Well of Tubbernalt. and is considered to be the depository of the spiritual The and This is exemplified by an or bodily ailments of the suppliant. 27 is the reproduction of a photograph. : coat. and then throw the water on to the highway. anecdote related of a vindictive peasant who took the rags from the bushes around a holy well and scattered them on the highway along which a neighbour. as. which was then bent and dropped into the water but all crooked pins lying in the bottom of wells were not necessarily used as a charm for warts. or on the busy village green. . the warts and prick them with a pin. and. and. . failing these. has exercised students of archaic practices ever since the customs of the peasantry have been examined in a critical spirit. taken from the clothing.


some three centuries ago.84 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. to you.. . and left on the road the passer hy. . afforded by the dread of the peasantry at the appearance of a " wise woman. you take a shred from your clothing. and place it on the tree. Huf/f/ada. is a more de. animate or inanimate. fail and wither away. and as In some districts this custom it decays. and men and women will carefully avoid meeting a witch for a considerable time after she has effected a cure. the headache . . . " To you. the lekne. seems to have changed into the larceny of a potato. whilst certain forms are gone through. so the person against whom the spell is directed This principle was once will. so does the wart. the wart disappears. &c. other than the rags. in the belief that. For instance. under whose treatment a patient has recently recovered. who picks it up. arms the child suffering from " lekne. will forthwith have the malady transferred to himself. or a small portion of their hair are placed in a packet." is said by a woman three times at She must. when. bury it. child to the unfortunate pig. In some parts of Ireland and Scotland. as the grain rots." or witch. hold in her the door of a pig-sty. and incantations are recited. . Steal a small piece of meat from a butcher's shop. Go through the same performance as a funeral passes cast the dust or clay and as the body decays in the grave the in front of the corpse warts diminish. the learned chirurgeon anointed and dressed the weapon. Thus it will be seen that rags tied around holy wells are not merely offerings. . from the sufferer to some other subject. If you have a headache. parings from the nails of the sick. lekne. transferred from the patient to the first person who passes over the spot. admitted into surgery. at the same time. is afflicted with the malady of the sick person whom she has attended. and the disease is supposed to be gradually transmitted from the human being to the tuber." or swelling in the glands The malady is by this means transferred from the of the neck. lift a portion of the stoop eye fixed on the new moon rub the warts with it dust or clay under your right foot and as the moon wanes. or votive they are riddances. . the warts disappear. and with it you place. or hope to place. liugcjada. In similar manner a sheaf of oats or other grain is sometimes buried in the ground. . after the cure of her patient. . lekne. The supposed transference of disease. In all these instances there is a symbolic as well as supposed actual transference of the malady from the sufferer to some other A striking example of this is object. They imagine that the first living thing her eyes fall on. pari passu. . keep your veloped form of this superstition. instead of the wound which it had inflicted. Choose a large black snail rub it on the wart then impale it on a thorn as the snail withers.

as the idol comes from a part where iron is extremely scarce. Photo. pression which one might be under. in modern times by the ritual words. nor will they tell their names to strangers." This custom arises from reasoning. on the contrary. he ended his devotions by attaching a rag to an adjacent tree.OFFERINGS TIED there . no more than a half shaped upright figure. Travellers in the East mention trees and bushes festooned with rags. " By the intercession of the Lord. devotions on the occasion of a pilgrimage to a celebrated temple. driving nails into_ltS RudeIdolo f woodt fromWest Africa." A similar custom prevailed in Scotland. which he enriched with a variety of of- impending. without limbs or feaThe first imtures. 85 the putting up of these rags is a putting away of the evils sin. ON BUSHES. similar to that which underlies the practices of witchcraft. and having all performed the cererites at- monies and tendant thereto. ETC. from Strand "**' nails are. or incurred by or of " the others "an We ferings . of the act which should be accompanied saints. the anger of the gods. who was anxious to propitiate this divinity. is rude effigy represented by figure from West Africa. costly offerings. or who . the indignation of its worshippers taking the form of F IG . so the devout negro. sacrificed one of his most valuable nails to it by the " simple and respectful process of hammering it into the hallowed stomach. Qip impibe an Gigepna mo cino einneap t>o pa^aim am an aic po. Many savages will not permit their likenesses to be taken. with offerings in the The Sacred person. for that would put them in the power of the person who possessed their likeness. fastened as offerread of a Hindoo rajah performing his ings to the branches. The 28. is that it must have incurred unpopularity by neglecting to answer prayers. 28. I leave my portion of illness in this place. shape of iron nails driven into it.

which contains a fragment of the Virgin Mary's zone. ' effluence of the goddess. the peasantry circumambulate the monument and attach their rags as at' holy wells. they touch with it the reliquary of the parish church. painted in blue the Virgin's colour with the words. at a cromleac in Kerry. O'Connor. if . though that contact has ceased to outward appearance. at certain seasons. mentioned in a Life of St. causes its former owner to suffer. For example. and does not cease to wear it until the baby is born." and to explain . relieves pain. who kept one of the largest schools in Brittany. written in 1810. while. the same article in the possession of a beneficent power. covering a well. unhewn stones. were in the habit of hanging up their girdles in the temple of Artemis the meaning underlying the act is clear. or promotes prosperity. Dr. Thus. However.86 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. . or a shred torn from a garment to represent it. properly manipulated. it may be pointed out that some sepulchral tumuli are believed to have been erected A rude stone monument. in his Columbanus ad Hibernos. the pious nuns send her a white silken ribbon. in the county Clare. " an iron nail driven into an idol's " hallowed stomach these are all in continual contact with the local powers. as is also the converse case. if an article in the custody of a malevolent power. a spring is said to have existed. marries and enters the interesting situation of the Athenian women just referred to.' Before sending it off. is over wells. does not appear to be exclusively confined to water worship for at a cromleac in Valentia Island. a stone taken up and cast into a hallowed spot. related of the Ursuline Nufls of Quintin. restores health. There are instances where the real object of a rite having been lost sight of. Clothing. states that he pressed a very old peasant to state what possible advantage he expected to derive from frequenting wells near " old blasted oaks " or " upright. Patrick another is pointed out at Ballycrourn. The recipient hastens to put the ribbon round her waist. knew their names. is still in some subtle connection with the will. reach and overshadow the postulant. the practices have become deflected from their earlier forms. in the olden days. if placed upon a sacred tree. Notre Dame de Deliverance protegez-vous. holy well were paid at it. for the ribbon. Athenian women. and the rites customary at a . a pin that has pricked a wart and has been deposited at a holy place. "When a girl who had been their pupil." In Ireland the ceremony of leaving a piece of the clothing on an adjacent tree. or dropped into a holy well. who for the first time became pregnant. having been in contact with divinity. and the power overshadowing the representative object.

westward as the . and oak trees. closely adjoining. or almost all traces of worship.OFFERINGS 2'IED ON BUSHES. when a gentleman utilised a stone which belonged to the sacred site. as also around . in the immediate vicinity. Barbara's Well. lies the insignificant looking well of Tubberkeeran an ash overhanging the spring is covered with many-coloured rags. e. . some nine. piaxt. Many are more frequented by devotees than casual observers imagine and numerous springs are still held in veneration. trees and bushes are covered with offerings in the form of rags. were kept in good humour by it and so thoroughly persuaded were they of the sanctity of these pagan practices. the fairies. by one who ought to be considered a good authority on the subject. and so on. county Sligo. until their voluntary penances were completely fulfilled. principally by those whose cows are sick. and upright stones. Toberit roddy. still visited for restoration of health from diseases of peculiar character. is frequented by the country people for various purposes. epilepsy. the sorceries of the Druids. Surprise was strongly depicted on the faces of those to whom were pointed out threads of cotton tied on the stalks of grass around the well. it was stated. . county Sligo. or not yielding as much milk as their owners expected. 87 the meaning of spitting on. some six. now nearly filled by the gnarled roots of place. are given as examples of this wide-spread survival of pagan observances. Araght slew it on the spot where the well sprang up. the tree. that devoured every animal. at a well not far from Bosses Point. the stations at St. although all. is a disenchanted spring lost its efficacy in the year 1775. as building material for . Kilmacteigue. in uneven numbers. in different parts of the kingdom." A few descriptions of wells. . or serpent. mementoes left by pious pilgrims to the The tiny well. lies that of Toberaraght. at some of the ancient shrines. For example. i. The old man and his companions could only explain that both they and their ancestors were always accustomed to do it. Around it. that their cattle were preserved by it from infectious disorders that the daoinimaithe. within reach hence the name of the glen until St. e. some three times. or human being. not far distant from the foregoing well. sun travels. i. In the townland of Glenawoo. and placing rags on the branches of the surrounding trees. that they would travel bare-headed and bare-footed from 10 to 20 miles. that the ancient cult was completely extinct in the surrounding district. This custom can be observed where least About a hundred yards from the little church of expected. ETC. such as The valley was formerly the haunt of a monstrous eel. that they considered it a preservative against " Geasa draoidcclit. have apparently vanished. for the purpose of crawling on their knees around these wells.

parish of Kilross. St. Tobernasool. Paul's day . and Tobercallen . or King's well parish of Kilturra. where a legend recounts that the saint baptized converts. Patrick's bed. Tobar-Muire. Toberpatrick." The ceremonies at " St. and Toberbarry . . Tobernabraher. Tobernalee. St. Two old trees overshadowed "the bed " and the pilgrims presented a * In the parish of Kilmacowen. Tobernacarta. . Not far from Stuake. Tobercurrin. This legend resembles the story in Pausanias. Toberpatrick Skreen. Toberpatrick parish of Ballysadare. . . Lady's well. . Peter and St. have been the home of sacred trout. . Tobercloicharig. Toberpatrick. St. and Tobermahon parish of Tawnagh. . stations still carried on there. parish of Castleconor. Toberavidden. The peasantry attribute the disappearance of the water to its desecration by a woman who washed her soiled clothes in it. Toberbride. or St. particularly in cases of ophthalmia. styled Tobar-Ehilibh. . Toberliubhan. and Tobercahillboght parish of Kilglass. macallan. the latter was anciently styled Toberlastra or Toberlastrach parish of Kilmactranny. parish of Killoran. Tobernamalla. and Tober Columbkill. and Toberbride parish of Ballynakill. Tobermoneen. Adman's well. is the dried site of St. and to have possessed healing virtues. . . and Toberpatrick. Patrick's well. The following were esteemed sacred springs in the parish of Drumcliff. Tobermonia. county Cork. Toberneerin parish of Kilfree. new residence. surrounded by thorn bushes. parish of Cloonaghill. and Toberloran parish of Easky. Holywell parish of Toomour. it is crozier. Kingsbrook. . Lacteen's Well. either lose their efficacy. or Tobernanavin. Toberaraght. Toberacol. St. parish of Emlaghfad. Columb's well . and Tobernaglashy. and the flag-stone was found hack again in its original position but from that date "the power" left the waters of the well. Toberpatrick. are described by an eye-witness who saw them in 1826. Tobertullaghan.. There is St. Toberpatrick. Toberpatrick. when insulted. dry up. Toberpatrick parish of Calry. Toberbride. There are also the wells of Tobar-na-bolgoi. Araght's well. .88 his WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. or the well of the On Lady Day there are. and Tobernaneagh parish of Killaraght.Tobar-na-bachaitte. and Tobernagalliagh . Tobervogue. for holy wells and even lakes. St. . The well was reputed to stated. parish of Achonry. James's well parish of Drumcolumb.ghe. Toberawnaun. parish of Kil. Patrick's well . and Darby's well. Mary's well. county Sligo :. and frequented on St. in which every ship sailing in the Mediterranean was reflected. Toberstarling. but a woman having washed a soiled garment in the water. . This was no sooner completed than it fell. parish of Shancough. . or migrate to some other locality. and Toberalternan parish of Templeboy." near Croagh Patrick. so named from an enchanted cow which used to regale herself at the spring parish of Aghanagh. parish of Drumrat. Tobcrloonagli. still used for cures. Tobennnrry there was also anciently (according to the Ordnance Survey notes) a well. Toberaribba. Toberdoney. In the footnote is a list of wells in the county " Sligo which were formerly held in estimation as holy. . Tobermurray. the spring thereupon lost its miraculous properties. ToberCormel parish of Ballysadare. beautifully situated. . related of a magical well in the Peloponnesus. Elva's well. Tobercurry. and Tobercully parish of parish of Dromard. Tobergal . .

. and tie them to these trees.OFFERINGS TIED ON BUSHES. Fig. and fasten them to the trees." At Loughadrine. overshadowed by a thorn-bush covered with votive offerings. for the people "cut and take horseshoes. until. be they ever so new. Bridget's Holy Well where "rounds" are still paid. ETC. and brogue- nails. there is a lake formerly On its northern bank a celebrated station was held. county Cork. Bartho- by lomew's name. the clergy interfered and suppressed it offerings of rags were tied on all the bushes. Bridget's Well. From a pencil-sketch taken in the year 1824. near the farm of Montaggart. There is a holy well. In the townland of Mount Bridget. both men and women. in the county Cork. singular appearance oft' 89 when the station their hair. " called " Bat's Well an irreverent abbreviation of St. made . about two miles from Buttevant. faceti" " its branches laden with many ously styled Biddy's tree coloured shreds of clothing. was over. . of late years. pins and needles. they also cut up their clothes. The spring is shaded by an ancient ash. r St. is St. held sacred. 29 is a pencil-sketch. County Clare.

on Craglea. inore. Mochulla's Well. St. a holy well. or rude stone monument. Special attention is directed to Tobereevul. used as a holy well. Mary's Well. the water whereof. Mogua lie to the north-east of O'Davoren's church. parish of Killiiner. of another spring. Irish holy wells in general. M. : . . Toberniddann Toberbreedia Kiltftnon. Kilfiddan . or Deer Island. also dedicated to the same saint. 3rd ser. Clare and Sligo appear to be the only counties in Ireland where even the mere enumeration of the sites of holy wells has been attempted. . the halt and lame to their limbs there is no infirmity but it might be cured at sundry sanctified and holy wells. parish of Kilnoe. Lenan's Well. 100-180). Toberbreedia. Galway a cromleac. convent of St. on the east part. Fachnan's Cathedral Well of St. Kilclogher. Proc. . yet the very prime of the perfection is upon the 17th of March. Patrick's Well. a holy -well islands. Iniscaltra. . parish of Clonlea. barony of Burcratty Cragg. parish of Doora Well of Toberniglmee. above Killaloe to Tobereendowney. First. or else the inhabitants of Dublin are more foolish upon . Bridget's Well. at Kiltumper. Westropp. Tola. . . . barony of Moyarta. St. St. quaintly observed " that if there were but one-half of the (spelling modernized) virtue in them. These are all indubitably of pre-Christian origin. K. The Well of St. Cronan's Well. parish of Kilseily St. Lough St. Seily's Well. I.. Tober-righ-an-domhnaigh. In a Paper on the " Churches of the County Clare " (vol. and called St. T. Kiltrelly. Tobermochulla Tobermore and Tobenimanrielta all in the barony of Tulla Kilbreedia. we need no other physic nor surgery to heal all manner of diseases.'" Barnaby Eyche. on the borders of the county to Tobersheela and to Tobergrania. . Kilnamona St. whereof there are great plenty in Ireland. situated in the county Clare. St. in the year 1824. Fachtnnn is at St. parish of Killeely Well of St. . . J. . county Clare. parish of Moyarta Kilkee. the great banshee of the Dalcassians. barony of Ihrican. 6. at St. Well of St. Killokennedy St.. * The well and holy tree of St. . . and near it a well and altar. . . Toberbreedia Kilvelly. . . the well of Aoibhill. in the parish of Carran. in Ballycroum. The blind might be restored to sight. At Kinallia. in Disert-Tola Well of St. parish of Derg. . Kiliinanlea. Lonan at the Well of St. Finghin's church. . The holy well of Tobermacreagh . avow. . and upon this day the water is more holy than it is all the year after. Mary's. Mr. barony of Moyarta. well at Kilcredann. Caritan's Well.. is a large bullan. in parish of O'Brien Bridge Inismore. pp.A. and will confidently . A. parish of Inchicronan Well of Toberineenboy.90 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS.. Patrick's Day. parish of Kilmihil 6t. Toberbreedia.. describing in 1624. John's Well. Modi nil a. records upwards of oiie hundred holy wells in this county. patrick'. . Tobersenan. The city of Dublin is quartered out with them. John. Patrick in the parish of TempleClooney parish church the Well of St. Tobemiochulla KilFortanne. in the natural rock. John Well of Kilvnydan. Emeria's Well. that the Irish do believe. . but those of the city of Dublin in particular. Toberinochulla Kilgorey. although it be generally reputed to be very hot. barony of Inchiquin. they have St. which is St. Laughteen. parish of Noughaval.

Bally nee-ally. Toberdane. in Drimelihy "Westby. and the Kilnuhils. but his well is of precious estimation amongst the Irish that do flock thither. thither they will run. is dedicated to the Creator of the world. Tobernachtin. Tobereenatemple. upon that day. Kilfarboy. " On the west part of Dublin they have St. James' Well. than they be all the year after for. The Holy Crow at Gleninagh. Sunday was himself. and his feast is celebrated the 25th of July and upon that day a great mart. Toberlannive. men. Tohermacshane. Tobermooghna A'ilkeedi/. Michael at St. at Tomgraney. Tobcrfailia. for nine days after.' The multitude of rascal people that useth to frequent this fair are first accustomed to perform certain ceremonies at St. duane. Tobernalaghan. . . no other merchandise. and Killadysert St. Toberaneeve. " On the south side of the town they have St. Tobernahallia and Tobervan Killbalbjowen. Toberknockall. Augustine at Garrynaghry Kilbrecan. by heaps." at Fahy. called "a well. St. when they are returned to their own homes. John has wells at Killone and Tronira. installing themselves in some brothel-booths." . I cannot tell what countryman St. backward and forward. Tobercreile. O'liriot's liridge. near Bunratty. first performing certain superstitious ceremonies. Cappa (Bunratty). Patrick at Eossaltii. . Clooney (Bunratty). Tobercrine. but only ale I think such another fact was never heard of in any other place. drinking a draught of the water. then." " The other wells we may group under their parishes: Kilfen<na. Tobernamonastragh (Canon's Island). or fair. where a man cannot buy so much as a pennyworth of pins. Kilmac"St. "Well of St. Tobermurrish KiUnurray Ibrikcan. patron of the wells at Moyarta. Tobernacoolia l>oora. 91 that day. Toberisa. . in casting the water. in Uggoon. An A ngcl at Kilcorney. Bunratty. fast by the well. Toberbugvile. Toberyrowarta Kilfearayh. The commodity that is there to be vended is nothing else but ale. . Tobci'tnanorha Killadysert. Tobcrkeeghaur. they will sit and tell what wonderful things have been wrought by the operation of the water of St. and children. . is kept. .. and Toberandillure Toberdooran Templcmaley. but what money he hath to bestow he must Yet it carries the name of St. James. . . Rock hasin. Correen. and over their heads. . Toberavannan Tobernatnarkauv Kilmttrry-ne-gall. : . Tobersraheen Tobernasool. in Killavd. Tobernalettan and Toberateaskan Qtiin. Filfinaghta.WELLS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF IRELAND. his well. Three wells (Tohermurry) are dedicated to the Virgin. is named after the Saviour. Toberaneddan Kilnmrry mac Mahon. near Templenadeirka and Tobercollure Droinel(/f'. slattery Moynoe. Clooney (Corcomroe). they go into the fair. Martin is St. : . . James. so thick upon Sunday mornings in the summer season. : . and Lemaneagh. Cohui. and Kilshanny. Sunday's Well. . Patrick's Well. they sit and drink <lrunk all the day after. and Clooney (Bunratty). Only one well. and then. . ' lies to the south of the old church of Cat-ran . . Tobernagat Ogonnelloe. Toberooan Kilrush. Tobercruhnorindowati. women. fair. and then. Tohernavogue and ToberTulla. on the right side and on the left. in the parish of Feakle. they drink of the water and. his lay it out for ale. . .

W. Many wells alleged to be gifted with similar medicinal or healing properties. is obliged to supply every one of its predecessors with a cup of water. is the well of Tobar Monachan." Well worship has died out in Dublin the old popular religion connected with springs has ceased you may question every man you meet in Nassau-street. A local antiquary states. provides one of these vessels. It is believed that "the spirit of the latest interred. and not one in a hundred would be able to tell you where to find the waters of St. they have Doblock's Well. in Irish Xames of Places. " there is not a better well in Munster to give rounds at. . In the townland of Ballymorereigh. the blind are made to see. the cripple is restored to his limbs. "Fairy strokes" (i. may be sure that they have the benefit of their rounds. and throws it on the fence. paralysis) are supposed to be cured by drinking the waters. and to keep watch and ward over the sacred enclosure till the next funeral. or what disease soever. and whoever has the luck to get a look at them. the boundary wall of which is formed of loose stones. foolish and ridiculous to I might speak of divers other wells. in Meath. with a recess in the wall just above it. ceremoniously frequented at certain seasons. To the southwards from the City of Dublin. sure there is a salmon and an eel in it. and so when two convoys are approaching at the same time. down to a late period much resorted to every Sunday in the year. as everyone interring in the graveyard the corpse of a child under five years of age. . that those afflicted with jaundice may be restored to health and colour by drinking water from the well of Toberboyoga. well. I should speak of the wonders and miracles which they say are wrought there. but if be spoken of. For at those holy wells." About four miles east of Baltinglass is the church-yard of Kilranelagh. never so strange. another sanctified place. physicians of England and Ireland. . and at many other of those sanctified places.92 " WELL WORSHIP AND IIS CONCOMITANTS. county Kerry." Dr. it would make a more admirable history It would undo all the than that of Sir John Mandeville.e. the lame are made to go. Patrick's well which still flows on the well would be as hard to discover as a spring in the desert. furnished with . Joyce. St. there sometimes occurs unseemly races and struggles. near Kells. ledges plentifully provided with wooden cups. remarks. Every man attending a funeral. which is not there cured. are called " I must observe Boyaghan. the top being very narrow in comparison with the base. or the well of the Jaundice. brings a stone picked up on his Outside this boundary is a way. but the above writer continues. never so inveterate. parish of Dingle. P.

A good many unfortunately for the people of the neighbourhood.' many small lakes called Loughanlea in various parts of the country. The general restorative qualities of the lake of the decline. Loughaneeg. the parish of Cloncha. A. called Co' Sunday. after this cave or cove. the patient.A. Wexford. in Boscommon death. for curing all kinds of cutaneous disease. for it invites strollers and mendicants of the worst description from the three adjoining its *fi&me ' ' Tobar-an-leiyhis.' Toberanleise.water at every tide. a cave forming the inner portion. gentleman who had a pack of hounds swam them in the water.). Edward Chichester. physician lake. The same writer remarks that " When children away in decline.' applied here to a slow wasting disease . gives the results of the observations in the eighth volume of the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (new series). in 1815. * " An examined the chapel and the wells in 1870. leiyheas. cure). who was bathed in this little pool. MacKinlay. little lake of Loughanleagh." Folklore of Scottish Lochs and Spnnys. In days gone by the spot was much frequented on the first Sunday of May Dr. place of fresh.S. viz. for the Rev. and reputed to possess a miraculous power of curing diseases. 92-3." with this name appears to are wasting lake called eug. they are bathed in the little Loughaneeg. Eobert Trotter. the field of the yellow eyes.M. Medan's Chapel. parish of Whitechurch. is indicated by the well of the cure a (liagh. About thirty yards to the north-west are the ruins of St. there is a small hollow in a rock filled with sea. states that near Malin Head. who (O. Janies M. pp. in the parish of Cam in Koscommon. . Gortnasoolboy. near the river Barrow. Let the eruption be ever so virulent. one in which salt water takes the is to be found in the case of the Chapel-Wells in Kirktnaiden parish. a years ago.." In some cases salt-water" appears to have been considered as efficacious as fresh water. county Donegal. three miles south ' ' of Elphin.WELLS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF IRELAND. name remains to tantalize the people with the memory of what There are they have lost Loch-an-liagha. when describing.. partly artificial and partly natural. half way between the bays of Portankill and East Tarbet. as its most expressive indicate. was sure to show a clean skin in a very few days. would seem to be connected in some way disease. and afterwards treated with poultices of the mud. and has never since regained it. but it is pretty certain that in these cases the name means merely grey lake. miles east of Bailieboro' in Cavan. Wigtownshire. has been celebrated from time immemorial. 93 that some of them may have been so called from the yellow colour of the clay or mud. in the townland of Dunganstown. The ' unusual kind of holy well. three physician.. M. which so offended the local guardian that the lake immediately But still the lost its virtue. " consequently a serious nuisance to the neighbourhood.

that there had been formerly in the church-yard of Kineigh in the county Cork. "a well that had great medicinal virtues. pipers and fiddlers attended. county Waterford. it is usual to pray." The holy well near the Abbey of Mothel. and the venerable tree with its branches hung with numerous locks of human hair. corrupt infest the neighbourhood by their numbers. that none of . who it counties. life or manners. and the evening and night were spent in singing. that these places are frequently chosen for the scenes of pitched battles. on which pieces of rags are suspended portions of hair are also . with the fair tresses of some youthful When sickness afflicts any of the peasantry in the votary. nails. St. situated on the western shore of Lough Mask. offerings of rags. "that it seems." Bishop Downes mentions that in the year 1700.94 WELL WORSHIP AND US CONCOMITANTS. from the drunken quarrels and obscenities practised on So little is there of devotion." that is assemblies of country people." The custom of holding "patterns" or "patrons. gathered originally to pay homage to the divinities of wells. It is them will pass by without " making some reverence. or even any of their cattle. in the townland of Ballyvooney. Booths and tents were erected for selling whiskey as at fight. is also situated in a bare and lonely glen. set in formal array against each other. and the well." remarks an eye-witness. frequently silvered locks of age may often be seen fluttering in the wind. through which a rivulet winds for about a quarter of a mile down to the sea-shore. held in such respect by the people. than the memory of a pious saint. to revenge some real or supposed injury. county Waterford." The well of Toberkeelagh. they stopped it up. is overshadowed by a tall tree and bushes. The loneliness of the spot. presented a typical specimen of the Irish Holy Well to a visitor who saw and described it in the year 1851. and drinking to such excess. neighbourhood of Toberkeelagh. remained to drink and source of vice. or other local objects. the lies in a picturesque hollow. fought with cudgels. but of counties. Tubberkileilhe. pins. not only of parishes. fairs. and they are celebrated there by the most disgusting drunkenness and debauchery. there existed a tradition amongst the peasantry. and The patron days of the place are by their example. became a baneful Those who came to pray. buttons. "more like the celebration of the orgies of Bacchus. or perform stations for their recovery at the holy left. or amendment of these occasions. by parties. John's Eve and the Assumption of the Virgin. dancing. and murders are not an unusual result of these meetings. and that the concourse of people being very chargeable to the inhabitants. afterwards for prayers and adoration of Christian saints.

according to local tradition. suddenly sank in the sand. going along the shore. which are also regarded as a specific for warts and tumours. neighbouring peasantry. with a natural hollow in the centre. fresh water. neither is it shaded by the usual thorn or ash." . Here are no votive offerings or pilgrims' relics. never again been seen. was re-discovered about a hundred years ago. * Lady Wilde states that "At Portrane. till they came on some steps. gave fail. They at once perceived that the long-lost sacred well must have worked the cure. had but the usual punishment befell him he conthe well filled in tracted a running-sore. dancing. when to their amazement. who owned the land. in the county Cork. is covered by the salt water. gambling. no ruined church or graveyard it is not dedicated to any saint no " patron " and no rounds are held here. In a field. the ' disease will depart also along with it.WELLS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF IRELAND. and wonderful cures were effected but next day not a vestige of the well could be found.* People from far and near rushed to the well. . He then had the place thoroughly examined. had been cursed by St. and in the midst was a well of fresh water. . It is not covered by any building. The farmer on whose ground it is. Anyone seeking a cure should leave a piece of bread on the brink of the well. and down below lay the clear. as the waves had again covered it with sand. One day a lame young lad. and drinking. to extricate him. and if this is carried uway by the next tide. the from the surface of the ground. The farmer thought there was ill-luck in meddling with the stone so he carried it back. Ac'cording to ancient tradition. Another sacred spring.' which. and his cattle and his family were at once restored to health. they found that he walked quite sound. Patrick. his stock began to and then all his children sickened. knowledge of the site was lost. The farmer. uncontaminated by the salt of the sea. With much difficulty his comrades . and a " pattern " " was organized. when he came upon an ancient stone circle. yet always remains itself fresh and pure. which was not cured until he had the well re-opened. Not long after. In course of time the revelry at the "pattern occasion for much scandal. county Dublin. 95 rising abruptly from the margin of the stream. The country-side flocked to the well. at high tide. yet it is esteemed sacred among the well issues . carried off a large stone. to utilize as a drinking trough for his cattle. which usually held water. that of Tober-Kilnagreina. and cleared away the sand. from some unexplained cause. a sacred well once existed on the shore of Scattery Island possessed of miraculous curative powers but. Afflicted persons come to wash their diseased limbs in its waters. . which. is a well called The Chink Well. and it has managed .

a visitor to the well of St. From Mr. on which a cross had been erected. again on the well. immediately below the old church. though she may still be seen at other sacred wells. and. In a Statistical Account of the parish of Dungiven. : Fio. rounds 'rounds' said. it is stated that at the well of Tubberpatrick. . Declan's Well. went the rounds. the halt. county Waterford. and the blind prayed. fell down. in the year 1830. but no help was vouchsafed. Bartholomew. 30. fight. Hall's Ireland. and tear off a small rag from their clothes. and they deserted it. written in 1813. to leave all the sickness of the year behind them. thus describes it and fighting went on. as if torn from the dresses of pilgrims. after performing the usual rounds. and piled the stones as usual. devotees wash their hands and feet in the water. . and green ribbons. she was never again beheld by those who watched for her re-appearance at this now unhallowed shrine. 30 represents St. St. Ardmore. Ardmore. and ilrs. and tied up as a finale to their ' An old crone engaged in going her and prayers. 'they were tied up by each. until one day a man was killed in a faction well lost its miraculous powers the maimed.96 WELL WORSHIP AND The ITS CONCOMITANTS. Worst sign of all. being covered with red. In the year 1855. thorns which overshadow it bore a motley appearance. disappeared and. and shattered the emblem of salvation. which they tie on a bush overhanging the well they then proceed to a large stone in the river. as it appeared in the year 1830.' Fig. blue. and rags. indeed. a great stone. of its own Then the people accord. knew for certain that a curse was. Even the Ban-Naomha. at " The venerable Pilstown. who used to manifest herself to the regenerate under the form of a trout. . Declan's Well. ' ' .

Senan's Well. made in the year 1840. blacking-pots. having performed an oblation. II. Killalta. The country people kneel in these indentations as they stoop to drink.WELLS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF IRELAND. County Clare. These chiefly consist of wooden bowls. and similar singular thank-offerings to the Patron Saint of the parish (fig. the trees are also decorated with rags. The well presents nothing peculiar to distinguish it from a thousand other springs of the same kind. Reproduced from the Irish Penny Journal. they walk round the to it. 31). county Clare. 31. Senan. where Jeremy Taylor preached in the times of the Commonwealth. Bridget's Well. brink. and they finish the rite by a procession and prayers round an upright stone.' bowing and repeating prayers as at the well. Petric. and find relief as they touch the impression left by the saint. who also left the impress of his knees on a flat rock near the FIG. save the characteristic votive offerings made at it. At St. 97 stone. a station was held Near the old ruined church of VOL. From a drawing by Dr. At Dunass. St. near Dundalk. within which a similar ceremony is performed. Patrick. and a stone in the stream bears the impression of St. Bridget's knees. is a well noted for many healing virtues from having been blessed by St. They then enter the old church. where the people show the print of footsteps which they say are those of St. H . whole and fractured teacups.

by a medical gentleman of great experience. A hollow is shown in the stone in the graveyard. undertook and executed the task. near Belcoo. "accounted the first performer (religious) of his day in Connaught. but as may be well imagined. ' ' been personage. votive offerings of the faithful. on the 14th August. tied to its branches. Mass was apnually said at a heap of stones between the church and the lake. may. Those who avail themselves of its curative Unbelievers affirm that properties. near Toome Bridge. when applied to eyes. in Wild Sports of the West of Ireland. there is a spring called St. and when a pilgrim-visitor was discouraged by the acclivity of the hill. said to be the impression of the saint's knees. at his own request. on the top of which are The water almost invariably (as is three well-defined bullans. H. for a He was not consideration. and it is also regarded as an infallible remedy for the removal of warts. county Fermanagh. are the ruins of a church. lying beneath the shade of the Bag-tree. being " as a rule highly acidulated by the decomposition of vegetable matter. of an astringent nature is reputed as curathe water of which tive for affections of the eyes. it has been explained.98 WELL WORSHIP AND IIS CONCOMITANTS. The remains of poor Bobby. and possessing the power of removing warts. and even effect a cure. at the beginning of the nineteenth century. natural in a moist climate) to be found in the hollows of bullans is very generally supposed by the peasantry to possess miraculous curative powers. On the north side of the picturesque ruins of a church on the shores of Dublin Bay. that water thus found. and near it a tree. and his death has left a blank which has never yet filled. On Church Island. and even of lakes. on the other hand. or the quantity of prayers to be got over. throw pins into the bullans. were transported to the summit of the mountain and deposited on the apex of Croagh Patrick. where he had so often and so usefully " performed." same superstition prevails in connection with the water of many holy-water fonts. with a number of rags These are. not The unfrequently. and the people afterwards went round the earn on their knees. Berach's Well. only a harmless. in Lough Beg. Maxwell. or the church of the mass. He generally resided at the house of a neighbouring gentleman. containing water all the year round. who come to pray round a curious stone with a hollow in its " surface. especially in diseases affecting the eyes. who lived at the foot of Croagh Patrick. There is a natural boulder close to the old church of Templenaffrin. or rather eyelids. affected by certain forms of irritation. alleviate discomfort. describes an extraordinary being named Bobby. instead of removing warts the water multiplies those disagreeable epidermal appendages but. a very useful ." W.' ' . Bobby.

and parishes. The patrick. on the natural curiosities of Ireland. that. own credit and veracity. and at the well. as well as physically afflicted people. nor even in the traditions of the people remaining of such wells. within six miles of Balla " To this lake in Mayo. and families. in the county Donegal. bent pins. come to fiddlers. in the neighbourhood of Downby a considerable spring. and men go through the same performance at a well not far distant. pipers. Loughharrow is described by a writer in the year 1886 as lying in the centre of a shaking bog. in which may be seen buttons. dead fish put into the spring come to life again. prayers for the sick are efficacious at another. upon wetting it. are supplied 99 celebrated Struell wells. &c. women pray to the saint for children. fish-hooks. at each of which the water is supposed to possess different virtues. says. bits of crockery.WELLS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF IRELAND. there was formerly a skull from which visitors drank the waters of the spring. on the north shore of Lough Neagh. is situated. is still very common. though. fountain in the province of Munster. upon a survey there are now no footsteps. and amuses his readers at the expense of his . in his seventh " there is a. . and throw them therein to the saint of the lake. Eaney's Well. St. the water will not boil at a third. and tents of every description in which and they dance round the lake and drink Here parties. used to struggle for a drink. and the overflow forms a small rill. and is whiskey whiskey. but the brambles which grow around it are decorated with rags and shreds of various colours. which instantly makes the hair of the head grey when it is dipped into it and that there is another fountain in Ulster of a quite contrary quality. The tree over the well at Cranfield. Cambrensis whom the romancer Keating describes as " an " when ineKTTaustible fund of falsehood writing. sold. near Bruckless. observes " Keating. is decorated with rags. At one. No thorn overshadows the little basin. . pieces Here they have praying him to save their cattle that year. The waters are most potent on the eve of mid-summer's day. less than a mile from the sea. who imposes upon the world with his fabulous rarities. which flows through four small and very rudely constructed houses." In Aran. Conall's Well. . nails. restores the hair to its genuine colour". near the old church of Faughart. crowds of mentally. in a lonely part of the glen through which the Corker river flows. chapter. when at midnight. and around it innumerable rags flutter in the breeze. the wide-spread custom of praying and making offerings at the numerous holy wells on the Island. At St. they (the country people) bring large of butter. The spring is copious. nor were they in the days of Cambrensis.

" The waters of a small tarn. Devout people were in the habit of coming . was a common trade. General view of Well and Altars at Tubbernalt. 32. for which complaint the water is a remedy. correspondent of. covering about ten acres. county Cork. and young people are corrupted. . The waters of the lake were then applied to such portions of the body as were crippled by rheumatism. here all manner of debaucheries are committed. and shake it among their cattle and if any person become sick. on Saturday nights to perform rounds. The custom of carrying the water of celebrated holy wells to distant parts of the country.100 fight WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. in the parish of Kilmichael. near Sligo. lying . the Gentleman's Magazine mentions " that about the year 1750 this was done in connection with a A . in a moory hollow FIG. and quarrel. In the end they all bring home bottles of the lake water. and then selling it. are considered sacred. some of it is spilled into his ears.

. spring eightpence. abundance of fish in their lakes and rivers. and milk. Peter ad Vincula. the time was devoted to games. Among the blessings promised to the men of Leinster from holding it. M. 'A connection of Lammas rites with our present subject when he says: similar shifting from the 1st of August to the first Sunday in that month has. The spring is encircled by a not far from the town of Sligo. I imagine. it is gaily decorated with flowers (fig. /Camillas Sunday. anglicised us now look at one other leading nature-festival. called Lugnasadh. Ireland. on the shores of Lough Gill. though the solstice used to be. that. their parents used to ascend the mountain very early on the 1st Sunday in August (O. they were wont to bring home bottles full of water from wells noted for their healing virtues' " James M. Lochs and Springs. 33). taken place in the Isle of Man. MacKinlay. 308. ' ' * " Let Professor Rhys bears further witness to the maturity' (pp. the word is derived from the Cymric Gwyl. 309).A. a celebrated fair. which was miraculously cured through kissing St." in Irish Vomnach Crom Dubh.. a August. and below this spring there is another (fig. feast or holiday. the Gule of August. in order to bring the corn to the first . prolonged presence of the sun-god was essential. evils to follow from the neglect of this institution. had some disease of the throat. Lammas. probably of Scandinavian influence. for several days before and after the 1st of August and A third there was another at Cruachan. Against the overhanging Alt. were to be failure and early In legendary accounts of Carman. and on Garland Sunday. and so the day of chains was designated the Gule of As a matter of fact. were plenty of corn. Folklore of Scottish (pp. we are left in no doubt as to the Carman. now Wexford. or cliff.). viz. on day of August. when they were children. A curious mediaeval legend arose to connect this dedication with another name for At the heart of this legend. signifying the throat. and other recreations. Its celebration was deemed so important. at sixpence. F. wall. 32). in Celtic lands. according to the different success of sale the carriers had on the road.' Professor Rhys observes. in consequence. They may be said to have represented the blighting chills and fogs that assert their baneful influence on the farmer's To overcome these and other hurtful forces of the same kind. the day of institutional of significance in the Manx summer. character of the mythic beings. and we have confirmation of the etymology in the circumstance In that. was held at Tailtin (now Teltown). in his Celtic Heathendom. whose power had been brought to an end at the time dedicated to that fair.S.." At the proper season devotees can still be seen making their tour round the Well of Tubbernalt. The Church dedicated the opening day of August to St. On the other hand. 101 miraculous spring near Sligo. viz.A. and that in some districts at least. domestic prosperity. Peter's chains. The daughter of Quirinus. Scot. by . now Rath Croghan. access to it being given by a few uneven steps. the and immunity from the yoke of any other province. was the the festival. 305-306). was held at Carman." most probably the well of Tubberand that some years earlier the water of another sacred " was sold in the district where he lived. fruit. is built an altar.. a Roman tribune. inquiries I have made in different parts the island go to show that middle-aged people now living remember that. and tenpence per quart. the crops.WELLS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF IRELAND. the greyness on them and their kings. in Roscommon. nalt . Latin word Gula.' ' If we go into the story of the fair of place has certain funeral associations. as Professor Rhys tells us. For. to discover what light it throws on our subject. in Meath.S.

s a .

the finest young man in the village being chosen to carry the garland." On Garland Sunday. a great festival with the people from the most ancient times. but the flowers that en- Anglicized Lammas.ALTAR AND WELL DECORATIONS. especially to those who were dancing at the time. Then all the company proried the - ^. a prophecy of long life and success in love fell after the garland was set up in the graveyard. was. were not plucked till the morning of the great day. 103 Garland Sunday. near Lough Arrow. In the Book of Lismore the word cpogam is explained as Lughasa : the designation of the first day of August. festival. pins and nails may be observed in the well . in honour of the earth. omen for the garland but if an apple bearer. and if one dropped off during the procession. FIG. Lammas Sunday was cirelS'd it. The farmer fed his family on first fruits no potatoes were dug before this time. and flowers and fruits were placed on the altars. was devoted by the Irish to solemn rites in honour of their dead kindred. and according to Lady Wilde. it was looked on as a sign of ill luck and coming evil. From the V"- topmost hoop some apples were suspended by their stalks. it was considered a lucky Tobermonia. and only unmarried girls were allowed to gather the flowers and wreathe the garland. 34. now about to yield its offspring. Can this be a remnant of the pagan rite probably alluded to by the Apostle when he says "Now we see through a glass darkly. apparently a pagan festival. was decorated the night before with coloured ribbons. ceeded to the churchyard. or hoop. " The garland. for a dance always closed the ." Fragments of cakes. in its origin. on either side of the altar at Tubbernalt. may be seen two small framed and coloured glasses. for the touch of a mar- woman's hand in was decorations deemed unlucky.

Molaise's (Molash's) Well. When tempestuous weather prevails. Fig. 27). upon which (the charm rendered doubly certain by the repetition of certain rite. of the spring are drained into the ocean. in the county Sligo. black.104 WELL WORSHIP AND many ITS CONCOMITANTS. festooned coloured rags. tied up to denote a finale to the rounds and prayers. Molaise's Well. probably the most pagan in character still exerwith a holy well. white. Island of Inishmurray. St. at all times. red. FIG. green. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 35 is St. a holy well picturesquely situated not far from Lough Arrow. outside the walls of the cashel on the island of Inishmurray. communication between the Island and the mainland is sometimes rendered On such occasions the waters impracticable even for weeks. A cised in connexion . at certain periods. is that connected with " The Well of Assistance " on InishTobernacoragh. 34 is a sketch of Tobermonia. Fig. blue. (See ante. 35. with fig- and the locality is. or murray.

JA<. recounts how. and that the boat is returned to the island and hauled on shore. Certain words of incantation were used each time the water was thrown. such as to give the Extreme Unction to a dying person. or a clam-shell. amongst the multitudes which resorted to the holy well of Aughawale. and devout. good-natured. Beranger. 11 H produce a la vour- Well of Assistance. launch one of their little vessels. in Holy Wells of Ireland. at the same time. and to which of them the care of the priest On asking them how had been committed. often this miracle happened. that he had performed the rites of the Church. and the well was cleared out with a wooden dish. in the beginning of the nineteenth . and the practice. Wind-well.. closely resembles the " A few feet above the ceremony on the Island of Inishmurray. W *-. that they have carried him back. forming a cover to the spring. they go to the sea-side. which continues until they have brought the priest to the island." ' . When a strange boat was wind-bound on the Island of Gigha. fact. The water was then thrown several times towards the point from which the needed wind should blow. near Croagh Patrick.WIND WELLS. in one of his tours through Ireland. though the fact was true. able breeze as well as allay a storm. After the ceremony the stones were replaced. when the tempest will again begin. prayers) (fig* 105 of a holy calm succeeds the strife the elements 36). the master of the craft used to give money to one of the natives to procure a favourable wind. and as soon as it touches the water a perfect calm succeeds. &c. as a most undoubted superstitious and credulous. well was a heap of stones. Island of Inishmurray. as the district would otherwise have been swept by a hurricane. refers to this Assistance. they were veracious enough to confess it never their happened intil T i days. very They told us. at the close of " Well of the eighteenth century." and the inhabitants of Inishmurray " seem very further states that innocent. but. and continue for weeks together. These were carefully removed. as here carried on. where a case happens when a priest is required. that during the most horrid tempest of winter." Philip Dixon Hardy.

It is of a roundish form. and storms and hurricanes most frequently ensue. i. imploring that God. Patrick." On was formerly a small. called Leabaidh Phadruiij. After the flag is turned. inscribed with a cross. taking nothing but bread and water once in the twenty-four hours this they do in honour of St. or on the islands in the vicinity of Caher. . they have always recourse to the miraculous powers of this stone to elicit the truth. and turn the flag upside down. this they turn upside down in the nameofthat saint. &c. If stormy Aveather happen. This may be shown in various ways. and the other saints. is afar-famed stone called Leac na naomh. and go round their station about it backwards. the whole country will say that it was because Columbkille's slate was turned. the weather immediately becomes unfavourable. a very similar custom prevailed." O'Donovan describes a mysterious cursing-stone on Caher Island. for if any in war with their neighbours. they sail over to the Caher and turn Leac na naomh. about two feet in diameter. through the intercession of St. who blessed this flag. at which the pilgrims pray and go through their " gyrating round. and which possesses a small church. such as some great misfortune happening to the scandalizer. and Teampull Phadruig There are several penitential monuments around by others. either in spring or harvest. Whenever persons on the west shore. would show that they were wronged on such occasions and. To the east of the east gable of the church. there flat stone. and some event is ere long brought about which shows clearly to the eyes of all the neighbours that the character of the person who turned the Leac had been unjustly and wrongfully attempted to be blackened. " there be century. They first fast and pray at home for a fixed time. and composed of different kinds of stones.e. which appear as if they had been artibut the compound is. the island of Iniskea. they take up a flag which is called Columbkille's slate. find themselves aggrieved or scandalized openly and wrongfully. next to Inisglora. they return to the well again. the most holy island in that part of Connaught. however. laid on the altar. But if that does not do. . called the neeu-oge. or. and being discovered. esteemed. and they will even watch in harvest to prevent the people from turning it. and then return home and fast fifteen days. . there is a stone. " circumit. Columbkille and to induce him to put the person or persons who have injured them to death. to the great destruction of boats and curraghs. after the fasting and praying are over. "Within the church.106 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. the real thief . off the west coast of Ireland. i\\Q flag of the saints. called Teampull na naomh by some. or little saint. the ficially cemented together work of nature. which is prayed at during the station. in case of theft.

the Scandinavian god. Guinea have strange. is produced. the parish priest. According to Herodotus. it is stated. . generally violent rain-storms. striking it a specified number of blows with his sledge each time he turns it. Menelaus sacrificed two young children The well-known habit amongst to procure favourable winds. Public attention having been directed to the fetish. as the postulant must keep strict fast during the nine days. " anvil. but very Favourable winds are carried on . " The Wind bloweth where it listeth. "And a wind from before the Lord blew upon the face of the waters." the Vulgate reads. or throwing a small coin overboard in the same direction." In the Mosaic account of Creation. Fortunately there is nothing which makes the performance of this ceremony either easy or agreeable and further. are apparently pagan survivals of the idea of propitiating the gods by a sacrifice. had it cast into the sea. like the use of the cursing-stones." is not for the smith must rise before the sun. which the Targum of Onkelos paraphrases. it is stated. The anvil of the blacksmith (the ancient caird) is still a most potent spell-worker. or ill-luck to his neighbour. on this subject." or " wind" and an Aztec god with an unpronounceable name meant "the wind of night. lightly to be attempted go naked to his forge. of whistling for a wind a soft whistle for a breeze." like the ceremony of turning the cursing-stones. the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. yearly removed and renewed. "the raging gale. but canst not tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth. 107 treated with great reverence. is to some extent safe-guarded from impetuous malevolence. and thou hearest the sound thereof. The name for God and that for wind are not unfrequently identical. signi. while the presence of a black cat on the ship is a positive invitation to the saints to send violent storms. This he must repeat for nine consecutive mornings. turn the anvil nine times. and disaster." The Creek Indians call their chief deity the " Master of breath. until after the disappearance of their neeicoge. when the desired result. " The Spirit breathes where He will and thou hearest His voice." Odin." sailors. which used to procure favourable winds. The islanders allege they never knew misfortune or hunger. shipwreck.WIND WELLS. a loud one for a gale is fast dying out in these days of almost universal steam. Where the Authorized Version reads. Scratching the mast on the side from which the breeze is wanted. . It was usually kept enveloped in a cloth. but thou knowest not whence He cometh and whither He goeth. the charm. and appears to have possessed many of the The ceremony of " turning the properties of the cursing-stone. fies. Some of the natives of New similar ideas.

for whoever eat one became. foretelling that water. of peculiar form and colour. were confined to holy wells the hazel-tree and the salmon seem to have been indissolubly connected with certain larger springs the salmon watched the nuts on the hazel. and eels. in the county of Limerick. where the well designated the " the well of the great spring " still . be thrown overboard for fear of offending the spirits of the deep. Upon his arrival the druid shot an arrow into the air. or to cause springs There is a good example of this in a tale in the to burst forth. The druids informed the monarch that the surest mode of reducing his enemies was to deprive them and their cattle of water. if board their canoes in an earthenware pot. and forthwith. who would also be aroused if cocoa-nut shells. where we often notice that rival saints had. remains. they dried up all the springs. rivers. The ceremonies attached to Irish wind-wells are but the remnant of druidical cult the druids appear to have also claimed the power to make or withhold rain. . The strange spectacle of rival druids striving with each other to obtain a preponderating influence with the gods. Their bellies became on spotted with a ruddy mark for every nut they had eaten this account the spotted salmon became an object of eager acquisition. . Upon receiving the promise of a large reward. . Book of Leinster. in abundance. of an expedition made by Cormac Mac Art against The scene is laid in the commencement of the king of Munster. and lakes of the district. would spring up wherever the missile descended and a rushing torrent burst forth where the barbed head entered the earth. . a sort of influence which could not be altogether ignored by the Almighty. after the milk had been drunk. by their spells and incantations. although on opposite sides. and were not eaten but eels appear to have and salmon. and while on a voyage. and when they dropped into the water devoured them greedily.108 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. . a learned scholar. . were been eaten Holy trout. to the best and most expeditious means of bringing the men of Munster to terms. on no account. The king of Ireland consulted his druids as the third century. Trout were considered holy. "Wells often contained trout. finds repetition in many biographies of early Irish saints. under certain circumstances. If anyone doubt this story he has but to visit the parish of Imleach Grianan. . eagerly sought after. salmon. immediately. a banana be eaten. In this extremity the king of Munster called to his assistance a yet more powerful druid than any in the service of the Irish monarch. this arch-druid consented to go to the king of Munster's relief. to dry up rivers. were tossed into the sea. the skin must. without the trouble of studying. or an eloquent poet.

"After long watching and waiting. 109 Dr. but Finn. servant. so that it of knowledge. in the Boyne (near the present and that he would thereby obtain the gifts of village of Slane) knowledge and of divination. which the boy pressed with his thumb. . as he did when cooking the salmon There of Linn-Fee. The people look ' . At this time. he put his thumb under his tooth of knowledge. appears to have been some sort of ceremony used. Wakeman. Finn hooked the salmon. W. that a man named Finn would be the first to eat of the salmon of knowledge. the fleeirrgv Clann Morna. and. named Finn." exemplifies this curious belief regarding the magic properties possessed by some salmon. The situate about two miles from Kells. Demna proceeded to broil the fish. the poet asked Demna had he eaten of it but I scalded my thumb No. knowing this. and it would seem that the process was attended with pain.' " In this manner ' was only in very solemn and trying occasions he put his thumb under his tooth of knowledge. thereby scalding himself so severely that he.SA CRED FISH. of old. F. and the whole future was revealed to him. comes from the well.' exclaimed the poet prophecy been fulfilled and thou art now a diviner and a man ' ' : ' : . at times. ever after. in the county Meath. and soon the heat of the fire raised a great blister from its side. to keep it down. " Certainly. at last. shown in the illustration. W. which is always bright and sparkling. and gave it to Demna to broil. . when he wished to look into futurity. " It had been prophesied. Some of these fish I have myself seen. " When the salmon was cooked. in the hope of catching the salmon of knowledge.' replied the boy. however. thrust his thumb into his mouth. He those describes them as being about half a pound in weight which I noticed were considerably smaller. whether ' enchanted or otherwise I cannot say. contains lusty trout. and bearing the name of Demna and. the son of Cumal. remarks Mr. on the fish. Finn. warning him very strictly not to eat or even taste of it. and Sir William Wilde saw them also. P.' 'Thy name is not in thee has the Demna. from his hereditary enemies. disguised. from place to place. unthinkingly. Keeran. which swam in the pool of Linn-Fee." Fig. and put it into my mouth. hoped that he might be the lucky man so he took up his abode on the shore of Linn-Fee and he fished in the pool every day from morn till night. A certain old poet. 37 represents the famous well and station of St. was a boy. little stream. . Finn obtained the gift of divination. Joyce's account of the origin of " Finn's Tooth of Knowledge. so that. the old poet took him as his . . happening to come to Linn-Fee.

Well of St.110 WELL WORSHIP AND sacred. which had been deposited in a cavity in its trunk. to be owing to an overflow of decayed vegetable matter. Keeran. over the well. the largest have ever beheld. This was supposed ing from the lower fork all down the stem. One side of each fish was . celebrated for its sacred trout. ITS CONCOMITANTS. near Kells. FIG. 37. Some sixty years ago word was passed through the country that it was bleeding." Many holy wells were formerly celebrated for their sacred trout of peculiar form and colour. and thousands of people flocked to the well to behold the miracle with their own I believe that a reddish stain did actually appear. is upon them as very of its kind I The ash. extendeyes.

there are wells attached to temples in which sacred fish are fed by the priests. according to tradition. however. Ill darker than the other. near the summit still living declare they have seen. are born in the water of baptism. people assert that the water-level often suddenly rises and falls a circumstance not uncommon." : The fish is stated. to be a symbol expressive of the name of Christ. A large sycamore stands by the edge of a tank filled with water. like the Tubbernalt. one will Near Tripoli there is what is called a convent of sacred suffice. clear as Here may be seen a great number of Moslem boys crystal. upward man And downward fish. were accounted for in the following manner The progenitors of these fish had been caught. but which people The well. where the early Christians sought refuge from the fury of their persecutors. representations of the fish. The God of the Philistines of Ashdod evidently resembled the fish-figure on : Assyrian sculptures and cylinders " Diigon his nnme. however. like the offspring of fishes. O'Flaherty. county Sligo. and placed on a gridiron to fry. covered with an oil-like scum. and full of The country minute weeds. Many travellers have been struck by this circumstance. Tubberkeeran. neither clear nor tempting. and the old guardian of the he says they are all place has great faith in his piscine charge : : : . but the appropriateness of the symbol did not stop here. and on it might be observed strongly denned marks. accounted one of the wonders of Ireland. in certain parts of China. Persia. in springs in a limestone district. by Christian writers on the Koman Catacombs. not visible to ordinary eyes. an eurblem of fecundity. for it is known that. are alike prominent. No sooner.SACRED FISH. India. there is a brace of trout. sea-monster. and Cong : . had they touched the iron than they were mysteriously transported back again into the cooling waters of the sacred spring. has a slightly brackish flavour. which. by unbelievers. for Tertullian " The fish seems a fit emblem of Him whose observes spiritual children. Cambrensis. but they still retain marks of the fire and of the gridiron. inhabited by the souls of Moslem saints. In the well of Tubber Tullaghan. and numerous other writers. Whether we regard the monumental slabs of the ancient palaces and temples of Babylon and of Nineveh. The water. That. fish a large and lofty building with snow-white dome. and instances innumerable might be quoted however. assembled to feed the sacred fish. of a lofty rock. is mentioned in the Dinsenchus and by Nennius. and Africa. or the walls of the Catacombs of Rome." Fish veneration is of Eastern origin.

there is some misfortune to come upon them. look on me. tomary for pilgrims to the sacred mountain of Croagh Patrick. in the county Cork. county Sligo. in former times. fish worship is believed to be almost extinct but within the nineteenth century a gentleman of the . Dion Cassius says the Caledonians of his time never tasted although their lakes and rivers furnished an inexhaustible . trout. which was invisible to them. is established beyond the possibility of doubt. in Mayo. not appear. the period of devotion was always closed by revelry. if we credit current stories to the effect that they have been taken. invisible except to the eyes of the faithful. turned into blood. however." auditors heard that he could see the speckled trout. several " station days in the year at the sacred lake of Loughadrine." " There were. and it is the most lucky omen in the world to them if a trout come out and eat the bait. they pick up baits and throw them into the water. by using the waters of " this sacred well of Tubbernalt. with the white cross on his back. with loss of friends and relations.112 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. saying at the same time certain prayers. thrown in as Lady Wilde in offerings to their sacred piscine inhabitants. fish. to attentive listeners. which were. The devotees flung bread and biscuits into the water to these holy On such fishes. they of course at once believed in the cure. after having performed a station. to enter the holy well of " in which are three trouts Aughawale. In the commencement of the nineteenth century it was cus. Columbkille to send them out. was detected by the country people. but if not. cooked. occasions one could take up basketsful of bread out of the lake. ." he said " I was blind from and saw no light till I came to the my birth. Not long ago women and children were observed throwing bread into the well of Tubbernalt near Inquiries as to their object in doing this elicited the Sligo. explanation that they were feeding the sacred trout in the well. who caught some sacred fish. and obliged to run for his life to escape from a mob of infuriated peasants. Cures of every kind were effected by the potency of the waters. and eaten without apparent inconvenience to themselves. Oh. The trout in the lake on being boiled. the Tubber Tullaglian examples were enchanted. In the present day. as may be inferred from the fact that they were immediately afterwards observed as lively as ever in their accustomed haunt. . and as usual. If they do they cry out to St. Ancient Leycnds states that a man born blind recited. Any person who will take the trouble to examine carefully a few holy wells will find pieces of bread in the water. blessed well now I see the water and the speckled trout down When his at the bottom. how he had been made to see.

brooks. heavy and saturated with moisture with human nature that the after-guardians of these springs preferred turning them to gain. as rivers. with the Black Stone in the Kaaba. n. wells were extremely valuable in the East.. caught and ate the sacred salmon in the well of Kincora. .S. and if some of the original population of this country came from oriental lands This they would carry with them the idea of well-worship. . overspread with a sullen and it is only consonant sky. so full of spirits. and therefore. and waterfalls ? him to be was the water-demon that made the river flow so fast as dangerous in crossing. But even the faintest relicks of a shrine Of any worship. it hardly seems natural that water and water. In ancient times one of the greatest indignities a conqueror could inflict upon an Irish chief was the destruction of his of Connaught. the O'Briens. wake some thoughts divine. king commencement In a climate so moist as that of Ireland. throughout Northern he observed a Africa Mungo Park mentions it in West Africa tree which presented a " very singular appearance. wishing to insult his vanquished foes. in the of the eleventh century.BELIEVED TO BE OF EASTERN ORIGIN. . to early man's To reason. F. as life. This may be superstition.worship is otherwise and more easily accounted " what seemed so full of for.A. O'Conor. and that curled the dreaded whirlpool in which life was sucked.R. For example. the honour of being the most sacred thing in the holy city some . and it is impossible to believe that so singular a custom could have arisen independently in all these countries. weak or wild. VOL." Baker speaks Burton also found the custom of it on the confines of Abyssinia in Arabia. holy fish.wells should be objects of devotion and^fche many instances of the cult which even still exist seem a confirmation of the traditions which trace the early religion of for although not valuable in the the land to an Oriental source West. is however of opinion that the uni- versality of water." Edward Clodd. uous epithets which the Scottish Highlanders applied to the Saxons of the Lowlands. . " 118 was one of the contemptIn later times "fish eaters supply. would account for the apparent incongruity of the worship of water in a country abundantly supplied. from them : " . to turning the people away ." it The area over which well-worship extends is of surprising magnitude. i . . being decorated with innumerable rags or strips of cloth. where the holy-well Zem-Zem disputes. during his pilgrimage to Mecca. Burton says it extends from east to west.

country." Can this be the origin of the world's flags and standards. containing alkaline constituents. like old heathen Arabs. In Persia. teeth. on the top of nearly every shop. usually white. motion in the strips there is prayer. so that the natives tie them very fast to sticks. Shokas invariably path. and when materials for a new dress are purchased or manufactured. it is customary for them to tear off a narrow strip While there is of the cloth and make a flying prayer of it.114 WELL WORSHIP AND ITS CONCOMITANTS. or branches. to which were affixed a number of rags left there. carrying the clothing Tartars. an enormous cypress festooned with votive offerings of the Indians. Certain shrubs and trees in weird poetic spots in the mountains are covered with these religious signs. and then hung across a road. is slightly brackish. secret of their continuance in power lay in their appeal to the . George. in the immediate vicinity of a well. but occasionally red and blue. already mentioned. worship and of rag offerings. hundreds aid of St. rather than the Black Stone. is of world -wide extent. and the water. shreds of coloured cloth. " A certain number of rags or pieces simply enough contrived of cloth. and innumerable ones are secured near their shrines and at the outer gates of the village. and the custom appears to resemble the Irish practice of tying rags on These Shokas' mechanical prayers are trees round holy wells. as one of their chief duties is to drink freely of the holy water. Tylor observed in Mexico. Even though they but seldom effected a cure. are fastened by one end to a string. is the original cause of Mecca becoming a holy place in the eyes of the The spring is perennial. as health -offerings by persons afflicted with ague. Sir William Ouseley saw trees covered with offerHanway mentions a tree he observed in the same ings of rags. the well of Tubber Tullaghan in the county Sligo. for the first time. by which they arrange for the ascent of their prayer by wind-power. pass. holy wells in Ireland retained. In Ceylon. tear off a strip of cloth and place it so that it will flap in the breeze. the cross of St. poles. house. rags It is thus seen that the custom of welland pieces of ribbon. it. and sought their aid. George. or On crossing a pass. or habitation. for " example the English flag. so writers even hold that it is an aperient spring the pilgrims thus combine hygiene with religion. similar little flags can be seen. In the New of locks of coarse black hair. . and the countryThe people continued to believe in them. their popularity. Moreover. Colonel Lewis says that the trees in the neighbourhood of wells may be seen covered with scraps of that . nevertheless. and Hue describes A : and invoking Heaven by its fluttering?" World. this practice as existing among the curious usage prevails among the Shokas.

the leaving of a gift to an invisible power." . . if a word thou utter. that ailments could be thus removed. but imagination replied that there are many more things in heaven and in earth than The strict silence observed in all are at present dreamed of. that if at these wells. 115 Eeason might suggest that it is absurd to expect imagination. the restriction of the ritual to a certain defined season. for hidden . Be the spot still hallowed while time shall reign. Who hath made thee Nature's own again. and surrounded wellworship with a strange atmosphere of mysticism that acted on the great fund of credulity latent in human nature. silence was essential. It vanishes again.CONCLUSIONS TO BE DRA WN. all aj^pealed strongly to the imagination. Or prayer from a chastened heart to heaven." the rites to be gone through. i2 . for " . In conclusion. particularly in seeking treasure. " one holy thought In man's deep spirit of old hath wrought If peace to the mourner hath here been given. may we not all echo the sentiment of the poet. pagan mystic ceremonies.

In popular tales the supposed kingdom hardly ever relegated to a subordinate position Ancient belief that certain families were endowed with The Were Wolf Wolf Lore the power of assuming the form of animals " The Master Otter" Witches assume the Watersprites appearance of Hares Supernatural Cats Cat Lore Cow Lore Swine Lore Magical " " The Boars Divining by the Blade Bone Augury Merry Thought Means adopted to obtain Magical Prescience Belief in DreamsOmens Auguries drawn from the appearance or flight of birds Rook Starling Raven Hen Cock Swallow Robin Crane Cuckoo Blackbird Water Wagtail Swan Barnacle-Goose Peacock Magpie Wren is man language man and the animal Various Ancient kinds of Divination Omens regarding Sneezing. Conthe existence of which. . he states that " in Egypt. stones. was probably a survival Traces of it are still apparent amongst the of this worship. birds. in course of time. and many other localities. Animal worship. AND AUGURY. . It endows animals. aborigines of Australia." temporary Review. The natural phenomena were highly impressive. appears to be doubtful. This probably was the true account rather than Fetishism. tbe old Irish invested even the lowest forms of animal life with the power of influencing the This species of worship is an advance on the actions of men.CHAPTER Barrier between the brute and link between IV. or other inanimate objects. veneration of trees. and even fishes with thought and language. Sacerdotalism was strongly developed. isolation of the country. regarding them as somewhat like human beings. :. they are supposed to possess supernatural powers they become in the thoughts of their worshippers the ancestors of the tribe. while the people apparently were weak and open to Up to a certain point the priests appear to have been ministers of impressions. but under a different then. in ancient Egypt. p. 900. In these are to be exterior . The natives of Australia look upon themselves as of one kind with their beasts. ANIMAL WORSHIP. BIRDS.: * Professor Goldwin Smith is of a contrary opinion. their fishes. 420. . . they became reactionary. LIKE many other pagan nations. Xo. culminating in Apis. and finally their protecting gods. America. and were aided in the reaction by the progress. apart from symbolism. their birds. Animal symbolism degenerated into animal worship. .

amidst a Tertiary survival. who live their entire life without a roof to shelter them." A dim conception of this is at bottom of all mythologies which peopled nature with living spirits but the mind of primitive man could not conceive abstract notions the powers of nature were regarded by him as concrete objects. who seem lower than the beasts in improvidence. and of their interference in human affairs. or object so chosen. The peasantry were under the belief that animals. ines reflect what casual observers might describe as a childlike. so it is also. shall we not rather style it. as well as to most people. " There lives A soul in all things. . as well as in animals. the interrogator dropped dead. is considered sacred. birds. To the peasantry. or clothing to cover them. . a race which has not risen above the most primitive ideas with regard to spirits in inanimate objects. of the family carrying its representation. Pantheistic conception of Creation. Here. who are higher only than the beasts in their use of articulate speech and of flint implements. and were consequently . a perhaps even Tertiary surviving form of worship of the Great Unknown. and that soul and works is God. 117 found some of the most extraordinary forms of life that have struggled through. have weeded out the unfit. and fishes. but as a rule the animal. governs the choice of a totem. . were cognizant of all their affairs. that. in other parts of the globe. Just as this savage race is still in the Stone Age. and yet dumb as regards . as we have seen. or. the legends of the aborig. Yet these savages. There are many evidences of the former supposed influence of the brute creation upon human life in Ireland. and acts the role of a tutelary saint whose business it is to guard each member fish. bird. It is impossible to say what The term " totem " many tribes . which we have left thousands of years behind. and could even read their thoughts but it was fatal to ask a question of them for if they replied. designated as persons. or more probably have escaped ordeals. tree. the is borrowed from the language of one of which lived around the region of Lake Superior for with North American Indians the meaning of the idea expressed by the totem is more clearly defined than among other people who use totemic emblems. have nevertheless evolved a most complex unwritten marriage law and the most elaborate religious ceremonies of almost any savage folk. The aborigines of Australia show us what our remote ancestors really were like we represent what it is to be hoped the Australians' remote descendants may possibly become. more particularly domesticated animals. the position of animals in the great life-scheme is full of mystery gifted with intelligence. .BARRIER BETWEEN THE BRUTE AND MAN.

AND AUGURY. the raw flesh they had been tearing in the fields would be found between bodies . is country. and birds. that might have boen penned by an Irishman. 1 ' Nfvpcav 5e rb irpbs ftopfiv &vtfiov fprjfj. cats. Scientists allege that the great barrier between the brute and man is language that man speaks. them intelligent modes of expressing their ideas. and that language is the rubicon across which no brute has passed. who the teeth of the dead human bodies. Herodotus thus " Still more remote are the mentions the Neuri Neuri. but that no brute. no bird has ever uttered a word (Balaam's ass. whose the north as far as I have been able to learn. the same wounds would be apparent on their human as on their wolfish bodies and. that they possessed the power of transforming : * Melpomene. the spirit would not be able to again enter them if wounded whilst abroad. a wolf was heard speaking with a human voice. places one of these tribes in This idea was also held by the ancients. suffering punishment for some act committed in a former state of existence. man and the brute creation is therefore narrower than is generally allowed not that it can be crossed at will by superior intellect or supernatural will-power as was formerly imagined. and parrots. with the specific intention of imparting to another beast or bird a particular meaning. they seemed to contain imprisoned spirits. This assertion of course depends on the definition which may be given to the meaning of the term language for horses.. only repeats older Irish legends. . varied in the note in which they are uttered. after the manner of wolves if their human . an ancient belief that certain races or families were endowed with the power of assuming the form of wolves whenever they pleased.D. "TOVTIIIV 5e KarvirepQe o'tKfovffi Nevpoi. in Ireland. and it is gravely recorded that.118 to ANIMAL WORSHIP. are frequently made The border-land between to regulate the action of the auditors. BIRDS. and to be passing through a cycle of expiation. 1). . &c. When flocks thus transformed they committed depredations amongst and herds. There was. at the termination of which they will be again promoted to human status. in A."* (Book ii. utter sounds which are akin to language. as they are purposely uttered. and in most stories animal transformation occupies a prominent place. Giraldus Cambrensis. 690. &c.. In a sentence Ossory. and these sounds. which their spirits quitted on these expeditions were moved. offov ripens tS/ufv.os avOpcinruv. it is presumed. xvii.. made by one beast or bird. are excepted). In the popular tales of the peasantry the supposed linkbetween man and the animal kingdom is hardly ever relegated to a subordinate position. towards In later times Mela says of this people totally uninhabited. if killed. . . dogs.

who recounts how. each member of which. a king of Wales. a man whom I left alive in Ireland who had performed this seven years' penance. This man told to many men whose cattle he had worried and whose bodies he had assailed while he was a wolf. and if they hap to live out which time. how experiences. they return to their own form again." The " were-wolf " was a human being with an uncontrollable craving for human flesh who. into which he plunged. and to the bishop (upon whose grant it was recorded and registered). past peradventure.'" 119 themselves into wolves. by magical arts. however (as already represented) in some cases Thus. while retaining his human faculties. assumed at will the form of a wolf. and is to the effect that " there is also in Ireland one nation (tribe) whereof some one man and woman are. whoE"wife was slain while she was a wolf in her last year. rested Irish family. and. both in his man's shape before he was a wolf. pleasure. Patrick. he or St. being the punishment for crime. Lycaon. yea. by a saint of lesser degree. transformed into a wolf. A she was forced to assume the form and habits of a wolf. presuming to test the omniscience of Nenris statum singulis tempus est. And other twain are turned for the like time into the same shape. the more readily.PO WER OF A SSUMING THE FORM OF ANIMALS. each year a member of a certain family was chosen by lot. and resuming their former shape at In the strange pamphlet entitled Beware the Cat. when he returned to his family somewhat aged in appearance. in order. was changed into a wolf. male and female. at every seven years' end. that it was evident to all men. under which form he continued stantly for nine years. which showed such scores of wounds which other men had given him. to gratify this unnatural appetite possessed of the strength and all other powers This transof the brute. Almost the same legend is related by Pliny. which is penance (as they say enjoined that stock by St. that. at some period of life. was led to the He was inbrink of the Arcadian lake. and thus remain for seven years ere resuming his or her place among fellow-mortals. Vereticus. turned into wolves and so continue in the woods the space of seven years. so plain and evident tokens. on the festival of Jupiter Lycaeus. formation was. King of Arcadia. Patrick for some wickedness of their ancestors) and that this is true witnessed. but otherwise none the worse for his lupine Ovid records another mythological instance. interumque in . that the matter was. the story is given in much the same words as those of Giraldus. involuntary. which all appeared upon his skin. eos qui fuere inutentur. through the curse of on an similar curse. and in his wolf's shape since. * quo si velint in lupos. undoubtedly. was subject to the horrible doom.

finally. bony and gaunt and grim. and proceeded to the townland of Cross to draw water from a well. Herodotus tells of sorcerers who. wolves : much maligned . and had sufficient were a to be given to the following anecdote. She walked leisurely. His mother had been warned by a Druid that if her child were born under a certain planet. BIRDS. and he then tended the animal till its recovery. or that. was straightway transformed by Jupiter into a wolf a terror to his pastoral subjects. Near the Hill of Kesh. In olden days. once a year. in similar manner. some misfortune would assuredly befall him. her husband and his retainers being all absent at the chase. became the wealthiest farmer in the district. . and In some cases the treat of it in all its various developments. he found in the wolfs foot a great thorn. Assembling wolves in raging troops descend. One day. a charm was employed which. but had scarce reached halfway to the well when. in general. cow was proclaimed at all the chapels but it is needless to add that the laudable endeavour to discover a lawful owner was unsuccessful. . AND AUGURY. when. was born Cormac Mac Art. as this form of magic is called.120 ANIMAL WORSHIP. which they The finding of the placed. imagine his astonishment. Patrick. and heaped curses on the truant's head but. by his own industry and the assistance of the wolves. but. Burning for blood. the grateful beast was seen re-appearing in company with another wolf. current in the county Sligo. if credence is A Sligo Androcles found a young race wolf lying on the ground moaning and in great apparent agony. at the disastrous hour foretold. had cooked cats and dogs set on the table for him to eat). is an ollapodrida of the supernatural of wolves and water-sprites. had the power of assuming the semblance of wolves. she suddenly remembered that there was no water to cook the spoils of the hunters on their return." Yet. Norwegian and Icelandic Sagas are full of references to lycanthropy. Jupiter by placing before him a dish of human flesh (St. the poor man. the celebrated King of Ireland. transformation was effected by merely assuming the skin of a real wolf. from the forest-clad hills and mountains of Erin : " Cruel as death and hungry sis the grave. caused all beholders to imagine that they really saw a wolf. unharmed before the poor man's hut. since called Tobercormac. The following legend. shortly after. she gave birth to her infant. driving between them a fine fat cow. which he extracted. On examination. close to the village of Ballymote. One morning the man missed his patient. and at a certain hour. while involving no actual change in the human body.

W. like a second Romulus. Cormac. rushed to the spot." Mac Con was on the declaring that he was but of putting Cormac to death when. At length it fell to the lot of Cormac to keep watch over his chief. with whom she then lived. he was suckled by the wolf till about twelve months old. the house cannot be burned. where. at which time he was observed essaying to walk by The father of placing his hands on the wolf's back for support. thereupon resigned his position as chief. on observing the marff'on his toe. 121 forethought to cut from the little toe of the infant's right foot a piece of flesh. Cormac. states that the peasantry believe that animals of extraordinary formation and strange virtues inhabit the lakes and rivers of the west. as a private mark whereby to recognize her child. kept men to guard and watch over him during the night. succeeded in slaying all the sprites. and these guards were constantly found dead in the morning. and on the following morning recounted the occurrence to Mac Con before witnesses. being of like nature as Mac Con. should be an object of anxious research. however. Mac Con's own mother acknowledged the truth. Aware that chief of the district.WOLVES AND WATERSP2UTES. was never more heard of. . and. "Among these the sea-horse and master-otter are preeminent. and his appearance is imagined to be fatal The latter. attracted by the appetising scent. to save his innocent point Mac Con life. and steel or bullet will . frequently killed the night-guards. in his Wild Sports of the West of Ireland. so that he slept soundly through the night. the rightful heir. Mac Con. to the unfortunate person who encounters him. who. Whilst she was in a fainting condition. the child was taken from her arms by a were-wolf. which he placed surreptitiously under the tyrant's bed. Where a portion of his skin is. Cormac's mother. and carried off to a cave. and his daughter at once recognised him as her lost son. By a singular anomaly the first is said to be found in certain inland loughs. or the ship cast away. " half human. who afterwards became King of Tara so runs the Sligo legend. consequently. were in the habit of paying him nocturnal visits and on these occasions. when the wolves. unable to close both eyes at night unless near water. caused some flesh to be roasted near the cave. By this means Cormac was enabled to observe a vast multitude of water-sprites. a great tyrant called Mac Con was the reputed offspring of a water-sprite. and was succeeded by Cormac. leaving the infant behind by this artifice the chief was enabled to capture the boy. H. called for a basin of water. however. the head. assisted as supposed by Mac Con himself. on pretence of washing his hands. Maxwell. for he is endued with amazing virtues. At the time that Cormac had grown to manhood.

The idea is very common in the stories of ancient mythology. The house cat is excluded from a on entering a cottage the usual salutation being. indeed. he might have snapped at the master indeed. man who possesses an inch of this precious Antony. El worthy. 29). F. and the And preservative qualities of the animal were alone to blame. harm the BIRDS. more especially cats. confesses that in the course of his otter hunting he has never been fortunate enough to meet this valuable brute but he tells a confused story of one having been killed far down in the north by three brothers called Montgomery. ship. and within a dozen yards. barring the cat. blessing . and whose descendants are opulent to this very day. The otter wisely determined not material. the cat and the sow seem nowadays to be the favourite animals. and. is very close. ' ' . attended by about one hundred common-sized animals.* . to give him a fourth chance. and thrice the gun missed fire. states that " belief of transformation seems in all countries to have been closely allied with witches. appeared about sixty years ago. but found the spring After his already occupied by a strange and nondescript animal." It is unlucky * Mr. the wolf. Mortified at his failure.122 not ANIMAL WORSHIP. first surprise had subsided. and finished the unfortunate bird thus proving beyond a doubt that the gun was faultless.' quoth Antony. He says the masterAt Dim-hill he otter was seen twice in the neighbourhood. "God save all here. in his work on The Evil Eye (p. levelled at the "master. who waited upon the master like He was also observed by one of the loyal and dutiful beasts. to take away the house-cat when changing considered very residence ." in the power . though many others are believed in. The hare. and with those possessed of the evil eye. and from the Middle Ages down to the present time it has possessed the popular mind. ' Witches assume the appearance of hares. he returned to the boat and procured This he loaded carefully with five fingers and a-half a gun. for if an inch of skin can save house." Thrice he drew the trigger. and to eternity man. T. and left the well for the ocean. AND AUGURY. whose shape is assumed. O'Donnel tried his gun at a passing gull it exploded without trouble. O'Donnel landed on an island for the purpose of filling his keg. are subject to the same conditions as individuals indeed the connexion between witches changed into wolves and the lower animals. O'Donnel family while passing through Clew Bay in a sailing boat. The Irish have always regarded cats as mysteriously connected with demoniacal influence. Requiring a supply of fresh water. what a deal of virtue there must be in the whole hide ? . . for Antony is minute in all his narratives and then. whilst thus transformed. who from poverty became immensely rich.

and cunning. 280. being entirely dependent on the sympathy of anyone who may chance Cats to take compassion on them. where great treasure lies hid. accompanied by two dogs renowned for courage and daring. lead on the opposing forces on either side. regularly lighted on the summit ? See ante. however. and there are no lately recorded instances of anybody in the neighbourhood having mysteriously disappeared. when he was attacked by a vast number of cats. Cats have often great battles among themsehres on account of hidden treasures. a peasant who lived ate. however. and gather all the cats in the country to take part in the fight. relating to cats. the the place after nightfall. left numerous. According to popular belief. near Lough Arrow in the county Sligo. happened to pass the earn one night. and closed and All night long. . in the shape of enormous cats. at certain seasons of the year." At night. was guarded by an enchanted animal. and a cat meet yon on the road and look you full in the face. This gigantic creature has. seen to move round the earn. often suffer great privations. . Numerous legends. They are special objects of mysterious dread. 123 consequently cats. an enormous cat as large as a tiger. at certain seasons. footnote. and compelled to run for his life. metamorphosed into cats by demoniacal power. have gathered around the earn of Heapstown. and may be taken as typical of those recounted by the peasantry elsewhere of this class of monument. but woe betide the daring person who approaches it. vol. i. lights are. smoke ascends. for a witch is in your path. * Can this tale of smoke ascending from the cnrn be a faint reminiscence of the time when tires were. and turn back. He succeeded in reaching his house. In the after this spectacle. unnecessarily be offended. journey." and having " a nail in the end of their tails. as many of them are believed to be men and women. around the place endeavouring to get in and in the morning the mangled remains of the two faithful dogs were found strewn in front of the house. This monster has not been seen for a lengthened period. . cats understand everything that is said. when demons. offspring in the neighbourhood. give up your journey. and can assume various shapes at pleasure.CAT LORE. for tumuli and earns are " as thought to be inhabited by enchanted cats large as a sheep. especially in large towns.* Long ago the entrance to the inner chamber of the earn. p. as they are If you are going on a revengeful. but degenerfor not many years ago. he heard the cats barred the door. treacherous. which killed and devoured everyone daring enougli to approach should not morning. from summit of the earn. of which they are appointed guardians. for some time..

they did cut a piece of the hide. and set her by him. killed the cow which they had stolen. more". By this time the cat had eaten three-quarters. which were but a cow and a sheep. * _ Feres may mean : his " companion." . and with the rest of the hide they made each of them laps to wear about their feet. but the spelling has been modernized. he thought it best to dine. and in some points. relates that upon a certain occasion there fell a controversy between Master Streamer and the writer. and asked for more. for he had eaten little that day. by broiling them upon coals. and that as much as man. laid it thereupon. immediately. on two lone houses. Master Streamer affirming that they had. therefore. till she had consumed all the sheep. BIRDS. the first edition of which appeared about. which she immediately devoured. Wherefore. both to keep their feet from hurt. and. a "kern" of John Butler's. as to whether birds and beasts had reason. and therein they set a piece of the cow for themselves. killed their inmates. " While this kern was in the church. and also to save for meat the next night if they could get none other.the " year 1560. thinking it wisdom to please him.124 ANIMAL WORSHIP. like brogues. and is employed in this sense by Spenser " Hath won the laurel quite from all his feres. already quoted. and the contractions amplified. entitled Ben-are the Cat. and called for more. after the country fashion.. and drove off all the four-footed beasts they possessed. which is. made a raid. William Baldwin. The oldest reference to Irish cat-lore is probably that contained in a rare little book in black letter. and in the meanwhile. gave her the quarter that was in his hand. and " got him to a church. and pricked it upon four stakes which they set about the fire. there came in a cat. yea. and when they had flayed it. like a cormorant. "give me some meat. wherefore. wherefore he made his boy and made a (follower) go gather sticks and strake fire with his feres (steel). and that he thought to eat it.* fire in the church and killed the sheep. told the story which is the subject-matter of the tract. for there he was sure that no man would suspect or seek him. and roasted it. all the next day. and. and said in Irish. which. called Patrick Apore (probably Hore. Then they gave her two other quarters." The rest of the story is better given in the words of the narrator. gave the cat a quarter. But when it was ready. she did eat up. AND AUGURY. after the Irish fashion." He. they supposed it was the devil. and he thereupon. amazed at this. sliane foel. accompanied by one of his followers. asked still for more. not satisfied therewith. and. an ancient Anglo-Norman Wexford family). thinking to lurk there till midnight was past." It is old English. The author. He relates that about the year 1550.

Of course there were numberless conjectures upon such a remarkable occurrence. all weary and hungry. and was like to die. doubting lest. and is thus related by "A Mr. and take ten straws and throw the tenth away and then lay them on the child. similar incident occurs in current tradition in South Lanca: (Notes and Queries. man's wife rose up and said but look how Dermot cured his son through the sprinkling of Let us do the like."* In Shark Island a peasant. will sleep and do well. When he was a mile or two from the church. turning his face toward her. his wife kept.. and ere that she could be taken away she had strangled him. and he stir the blood with the rest ' . Which. and. and kill her. 463). because they had no more for her. 125 they gave her that which was seething and. and his skull [iron helmet] covered with gilt leather and crested with otter skin). father did as advised. had heard. and away he rode as fast as he could hie. she would eat them too. " Now it happened that about three months after. the moon began to shine. our child is like to die. a child of one of the neighbours grew sick.' So they caught a crowing hen and blood. up she started. 1 10 gentleman was one evening he was interrupted hy sitting cosily in his parlour reading or meditating. T. she plunged in his face. scarce half a-year. and had put off^lis harness (which was a corselet of mail made like a shirt. p. p. T. whose only boy was dying of fever. they got them out of the church. vol.CAT LORE. Is Doldrum dead immediately rushed up the chimney. The sequel of the story is thus told by Lady Wilde." . ' and and her own cat. with her teeth. ' ! land. But immediately there came to her such a sight of cats. x. but the general opinion appears to be that Doldrum had been King of Catland. and. Dyer in English Folk-Lore. was warned by the ghostly apparition of the dead mother to " Batch a crowing hen. took him by the throat. and when shortly afterwards his wife entered. 2nd Series." The ' : * A somewhat shire. lo. and told her his adventure. F. and stroke her through with it. and sprinkle the blood over the bed. therewith. When he was come home. his boy (follower) was killed and eaten up. had much to do to escape. set him down by his wife. f Hast thou killed Grimalkin ? and. and sprinkled the blood over the sick child. Then the See now. exclaimed. when a kittling. flang it. killed her. which accompanied her. and told him. and his boy (follower) espied the cat upon his master's horse behind him. which came down the chimney and called out Dildrum Doldrum 's dead!' He was naturally startled by the occurrence. Whereupon the kern took his dart. when she had eaten that. and he himself. and was heard of no more. . and his child was quite recovered the next morning. he related to her what had happened. as good and swift as his horse was. But. when ' Tell the appearance of a cat. and A similar legend is current in Northumberthat Dildrum was the next heir. after long fight with them. and the kern took his horse. and said. that.

a change in the weather may be expected. human and animal. Then the wife rushed at them with a churn-dash. most of their turnings and twistings. and this we swear by the blood and by the power of the great king of the cats. However. yours Mr.126 ANIMAL WORSHIP. states that" In Ireland considered unfortunate to meet a barking dog early in the morning. hearing the scrimmage. Dogs are not without their weather -lore.' said the other. . just to save your own wretched child. rushed in and helped to fight the cats. Thus. So to punish is safe. and amongst calves are interwoven with Irish Fairy-mythology.' Ay.F. when they eat grass. " Luckily. cattle. a terrible thing happened. in English Folk. for the cats were too strong for them. and he has taken our child. and after licking their paws and washing their faces. for death can take but one this night. are probably quite as much founded on fact. .' and they flew at the man and tore his face and hands. as is the old legend that cats were specially created by the Almighty to keep down the mice which swarmed in Noah's Ark. they moved towards the door to go away. cows.Lore. and were never more seen by man or mortal on the island of Shark. however the neighbours. and kill one of our great race. and in walked two monstrous black cats. first saying to the man Now we have done ' enough you for this time. or become drowsy and As in the case stupid. But all the same." The traditional association of cats with old maids. are named after " cow lore " are current Legends upon the subject of the peasantry and stories relating to bulls. of the cat.' So they whisked out of the house. T. and threatened to consume the food allocated to the support of the passengers. Dyer. it is a sign of rain if they roll on the ground and scratch. and not a soul could stand before them. at last the cats grew tired. and the belief that cats are connected with sorcery. How dare you kill my kitten ? '* said one of them my darling only kitten. ' AND AUGURY. but soon they had to fly. throughout Ireland. or were the preferred companions of witches. while the man strove to defend himself with a spade. till the miserable pair could not see for the blood ' ' streaming down their faces. the cats had the best of it. and clawed and tore and scratched. multitude of places. A * Evidently a case of unexplained metamorphosis. we '11 teach you how to insult a royal cat again. and. T. and your baby will live. But you shall suffer for it. on the other hand. for the door was flung open." it is . just as fortunate for one to enter a house the first thing in the day. ' BIRDS. and interest Several of the early chiefly from their topographical references. are supposed to be prognostications of something.

The road runs over the hill to Glaiimire. off In popular folk-lore the origin of this. as three magical cows Avould emerge from the ocean." One celebrated cow. the so called It has been remarked that Nibeiunycn Lied of Irish History. in the Barony of Imokilly. and passed around the coast of Ireland. where she lived imparting instruction and foretelling future events. more of the nature of a cattle foray than a romance. even the celebrebrated abduction of Dervorgil partakes. they observed a mermaid asleep on the water's edge. is remembered in tradition all over Ireland . The first was white the second red. and there is throughout the kingdom hardly a county which does not possess a lake. According to tradition the Druids held the bovine species in veneration. to the County Limerick. and drank at Lough-na-bo. assemble again on the same spot on the following May Eve. near Cork it is called " tbtT'road of the white cow. to Foaty Island. She was captured and carried to a farmer's house in the immediate vicinity. at certain times. and. They kept in company for about a mile. On the May Eve next succeeding her capture she gave directions that she should be carried back to the strand. in which an enchanted cow which. or the cattle raid of Louth. and other somewhat similarly named magical roads is described as follows Long ages ago as some fishermen were strolling along the strand at Ballycronen. the most celebrated production being the Tain bo Cuailyne. According to tradition. or well. then the white cow went north-west towards the county Limerick. and a great concourse of She told them to people assembled to witness her departure. near Cork. Glasgavlen presented herself before every house in Ireland. and " The Black Cow's Road. and are known as " The White.COW LORE. she then plunged into the billows. These roads are still pointed out in many places." : . or love passage. called Glasgavlen. and was never seen again. when examined by the light of modern investigation. 127 like the Druids Irish Saints were credited with the possession of magical cows." " The Bed. appears above the waters. One of the traditional roads of ancient Erin runs not far from the village of Ballyvodock. and about an hour after midday three enchanted cows suddenly emerged from the sea at Imokilly. the red cow went westward. between an Irish Princess aged 44 and a King in his 62nd year. and the third black. giving to each a plentiful supply lives . according to tradition. walked one day through Ballyvodock on . On that day twelve months all the inhabitants of Ireland gathered on the cliffs. Cattle raids and forays afford fruitful themes for early romances. the black cow going northeast towards the county Waterford." a mystical animal that appears to have risen from the sea.

there is no free milk in Erin. who milked her into a sieve. that is. seems to point to the former sacred character of the cow: "Many years ago a native of Inishmurry. South of Ireland describes her as going to Wales. Wakeman. and At the farmer put another. . whereupon the offended animal at once left Ireland. tale. . with envy and hatred in his that In Hero-Tales of Ireland. plunging into the sea off the A similar legend in the hill of Howth. a legend is current of a cow which frequently emerged from the stream and grazed on the banks. it is stated that the cow came down from the sky. in consequence of which she left Ireland for ever. gainach is a corruption of gaunacli. " In Donegal. and five years. in her place. . the rich or powerful try to keep her for their own use Appearing first at Dun Kinealy. the last gavleti. a yearling calf. and. The intervening ones I cannot recall. * . The theft of Glas Gavlen is the first act in a series which ends with the death of Balor. In this name of which common cows give. whilst a blind reliance on supernatural powers. instead of into a milk pail. the celebrated cow. Were she milked a hundred times a-day she would each time fill a can but after some time the woman who milked her died. . u cow Gamhitach is an adjective from without a calf that year.) Glas Gainach. we might. F. . " In a short tale of Glas Gavlen. . gavlen informed is used instead of gaunach and the best story-teller that gavlen means a cow that has not had a calf for five years.128 ANIMAL WORSHIP. accessible at present.* It has been observed that avarice on the one hand. glas means ' gray '. me . for daily sustenance. are two failings frequently held up for reprobation in Irish folk-lore. be able to understand why his grandson was fated to kill him. who was red haired. and spilled the " Bad luck to milk. which I obtained near Carrick. W. she gives milk Time after time. her first milking the cow was restless. of milk. kicked out. These terms I wrote down but unfortunately they are not The first in the series is gaunach. He gave the terms for cows that have not had calves for one. two. and none but that glen disappears. is strongly inculcated. . A farmer who observed this intercepted her retreat to the water and drove her into his byre." ." said the red-haired female. written gamlinach. whereupon the cow at once made off for the river.) Balor and Glas Gavlen. AND AUGURY. BIRDS. . (Page 554. to Glen Columkil neat' the ocean. gamhan. she goes finally exclusively. but she escapes. where a strong man tries to confine her but she rises in the air. on her way to Scotland. (1'ages 549-500. . The following legend. which means a cow whose calf is a year old. Jeremiah Curtin remarks (pages xliv-xlv). a farrow calf. county Donegal. and was never more seen. ye for the same. Another legend narrates that the cow was deceived by a greedy old woman. four. three. clearing the high ridge on the northern side of the Since then. recounted by Mr. In the county Limerick. plunged in. According to the in unlimited quantities to all people without exception. on the banks of the river Dee. and imprudence on the other. This continued for a lengthened period until an avaricious woman laid by a quantity for sale. perhaps. could discover who Balor and his daughter were really. If we This was a great tale in the old time but it is badly broken up now.

II. who. flowed. and its great hero Cuchullin (Coolin) defended it but the coveted bull was at length carried off. upon congealing." the^dvice of the aerial voice. Negotiations. are ultimately broken off. promised to send it to Queen Maeve. The plot of the story tallies with the Irish legend. sending messengers with various offers and presents. The similarity of the legendary lore of the East and West is. a small black cloud. and. and with final instructions that. exulting in the success of his negotiations. . The plot cow . The blood of the milk-giver. the Tain B6 Cualnge. Unfortunately the messenger. and being thus endowed with the his gift of superhuman knowledge. thus cruelly slaughtered. boasted that if the bull had not been yielded peaceably it would have been taken by force this speech being repeated to the King of Ulster he recalled his The Queen of Connaught then invaded the northern promise. not long ago. The King and Queen of in rival exhibitions of wealth. after some discussion. . the Queen enjoyed separate property. Province. which consisted. it is said. if these overtures were rejected. and an endless number of . very striking. observed. The Queen thereupon despatched a trusty messenger to seek a bull of equal excellence. was usually acted at wakes all K VOL. in every direction. which was the chief support of a neighbouring family. amongst other things. vividly elucidates the great estimation in which cattle were held in Ireland in olden times. in order to procure even a loan of the coveted animal. except that the animal contended for is a cow and not a supernatural bull. The herdsman followed will have the gift of prophecy. which at length was found in the possession of the King of Ulster. recourse was to be had to force. instantly quickened and became transformed into mice." Another legend recounts how a poor herdsman. left his lowly employment fame ultimately spread all over Ireland. Against this the King showed a herd of equal value. seeking to obtain possession of a wonderful cow. . narrative of a person. of a large herd of cows. and excited by drink. and he heard a voice saying. These animals ultimately proved a nuisance on the island. " This is the Tarv Connaire he will descend on one of the cows whoever drinks the first milk of that . which could of this story is roughly as follows : Connaught indulged not be matched by his consort.COW LORE. 129 heart. one bright sunny day. stole out one night and feloniously slew by stabbing the cow. The Eamayana contains a long as before stated. at first apparently successful. in charge of his master's cattle. In a play that. battles and single combats ensue. and lingers even yet This tale and that of wherever the Irish language is spoken. and in addition a beautiful young bull. which descended rapidly. high up in the heavens.

. for filled with. the beloved of Jupiter.I. composed probably of glass. Before leaving the subject of cow-lore. islands. and horns placed on her head. or to the wonderful attributes ascribed to certain bulls of early pre-Christian or early Christian tradition. Half real size. A voice without " The guards demand admittance for the bull. 38. the knocking continues. AND AUGURY. ." Entrance replies is refused. rivers. A loud knocking is heard at the door. or enamel of some kind. followed by a band of young men. The head is open at the back. 38) appears to be late Celtic. it may be well to draw attention to a representation in bronze of a bovine head. The metal composing it is of fine quality and of a golden colour. to be characteristic of this seen in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy. localities re- ceive names from. turned out of the room. dressed in a The cow and cowhide. vitrified paste. was metamorphosed into a white cow. Only one eye-socket remains it is shallow but still sufficiently deep to have held an eye. and meadows (Clontarf. and that it had been attached to some object is sufficiently clear from the . a young man with horns on his head. Representation of Bovine Head in Bronze. . Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.130 the ANIMAL WORSHIP. roads. from classic an oriental is mythology and many Greek their source. whilst girls formed a circle and danced round her. on account of Juno's jealousy. or springs. and wandering through the whole of Ireland.A. giving names to lakes. and the bull. cows or bulls emerging from the sea. who. The art ornament (fig. enters. men were BIRDS. " Who " wants to enter ? asks the master of ceremonies. in the collection of the R. the door is burst open. It is almost impossible to account for the legends about . for instance). : her attendants affect great alarm the bull endeavours to seize the cow. who is defended by her maidens a mock fight takes and the scene place between the intruders and the maidens terminates in uproarious mirth and the capture of the cow. and a young girl was dressed out with a cowhide thrown over her. as a preliminary proceeding. from lakes. without supposing that the people who recounted the stories derived these strange fancies FIG. near Dublin. . the wanderings of lo. It was formed by a process of casting great care seems to have been taken to spare and to economize the material.

an enormous magical boar which committed great devastation throughout the country so much so. retreat. on which this device appears. animal whose deeds and death form a fruitful subject for the shannachies. or tellers of stories. there is a tumulus styled The legend regarding the origin of the name is as Pig. that. in ancient times. which committed great depredations indeed so great were their numbers that Ireland was but. K2 . One writer even goes so far as to say that the prominence given to the animal. in topographical nomenclature and legendary tales. which continued to devastate the maritime districts of the county Clare by day and retired at To banish the herd from this. in the north of Ireland. In the county Sligo. on the conquest styled Muck Inis. the boar was held in great dread. A. of almost every county in In oral legends we mid the heroes of antiquity slaying Ireland. apparently as one of the four evangelical symbols. they extirpated all these animals with the exception of one herd.. swine were sacred animals. R. once existed in this country. among the Germans and Anglo-Saxons. and raised a violent convulsion of the elements which swept the entire herd into the sea. or the Island of the Pigs of the country by the Dedanann. fact that the sides are pierced 131 with a row of small apertures that held pins. Hercules slew the Erymanthean boar. magical boars in various parts of the kingdom. : . who had therefore recourse to magic. In old Irish legends over the kingdom boars endowed with The black pig or boar is a legendary supernatural powers. and can be traced as far as the Curlew mountains in the county Sligo. we find Finn slaying all : . It is extremely probable that this antique belongs to a class of typical ecclesiastical ornamentation. by which the neck was secured. Kemble states that. that all the hunters of the kingdom assembled. A track styled "the " commences near Athlone.SWINE LORE. their last night to an island." follows Many years ago there was. and they succeeded in killing it. passes through road of the Black Pig the county Roscommon. We are told that when the Firbolgs ruled the kingdom the land was overrun with swine. we have reason to believe. I. suggests the idea that the boar may be identified with that system of animal worship which. in the immediate neighbourhood of " The grave of the Black Scurmore. in tradition and folk-lore. There are strong indications. determined to pursue the animal until The chase was well sustained. It is said that there are many " other " roads of the Black Pig throughout Ireland. and attention is directed to the case of St. or perhaps in great estimation. was found to be beyond the human power of the Dedanann. Molaise's Gospel.

It is quite evident that this tale is merely a slightly modified version of the death of " The Pursuit of Dermod Derrnod. and fell down writhing in agony. in the county Sligo and is as follows : is related yet amongst the country people. lady was Grania. for the memorable race to receive the successful competitor. one after another. off. beseeching his companions to bring him water from a neighbouring well. by adopting which she might be certain to win. in the county Here the boar turned at bay. whose hunt of the magical boar and Grania by . Soon. the daughter of Cormac. to extricate himself from which some stratagem : . of course. they lost breath. Grania appeared to be left far behind by all the other runners. must be affection devised. and to her he whispered This advice. . the boar.132 ANIMAL WORSHIP. but would also effectually None succeeded in conveying the liquid to him for cure him. where he was subsequently buried his pursuers stood around leaning on their spears. a little vale situated in the townland of Mucduff. as he wished to marry only one of the ladies. which would not alone assuage his unbearable thirst. viewing with amazement the huge proportions of the body. completely exhausted. and finally sank down. and had then the mortifica. thereby causing a venomous bristle to prick his made . Finn. who at once put forth their utmost strength to breast the declivity. but was overtaken in the Valley of the Black Pig. like many a modern gallant. BIRDS. He accordingly made a declaration of equal . as also the length and strength of the bristles with which it was covered. Amongst the bevy of beauties there was one whose charms had made an impression upon Finn's heart. rested the power of ending this but. and was slain on the spot Sligo. by some magical property attached to the spring no human being could carry water away from it. hand. AND AUGURY. as recounted in the legend of " Finn Mac Cool. One of the hunters incautiously stroked them the wrong way. Monarch of Ireland and the counsel which Finn gave her was simply not to attempt to run too fast in the outset lest she should exhaust herself. Each lady imagined that she was the chosen bride of the great chief. finding the province of Ulster uncomfortable quarters. cordially detested her rivals the result was an all-round quarrel. however. and admiration for all the numerous ladies but announced that. each. he found himself placed in an unpleasant predicament. he would leave the decision of the question to the agility of their Finn himself stood at the summit of the hill chosen pretty feet. paid attention to several of the fairest belles of his day without committing himself to any one in particular. as he was not rich enough to marry them all. carried on with such acrimony as threatened to throw the entire kingdom into a Finn perceived that with him alone hopeless embroilment.

near Benbulbin. tumbled off. At last Dermod. at Killala. as formerly she had of his heart. Dermod thereupon entreated Finn to go to a place indicated by him. giddy with the pace and exhausted by his exertion of holding on. with hound and horn. one of Finn's celebrated warriors. and a long life of happiness might have been anticipated for the distinguished pair. On the neck of Dermod was a mole. and was severely injured. thus exposing to riew the magic spot. and all along the Shannon. fell so In vain Finn desperately in love that she eloped with Dermod. As Dermod emerged from his hiding-place the boar ran between his legs. carrying him away astride on his back. who was so moved at his lamentable plight that instead of then wreaking vengeance on his rival he asked if he could afford him relief. Finn stationed hounds in various places. despite the entreaties of Grania that he should remain. relaxed his grasp. During a period of twelve months they eluded pursuit by sleeping in a different " Derplace each night. Finn obtained a wild boar. heated by his culinary work. renowned for ferocity. who chanced to see it. there to pull up a bunch of rushes. excited by the pangs of hunger. the baying of hounds. to his steed. Tobernabostul. who had not the advantage of being bound. Mazeppa-like." erected by Dermod after each day's journey. as well as one of the best cooks of the Feni. as Dermod could not refrain from joining a hunt whenever he heard the music of the hounds. 133 tion to see the princess pass by them. should enable him to burst through the impediment to his freedom. The princess had now gained as firm possession of the chieftain's hand. near ColThe latter. hearing looney. The fall occurred at . Finn pursued. giving orders that the boar should be kept thus confined until his rage. under the rude stone monuments called mod and Grania's Beds. During Finn's absence on this errand the boar returned and _ . where Dermod was then concealed. ficling. the imprisoned animal managed to lift the confining flag. At length Finn decided to inaugurate a boar-hunt this plan he considered must be successful. three drinks of which would cure him. but the lady proved as frail and false as Finn was chivalrous and con The wedding dinner was prepared by Dermod O'Deena. who on this occasion. but in vain for she alone reached the summit. . Jamestown. and put over him a large flagstone.e. where he was found by Finn. which possessed the magical power of causing any woman who gazed on it to fall desperately in love with Dermod. pursued them through mountains and fastnesses. so as to prevent the escape of the boar. joined the hunt.MAGICAL BOARS. which he placed in a pit. as far as Belagrania. Rendered frantic by hunger. Grania. when a spring would at once aris. Several made a last despairing effort. loosened his throat-fastening.

Finn was agreeably surprised to find his enemy in his death agonies.. AAD AUGURY. appeared near Olympus. was at nurse with a swineherd in a lake -dwelling on the lake of Dermod went to see it but. 51. * See ante. she saw but his freshly. imploring him to send his son with chosen hunters and dogs to The king. and thus afford him an excuse for taking his . Vainly they attempted to kill it.134 ANIMAL WORSHIP. There is a close resemblance between the Irish legend and the story of the magical boar of extraordinary size and ferocity which. 35). and did immense injury to the Mysians. dashed out its brains. the swineherd's child was finer than his own. and. by Grania. to pour through his fingers. vol. which differ slightly from the above. The swineherd seized a sucking-pig showing that even at that early date pigs shared the house with human occupants . attacked Dermod. just as the dying animal had succeeded in ripping him up."* There are other versions of the tale. in a cavern in the face of a cliff. warned in a dream of danger threatening destroy it. still called " Dermod and Grania's Bed. and killed it. On returning with the magic drink. according to Herodotus (Clio. but. 50. life. posed to have produced his death. Grania's corpse was carried to repose with that of her husband on the mountain slope. aware of Dermod's unconquerable love of sport. who. allowed the water. for he cut off his head. . as recounted amongst the country people. she fell dead. On the spot where it fell the Well of Tobernabostul sprang Finn was not as generous to his enemy in death as in life up. and finally despatched a letter to Croesus. One of them states that when Finn found the runaway couple he affected to forgive them. and. on perceiving that Templevanny. and all the hunters of the country wept tears of sorrow for the brave and the fair. Finn caused the boarhunters to pass near Dermod's dwelling. in his first surprise.severed head. and brought it back to Belagrania as a When the beautiful but hapless present to his runaway bride. fate of the pig praying that the slayer of his child might meet the and on the following day Dermod was killed by . pp. in the townland of Gleniff. though greatly disabled. in the parish of Eossinver. i. Grania rushed from her hiding-place to meet her husband. BIRDS. 34. managed by superhuman exertions to grasp the fore and hind legs of the boar. the boar. in a paroxysm of despair. which he was carrying in the palm of his hand. on condition that Dermod promised never to hunt within the bounds of his territory. and to pull him to pieces. certain that he would join in the chase. Another variant narrates that a cruel act of Dermod's was supHis infant son.

when his son was accidentally slain by one of own companions. that of the Brudin Da Derga. the to each chieftain division of which. at first refused. never taken off the fire. from which divination was made . providing free entertainment for man and beast. of Ireland. The foregoing narratives are mostly taken from letters. inasmuch as. " Brudins" the destruction of the public establishments styled most celebrated. and he accordingly ordered another to mythical personage. styled The History of Mac Datho's Hoy. . The tale of " The Pursuit of Dermod and Grania " has been translated by Dr. P.MAGICAL BOARS. written at the period of the Ordnance Survey. in which are embodied many oral traditions of the peasantry as then recounted by them. These institutions were large farm-houses. : In various late Irish MSS. but afterwards relented. forms the subject of a curious tale. This his pig. as had the presentation of the apple in classic mythology. became a matter of fierce contention between the guests. there could be taken out only what was sufficient for the company. A hidden observer saw a person going through an incantation. and the assigning his proper share. king of Leinster in the first century of the Christian era. which yielded a proper share to every guest. it is narrated that in many parts up to the establishment of Christianity. 135 his son. or. on the contrary. There is a very curious story in various Irish MSS. open to all comers. W. and permitted him to go in pursuit of the magical boar. and published in Old Celtic Romances. Joyce from the Irish MSS. and no matter what quantity of food was put into it to be cooked. should we not. more instructive in another respect. at any rate. From this failure the unsuccessful performer knew that some unauthorized individual must be looking on. invited the kings of Counaught and of Ulster to a feast. there were It seems strange that the introduction of Christianity should have been the means of abolishing these institutions. where he caused to be served up an enormous hog. was a pagan religious institution. Each of them possessed a magical caldron. at any rate. in which he failed. have expected to see them increase in number and in hospitality with the introduction of the new order of things. slay incident is valuable as denoting the animal. who appears to have been a swine-herd.. as was intended by their crafty entertainer for the partition of the carcase of the animal had the same effect in Ireland. on the . one and it is even of the animals. and the inauguration of the law of love ? Any person who studies the supernatural episodes attending the destruction of Brudin Da Derga will undoubtedly arrive at the conclusion that this establishment. and divine who was looking into the Brudin. MacDatho. for if they were mere houses..

. . chap. held in high reverence. . . and so deceive the people thereby. "It was unlawful. but it chanced the buyers of them to bring them to any water. in The Evil Eye. Continent. that in Ireland " olde wyfes and wymmen by crafts of nygromancie maketh fat and selleth hem in chepinge and in feires but anon these swyne swyne. chap. that an Act was made in Ireland that no man should buy any red swine. in ancient Egypt. as well as on those struck by the cognate races of Britain. but without . of battle. But I have heard of so many and seen so much myself. Witches used to send to the markets many red swine. Spain. an offence punishable by statute. pp. to see unto. e. Elworthy quotes Higden. to which our " Irish Munchausen " alludes but an enactment (2 Elizabeth. . by means whereof they have lost their money. i. straw.f particulars as to . and then only at the full moon. 333. Styria. Elworthy. t Mr. and Galatia. pigs running about with straws in their mouths foretells an approaching storm. for in Ireland (as they have been in England) witches are. there is a curious reference to swine. old rotten boards. and would in that form continue long. the primitive God In the old pamphlet. states that. to sacrifice the pig to any gods but to the moon and Bacchus. water they torneth agen in to her own kynde. by Trcvisa. entitled Beware the It is as follows Cat. i.136 ANIMAL WORSHIP. and it is stated to have been a well-recognised Celtic symbol on the coins of every part of Gaul. . or such other cattle as they gave in exchange. that I : am sure they do it. the pig was sacrificed to Mars Sylvanus. In the late Celtic period the figure of the boar was used as decoration. * Mr." To see ."" There does not appear to be any Act in the Irish Statute Book prohibiting the sale of red swine. 4) for the preservation of salmon and eel made the feeding or pasturage of swine upon any strand or the banks of any river. Except on this days. The cause whereof was this. pig. . is attached to upwards of eighty townland names throughout Ireland. or some other such like trumpery. 334. But these swyne passeth mowe not be i-kept by no manere craft for to dure in likneses of swyn over thre . Polychron. Rolls Series. as any might be. already mentioned. and they be so cunning that they can change the shapes of things as they list at their pleasure. F. "I cannot tell by what means witches (spelling modernized) do change their own likeness and the shapes of other things. for fear. during certain periods of the year. T. both the pig and wild boar were held in abhorrence as unclean animals unfit for food. T. 2). Higden. says Herodotus. F. AND AUGURY. A general Act against witchcraft and sorcery was passed at a somewhat late period (28 Elizabeth. fair and fat. 360. BIRDS. Swine have bequeathed their name to innumerable places the prefix muck. charms or enchantments. Immediately they found them returned either into wisps of hay. . his translator. .

to throw pigs.' so that if eating was forbidden on account of uncleanness. FIG. It came at length to be 'an embodiment of the corn-goddess herself.' and many small porcelain figures of sows probably we may with reason consider them as amulets. ' for they might neither eat nor kill them. as things don longagone. have yet to speak. or chasms of Demeter and Proserpine. foretelling a death. Representation of a Boar in Bronze. but they belong to a very late period two in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy are here given (figs. becomes clearer. representing the descent of Proserpine into the lower world. . in the R. A. The Greeks could not decide whether the Jews worshipped swine or abominated them. Plutarch considered the pig to be connected with the worship of Osiris. the unlawfulness of killing them tells still more strongly for their sanctity. 'I ." occasion the people were forbidden to eat its flesh. and he was ' an emblem of Evil. and gazing thereupon. Things long to come foreshowes. Which usually they boil. describes this " practice as reading the speal bone. Half real size. in a tomb at Thebes. a festival confined to .DIVINING BY HE BLADE BONE. . A. it is condemned by Osiris ' to return to earth under the form of a pig. Half real Camden depicts the Irish of his time as in the habit of looking through the blade-bone of a sheep to try and discover a dark spot. I. Drayton." phoria. and. the spade-hone being bar'd. 137 Kepresentations in bronze have been occasionally found in Ireland. found. 40). also to her daughter and have proved to be unam eandemqite. There were ' . but gave it back to the person from whom it was purchased. and that they were not eaten because they were divine. it was customary for the women to eat swine's flesh. . 40. of a later period.' when on weighing the soul it is found wanting. or some other unclean animal.' "In Greek mythology the pig. and at the Thesmoto ' whom we women. The boar is represented In the judgment scenes. in his Polyolbion. Which when the wizard takes. and it also appears in the legend of Horus. as an amulet. . By th' shoulder of a ram from off the right side par'd. Even then they did not eat the pig. of course. in general. and helps us further in the explanation of another important modern charm of which we . in the collection of the R. 39. FIG.' Proserpine. which was sacrificed before their door. Representation of a Boar in Bronze. and pine-branches into the Megara." " A divination strange the Dutch-made English have Appropriate to that place (as though some power it gave). " The pig was sacred double. and that. I. Demeter. Frazer believes that swine were rather sacred than unclean to the Jews. cakes of dough. collection of the size. so-called unclean animals were originally sacred. o9.

Auguries were drawn from it by removing the flesh and looking through the semi-transparent bone. and he brings it afterwards on a flag behind the door. is but little doubt that if may yet be found. in is not ex- tinct. He chews a piece of the flesh of a red pig. but he finds them not on the morrow. And he pronounces incantations on his two palms. particularly amongst the Irish-speaking portion of the Proofs that it did exist are numerous. because it was renouncing baptism. The bone used for divining had to be the right shoulder-blade of a ram. thus falls asleep. interrupted and he lays his two palms on his two cheeks. . it and there . confined to the illiterate and superstitious. some of the most eminent men of all ages have clung firmly to the belief in their A prominent feature in the Confessio supernatural character. in order that his sleep may not be . and in most parts of Asia. On the contrary. The heat occasions the bone to crack in various directions these cracks generally vary greatly. or of a dog. and in his slumber information regarding the future was revealed to him. then dissolve it in water. St. and that it population. bone" . and and he is watched in order that no one may interrupt or disturb him. as it is at present in Greece. as a message from the spirit world. could it be for a moment supposed he would make use of the following rites " Through this the poet discovers whatever he desires to reveal. and offers it to idol gods and his idol gods are brought to him. slept near a stream. as a portent of future events. goat. wrapped in the freshly removed skin of a ram. The BIRDS.138 ANIMAL WORSHIP. or cat. One of the means adopted to obtain magical prescience of future events was of a strange character. or bull. Another method was to reduce the bone to a powder. and chants an incantation on it. ." It must not be imagined that belief in dreams. it is alleged. until everything about which he is engaged is revealed to him. : remote parts careful search be made. and declared that whoever should practise it would neither enjoy heaven nor earth. and divine by the cracks caused by the heat of the fire. or ever has been. Another process of divining was to broil the bone. and swallow the mixture. Patrick abolished this. or as a revelation from on High. as far as the island of Ceylon.. The postulant. and his idol gods are also brought to him. was practised in the same manner in Ireland. or waterfall. practice of "divining by the blade It still lingers. is. AND AUGURY. It would not do to thus leave open the door of the temple of magic to the general reader. and from these the result of the augury was drawn.. of St. but there are certain usuallyoccurring and principal lines of cleavage. Another receipt is preserved in Cormac's Glossary. as well as amongst the Bedouins. Patrick is his firm belief in certain dreams which he .

there appears to have been nothing in them to distinguish them from ordinary dreams. when he falls asleep his second self leaves his familiar body and journeys forth to unfamiliar regions. the great authority on dream interpretation (oneirocritics) for the this supernatural common form which . or the direct utterance of a divine message. at least under certain circumstances. Its one point of attachment to the experience of waking life lies in its symbolic function . this dream-world is regarded as similar in its nature or structure to our common The savage conceives that world. marking a higher grade of intellectual culture. though equal in reality to that of day. in his work on Illusions. Artemidorus. One method of frustrating the effects of a menacing vision was to relate its purport to the Sun. and that he should subsequently dream of his escape. since the phantasms that wear the guise of objective realities are simply images spread out to the spirit's gaze. " A second and more thoughtful view of dreams. this mysterious contact of the mind with the supernatural is regarded as a fact. is that these visions of the night are symbolic pictures unfolded to the inner eye of the soul by some supernatural being. is passed in a wholly disconnected region. less real than it was before. James Sully. and so on. only lying remote from this. but now analysis of deductions from dream-incidents. and so the dream assumes the appearance of a higher order of experience. remarks that " The earliest theories respecting dreams illustrate very clearly the perception of the remoteness of dream-life from waking experience. languishing for years in slavery. in a sense. as described by him. for the view assumes is that the dream is a dim prevision of coining events. a too full stomach. and it is to be observed that. the experience of the night. who was credited with the power of safeguarding the postulant from evils threatened by the night. Still. he should have his waking thoughts occupied about flight. or are influenced by acts and occurrences of past life. The ancient Greeks imagined that a certain class of dreams were a revealment of the future. From this point of view. It was not then observed that many dreams arise from an overheated imagination. The dream experience is now.DREAMS. known as Oneirology or Oneiromancy. dethroned from its position as a science is relegated to the custody of charlatans. What could be more natural than that. where it meets the departed second selves of his dead ancestors. practised in all ages and in all classes. and that their fulfilment could not be averted but by expiating ceremonies. although we mig-ht seem to possess the warranty of Holy Scripture for its orthodoxy as well as for its genuineness. By the simple mind of primitive man. 139 considered to be direct revelations from the Almighty.

If a countryman. ' ancient world. he abandons the journey. This. semi-humorous custom common all over Ireland. A singular survival of augury by birds is still practised by " children on the " merry-thought or wishing-bone of a chicken. or about to undertake a particular work. or relinquishes the work. signifying either good or evil to come '. Peeling an apple in a long. in many districts. when on the ground. enacts the role of a benevolent personage. the red-haired man. as you start on important business. and who imagine themselves to be free from the weakness of superstition. actually defines a dream as a motion or friction of the soul in a diverse form. their power. BIRDS. can extricate himself from . The same mode of viewing dreams is quite common to-day.140 ANIMAL WORSHIP. . first sight look so wild and lawless. and even a logician like Porphyry ascribes dreams to the influence of a good demon. about to start from home on a journey. swinging the peel three times round the head and then throwing it over the left shoulder married or single life being foretold by the peel remaining entire or breaking and finding in the coils of the peel so cast. at least for the time or he abandons it altogether. or the red-haired woman. who thereby warns us of the evils which another and bad demon is preparing for us. should still pass for miraculous interruptions of the natural order of events. AND AUGURY. if not disNor is it surprising that phenomena which at tinctly ominous. yet. it is with the full impression that his doing so will . narrow strip from core-end to core-end. the initial or initials of their coming sweetheart is a semi-superstitious. To meet a flat-footed or a red-haired man the first thing in the morning is unlucky red-haired people are. almost savagely disliked. but to meet a red-haired woman. that the man who will not at once turn back must have " nerve enough to face the devil. when pulled asunder. who finds himself helpless under fairy spells. are apt to talk of dreams as of something mysterious. in actual everyday life. denotes good luck to the one in whose . in many instances." Though considered very unlucky. generally. are treated as foreigners. result in failure. or points out the means whereby the unhappy mortal. is such a terrible omen. and should never be trusted. observes a bad omen. on the other hand. Red-haired men are bad enough. thin. and many who pride themselves on a certain intellectual culture. if the omen be very inauspicious but if from sheer necessity he must proceed. and rescues. in the fairy world." The peasantry were formerly very particular in their observance of omens.

They believe. The cuckoo. which is sometimes thought to augur approachIn the account of the death of Dr. and Correspondence of Bishop Doyle. if they killed a robin. struck by the novelty of the circumcurtained bed. whenever this country was scourged by war. : . no matter how wild or cruel. the " harbinger . the spiddoge) is. and witches were accused of sacrificing cocks. partly from love. n." as it is poetically for designated. robin approach the doorstep. and sometimes perching on the unThe priests. " p. betokens a severe spring. Many auguries are drawn from the appearance or flight of birds on New Year's morning. and even in late years this cure has been resorted to for epilepsy.THE "MERRYTHOUGHT. Mr. Vol. and not winter. in a futile attempt to locate the sound." Many curious anecdotes are on record concerning the appearance of the robin. Whoever " the robin kills a robin will never prosper. A rook perched on the housetop portends a death in the household if perched on the cattle byre some of the inmates are certain to be afflicted with disease during the oncoming year. a blessed bird. him. and snow. of spring. Times. a large lump would grow on the palm of their right hand. as. as given ing death. A good omen is to see a crane. frost. preventing them from working or from hurling. made no effort to expel the little visitors hung lovingly over the Bishop's head until death released We ." Should the robin enter a house in autumn it is said to prognosticate approaching hard weather. 141 possession the larger portion of the bone remains again. It is doubtless this ventriloquistic characteristic which has made it the subject of strange fancies and of . the visit of two robin redbreasts in the sick room may be noticed as interesting. partly from fear. The peculiar whistle of the starling is regarded with especial trepidation by the peasantry as they are supposed to be communiTo hear a blackbird sing. Doyle. know that the cock was the usual sacrifice offered to unfriendly spirits and to the fairies. They remained fluttering round." . The belief in the peculiar luckiness of this bone is evidently derived from the ancient use of the cock in divination. and no one. it has boxed the compass.. 496. would kill or hurt one. is a wandering voice and a wandering mystery while you pause. in the Life. these birds always mysteriously disappeared. when the " merry thought" is drawn as a lot it gives a wish to the fortunate drawer of the lucky portion. Fitz-Patrick says Considering that the season was mid-summer. and the robins stance. for (in Irish. Burying a live cock is described as a remedy for insanity. as is well known. Amongst other means used by the Druids to foretell future events was observation of the movements of birds. or to see a cating with the fairies.

towards whatever quarter he is then looking. that the listener hears it. they said it was certain." my . cousin. in that quarter he will live during the next year and if he has money in his pocket he will never be without it during the year. BIRDS. and overtook upon the way two gentlemen of the old Irish stock. A sure interpreter of fate. On the first day of the year. There is a rhyme current alike in Ireland and Great Britain. wild fables.' pointing at the same instant to a raven feeding and hopping hard by. in spring. matters cry'd out with joy to the other will go well. You may sell your corn and buy a cow. They told me they were going a good way further. the 1st of May. . putting some questions to those gentlemen. by heaven. for the first time.142 ANIMAL WORSHIP. they were Upon fully confirm'd about the success of their business. with whom I had contracted some acquaintance at the coffee-house. : " You may on a bare thorn. . and with a great noise. and flying on the right hand of any person. ' : . recounts the following anecdote to illustrate the manner in which omens regarding the " When I was in raven were looked on in his time Dublin." ." birth of The New Year was sometimes poetically reckoned from the summer. Toland. for as Churchill says : " Among Romans not a bird . nor would they stir till they saw what way the raven flew. . Classic antiquity shows the parallel instances. which had a white feather or two in the wing The other appear'd no less transported. Without a prophecy was heard Fortunes of empires often hung On the magician magpie's tongue And every crow was. : . to the State. I walked out one day to the village of Finglass. about a business and not many minutes after one of 'ern of some importance See. So will good come to me But not the little false cuckoo. croaking at the same time. which being to the south of them. that was towards us. that a raven having any white in its wings. was an infallible presage of good-luck. by observation of all ages. in his History of the Druids. The cuckoo is associated with ideas of divination. respecting the cuckoo . in the year 1697. for an ancient Irish rhyming : augury says " A white lamb on my right hand." If a cuckoo sits sell . your cow and buy corn But if she sits on a green bough. AND AUGURY.

with land of Lurgy. B). sentations of birds. terminated on one side by a bird and at the other by a ring. It possesses neither rings. within two miles of Ballymoney.. when illness of any kind is visiting a house. ^ . portion of the instrument. FIG. death's dreadful messenger The hoarse night raven. county Antrim." o'er the infected house. in Othello.county Tyrone. about the year 1829. . zigzag * pattern (see fig. a large bronze pin. Fig. . 41) are two through centre of 6g' 4I> holes about one-eighth of an p ^ The repreinch in diameter. on this curious relic. but of similar make. Another instrument five inches longer than the foregoing. 1 . as an inauspicious sound : " 0. in three parts (A. in the year 1851." Shakspeare. at the other a The superior movable ring. Uncfourth real s KC. in the townronze instrument. as seen in the engraving. 41. is perforated at unequal distances with seven holes. point to the workmanship not being earlier than the sixth century. j This portion is hollow and contains a bronze wire with a e . together with fragments of wooden vessels. discovered. was FIG. Pa " rn of Bronze Wire running At E and F (tig.OMENS. but was otherwise perfect. Spenser " 143 calls it . At one extremity is a double hook. Brooches with bird-head ornamentation have been found on the sites of Lake DwelPetrie states that it is observable on lings. in a bog in the townland of Dunaverney. nor birds. describes its harsh croak. through each of which a wire passes. 42). Petrie. joined by pieces of oak inlaid with thin layers of bronze. uira ornaments. The ill-fac'd owle. 41 represents a very early croziers. and some This curious antique is made stone hatchets. curious bronze instrument found. 42. it comes o'er my memory As dotli the raven Boding to iill. three miles from Dungannon. trompe of doleful dreere.

the sick one will die. if plucked by the swallow. It is for must be at . adform even a rational who brought under mitted that he was unable to Another antiquarian was of conjecture as to its probable use. uncomplimentary rhyme . but if it turns its head to the door whilst crowing.wagtail near the house man was lying ill with a virulent fever. and a cock turns his head to the hearth and crows." " it is a sure sign that it is fairy struck. it is even regarded as a death herald." He is thus sometimes called the " Devil's Bird. by his voice all respectable ghosts are regulated. Neither destroy. heralds bad news. or one of the inmates of the household will die within the twelvemonth. Gay says " When swallows fleet soar high. for it is equally well known that every swallow has in him three drops of the Devil's blood. visitors are coining. . is in some localities considered to bring bad luck to the household We have the well-known. nor rob the nests of swallows that build about the house they bring luck. described antique. A hen in the farmyard that can crow like her spouse. however." air. A water.144 ANIMAL WORSHIP. dooms the unfortunate loser to irretrievable mis. : " A whistling maid and a crowing hen. opinion that it was employed either for divination as by a little sleight-of-hand the birds could be moved to suit the design of the officiating priest or for sacrificial purposes. and to the fair sex. the first AND AUGURY. notice totally BIRDS. Are good for neither God nor men. fortune. they announce continued fine weather. " that saves a swallow you will certainly suffer. and at the first sound of his morning notes. its head cut off and flung on the floor. If if swallows fly : they fly low. they cease to trouble the If a hen crows when living and return to their proper abode. It is fear alone from injury. and sport in He told us that the welkin would be clear. Whilst a a water-wagtail came . that the cock should crow. the patient will recover. they are said to foretell approaching rain Thus high. and if you injure them. A clocking hen should never be lent. which. It is lucky for a hen if a cock comes to the and chickens to stray into the house roosting in a cabin." There is the strange belief that on everyone's head there is a certain hair. threshold and crows." once caught. remove. It good for mortals. If anyone is sick in a cabin.

in a few minutes after picked up the bird dead. the bird still returned each morning and tapped at the glass as before. somewhat resembling that of a watch and this is conceived to bean evil omen or prediction of some person's . that it was always the case. and woodwork in the summer. was the death of a water. wherein I have seen and heard them work and knock with a little proboscis or trunk against the side of the box like a Picus martius. II. and even after his death. even still regard the tapping made by Dean Swift wrote the this little insect as an omen of death." It is strange that so many people should. or It worketh best in warm weather. It satisfied the family that the time was at hand. He that could extinguish the terrifying apprehensions hereof. and kept them in thin boxes. the little clicking sound heard often in many rooms. from day to ckiy. stating over and over again. For this noise is made by a little sheath-winged. and for the most part giveth not over but under nine or eleven strokes at a time.OMENS. VOL. and many cold sweats in grandmothers and nurses. I certainly gave little heed to what she said. are so startled with . benches. and was preserved as a tradition in the family. 1820. off which I. taken many thereof. who was living in the house. Then the family knew that further misfortune was in store. notwithstanding. that she felt sure her brother would live till after a bird of this kind should kill itself at the window. and the evil came as foretold another person was suddenly . where members of our family had died in that room. and thence rolling off on the roof of a pantry or office beneath. " This trifling event was made curiously interesting by a sister of the sick person. and brought it to the lady who had actually predicted the fact. these noises. might prevent the passions of the heart. L . that all had been looking to for some weeks. taken ill and died. till I was startled from my reading at the window indicated. despite the very obvious origin of the noise. woodpecker. grey insect [Ancibium tessellatum) found often in We have often wainscot. death wherein." Sir Thomas Browne remarks that " Few ears have escaped the noise of the death-watch.wagtail : which killed itself by flying against one of the windows of the bedroom in which lay a dying person. Indeed she went so far as to maintain. against a tree. there is nothing of rational presage or just cause of terror. 145 regularly and pecked at the window pane. who. and falling on the window stool stunned. that is. for one had done so in several previous cases. by a bird of this kind striking the window with great force. in the sickness of children. A superstition occurred in friend of O'Donovan's gave the following account of the The incident which regarding this little bird November.

89. It was long. T. Elworthy. the danger is over. F. that man who slays a swan shall die. than the observance. and the absurd doctrine of the generation of these sea-fowl was finally refuted.. If the But a maggot cries click when it scratches the post.. omen " A wood worm That in old wood. however. the prohibition is " more honour'd in the breach."* In modern days in Ireland. &c. his children were. With teeth or with claws it will bite or will scratch. doubtelsewhere still firmly believe that the barnacle goose. as already narrated (vol. : BIRDS. as an Irish saying. 148).e.. And chambermaids christen the worm a death-watch lies : Because like a watch." some In early days in Ireland the swan was doubtless the totem of tribe. . Probably the delusion first " arose from the designation." The movements of swans are regarded as heralding good or bad " weather. it always cries click Then woe be to those in the house who are sick For as sure as a gun they will give up the ghost." of the country people in the county Sligo and. listening to that cry. The maggot will die. : . Some * The Evil Eye. 147. remarks : 'twere no bad thing. The omen is broken. like a hare in her form . that they made a law and proclaimed grieved it throughout the land that no one should kill a swan in Erin. and the sick will recover. which breeds in the high northern latitudes." being common to both. i. AND AUGURY. even learned writers gravely affirmed the same. and. They are also supposed to sing before they die." and on this superstition Coleridge wittily ".146 ANIMAL WORSHIP. is really propagated from the cirriped marine shell-fish so often found adhering to wooden piles and hulks of vessels but. . In Welsh histories he appears as Lear. Infallibly cures the timbers affected . for. turned into swans. before truth prevailed. i. in former times.. in this idea. Iceland. charm to avert the fatal following amusing. from that time forth. demonstrates the : intensity of belief in its sanctity " Then was Decreed ' it Erin's sons. but is a winter visitant to our sea-coast. Should certain persons die before they sing. as well as practical.' " Lir was an ocean-god common to Ireland and Britain. pp. kettle of scalding hot water injected. less. Lapland. they are not singular. by " and the men of Erin were so enchantment. barnacle. pp. at their departure. thus translated. 90.

plucke Are breed on Irish Grounde: But worse than Pies. but they are now very common. an object of aversion to the Christian priesthood the triumphant religion signalised its ascendancy by endeavouring . seventeenth. " a little bird has told me. Du Bartas describes the various transformations of this bird. 147 Giraldus Cambrensis." Many other instances of the importance attached to the appearance and movements of birds might be given that of the wren. Thus tj>e. shall here suffice. on which Meyer wrote a treatise.. for a wedding. the Mayiis Avium. writing in 1617. or piant. PEACOCK. Four for a birth. late in or early in the eighteenth century. The possession of peacocks' feathers brings ill-luck." From hence is probably In a life of derived the saying. Molaing. in his History of Cork. I can tell you no more. Two Five for rich. AND WREN. in 1774. so-called " because to certain indiA bird viduals it furnishes auguries. it is recounted that. and Gerarde. and which Sir Eobert Murray describes in Philosophical Transactions. that is coming. is explained as " Draoi-en. which was an object of respect to the Druids became. the same to burne." Chattering Pye" Moryson. as early as the twelfth century. Six for poor. on its introduction into Ireland. as the saint was reading a book. In Cormac's Glossary. . a Druid bird. in 1581. Seven for a witch. states that the was not present in Ireland. both allude to it. wren. a bird that makes a prediction. i. wrote the Image of Ireland. When peacocks make a loud shrill and discordant noise they are said to predict rain." : Derrick who. in his Herball." came flying to him. says " No Pies to the thatch from house.SWAN. MAGPIE. states that "the magpie. and Smith. almost of and necessity. promulgated this view in his Topographia Hibernice. and the more they scream the heavier the downpour This is an imported item of folk-lore. the word dram. Three for mirth. Sir John Maundeville. " .e." St. A thousand maie be founde. It seems very strange that the folklore pertaining to the magpie accompanied it. an object of superstitious veneration amongst the Pagan Irish. was not known in Ireland seventy years ago. we have amongst us the English popular rhyme regarding the appearances of magpies : " One for anger.

the whole assemble and wren In the give eager chase to. and is carried through the streets in procession. A . . is the wren being. Stephen's day was caught in the furze. It won't agree with the wren boys at . a pole. sing ivy. for in striving to effect the destruction of "the king of all birds. and an intended surprise by head. the utmost excitement prevails shouting. 44) the following rhyme ' ' . " The wren. good landlady. by a troop of boys. and at the same time singing (fig. the wren. and every now and then stopping before some popular house where they hope to obtain money" (fig. screeching. shouting and roaring as they proceed along. or the motive for so much energy in pursuit of such small gear. " And if you draw it of the best. the ting of all birds. I hope in Heaven your soul will rest But if you draw it of the small. This bush is an object of admiration in proportion to the number of dependent birds. III. elevated on enigma is explained. is little. among whom may be usually found children of a larger growth. the little bird was a favourite with the Williamites. and rushing all sorts of missiles are flung at the puny mark and. the Jacobites was thus frustrated. A drop just to drink. . 48). Hence. extirpate any object which appeared to resist it . it would drown melancholy. Sing holly. St. Stephen (the 26th of December) the Attached to a huge holly-bush. until they have slain the little bird. treat. all. sing holly. and was persecuted by the Jacobite This legend is even carried back to Danish times peasantry. his family's great.148 to ANIMAL WORSHIP. crowds of village boys may be seen peering into the hedges. . AND AUGURY. not unfrequently they light upon the head of some less innocent From bush to bush." the priests wished to deal a death-blow to the superstitious " For some weeks preceding Christinas. the bodies of several little wrens are borne about. . hunt. My box would speak if it had but a tongue. sing ivy. Although he I pray you. BIRDS. On the anniversary of St. stranger is utterly at a loss to conceive the cause of this hubbub. pursued until bagged with as much pride and pleasure as the The cock of the woods by the more ambitious sportsman." legend narrates that some soldiers of the army of William were awakened by the noise of a wren pecking on the drumThe drummer beat to arms. give us a " And two or three shillings would do it no wrong. in search of the tiny and when one is discovered. : science of augury. from hedge to hedge.

p. to the astonishment of the assembly. as he of all the birds could go nearest the sun. she should resume this form on each succeeding Christmas Day. It was decreed that. The Air sung 1'X " the Wren Boj-s. According to another account this singular practice was founded on a tradition that. when. where they were drowned in the ocean. 149 but both accounts appear to have been manufactured with the object of accounting for the prevailing custom. it is alleged originated the barbarous practice of hunting the wren. 43. It was finally agreed that the : bird who could fly highest should be elected. Hall's Ireland. and Mrs. Hence. until at continued for a r J ll. crimes. and that she should ultimately fall by mortal hand. by no means confined to the Gaelic. escaped by taking the form of i''io. into which she enticed them.THE WREN. in days gone by. The eagle felt sure of the kingly honour. period. assembled to discuss the matter. accounts importance attached to the tiny wren in the following manner The birds desiring to have a king to rule over them." From Mr. to compete. 372) exercised such fascination over young men. a wren. "The Wren Boys. and not only evaded her spells. Up soared the and when he could not attain a higher position and had .. This lengthened length one young man discovered the charm for counteracting the arts of the enchantress. 44. for the Another legend. FIG. but laid a plot for her dewhich she only struction. Hall's Ireland. that she induced numbers to follow her to the seashore." as a punishment for her From Mr. i. a beautiful but malignant fairy some say Cleena (see vol. and Mrs. the wren came forward and asked permission eagle.

. to dream you kill little bird is considered to herald good fortune In the Isle of Man. The superstition regarding sneezing is of almost world-wide distribution. . The act of sneezing was. to signify " as an omen here enumerated in conjunction with sneezing other omens.knotty the twig. the hearer allows a short interval to elapse before he resumes the intended occupation." or. from a wren was formerly considered a most efficacious protection against shipwreck. Penelope regarding " She spoke it in this light : Telemachus then sneez'd aloud . as well as amongst the Malabarese. Pliny says that sneezing in the morning was unlucky at to sneeze to the right hand was also lucky. " where are you " now. " salvere amongst the Eomans they cried jusserunt. Amongst the Singalese. Columbkille. up above " for the wren had hid itself in the feathers on the eagle's you So its cunning prevailed over superior strength. a feather taken one is a portent of evil. when anyone is about to commence work.150 ANIMAL WORSHIP. BIRDS. attributed to St. he scornfully exclaimed. the Son of God. I adore not the voice of birds. Constrain'd. nor woman. AND AUGURY. . . if a person sneezes suddenly. little wren ?" The answer was prompt . My " Druid is Christ. or start on a journey. as we " save us. . his nostrils echoed through the crowd The smiling queen the happy omen bless' d So may these impious fall by fate oppress'd. and Manx fishermen would seldom put to sea without knowing their boat to be thus safeguarded. kinds of divination " It is not : with the Sreod our destiny is. here. in Historia Britonum of Nennius." The idea being that sneezing was occasioned by say. nor chance. noon lucky . his descent. Nor the Sreod. and translated by O'Donovan. world. this translation of the word seems to be a very likely solution of the enigma. to take food or drink. Nor with the bird on the top of Nor with the trunk of a. but to When anyone sneezed sneeze to the left hand the reverse." Sreod is stated. it is evident that the saint alludes to various back. and it was Even in the present day to dream of the awarded the crown. commenced . In an ancient poem." . conwe find sidered an auspicious omen amongst the ancients . nor a destiny on the earthly Nor a son. under certain circumstances. tree.

According to an old Jewish the custom of saying "God bless you. primitive man was. remedied by the Almighty." when a person story." and adds. . if they were able to provoke the act of sneezing from their patients who might be thought dangerously indisposed. at the intercession of Jacob. conceived hopes of their recovery.OMENS REGARDING SNEEZING. sneezing was a proof that an evil spirit was attempting to gain access to the body." Amongst the Irish. Before sneezes. dates from the days of the Patriarch Jacob. which through the nostrils expels what is offensive. so an invocation was necessary to drive it away on the other hand. a child that never sneezes is regarded as under a spell. whoever sneezed died of the shock. This fragility of his time." . " that medical people. on condition that a sneeze should universally be hallowed by the formula. brain. " God bless you. and in some degree demonstrates internal strength. 151 Aristotle states that sneezing is " a motion of the some demon.

. as to the men of old. and Roots." that the worship of nature was one of the discoveries of the Kenaissance. as those who. all enshrining or symbolising a divine principle . everything was personified in a manner common to animal and human consciousness alike. TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. possessed by the Druids The Primitive Surgeon Weapons Poisoned with Vegetable Decoctions The Primitive Physician The TTse of Poisons The Science of Medicine Tfre Treatment of the Insane Medicine Men Witch Doctors Wise Women They possessed a large Pharmacopoeia "Witchcraft The Treatment of Witches Clergy opposed to Progress in Medicine Enumeration of Remedies employed by Witch-doctors The Fairies the Guardians of Healing Herbs Precautions taken circumvent them Unlucky to cut Finger-nails or Hair without certain Ceremonies The idea wide-spread The Elixir of Life The Magic Caldron The ancient physician diagnosed disease by the character of the groans emitted by the sufferer Paid on the principle of " no cure no use of Saliva to pay. the emblem and cause of fertility.CHAPTER V. save perhaps that of water. At some very early period of the world's at present unwritten history. in any country. such as the adoration of the sun. linked with. the tree is still primitive thought. have pared the forest to the stump. Herbs. have. or of stones. but too late. but no other ritual. for the further back we go the more multiform become the mythological interpretations of the world . Worship of Trees at one time almost imiversal Solitary growing Trees held in Sacred Trees The Tree an Emblem of Life great veneration by the Irish The Alder The Willow Properties ascribed to the Rowan The Thorn Knowledge of the Medicinal Properties of Flowers. of water. if not indeed always. discovered to their cost. but overshadowed by. other cults. or has left behind such prominent marks to guide our footsteps in the murky twilight of To us. has been so widely distributed. and it does not show much judgment to subscribe " to what a recent writer terrfls the literary heresy. the worship of trees appears to have been almost universal. of animals." TREE worship is usually.

a hamadryad is represented as beseeching a woodman to spare a tree to which her very existence was ' bound up : " Loud through the air resounds the woodman's stroke.." worship. Spare. Amongst the old Norse. from the bark my blood in torrents flows " I faint. 158 Lorrg ages before. Of nymphs and fawns. and the offerings of these to the gods of fruitfulness hence. lo a voice breaks from the groaning oak. I perish from your blows. the genius of the Greek for personification placed but a thin veil of mythology between the gazer and nature. the wooded region This. . and the whole of the northern part became covered with dense forests.K. Hence all the festivals rich in flowers and fruits. F. of destruction for the sake of reproduction. The Pentateuchal laws condemned the high places of Israel with their associated symbol of the sacred tree or pole. .' ! ' ! ! . the ceremonies of weeping over the Treedeath. the Tree of Life. .TREE WORSHIP ALMOST UNIVERSAL. which included stones as well as living things. that of trees played so relics of it survive all over leading a part among the Aryans Europe. of fruitfulness and decay. unfortunately translated yrove in the authorised version of the Old Testament. every grave being the cradle of another form of life. in Hebrew ashera. and of rejoicing over the birth of nature-gods. I sink. ever recurring events of birth and death. in the groups of customs and festivals connected with All through nature there are the agriculture and the seasons. Thus frequently occurs amongst the literature Virgil. in the JEneid (Book viii. explains why. and in later times of sacrifices under trees. remarks that Europe at the close of the great Ice Age favoured the growth of vegetation. too. Edward " The warm climate of Clodd. life was figured as a tree. the sacred tree. spare my life a trembling virgin spare Oh. Sacred trees are frequently mentioned in the Pentateuch. and savage-men who took Their birth from trunks of trees and stubborn oak. like all nature-worship is based upon the old belief in . If we turn to the Bible we read of the trees of life and of knowledge. amidst the varied objects of their worship. See.S.A. stretching beyond the Arctic circle. In Apollonius Rhodius." In ancient Babylonian or Chaldean religion there figures a most important object. listen to the Hamadryad's prayer! No longer let that fearful axe resound Preserve the tree to which my life is bound. for he saw not natural objects but beautiful things. This idea of tree of the ancient life Komans. in large degree. in which oaks of large size abounded.) : " These woods were first the seat of sylvan powers. When.

and absurd stories." In the parish of Ockley. . wither. in the first place. whilst addressing them on Mars Hill. and which Grant " I do not mean for a moment to assert. Tree worship was probably the same in Erin. Wakeman. from the reverence paid to trees or plants which actually sprang from the remains of the dead. as far as I can see. some graves had rosetrees at the head and foot. founded on these designations. " bleed when cut (sounds issuing from them sometimes when wounded). that slept and awoke. life spoken of above. The leaves and branches murmur in the zephyr. that after -their Margaret and Sweet William Billa when : death " Out of her breast there sprang a rose. St. for fact. Paul to meet the philosophic pantheism of the Greeks. in common with those of the British Islands generally. or ever grew. and so were regarded like everything else that came out of the tomb as embodiments." The life. And there they tied in a true lover's knot. he says. or avatars. as that practised elsewhere. in bud. in autumn. moan in the breeze. we are also His offspring. or periodical games celebrated. bursts out in spring.said that in God " we live and move and have our being. but I do mean to say that. in flower and fruit. of the dead man's spirit. " that in ante-Christian days natives of Erin. The Pantheist showed a readiness probably not so far from the truth. in summer." signifying a large tree. or plants. in leaf." And. could only have arisen. F. God " is above . in writing to the Colossians. may be heard recounted of their origin. " it is related. when he . become old and die. Was not this all irrefutable evidence of an indwelling spirit." . was the term used by the Irish describing sacred trees now anglicised bell and bellow trees. Allen sums up thus or even suggest. and it is stated that in former times the parishioners thought the soul of the deceased passed into the In the Scottish ballad of " Fair plant growing on the grave." remarks W. on the grave of a dead person. again. that died and came to life again. Trees and plants grow. as certain is also of your own poets have said. that every individual sacred tree grows. So they are credited with a life like that of man. and shriek in the gale. and they were regarded with intense " there exists abundant evidence of the veneration. were wont to worship certain trees. And out of his a briar They grew till they grew unto the church top.154 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. Solitary-growing trees were held in great veneration by the old Irish under some of them their chiefs were inaugurated. the notion of the sanctity of trees. apparently locked up in the all-present tree during the long winter.

and with it are still associated many The old Irish believed that the first man popular superstitions.S. though He dwells exceeding nigh. the larger branches giving off smaller branches representing families." According to all tradition the mountain ash was a favourite tree with the pagans. too far.A. and that was. entitled unknown God." A poem lately written . Bishop Heber. : ****" " The God I know of. in his " passed a fine tree of the Journey in India." is seemingly a plea for pantheism in it he introduces the pantheism which appears to permeate one of the newly discovered logia (placed in italics) origin. she will stir the cream with a twig of rowan." The rowan or mountain ash is still popularly supposed. to have a peculiar virtue against the attacks of When the dairy-maid fairies. in country places. AN EMBLEM . A sprig of this tree. in mj r flesh His spirit doth flow. is supposed to be a perfect security against all spells and ' the evil eye. witches. worn in the turban or suspended over the bed. . attaches to the rowan tree is here applied to a tree of nearly similar form." Nature seems everywhat was once thought special to where endowed with life animal life is now found to be common to it and to plant life. William Watson. liaise thou the stone and find me there.' The superstition which. for me know. OF LIFE. and strike the cow with another. as representing species. and there is a "series of fundamental correspondence between plant and animal which points to the merging of their apparent differences in oue common " The by Mr. the height of the branch from which they are hanging indicating their place in the growth of the great life tree. F. Too near. thus breaking the witch's spell. Yea. and so on with smaller and smaller branches representing orders and genera until we come to leaves. and Edward Clodd. states that he mimosa. From each of these start large branches representing classes.THE TREE all things. at a distance. and divided into two trunks representing plants and animals respectively. Cleave thou the ivood and there to am 1. or malign influences.." The idea of the tree as an emblem of life may be seen in a heraldic representation of the descent of a family from some remote ancestor. indicating the common origin of the living from the non-living. is that of a tree with short trunk. in the British Isles. resembling greatly. churns for a long time without making butter. I shall ne'er Know. the mountain ash. 155 and by Him all things consist.R. utilises the same simile when he states that " The only true mode of presentment. both of the life that is.

from under which a stream of water flows. first woman from a mountain ash. Many of its virtues have been already enumerated. and as such is not to be disturbed without risk.156 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. endowed with mystic properties. the Both trees are still believed to be . and shreds were torn off their garments and hung on the thorn. formed of twigs of mountain ash. as a spell to counteract the power of witches and fairies. " It is evident. for the centenarian again resumes the prime of manhood. it is considered to be the haunt and peculiar abode of the fairies. On May Eve withes. made of the branches of the mountain ash. are placed round churns. fasting. The white-thorn. The fairies often visibly protect their property. who had uprooted a few hawthorn bushes in a fairy circle. It was. decked with its blossoms. "Don't tamper with the 'lone bush is rustic warning everywhere in the remote parts of Ireland." rock. A sacrilegious farmer. are still placed over the doors of the houses of the peasantry. sooner or later. The amongst other things. therefore. and. according : to Aryan tradition. in Wicklow. become rejuvenescent. Irish consider it unlucky to cut down this holy tree. are tied round the horns of cows temporary hoops. ' ' . always busily engaged before sunrise on May morning. in the morning. was found next morning paralysed in his bed. Those thus feeding feel as it were the exhilaration of wine. of personal danger to the person so offending. associated with marriage rites. but it may also be mentioned that crosses. ginally from the lightning and became invested with many supernatural properties. and still is. in endeavouring to steal the butter of sprang from an alder." When it grows alone near the banks of streams. poor hard-working farmers. or on forts. Skeagh Padrig. rounds were duly made about the well. preserves from all diseases. attached to the thatch. however aged. One daring man. is situated near Tinahely. Grecian bride was. that the white-thorn was considered a sacred tree long before Christian tradition identified it as forming the Crown of Thorns a mediaeval belief which further enhanced the It is not surprising. and the torch which lighted the Eoman bridal couple to their nuptial chamber on the wedding-eve was formed of its wood. that the sanctity attached to it. Devotees attended on the 4th of May. " Some of its many properties are alluded to in the Dermod and Grania. therefore. as a protection against witchcraft and fairies." where the eating of three of its tale of berries. From the custody of the fairies the thorn trees are sometimes " transferred to that of the saints. sprang ori- hence it acquired a wide reverence. formed in the same way. bent on clearing a large earthen fort from a well." or " Patrick's an aged thorn growing out of a cleft in a Bush.

planted for the purpose of inauguration. burned to the ground. when again the flames rose high over his cottage. by the Irish. How clung the rowan to the rock. and placed over the lintel of a door. pared to a quadrangular figure. The Irish scholar. all was safe at his home. and berries red pines on every mountain sprung. Sacred fires were no doubt often kindled ' . in reality. . At the next bush he was encountered by another pigmy who repeated the same request. In every breeze what aspens shook. lopped off as much as he required from the sacred alder and carried the bundle home. And through With narrow how deep the shade. Determined not to be disappointed a third time in procuring fire wood he returned to the tree. O'Donovan. mourning.THE THORN THE ALDER 2 HE WILLOW. Sir Walter Scott. goes so far as to state that every place in Ireland bearing the name of Greece had originally a sacred tree. tell Would he could A thousand mingled branches made How broad the shadows of the oak. . He was thus sent from bush to bush. but with the same result. it was believed to possess the gift of To produce inspiring an uncontrollable inclination to dance. alders shaded every brook ' ' ? both unlucky as well as dangerous to meddle with any During a severe winter a farmer cut off some branches from an alder that overshadowed an ancient holy well. caused all the inmates of the house incontinently to dance. and again he hastened to extinguish the conflagration. so he returned to his work of desecration. would he could tell The changes of his parent dell. O'er every dell what birches hung. or to commemorate the death of some famous personage. first digs within A terrible a " judgment falls fort. to his dismay. thus apostrophizes the thorn and other mystic trees : " Yon lonely thorn. 157 developed growth of bushwood." particularly on the person who one on which these bushes grow. when proceeding to cut down the first bush. with a mind imbued with Celtic thought. but. he found his cottage was this time. when. Hastening home he found no appearance of fire. this effect a willow wand. having cut upon it some mysterious spells. was politely entreated by a mamrikin to spare it. With us the willow is associated with the idea of sorrow and tree regarded as sacred. and to try the next. the foliage showed his head. and in the end was found wandering about the fort quite distraught. of widely extending branches. What What It is leaves. Whilst thus engaged he happened to look towards his house and saw it in flames.

with roots in Heaven. exceedingly scarce in the locality."* Fig. or to that tree whose hoary branches . and has been estimated as not much over three centuries old.Eneas saw at the entrance to Avernus : " Ulmus opaca. under these trees. no turf-bog being nearer han * " Full in the midst a spreading cast a elm displayed . quam sedem Somnia volgo Vana tenere feient. County Cork. 45 represents a sacred tree in the parish of Clenor. county Cork. as there are many localities named Billatinny " or " sacred tree of the fire. growing in a lofty. It is a stunted ash. Reproduced from the of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. bleak situation. and Each trembling And mighty shade with some light visions teems." or the " old its The sacred tree may be likened to the tree of Ygdrasil. Journal " and fuel must have been Although the tree is unprotected. Sacred Tree in the parish of Clenor. foliisque sub omnibus haerent. His aged arms. ingens. generally known as Crann a India. It is most probably a seedling or offshoot from the parent tree which it has replaced.158 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. leaves impregnated with airy dreams." leaf .

The townland of Billa. some of which are yet current among old people in the neighbourhood. " " Honey tree is the remarkable designation of an old sycamore in the townland of Coollemoneen. probably both derived their name from some sacred tree. in the townland of another tree sacred to St. " Fitzgerald. tionally recorded that in whatever house the small- est portion of this tree burned that house was was ultimately also burned. Tipperary." " how this remarks Mr. and a locality called Crannmore. from the Dublin Penny Journal. county Tipperary.C. surrounded by stones. Craeblmat but the treatment Killura. stood at Crownahulla. in his VesBig Hell Tree at Borrisokane. it has legends and traditions attached to it. as it appeared in the year 1833. growing in the neighbourhood of Borrisokane. that separate trees. 46 depicts the remains of a huge ash called the Big Bell Tree." Fig. in the parish of Ballysadare. At first sight it looks as if there were two . until at last the tree entirely disap" I have peared. it was asserted. legend arose that this tree possessed those but it is life-preserving powers very probable that St. Co. the branches of which. Another remarkable tree in the parish of Kilmacteige is styled . properties distinctive of the Killura tree were. Reproduced tit/L's and Relics of Youghal. Emigrants. M. but it is in reality all that had sur- vived of a trunk formerly at least 30 feet in cir- It is tradicumference.. he mentions. meted out to it was quite different from that accorded to Crann a . far and near." off. One. The no one who was in possession of the least portion of it could be drowned. speaks of sacred trees. some of which are so disposed as to simulate the form of a rude altar. accordingly provided themselves with chips or twigs.R. or Anakisha. as it appeared in the year 1833. in the town of Sligo. Like many other and solitarygrowing trees.THE ASH TREE. This occurred about thirty years ago. could not be burned.S. 159 still as much as a branch was never lopped There was also in the neighbourhood. or he rescued some drowning person. not heard. and is so It stands on a mound styled on the Ordnance Survey maps. seven or eight miles. James Byrne. Craeblmat had some extraordinary escape from drowning. parish of Killadoon. near Doneraile. hulla.

and weapons poisoned with vegetable decoctions were. visited with sharper retribution. consulted his Druid.160 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. The large average size of Irish flint arrowheads militates The size against the supposition of their having been poisoned. whilst heather and water-lily roots brown and dark colours. employed. in the days of Corniac counselled battle. and the shock occasioned by it . P. for if missiles are diminutive (a few might have been fabricated. Joyce remarks that " one of the could achieve over their enemies greatest triumphs that a tribe was to cut down their inauguration tree. of arrowheads gives a faint indication towards the solution of the question. from which they emerged perfectly cured. whilst the lighter and less effective missile would require some other . and. there is the more likelihood of their having been originally envenomed. yield plants." Knowledge of the medicinal properties of the flowers. a warrior possessed a lucky poisoned spear. W." the Sea-God Mananan Mac Lir is represented as instructing Cuchullin in the use of a sting extracted from a piast or serpent that infested a certain lake. and no outrage was more keenly resented." the venom with which it was coated being of such fatal character that it never wounded a person who did not immediately die of the effects of the poison. Keating. when possible. it is alleged. hardly pressed by enemies armed with poisoned weapons. times dyes for colouring homespuns were obtained from indigenous Ibe ragweed gives a yellow dye. * Iii later . and this myth would appear to have some bearing on the use of poisoned weapons in Ireland. who have a magical bath prepared before the next were wounded they were plunged into the caldron. and from possessing it he was styled Aengus of the In an Irish MS. herbs and roots of the country. many centuries before the Christian Era. entitled " The Adventures of poison spear. " the fern tree. there are several passages referring to the use of these deadly " arms for instance. him to As fast as the king's warriors Mac " weapon. In The Dialogue of the Safies." Dr. a tract in the Book of Lismore. recounts how. in his fabulous History of Ireland.* was probably possessed by the Druids to a greater extent than is generally supposed. a Leinster chief named Aengus owned a celebrated agent to render it effective. or by a powerful bow or slinging stick." Seven Irish Champions in the East. would stop a wounded man or animal by its mere weight. a king of Leinster. A heavy weapon launched by the hand. Again in the third century. Art. say for killing small birds) and are found in abundance.

in their earliest professional stages. auguries. The hot-air bath. mainly one of terms. states that century. by the heat of the " sweat-house. 161 The primitive surgeon and physician were of the most rough and ready type. M . are closely connected with religion. Long words do not create new diseases. the carefully elaborated machinery of oracles.R. now-a-days designated the " Turkish Bath. An American "medicine man has some knowledge of human and animal anatomy. To the disciples of the latter belonged. If you "bark" your shin. exorcisms. cemented stone structure. erected for the purpose of being utilized VOL. and an Irish Druid was probably equally skilled. and if it was performed with the object of freeing an imaginary demon which held possession of the subject where the modern operator lectures on the effects of pressure or of the 'presence of bacteria. and lingered on until the middle of the nineteenth The late Professor H. what are called " Turkish " baths in Ireland and Great Britain " baths in are styled " Roman-Irish Germany and Bohemia." Irish sweat-houses were of two kinds. were. you mechanically commence rubbing the part affected. dream-interpretations. a small. neither do they create new panaceas. the proper times and seasons for collecting them. raised to the rank of divinities by their grateful admirers. in late pagan times. If the patient was bruised or wounded. after their decease.THE PRIMITIVE SURGEON AND PHYSICIAN. together with all the ritual ceremonies proper to their use and application. in various countries. as was the case formerly in Ireland. omens. " To the " medicine man of America we owe the discovery of " the properties of many drugs. The most eminent and successful cultivators of these sciences. the part affected was rubbed or sucked. and those formed merely of wattles and scraws. the difference is. as well as at Nuremburg. after all. II. He saw baths designated lidmischc-lrische Bader in the year 1879 at In Ireland. and the Irish Dianket." itself but a degenerated imitation of the luxurious edifices of ancient Greece and Imperial Kome. F. in ancient times.. the permanent erections built of stone in bee-hive form. It was so in the case of Esculapius. Chiron. as well as the knowledge of the qualities of plants useful for medicinal purposes. Trepanning was actually practised in the Neolithic ages. Hence "massage" was one of the very earliest modes of treatment of painful affections. unconsciously practising primitive "massage" By slow degrees the budding Esculapius learned that it was better for his patient to lose a limb than for him to die in trying to retain it. Simple ailments are relieved.S. visions. miPrague. Hennessy. was in common use amongst the ancient Irish. The use of poisons and the science of medicine.

In the localities where the English and Scottish settlers were in the the majority it fell into disuse but air bath. amongst Irish-speaking inhabitants its value was fully known and apWhilst exploring the country lying between Blackpreciated. and having a low entrance. They were generally of beehive shape. would then cool himself in the water. 47. states : ." and inquiry elicited the information that it had been frequently used by people suffering from rheumatism.A. and the borders of Leitrim. and as soon as the floor and sides of the interior had sufficiently cooled down." Island of Inishmurraj'. and the door was closed by means of a temporary screen. Milligan. This hot-air bath was as a hot-air bath. The manner of heating the chamber appears to have consisted in filling it with turf. writing on the ancient Irish hot" Up to comparatively recent times the hot-air bath was known over many parts of this country as a cure for rheumatism. he accidentally discovered a " sweat-house. if in the immediate vicinity. Mr. M. and but two weeks previously to his visit it had been occupied by people who had come from some distance for the . and when consumed. F. 47). . In some cases it is stated that a pool of fresh water. "sweat-house". S. county Cavan. not only for pleasure. covered with clay. but also as a cure for rheumatism.162 TREE WORSHIP HERBS a AND MEDICINE. and again return. much FIG. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.. is designated i." lion. igniting the fuel. by the natives Teach-an-alais.e. many of them yet remain (fig. the ashes were cleared out. was utilized as a plunge-bath for the perspiring bather who. having remained in the heated interior as long as practicable. "Sweat-house.R. for which latter purpose it would seem to have been eminently successful.I. used down to recent times. the floor was strewed with green rushes the person or persons intending to take the bath entered the heated chamber.

" stone can be taken out when the fire is lighted. 48. . they are then placed under a creel the person who wants to induce perspiration sits on it. to give the patient the benefits . Near Maghera. followed by a good rubbing." Special herbs were put under the creel. 163 there was another similar structure in the towncure (fig. about three miles distant.S WEA 7 -HO USES. Milligan found another " sweat-house " situated in a secluded glen off the ordinary track and locally known as the "sweat-house" even by people who had no knowledge of its original use. people still excellent plunge bath. In this place a tank was attached to the sweat-house. with a pair of blankets fastened round his neck enclosing all a good sweat is procured in this way. Sweat-house. and replaced when the interior is heated. into which the person plunged after leaving it. near Pomeroy. . Reproduced from the Joutnaloiihe present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. In the village of Cappagh. county Derry. There were five stone seats placed around inside. was the mode adopted. County Cavan. an old man remembers a sweat-house in constant use. of inhalation and fumigation. . There is a small hole in the roof. 48) land of Toani. Mr. in some places. in the Highlands of Tyrone. about five feet in depth. "A number of take the hot-air bath in the following manner: bricks are heated to redness in the fire. Several dips into this pool." in the neighbourhood of Blacklion. and free from smoke. into which a stone fits like a cork into a bottle. on which sods were placed. in which he took baths himself. This FIG. At a short distance outside there is a pool of water forming an In the county Monaghan.

It Avas built like a beehive. seven feet wide and seven feet high and was roofed with large flags. the flag was removed. rushes.164 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. and the ruins have now almost disappeared. Sweat-House at Assaroe. where they washed. gives the following interesting information regarding sweat-houses He states that they were common up to fifty years ago. or stones put in for the person or persons to stand When men used it as many as six or eight stripped off and went little openings were closed except what afforded a person remained outside to attend to these matters. sods. The last remaining one has not been used for twenty years. they in. of Altmore Lodge. Series). In case of women. otherwise they would get . was closed by a stone flag kept for the purpose. A put on a bathing dress whilst using the bath. when sufficiently hot. all when ventilation. and they came out and plunged into a pool of water within a yard or two of the sweat-house. Fifty years ago there was one in a glen near Altmore Chapel. People had to be careful not to lean against the walls inside. exThe door.. Reproduced from the Ulster Journal of Archaeology (Second coals. got well rubbed. the were removed. and generally omitted the plunge or cold bath. Patrick Shields. four feet high. : Mr. cept a very small opening on the top. Ballyshannon. 49. &c. county Tyrone. and some cool thing such as upon. "It was heated by fires of turf. and put on their clothes. ashes. to which people came to get cured of rheumatism. . When they could suffer the heat no longer. Fio.

and partly by flags. Sweat-House at Kinlough.as well the inside. W. was dammed up. having contracted rheumatism from lying on a damp bed. as a sweat-bath. 49). 165 The plunge pool was always used here. Co. either shaped by nature or by excavaThe front was built up with stones no mortar was used tion. having an inside diameter of a little over three feet with a height of six feet. was partly covered by the rock itself. Leitrim. and formed the bath. Another sweat-house at Brookhill. A stream of water runs through this glen. 50). In plan it is an irregular circle. and continued so until his death which took place fifteen years ago." A sweat-house at Assaroe. thus converting it into a vapour. near Ballyshannon. . One was in a glen where I had a plantation.V WE A T-HO USES. described by Mr. The rock formed one half of the structure. Lockwood. This was the last one used in this part of the country. Reproduced from the Ulster Journal of Archaology (Second it Series). covered with elder bushes and ivy. Water was poured when heated. was built on a somewhat smaller scale than the foregoing. . The conwas a cooper. and on either side are rocks. The structure. bears the on the stones in appearance of age (fig. My father remembers when there were three or four of them in the immediate vicinity.. and The stream was heated by burning heather and brambles in it. county (fig. burned structor . After four sweats he was quite well again. a mile from the village of has an internal diameter of Lei trim Kinlough. F. He once come to me on crutches.





four feet and a height of six feet. There is a small rivulet close at hand. Access to both structures was had by small creep-openings, with sloping jambs, about one foot seven inches in height by one foot ten inches in breadth. Sweat-houses excavated in the ground or in banks of turf

have long ago disappeared.
his account of the parish of Errigalin the county of Tyrone, written at the commencement Keroge, of the nineteenth century, states " Among the mountains the country people make use of

The Rev. John Groves, in


sweating-houses in several cases of sickness. These small hovels are partly scooped out of the side of a hill, and finished with rods, In one of them, when heated like with a very small entrance. an oven with charred turf, the patient stretches himself upon some straw, and the entrance is closed up. He there lies in a state of violent perspiration, caused by the close heat, so long as This operation is, as usual, he or his physician thinks proper. among the ignorant, considered a sovereign remedy against almost every disorder, but is chiefly used for rheumatic pains." Another site in the county Tyrone is described as excavated out of a bank of turf, five feet high by five feet wide, with a The opening was closed with a bundle of heather, flagged floor.



Russian baths, as used by the peasantry, bear a close resemblance to the Irish method. They usually consist of wooden houses situated, if possible, by the side of a running stream. In the bath-room is a large vaulted oven which, when heated, makes
the paving-stones lying upon it red hot, and adjoining to the oven is a kettle fixed in masonry for the purpose of holding boiling water. The heat in the bath-room may be much increased by throwing water on the hot stones in the chamber of the oven. The Russian baths, therefore, are also vapour baths and it appears as if most of the tribes of American Indians are acquainted with this plan. Lewis and Clarke, in their voyage up the Missouri, observed a vapour bath-house consisting of a hollow square about eight feet deep, formed in the river-bank, by damming up with mud the other three sides, and covering the whole completely except an aperture at the top about two feet wide. The bathers, taking with them a number of heated stones and jugs of water, descend by this hole, and, after seating themselves round the room, place the stones in the centre and throw water on^them until the steam becomes of a temperature suffi;

ciently high for their purpose.

The sweat-lodge

almost universal
' '

among Indian



like the Irish "sweat-house


usually built on the margin of a stream the Indians bathe in the steam rising from water sprinkled



upon the heated stones, they generally sing religious songs, for the bath seems to be a semi-religious act of purification, as both danger and disease are believed to be averted through its agency. In diseases of a graver type the "medicine man" falls back
his power as an exorcist. With drum, rattle, and chant, he seeks to expel from the sick man the malignant spirit which has seized upon him, and in one form the drum is still employed with us in religious ceremonies, in the use of that drum of metal now styled a bell.* The seat of pain is then ascertained by the " medicine man," and the after-treatment exactly resembles that of the present Irish herb-doctor." Suction acts as cupping relieves congestion. The Irish " medicine man " sucks the spot affected by the pain with such severity as to raise blisters, and these often, by the counter-irritation so excited, effect a cure but if this fails, he next pretends to spit out of his mouth frogs, thorns, stones, or anything the credulity of the sick man or his friends may accept as the origin of the disease. For inflammation in the head, severe counter-irritation on the crown of the head has long been used and with great success by Irish "medicine men." The head is shaved, and a plaster



Treatment applied, which is left on till a blister rises. counter-irritation has, however, always been much employed
the medical profession.

by by

A Statistical Account of the Union of Kilrush, written by " the Kev. John Graham in the year 1815, states that quack doctors abounded in all directions who, beginning their operations on swine, cows, and horses, proceeded in their medical career, from drawing teeth and boiling herbs, to the more arduous tasks of reducing ruptures, amputating limbs, and managing fevers. Such practitioners could not fail to find abundant employment, creating it as they went along, and often disseminating One of this variolous infection of the very worst description. lion-hearted tribe was known in the year 1802 to adopt an He was called to the relief of Alexander the Great.


when, finding some difficulty in an inguinal hernia, he cut the Gordian-knot, and gave reducing his patient a summary discharge from the troubles of this
of a labourer in Carnacolla,

From a pagan, as also from a Christian point of view, the lunatic or idiot was regarded as one whose body had become the abode of an evil spirit, or the temporary home of a god. In the first instance, the only cure was to frighten the demon away by
* The use of bells is not a custom of the early or mediaeval church, but in of vol. i., p. 197) very ancient date. It was adopted from heathendom (see ante, into Christendom, though afterwards rejected by Mahomed.





as portentous exorcisms, in the second instance with every uncivilized race all the world over the idiot was would no regarded with reverential awe, and the country people more think of intentionally maltreating such, than they would of injuring a little child, owing to the deep-rooted belief that and irresponsible simpletons or idiots are in close contact with, under the direct protection of God and the saints. In this there Yet with all is a striking point of similarity to oriental custom. their reverence for the idiot they seldom refrained, should occasion arise, from perpetrating a practical joke on such a one, care being, however, taken to avoid injuring the subject of their
torture or
wit. to paganism, with its concomitant and Christianity with its madmen formerly caged and treated like wild beasts, modern science takes up a humane It regards madness as a mere form of brain disease, standpoint. and it its victims as objects for compassion, not for persecution considers gentle treatment far more likely, than harsh treatment, to effect restoration of reason. Many traces of the old rough and ready method yet survive. A person suffering from an ulcerated sore throat is taken, by the country people, by the two ears until the operators " shake the devil out of him." Governor Eyre, in his work on Australia, describes a similar performance, by native





man" or witch-doctor, were expensive operations, as a plentiful supply of whiskey was always administered as well to the adept as to the spectators. Lady Wilde thus describes the performances " When any person in the village showed signs of madness this man (the witch-doctor) was sent for, and after a good pull at the whiskey, the caster-out of devils began his exorcism by pouring forth a torrent of gibberish in a loud voice, which he called Latin prayers, while at the same time he dashed holy water all over the room and the patient. Then, taking a stout blackthorn stick, he proceeded to thrash the demented person most vigorously, the patient being held firmly all the time by three or four of the friends or neighbours. When the poor victim was half stupefied, and unable even to yell any longer, the operator announced that the devil had gone out of him but as the evil

sorcerers, in attempting the cure of this ailment. Exorcisms and incantations by an Irish "medicine


lurking somewhere about, he must be expelled by force or magic. Whereupon he commenced to whirl the blackthorn stick round in all directions, striking everything animate and inanimate, that lay in his way, as if crazed with fury especially beating the doors, by which he said the devil might escape, and he was determined to have a good blow at him and all the time, during the process of beating, he kept on respirit
; ;


efforts at
' '


A young man named Davy Flynn became suddenly raving mad, or elf-stricken, as the people say, and the great witch -man of the place was sent for one Sunday morning in all He found him bound hand and foot, and foaming at the haste. mouth, while five or six strong men were trying to hold him down and a great crowd was gathered round the door, who declared that the wretched man was not Davy Flynn at all, the handsome Davy, once the pride of the village for beauty and So the #ttength, but a fairy demon who had taken his shape.

citing the gibberish Latin, in a loud strong voice, fortifying his exorcism by frequent appeals to the whiskey jar. singular case of attempted cure took place lately in Ros-


witch-man having examined him, and performed sundry strange rites and invocations, pronounced his opinion that the lunatic was certainly not Davy Flynn, but an old French charger, belonging to a French general, who came to Ireland long ago in the times of the troubles, and to keep the real man alive, who was now in fairyland, the substitute must be well fed with the
proper food for a horse. " On hearing this, the friends ran for a sheaf of oats and crammed the straw down the wretched maniac's throat, after which the exorcist prepared for his mortal combat with the devil, aided of course by the poteen, five kegs of which were brought in for the general strengthening of the company. " The operator first tied a white apron over his shoulders, then, with a wave of the hand in the form of a cross, he commanded silence. After which, he began the invocation by a volley of gibberish Latin, thundered forth between the occasional draughts of whiskey, while poor Davy had only a bucket of cold water thrown on his head, to which he responded by terrible

work, and one of them which held the supposed French charger, while the witch -man was busy over the poteen. if ho Davy, thus finding himself free, sprang at the doctor as would tear him to pieces, on which a panic seized the crowd, who rushed from the house, the witch-man following, while the At maniac leaped after them with hideous yells and curses. the maniac was secured and tied down by a strong rope length
last the people got tired of the

" At

secretly cut the cord of the halter,


the magistrate arrived,


who ordered him off to the RosLunatic Asylum, whither he was at once taken, and

where he eventually

died, to the great relief of his friends, believed that he was the old French charger, and that till really the death of the demon-substitute, poor Davy had no chance of being relieved from the bondage he was under in fairy land."






As already stated* there is a valley in Kerry styled Glennagalt, the Glen of the Lunatics, and it is believed that madmen, no matter how far from the locality they live, would, if left to themi.e.

wrote Dr. C. Smith in 1756, Why " rather than any other should be frequented by lunatics, nobody can pretend to ascertain any rational cause, and yet no one truth is more firmly credited here by the common people than this
impertinent fable." He, however, says that having regard to the appearance of these desolate glens and mountains, none but madmen would dare venture into them. On the other hand a visitor to this valley in 1845 writes "We went to see Glennagalt, or the 'Madman's Glen,' the place, as our guide sagely assured us, to which all the mad people in After pursuing for the world would face if they could get loose. miles our romantic route we came to the highest part of the road and turned a hill which completely shut out Glen Inch; and lo before us lay a lovely valley, sweeping down through noble hills to Brandon Bay. The peak of the mighty Brandon himself ended one ridge of the boundary, while high, though less majestic mountains formed the other and this valley so rich and fertile, so gay with cornfields, brown meadows, potato gardens, and the brilliant green of the flax, so varied and so beautiful in the bright Madman's mingling of Nature's skilful husbandry, was the

selves, find their way to the Glen. " " this place (Glennagalt),




Glen.' I felt amazed and bewildered, for I had expected to see a gloomy solitude, with horrid crags and gloomy precipices. Not
at all


the finest and richest valley which has greeted my eyes we entered the Highlands of Kerry is this smiling, soft,


We took our leave of fair Glennagalt, and assuredly if any aspect of external nature could work such a blessed change, the repose, peace, and plenty of this charming valley would restore the unsettled brain of a poor unfortunate."
The late Professor Eugene O'Curry, in his work on the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, published in 1873, makes no reference to madness, idiocy, or possession. He refers to a sort of witchcraft under the head of divination, where he gives an instance of a trance produced by magical arts of the mad rage of the hero, and of how, in the midst of that rage, he was caught, as it were, by the hands and feet, through Druidical




But few

will agree

with Dry den, that

" There

is a pleasure in being mad Which none but madmen know ";



p. 357.

See also p. 356, Aynia, the Goddess of the insane.




but we should. have a fellow-feeling for the insane; for does not the poet state that every body is more or less mad, and the experience of two thousand years has not altered the aphorism of the Eoman satirist

" Quisnam

igitur sanus

Stultus et insanus.

Continue sanus

qui non stultus. ? si quis non Miuiine. . ."

Quid avarus






very night bound to the holy stone in confidence that the saint would cure and unloose them before morning." Sir Walter Scott alludes to this practice in
late occurrence lunatics

SL Fillan was a Scottish saint of great reputation, and it is stated that, though the surrounding population is Protestant, yet the country people retain some of the superstitions connected wfilh the wells which bear his name, and there are in Perthshire several dedicated to him still much frequented. These springs " are held powerful in cases of madness, and in instances of
have been
left all







St. Fillan's

Messed well,

Whose spring can frenzied dreams And the crazed brain restore."

"Mr. A. W. Buckland, in Anthropological Studies, states that a curious use of St. Fillan's bell for the cure of madness was long employed in Scotland. It would appear that the bell (belonging to the Monastery of Glendochart) was left for generations in the " at the end of the open air on a tombstone, but eighteenth it suddenly disappeared, and was at last found in the century house of an English gentleman in Hertfordshire, who had written in his diary his reasons for taking it away, which are quaint enough. He said that in August, 1790, he rode from Tyndrum to the holy pool of Strathfillan, which, towards the end of the first quarter of the moon, was resorted to by crowds of the neighbouring peasantry, who expected to be cured of their diseases by bathing in it. Amongst those he saw was an unfortunate girl out of her mind who had been brought there for

moons without effect. When mad people were bathed they were thrown in with a rope tied round them, after which they were taken to St. Fillan's Church and placed in a stone trough (probably a coffin) in the open churchyard, and fastened down to a wooden framework and there left for a whole night with a covering of hay over them, and St. Fillan's bell placed over their head. If they were found loose in the morning the I was told,' he says, saint was supposed to be propitious. 'that wherever this bell was removed it always returned to a particular spot in the churchyard before morning,' so in order to test the truth of the story he carried it off to England, and






we suppose the distance presented an insuperable barrier to its nocturnal peregrinations, for it remained in this

gentleman's house for seventy years."

Down to the close of the eighteenth century, deeply-rooted belief in the reality of witchcraft was universal, and obtained in Christendom and heathendom alike whole hecatombs of victims


at the altar of a superstition which now only exists, as an established institution, amongst some of the most degraded tribes of Africa. In the old and the new world alike, persecution was based on texts of Scripture which asserted, or rather

were alleged to assert, the existence of the power of witchcraft, and contained an imperative command for the extirpation of old, or sometimes young and beautiful women. Witchcraft and supposed demoniacal possession are complementary ideas. The treatment of supposed witches was even more cruel than the treatment of lunatics, and in this persecution all sects of Christians outvied with each other in the grossest cruelties, but now, as the late Professor T. H. Huxley remarks "The phraseology of supernaturalism may remain on men's lips, but in practice they are naturalists. The magistrate who listens with devout attention to the precept, Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live,' on Sunday; on Monday


dismisses, as intrinsically absurd, a charge of bewitching a cow brought against some old woman the superintendent of a lunatic asylum who substituted exorcism for rational modes of treatment would have but a short tenure of office." The Act against witchcraft for the United Kingdom was only repealed in the year 1736, and its cancelling was regarded by many religious people with serious misgivings. John Wesley, in 1768, enters in his journal that "the giving up witchcraft is in effect giving up the Bible.""If the value of the Bible really

* Having quoted from Wesley's belief in "Witchcraft, it may be as well to give the context, i.e. his confession, in full. He writes: "It is true that the English in general, and indeed most of the men in Europe, have given up all accounts of witches and apparitions as mere old wives' fables. I am sorry for it, and I willingly take this opportunity of entering my solemn protest against this violent compliment which so many "that believe the Bible pay to those who do not believe it. " I owe them no such service. I take knowledge these are at the bottom of the outcry which has been raised, and with such insolence spread throughout the nation, in direct opposition, not only to the Bible, but to the suffrage of the wisest and the best of men in all ages and nations. " They well know, whether Christians know it or not, that the giving up witchcraft is, in effect, giving up the Bible. And they know, on the other hand, that if but one account of the intercourse of men with separate spirits be admitted, their whole castle in the air deism, atheism, materialism falls to the ground. I know no reason, therefore, why we should suffer even this weapon to be wrested out of our hands. Indeed, there are numerous arguments besides which abundantly confute their vain imaginations but we need not bo hooted out of one neither reason nor religion requires this."





depended, in any degree, on belief in witchcraft and its concomitant it would, perhaps, in that unlikely case, be better to give up the Bible. Sir T. Browne believed in witches, and helped to swear away the lives of some, as an " expert. "* Yet he wrote a " very learned work on Vulgar Errors," and a very learned and
logical one, too

In the year 1578, Sir William Drury, Lord Deputy of Ireland, when in Kilkenny, ordered thirty-six criminals to be executed, of whom "two were witches and condemned by the law of nature, for there was no positive law against witchcraft in those days." Sir Eichard Cox, who mentions this occurrence, had been Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and it would appear that he really believed tffat these two unfortunate persons who were executed were
actually guilty of witchcraft. The benefit which modern education has conferred, in freeing the majority of the people from the bondage of old ideas, can only be properly appreciated when the fatal consequences of beliefs in ancient superstitions in Ireland are brought to the light of day. Notwithstanding the sympathy which the fate of so numerous an array of unfortunate victims is calculated to excite, it must not be forgotten that, although the vast majority were innocent of any offence against the law of the land, yet that some of these persons were in the habit of boasting of their supposed art in order the more readily to extract from their dupes whatever they desired, and in a few instances they were vendors of poison, furnishing their customers with the means of gratifying either their avarice or their revenge. Ireland has had a liberal quota of troubles, but very few pro-

ceeded from witch-finding and witch-burning on a large scale. There have been but slight innovations in the rites of sorcery, the gradual evolution from paganism to modern Christianity having caused but little change. As evidence of this it will be sufficient to quote the ceremonies which Lady Alice Kyteler of Kilkenny, her son William, and their accomplices, were alleged to have employed about the year 1500. Lady Alice Kyteler was accused of sweeping the dust of the street to the threshold of her son, muttering this charm the while " To the house of William, my son,

llie all the

wealth of Kilkenny town."

Lady Alice and her accomplices were also accused of renouncin which time they ing the Christian faith during certain periods, would not attend Mass, say a prayer, or discharge any religious
* and their evidence, nowadays appreciate at their true value experts for accordingly. given, in most cases, as it is wanted and paid



They were accused



employing it against sundry parties to whom they bore ill-will. They were accused of sacrificing to demons the intestines of cocks, mingled with worms, baleful herbs, nails, the hair of dead men, and the clothes and portions of the bodies of unbaptized children, and of having boiled these and other ingredients in the skull of an executed criminal. They had also compounded magic powders and magic candles from hellish mixtures, to excite love in some and procure lingering death in others. Lady Alice, especially, had held conferences with the beforementioned devil of low degree, when he appeared to her in the She also shapes of a black cat, a black dog, and a black man. had sacrificed to him at a certain stone bridge, nine red cocks, and nine peacocks' eyes and on more than one occasion she had anointed a coulter, and performed long aerial journeys on it. Lady Alice very wisely managed to escape to England her son William, a man of influence, submitted to imprisonment but one of her alleged accomplices, poor Petronella, was burnt, it is probable that she conafter having been flogged six times
; ;

of killing certain animals, and of dissevered portions about at cross-roads, as an flinging They were offering or sacrifice to a devil of very low degree. accused of mimicking the ceremony of excommunication and



fessed to being present at the magic rites, to escape a repetition of fresh torture. The trial of eight women for witchcraft occurred so late as

the year 1711, at Carrickfergus. These women were accused, by a young girl of eighteen years of age, of having attempted her life by means of hellish spells. One judge gave it as his opinion,

" that the jury could not bring them in guilty upon the sole testimony of the afflicted person's visionary images" but from this the other judge dissented, and thought " the jury might, from the evidence, bring them in guilty," which they promptly

At the commencement of the nineteenth century one of these " witches, or fairy women," lived near Eed Hills, in Kildare. to the Eev. John O'Hanlon, " her reputation as a According possessor of supernatural knowledge and divination drew crowds of distant visitors to her daily, and from the most remote parts of Ireland. In various instances they were furnished with a
bottle containing


some supposed curative liquid, and directed to homewards without falling asleep on their journey. This was filled with water, darkly coloured by a decoction of

herbs, gathered with certain incantations near a rath that afforded the customary materia medico, of fairy doctors for the cure of a special disease, on which consultation was required.

The most accomplished and



of the medical faculty

' No sooner had the girl dozed off into dreamy unconsciousness. accompanied by violent gesticulations. hands. admitted to the patient's chamber to observe operations. with two or three packages of brown paper. Wearied nature soon began to claim her usual requirement of balmy sleep. as his cabin adjoined one of their raths." known as " Paddy the Dash. on which the fairies are The herbs and tops of said to ride occasionally through the air. and . at the time. then some and forehead with three shakes. in old age. John O'Hanloii had also the opportunity of witnessing the mysterious quackery practised by a noted sheeoyue or " fairy doctor. and feet were finally bathed with the warm mixture contained iu some unaccountable strokes on her back flourishes over the sick . woman. than one of the ugliest beings imagination had ever created appeared to her disordered fancies and with wrinkled visage. and through terror would doubtless have left the curative potion behind. and some of Paddy's young friends were. bably feverish with anxiety and excitement. than the wise woman of the Eed Hills pocketed from her credulous dupes. related this adventure." from a peculiar stammering or defect in articulation. . she was especially cautioned to keep her eyes open along the way overcome with fatigue." and sometimes as " Paddy the Cow Doctor. I think. that obliged him to jerk out words at irregular ' pro- . and sprinkled on the sick person. that had been left simmering on the kitchen fire afterwards followed .' indistinct recollection of Paddy " We ' drawing out of his cota more pocket a large black bottle. and who. been used during this sort of necromancy. Holy water had. intervals." Towards the commencement of the nineteenth century the Eev. of her obligation was supposed to have been a friend among the sheeogues. containing dried herbs and a bunch of boughelaunu or boliauns. With a loud scream she bounded to her feet. but never enjoyed a like celebrity. the spectre seemed ready to clutch her in his extended arms. who had fallen into decline. " cognomen of The Dash. had she not already taken the The rude monitor precaution of securing it within her bosom. however." . by especial favour.WITCHCRAFT TREATMENT OF WITCHES." He was believed to hold friendly intercourse with the He received his fairies. a porringer. After the death of Moll Anthony her daughter followed the same profession. The patient's face. At one time a young woman had been directed to return with the magic draught to her sick relative's house. the boughelawns were put in a porringer filled with water. . 175 seldom received a more remunerative fee for his services on behalf of a patient. the young person was obliged to rest by the roadside. I knew the person thus supposed to have been warned. and have only an were but wee-bit bodies. Paddy's process of treatment was considered desirable in the case of an old woman.

And washes in dew from the hawthorn Will ever after handsome be. during the period of parturition. as we have seen. possess a peculiar power by over females. Over the door. in Maidens Formerly every almost every village. of the fire until their return home. In the garden grow house-leeks a specific for sore eyes and The ( . Goes to the Meld at break of day. so that the evil eye could not rest on them. of the water. I ." tree. and one should never kill them as their comrades will avenge their death by eating the woollen clothes. and to fasten slips of witch-hazel round their necks. some old hag. who half believed in line like dealer in charms Children were brought to her to bathe the credulity she excited. who. the dew she gathered on May morning. bogbane. of every species. each for some medicinal purpose. whilst repeating the couplet " If you have come for luck. warn you away ! . in most cases really believe in the efficacy of their charms) may be thus described Over her cabin door a horse-shoe Beneath the salt -box is a bottle of holy water is nailed for luck. and various charms * As early as possible on the morning of the feast of St. charms to keep the fairies away for the nine days after the birth of the infant and people going on journeys bought charms against the powers of the air. Young women about would apply for to become mothers . This consisted in pouring boiling water into the holes and crevices frequented by them. had some sybil- purchased " collect themselves. AND MEDICINE. Solomon's Seal. bugloss.* A bunch of fairy flax lies on the top of the saltbox sown into the folds of the wise woman's scapular is a fourleaved shamrock. and numerous other herbs. and were in the habit of performing a very practical exorcism against crickets." a class of quacks practised by who. who pursued her calling at the commencement of the nineteenth century on the lines " herb doctors " or " medicine men. rosenoble. or wise woman. the first of May. and when the cows calve the wise woman ties a red woollen thread about their " elf shot " tails to protect them from being either overlooked or the fairies. Fintan (3rd January) housekeepers appear to have been absolved from this prohibitioii. stock in trade of a witch. an invaluable specific for rendering fairies visible to the human eye. for the first time. preference to any they could The fair maid who."stay If not. however.176 TREE WORSHIP HERBS district. over the beds. for crickets are to keep the place purified and to ward off crickets the supposed harbingers of bad luck. of the earth. over the cattle in the byre hang branches of withered yew. their eyes with concoctions. tansy.

WISE WOMEN. for toothache. even including the application of the key of the front door to the nape of the neck. This use is not peculiar to Irish "physicians. earth worms. the wart will fall off. sucking-whelps. broom and carageen moss combined for a cough mixture so there was within easy reach a good pharmacopoeia. for wind in the stomach. administered fearful abominations. mullein as a cough mixture. for Ill removing warts and taking motes out of the eye. sometimes mistaken for red currants. needles. adders." for we find mention of it in many ancient writers. and until a comparatively recent period the system of The medicine was a vast farrago of empirical absurdities. N . for some herbs and some of the treatment would really have had the effect desired. Bryony. ground ivy. horehound as an expectorant. and the thigh bone of an ox." into which entered bats.) A "wise woman" would also have Its roots are liable to be with fatal results. with its scarlet berries.. (The cold of the iron generally effecting a cure. . nettles with ginger. On belladonna. favourite Court physician to three kings." to the sight. II. Charles I. eomfrey as a styptic. There was also another plant kept in stock whose English name ' sufficiently indicates its deleterious qualities : " Fair Lut by the smell Unprized. headache... though not always that advanced by their It is an undoubted fact that the mind exercises practitioners.. Seal oil for sprains and rheumatism. VOL. produces death in a most painful form. and are eaten breaking in two the stalk of the common crowfoot. bog bark or parsley boiled in milk for gravel. Bags or wool steeped in nettle juice and put up the nostrils stay bleeding at the nose. and furze tops. the tongue of a fox for a poultice to extract thorns. its leaves are also employed in urinary diseases. ivy leaves for a scald head. samphire boiled in milk for heartburn. . or mountain sage for palpitations or for coughs. milky juice will be observed to hang on the upper part of the stem. but his sweetest composition was "balsalm of bats. &c. He preand Charles II. It must be honestly admitted that many of these old medical superstitions and medical treatments before enumerated have some justification. dandelion for liver complaints. where all other remedies have failed. James I. If this be dropped on a wart by the wise woman. the marrow of a stag. Many condiments are kept in stock. One need not laugh at this pharmacopoeia. hog's grease. heartsease. mistaken for parsnips. scribed pulverised human bones in great quantity his celebrated " " gout powder contained raspings from a human skull. the henbane's straw-ting'd hell With danger pregnant.

belief in the charm reacts in a greater or less degree " condition of the patient. pounded up with butter. The giving of a love potion is considered a dreadful act. on the great influence on the body." according to his folly." but must be administered to the man by the woman who wishes to inspire the tender passion. Again. filth. chloroform. A similar opposition was exhibited when Jenner introduced vaccinaA hundred years ago it was almost an exception to see a tion.178 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. cannot certainly afford to sneer at such so-called medical treatment. but the natural consequences of neglect." and alleging that its use would society and rob God of the deep earnest cries which arise in time of A witty surgeon answered the clerical fool trouble for help. bodily the only merit of a plant lay in the charm formula attached to ensured relief to the patient. people began to think for themselves. for a philanthropic divine anathematised that greatest of all modern discoveries. the due utterance of which there can be no doubt that such verbal forms were Originally prayers. as the result is always dangerous and often fatal to the recipient. it. . Crowfoot. Pounded flag-root is used for dressing cuts and wounds. is taken as a cure for bronchitis. Oftentimes.that pestilences were not punishments inflicted by the Almighty for religious shortcomings. and came to when he cast Adam into a deep sleep before removing his rib. and retorted by quoting his own Scripture against him to prove that the Almighty Himself was the first to ' ' Thus if an invalid of a superstitious carries about on the person what he or she considers temperament a talisman. when the discovery of inoculation was brought from Constantinople to England. set the example of performing an operation under anaesthesia. in truth. A common cure for the disease is the blood of a black cat smeared on the parts affected. the patient will die. now it is the exception to see one so marked. apparently offering itself " harden to bless women. Noxious beasts or mad dogs can do one no harm provided a . and wretchedness. " " Love are even now frequently given potions they are compounded by a "wise woman. is used for In the irritating cutaneous eruption. its introduction was strenuously resisted by the clergy. since dwindled into mystic sentences.' Parsons. and thus forms a complete girdle. Watercress. though not without bitter resistance on the part of the clergy. Thus. in the commencement of the eighteenth understand . at any rate. on its "a first introduction as decoy of Satan. shingles]. erysipelas. the country-people believe that if the rash meets. which like a girdle gradually encircles half the body (hence its English designation. face unpitted by small-pox . century. boiled with whiskey and sugar.

therefore. 179 " bit of columbine provided by a " wise woman be carried about the person. This condition is accompanied by pain and tenderness at the pit of the stomach. fairly common among the potato-fed peasantry. and says : several sauntering stories feigned concerning its collection on St.' and when scrutinised by the specially knowledgeable elder of the locality is diagnosticated with the announcement that the The cure is carried out by a spool of the breast is down. have the receipt of fern seed. by my faith. " A great splutter has been made about fern seed. " : Gadshill. Chamberlain.. the patient sitting by. ease to the heart." But nevertheless the country people still believe that the roots of bracken and the roots of lilies gathered on rfr John's Eve.REMEDIES EMPLOYED BY WITCH-DOCTORS. if cut after certain incantations. the same properties as the fern (Filex minor long ifolio)." Depression of spirits. Ben Jonson alludes to this superstition : "I had No medicine. This is done three times on three separate occasions. When the last of the three performances is terminated a cake is made of the is flour that is over. . sir. close to the patient. . necessarily.' This is done by making a small a couple of lucifer piece of dough. in which a piece of candle or N2 ' ' ' ' ' . of which a certain quantity is set aside for the purpose. we walk invisible. as does also Shakspeare in 1 Henry IV.D. M. which made human Threlkeld adverts to this subject when he beings invisible. This herb possesses. John's Eve.' series of three Monday-Thursday operations. catarrh^ the lining membrane of the stomach are. the Shepherd's Purse. called in Irish cured in the following manner: The "fairy" or "herb doctor" holds a cup of meal. If another plant. will disclose to a young woman her true lover's name. or the summer solstice. is hung under the necks of sheep they become invisible to dogs. or the skin be rubbed with it. and if fern seed be carried on the person that those so carrying it become invisible. which are mere trumpery. and if any be left it must be thrown into the fire." We " sinking of the heart." and muttering an invocation. " cases of acute of According to John Knott. in each of which the painful part is dry -cupped. Nay. to go invisible No fern seed in my pocket ' ' . taking care that no animal or human being passes between him and the fire until it is baked. saying in Irish " Ease to the heart. It is then eaten with nine sprigs of watercress. and each time the meal in the cup is cast into the fire. I think you are more beholding to the night than to fern seed for your walking invisible.

' is strictly enjoined to mainquarter of an hour. and consequent The cupping-glass is solemnly left in position for a cupping. ut alii morbos sanent. A terrible : as follows Members . and allows a if the certain quantity of his or her blood to drop on the sore ailment is internal. qui sibi ita male conSt. who used to 'bark her shin with a fir-stick. It is still a very prevalent idea that toothache is caused by a little worm. . vel eandem. however. " I It is thus recounted by a physician now residing in Sligo heard of the following remedy and I know the anecdote to be : authentic ' Anthony's Fire (erysipelas or nettle-rash). Another very similar case occurred in the county Tipperary. did not acknowledge him After a careful and lengthened examias his spiritual adviser." who. and apply the blcod with her finger to the patient's skin. any member of a family called Cahill. and the patient The tain the horizontal position for an hour after its removal." For inflammation or disease of the eyes.' applied to the part affected. anchored. The old woman died only a few years ago. as also for the healing property of their blood. if it is not acceptable. which gnaws a hole in the matches ' " cure " recently practised in the county Sligo is of certain families are noted for their healing powers. bis quotidie potana." and to draw it back in position suspended the sufferer for a He then pronounced that short time by the hair of his head. like a diminutive eel. The suffering person goes to the " wise man " or " wise woman " with a gift. and then lighted." Quite recently a Protestant clergyman who suffered from some obscure affection of the palate was persuaded to consult a " knowledgeable elder.180 TREE WORSHIP-HERBS may be comfortably AND MEDICINE. mony is being gone through. The charlatan then opens a vein. was supposed to be a specific. Nempe medicus in hac regione versus eos. Pagani vero oculorum morbo affecti urina qua oculos lavare solent. the gentleman declared that he had been greatly relieved by the process. the postulant is told what must be brought. and the rapid effective indeed in production of a vacuum. the palate had been replaced. " nation the quack stated that his patient's palate was down. closely ap(tumbler) is then inverted on drinking-glass exhaustion of the air proves very plied to the skin. A large the part. for the cure of ' ' The blood of ' suluerunt saepe refscerat. Strange to narrate. Nee non et urinam vulneribus et . relief obtained is very obvious. Quas quidem mihi experto bene cognita sunt. and the lady who told me the story knew the woman Cahill. the blood must be swallowed in either case certain rhymes and incantations are muttered whilst the cere- tooth. or for disorders of the stomach.

fTa S. I forget which. ^vra avrbv rovs o(pda\fnovs SfKaTCji Se f-rf'i rv(p\tadfii>ai' Irea flvai ft. &\\a - To. A labourer in the employment of the writer injured the back of his hand. In time the crusts were removed. but crusted round the ears and forehead with a black." In non nullis Hibernicis MSS. t irts tovra. eczema or erysipelas of the face.S>v. 'HA/ou ri iffn x"'' Aoyi/xo wfOriKf. and a lotion healed the whole thing up in &c. clxxxvii. as it is written in quite a Eabelaisian vein of humour. This was excised. Melpomene.). ravrr)v re ava ra. as well as cows. *6\iv r. Iplv o|jo07jT avteriKf tpya o0f\ovs fKarepov vr\\t<av fxarbv fvpos Sf. which he said was cow-dung the neighbours had applied as a cure. us OVK avaft\f^avra 5e avvayayt'iv ras yvva'iKOis (s p-'w otipy vi^dfievos avtp\etyf. Se'xa fifv Sr. &\\wt> ctvtipuv iwvrov ywatKos irtipuffdaf /j.ipaaOa.a. appeared with his face partly washed. : worthy of perusal. cuts. ifcdrcpov \iOov.ir<? &v$pa povvov irf<poirr]Kf. KO). A stout. to Pheron.ir(a6vros..ff ovSen'iav arparrj'iriv.* That of goats. and a cancerous growth developed. & rort 7r^x*> us virepef}a\e TOS apovpas. wounds.ara 5f. well-to-do farmer. and the wound healed.yiffra $$1 Kare\d6vros rvct>\bi> yevfffdai Sia roi6vSe irp?iyp. vifoirpriffai 5^ Ix* avrbs yvvatK*. was employed by other writes " : The a few days. Ipa trdvra ri ri]V iraldi\v ruv o^Qa\p. foul looking substance. and is well come under notice. as a cure for the restoration of his sight the anec- dote is most amusingly recounted by Herodotus. quia de die in diem micturire irt vulnus solibam.ffda\'iTi irorafj-'os tyevero' r'bv Se \afi6vra. occurred in the county Tyrone.ros 4fj.a' rov irora/jLov oKTWKaiSeica. %TIS irapa ritv ea>in-fjs irpta-rns rbv rrjs 'irefjs irafffaiv irt. de medicina usuminternum humani etcanini quoque excrementi ut remedium morbis quibus dam proscriptum invenimus. airofyvyitiv rrdffas ffvv airfj rp 'EpvBp^ /3wAos 3s ravrv)v frvva.\tffai>ra. ffvvtvfix&rivai 8e /J. /3ao~i\ea -ras irv*vp. by the oracle of Butos. &s " ltf\Kti povos /col T-rjs Cw'l s Ka^ ava@\tyfi. Cow-dung applied as a specific for skin disease. He had undergone the treatment for some days. A physician in Sligo case in which I saw cow-dung used was one of.REMEDIES EMPL O YED B Y WITCH-DOCTORS. at'xM^" Bd\fftv 3s \tyovffi rovrov f^ftras SiVos rov iroranov' /uera 8i. plagis 181 solent commixtum infundere quibus emplastram pecudam stercore iniponunt. has frequently nations (Herodotus. ara. son of Sesostris. vZv /caAe'eraj TToAi' avaOT)/J. yvvaixbs o&p<? vt^dntvos TO&J iovffa. Congratulated on the recovery the workman replied " It was no thanks to the surgeon.f. rov ye \6yov nd\iffra a^i6v Svo \iOivovs. and did not smell exactly like a rose. . rijj 8e vifyd/jievos rf otipc? a/t)8Ae^6. I It think. It was recommended.iv airiKfffdat ol ^avT^'iov ' K BOVTOVS Tr6\tos. clean about the nose and eyes." 0at e\eyov TT\V jScKnATjfrji' rbv vaiSa ol avrov &ep<af 4ir' rbv airo$eaff9at fj.oK ^ .

a man whose arm was from a hedge knife was ment. and apply It commonly cures a child (keeping his bed) in two it hot. fragments of stone. must have suggested various modes of treatment. of course. days. must be taken out of the head. the articles which are washed everywhere. the dung of animals is often applied as a poultice to an ulcerated or abraded surface. beat well together. very repulsive to the uneducated eye. it is needless to say. wipe it with a silk its An handkerchief. the sufferer should " take the white part of hen's dung. John Knott.. The man's neighbours had advised this very strange application. as all will agree. and produced many a permanent squint. and correspondingly varying degree of obstinacy. Its very varying causes. a very clever doctor to take the eye out of the head. and spread on a fine For films on rag. but the leading characteristic of most would appear to be their phenomenal degree of loathsomeness. when badly injured by the lodgment of dust. glassy structure in front and porcellaneous over the rest of surface probably gave origin to this notion. recommends " Rupture in children: "Warm Cow-Dung well. ' ' . carefully dried. entitled Primitive Physick. strewing some cummin-seeds on it. and blow a little into the eye at going to bed. That of cows and of pigs is most frequently chosen. ity on medical folklore. " one of the most prevalent of the popular surgical notions among the peasantry apparently is that the organ of vision. and put it in its place again properly. lay it on a plate.A. however. " The symptomatic conditions of jaundice are. of course.D." A cure for cancer (the opprobrium medicorum] in the breast (according to the same authority) is to " apply goose dung and celandine. 1776). " It is well known that in many of the more remote districts of Ireland. in his great medical work and sold at all his "Preaching." the eye.' ' washed.. which.. of Sligo states that a very bad case open from wrist to elbow by a blow brought into the infirmary for treat- The Rev. and replaced before functions can be perfectly reThe brilliant appearance of the tissues of the eye of stored.182 TREE WORSHIP HERBS The County Surgeon laid AND MEDICINE. very obvious. China and glass are.Houses" the following as a cure for " a (7th edition. John Wesley. M. sift these. M. Spread windy it thick on leather. and double-refined sugar." In a communication to the writer. with an equal quantity of burnt alum. necessarily. brush and wash it. Patients in this condition . &c. it will both cleanse and heal the sore. even up to the present day. or put it in crooked' which was often done. protracted his recovery. Examination showed that the entire cut had been filled with cow-dung. It requires. an authorremarks that. and. ordinary botch' would damage the sight.

" Various plants were." Although there is apparently not the remotest connection between extreme heat and hydrophobia. : " of the kidneys contains their superfluous juice. in some manner. as the extreme nausea which was necessarily produced by their means had a decidedly salutary effect on the circulation in the liver. People who showed symptoms of hydrophobia were formerly smothered between two feather beds. in a sea-shell. and thereby on the excretion of . But allflower water contains the essence of all herbs therefore. before sunrise. and in the European area the months in which hydrophobia is most prevalent are not July and August. However. . a merciful way of putting an end to their sufferings. of Cardinal Richelieu. in his mercy. and wine balaustium. bile. soot. and not made by the hands of man. The malady is rare in all hot climates. Another specific was to obtain 'nine couples of lice. was the receipt. E. that such forms of medication were by no means so monstrously absurd as they may at first sight appear to be. used for the bites of mad dogs. with the dog days. with copious draughts of fresh from the source.' from the person of the boil them in a porringer with some sour patient. " Some of the Irish peasantry at least as lately as twentyfive years ago used to dose their children. Q. placed the materials for the relief of all human ailments in the herbs of the field but the sinfulness and negligence of man have hitherto prevented him from investigating those remedies individually. cypress-nuts.REMEDIES EMPL O YED B Y WITCH. yet popular belief rules otherwise. but April. and salt and they are to be given him to drink. olive-oil. and December.' The reason is obvious the animal eats all the flowers. ' ' and the evacuated secretion . have been made to drink a tumbler-full of their 1 83 own urine in the morning. D. some country people believe that madness may be cured by administering to the " three substances not afflicted person. The urine of the cow has been dignified by the application of the epithet of ' all-flower water. according to Bonaventura. . Madness and the falling sickness are both considered hereditary. and associates it. The reason for its use was highly logical. in days gone by. and to cure hydrophobia. madworts. fasting. with storax. it must be noted. &c. procured by human means.D O C2 OKS. milk. in all their bodily ' all-flower water. for nine days in succession. and caused by demoniacal possession. These are honey. . November.' taken ailments. Angelica. as well as other herbs of the field. Nevertheless. and The root of several forms of lichens were favourite remedies. if possible butter-milk. The Creator had undoubtedly. and get the sufferer to swallow the whole with care.

" Quite recently a curious case happened. cabbage. the patient must be brought under care within nine days after the attack. and wandered about the fields all night. that under his head grew a herb that would cure him. each containing about five gallons. the MacGowans became famous throughout the country for the cure of hydrophobia. but no amount of money could tempt the brothers to reveal the name of the herb or the mode of preparation. box leaves. and was lifted into the boat. On awakening. Knott states that a fellow-student of his attended a case * Thus they amassed a deal of money. bringing " "A with him two kegs of liquid. was a large sum for the farmer to give . and paid the money. and the subject was also brought before Parliament. The result was his perfect restoration from the fatal disease and the strange story having got abroad. who preserves the tradition. A family named MacGowan. set about the preparations for the potion exactly as it had been shown to him in the dream. A. he lay down in his own garden and fell asleep.184 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. One day a strange dog came swimming towards them. M'Hugh. Evidently the beast was mad. and. also a large . First. cucumbers. before the hydrophobia has become virulent . in terror of the consequences. secondly. and the eldest agreed to go and try the cure if This fifty shillings were paid to him before starting. certain rules and orders must he rigidly observed. but as six of the children were lying half dead from fright. by the member for North Leitrim. he at once sought for the herb. used frequently to cross over in their boat to visit each other."* Dr. and Usages of Ireland. gives the legend relating to the origin of the discovery of this cure. large sums being paid to them for the exercise of their skill and . digitalis. Charms. " MacGowan at once set forth on his mission of mystic healing. " Three brothers of the name were living at the time. lost. till at last. he must not cross water during the progress of the cure. P. and showed all the The young man gave himself up for signs of decided madness. for the wonderful herb seldom failed to cure the terrible malady . overcome by fatigue. and even the farmer himself was attacked before the animal could be killed. inflicting severe bites. cat belonging to a farmer's family suddenly showed signs of savage pet Six of the children were ferocity. known only to the head of the MacGowans. laid up. This great secret remains. "living at opposite sides of the lake. Nearly two centuries ago two brothers named MacGowan. and excited the greatest interest throughout the country. if prepared in a certain way revealed to him as in a vision. Lady Wilde. in the county Cavan. in Ancient Cures. and having found it. a mystery to this day. claims to have a cure An inquiry was instituted by the Irish Local for hydrophobia. which tested the power of the MacGowans. therefore. knowledge. and euphorbia. the family sent an urgent request to the MacGowans to come and help them. black currants. and flew at everyone. and will transmit it only to his eldest son. but he instantly bit one of the brothers severely. he consented. But to ensure a perfect cure. Among other popular remedies were beetroot. Then and there a dream came to him. Government Board. to his great joy.

Strange to say. the cure was quite successful. and no one dared to ask him a question as to the nature of the ingredients. and rapidly recovers from the progressive emaciation which had been hurrying him to his grave. and to this day no man nor mortal. however. the cure was not effected. Another charm. It need hardly be added that in so skilful hands the patient always survives the operation. cynoglossum powder has recently been John advertised in the newspapers as a " new cancer cure. or swallow them. Happily." " If the ingestion of a single hair of the domestic cat is not feltowed by its evacuation per vias naturales. The people said it was made of the Atherlus (ground-ivy). " The family. symptoms Formerly hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum) was employed by country "medicine men" as a cure for external and internal cancer. as a protective against hydrophobia.D. nor even the priest himself. is to take a few hairs from its tail. . The : " Take a hair of the dog that bit you. the fame of the MacGowans increased. " then the patients If." (Pages 44-46). ended fatally. and with these cakes were to be made. were ordered to provide two stone of barley meal and three pounds of butter. save of the only the eldest son of the eldest son in each successive generation down. This practice is most unmistakably the origin of the toper's advice to any one suffering from headache in the morning from imbibing too much alcohol the night before MacGowans. the unhappy subject of the accident pines slowly away. nothing more could be done to The children help them. of which also the patients were to drink copiously . in the case of a person bitten by a dog." consequence. and very stock of garlic and liazel-nuts. meanwhile. has ever obtained u knowledge of the mystery. nauseous to the taste..REMEDIES EMPLOYED BY WITCH-DOCTORS." Knott. were all restored. would surely die their only chance was over. and surely dies as a direct If the hair becomes deposited on the liver. and place them upon the wound in a poultice. and no end of presents and money were sent to them in addition to the sum paid : " Still the head of the race resisted all entreaties to reveal the name of the herb or the secret of the green fluid. which has singular mystic properties . M. of course. the are said to be more rapidly progressive. a genuine one. drew attention to the resuscitation of the old recipe as The fluid was of a green colour. It will then be no matter of surprise that so skilful a practitioner always knows the exact spot at which he must make an opening which at once reveals the mischievous hair to the eye. consequently. of hydrophobia 185 which had been treated after the bite by the case. and. It is said that a very skilful doctor can sometimes diagnosticate the source of the complaint from the complexion of the patient. MacGowan family. but MacGowan kept strict silence on the subject. and during the three days appointed for the cure they were to have no other sustenance save the barley cakes and the green fluid. at the end of that time. moistened with the fluid from the keg.

leaving hideous deformities. He is thoroughly convinced that too many valuable And items among them have been long forgotten or ignored. in the county Cork. and should be prosecuted by the Crown. tions. both violent caustics. which mullein and carrageen moss were predominant components. who is stated to have possessed the secret of a vegetable cure for both internal and external cancer. which. in . but the secret of the preparation is also lost. The country people still have themselves bled by him for diseases in general.' he will be none the less pleased to learn that experiment has demonstrated that its efficacy may yet be proved true. often for weakness. is anything rather than neic.' in question. easily amenable to modern surgery. there died an aged woman named O'Sullivan. I take it that the apostles of this new remedy look upon its introduction to the public as an The soundness of the foundation upon which absolute novelty. ulcers are necessarily included in its category. as an enthusiastic lover of his profession. is extremely glad to greet every attempt to prove the desiraof any of the old herbal bility of procuring the resurrection remedies. There are at present some herb-doctors in Ireland who still claim to possess a cure for this disease in its external form one of the best known resides in the county Sligo. too systematically neglected by scientific of advanced organic chemistry and practitioners in these days "new bacteriological pathology. Consumption was treated in olden days by vegetable decoc' ' . in a remote village.186 a TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. only increases the debility from which they are suffering. Half a dozen boiled in a quart of barley water and then strained should be administered in every liquid taken by the invalid. Personally. down to the " Its efficiency as a local dressing of all types of present day Cancerous foul ulcers was universally taught and recognized. have come under notice. this item of doctrine is built can easily be tested by a cursory the materials of glance at the contents of our early herbals. but the secret died with her. which are. and ignorantly treated by him." Not many years ago. Some dreadful cases. of course. : " in the Medical Press (7th Nov. perhaps. 1900).. Knott). and says cure not seen the original advertisement. Snails are still esteemed good for chronic coughs and for consumption. although his devotion to truth impels him to show that the cancer cure. but having regard to "I have the fact that the only authority cited is that of a manuscript found in the monastery of Mount Athos. He uses arsenic and chloride of zinc." Dr. Knott then traces the botanical of the hound's-tongue : and therapeutical history from its employment by Dioscorides. the present writer (Dr. the household physician of Antony and Cleopatra.

and pour a few drops into the nostrils and ears of the patient. already quoted. According to Lady Wilde. carrying away whatever obstructives lay on the brain. M. and drank for nine days. and laid upon the head. of giving sickly children finely powdered egg-shells to harden their bones.REMEDIES EMPLOYED BY WIICH-DOCTORS. a band of the fresh skin of a wolf worn round the body as a girdle. then bruise and press them in a linen cloth. as a cure for consumption. especially when incinerated. Irish : ' . he recommends. place it in a lump of butter and swallow it whilst yet alive. boiled If the patient sleeps he will do well. clean them well. Then. turn him on his face. the heart of a crow. or fly-like grubs. such as consumption. put it in a bottle. and that the introduction of spiders and their eggs is a very efficient antidote." Lady Wilde also quotes the following recipes from an old Irish MS. of about the year 1450. Tied in a small bag and suspended round the neck. beaten up with his blood. : Academy as certain cures for epilepsy " Put salt and white snails into a vessel for three nights. after some time.A. blossom and leaves. add honey to the juice thus pressed out. Or. This must be " fold up two repeated for three days. a plaster made of mandragore and ground-ivy. will relieve the disease. and magnesium and thereby repairing the waste of the tissues in chronic disease." In the manual of Primitive Phi/sick by John Wesley. not. It is believed by the country people that jaundice is produced by yellow flies. in the Library of the Royal . They may be of use. he lying on his back. two remedies employed by the " Take the cowslip." writes a " physician. "' Or. In the last stage suck a healthy woman daily." The other remedy is to eels in a cabbage leaf. add 7 Ibs. and mix them to a paste a poultice of this applied for nine days will cure. he will not. . place them on the fire till they are soft. and as long as the patient wears it he will be free from the falling sickness. then press out the juice and drop it into the ear. they ward off attacks of fever and of ague a black spider eaten every morning is a cure for consumption another cure is to wrap a living spider in its own web. 187 Pounded or incinerated snail-shells are also administered " as a cure for consumption. country people for deafness are as follows roots. that introduce themselves into the body. supplying the system with the salts of lime.. "' Or. woodbine leaves. if ' and " . Tried by my Spiders are very much used in the cure of certain ailments. comparing favourably with the present method adopted in Germany. potash. till the water pours out.

while a harrow-pin is placed over all. and he will get well at once. as follows: " No one should touch the person in the fit. by the Man that overcame death. let it ' Or. juice of absinthe. The ashes are then divided into two parts. sewed up in a piece of cloth. " Or. one at his head the other at his feet are poured the divided ashes. but a preservative from the malady. and he is to be signed three times with the sign of the Cross. and nine years of age of the Lord. and presumably elsewhere. then cuts his hair." " Burn the patient with a red-hot church key along the Should he fall in the fit.' " The scribe who I copied these receipts says of himself am Conlan Mac Liagh. best cured by the hand of a priest. Lady Wilde round the patient. in the name of God and the blessed Lord. and his nails pared.188 '" TREE WORSHIP HERDS AND MEDICINE. only the man who He first takes a bundle of unbleached linen works the charm. three hairs of a milk-white greyhound to be tied up and worn on the neck as an amulet.' These words are to be said in the left ear while the fit is on the patient. John. and ties finger it and toe nails . be drank while the person is in the fit. who are supposed to have still as they are related to have in anteChristian. This charm was believed to be not oniy a cure. . ' . and worn suspended from the neck of the afflicted person. and the these clippings he gathers together and burns with the linen yarn. or fennel juice or sage juice into his mouth. and in the Monastery of Tuam I am this 14th day of the moon's age. never to rise up again while the ashes and the iron remain untouched." yarn. So they leave him for a day and a night. This keeps the fit away. madness.' and ' : still also gives other modes of treatment for epilepsy. But it first attack the person's shirt be taken off and thrown into the fire and burned. after which the patient is laid flat on the earth and two into these holes are made. put the head. and the hair and the parings buried. And thus the falling sickness is buried for ever in that spot. is is " The sickness if said that on the . when by virtue of the charm he will be cured. as a protection from the power of demons and witches. and he will be cured. together with a young cock put down into the grave alive. and similar afflictions. Gospel and early Christian times the power of afflicting persons with convulsions. son of the doctor. practised by the country people. pour wine upon a pound of hemlock. written on a small slip of paper. it was formerly believed that a certain cure for epilepsy consisted of the first verse of the Gospel of St. then he will never have another attack while he lives." " By the wood of the Cross. his hair cropped. be thou healed. fresh gathered." In the county Sligo. and a thousand " years four hundred years.

put it in the infant's mouth. give it to the sick child to drink. : . and she answered that it was the charm. as the country people say. then catch a trout. . not east and west." Another novel remedy for the hooping-cough is to lift the child rapidly into a mill-hopper and out again three times in succession. and not likely to be permanent if a person is ill. to work " the charm. in the county Sligo. and found the poor creature in a dying state. he was called to attend a country woman after confinement. Another remedy is to draw water against the current from a south-running (desiul) stream. Any improvement in an ailment occurring on Friday or Saturday is unlucky. milk is procured. and place it before a ferret given to the sufferer. and made my patient all After all was finished. standing at the door. was known. his bed ought to be placed north and south. until the child recovers. holding a bannock (or oatmeal cake). . some years ago. you are not saying half enough for me did I not save the woman with the charm ?' " The doctor's reply cannot be recorded. pushing the ' woman immediately set to work. and. A most strange performance for the cure of sick cattle is recounted by Lady Wilde. and " A a bite.REMEDIES EMPLOYED BY WITCH-DOCTORS. ' : ' : . a lump of butter. shaking a mixture of oatmeal." " When I entered the room I The doctor states : found this not attending to her charge. A 189 dispensary doctor. pepper. in their presence. of which the child is made to drink on this and the two following days. I was thus addressed by the midwife Doctor. . and replace it in the stream alive. I re-entered the kitchen. but. I right. totally ignorant of midwifery. I demanded what she meant. A certain cure for whooping cough is to pour milk into a what it does not drink is saucer. . a sup says the beast get well if not leave it to its fate but the bannock I nni'se aside. pale and bloodless from post-partum hemorrhage. then throw the unconsumed this must be repeated every mornliquid away with the current Another remedy is ing before sunrise. and what the animal Some of the animal's does not consume is given to the patient. posthumous child heals a sore mouth. where a number of neighbours had collected. The local nurse. and salt over the patient. . The exorcist mounts astride on the afflicted animal. relates that. Another cure is to keep the child fasting for some time. A person who never .' My language was not parliamentary. will eat. the touch of ft . let bite. and a bowl of cream. a sup if it be so ordained. A dried fox's tongue draws thorns from the flesh a robin's breast rubbed on the sore cures "the evil". to pass the suffering child three times under a female donkey. and. the ass must then be fed on oaten bread.

' said he whereas the circumstance has already been noted. seemed to favour the transmission of influence through manipulation. expenditure of vital force in the latter On this point accept the testimony of Leverett case. . in breasts." Lady Wilde states that there are " certain wise men amongst the peasants who keep pieces of paper transmitted from their fathers which. In Ireland. . otherwise. John Knott " The for the cure of king'spractice of the royal touch evil by the sovereigns of Great Britain and of France is so well known as to require no lengthened account in this connection. have been steeped in king's blood. states that it was no rare thing for the old set of Quakers to proselyte people merely " This. that these private manipulators were considered. on an average.190 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. twelve per diem for twenty years. an Irish gentleman. his (or her) father breathes into the affected mouth three and (2) of the Son. stroking them. the gardener: 'I am more exhausted by stroking thirty or forty people. surely. Some quality." theless." by anticipated latter-day hypnotism. thus making up a sum-total of ninety-two thousand one hundred and seven a sufficient proof that the kingly operation of stroking should not have been exhausting. Thus Dr. in the name of the Trinity. dissolved. ' ' ' ' . " Properly investigated. Cotton Mather. pain drawn out at some extreme part. that Charles II. than by digging eight roods of ground. that there existed for the afflicted peasant hardly the remotest ." Nor was this manipulation peculiar to the Old World. in their times. according to Dr. of renowned was one whom " the Lord Bishop of Derry declared that he had seen dimness cleared and deafness cured. and (1) in the name of the Father. a complete distinction is established between these cures by private individuals and the cures effected by sovereigns. in his Magnolia Christi Americana. and cancerous knots." Of these the most conspicuous under the name of Valentine Greatrakes. In the former case the cure was exhausting always needing effort. : saw times the Holy Ghost. several eminent persons became " Strokers. And if the paper is rubbed over the patient. he will be cured. by some. The following paragraphs have also been communicated by Dr. stroked. grievous sores in a few days healed. obstructions and stoppages removed. or breathing upon them. It is easy to gather from perusal of contemporary records. who. they say. Thomas Allen dissuades persons from applying themselves to seventh sons of these but these seem to have found much favour neverstrokers (3) of . it need hardly be said. to trench upon the kingly prerogative. In the reign of Charles II.

A was always instances. when not promptly treated at the time. In the county Roscommon. which. Patients afflicted evil paid the usual consecutive Mondaythree in number and were said to be touched with a blood-stained rolled-up rag. " The pathology of all these tumours was explained by the The future surgical efficacy of the presence of a specific worm. and the reports of the results were usually very favourable. seventh male baby was sometimes tested directly after birth by sending out the father with his loy to the garden.' and appreciative emotion is so strong. of course. something by way of proxy is sometimes made available. and blew upon the tumour. But where needs must. the unhappy patient usually underwent a series of Monday-Thursday visits three consecutive to the seventh son of the locality. especially in remote parts of the country. becomes chronic. in the Avith the king's Thursday visits pre-antiseptic days.cranial blood-vessels. had intervened. p. in some " Among ' ' congestion of the intra. ' 191 chance of royal contact. and follows prolonged severe physical It obviously begins in intense exertion in the stooping posture. The stronger hand of the attendant. leads to perUnder such circumstances the manent structural changes. like other analogous conditions in other parts of the body. and tions to bring in seven earth-worms.' even if a daughter. There were mysterious prayers muttered at the same time. there lived an elderly woman who possessed the royal blood and remains. 70). Accordingly. with instrucThese were washed. perished instantaneously. at least. headache also becomes permanent. some twenty-five to thirty years ago. It is characterised by violent head and general malaise. and surgical interference. placed by the attendant in the right hand of the new-born. and so.REMEDIES EMPLOYED BY WITCH-DOCTORS. and stroked. But he was practically infallible if his father had also been a seventh son. gave still worse results. the locally recognised physical ills which appear the specially to affect the labouring peasantry of Ireland is head-fever (see ante. and the efficacy of the cures of the future disciple of ^Esculapius was directly calculated from the limits of the period of survival I have heard it stated that the of the imprisoned earth-worms. enveloped the whole . ' seventh son in a family (of one father and one mother) gifted with. " The individual so afflicted is brought to the person who . or daughters. Some prayers were also " said. "The chronic glandular enlargements which are so charactejistic of the scrofulous constitution in the young is essentially afti unsatisfactory condition to treat medicinally. who touched. He was better still if there had been no feminine interruption. some powers of a docthor. latter.

fasting. and a thread is securely knotted around tlie injured joint. and is operator in a bolt-upright position. Their relative position is changed from time to time." In one instance. the wise woman measured the head in two ways. who. as the case may be. No interruption can be allowed ' ' in this order. or Thursday-MondayThursday.192 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. and left there till next : possesses the cure. For the cure recourse is sometimes had to the possessor This is another of the Monday-Thursday operaof a charm. are devotedly desirous of being deceived. The child is presented. the death of the child. which he places across the vertex of his These are arranged at right angles to one another. 79. there is undoubtedly great power in siujtjestion among so relief intensely emotional individuals as the Irish peasantry. with many prayers. p. and went to a neighbour's house sooner than The doctor declared he could not account for see her child die. Accordingly the aged. local medical practitioner is seldom consulted. while the charmer produces two pieces of tape. and no intervening Monday or Thursday can be missed without losing the efficacy of the around the remedy. after this ligature has been consecrated by the mysterious repetition of The patient generally feels certain formulated prayers over it.] delicate children are very frequently explained " The obstinately-recurring abdominal symptoms of many by the presence of worms. Three visits are operation lasts about a quarter of an hour. necessary. ' on Monday or Thursday only. Monday-Thursday-Monday. while the worm-docthor repeats to himself. which came under notice. in The silence. She then declared the head to be swollen. It is sacred a string is tied horizontally head of the sufferer. "Griping pains in the abdomen. always visit. "In the treatment of 'strains' (Hibernian for sprains) the Even if he is.' A series of three visits is essential. requiring three consecutive applications. The child so treated died of epileptic convulsions. pp. and she set to work to make it the right size again. as to form a cross.. 70-74. the after-effects of such injuries are too chronic in their course to bring him any special credit. skilled devotee of the locality is visited on a Monday or a Thursday. The mother implored those who knew not to tell the doctor what the wise woman had done. i. the mystic formulae of his awe-inspiring cure. of man or beast. on such occasions. Absolute silence is now observed. on placed sitting by the Monday or Thursday morning. tions. . [See : * ante. whether * See also vol. so patient.

It is said by many to be the best of all cures for this troublesome malady." " " In the abbey (at Dromahaire) writes a correspondent. in a rag. Spittle of a fasting person is In some places. A popular form of treatment. 296. occasions. water and drink it it is put on sores as well. Hazel Kag. in bad cases. indeed.) " One of the beautiful crosses in the churchyard of Monasterboice is specially patronised by the neighbouring peasantry when hooping-cough visits the family. "a was buried many years ago. and people get it from far and near. the infant is spat on by the father for luck whilst in other parts of the country. Button scurvy is treated by spitting on the ground. and possesses also a . and practised by many in Sligo. and then loose the same by the instantaneous snap which the peculiarity of this knot makes possible. 297- O . II. a cure really believed in. the Stricta pulmonaria. the father on such . He was such a very good priest holy man that the very clay works cures it is sent for even from America. (See ante. When old crones * VOL. and Crottles. is returned.7 HE USE OF SALIVA. immediately after birth. Some years ago many old rags were to be seen at the grave. p. There is an iron spoon provided to lift it with. i. who possess greater faith in it than in the leading physician of the place. it Saliva is used for many purposes. and boiled on new milk. Pile-wort receives its popular name from its supposed efficacy in the cure of this ailment. or paper in which the clay was carried away. 193 are very frequently attributed by the uneducated peasantry to the irritating presence of worms. of which the affected youngster is then made to drink at regular intervals. is to tie the knot on a piece of string over the body of the affected animal (or human being). and it is generally taken away . 74. in the case of quadrupeds. bitter principle used sometimes in beer making. for the cure of warts and of many diseases. See also vol. is the application of a very common lichen. three-times 1 operation is repeated three times three (nine) times."* A very renowned cure for hemorrhoids. is carefully kept out of the way. ' wormespecially. This or. and rubbing on the mixed saliva and useful dust with the right thumb. It can be made up into a jelly. The cure will not work until the rag. and some are still to be observed there. 73. The moss which grows on the jHirface is carefully picked off. pp. The grave has been filled in more than once The country people even mix the clay with in recent times. called also the Tree Lung-wort. Lady Wilde states that was formerly used in baptism. Each operation is enforced by the aid of a ' . muttered blessing..

early in the morning. tection against evil spirits. in which spittle appears to be the principal or indeed only emolient. fearing to anger the is A to fairies by interfering with their work. tbey spit circle all round. I strike . the blood of many dogs." If an animal is ill. A. the Arabs spit into the water before giving it to the sick beast to drink. in the carious manual of medicine. applied . the disease of the dog that bites. the terms "medi" and " clergyman " were. It is not a wart to of the hound of Fliethas which my spittle is applied. and parents make their children the custom is due to the belief that it affords prospit at them .. on the ground. is translated as follows venom of a dog. doth not well in man.194 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. or. certain remedy for a person suspected of being bewitched. entitled Primitive man Pliysick: Diseases. to keep the fairies away and neutralize the " danger of the evil eye. already quoted. Even cine For at the close of the eighteenth century. used for wounds or : " The poison of a serpent." If so unlucky as to meet a weasel. corns and (mixed with chew'd bread. and people often refuse. . has sometimes relieved and sometimes cured blindness. If he spits on the face of the possessed. A very ancient Irish pagan charm. spirit is broken. M. as a stranger is considered to have more power over the fairies than a neighbour. synonymous. is spittle On the last page the use of "fasting prescribed as a cure for almost all diseases : "Fasting spittle. in some cases.A." an interesting but disagreeable custom. " God bless it ". the power of the evil In fact. a great misfortune will befall you. the most effective way of neutralizing the machinations of the fairies is to spit on the object. An Easy Eev. and Natural Method of Curing most John Wesley. the sharpness of the spear. contracted sinews from a cut. the treatment of a patient by an Irish "wise woman" would compare favourably with some of the abominations recommended by the by this " amateur physician. and say. example. I invoke the three daughters of Fliethas against the serpent. Benediction 011 this body to be benediction on the spittle healed benediction on him who casts out the disease. you should at once spit at it for if it spits at you first. I strike disease I strike wounds . outwardly applied every morning. The blood of one dog. and the afflicted restored to reason. watch at the door until a stranger passes. . in a gather round a baby to admire it. . If a person comes unexpectedly on a bad smell he incontinently spits. of the iron that strikes. the blood these I invoke. animate or inanimate. the poisons. of the thorn that wounds. cow is spat upon for luck bargains are concluded by spitting " on the hand or on the luck-penny. .

the value of the " cure The following charm for cramp in the leg is. it relieves or cures asthmas. and (3) of the Holy "Ghost. but as he night. as it slowly untwists in In Ireland. ' : ' Curly-doddy do my biddin'..' " officinalis] According to the same writer the" wall peniterry (Purietana is known in Ireland as peniterry. gravel. Mr. died of bronchitis. occasioned by the exposure. Soop my house. : very peculiar : " The Devil is tying a knot in my Mark. rheumatism. T." and is thus o2 . in Scotland. who thus address the plant . swelled liver. or chronic sores. Luke. an' take my bidden. and of the Son. eyelids.THE USE OF SALIVA." The author of this verse appears to have had little belief in the Evangelist Matthew. Turn round. children twist the the hand. to say the least. gout. was recommended by a " wise woman.' stalk. king's evil. F." When a man or beast has just been smitten by the otherwise fatal glance of an " evil eye. Taken inwardly. unloose it. and in the North of Ireland doddy from the resemblance of the head of flowers to the curly pate of a boy. cancers. ulcerated leg. scurvy. Crosses three are made to ease you. red and inflamed. Two for the thieves and one for Christ Jesu. who carried out her directions with the greatest exactness. palsy. 195 every morning)." the effects can be neutralized by getting the owner of the mischievous optics to spit on the " victim three times in succession (1) in the name Father. warts. and sat with his leg immersed in the water of a bog-hole all In the morning his leg was perfectly healed. cuts (fresh)." to an old man. " is somewhat doubtful. scorbutic tetters. but unpleasant remedy for an together. or possibly the apostle's name had to yield the thieves also come in for a to the exigencies of the metre large share of notice. within a few days. falling sickness. stone. Pyer states that an old name for the devil's bit (Scabiosa succisa) in the northern counties " is ' cuiiof England. In Folk-Lore of Plants. leprosy. sore legs. T. and shoal my widden. deafness. this nickname being often used by children. and." (2) A favourite poultice for wounds. leg I heg. is composed of scrapings of tallow candles and cabbage leaves boiled Another very simple. thus address it : ' Curl-doddy on the midden. and John.

time out of mind. T.): A weed 'words of power' ' : Peniterry. endows them with temporary fluency of speech. really believed "good folk": for its red flowers were then the "good in the folk's . or yarrow. locally at least. F. peniterry. A vast amount of legendary lore is connected with " fairy " little circles of vivid green frequently observed in the rings darker green of old pastures. Dyer states that in Ireland the puff-balls of Lycopodium are styled the devil's snuffbox. yarrow. T. in " the herb of the seven cures. Mr. The common foxglove was one of the most potent herbs used by the Druids to increase the efficacy of their charms. In Folk-Lore of Plants. and when May dew is gathered by young girls to improve their complexion. peniterry." from its many virtues. they carefully avoid trespassing on the " magic circles for fear of offending the good people. been held in great reverence by the country people. "Father Connell. or I '11 pull you. to which the terrified (schoolboy) idler might run in his need. and the convolvulus his garter." by the O'Hara Family (chapter called. "is. and enhance their charms. beneath the foot. This curious phenomenon of a very distinctly formed ring. and so dreaming about their future husbands. yarrow. the nettle his apron. The herb also banishes evil spirits from those who carry it about their person. owing to the outspread propagations of a particular mushroom.morrow true love shall be. and if placed inside the shoe. and within which the fairies dance on moonlight nights. is a Saxon survival from the times when the people who so named it." Even to dream that you are gathering yarrow.' " Young girls were in the habit of gathering milfoil. Save me from a whipping. It is said by some that the term foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) applied to the deadly but beautiful wild flower. denotes that good fortune will be yours. roots and all. and repeating described in xii. Girls dance around " it singing : Yarrow. and placing the plant under their pillows. for a richer following vegetation. Yarrow is called." who would be avenged on them by causing them to lose their beauty. And tell me Who my before to. the fairy-ringed fungus. by which the ground is manured. I bid thee good inorrow. suddenly the following grasping it hard and threateningly. Irish.196 TREE WORSHIP HERBS " AND MEDICINE." These fairy rings have. upon May and All Hallow's Eve. however. that grows by the wall.

and if placed under the head of that supposed to produce sleep." As does also the poet Moore : " The phantom shapes oh. was used for love" potions or philters. in some instances. lay all alone . as the fairies visit their displeasure on the creature actually Shakspeare thus alludes to the superabstracting this plant." The fairies to mortals. when they intended to take the root of this plant. they digged it up. GUARDIANS OF HEALING HERBS. nourished by the . they took the wind thereof. As in those hellish fires that light The mandrake's charnel leaves at night. makes one of the hags gathering it say : " I. Thus the rnandragora or mandrake." The mandrake has a fleshy root. and with a up sword describing three circles about it. " .FAIRIES. its juice which was held All parts of the repute. " That shrieks when plucked at nigbt And again " Such rank and deadly lustre dvrells. stition : " And shrieks like mandrake torn out of the earth. must be drawn from the soil in which it grows. Look in the fleshy mandrake's stem." Amongst the Eomans. various precautions were adopted when " digging for it." " To keep her slender fingers from the snn. since they do not unresistingly resign their power over herbs may. And on these fingers neatly placed them. though he grew full low. be used against themselves. That appal the maiden's sight. That living mortals hearing them run mad. by means of a dog. According to Pliny. a patient was plant are narcotic. To pluck the speckled foxgloves from their stem. in the Masque of Queens. The Irish and others believed the herb was found only under a gallows. and they therefore vigorously punish those who lay unhallowed hands on them. to hear the mandrake groan And plucked him up. : 197 now shortened like everything else in this prosaic gloves " This idea is of classic origin for age into foxglove. supposed to possess animal life and to shriek when uprooted. On the ground. forked and often in form in great resembling the human body ." : Ben Jonson. last night. touch them not. looking towards the west. Pan through the pastures often times hath run.

he gravely assures his readers. a neighbour advised that it should be allowed to recover from the fit. borrowed a large dog from a neighbour. was hanged." convulsions. and then be killed. A strong cord is tied or some living creature be requisitioned. states that it must be pulled with prayer. . various herbs are enumerated which protected As in the case of the fairy influence those who possessed them. Marsh marigold is considered a plant of great power.198 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. to the sick person. left for dead and recovered . in the above manner. to one of the animal's legs. and on "May day garlands are made of it to put on cattle. to extract them from the ground was highly perilous. and the dog reappeared no more. or " red hand. drops which fell from it. Amongst the Eomans it was deemed prudent that some herbs. at intervals. said to have been compiled in the thirteenth from century. and having some about the person is a protection against disease. also. otherwise the fairies will but this. that the wild fig tree should be pulled up from the earth. . a cupful of the decoction is administered. should be drawn up by the roots. and to the root. drew up the plant he required. mandrake. was incontinently hanged. inasmuch as they. otherwise its extraction from the soil is fatal to the mortal who pulls it. A cure for consumption is an herb styled crov-darrig." In an Irish MS. The leaves are then squeezed after which they are burned and the previously extracted juice drunk by the patient on an empty stomach. when gathered for necromantic purposes. The young buds of the briar are used in spring. as in the case where Horace describes Canidia requiring. The advice was acted on. The quaint and amusing Caleb Threlkeld. old botanist. . attacked with afflicted with the "falling sickness. and cured a person The dog. The dog fell ill a second time. . carry off the puller "is an abuse of God s holy ordinance of prayer. in an earthenware vessel . for her unholy purpose. especially in cases of sprain. and it is made then A farmer desirous of procuring a to act the role of herb-digger. being considered the best. who falls into a profound slumber. Great efficacy is attributed to^the briar. from which he awakes cured. in his Synopsis Stirpium Hibemicarum. and to hang on the door posts to keep the fairies away. and its roots in winter time as medicine. but the next day appeared at his master's door. were all carefully watched over by the " Good People.. For their extraction it is necessary that the aid of a cat. or dislocation the species bearing a reddish flower. particular herb." Many are the virtues of these herbs. a dog." It must be pulled by tying the root of the plant to the leg of a dog. They are boiled for twelve hours. but again suffering from convulsions.

The tail of a black cat. burns or sores.FA IRIES. ritual have been apparently been retained. and was. and it Vervain has long been in repute as a love philtre. It is alleged that vervain was one of the plants held sacred by the Druids. but words of Christian substituted for the invocation of the ancient deities of the land. for each wart you possess. about three feet apart. In Germany The a wreath of vervain is bride. or of any article of gold either material should be heated by friction before application. then throw them into water until the latter is hot. and waving his hands. the " herb doctor " reciting an incantation. Select a small stone. whoever picks up the bag of stones will have a transfer of the warts. thou growest upon holy ground. and split evenly to end. " hinders witches from their will. and bathe the affected parts once a day until they are healed. A from end 1 99 strong twig of this about a yard long is taken. after the operation. and. which is translated as follows . The following charm is also practised smaller than a boy's marble. tie them up in "a clean linen bag. then find out a stone in some field or ditch with a hollow." their machinations. tion is used. Another remedy is to pierce with a thorn the shell of a living snail. This ligature is left on for three days. when the sprain is perfectly cured. and the fluid that exudes is an unfailing remedy for anything affecting the eyes. will effect a rapid cure. then point each of the other nine successively towards the stye. in many cases. For a stye in the eye. adopted into Christian in their Although gathered by witches to do mischief usage. and wash the -warts seven times therein. in which rain or dew may have lodged. pluck ten gooseberry thorns. and cure will follow infallibly. When the twigs touch. a When this plant is pulled a peculiar incantasovereign remedy. For braises. in consequence. G UA RDTA NS OF HEA LING HERBS. And in the name of the holy Jesus I pull you out of the ground. it can be employed against incantations. Thou curest all sores. and all diseases. : : " Vervain. on the other hand. a piece of the briar is cut off at the point of contact and bound firmly over the sprain. if rubbed over the eyelid. Inflammation of the eyes is removed by the application of an amber bead. given to the newly-married In . the pieces being then held by two men. heat limestones in the fire. In Mount Calvary thou wert found." to the superstition of the ancient cult is here transferred for the groundwork of the charm has present professed religion. yet. throw the first away. and throw it out on the highway ." Verbena officinalis. or vervain is esteemed.

and use and statutory times for paring nails and thought by many a point of consideration. . The same superstition was. with vervain strew the ground. tion. distort. In old Norse belief the nails of the dead were always cut. and the parings burnt or hidden. Here the disease is supposed to be absorbed in a representative portion of the body of a stranger. : Sir " Thomas Browne. says is." Mint is used as a plaster for wounds. According to the Jewish Talmud nails must be cut in a certain order. and placed under the cradle of a sick infant will cure convulsions. with secret incantations. This apparently inexplicable custom is elucidated by the practices of the Hindoos and South Sea Islanders. embodied in this couplet " He that cutteth hair or : horn. hoping thus to compass the death of their enemy. commenting on set the supersti- The cutting hair is To the perhaps. A cure for the mumps is to tie a halter round the neck of the sick child and lead it to a stream in which it must be bathed three times. but the continuance of ancient superstition. or burn the figure so made. The wood anemone round the waist is tied The Irish peasant carefully hides or burns the cuttings from if he loses a tooth he his hair." Clippings of the hair and nails of a child. tied up in a linen cloth. Shall rue the day that he was horn. certain age. nail clippings. In one of the sacred books of the Parsees there is a prayer to be said over nail parings lest the evil demon turn them into weapons. Virgil describes it as a charm used by an enchantress : " With Bring running water. and it was also feared by others in certain days of the week. France. and is then supposed to possess remarkable curative powers. The custom is still observed in the East. and then pierce. or any article belonging to a person they wish to injure or bewitch. or the clippings from his nails throws it away over his left shoulder or into the fire a mother will not permit the nails of her infant to be cut until it attains a . a sure remedy for disorders of the stomach. it is gathered under the different changes of the rnoon. The juice of carrots is employed for purifying the blood. it was peculiar to pare their nails upon the Nundinae observed every ninth day . which them against their former owners. who make little figures of hair.200 - TREE WORSHIP HERBS AXD MEDICINE." is effected Another certain cure by some part of the clothes and . as in Ireland. in England. Bonians. bind those altars round fillets. as otherwise they hastened the completion of the Death Ship which is to announce the end of the world.

baldness was the natural antithesis. Travellers in the East draw attention to the fact that the natives prefer to commence a journey at the time of the new moon and a similar custom obtained amongst the Jews in ." to point Amen ' ! On these occa- anything they may wish for At the new moon. thorns. and.CEREMONIES REGARDING CUTTING HAIR. " according to Vallancey. at the conclusion of which they cried. and is as old and general as any primitive religious idea. on seeing the new moon. repeated the Lord's Prayer. v. and repeat the words of the blessing ' ' ! him down ' : and of the Son. The idea at the root of the construction of the similitude of an animal. 364). but also to the state of the human body. we read the field. or . 24. knelt down. mankind in all ages have imagined its influence to extend not only to human affairs. This will account for a lock of hair being considered the representative of the owner's self. I ere the morrow my true love may see. However. the Irish. sions. when life through it is sought to be taken or blasted by magic. but it is of world-wide practice. 20. F. 19. be true unto me. Hair was an emblem of virility. He will come home at the full moon. From observing the very visible effects of the moon upon the level of the ocean. they fancy that they will obtain for." : Proverbs vii. and by the light of the moon but it should never be attempted on a Friday night. Vol. T. 5th series. ajrcient times : " For the goodman is not at home He is gone a long journey He hath taken a bag of money with him." The knife then is placed under the pillow. it is permissible. or the charm is of no effect. After other completion the image is pierced with pins.. Dyer states that. varies somewhat in different countries. And self in " So David hid himagain in Samuel xx. In the name of the Father. falling-sickness. and even lucky. or of a human being devoted to destruction. T. new moon. and of the Holy Ghost." Mr. p. 201 hair being buried with a harrow-pin at the site of the first fit of Whoever digs them up will get the disease. the King sat : to eat meat. and strict silence observed. when the new moon was come. it is not an uncommon practice with an iron knife at the moon and say : people " New That moon. to cut the hair at the new moon. May thou leave us as safe And even still they make the sign of the as thou has found us cross on themselves (Notes and Queries.

202 TREE WORSHIP HERBS . growing or causing to grow. a lock of the hair. procured. fish. explains that it is necessary to secure something conThe nected with the body of the object desired to be destroyed. and buried every morning. the effects were violent and death The most acute agonies and terrific distortions of the speedy. Ellis. offerings. while he foamed and writhed under his dreadful power. were not sufficient for the purpose of compassing the death of the victim. supposed by the process to be impregnated by the demon. "It was called tubu. torn by the evil spirit. and endued it with. the sorcerer took the hair. carried by a confidential servant.. saliva. in Polynesian Researches. When the tara had been performed and the tubu secured. according to the treatment to which the similitude is subjected. or. to his house. bath. originated in their dread of sorcery by any of these means. like substance it is slowly pointed instruments or if of wax or roasted before a fire in the belief that each prick inflicted on the image will occasion a mortal pang in the human being it represents. performed his incantations over it. the wretched sufferer appeared in a state of frantic madness. will ensure gradual dwindling and pining of the original. Amongst the South Sea Islanders parings of the nails. and the custom of the Tahitians in scrupulously burning or burying the hair when cut off. curses. in which the saliva was carefully deposited. and also furnishing to each individual his distinct basket of fruit. or burning. or mara. and the piece of bread-fruit. i. who was afterwards regarded as the God of At the second battle of Moytirra he prepared a medicinal physic.e. such sanative powers that the wounded warriors who were plunged into it emerged healed and restored . similar ceremonies were observed. the saliva or other secretions from the body. and however numerous. as they expressed it. prayers. etc. Many legends yet recount the miraculous cures effected by the " medicine men " of great Irish physicians or pagan times. If it was a portion of food. and offered his prayers the demon was then supposed to enter the tubu. or sudden or violent death. who thus became " pos. or other substance that belonged to his victim. the tara was performed. The most widely known of all their celebrities was Dianket of the Dedanann race." When . and that melting before a fire. and through it the individual who suffered from the enchantment.. inevitable destruction was expected to follow. or even a portion of the food which the person is to eat any one of these was considered as a vehicle by which the demon entered the person." sessed. body were experienced . AND MEDICINE. The use of the portable spittoon by the Sandwich Islander chiefs. was placed in the basket of the person for whom it was designed. and. if eaten.

His Druid advised him to have a bath prepared before the next battle. tribute of inferior sometimes given. that you put in.THE MAGIC CALDRON. is a good description of British superstition. Many ages before the Christian era a king of Leinster was hardly beset by a neighbouring and hostile tribe which used poisoned weapons. FIG. county Down. from which they arose perfectly healed. and in mediaeval times. Reproduced from the Ulster Journal of Archceology. to 203 strength. " And now about the Like elves and Enchanting all fairies in caldron sing a ring. with Hecate and the witches around the seething caldron. bronze caldrons are mentioned as the chiefs to those of superior rank. parish of Killinchy. dl. As fast as the king's men were wounded they were plunged into the fluid. an enumeration of the number of copper caldrons carried off is In the Book of Rifjhts." . Bronze Caldron found in the townland of Raffery. if the fact happened to be recorded by the annalists of an Irish chief pillaging the territory of his neighbour. The scene in Macbeth. Extreme outside diameter twenty-two inches. It is thus apparent that the idea of the existence of an elixir of life is of very ancient date in Ireland. consisting of the milk of one hundred and fifty white and hornless cows.

and found the chief lying prostrate." from his great skill in diagnosis (though from the story. grievously wounded in battle. And make them live and breathe and fight again. as thin as writing paper the thinness and evenness of the plates. so caldron when filled. formed of golden coloured bronze. it would appear that his pupils. in his hurts. possessed this valuable gift). and wounded warriors carried from the battlefield and plunged into the magical liquid." Camden also mentions this custom as existing in his time. not so much as he himself.204 TREE WORSHIP HERBS AND MEDICINE. but the agony suffered by^the affixing the handles. Irish magical caldrons appear to have been used." A fine bronze caldron (fig. not for destructive so much as for healing purposes. and this brought back the love of their husbands on them. wicked magic. " And what " demanded the doctor of number groan is that ? two apprentice. They diagnosed the nature of disease. Caoilte. A terribly learned doctor. to the fight : " By force of potent spells. patient was excruciating. by a treacherous attendant. temperature. were immediately healed and enabled to return for the Druids. incantations were pronounced. 51) was found in a bog long used for supplying fuel (at one time at least forty feet higher). arrived with his three apprentices. And conjurations horrible to hear. . groaning loudly from the effects of intense pain. r And raise a slaughtered army from the earth.A chief. such as he knew were used by the chief women of the Fenians. had poisonous matter placed. Healing herbs were decocted." replied number two. in which numbers of bronze implements have from time to time come The vessel. brought the full of his right hand of potent fairy herbs with him. " It is from a hidden reptile. and the ingenious mode of . " And what " groan is that ? inquired the doctor of the third . not by pulse. at the earnest entreaty of two " high-born ladies. Could set the ministers of Hell at M ork. and general symptoms." replied number one. poisoned herb. " " What groan is that ? inquired the doctor of his first " It is from a apprentice. and he gave them to the women and they made a bath thereof. The wounds closed. but by the character of the groans emitted by the sufferer. The ancient physicians were indeed clever at their profession. There is a curious reference in the Book of Lismore to the magic caldron or bath. is to light. styled " the prophetic physician. as to equalize the strain in lifting the are proofs of advanced technical skill. and bathed therein. of very superior workmanship.

^estore the patient to health." . but was actually cured. .PRINCIPLE OF "NO CURE NO PA F. he could be made refund his fee and the cost of the keep of his assistants. 205 " It is from a poisoned seed." When in attendance on a patient. after which the poisonous substances were extracted from beneath the skin. (i. "the doctor" was " entitled to his " coshering board and lodgings).. " Physicians mend or end us." replied number cauterized Then the whole four set to work on the unlucky sufferer. least propensity to jeer. and the chief not only survived the operation. when sick we call them to attend Secundem artem Without the us. these " medicine men " of the pagan era were paid on the principle of "no cure no pay.." apprentice. the wounds with red-hot irons. but although we sneer In health. .e. If one may judge from mediaeval MSS. three. free with that of his apprentices or pupils but if he failed together to-.

or pillar-stones. or passing through a cleft sapling. STONE WORSHIP.CHAPTER V I. in Great Britain and on the Continent. the memory of their existence. lithic monuments in commemoration of the death of some renowned warrior. In support of this it is " stated that in Scotland they are styled cat-stones. graduHoled Stones with diminutive ally substituted for the original rite apertures Adopted into Christianity Their wide-spread use Connected with marriage rites.Stones New by Druids. or battle." derived . or the Coronation Stone. &c. Divination Stones by the Christians Anecdotes regarding their adoption Creeping or passing under certain objects. Inauguration Stones The Stone of Brehon's. doubtless. amongst succeeding generations. took place. and with women Alignments of Stones Druid's. Pillar-Stones erection is The most ancient attributable of Monuments Various causes to which their fluence over women Traditional legendary belief regarding their inand men Pagan Pillar.Stones Reconsecrated to the Religion The Worship wide-spread Instances cited St. though found purposes. They are by some antiquaries supposed to be idols. This sentiment. but were doubtless erected for a variety of other These rude monoliths. or to have been erected on the spot where some celebrated combat. Patrick overturns Pillar-Stones Human Beings metamorphosed into Pillar. are not very numerous in Ireland. led primitive man to plant erect in the ground the rough pillar-like stones he found In corroboration of this we lying prostrate on the surface. and Hag's Chairs or Seats Destiny.. and among men. is an ardent desire to leave behind something perpetuate. Magicians. in Westminster Stone Rocking Stones. Witches. and Mermaids Speaking Stones Stones to which Offerings of Food were made Hungry Stones Holed Stones The larger-sized apertures used for the cure of disease The ailment left behind by the act of transit Hence the idea of regeneration and the remission of sins These ideas adopted By Irish Saints. . notice that these hoary monuments are found in almost every country throughout the globe in Ireland they may have been mere cenotaphs. Abbey The Blarney A to SENTIMENT all races of common to human beings in all ages.

pillar-stones are still popularly considered to exemplify th&t worship of generative power which prevails in many other lands. some of which he caused to be overthrown. if not very widespread. which the wizard Time. but useful purpose of landmarks. Like dials. Black Stone in the wall of the Kaaba is no other than the Linga of Mahadeva. and to adore the sacred Black Stone. Traces of the survival of the worship of standing-stones are extremely interesting. these ". such as temples or tombs. is.PILLAR-STONES. say of the stones they " " This stands for God but we know not His shape worship and therefore they leave the rock untouched by chisel. The Kaffirs. and made the performance of a pilgrimage The Hindoos allege that the to the Kaaba a religious duty. a tribe of the Hindu Rush.. and that. Had raised to count his ages by. 207 from cath. " a battle. There are many examples from ancient Greece similar instances occur in almost all early religions. Some writers have even suggested that they were erected for. . There are numerous authenticated examples of the widespread custom. so he grafted it on to his remodelled religion. Thus pillar-stones were consecrated to the new faith by simply engravIf we are to believe ing on them the sign of the Greek cross.. and used as sundials. Ages before the appearance of Mahomet people flocked annually to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba. adopted by Christians on the Continent. Also it is possible they may have been employed for the prosaic." in the county Westrneath. he found the people worshipping pillars. that had been anciently pagan. and even encourage the cult. but the majority appear to have been reconsecrated to the new worship. and over men in securing progeny. Patrick. of devoting to Christian uses monuments. . and traditionary legendary belief regarding their influence over women for obtaining favourable results during their confinements. : . lonely columns stand sublime. especially at Rome. ." . and finally to tolerate. high. at least far from extinct. and this system was in primitive times extensively followed in Ireland. and they are still preserved in folk-lore. a stone monument called the " Cat's Stone. for example. one of their gods. like the pillars of the temple of the sun at Balbec." There is. and the Mollahs were at length forced to connive at. the later written lives of St. The astute reformer perceived that the custom was too firmly rooted to be easily eradicated. . Flinging their shadows from on. and that when the Kaaba was rebuilt it was placed in the wall to withdraw it from public adoration but the Prophet's new converts would not relinquish its worship.

of course. ing to some authorities. a maggot. . near Granard. Crom or Crum signifies." in the plain of Mag Slecht. the demolition of an idol styled CennCruat'ch " with or Crom Cniach. 52. is described. in the west of Connaught. There seems to be. some indistinct reference to death and its accompanying corruption. Patrick a comparamodern MS. and having twelve other idols ornamented with brass around him. relating standing-stone FIG. and " the earth swallowed the other twelve idols to their heads. Rows of pillar-stones at Carnac. was styled Crom Dubh." Another idol. the name is still intimately connected with the first Sunday in August. accordsurrounding circle of boulders. St. either by the hand of nature or that of man." ornamented gold and with silver. or the "Black Maggot. destroyed or overthrew the chief idol.208 STONE WORSHIP. in Brittany. In many localities a conspicuous standing-stone. Patrick. in the province." and. in these names. " the chief idol of Erin." It appears as if the legend was a current popular story committed to writing from the vernacular. and in their connection with the first day of autumn. so Crom Cruach is literally the " Bloody Maggot. placed in a prominent position. In a passage in the Tripartite Life of St. at a compara" to a " late and and its tively tively period.

II. Lot's wife and the giant Ardfind. In some cases trees take the place of stones. which bears. When life and magical powers were attributed to inanimate objects nothing was more natural than to suppose that stones and trees might be converted into men and women. and transformation of men among the commonest occurrences. Daphne is transformed into a laurel. an Irish saint. the butter rolls into VOL. there is a pillar stone. and mythology. The saint after whom the church is named had a large tract of pasturage The woman in charge of his cows. and America. according to popular tradition. Lot's wife into a pillar of salt. a false man. which they buried under one of these numerous monoliths. by Celtic magic. stole and sold the saint's butter. which changed into men . it was taught that the gods possessed the power of transforming human beings into pillar-stones. into stones but a much earlier belief relates that they were erected by diminutive supernatural beings who carried the biocks with them from a far distant East. adjoining the sacred edifice. as the magician into both are was in this instance. in which a Druid transforms three of his enemies into rocks. had been petrified by a magician. and the Cornish maidens and the Sligo mermaid's children into a circle of stones. who. in the imagination of the peasantry. The standing-stones at Carnac (fig. Even with the Greeks it meets us in the well-known fable of Deucalion and Pyrrha re-peopling the earth by casting stones behind them. and conversely men and women were turned into trees and stones. O'Curry gives an extract from an Irish tale. for her misdeeds. P . a woman. is called by the Irish-speaking peasantry Jar-breaga. 52) are said to be one of Caesar's armies metamorphosed. The legend is especially interesting. in almost every myth of creation collected by anthropologists in Africa. a rude resemblance to a female The natives of the locality suppose this to represent figure. with the object of confusing seekers after a great treasure. at the present day. In the south of Cork. The tale of stones turning into human beings meets us.PILLAR-STONES. and women." When primitive traditionary tales. were converted into religion. whereupon the holy man turned the dishonest woman into a pillar stone. Very little of the old church of Fernagh in the county Kerry remains. as wherever natural objects present a resemblance to the human figure such like myths sprang up. except a fragment of the east wall. 209 so as at a distance somewhat to resemble the human figure. Polynesia. for instance. are examples from Hebraic and Norse belief. In the same way the writer has heard the term applied to a " scare-crow. and set them on end at Carnac.

where they are still pebbles. and placed The churn and other vessels used in the butterto be seen. Upon its surface are eight depressions. be pregnant at the time. varying in size. cross cows.210 STONE WORSHIP. locally known The surface of the rock is about seven feet as a butter lump. north side. found not long ago in a Each neighbouring field. by about six inches in depth. which is shown by the stone to the She also had a rope with which she used to tie present day. It is firmly believed . and the south side (fig. In the centre of the rock surface is laid the upper half of a quern. size. Fernagh old Church. 53). county Kerry. they pray and turn these stones. 54) about three feet and a half above it. The Butter Rolls " (probably cursing-stones). The woman happened to making were also turned into stone. the north side earth (fig. " 53. square. FIG. from a photo. three of them being slight. but it has otherwise no connection with the other stones or petrified " meskins. them near the church. the larger basins are thirteen inches in diameter. and five of good cavity contains a worn oval pebble." When the devotees arrive at this rock. level with the its natural site on a sloping bank. and the stake to which it was attached grew into a The rock in which the cavities occur appears to rest on tree.

Fernagh old Church. some 24 feet high.BELIEF REGARDING PILLAR-STONES. There are in or the highlands of Scotland and in the adjacent iles numberless Obelises. side. south county Kerry. from a photo. full of them . but have always failed. A young lad not long ago attempted to steal one of them. * " * Toland's'Jffi^ory of the Druids. that they could not be taken away. the stones being found again in their places next morning. Wales being likewise of England. some 30. pages 130-131). 211 Indeed several persons have tried to do so. The saints appear to have thus inherited from the Druidical priesthood. (Ed. with very many places P2 . the art of turning people they disliked into One of these holy men was persecuted by a malignant stone. stones set up on end. 1814." and that these stones were at one time used for maledictory and other purposes. so he deemed it wiser to There can be little question leave the sacred stone back again. and some there are in the least cultivated parts of this last kingdom. the common In most in Ireland. " The Butter Rolls " (probably cursing-stones). and this sometimes where no such stones are to be dug. others higher or lower. as to this site having been formerly a " cursing place. FIG. but his horse would not cross the bridge out of the parish. 54.

" * For the story of the capture of another mermaid. discovered amongst the rocks. bearing the singular title of Mermaid " to them is attached a legend which accounts for their origin.212 hag. see ante. It is as follows In olden days. and in the townland of Scurmore. transform'd into stones by the magic of the Druids." was the sole comment of the latter. a man walking along the sea shore. edifices stone by the blow. and the price he had demanded would be paid. who strongly objected to the sum of money the builder was demanding for his fee. when the architect was at the top completing the cap.* The man therefore approached became the possessor of the magic garment. and thought that he could then dictate "It is easier to pull down than his own terms to the designer. locality. or the like. however. tower was never finished. as he commenced On seeing the tables thus turned. perceiving opponent at the base of the building commencing her incantations. Crofton Croker recounts a legend of human beings. lying close to the foundation. Thus among other things (for recording their traditions will have its pleasure as well as usefulness). but the architect. the saint. finally overtook him. p. both as regards form and disposition. they account for the Roman camps and military ways. like a wise man. parish of Castleconnor. all works which seem to them to exceed human art or ability. knows that if possession be obtained of an article of a sea nymph's costume. metamorphosed by magic into stones. in every country the ignorant people ascribe to the devil or some supernatural power. 127. leaped to the ground and struck her on the head with his The country people show the witch metamorphosed hammer. the saint begged him to desist. when one day his youngest born saw him abstract the magic garment from its hiding-place. had the scafolding removed. his superintending the work on a round tower. and declined either to repair or complete the work. erect stones so call'd. to : people believe these Obelises to be men. but belonging to a different class from the Obelises. and This round bearing the mark of the holy man's hammer. stealthily. This is also the notion the vulgar have in Oxfordshire of Rollwright stones. a mermaid Now. who followed him about. " Children of the large boulders. or at least everybody in that lying asleep. for one day. to build. whereof I now discourse. at least to giants. she at once loses her aquatic nature. to throw down the masonry. and led the metamorphosed nymph home as his bride. everybody. calling such the devil's dykes. and degenerates into an ordinary mortal. ReHis seven children tribution. STONE WORSHIP. And indeed. hindering the completion of the The saint in the act of he was engaged in erecting. would not again trust himself in sacerdotal power. . there are some . county Sligo. and in Cornwall of the hurlers . were nearly grown to maturity. so the round tower remains unfinished to into still this day.



where he imagined
off to describe


would be


to his


mother, who seized with a sudden yearning to return to her native element, resumed possession of her property, and bade her children follow her to the sea-shore. Being now re-endowed with all the attributes of a mermaid, she touched each in succession, changed them into seven stones, and then plunged into the ocean, and has never since been seen, but the boulders, seven in number, still stand on the circumference of a circular rampart surrounding a fine tumulus called Cruckancornia. ^It appears to have been a very prevalent belief throughout Ifeland, that some of the large stone circles were human beings, or giants, metamorphosed by magic into rocks. In one of Crofton Croker's fairy legends, a mermaid is secured by the A story very much resembling abstraction of an enchanted cap. the Sligo legend of the Mermaid, is told by Mr. Hibbert, in his The mermaid, after redescription of the Shetland Isles. sumption of her long discarded skin, said to the deserted " Farewell, I Shetlander, as she dived into depths unknown loved you very well when I remained on earth, but I always loved my first husband better." In Denmark, there are families who believe themselves to be descended from such mixed
marriages, and similar tales existed in the county Kerry, relative to the families of 0' Flaherty and 0' Sullivan, whilst the Macnamaras, of the county Clare, owe their name it is said, to a Mermaids are described by Irish tradition of the same nature. fishermen as " women with fishy tails," thus unwittingly mulier plagiarising the lines from Horace, Desinit in piscem formosa superne,* i.e. a woman beautiful above, ends in the tail of " The Irish word a fish. merrow,' correctly written mornadh, or mornach, answers exactly to the English mermaid,' and it It is also is the compound of muir, the sea, and oii/h, a maid. used to express a sea-monster, like the Armoric and Cornish morhuch, to which it evidently bears analogy." According to " born of " " Ussher, signifies, in the ancient British, " " morgan the sea and " Morgan is, at present, a very common name
' ;

The youth ran

what he had seen

in Wales.

the foot According to Crofton Croker, St. John's Well lies at of a hill about three miles from Ennis, and the water is believed to possess the power of restoring the use of the limbs and curing defective sight. Near the well there is a small lough, said to be the abode of a mermaid, which used to appear very frequently. " This of the lake was observed resorting to the cellar of


Newhall, the seat of Mr. M'Donall.


butler, perceiving the

of style. Figuratively, a description of bad taste, and incongruity



wine decrease rapidly, determined, with some of his fellowservants, to watch for the thief, and at last they caught the mermaid in the act of drinking it. The enraged butler threw her into a caldron of hoiling water, when she vanished, after uttering
three piercing shieks, leaving only a mass of jelly behind. Since that period her appearances have been restricted to once in every seven years." There are but few freshwater mermaids they are only plentiSome fisherful in the sea, and their singing heralds a storm. men still believe in the real existence of mermaids a man declared he had actually seen one on the rocks combing her hair, but on his approach she took a header into the deep. But how can we blame these simple folk, when, in the Irish annals, under date A.D. 807, a dead mermaid is chronicled as having been cast by the waves upon the sea beach, and details are given of her dimensions which almost rival those of the sea-serpent of the nineteenth century. At a later date, in the year 1118, it is gravely recounted that two mermaids were caught by fishermen. Mermen are not as attractive creatures as mermaids ; their hair and teeth are green, their noses red, and their eyes sunk, resembling those of a pig, so that there is little cause of wonder at
; ;

mermaids occasionally allowing themselves

to be captured by good-looking fishermen. The following was recounted by a countryman, a native of Kilross, county Sligo Long ago there lived a celebrated magician who possessed a cow that brought wealth and prosperity to her owner. One of his neighbours, with the assistance of his son, succeeded in driving it off for the purpose of stealing it. The magician, soon discovering his loss, pursued and overtook the thieves. In his hand he bore a magical wand, and, overcome with passion, struck with it the cow, the boy, as well as the thief, thereby metamorphosing them all into stone. In the centre stands the thief, represented by a pillar-stone more than six feet high near him is the boy, of lesser proportions, and a slab, lying Another countryman prostrate, represents the cow (fig. 55). stated that the magician was the celebrated witch Vera. He styled the pillar-stone Clochtogla, i.e. "the lifted stone," a fairly conclusive proof that it is all that remains in position of a former cromleac. As already recounted (ante, vol. i., pp. 360 and 361), Vera, according to one legend, met her death on the


Slieve-na-Cailleach hills according to another legend, Vera was drowned when trying to cross Loch-da-ghedh, in the mountains above Kilross, where her "house" is still pointed out. Lochda-ghedh, i.e. Lough Dagea, the Lake of the Two Geese (see

p. 271), has, even at the present day, the reputation of being the deepest in the county Sligo. One countryman stated that



there is an underground outlet from it, and if anything were " thrown into it, " it would coine out at the bridge of Denmark He would not say, however, whether Vera's body did so or not. Another countryman recounted that it was once essayed to drain

the lake for the purpose of recovering the treasure at the bottom,

which was guarded by a huge monster but when the workmen commenced operations they imagined they saw their homesteads on the plain in flames, and, going down to extinguish them, found it was the good people who had deceived them (ante, p. 157). When they returned to their work the trench they had made, to draw off the water, was filled up. Kuno Meyer found many references to the Protean character of Vera in Irish MSS. He quotes one in which she is styled " The old woman of Bcare." The reason " was that she had foster-children in Beare. She had seven periods of youth, fifty one after another, so that every man reached death by old age before her, so that her grand-children and great grand-children were tribes and races," before she finally succumbed to old age and debility and sang what may be styled her death song,




My life ebbs from me like the sea, Old age has made me yellow."


antithesis of

Wordsworth's well known lines
"... An old age serene and bright And lovely as a Lapland night
Shall lead thee to thy grave."


would appear from this Irish poem that Vera had been famous hetaira in her time." In it she compares her preIt

sent life with that passed by her in her younger days

" It



That you

love, not men In the time when we lived,

It was men we loved. " The maidens rejoice When Mayday comes to them: For me sorrow is meeter, For I am wretched and an old woman. " I hold no

sweet converse, wethers are killed at my wedding, My hair is all but grey, The mean veil over it is no pity.


" Once I was with kings Drinking mead and wine I drink whey-water To-day


withered old women."

In the same MS. Vera is also described as the mother of St. Fintan, and in another as the wife of a well-known poet




of the eighth century, or more probably of an ancient mythical personage a kind of denii-god of similar name to the poet. Kuno Meyer states that the denii-god was certainly one of Vera's lovers as appears from the title of a now lost tale entitled Sere He also cites other MSS. Caillige Berre do Fhothad Canainne. in which a quatrain, translated as follows, is ascribed to Vera:
" I have an increase of sight, a keenness that does not One seems to me to be two, two seems to me three."
. .


is not, however, explained as to whether Vera thus gave expression to her feelings after one of her drinking bouts.*

The above quoted poem has recently been literally translated by Kuno Meyer in Otia Merseiana. The lyric appears in two
of the sixteenth centuries respectively, but on grounds of structure and language the Professor is inclined to date back its original composition to the eleventh century. The poem of thirty-six four-lined stanzas, abridged by Mr. Stephen Gwynn in his metrical rendering to sixteen stanzas (as several of the transitions were very abrupt) appeared in the Fortnightly Review (March, 1901) under the heading A Specimen
MSS., in the Library, Trinity College, Dublin,



of Irish Medieval Poetry, and is here reproduced by kind permission of the Author and of Mr. Courtney, the Editor of the Review. Mr. Stephen Gwynn observes " that except for the rearrangement of the order and some slight expansions of the magnificent image which recurs throughout, my version is very close to the original and at times almost identical with the literal rendering," and again " the conflict between the formal protestation of a late assumed religion and the real cry of the heart is true to nature and it is frequently present in the Ossianic




Ebbing, the wave of the sea Leaves, where it wantoned before,

Wan and naked the shore, Heavy the clotted weed : And in my heart, woe is me !
Ebbs a wave of the

* For u vol. i.,PP- 360-364. description of the attributes of Vera, see ante, The Vision of Mac Conrjlinne, pp. 6, 131-134, 208-210 Otia Merseiana, vol.1., in Scotland a proverb pp. 119-128. Professor Whitley Stokes states that is ascribed to her
; :

" Chuala mi 'chubbag gun bbiadh ambhroinn, Chunnaic mi 'n searrach 's a chulaobh num. Chunnaic mi 'n tseilcheag air an lie luim, 'S dh 'aithnich mi nacb ruchadh a' bhliadhn' ud


" From this it is evident that Vera \ras no ordinary witch," but a goddess of the Elder Faiths and whose worsbip was not restricted to Ireland.


" I am the Woman of Beare. Foul am I that was fair Gold-embroidered smocks I had,

Now in



hardly clad.

Anns, now so poor and thin, Staring bone and shrunken skin, Once were lustrous, once caressed Chiefs and warriors to their rest.
the sage's power, nor lone Splendour of an aged throne, Wealth I envy not, nor state

" Not

Only women folk

I hate.

" On your heads, while I am For me, every month

Shines the sun of living gold Flowers shall wreathe your necks in




" Tours the bloom but ours the Even out of dead desire.
Wealth, not men, ye love
Life was in us,

but when


loved men.

" Fair the men, and wild the manes Of their coursers on the plains Wild the chariots rocked, when we llaced by them for mastery. " Lone is Femen vacant,



Stands in Bregon Konan's Chair. the slow tooth of the sky Frets the stones where my dead lie.

" The wave of the great sea talks Through the forest winter walks. Not to-day by wood and sea, Comes King Diarmuid here to me.


know what my king does. Through the shivering reeds, across Fords no mortal strength may breast





chill a rest


" Amen Time ends all. Every acorn has to full.
Bright at feasts the candles were. Dark is here the house of prayer.


I, that when the hour was mine, Drank with kings the mead and wine,

Drink whey-water now, in rags Praying among shrivelled hags.


Amen Let me


And, as upon God

Let my drink be whey, do God's will all day,
I call,

Turn my blood



" Ebb,


And the second ebb, all tbree, Have they not come home to me
" Came tbe

I know flood, and ebb Well tbe ebb, and well tbe flow,


flood that had for waves Monarcbs, mad to be my slaves, Crested as by foam with bounds Of wild steeds and leaping hounds.

" Conies no more that flooding To my silent dark fireside.
Guests are




But a hand has touched them " Well




with the isle that feels the ocean backward steals But to me my ebbing blood


Brings again no forward flood.
Ebbing, the ivave of the sea Leaves, ivhere it wantoned before, Changed past 'knowing the shore,

Lean and

And far and farther from me
Ebbs the ivave of the sea."


and gray


bull called Conraidh.

The witch or goddess Cailleach Vera possessed a celebrated One day it strayed away from its pasturage and swam across a creek, which Vera jumped over. She was

so enraged that she struck the animal with her magical rod and turned it into stone. The bull-shaped rock is to be seen to this

very day. At Moytirra, near Highwood, overlooking Lough Arrow, in the county Sligo, there is a huge rectangular block of limestone, nearly 18 feet in height, a little over 7 feet broad on two of its It conveys, at first sides, and 11 feet 6 inches on the others. sight, the idea of being a pillar-stone, but examination shows
to be, in reality, an erratic boulder, placed in its present It was originally of greater position by the hand of nature. bulk, for two immense pieces have, through the agency of frost, or other natural causes, been torn from its sides, and now lie " This huge block is called the " Eglone prostrate at the base. (fig. 56), and the country people explain its origin by recounting that the boulder represents a giant, who had a dispute with a magician, and sought to kill him, but the latter was too powerful, and metamorphosed the giant into stone by a blow of his magical wand. It is stated that there is a reference to this

legend in the MS. notes of the Ordnance Survey. " The Crofton Croker, in his Killarney Leyends, describes It consists of a Druid's Circle," situated near Killarney.




embankment, within which stand seven upright stones. At a distance of about forty feet from the southern side of the enclosure are two upright stones of much larger dimensions. The following legend about the monument was related by a " A long time ago there were peasant of this neighbourhood

FIG. 56.

The "Eglone," near

the Village of

Highwood, Co. Sligo
into stone.

a giant



and they had seven sons and these two big stones and the seven little ones are their children and they thought to conquer the country, and take all before them so they made war upon Donald Egeelagh (Daniel of the Lake), who lived down at Boss then a mighty great prince he was,

are the giants,






and a great enchanter. So when he could not get the better of the giants, and their seven sons, by fair fighting, he went to his enchantments, and turned them into stones and there they are from that day to this." Many years ago the island of Inisbofin was unknown, being rendered invisible through enchantment but one day two fishermen, in a currach (a boat formed of wickerwork, covered with horse or cow hide), were lost in a dense fog and drifted on to a rock, on which they landed and lighted a fire, but no sooner had the flame touched the rock than the fog suddenly lifted and the fishermen found themselves on the solid land of Inisbofin, which hasTever since remained. On one side of the shingly beach, on which the discoverers found themselves, was the ocean, on the Close to them they perceived a other side a fresh water lake. hag, or witch, driving a white cow into the lake, and as it entered the water she struck it with a wand that was in her hand, when One of the fishermen, angry at what he it turned into a rock. saw, struck the old witch, and at once both he and the hag were

the All three are still to be seen transformed into stone. white cow, the hag, and the fisherman in stone. Formerly when any great event was about to happen the cow used to emerge from the lake and walk round the island but a long period has now elapsed since she was last seen. From this

magical cow

it is stated that the island takes its name Inisbofin, the island of the white cow. According to Cormac's Glossary the Fe, or magical wand, was made of aspen, an unlucky tree, and the wand was of such a purely pagan character that in Christian times it could be kept " the cemeteries of the heathen." It had sometimes only in symbols, in ogham, cut upon it, and baleful effect was supposed to be wrought by striking with it whatever was an object of deThis is a clear explanation of the wands testation to the striker.

described in present day popular folk lore as carried by hags, witches, and magicians, and it takes us back to a period when paganism still existed in Ireland.

wand, formed of different material, appears to have been also used for healing purposes, for in a medical MS. of the year 1509 it is recommended, as a cure for a man rendered impotent by elm wand, and magic, to cut the patient's name in ogham on an to therewith strike the sufferer.


The connection between these Druidical wands (Slatnan the divining-rod, is not Druidheacht) and that strange survival, to define, yet it may be taken for certain that the superstieasy tion attached to them is, in both cases, cognate with the adoration of sacred trees, and that the idea underlying belief in the were animated by powers of both wands is the notion that they

prongs firmly between the thumbs and two first fingers of each hand. the directions given by the stones were certain to lead to the recovery of infallible in . until the straight part of the divining rod is uppermost. R. the individual. Some standing-stones were used by the peasantry for purIn the townland of Farranglogh. of the divining rod and table turning are of prephenomena cisely the same character. both are triangular in section and taper to a point. Were cattle or other valuables stolen or lost. in the hands of a specially endowed person. These are called speaking-stones. the straight part held downward. forked hazel stick." the older generation of inhabitants of Corkaguiney. the spirit or qualities of the It is strange that there are otherwise be styled fairly well educated. about eighteen inches in length. had been They breaking the spells of the fairies. possesses the magical power of revealing the mineralogical secrets of mother earth. A. As he approaches a hidden lode or spring the divining rod commences to rise many people who may who still believe that a When he apparently without collusion on his part. 57. and this condition having been broken by some unbelieving or forgetful inquirers. county poses of divination. describes two standing. shaped like the letter Y. with unerring accuracy. and they named. situated in a field on the right-hand side of the road leading from Dingle to Ventry (fig.) The meaning of the quaint appellation is at present undecipherable. by whom malicious acts were perpetrated. arrives directly over the lode or spring it will complete a half turn upwards. but is most probably an allusion to the resemblance of the stones to a pair of gate-posts.stones. Macalister states that by the strange title of " Gates of Glory." At these shrines it was forbidden to ask the same question twice. " the rod is repelled upwards from it. as they stand some five feet apart. S. and both are referable to an involuntary ' ' muscular action resulting from fixedness of idea." Mr. One of the stones is upwards of seven feet in height. Meath. The quality and copiousness of the lode or the water supply is to be judged by the force with which the A writer remarks that. breaking or bending the twigs forming the fork held between his fingers." and were formerly consulted in cases where either man or beast had been " overlooked " by the " good people. in curing the effects of the evil eye. the " speaking-stones " have since become voiceless. He then walks over the ground where minerals or water are being sought for. the other is slightly smaller. tree some species of in-dwelling power from which they were cut.STONE WORSHIP. or individuals. in Kerry. and the faculty of disThe diviner grasps the covering unsuspected springs of water. are two remarkable pillar-stones from whence the " the locality derives its name.

called by the country people Cloughlourish. by a dispute arose between two gossips. that his female gossip had been unfaithful to her husband. in that part of Ireland formerly of rare occurrence. the stones are dumb Mr. neglect. as they considered the affinity of sponsorship bound them more closely together. to refer to the priest of the parish he. is a ! : large insulated rock. dation. and banishment. so that it FIG. in a glen at a short distance from the road. " At some of which they tell the following legend period. : . but alas. being supposed to have a of local affairs than any other person. for some base purpose. " The Gates of Glory. would greater knowledge best judge of the character both of the accuser and the accused. in such cases." Standing-stones near the road leading to Ventry.SPEA KING-STONES. would be considered a more heinous crime to wrong a gossip than a father or a brother. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 57. and Mrs. There are no people on earth more tender of female honour than the Irish. a thing them undetermined. and the slightest lowest degraimputation subjects the unfortunate accused to the It was usual. than even the closest ties of consanguinity. This dispute arose out of the accusation of a man. Hall state that between Dungarvan and Kilmacthomas. the! 223 district missing property. evil-disposed persons in the may now act with impunity.

the celebrated statue of Memnon. it being considered imNothing possible that any person would there pronounce a lie. where some altercation ensued between the accuser and the husband of the accused. arsa Clous/Mourisk a taloubh The truth is " bitter sometimes." i. where the cause was to be examined before the altar. a hero of antiquity. and there get a noted caird. renowned of old. when first warmed by the rays of the rising sun. there is a Cromleac styled La the stone that rings. According to legend. and have no by-interest to serve that would hinder him from giving a fair and impartial judgment on the point referred to his In this instance. and the stone was rent from its summit to its base. and shield. At the moment. spear. the earth shook. to the Isle of Man. with each responsive string Consenting.' short?. . falling upon his knees. It is needless to add. i. and set off for the chapel.e. woman. A magical stone at Altagore. called upon the stone to bear witness to the truth of his allegation. This title may be " the easily paraphrased into speaking stone. : " As Menmon's marble By harp. particular occurred until the party arrived at the stone." In somewhat the same fashion. Asminic een eirin a The truth is bitter sometimes. statues supposed to be gifted with human voices were not uncommon.) And it is a common saying. anciently possessed some remarkable stones. consulted the oracle at Clogher. probably on account of its emitting a ringing sound when struck.224 STONE WORSHIP. while the words were distinctly spoken from the cleft in the rock. to make for him a sword.' which is Englished by (See page 280. or artificer. In the Island of Guernsey. to the quivering touch Of Titan's ntys. a loud crash was heard. and the supernatural power possessed by them would be instrumental in gaining him the sovereignty of Ulster. sounding through the air Unbidden strains. the woman bore untarnished fame. friends and relatives. een eirin a shoriv. like many other places in Ireland. is styled " the old Shanven. decision. that the predic' ' ' ' ' : tion of the oracle proved true. county Antrim. says the stone speaking in the earth. when a doubt hangs Asminic over any allegation made to the prejudice of a person. when the former. fabling Nilus." In pre-Christian times. Connor Mac He was told to proceed Nessa.e. gifted by the credulous with linguistic powers." the owner kept it in his garden. attended by their Pearly in the morning all the parties assembled. is stated to have emitted vocal sounds " Eoche qui sonne.' There can be but little doubt that Clogher. on the Continent. in the county Tyrone.

They eat but seldom. years ago. it is needless to : say." as a fairy is The food designated. next morning. or touch in any way. remarks that this mysterious disorder is in reality nothing but simple exhaustion.' said my kinsman. there is a very strange custom practised on Twelfth Day. repeats three times. solemnity. in Irish. takes up the loaf. and pounding it against the barred door and windows." and that staying there would have been fatal to both. consequent upon hunger and finding rest. ' ' . II. imagine that the specific for faragurta would at once point out its origin. which is only the natural conOne would sequence of dyspepsia and an empty stomach. called Emineein (synonymous to VOL. baked some days origin. pier . With regard to offerings of niason once took this built it into a gate was found back in its original A and food. and apparently of pagan On the eve of this day a ." is laid. ' many persons attacked by Some faragurta. and called the on the table. Form this night to this night twelvemonth. Q fatigue. and have myself been patient and physician. " The lower classes are particularly liable to this attack.large loaf. upon which. The doors and windows are then closed. W. in the north of Ireland. and at irregular seasons and commonly labour for many hours before they break their fast. and one of the family.OFFERINGS OF FOOD TO STONES. or "hungry man" stones. ' ." The introduction of " the Country of the Turks" is evidently a very modern substitution for some more ancient phrase. it position. generally the housewife. the following lines : " We And warn famine to retire. and food was always " 225 left on it for the Grogan. . He will then inform you that the first locality was covered with "hungry grass. stone. propose to he will appear frightened. writing at the commencement of the nineteenth century. or even a few grains of corn. make some excuse. disappeared during the night. even this very night. with great previously. Bread. a fine active boy. " Christmas loaf. Want of food produces faintness and exhaustion and a supernatural cause is sought for a simple malady. To the country of the Turks. and some particularly green and sheltered spot. . as already stated. I have seen. if you unwittingly tread. not knowing it to be enchanted. There are fear-yorta. Should you climb the mountains with a peasant. H. Maxwell. however. consisted of butter and oatmeal cakes this. you are instantly seized with an unappeasable hunger which is fatal if not at once satisfied. are believed to cure it instantly but any kind of food is equally efficacious. hurry you away and conduct you to another place.

and we were obliged to carry On our arrival. which may. or sin. England. I had been one of a knot of fox-hunters who. at first taken. as well as a symbolic means. be regarded as found in Ireland they occur also in Scotland. or if a compact was to be made. Now it is obvious that this squeezing is a painful business. " Here we see a well-known South Indian Missionary. are . . clasped hands- clearly ' . became diminished in size. The Hindus actually squeeze themselves through this hole. enigma. the suppliant creeps through. endeavouring vainly to struggle through a small hole in a big stone slab. that in India the perforations are used by devotees. on the preceding night. fortustill-house at nearly two miles distance. about three miles from Kollegor. and one day he Neddy). if unassisted. . the predisposing cause was no stoutly home. whereby an ailment. in most instances. and the faragurta banished. the moors. the skibb (a basket) of potatoes. him to the got worse than better. and France. as a means of obtaining forgiveness of sins. through probably crawled through the orifice change in custom. in order to acquire for themselves merit and the favour of the gods. But. I repaired. by a well known and public act. A curious religious ceremony is depicted in fig. then when it. round a nately for Emineein. for several hours. they probably passed a hand. My pony and some food were speedily obtained. a glass of the boy rather whiskey. " for I could not make the slightest exertion to get forward. but if it be small the hand alone is passed through. assuredly. and from thence can be traced to India. I must have lain upon the heath.' In the original use of the large apertures they seem to have been a literal. without it to the mountains. had indulged in a desperate jollification. contrary to my I had exercised severely habit. patient was able to join the party. Findin this ing a disinclination for breakfast. or got rid of they were also symbols by which a compact could be ratified. when at once I became helpless as an infant. we found the operators collected After eating one or two. It is stated. or an oath The postulants. and it is impossible for our missionary to get through the " opening in the penance stone. This slab is at the top of a hill. 58. . commonly attended me to was suddenly taken ill in the very wildest part of the hills. emergency tried that universal panacea. pillar-stones. After he had swallowed the cordial.226 STONE WORSHIP. He lost all power of limb and lay down upon the heath unable to and proceed a step. and next morning proceeded In my own case. and sank upon a bank incapable of motion.' Holed-stones. or for regeneration if the hole is large enough. disease. might be left behind. We had no grain of any kind to administer.

227 The wedding ring may be but a survival of the ceremony. it is stated. Osuna. Howden was honoured with a powerful patron-lady. projecting from the wall like a wooden seat. i. still act of a bride passing her finger through her Fio. 58. Iniiia. sat down thereon. this observance. at crypt of Eipon Minister. Some of the sacred stones dedicated to early British female saints were peculiarly sensitive of evil. St. Photo from Strand Magazine. " The rector of the parish kept household with a north-country damsel after a fashion which St. who evidently possessed a keen sense of humour. " St. The saint's tomb was there. through it. when the woman would have had to crawl through an aperture in a sacred In one place in England. stone. Wilfred's Needle. The reverend gentleman's lady." in tha occasionally occurs. " Holcd-stoiie" near Kollegor.HOLED-STONES. Osuna was determined to reprove at the earliest opportunity. This occasion presented itself when the rector's arch-hussey one day came to church. and she ' Q2 .e. or fatigue.' out of contempt.

Her cry for never forgot it. were considerable. but because pulled her away it was not through St. stated to the writer that . living in breadth ^ formerly in the vicinity. after creeping. A similar practice obtained wherever." laves its base. Towards the east side the flagstone is pierced by an oblong perforation three feet in length by two feet in breadth (fig. Michael-larequired to pass through a hole at the which he left offerings to the church A similar observance was according to his worldly means. through a hole in the decaying trunk. a monument of this class is called "a stone mark. in olden time.228 STONE WORSHIP. designated Cuilirra. Osuna did not let her loose from the seat the girl had sacrilegiously assumed. At one time as many as a hundred sick folk are said to have visited it daily. through which. Osuna chose to let her go. and still by the country people. cared to hear any reference being made to sitting Osuna's bench. close by. after on St. 143. where the postulant. that. and if they at last a host of villagers to her aid help brought their strength. Michael-la-Riviere. A most remarkable stone. No Howden lass. A very old person. But. by nine feet in height above ground. retained in the Walloon Church of Nivelle. without making her leave a token behind her." i. point of junction of the three parishes of the district formerly. In the Brehon Law Tracts. e. Michael." An instance where substantial gains attendant on the ritual of creeping through a holed-stone were early annexed by the Church is that of St. both in honour and gain. 59). iv. In the seventeenth century the results. as the people believed. p. in the diocese. which consisted of something more than fragments of the wench's dress. In this instance the Church had sadly neglected her opportunities. i. where there was a Between the wall and a pillar. . no one in a state of mortal In a North German example the object of sin could pass. was a hole crypt.. The little stream which issues from Tobernavean. even then. but now long dead. if we may judge by the bitter quarrels arising between churchmen connected with the localities. in the diocese of Bordeaux. She was unable to get up again. veneration was an aged and time worn oak. It is a thin limestone flag set on it measures ten feet edge . St. vol. In the church of St. in the prescribed manner.e. which was undoubtedly. used for the carrying out of some pagan rite. the " Well of the Warriors. a district which is marked by a stone of worship or an immovable stone. was a church dedicated to St. completed the rite by burying a silver coin in the ground under the roots of the tree. marks the Iliviere the sick man was after end of the apse. after the flaunting minx had sworn she was sorry for the past and had promised amendment for the future. near the town of Sligo.

or " the Gray Stone." at Tobernavean." and Clochlia. tolerated their use. as also the same class of crosses. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. " assert a powerful influence on the imagination of the peasant The early missionaries despite 1500 years of Christian effort. which.HQLEb-STONES. 229 children suffering from measles and other infant maladies were passed through the aperture for a cure. converts resembling those made in our for the sake time-servers. owing to their hold on the primitive mind. From its mottled appear" ance this slab is called in Irish the " speckled and also the "grey stone. were originally pagan pillar stones. if not indeed all of the "holed" and " bullaned " upright stones. but accommodated themselves to the fashion of the a deal of the old order into the new. were consecrated to the new worship. in many instances. day of worldly gain. . 59. of day. by bringing good . and still V|t Fiu. changing belief. near Sligo. "the Speckled Stone. and made the most they could of their converts ." called Clochbhreac. Woodville." (See Frontispiece. who did not give up all their old heathen ideas and customs. Holed-stone. were diplomatic.} Without doubt most.

or some other animal. the superstistill which the most marked survivals tions existing regarding stone worship. nearly equally distant from the sides and top. "Niall made an expedition to the Lagenians. caused by the friction of the iron on the stone. a literal translation. in Fothartaibh Tea. either Formerly children were passed through this aperture as a cure for or a preventive against the malady called rickets. the long ford. locally known as St. undoubtedly. in which this stone is mentioned. seven feet six inches above ground. b). for the purpose of killing him. or foliage grew unto them to the end of a year. the verity of which we are not disposed to contradict. would at once conclude that it was a bull. 77. The men (i. One of the contributors to the Ordnance Survey Reports. as well as the name of the district (now parish) in which it is situated. Madron s We Spring. with a round hole eleven and a-half inches in diameter. Madron's Bed. and they were compelled so to do. the Lagenians press after. * Near St. are. as taken from the Ordnance Survey correspondence " The of Eochaidh. on the banks of the Slaine. and it is pierced. col. to the house of Laidginn. in 'his Holy Wells. and faced them. were not the tradition confirmed by written history. by which he broke the chain. ' ' . : We : and killed his only son. i.e. that was chained here. He so well plied the iron bar against them that he killed the nine. who was Niall' s poet. Then there came to him nine champions of the champions of Niall. so that neither corn." This is a reference to a legend in the Book of Ballymote (fol. Athfada The following is (Aghada). county Carlow. In a field situated in the parish of Aghade. in Cornwall. states " There are marks left. a semi-recumbent position. and the end of the chain through a perforated rock. son of Enna Cennsealach (King of Leinster). R. C." " Mr.e. and not a human being. is five feet eight inches in width.e. It is difficult to believe that the perforations in rude pillarstones. He returned back again from the south. punishment Eochaidh. the Hy Niall) retreat before him to the Tulach (now Tullov. one foot six inches in its thickest part. Madron's Well. on a time repaired to the south to his own country.230 STONE WORSHIP. there is a block of as * There is still a tradition amongst the country people that a son of one of the Irish kings was chained to this stone. until they had left the country. the son of Enna Censealach. and in those bearing Christian symbols could possibly have been derived from any point of belief or ceremonial of the Christian Church.' said he. He then took up ihe iron bar that passed through the chain (at the other side of the stone). " Bad. where he was left after them with a chain round his neck. p. and vowed that he should not from them until Eochaidh should be depart given up as a hostage. and bring fatalities on them. and at the same time he gave a sudden jerk. b. And he was carried to Athfadat. slaughtering them. i. and burned after being as a hostage from his father in the hands of Niall of the Nine Hostages the poet's residence. but that he contrived to break his chains and escape. He determined on going to the house of the poet of Niall of the Nine Hostages. son of Baircead.' refers to a block of stone near bt. to ask for victualls. grass. indeed. It projects." called Cloch-a-Phoill.f in Cornwall. continued to satirize the Lagenians. Hope. for a full year after that. in there is a " holed-stone.-). The youth was refused entertainment in the poet's house. and who evidently had a firm and unshaken belief in ancient tradition. The poet.

" pierced in the centre by a hole. Reigate. i. M. This superstitious custom recalls what was at one time done beside St. complaints. while babies will be freed from spinal if passed through the hole (fig. If a man crawls through the hole in the centre of the Maenan-Toll. . cure..e. Through this aperture sickly children were formerly passed. Photo. One of its stones was sup' ported on other two with a space below. ' James M.. got its name from the custom in the district of mothers passing their ailing children through the space below the stone.A. in tho belief that whatever hindered their growth would thereby be removed. 80. pp. the Stone of the Hole.' Sickly children were at one time passed through the hole a certain number of times in the belief that a cure would follow. Paul's Well. in the belief that the ceremony would effect a cure. muttering a certain incantation. It went by the name of The Shargar Stone.' shargar signifying a weakly child.' The stone. in the parish of Fyvie." Folklore of Scottish Lochs and Springs. are told that on it impotent folk reclined when they came to try the cold water ' In the same parish is it. Close to the well were the ruins of an old church. with a hole in the centre of a pro-historic relic in the form of a granite hlock It is known in Cornish as Mean-an-Tol. 81. MacKinlay. Its name in English is ' The Creeping Stone. in this instance. by Frith & Co. Cornwall. 60)." The Maen - an - Toll. Aberdcenshire.. he will ever afterwards : Holed-stone.' be free from rheumatism.CREEPING-STONES:^ 231 " granite called the creeping stone.

in Aberdeenshire. FIG. " cowardice Mrs. 61. and other infantile ailments. 61 is the reproduction of a photograph taken during Mrs. Bishop's journey in Upper Elam. from which they were suffering. " Holed-stone" Luristan. and a rude representation of a stone lion erected on the grave of a warrior. Persia. Baker states that amongst these people is treated as a disease. in Gloucestershire. he is taken out on the night of a full moon to the tomb of a valiant man denoted as such by one of fail . and in those cases in which fervent prayers to cure the sufferer. through Fig. It depicts a native of the country on horseback." At its lower end is a perforawhich children used to be passed for cure. in Luristan.232 STONE WORSHIP. there is a holed " stone. called the Long Stone. ailing children were passed. Paul's Well. from The Wide World Magazine. thus Through this space leaving a space between it and the ground. there was a large stone supported on two others. or tion. close to St. whooping cough. At Minchen Hampton. on the grave of a valiant warrior which cowards are passed to cure them of cowardice. through prevention of measles. Persia. in the belief that the sickness. From a photo. would be removed. In the parish of Fyvie.

p. and Mrs. in 1898. on Scattery off the Donegal coast. or " St. In the year 1833. a writer thus describes the rites as seen by " Devotion had commenced at him at the stone of St. i. county Waterford." him A custom which prevailed at Ardmore. was that the lady was anxious to have a child. to remove make a . It is a belief The Cloch-Nave-Deglane. that no one with borrowed This is the rock or stolen clothes can pass unharmed under it. Cannara sailed about. Not content with crawling under the engine once. greatly resembles this Eastern rite. officers who built the line.HOLED-STONES FOR CURING DISEASES. 217). W. T. which navigated itself on the surface of the sea from Rome (see St. and her husband explained that this would ensure her having twins. so permission was at once given. The Cloch-Xfive-Defjlane lies amongst the boulders on the strand at Ardmore (fig. squeezed themselves under it three times. there is a graveyard half washed away by the sea. after performing their rounds. must ashore : They always Saint's day (22nd December) it is always necessary to some of the sand which accumulates under the stone. especially for pains in the back. The sapper engine as a sort of god. an Arab approached the officer in charge. these 283 is stone lions on his grave and the inveterate coward made to pass seven times under the lion's body. the passage being underneath. Declan But it is only at low water the stone previous to my arrival. Hall's Ireland. The pilgrims. and asked if his wife might creep under the engine. Near Kilnamarbhe. Maud.. Declan's Sacred Stone. as in this instance there is no aperture in the stone. she asked if she might do it again. At : Gennanetti. during the advance of the Egyptian army " The natives look on Khartoum. says that upon the and stand in awe of it. there. 62). From Mr. have many amusing yarns to tell about their reception when first the locomotive came along. between it and the rock upon which it rests. and on Island. Mr. Brendan ran his "ship" (a huge rock) vol. writing from the Atbara Camp. under which pilgrims squeeze themselves. This stone is noted for cures." The special artist of the Graphic. The reason for #tts extraordinary request. that the people can go under the stone to perform these devotions On the take advantage of the tide." at Ardmore. the beach lies the large stone slab on which St.

remove beads. For instance. and stockings. seems to have been considered. or of distinguished Biblical. under a railway engine. they rise on their knees and strike their backs three times against the stone. so that they may go on bare knees. and head. p. excepting indeed. are only known to the initiated. that they appeared less careful of saving I their knees from being hurt by the rocks than the men. sufficient passage for a large man or woman. for their ancient gods and goddesses. or passing through a holed stone. repeat aves. shoes. coats. afflicted with the whooping cough. it is necessary to have the surface under the stone lower than the front or rere. ante. should have observed that the number of females who went under the stone could not have been in a greater proportion than one to ten men. one shoulder more forward than the other. merely substituted the names of the persons of the Trinity. on Hallow Eve. in later times. he will have his wish granted. They then proceed on bare knees. Creeping through. or under certain objects. three times under an ass or a cow (see . then lying flat on the ground. creeps under the long trailing branches of the blackberry briar. over a number of little rocks to the place where they enter again under the stone. Some. waistcoats. these charms. or through the " Lion-stone. or Hibernian Saints. also famous for curing " pains in the back. etc. dress and The women take off proceed to the well (ante. fervent faith is necessary. men. put in hands. p. if an Irish peasant. fig." The same idea. 189). if not indeed all of The newly converted . date back to pagan natives. and if very large. the men take off hats. woman who put her petticoat under her knees a little boy took off The women proceed in the same manner as the his breeches. they wash their knees." " In order to begin here. shoes. Declan's stone. or the charm will not be efficacious." is present in the apparently ridiculous custom of passing children. arms. as the little rocks on which the stone rests. and turn their petticoats up above I saw but one the knee. They turn up their breeches above the knee. for above all things. but the words he must use. and thus proceed three times. in order to work their way through more easily. 96).STONE WORSHIP. and be free from malign influence. form irregular pillars. 30. and the rites he must perform. and stockings. and coming out from under the stone on the other side (from front to rere perhaps is four feet). which done. as is apparent in the habit of creeping under St. bonnets. No amount of argument will shake a peasant's faith in these ancient formulae. as efficacious as creeping under a sacred stone." Near Durrow there is a singularly marked limestone flag. times.

CREEPING UNDER ARCHED BRAMBLES. and plastered over with mud or clay. that is. rooting at both ends. Dyer. For this purpose a that of drawing a child through a cleft tree. the severed portions being held far enough' asunder to allow the infant to be " wise woman. young ash tree was each time selected. and a branch. but in comparison with the observances in India there was a considerable difference. in Ireland. 235 Mr. the blackberry briar. F. " inDevonsliire. so much the better. In some rural districts in England a usage still exists in which a sapling is employed instead of the aperture in a stone. About the former. while the friend of the child. the bramble. but if it dies. in India the process being regarded as spiritual. but much worse if they draw blood. If the bound together. always head foremost. To dream you are passing through a thicket of these brambles. The fissure was kept wide open by my gardener. disease from which the child suffers will prove incurable. and split longitudinally about five feet. extends into the field of another. was observed in the year 1888 in Not long ago the practice was by no means unliio Janeiro. in his exclusively corporeal. portends trouble if they scratch or prick you. having first stript him. the second of a rupture. if . p. . . namely.i bramble grows on the hedge of one owner. consisting in creeping under an arched used to cure blackhead or pinsoles. . statesthat. a curious charm. it is brought before sunrise by a " wise woman " to a place where a young ash sapling grows. as a curative process for physical ailment. tree lives. Thus. ix. and as the bark healed the child was to recover. it must form an arch. it is bad. vol. while in England it was More than a century ago Cullen. "I : ." continues Cullen. T." There is. the sapling is split towards its centre." while certain mysterious passed through by the The cut in the sapling is then carefully words are pronounced. of which the end takes root. " I may mention a custom Antiquities of Haivstead. in English Folk-Lore. and if it reaches into two proprietors' lands. The child is undressed. something sacred with regard to this. tion was performed the wounded tree was bound up with packThe thread. 96) tells us that the person affected by this troublesome malady is to creep on hands and knees under or through a bramble three times with the sun that The bramble must be of peculiar growth is. as they are A contributor to the Transactions of the Devonshire Association (1877.. T. When a child is taken ill. passed him As soon as the operathrice through it. first of these young patients was to be cured of the rickets. the best form for working the charm is provided. writes which I have seen twice practised within a few years. A case of passing a child through a cleft tree. from east to west. is sometimes called. common in many parts of England. the child will certainly recover.

wrist. under a persuasion that. a remark on some peculiarity in an ash sapling led to the explanation from the gamekeeper that the tree had been instrumental in the cure of a ruptured infant. that as the tree heals of its wound. and he afterwards pointed out four or five others that had served the same good purpose.286 STONE WORSHIP. at this day. and thenceforth the defect is cured. near the middle of the fully. was over. which. very "In a farmyard. to cure its rupture. split and opened for the " The tree is now as thick as one's purpose. and had grown case in which the tree had up strong and healthy. is passed three times in the same direction through the opening. while ruptured children stripped naked were pushed through the apertures. a child had been passed through the tree. as usually fell out when the feat was performed with any adroitness at all. These trees. p. but I frequently saw the father of the latter who assured me that his child. had no opportunity of making any inquiry. viii. when the ceremony was performed. by such a process. when they have been cleft asunder. he referred to the deformity and sickly growth of the youth who had been passed through it. In one evidently suffered from the experiment. the tree. this practice: village. had a straight seam or On inquiry the bailiff told him that three feet or more in length. the poor babes would be cured of their As soon as the operation infirmity. without any other assistance. in the suffering part. gradually mended. If the parts coalesced and soldered together. The split halves being forced asunder. manifestly show that. 54) says: Passing lately through a wood at Spitchwich. were severed and kept open by wedges. as it stands growing in the wood. and perceived that him it rather minutely inspecting scar. and was not. he related that when a young infant is afflicted with rupture a small maiden ash is split for a length of five or six feet down the middle." Another writer says that when walking through a plantation with his bailiff he observed a young ash. and at last grew perfectly well. Great confidence seems to be placed in the mysterious efficacy of the process. young and flexible." White. near Ashburton. so will the child's ailment be removed. The tree is then restored to its natural shape and as it thrives so this child thrives. by the seams and long cicatrices down their sides. above an inch in diameter. . a row of pollard ashes. the party was cured but where the cleft . The impression is. My informant instanced several well-known young men of the neighbourhood who had been subjected to the process in their babyhood. was plastered with loam and carefully swathed up. stands. in his Natural History of Selborne. With evidently perfect faith in the story. in former times. the naked infant.." A writer in the Report and Transactions of the Devonshire " Association (vol. squalling as becomes him. describes also.

" means. About a mile from the village of Doagh." In connection with ecclesiastical buildings. : . 237 I it was supposed. "of curing diseases were practised within this century. '' and rite obtained in Scotland also. T. to have been the largest . would prove Having occasion to enlarge my garden not long since." continues Napier. that the Indian belief which describes the holes in trees as doors through spirits of those trees pass. the operation. James quotes the following from the Presbytery " Piecords of Lanark. county Antrim. a hole formed by two branches of a tree growing together was esteemed ." In Folk-Lore of Plants. in localities widely apart. there is a round hole perforated through it large enough to admit an ordinary sized hand (fig. as already stated.E. as Mr. but that it was The same belief F. there can be little doubt.. and that she carried a sick for helping a grinding of the bellie " Such child thrice about one aikene port for curing of it. " Holed-stone.S. ." It is stands a large slab called the upwards At a height of about three feet of five feet above ground. to be of value.SECONDARY HOLED-STONES. T. that in Saxon countries. F. 68).." " In instances of the " holed-stone class in Ireland the earliest perforations appear. the superstition still lingers on and in Cornwall the ceremony.R. must be performed before sunrise but the practice does not seem to have been confined to any It should also be added. . and confessed she put a woman newlie delivered. Mr. and that various diseases may be cured by contact with these holes. cut down two or three such trees. Conway has pointed out. special locality. It is noteworthy also. thrice through a green hulshe. 1664 Compiers Margaret Eeid in the same parish (Carnwath) suspect of witchcraft. one of which did not grow together. Whatever other uses it may have been erected for. Hence some trees are regarded with special which the special German and persons of a particularly the lime and pine may often be seen carrying sickly superstitious turn of mind children to a forest for the purpose of dragging them through veneration ' such holes. of highly efficacious value. reappears in the superstition. ineffectual. have been so sculptured by the earliest missionaries amongst the Irish. "in Somersetshire.' Napier. Dyer mentions that. with the object of thus diverting the prayers of the pagans into supposed Christian channels. instances occur Cross-inscribed holed-stones may. that the holes in the oak are the pathways for elves .. . These may be termed " secondary holed-stones. continued to gape. in the Middle Ages. they gradually dwindled down to such as would little more than admit a finger. probably. and many things connected with the oak (and ash) were held potent as curatives.

." near the village of Doagb. county Antrim. connected with aphrodisiac customs.FIG. Secondary Holed-stone. From Welch's Irish Views. 63.

Abbott) on the south-east side of the churchyard ' it is locally called the swearing-stone.HOLED. a class of stone which to is now abounds forgotten. Marriage contracts are still ratified at this spot. as country couples go there to signify their It is said that not betrothal clasping hands through the hole. at " this hole-atone stands Lord Walter Fitz Gerald states that the head of a modern grave (belonging to a family named . " In the beginning of 1889.' though the use it was formerly put It is of granite.S2 ONES AND MARRIAGE RITES. m course of . 239 connected with aphrodisiac customs. with a hole through it. "Secondary Holed-ston"" at Castledermot. a large stone. There is a stone of this class in the churchyard of Castledermot (fig. . 64. as the stone had." evidently i rom a Photo. formerly connected with apii. called "The Swearing-stone.odisiac customs. 64). stood on a hill near long ago Cushendall in the same county. in this district.

the peasantry than Secondary Holed-stone. to prevent Before replacing it I had a bed of cement and at present only six inches of it are hid it again sinking. of a weatherworn and much mutilated cross of red sandstone in the old of the present Society of connected with aphrodisiac customs. the ornamentatioii under the perforation seems to partake of the characteristics of a crux ansata.. and become greatly sunk in the ground. from the Ulster Journal (Second about the five feet above soil." Mainister. in the Gentleman's Magazine. or west side of the stone. Reproduced of Archeology. Fig. Aran Island. half of it alone had been above ground found that just about made for it. W. which runs down the is a peculiar vein in the granite on from it) from top to the bottom. in Marcus Keane's Towers and Temples of Ancient Ireland. at Layde. * As ." illustration pointed out by Lord "Walter Fitz Gerald. On A ran Islnnd there is a perforated stone inscribed with a curiously shaped cross 0' Donovan (fig. Antiquaries of Ireland. is plain. The hole (as is shown the arms of a raised cross. states that there were rites superstitious held in connection with it. 1804. 65. but he does not specify their nature. in Waring' s Stone Monuments in the Dublin Penny Journal. this side. S2ONE WORSHIP. . in is at the junction of The back. fig. the Island. about a mile from Smerwick Harbour. and is 5m. 84. According to a correspondent who lately : visited the when women place are sick their linen clothes are sometimes the pulled through hole.240 years. Antrim. in the author's Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland. There diameter. 1864. p. It stands co. taken from the engraving in the Dublin Penny Journal." the other crosses on Weather-worn and mutilated Cross. 66 is from a sketch by Mr. The full length of the stone is 3 feet. 104. middle of the stone (projecting Another holed-stone is near the church of Kilmalkedar. Reproduced from the Journal possess more of a sacred character to FIG. It seems to FIG. I had it raised. " Secondary Holed-stone. 1832 and lastly. 65). Fennell. an erroneous description and of this stone appeared in General Vallancey's Collect. J. its width 1 foot from view in the photo) 2 in and its thickness 5 in. . county- Kerry. -de rebus Hiber.

FIG. II. Views." at Glencolumbkill. Secondary Holed-stone. connected with aphrodisiac customs. From Welch's Irish VOL. 67. .

One face of the slab is perforated near the edge by two holes of a size sufficient to admit only the insertion of a thumb. 69). face. 68) drawn to the manner in which the stone is pierced). when their confinement was approaching. The two holed-stones " praying stones. At it women block of white quartz. is to be noted (fig." " Devenish. It appears to have in the county Antrim. graveyard of Layde been quite lately replanted in an upright position. M. as on it is a but recently deceased. and the other near the Secondary Hoied-stone. with aphrodi." By placing the fingers in the side and their thumbs in the front holes. the other on its num. Near the pillar-stone. Men" (fig. Women about to add to the number of the inhabitants of the island offer up prayers for their safe recovery before these two " perforated stones.. legend The holed-stone. 67). pages 329religious sites all the There are holed-stones at Killbary.. the orifices extend through the stone and open out at the sides into apertures cut to receive the fingers of the hand. .-. vol." " Church of the Women (fig. No newly cut inscription to a person regarding it could be gathered." is a second slab. on the Shannon. off the Sligo coast. At the holed-stone of Clocnapeacaib. material forms a characteristic feature at most ancient stations. one sketch by w. county Cork. world over (see ante. Wakeo f them on its western. women were in the habit of drawing some of their clothes through a hole. and indeed at many modern pagan holy wells. and. they are enabled to rise with more ease from their kneeling position. and a similar practice is followed in many other localities of women similarly situated drawing clothes through the perforated arms of ancient Irish circular-headed stone crosses. According to John Knott. connected T -i siac customs. county Donegal." on this island are styled by the natives The perforations are not similar to any described as occurring elsewhere in Ireland. The large The presence of this of the cross. to the right pray for children. One pillar-stone stands on the southern side of the " Church of the Y 1G 68. but unperforated. at eastern. offered up appear to be efficacious.D. no deaths taking place on the island under these circumstances.-p. F. in Lough Erne (fig. Devenish (close to a saint's "Bed"). (attention is and at Inishmurray. is the most venerated of all the crosses at this station. to secure a favourable result. at 331). The prayers thus ' . From a Both monuments are cross-inscribed. pagan sepulchres. i.STONE WORSHIP. the great cross near the- . Lou K h Erne. the "Church of the Men. at Glencolumbkill. 70).

" which is said to gone by." It was about two feet long by R2 . 243 rums of the famous monastery of Clomnacnoise possesses a peculiar power in the domain of healing." near Church of the Women. Eud. It was called the " the stone of signify Daghdha. 1 Secondary Holed-stone." Island " The Secondary Holed-stonc. Reproduced from the Journal of the resent Society of Antiquaries of Ire- Men. for the Another famous stone at Ardmore has been buried." Island of Inishmurray.HEALING POWERS OF CROSSES. probably purpose of putting an end to its attendant ceremonies. the application of the palms of his hands to the abdomen of his wife will bring immediate relief in dystocia. and is able to make his finger-tips meet. for if a man spans it with his arms." at of the " The Church of Inishraurray. It must also be classed among relics connected with rites of days long " Cloch-Daha. connected with aphrodisiac customs. connected with aphrodisiac customs. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.

" formerly at IVUKWUU. there was a large stone of porphyry with a hole in the centre.244 STONE WORSHIP. to climb at Easter for prizes. and the same in depth. Orkney. At the foot of the round tower near Inniskeen. It was once used for superstitious purposes in more modern times . They wattle. which it stood was deemed a place consecrated to the meeting of . 71). hollowed into eighteen inches an oval trough-like shape. rkney. on Ash basin. a Wednesday. Stennis. there was a The site on large pillar-stone with a hole through it (fig. near Kirkwall. " Secondary Holed-stone. and made them dance round the " Cloch-Daha. probably an old pagan bullan or rockIts centre was pierced by a hole. the young unmarried men of the village inserted of tow. from the Journal of Reproduced the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland." at Loch- From the gilphead. from the Joui-nal of Reproduced the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. diciuns. up which the country people used Near Kirkwall. connected with aphrodisiac customs. Sculptured Stones of Scotland. at a place called Stennis. Argyllshire. on the top of which they tied a quantity then brought with them all the unmarried maidens they could muster from the village and vicinity. in which. large enough to thrust the arm through. in breadth. the maidens through the village seated on logs of wood. a small village in the county Monaghan. and spinning it The ceremony terminated by the young men whilst dancing." holding the pendant tow. dragging So jcondary Holed-stone. a pole was placed in the hole. Orkney.

connected with aphrodisiac customs.Cross. . From Welch's Irish Views. with bullan on either side.


" near Antrim Eound Tower. the centre pierced with a hole. In his tale of The Pirate. has a bullan at either side of the base. but many years ago the stream was diverted. there was a flat. which accounts for the cup-like depressions seen in the illustration These. in depth. as the readiest way of descending. circular shaped of stone. 73). cut vertically. with much precision and smoothness. and the enclosed area converted into a garden. are stated never to be without (fig. Conwell in his examination of the ancient sepulchral earns on the Loughcrew hills. Kintyre. The cross at Boho. a wall was built between it and the stream. as is usual. In the graveyard of Kilchouslan. . or not completely pierced through. is a rock bullan. situated about She stumbled little wonder from the base of the structure. no description of it. it is not merely holed but also cup-marked. county Meath. and the ceremony was held sacred. also in con" No. It lay originally by the side of a brook. The largest cavity is 15 inches long. they couple. The " tower. on the northern shore of Campbelltown Bay. could be found in the " " " and its A slab It is quite possible that this may be merely a bullan. It is thus described by him contains a circular hole GJ inches in diameter. 8 nexion with a stone circle. when it was finished." that : text . from its name evidently originally a cursing site. 247 lovers. joined hands through were regarded as lawfully married. on landing. According this aperture. and struck the rock with one elbow and one knee. the stone circle of Stennis is specially mentioned by himself an antiquary as well as a to the old Scandinavian gods was sworn by persons joining hands through the hole in this stone. if we do not suppose that this stone itself had been unfinished. 9 inches deep the smaller depression is 6 inches wide by 3 inches The rock itself is 6 feet long by about 4 feet broad. Men are reported to resort to this stone in cases where they have no children after marriage (fig. took a 120 yards flying leap and alighted on this stone. according to current tradition. 12 inches wide and water. and beyond pursuit. novelist. however. if a the hand being passed through. was erected by a hag" who. There is a "secondary holed stone" at Lochgilphead in Argyllshire represented by fig. 74)." position is close to an apparently sepulchral stone circle. Sir Walter Scott. even amongst modern Christians. large enough to permit to tradition. " The "Witches' stone.THE WITCHES' STONE. For what use this may have been intended it would be difficult to conjecture. 72 from the Sculptured Stones of Scotland . . who was The oath " may have been intended for a "holed-stone was found by Mr. the pledge of love and truth then given was held sacred. who had eloped. near Emiiskillen. and when they joined hands through the stone. Eugene A. to a depth of 3 inches.

monuments have not hitherto been found in Ireland. but though this ancient Manx custom has fallen into desuetude. H. on the Continent. Knowles. it was the custom for the brides and bridegrooms during the wedding ceremony to clasp hands through the holes in the stones. From a Photo. these old waifs of antiquity remain ready for use by any bewildered bridegroom. The apertures in these average but six inches in diameter. in the Isle of Man. near Eabat. "Holed-stones" forming portion of pre-historis sepulchral and throughout the East. place their hands in the hole. in northern Africa. they are very numerous. bearing upon it a Latin. Great Harwood. where. who may have forgotten to bring the ring for his bride. There are two holed-stones at Bolleit. An inscribed stone. in his account of the . Isle ol Man. is situated at Chila. but are by no means of rare occurrence in Great Britain. Colonel Meadows Taylor. particularly in India. and a more recent Arabic inscription. by Mr. 75 represents stone rings. 76). stone not far distant. Extraordinary htone Wedding Rings. One was then employed for Thei'e was a third holedthe utilitarian purpose of a gate-post. Secondary Holed-stones. which is in the centre of the stone (fig. It acts as a sort of confessional stone. In times gone by. Women who seek to obtain forgiveness of their sins. and is supposed to possess miraculous powers. Fig. which have been lying for ages in the churchyard of Kirk Braddan.248 STONE WORSHIP. figured in the Gentleman's Magazine for the year 1864." connected with aphrodisiac customs. in the Churchyard of Kirk Braddan.

A Roman "Secondary The woman is inserting her at Chela. G><ij>hn . Hole.FIG. near Rabat." with Arabic inscription.l-stone. . hand in the stone to pain forRivcness of h Reproduced from The. 70.

extending from a few been found in Great Britain yards to even miles in length. however. that W. the side slabs being upwards of 12 feet broad by about 9 inches thick (fig. monuments of the " holed Deccan. at Cavancarragh. it is thought. They seem like galleries that lead to nothing tombs. even from the days of Stukeley." avenues. ." and by a variety names. of learned monument. have and on the Continent (fig. . or sepulchral "Holed Dolmen. and as having a top slab dolmen 1 foot thick. F. has yet been One antiquary found distinct traces of discovered in Ireland. 52). 78). 77). in the county Fermanagh (fig. or other offerings to the manes of the departed. After Colonel Meadows Taylor. placed in parallel lines. which it has been the task of many British and Hitherto. No alignment. foreign antiquaries to solve. At the same time this writer states that. " it is not too much to assert that works of this kind. at Rujunkolloor. we have had little beyond conjecture referring to their uses. however. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. "Wakernan a reliable authority claims to have discovered alignments of stones. as well as to allow free exit and entrance to the spirit inhabiting " holed-stones " the tomb. temples." distance. however. in Ireland were Eude boulders. yet their construction affords unmistakable evidence of organised labour and deliberate design. describes one 12 feet by 10 feet 6 inches. These extended for a considerable several in the county Sligo. in the Deccan. to have been left more for facilitating the supply of food. for the theory. Unfortunately." . Itrnust be said.250 sepulchral " STONE WORSHIP. The apertures almost invariably on the south side appear. have presented the most difficult problem. than for any of the purposes to which dedicated. These arrangements of stones " have been styled " alignments. the country people recollected the demolition of stone fences in the locality and it was the traces of their foundations that represented the supposed Druidical remains. or processional avenues they could not have been.

by antiquaries


good example of this latter class is a chairwhinstone, seemingly a freak of nature, for it is The seat is lower than that of evidently unchiselled. an ordinary chair the back being more high and narrow. This chair was stated to have been, during a long period, the seat on which the O'Neills of Castlereagh, near Belfast (fig. 79), were
like block of

installed in office.

curiously shaped masses of rock have been named " Druids' " Brehons' Chairs," Chairs," and " Inauguration Chairs," according as it was imagined that they had been used by the Druids when giving instruction, by the Brehons when laying down the law, or by chiefs when being




Plan of Alignments of Stones and

Reproduced from the Journal

Cams at Cavancarragh. of the present Society of Antiquaries oi Ireland.

On the downfall of that family, in the reign of inaugurated. I., the chair was overturned, and so remained until the year 1750, at which time the sovereign as the mayor was then designated of Belfast caused it to be removed to the Butter Market. On the demolition of the old market-place the chair, mixed up with other debris, was about to be broken up, when it was rescued, purchased, and used as a garden seat by a gentleman of antiquarian tastes in the county Sligo. It has lately been sold by the purchaser's grandson, and is now back again in Belfast. Facing northward, and set about four feet inwards from the circumference of one of the largest and most conspicuous earns which crown the summits of the Loughcrew Hills, there is a huge



boulder, weighing about ten tons, and popularly called, "the Hag's " Chair (fig. 80). The name is derived from Vera, the celebrated The legend current goddess, sorceress, or hag, of ancient days. in the neighbourhood, is to the effect that she came one time from the North to perform a magical feat in the neighbourhood,


Chair-like block of whinstone, on which the O'Neills of Castlereagh, near Belfast, were, it is alleged, inaugurated. , luced from the present Ulster Journal of Archaology. Welch's Irish Views.

by which she was to obtain great power if she succeeded. She took an apron full of stones, and dropped a earn on Carnbane from this she jumped to the summit of Slieve-na-cally, or Hag's Hill, a mile distant, and from dropped a second earn there thence she made a jump, and dropped a cam on another hill,


about a mile distant.


If she could make another leap, and drop the fourth cam, it appears the magical feat would have been accomplished, but she slipped, fell, broke her neck, and was The immense block of stone, buried in the neighbourhood. constituting the Hag's chair, is ten feet long, six feet high, and two feet thick it has a rude seat, hollowed out of the centre. The ends are elevated nine inches above the seat. It perhaps should be stated that the cross carved upon the seat of this chair, and others on the upright marginal stones, were cut for trigonometrical purposes, by the men engaged in the survey; but the seat also bears traces of real pagan ornamentation, In front of, and round notakly zigzags and concentric circles. the base of the chair, considerable quantities of quartz, broken into small lumps, were strewn about.

FIG. 80.
" The Hag's Chair," Loughcrew group of Cams. Reproduced from the Proceedings of ihe Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

Mr. E. Con well imagined that he had identified in bench of no less a personage than Ollamh " Ireland's famous monarch and Fodhla, whom he describes as thousand years ago." It is needless law-maker upwards of three to add that he has not convinced antiquarians, of any standing, that his supposed identification of the stone-seat is worthy of



this boulder the judicial

serious consideration.

A very curious looking stone, formed somewhat like a chair, situated on the shore of Lough Derg, county Donegal, facing the island supposed to be the entrance to Purgatory (fig. 81). By some of the natives it is called St. Dabehoe's Chair, by others

that of St. Brigid


however, agree that


was used by both

FIG. 81.
St. Brigid's

Chair," on the shore of Lough Derg, county Donegal. From a sketch by W. F. Wakeman.



somewhat resembles the chair of the

O'Neills, a seat of nature's formation, and in size is about as large as a

modern armchair. The so-called Brehon's


Druid's chair at Glensouthwell, near Holly Park, county Dublin, was in reality a very tall cromleac or dolmen (fig. Beranger described it 82).
(the cromleac) as a judgment seat, and says that close by stood a (second) cromleac, in

which the Brehon or Druid was probably buried. This supposed cromleac was suggested by the presence of a

the stone, evidently covering block of the monuslipped off. Fig. 83 shows the position of this stone, which has now,
stated, disappeared.

ment which had
FIG. 82.
" Brehon's Chair," county Dublin. From a sketch by W. F. Wakeman.

it is



A pile of stones styled the Druid's Judgment Seat stands near the village of Killiney, county Dublin. The entire structure

FIG. 83.
" Brehon's Chair," county Dublin.

From a sketch by

\V. F. "Wakeman.

bears the unmistakable impress of very modern fabrication is a mere clumsy attempt to gull the public (fig. 84).








FIG. 84.

" Druid's Judgment Seat," Killinoy.

A modern


From a




F. \Vakeman.

Whatever they may have been used for, these seats were chairs, for legend and certainly not employed as inauguration



history both inform us that Irish chiefs were installed in office by being placed on mere undressed flag-stones, on which, however, the impression of two feet were sometimes observable. Spenser alludes to the custom, and also to the mode of election of chiefs " and tanists, as follows They used to place him, that shall be their captain, upon a stone always reserved for that purpose, and placed commonly upon a hill. In some of which I have seen, formed and engraven, a foot which, they say, was the measure of their first captain's foot, whereon, he standing, receives an oath to preserve all the ancient former customs of the country inviol:

and to deliver up the succession peaceably to his Tanist, and then had a wand delivered unto him by some whose proper office that is after which, descending from the stone, he turned himself round thrice forward and thrice backward."

In the parish of in the Templemore, county Derry, there was
formerly a gneissose slab called St. Columbkille's
Stone, which exhibited the impressions of two feet, right and left, ten inches in length. Ac-





of the inauguration stones of the ancient Irish chiefs of the district.

was one

FIG. bd.
St. Columbkille's Flagstone.

Reproduced from the Ordnance Memoir of Londonderry.

That a stone consecrated to this purpose anciently existed appears from a passage in the

Life of St. of the monument should weigh but little against this conjecture, as the slab might have been, and very probably was, subsequently consecrated by St. Columbkille. It should also be borne in mind that, when their local history was lost, it has been the constant practice of the peasantry to connect ancient remains with the name of the patron saint of the district (fig. 85). Ancient as well as modern beliefs are full of this idea of weird markings made by the hands or feet of either gods or supernatural have the gigantic footprints on Adam's Peak in beings. Ceylon, and the stone at Jerusalem, on which is to be seen the impression of the fingers of the angel Gabriel. The best example which can be cited of this class of "

The present and





ration stones



is the Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny, of which it recounted that the Dedanann race brought it with them to In Christian times it was, of course, given a Scriptural Ireland. and was styled Jacob's stone. Consecrated stones, so origin, often mentioned in the Old Testament, where the authorized version imfortunately renders the expression images, are at least " who set as old as the time of Jacob, up and consecrated the memorial stone that marked Bethel as a sanctuary. It was the necessary mark of every high place, Canaanite as well as Hebrew, and is condemned in the Pentateuchal laws against the high



The Lia Fail was held in the highest veneration, and on the head-kings of Ireland were



which roared

This supposed magic like a lion


was, it is Scotland in the order to secure on the throne,

a legitimate king stood upon alleged, sent to ninth century, in the then dynasty an ancient Irish distich, of which the following is a free translation, having induced the belief that the Scotic race should rule only so long as the magic stone was in their possession


If fate's decrees

be not announced in


"Where'er this stone
shall reign."

kept the Scots

was preserved with the greatest On it care at Scone, in Perth. the monarchs of Scotland were crowned till the year 1296, when


The Lia

Edward, King

placed under England, having From a in Westminster Abbey. sketch by W. F. Wakeman. overrun Scotland, carried off from the cathedral at Scone, as a trophy " Stone of of victory, this Destiny," (fig. 86) which he placed under the English coronation chair, where it still remains in Westminster Abbey, and on it all our monarchs have since been crowned. The stone is enumerated in an inventory of the choice and is described as petra possessions of King Edward I.,


" Stone of Fail, or _Destiny," the Coronation Chair

<^Una coronari." magna, super quam Reges Scociae solebant the greatest empire Such is the history of the stone, which on earth preserves as a sacred relic in the most venerated of her


line of her Such is the stone on which the long temples. in any other have received their crown. Is there sovereigns historic and prehistoric antiland a coronation seat so hoar with be remembered that, although this quity ? Nevertheless, it must veneration, it must not waif of the past commands our deepest in origin like many of a less valued class also be forgotten, that, of Christianity was a mere " fetish," adopted by the pioneers


into the




Petrie, whose lead has been on Irish antiquities much in the

by appears to have been followed by a host of other writers way that one sheep follows


on one another through a gap-that a large pillar-stone standing Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny. of the mounds at Tara, is the real

FIG. 87.
Pillar-stone at Tara, alleged, by some antiquarians, to be the true Lia Fail, or " Stone of


position of the

FIG. 88. "

Kissing the Stone.
\V. F.

From a

Blarney Stone." sketch by


From a sketch by Destiny." \V. F. Wakeman.

for in

This monolith does not, however, occupy its original position, 1798 it was removed from its former site on " The mound of the Hostages," to mark the trench into which were thrown the corpses of some peasants who had fallen in a skirmish with the troops. The Irish kings, like the present-day urchin (fig. 87), would have had a very uncomfortable seat if perched on the top
of this pillar. Irish and Scotch accounts, however, show great lack of agreement as to the history of the " Stone of Destiny." There is another celebrated stone endowed by tradition with

magic powers, the famous Blarney Stone



which has

its name to enrich the English language, attributes are thus described by Father Prout



and whose


" There


a stone there

That whoever kisses, Oh he never misses To grow eloquent. 'Tis he may clumber

To a lady's chamber, Or become a member Of Parliament."

Eocking-stones although by some antiquaries considered as evidences of Druidical worship, may be looked upon as natural phenomena, which can be explained by a course of denudation. The boulder after having been dropped into its present position by the action of ice, the subsequent agency of water would suffice to account for the gradual removal of the earth originally sur-

FIG. 89.
Kocking-stone at Carrickard, county Sligo.
of Ireland. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries

on a rounding these stones, until the blocks are left balanced natural rock-bed, on pretty much the same principle that, the surrounding ice having been melted away by the action of the sun, it leaves rocking stones on the surface of glaciers. The ice covered by the stone is, to a great extent, protected from the of the sun, and does not melt to any coninfluence of the
rays siderable extent, whilst the general surrounding level of the but for a short glacier sinks, and the stone remains eventually, good balanced on the summit of a pedestal of ice. period, of the origin of the exemplification of the denudation theory



90. which can be set in motion by the hand. weighing several tons. to the country regard it as having been placed in people. Not far from this stone. who its present position. Highwood. In Irish. Rocking-stones have been found in almost every country in Europe. 91). Reproduced from The Dublin Penny Journal. county Sligo. immovable. Rocking-stone. Carrickna- . not far from may Enniskillen. 89). there is a " " which sometimes rocks and sometimes so-called rocking-stone FIG. county Sligo. The stiffness occurs after heavy rains when clay washed down the slope and rests in the socket in the rock on which the boulder is balanced (fig. one also on Island Magee (fig. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Rocking-stone. These freaks of nature's handiwork are in Ireland by no means rare. swayed side is from easily side to There (fig. Island Magee. 90). where on the slope of a hill.260 STONE WORSHIP. of rocking stones is afforded by a boulder in the townland Carrickard. is is there is another rockvery ing-stone. by the giants of long ago. and used as a plaything. be seen a rocking- stone. It is a great subject of wonder FIG. Above Blacklion. and also in parts of America. near the village of Highwood. 91.

county Sligo. and also seem to be formations than in others." near Wellmount Lod Carricknabuggadda. 92. not fitful or irregular. phenomena appear to occur in more frequent in some geological FIG. a slight push produces " " signifies the rocking-stone (fig. but like the beating of a pendulum." In good examples. an oscillation. or Cloonacool.ROCKING-STONES. It is to be particularly noted that these groups. " The Rocking-stone. buggadda or Cloghnabuggadda 92). 261 " In the north of Ireland they are styled " Shugling" and Logan Stones. . and in proportion to the force applied.

The Year divided of two parts First day of May looked on as the beginning day of November as the commencement of Winter The two Divisions representing the Birth and Death of Nature The Four into Summer . expressed their belief in another and invisible world by mystic to life symbolism. &c. was. spring. DAYS. the beginning of the winter half year. after the long death sleep of winter. was by the Irish speaking population. three. on the first day of November. a day devoted to various THE pagan Irish divided their year The first day of May. May-day represented to the Irish the awakening of the earth and beauty. winter. These divisions of the year were each subdivided into two equal parts. AND PROVERBS. seven. The first day of November. Demons and fairies must be very advanced radicals. when advanced to a certain thought-stage. and is yet. began on the first day of February Sowra. summer. on the first day of May Fowar. red. Aragh. . called Sowan. the first Seasons after The its first of May considered as the awakening of the Earth to life the long attached to death-sleep of Winter Ceremonies and Superstitions celebration Hallow Eve regarded as the end of Summer of gloom and mourning for the dying Year Ceremonies and Superstitions attached to its celebration Days of the Week Lucky and Unlucky Superstitions attached to each Superstitions attributed to Numbers the numerals two. is to scatter primroses on the threshold on May morning. THE SEASONS CERTAIN NUMBERS. and ten Superstitions attached to Colours To black. Proverbs They form a Synthesis A time Days To of National Character examples On women Much used by Irish Speaking On the Evil Eye. like Beltany. . of the summer half year. for they. . the beginning ceremonial observances. on the first day of August and Gevra. called Beltany. white.CHAPTER VII. for no spirits can pass over these . nine. autumn. like most other races. peasantry A few into two equal divisions. as the best preventive against their power. or quarters of the whole. COLOURS.

and make it crawl amongst the ashes of the extinct fire. around. my vermin .THE FIRST DA Y OF MA Y." is quite paralleled by the ejaculated. and to inform the excited crowd that the young student was simply reading the language that St. found in Luberkin and Love . anecdote recounted of a young student. and therefore imagined that he was bewitching the herbs. told of one rustic. Slow crawl' d the snail. who was mobbed and nearly killed by the inhabitants of a small village." The bunch of gorse or marigold is afterwards either buried or burnt. home I quickly sped. The familiar story. bring it into the house. while he read aloud from a book in some strange language. on jtfay-morning. For always snails near sweetest fruit abound. who inquiring of another regarding a person passing by. On the 1st of May a large bunch of gorse in fall bloom. typical of the more morose character of the Saxon. or of marsh marigold. thus initial letters of his fair lady's names. . In the year 1890. I searched to find a snail secret lover's name reveal ! Upon a gooseberry bush a snail I found. and being informed that his comrade did not know the stranger. note the absence of the customary emblem. In the soft ashes marks a curious L. . around. must wash her " another custom Crofton Croker remarks that." If a girl wishes to retain a beautiful complexion. and all strangers during the first three days of May are looked upon with great suspicion. A common practice. " Last May-day That might fair. where it would trace the The poet Gay. and if I right can spell. For may L is this wondrous omen lucky prove. Fortunately a priest was able to rescue him. Patrick had brought to Ireland. With my sharp heel I three times mark the ground. prevalent on is the painful and mischievous one of stinging with May-eve. was for a lover to search for a snail. on May-morning. Some " " others say it is for the purpose of pleasing the good people that it is " to keep luck in the house. describes this quaint superstition. as also the concluding ceremony of the desiul. 268 Primroses also protect the inmates from the evil-eye of a stranger. a person who walked through a street of thatched houses in the town of Sligo on the 1st of May could. They had noticed him walking backwards and forwards on the grass. only in two instances. And turn me thrice around. flowers. may be seen suspended over every door. " 'eave a brick at his 'ead. just before sunrise. on May-morning. she face in dew. the henrth the milk-white embers spread. I seized the And on Oh. which are especially powerful at this time.

suspended within it. held on May-day. on that day. the writer states that " on the first day of May. while the pipers and harpers. a pole erected at midsummer. in most villages. and the gathering . until the year 1798.. John Graham. and on the top a small basket of cakes. In the south of Ireland it is the common practice of to school-boys. and ornamented with ribbons of various This practice was revived last year. At the great long dance. in the year 1814. Study of ancient customs demonstrates the evidence of many apparent absurdities. the sun was figured as a hoop. It was of considerable height. but there is strong inferential evidence that they so understood it. wreathed with rowan and marsh" marigold. or of such other persons as they think they may venture to assault with impunity. silk handkerchiefs and ribbons. on St. a large pole was planted in the market place at Maghera. stood until the year 1847. In a Statistical Account of the parish of Maghera. for the garters. headed by a mock king and queen. as Avell as the covert obscenities in superstitious observances relating to the ^ procuring of destined husbands of the seeds of the common fern." There is perhaps no very direct proof that the Irish regarded the May-pole as a type of Phallic worship. or ginger-breads.. as for example in the distribution. two balls to represent the sun and moon. by women. to consider themselves privileged run wildly about with a bunch of nettles. There was also. This emblem of the hoop and the balls is still carried on May-day by the villagers. SEA SONSS UPERSTITIONSPR O VERBS. written by the Rev. in many localities. the girls wearing garlands. with gold and green sashes." colours. John's Day. directed the movements. county Derry. to erect MayThe Maypoles. and a procession of May-boys. but the custom gradually fell into desuetude. the women young Lady Wilde was of opinion that in the May-day processions. dressed in shirts over their clothes. whilst the dancers vied with one another for the honour of winning the ginger-breads and the garters. of prizes from the mid-summer May-pole. perform at the foot of the pole. with flowers. and bearing. The young men competed for the cakes. as before mentioned." It was a general practice. sometimes covered with gold and silver paper. and a large bunch of parti-coloured worsted The best musician was always selected to garters were tied. dressed with considerable taste. when the May games were finally suppressed. . erected on a mound. paraded the neighbourhood. from time immemorial. pole in the village of Finglas.264 nettles. all the people held hands and danced round a tall May-bush. striking at the face and hands of their companions. near Dublin.

but rite. tree. two abreast. propitiatory rustic The observer processions took place in the south of Ireland. walking in a great procession to congratulate the probability of a good ensuing These country people made a second appearance harvest. of course. A This strange custom. " the youths in hurling and other athletic exercises. a clown with a pole." In this procession we find a tree or holly bush decorated with ribbon." Bands of mummers seasons. a relic evidently of some pagan processional described by Mr. from a review of the whole subject. . and besprinkles such of the crowd as press upon his companions. records. much to the delight of the younger spectators. worship. the gleaners. in their shirts. the May-day present of the girls The bush is decorated with a proto the youths of the village. and a great number with their flails. sometimes Avhole. and two of them bear each a holly bush. They march in procession. From late as the 265 the diary of Joshua Wight. young men . with the A clown is. together with the introduction of will be seen that. the reapers. a Quaker. of the bagpipe. that about noon in the month of May. like a mop. . yet strictly The procession is always preceded by music. stone. water. the females in the dance. representing various branches of First of all came the ordinary labourers. . we learn that so middle of the eighteenth century. which ever and anon he dips in a pool of water or puddle. there passed through the streets of Limerick many thousand peasants marshalled in companies. or paper cut in imitation. usually selected for their good looks. or their proficiency. the young men in the van and the rear. . and animal worship are intimately connected. a great number of women. and in three divisions. . fusion of long ribbons. . in which are hung several new hurling balls. T. and were very particular in their representation of personating the several orders of husbandry in all the branches of it. at which time the country (people) of Clare and . but more commonly of a military fife. probably representing Phallic Thus it a water-rite. 1752. in addition of a drum or tambourine. which adds rural appearance of the greatly to the gay and joyous. Crofton Croker in his Fairy Legends. Limerick joined together. in ranks the women also with green corn and straw the plough driven along and the harrow the mowers with their scythes. dressed in white or other gay-coloured hats and jackets or vests. attendance he wears a frightful mask and bears a long pole. troop of May-day mummers consisted of a number of girls and of the village and neighbourhood. is May-day was used to make their appearance at all their favourite and proper festival. and decorated with ribbons on their sleeves. with shreds of cloth nailed to the end of it. the next day. The young women are dressed also in light-coloured garments.MA Y-DA Y MUMMERS. " the men agriculture.

They do not then willingly leave home. Hallow Eve. and never desire to return again to their own people or even if the spell is broken. both by sea and land. ing. where they are lulled into dreams by the sweet. in olden times.. As May-day was. The peasantry avoid the neighbourhood of a churchyard on that night. or if obliged so to do. likewise. is very dangerous no one should bathe.. . a bride steers. should they hear footsteps following them. Water. the period of greatest rejoicso the first day of November was a time of gloom and mourning for the dying year. and hold strange revels. indeed. or sail in a boat. or commit a murder. and have eaten them. within the house and no one should venture to light a candle without making and young the sign of the Cross over the flame to keep off evil men should be very cautious not to be out late at night. the fairy queens make great . also. and try to carry off the young men. . Great precautions are necessary. subtle fairy music. efforts to carry off the fine stalwart young of the country to the fairy palace in the cleft of the hills. when they take a fancy to a handsome mortal lover. Should they behold them face to face the earthly gazer will assuredly die. also. or die a violent death. cast their spells over him with resistless power. for the risk is great of being drowned. or to kill them with their fiery darts and draw them down under the sea to live with the dead for evermore. After midnight many pagan customs are even yet observed . are foredoomed. At this season. and work their deadly spells with malign and mysterious efficacy. " Lady Wilde states that Whitsuntide has always been confor the sidered by the Irish as a very fatal and unlucky time people hold that fairies and evil spirits have then great power over men and cattle. must beware of looking behind. Food should be left out of doors to If the offerings disappear the propitiate the wandering dead. Children born at Whitsuntide. young men and girls try to peer into the secrets of the future.266 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PRO VERBS. unless." : . they will either have the evil eye. it is said. or go a journey where a stream has to be crossed. the two divisions representing the birth and death of nature. . and they are brought back by some strong incantation. and been loved by one of the beautiful but fatal race. who. for all the dead who have been drowned in the sea round about come up and ride over the waves on white horses. is a weird period of dread and ill-omen. yet they are never the same for every one knows by the dream-look in their eyes that they have danced with the fairies on the hill. or to lure them to their men dancing grounds. for of course no mortal dare carry off the food devoted to the ghosts of the departed. and then the boat is safe from harm. spirits are friendly. considered the end of summer. . for it is the dead who are on their track. and forget home and kith and kindred.

hundred pieces. then hide and watch for the shadowy apparition of their future husbands. place the parcel under her pillow. She wished me . 1889. second earth. and you should never look through the glass of a window at it. raise your hand nine times. and the mirror shattered into a . looking very solemn the while and when I asked that she did so she her doing so she would be sure dreams A . the person. moon. who is then led up to them. tell unto me. then you will never want during the year. for it is considered unlucky to see the reflection of the new moon in a looking-glass. will come to pass. repeating the following rhyme while she is collecting them " : Moon." Then she must cut three small pieces from the sward with a black hafted knife. contributor to the Scotsman of December 27th. 267 The girls hang a garment before the fire. and in the morning the patient will be perfectly cured. tie them up in her left stocking with her right and whatever she garter. why replied by to get a present before the next moon appeared. the third meal. or they throw a ball of yarn from the window. wave an object nine times round the head towards the moon. There seems something weird in glass. bow nine times to it. It is also customary to place three plates before a blindfolded One contains water. . appalling that the beholder becomes insane or is found dead.THE FIRST DA Y OF NO VEMBER. states that " when living a few years ago in Ayrshire our housekeeper used to make obeisance several times to the new moon when first she observed it. In the incantation scene before a looking-glass the face of the Sometimes features appear so girl's future husband is reflected. with face and limbs horribly distorted. When my true love I shall see ? What fine clothes I am to wear ? How many children I shall bear? For if my love comes not to me Dark and dismal my life will be. If the blindfolded person puts his hand in the water it indicates that he shall live beyond the year if in the earth. A remedy against certain disorders is to go out the first night the new moon is visible. If you do so inadvertently you should go out of the house. it betokens long life and attainment of wealth. he must die before the year if in the meal. A girl who desires to conjure up the apparition of her future husband must gather certain herbs by the light of the first full moon of the new year. and if you have money in your pocket turn it each time. One end of the skein is retained by the thrower and an apparition takes hold of and commences to wind the other end.

and she would continue to do so. milk. A description must not be omitted of a remarkable rustic all procession. Whether owing to the charm of the poetry. the 31st of October. had been prosperous. for our previous servant did the The same observance of them was older than forty or fifty. on the eve of Samhain." in whose posed as messengers of a being styled the name they levied contributions on farmers. These scenes were enacted at night. and when I told her it was (then a very young girl) to do so too. The procession was led by a man enveloped in a white robe or sheet.268 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PR O VERBS. as in Egypt of old. whom they addressed. could the original " Muck Olla " have been a deity exhibited. . liberal scale every description of agricultural product was A rural bestowed. procession was then distributed according to previous arrangement. used to perambulate yearly the district between Bally cotton and Trabolgan. potatoes. eggs. The processional rite is undoubtedly of pagan origin. nonsense she fired up and said her mother had done so. as a living animal ? Can the rural merchant be a representative of some druid who maintained his ground long after the establishment of ChrisTo enter fully on an analysis of this strange procestianity ? sional rite would lead to a too long digression. which. retailer awaited the return of the procession and purchased the The share of each person in the offerings at market value. i. and which would not have been the other verses recited tolerated if publicly uttered elsewhere by a messenger of the "Muck Olla. . that the prosperity would continue as long only as he was liberal in donations in honour of the "Muck Olla. at present. I rather think this is no uncommon same thing. It is unlucky to move into a new house on a Monday . is barely intelligible. wool. accompanied by a number of youths blowing cows' horns. mare. butter." was formerly in vogue in many parts of Ireland. At each house where the procession halted a long string of verses was recited in the second distich two expressions occurred." set forth that. contributions were. This personage. called the Lair " the white fihan. bearing a rude representation of a horse's head. and announces facts in a manner which. or the cogency of the appeal. i. savouring strongly of Paganism. The principal characters " Muck Olla. &c. and neither practice. on a very . owing to the goodness of that being. corn. . the farmer. The question arises. e." acted as master of the ceremonies." and the verses concluded by giving a very unfavourable description of the state into which the farmer's affairs would assuredly fall should this being visit him with the vengeance certain to follow any illiberal or churlish treatment of his followers. in general. e. not very long ago.

the stone-chatter. the most favourable days for charms and incantations to take effect are the unlucky days. sunshine for lambs. be disregarded the project will assuredly have a disastrous termination." Saturday's child On the other hand. three days of warmth and April. Wednesday's child lone and sad.' said March. fair of grace. and the grey cow bid defiance to March after his days were over. To build an addition to a house on the west side is believed to be always followed by misfortune. and these two unlucky days are depicted as affecting the characters and after-life of those infants so unfortunate as to enter the world upon either day : " child fair in the face. Monday's Tuesday's child is Godly given." " Three days for fleecing the blackbird. for which he repaid nine of his own hence the first nine days of April are called the . And three days for the grey cow. Wednesday and Friday. borrowing days " Tri : la lomartha an loinn Tri la sgiuthanta an chlaibhieain. three for each of his insulters. 209 Friday is the most propitious day." " I writer in Notes and Queries gives a different version remember when a child in the North of Ireland to have heard a of March and very poetical explanation of the borrowing days Give me.' on the three borrowing days still current in Ulster. Two days in the week. Three days for punishment of the stone-chatter. . such as setting out on a journey or enterShould the ancient superstitions ing into the matrimonial state. An old legend relates that the blackbird. and this will continue until the new building is removed. There also exists a popular rhyme enumerating the days of the week and their supposed influence on the dispositions of children born on each. Thursday's child mei ry and glad Friday's child must work for a living. Wednesday and Friday.ANCIENT SUPERSTITIONS. and that to punish their insolence March begged of April nine of his days. Agus tri la na bo riabhaighe. while they are yet too tender to A : ' ' my poor bear the roughness of my wind and rain and you shall have them " There is also a Scotch proverb repaid when the wool is grown. but Sunday's child will go straight to heaven. are considered by the country people most unpropitious for commencing any important affair of life.

it is easy to gather what this implies. it preserves to us a memorial of that stage of thought when all beyond two was an idea of infinite number. and this explains the habit of speaking of one foot as half a foot. and only to distinguish singular . According to Dr. and it continued to survive with the plural for a long time. or with some may reference to. as the eyes. and "In connexion with this fact." of the legends current amongst the North American Indians. During examination of Irish names of places. If we apply these observations to the class of names we are discussing. Joyce's Paper on the Occurrence of the Number Ttco in Irish Proper Xames has appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Remarks Supplementary to Dr. the Irish speaking colonists were but flint-using . . The earliest use of the dual was to express things Avhich occur naturally in pairs. and throws a flood of light on the subject. as the horses of a chariot. These are idioms in the Irish language. . on their first arrival. Wilson. may be followed by a verb in the singuthat a pair is regarded in Ireland. in his work on prehistoric man. W. D. T. minds of the Irish people. but from whatever " certain it is.270 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PRO VERBS. or more conspicuous. have been given in later times in honour of. the the writer further observes : It preceded existence of the dual number is of great interest.D. Tyler. Dr. I think we can understand how they came languages they It is in this way . at the present day. a distinctly marked predilection to designate persons or places. the New Hollanders. and the aborigines of Victoria (all in the Stone Age when first known to folk Europeans) possessed no names for numbers beyond two. for according to Mr. entitled. the ears. by of duality. the epithet being epithets expressive of the idea founded on some circumstance connected with the object named. and such circumstances were often seized upon to form a name. When things are thought of in pairs they are regarded as a unity. Hence. classical lar. the doctrine of the Trinity. and in the . and plural.. a most interesting paper by the Rev. he adds. the plural. or a cow with one horn as a cow with half a horn. the hands or artificially in pairs. but it is also probable that it may be the result of some half-remembered superstition connected with numbers. Olden. the pair being regarded as a whole. where circumstances permitted it. Since the above was written. the this may be merely a number two plays a prominent part curious coincidence. as the author supposes. If. In many in preference to others equally. constant occurrence of the Joyce was greatly struck with the numbers two and three. P. that there existed in the cause it may have arisen. but the number two is met with more Many of the triple combinations frequently than any other. the tendency of higher intellectual culture has been to discard it as inconvenient and unprofitable.

the three Furies. doubtless. a custom which had its origin in the remotest antiquity. the place where flocks of water-fowl congregate (see ante. which. and the birth of twins is regarded as a most grievous calamity though. the three Fates. and expense entailed while the black mother. ' ' . Thus. attaching no importance whatsoever to these matters. p. is only influenced by the possible punishment which will be inflicted upon her for having so flagrantly insulted and offended some mysterious power by giving birth to two." Another writer on this subject observes that: "In many parts of Africa there is considered to be something malefic in the number two. Hence. frequented by flocks of aquatic birds. the ridge of two demons. many will contend that the unsophisticated black women are by no means unique in this respect. down almost to modern times. is 271 en." With regard. are of . So Dromahaire. of a seventh son is dowered with miraculous When such an infant is born. the nurse places a worm powers. p.Irish people it thus appears retained. and to obviate the difficulty it was customary to suffocate the weaker . far from limiting demons to two. opinion that the whole atmosphere is swarming with them. The seventh son . it must be again mentioned of the Irish for the that the idea of a in many much Trinity is not confined to Christianity. a great danger scathless. 214). however. translated into modern language meant. we find the three Graces. to the predilection number three. into existence. but the third time he will through succumb. means the haunted ridge for the country people.. but occurs In classic mythology older religions (see ante vol. But the reason for the display of disgust at a double event is due to a different cause the white mother only taking into account the extra care. under the influence of hostile invasion and social changes but the Irish dwelling. and naturally would derive its name from that fact but our primeval ancestors had no way of expressing a number beyond unity except by the word two. An article may twice be lost. attention.SUPERSTITIONS ATTRIBUTED TO NUMBERS. that The place was probably place of two birds. . . of the twins. in their island home. apart from the intellectual life of Europe. 105). handed on from age to age the immemorial customs of their race. Tha. they called the spot the swimming place of two birds. and twice recovered. Seven appears to have been regarded as a magical number. i. Elsewhere it died out. to take the instance of snamh dd the swimming . or Drumdd-ethiar. . but if lost the A man may twice pass third time it has disappeared for good. and cherishing the traditions of the past.

amongst them. and the Book of the Eevelation in the New Testament. placed them in the cave or purgatory. was especially sacred amongst the primitive Germans. The hands up until the worms die. pound them on a rock with salt and spittle and apply the poultice. . keep nine. beer. at a certain stage of culture. rub the wart with the remaining nine. point the nine. a trinity of trinities. hands enclosed in a piece of muslin. The number nine. at the same hour they had entered the cave. a perfect plural. throw the tenth away. place the nine under the heel of the right foot. and the stye will be cured. 191). and their week originally consisted of nine days. throw theni on the road over which a funeral is passing. throw the tenth away. Another remedy is to take ten stalks of barley-straw. the Prior.272 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PRO VERBS. on the ninth day of the probation of the pilgrims. roll them up in paper. To cure a stye on the eye. where they were shut up. composed in equal proportions of wine. On Christmas Eve pick ten berries from the mistletoe. throw the tenth away. one by one. held in peculiar reverence. the number nine was. rub the warts in rotation with the nine slices which you then bury. keep nine and throw the tenth away put the nine to steep in a liquid . count nine and throw away the tenth. then throw them away. Amongst people. as it was characteristic of their mysteries that numbers had in them. When going on a journey pull ten blades of yarrow. A good example is presented by the Book of Daniel in the Old. keep nine. juggling with numbers forms a special branch of magic of which the Jews and early Christians present typical examples. the dead worms are then thrown away. When the boy grows to manhood he is endowed with great healing and other miraculous powers (see ante. the warts disappear. and more credited with mystic properties than any other number. Pull ten leaves of the male crowfoot. in each of its are kept tied There is something most extraordinary in the number nine. and the warts will vanish. a very deep meaning. vinegar and honey. Be that as it may. and throw away the tenth. It is a certain cure for most diseases in either man or beast. stark naked. and as they decay. and were released on the tenth day. or are supposed to have had in them. and evil spirits will have no power over you. To cure warts cut a potato into ten slices. p. Lough Derg. knot them. count nine. According to the old rite performed at St. take ten gooseberry thorns. at the stye. Patrick's Purgatory. it is stated.

away. A cure for jaundice is to cut nine fibres from the roots of an ash tree. It is to be noticed that in all the first enumerated cases with number regard to the mystic properties of the number nine. if she chances open a pod containing nine peas. or leave the enchanted palace. Nine pinches of this mixture to be drunk in whey twice a week. with nine knots tied in it. lay it on the lintel of the door. it is believed. And o'er the door the spell in secret laid. or any way interfered with. bury them carefully in the ground. drinking. . the father. II. in southern Connemara. when shelling green peas. I safely home convey'd. and bound on the ninth day after birth round the infant's ankle. and if they remain undisturbed the patient will recover. Now that in many parts of Africa if a negress has a tenth child tho Here also there seems to be an infant is at once destroyed. the entrance into the underground fairy mansion will become visible. first The latch mov'd up. will make him swift and sure of foot. dream to and you are sure to A country girl. of throwing the evil eye on a person is effected by fixedly at the object of detestation through nine fingers. and the first unmarried man who enters." come in. when I cropp'd. Nine hairs plucked from the tail of a wild colt. . will. the the various articles are ten is deemed an unlucky number it is a curious fact counted and the tenth is cast . " As peascod once I pluck'd. swallow them like pills 273 on retiring to rest. and the number is The process never varied. throws nine articles of clothing over the mother. until a cure is effected. After idea that there is something unlucky in the number ten. This superstition is described by Gay : of your future. when who should But in his proper person Lubberkin. If you walk nine times round a fairy rath at the full of the moon. mixed with nine pinches of ashes from the hearth.SUPERSTITIONS ATTRIBU2ED TO NUMBERS. A for piece of worsted. or kissing a young fairy wench if he does . counting as he does so. immediately after the birth of a child. dried on a pan before the fire. but if the adventurer enters he must abstain from eating. will be her future husband. the sick person will in most probably die. I chanced to see One that was closely filPd with three times three Which. is a great charm a sprained ankle. gazing On Lettermore Island. A cure for inflammation is nine handfuls of mountain moss. T VOL. but if they are exhumed. he will never be able to return to earth.

Eed is also a magical colour. . for the spirits delight in blood. A red-coloured cat. Eowan berries. round the part affected with the blood of the sufferer should be written of a black cat. be boiled alive and then dissected. According to Lady Wilde the number 2 was esteemed the most unlucky of all numbers. are stated to have been often immolated in magical rites. for the moment. 3. To see a black snail the first thing in the morning is deemed very unlucky. will cure headache. or other such coloured material. in addition. 7. tied round the tails of cows after calving. and you must observe closely whether When you at last thus the bone is reflected in the looking glass. be spilled. The bones must. strings of red worsted. 5. ward off witches and fairies. To accomplish this. as its colour and odour give them. Black seems to have been considered a magical colour. if eaten the first thing in the morning. A lock of hair tied up in a piece of red cloth worn round the neck cures the whooping cough the rag must then be buried. A red cord is tied around each of the patient's fingers as a cure for post partum " red rash " is healed haemorrhage. will not only erysipelas the To cure name cure fever. and 9 are considered lucky. that long investigation the writer has come to the conclusion amongst the Irish the uneven numbers 1. milked by a maiden's hand. To see a white snail the first thing in the morning heralds good fortune. one by one. If you procure possession of one particular bone of a black cat you To do this the cat must render yourself invisible at pleasure. and 10 are considered unlucky. . hold a bone that is not reflected in the mirror the mystic article is in your possession. blood must. and for the incantations used to bring forth the spirits from the grave and compel them to answer when questioned. be held in your mouth. the first egg laid by a black hen. A white lamb to the right hand is also a good omen. one that does not possess a single white hair. The second day of November was accordingly set apart for sacrifices to the dead. the sensation of life. but prevent the eater from taking any infection for the remainder of the year. 4. The by the application of the blood of a hare on a red rag when the cure is effected the rag must be buried. . Again. The blood of a black cat laid it on a wound with a raven's feather will heal on the instant. The milk of a white cow. or a red cock.274 SEASONS SUPERSTITIONS PROVERBS. 6. the even numbers 2. 8. or a red pig.

it is not the less has been well said that " A proverb is the wit of one and the wisdom of many. sayings. without emphasizing their opinion by the quotaThe peculiar veneration in which ancient lore tion of a proverb. With regard to the probable signification of the variously coloured stones and pebbles deposited with the dead. It has been suggested that it was 011 this account that the robin acquired its sacred character. 328-333. however. was held is evidenced in the Irish saying : " It is impossible to contradict a proverb. Thus a country man cannot inform you that " but perseverance overcomes the most formidable obstacles. Irish and Highland women use the colour red as a charm against witches women in Esthonia put red thread in the babies' cradles as a preservation against evil. in His teachings.e. Irish proverbs treat of the most miscellaneous subjects so that perhaps. sometimes cited proverbs. " Old i. A TTA CHED TO -COL O URS. All the world over there and it . nevertheless. Sean Rdite. peasants rarely discourse on any subject in which Irish -speaking their interest is deeply roused. and certainly more amusing." Proverbs form a synthesis of national character." His to say. in prehistoric interments in Ireland." It Though the old proverb may : be given up. and in China. pp. a certain poverty of language proverbial phrases in the individual. "attach vocabulary hardly furnishes him with terms T2 ." he says. than the best of Irish MSS. " a constant drop wears a hole in a stone. The review of proverbs is a true archaeological investigation.." : Or again " true." Even Christ. red thread is tied round children's wrists to keep off evil spirits. perfectly understand. is 275 a regard for the colour red. the best name that can be applied to them is that by which they are known to the Irish -speaking population. and contain information concerning human actions and tendencies far more reliable.S UPERSTITIONS was held sacred to Thor. the reader is referred to vol. on the whole. for he employs a particular expression with a general application which his hearers. or old sayings well known to His listeners. i. to give point to His The habitual use of proverbs or of doctrine or argument. shows. for old sayings are as much relics of days gone by as are the weathered and moss-grown covering-stones of crornleacs. as in Ireland.

and and customs have their exact equivalents prudence. A chieftain without wisdom. a few on foresight. and a scald-crow in spring. journey of the hens to Scotland. " There were four things that Finn (MacCool) hated A worthless hound. and a monastery in a wilderness. " He that has the quickest hand. 5. Ballyore a hermitage. " What did Goll say ? that it is hard to take breeches off bare hips. 240).. Journal of Archaology The Irish proverb. say they are talking about going back to Scotland. hence the " A black raven " The knowledge of the raven's head.. who are constantly talking about doing a thing. and a slow horse." and children when they hear the hens cackling at night." a relic of a pagan burial custom (see vol. The reference to a hermitage is not at It is proverbial that monasteries were present decipherable.276 SEA SONS-SUPERSTITIONSPRO VERBS. caution." he therefore says. superstitions." off contain many allusions to pagan beliefs. the blame to the culpable individual. ." As hard is " He as to take them off Highlanders. your bread. where they came There is also an old Irish tune called Triatt na g-cearc go from. and others which have distinctive Irish characFor the original teristics and colouring. in autumn. which do not appear to in English.e. The raven is believed to predict future events." i." he says." . There is another proverb generally applied to persons. And a wife that does not bear children. may be of interest." and seems to refer English saying. p. The mill is driven direct from the lake without a mill course. " The three wonders of a mill without a stream." " No man ever went to Hell without sixpence at the time of his death. An enumeration of bad omens is conveyed in the following " I heard the cuckoo when I had no food in the belly I saw a first snail that I saw was creeping on a bare stone : my . . but never set about " That is like the intended it. so it was easy for me to know that I would not prosper that year. as great a liar as Orarn. to an incident which occurred in some old hunting expedition.. the reader is referred to the vols. first served. . 6." a common saying in : Louth and Meath." saying. Origin unknown. "it takes no butter circumstance does not affect you. i. "put When desirous to express " the the saddle on the right horse." Irish proverbs of the Ulster Irish. generally built in the midst of the very best land. let him have the white hound and the deer. signs of good weather. &c. black ram with its hinder parts towards me." Ballyore is in the county Louth." is equivalent to the " First come. \ h'Albainn.

which may burn the mouth if eaten incautiously or to a drink. alluding to the usual custom of the nuns with country-women. Formerly even ploughmen used to turn their horses' heads to the south when yoking or unyoking would be deformed them. the primitive same advice would suggest itself. " Four priests that arc not greedy.PROVERBS." her foot. nearest his throat ." alluding to the ceremony of the desiul." is Faisiun mnd na cille le mnd tuaitJie. " white breeches are a good indication of a Christian. and was in danger of being strangled." is enigmatical. "Cut the gad nearest the throat. necessary articles of clothing." alluding to hot broth. " a priest christens his own child first. everything to the south. Four Frenchmen that are not yellow. "throw a sprat to catch a salmon." But the clearest allusion to paganism occurs in the " The front of proverb. " Blow before you drink. amongst other things. . "He is 277 so wise that he would decide between Conall and referring to the well-known dispute which ended in the division of Ireland between these two chieftains." transports us back to a time before hemp ropes were used. . when criminals were hanged by a twisted gad or withe. and they give a small one in return. they receive a great lump. or if a horse had fallen. alpdn chuca a's millin uatha. These are twelve men not in the country ": demonstrates. made of willow rods. applicable to ecclesiastics in general. but may point to the fact that the old Irish pagans did not wear these. If a woman at a funeral rubbed the earth of a off Eoghan. at present. spiritual advisers. entangled in this harness. lest flies or insects should be floating on the surface applied as a warning against over haste in anything." is a world. "Do the thing first that is of the most pressing need. hence the saying. and meant that if one wished to save the life of a culprit one should cut the gad . the popular opinion of the peasantry with regard to the fondness for money of their Se a leanbh fein a bhaisteas a sagart air tiis. . " He has a churchyard-crook in his foot. but the saying. in the expectation of receiving greater. It now signifies." " Praise rod your gad and not your rod for many a beautiful will not twist. it was believed that her next graveyard child or reel-footed." an allusion to the general use of willow rods (gads) for a variety of purposes. Four shoemakers that are not liars. who were in the habit of giving presents of small value.wide proverb that needs no comment. Another Irish proverb equivalent to the saying.

it will ebb. and rise with the bird. wlien his wife ran away with .e." i. cold and flaying . Several Irish proverbs refer to fords in rivers. . . fruit on trees. to Rorke." " Red in the south means rain and cold. that stays out long his dinner cools. " a pleasant winter - j A wind from the south hrings heat and produce A wind from the west. who was on a pilgrimage. object." " to The man anyone who remains too long from home for instance." Listen to the wind of the mountains ebb i." Deep water On an unknown path every foot is -slow. Red in the east." a hen with wet feathers looking much smaller than when dry. a recommendation to be cautious in our dealings with knowing people. ." Good luck comes in tricklets ill luck comes . " It is better to turn back from the middle of the ford than " better to stop in time than to lose to be drowned in the flood . let waters It is the storm blow by. Red in the north. and draws back at the last moment." Face the sun turn your back to the storm. ~Let every one speak of the place.278 " SEA SONSS UPERSTITIQNSPR O VERBS. And a wind from the east. Though the day be long." makes the greatest noise. From the time you see a harrow and a man behind it. the shallowest water that is still." . Let every man praise the bridge he goes over. rain and frost.e. Until you see stacks of turf and cocks of hay. thawing and sun. which were naturally very important places before bridges were built. rain and wind." until the However great the flow. " She never sells her hen on a wet day. said when one repents of a thing. It is time for you to be softening the gads." It is time to to prepare for departure. or individual. There is also the proverb " Let every man praise the ford as he finds it." A misty winter brings a pleasant spring brings a misty spring. in rolling torrents." " Lie down with the lamb. all." He that waits long enough at the ferry will get over at : last " Blue are the hills that are far away." Applied ." " . as he finds them. Red in the west. fish and milk A wind from the north. night comes at last.

while his opponent has marked forty. 4th Series (1868).. Patrick's housekeeper. because she gave hin^ scanty The expression means a random hit. around the English Pale. " " By degrees the castles are built (Rome was not built in a day) a proverb which no doubt took its rise when the Irish saw the Anglo-Norman strongholds rising. a small species of jet-black beetle. may still 'overtake him and win the game. In Notes and Queries. to prosecute the trade undiscouraged by their first want of success. of Ireland. 279 Dermot MacMurrough." You have done the most difficult part of the work." "He got off betwixt hurdle and door-post. a time the man with ten has overtaken the man with forty." refers to an Irish game of cards won by marking fortyfive." In former times the doors of cottages were made of wattled hurdles. vol." A reference to the threw an apple at story that Ossian. The that proverb signifies that he had a narrow escape. " Though you have broken the bone you have not sucked out the marrow. While the mare draws the harrow the foal walks beside her doing nothing. or perhaps he escaped secretly. a blind man's cast. as the peasantry are averse to naming them directly. sight Many : Friday and (God prosper them !) they do not hear the fairies. is superstitiously feared as unlucky and poisonous. and is always thrown into the fire whenever found. Some say the fairies have no power over mortals on a Friday. the blind warrior-bard." The dar-daol. there is an extraordinary note on the is " This us. rations. ii." meaning . called sr/olbs. " What the Pooka writes let him read it himself. " A Friday's fast is not better for you than to burn a dardaol. " You have the foal's share of the harrow. " The end of every old curse is an old white horse." You are an idle spectator. one after the other. A such work." " It is true as that there is a Pooka in Kells. and the proverb is ' ' boisterous day is not the proper time is applied in all cases where fore- necessary. The proverb is intended as an encouragement to persons engaged in business. A player who at the commencement of a deal has only marked ten. ''The blind man's shot at the tub. but not finished it.PROVERBS. St. and brought about the English invasion " thatch for The windy day is not the day for fastening the thatch " is fastened down by a number of wattles or pointed rods . as the hurdle-door in shutting made no noise." alluding to subject of the dar-daol. of willow.

" late what he ought to have done." said of a slow messenger when he delays long on the road. for there is many A a one to spoil it afterwards." " If you are fond of dung." We value things at a distance." (see ante. " He thinks that he himself is the very stone that was hurled at the castle.280 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PRO VERBS. And the Ulster-man impudent. your " The door-step of a great house is slippery. The Munster-man boastful. from his parents." sometimes the hare. The Connaught-man sweet tongued. There is an end to everything. or out of our reach. p." a metaphor applied to the fickleness of youth. will rise up with You cannot touch pitch without being defiled. " A slow hound has often luck when a swift hound has not. the fleas. 224). or vice. you see no motes in " The end it. the end of every kiln is burning of every feast is wasting." " He that lies down with the dogs. " You would be a good messenger to send for Death." " poem ought to be well made at first." alluding to the uncertainty of the favour of great men." ." " Do not build the sty before the litter comes. of a hound on a moor. " Truth is often bitter. " The Leinster-man is sprightly." He was the one that bore the brunt. " He is like a he never makes a noise till his bag-pipe : belly's full. " Cows far from home have long horns. of Hanover. "Many a sudden change takes place in a spring day. when she is caught by a slower dog. It signifies that often he who plods steadily at home succeeds as well as he who roams about looking for business. by a sudden alluding to dogs coursing a hare turn. too " After misfortune the Irishman sees his He sees profit. causes the foremost hound to run past her." Do not count chickens before they are hatched." And And The end of every ship is drowning. the end of every laugh is sighing. " He got it from nature." " The closing in of an autumn evening is like the running An autumn night comes on quickly. more than they deserve." He inherits the quality. as the pig got the rooting in the ground. With regard to the application . that the finishing stroke of ill luck is being served with a law The white horse is apparently an allusion to the arms process.

Throw a sprat to catch a salmon." " Take your thirst to the brook. "He that is not in the habit of riding forgets the spurs. of the 281 term " drowning 220.e. and leave to pull. but not so the hand that planted it. pp. in Lough Derg." merit is modest. according to the manner a cow is fed. but not so i. "The tree in the hedge remains. 219. (that tree and the bark.e." said when an incompetent person takes any business out of the kands of one more fit to do it. "The in reality." " It is hard to take the twist out of the oak that grew in the : happened to him? bad luck)." i. and little you say. relics Under Danes and shrines. 922. heaviest head of wheat hangs its head lowest. You may expect to be served by a man according as you treat him. no rest at all. " A fight between hornless sheep." . the Irish Annals record that the " drowned its ravaged Iniscaltra. do not intermeddle in a family quarrel. " That is like taking the axe out of the carpenter's hands." " Losing the bundle." will not cure mischief.." " Li3t every herring hang by its own tail.e. see vol." He has it all his own way. " The hen going to seek for the goose.PROVERBS." This proverb has many applications.D. Sometimes it means that a man not used to good company is at a loss how to behave." " Ignorance is a heavy burden. "What What was at the hen's foot" sapling. date. gathering the wisps." " He who has his choice and chooses the worse is to be pitied." " Honour cannot be patched." signifying that. and the " to inanimate objects. " He has got the two ends of the rope." " Say little. He is master of the situation. A." said when people give small presents in expectation of receiving greater ones. said of persons appearing to be very angry with each other." i." Night is a good herd " Dry soles won't catch fish. " The leisure of the smith's helper (that is) from the bellows to the anvil. she gives better or worse milk. " Do not go between the is. a mock fight. as the dog does." i. sorrow will " Kepentance pay no debt.e.e. i." " she brings all creatures home. " Out of her head the cow is milked. say well." i.

is " Lazy is the hand that ploughs not." i." " Courtesy never broke one's crown." " " Marriage comes unawares like a soot drop." "A thing is the bigger of being shared." " He that ploughs not at home. priests." " A man's The : wife is his blessing or his bane." " A woman has an excuse readier than an apron." Modesty " Take a bird from a clean nest. ploughs not abroad. It is according to God's will this day will be. a hen.e." i.e." " He that lives longest sees most. no secret at raven. ." " He that does not knot his thread loses his stitch. the best mirror an old friend." i." " There are three things that do not bear nursing an old woman." " Assurance is two-thirds of success." " Fear is worse than ." " He that flees hot will be fled from." the devil." " What is the good of a pipe if it is not played on." " Correct counting keeps good friends." " Friendship is as it is kept." " For whom ill is fated." " A king's son is no nobler than his company.282 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PRO VERBS." " Choose your wife as you wish your children to be. verbs " Wherever there are women there is talking and wherever there are geese there is cackling." ladies of ancient Erin are not complimented in the pro. " Do not believe." " Better knot straws than do nothing. and poultry have never enough. : :{ all.the scald-crow. for a scolding woman will let it out in her rage.e. The secret of an old woman's scolding." " Love hides ugliness.' " is the beauty of women." "A promise is a debt." " From hand to mouth will never make a wealthy man." " Choose your speech." " Every foot treads on him who is in the mud. who are not thankful for being nursed." " Choose a good woman's daughter though her father were ' fighting. " He that conquers himself conquers an enemy." " A friend's eye is a good looking-glass. him will it strike." . " A wise man keeps his counsel the fool reveals his. or the Nor any false deity of the women Whether the sun rises arly or late. and a sheep." " Women.

" " Women are them from refusing shy. declared to be of no utility and vain as compared with the acme of primitive Christian and Mahometan teaching there is no one to be enumeration of . The first. " The yellow cows are milked." We ought to be kind but not over-kind." i. and shame prevents the men. and their milk is drunk . distaff. of the raven reliance to be placed on female deities." will get no return for it." by her head." Yellow cows are believed therefore. or the rising or setting of the sun.PROVERBS ON WOMEN." a poem ascribed to the dethroned King Diarmait mac Cerbaill. " She is a good wife. . wife than a " A handsome " said of a " She has She knows how got the length of his shoe. say " " The woman has neither excuse nor rest who has not a pipe or a child. . . in which it is employed in this sense : You would not do that if you had any flax on your woman spending her time foolishly. is women." she has not been proved yet speaking of a newly married .e. 288 second. relied on but God alone. The proverb is applied to an elderly womnn dressing herself with a showy cap or clothes more suitable for a told girl. "While the white cows come back from the fair and no hid for them. " He Sometimes used (or she) has washed his (her) shoes." to manage him. sell better. but she has not taken off her shoes yet. and there is but one God. but the worse of Some being burned. and a better an uninviting exterior may make A hen's age can never be pullet's head on an old hen. and third lines of this distich consist of an pagan omens observations on the movements of the scald-crow or Bav. woman." " was the lawful hridegroom Of the heautiful daughter of Erimon I (Erin). . applied to The proverb one. " It is the Meath women to yellow prestwgh that brings the ." Kuno Meyer quotes as a term for "making oneself at home. hints that a girl with to give better milk than white cows and. "The old hag is the better of being warmed. Clerics have thrust me Fotla (Erin) From the rule of highland Young unlawful kings Will wash their shoes in her house. that the proverb refers to the burning of witches." " It you is nothing but folly to treat an old woman to a dram.

e. the gibes of the Irish old-world wits may be summarised in the words of the popular : nineteenth century poet: " Down He to Gehenna. animate or inanimate. in going out in the evening to gather it in the fields." an extravagant woman and a bad housekeeper. " Every man can control a bad wife but her own husband.'' said when a woman makes a bad marriage." thing exists than a bad-tempered woman.e. " The daughter of an active old woman makes a bad housekeeper. one should say. it. called in Irish preshagk." i. " Take care lest cast the evil eye you conveyed on him." When praising anything." said when relatives marry. and the mother or the nurse that would carry her infant charge in her arms anywhere outside the house would be regarded as devoid of affection. the women who. an indulgent mother makes a sluttish daughter." The proverb alludes to the practice of as a kitchen vegetable. she was not a good daughter and will have no luck. The bioran suain was a magical pin supposed to possess the power of throwing a person into a deep : sleep. "Never take a wife who has no fault. bad wife takes advice from every man but her own "A husband. " She has put a bioran suain in his head" (his hair) said of a profound sleeper." " It was not her mother's feet that she washed. or travels the fastest up who to the throne travels alone. was made use of harm. " She burnt her coal and did not warm herself." " She has only as much regard for him as a two-year-old dog has for his mother. The wild kail." for expressing admiration of the object without accompanying and qualifying the praise with a blessing. and a woman." because there is no such thing. " The husband of the sloven is known in the field amidst a crowd." said when a girl turns out badly." " There are three without rule a mule. On May eve the evil eye possesses more than usual malignity. a pig.284 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PR O VERBS. and reprobated as a monster." In fact. " God bless . is an act of overlooking by the evil eye." "A ring on the finger and not a stitch of clothes on the back. made this an excuse for meeting their lovers." "A blanket is the warmer of being doubled. " No trial until one " No worse gets married. i." " Reference to the superstition of "the evil eye is in the warning.

D. But he to thee ." . This is a curious superstition. spat A practice to be observed amongst the peasantry between tive against ill-luck. witchcraft. 7 : " Eat thou not the bread of him that hath an ." and in olden days the faction-fighter on his black-thorn. a pugilist often does the same before commencing a fight. the Four Masters relate that. if we are to judge from Proverbs xxiii. it was far from common. for the Irish have the old saying. for instance. after a similar observance. in which they had put charms. his heart is not with thee. 784. in A. an Irish chieftain died. Virgil says the notion among his contemporaries was that evil resulted from the glance of an envious eye whilst Pliny records his testimony as to the efficacy of spittle as a preserva." There are exceptions to the useful property of saliva. 285 " Youth and loveliness are thought to be especially exposed to therefore not one woman in a thousand will then show peril herself abroad. neither grizzled locks nor the brawny hand of the roughest from the ploughman ." saith When as to damage a country-woman seeks the good offices of charlatans. or the evil The parting friends is supposed to propitiate good fortune. Xeither desire thou his dainties For as he reckoneth within himself. Even in the eye. but the right hand to those we . a sharp sound. or as to an unaccountable decrease of milk from the cows. and the spell is thus dissolved. You should not shake hands with " a curse with the left hand. and they account for his decease by the fact that wicked people used' to eject spits in his face. 6. somewhat resembling thup is emitted the hand is held out. and in buying cattle at a fair the purchaser " spits on the luck-penny. . and ask the suspected neighbour to milk three streams from the cow upon them. inflicted on her property by the evil eye of one of her neighbours. so evil eye." The ancient Jews were also firm believers in the power of the evil eye. exempt blast. the left hand to those we hate. on the bottom of a tin can. shows that while it was known. half-pence for choice. spits on the palm of his hand.PROVERBS ON THE EVIL EYE. Nor must it be supposed that conscious ugliness is any protection on the contrary. she is advised to place three bronze articles. Bronze being regarded as partaking of the supernatural. : is he Eat and drink. right hand is passed across the mouth. as it may be said to have the date of its origin attached. present day a labourer before commencing work. the offered palm is met by that of the other person. honour. and hands are heartily shaken.

The restoration of sight to a blind man with fasting spittle is attributed to Vespasian by both Suetonius and by Tacitus. or rather it possessed no malign influence.286 SEA SONS SUPERSTITIONS PRO VERBS.' According to Theocritus it is necesto spit three times into the heart of the sary person who fears fascination. In Ireland. in the Journal of his tour in Ireland. it has ever been considered as an act to safeguard the spitter. it is most effectual as a cure for sore lips. by their custom they are never to bless. to obtain a perfect result. but the conjoint action of the The spittle and of the middle finger which works the charm. and almost among all peoples. and is charming his forehead and his slavering lips against mischief by the joint action of her middle finger and her purifying spittle. it was hence ' called despuere malum. or a superstitious aunt. or commend anything. internal as well as may : external (see ante. with a view of illustrating his verbal description. Thomas Dinely. in the of Charles II. the When .. but in all ages. spittle." when mixed with dust. whether against fascination or other evils. and then applying it with not Christ have wished to teach the Jews a lesson by utilizing a prevalent and apparently widespread superstition ? On this subject " Maimonides states that the Jews were expressly forbidden by their traditions to put fasting-spittle upon the eyes on the Sabbath day. Elworthy remarks that this strange custom of spit" for not ting opens up a wide field of inquiry." mixing clay with the finger. and other disorders. Among the ancient Greeks and Romans ' the most common remedy against an invidious look was spitting . pp. while all the other fingers. if a countryman should. in coming in contact with a sore. only is it practised in the hope of obtaining good fortune. the great Sabbath crime in the eyes of the Pharisees which Christ committed when he moistened the clay with his spittle and anointed the eyes of the blind man therewith on the Sabbath day." Here it is not the spittle alone. by witchcraft. middle finger was believed to possess a favourable influence on sores. because to do so was to perform work. has taken baby says from his cradle. F. praise. Mr. thus further explains the singular custom reign " for of spitting." "A grandmother. without spitting thereon. were thought to have a tendency to inflame or poison it. 193-195).' " describing a hurt or wound. for fear of When opening the eyes of the blind man. touch the corresponding part of his own or another person's body. saliva should be used only after a " black fast." To Greeks and Romans alike fasting spittle was a charm Persius Flaccus against "fascination" or the "evil eye. T.

as a charm to avert disaster. " Safe be what I touch. . as we learn from a passage in Petronius." exactly corresponding quod tango. " God bless (or God save) the mark. and a sure precursor of similar mischief to the person. Trimalchio points out. immediately ejaculates." The to the Irish saying. In describing the incident. is in fact as bad as the glance of the evil eye. whether applied to the naked body itself. where Trimalchio recounts a marvellous adventure in which a man thrust his sword through the body of a sorceress. the exact locality of the wound. on his own person. or some other individual " God bless the " mark. or part so touched. or to the garment covering the part indicated." mere touch is deemed to possess equally malign influence. and the Eoman idea seems to have been precisely the same as the Irish. for it is hardly to be presumed that Trimalchio exposed his naked body. since that circumstance is not mentioned by Petronius." This acts An exactly similar superstition prevailed amongst the Romans.PROVERBS ON " THE EVIL touch Y. unless the narrator. " Salvum sit by laying his hand on the part and exclaims." 287 is ominous of ill." or God present. save the mark.

it will probably change many preconceived ideas as to the state of society in the Eld. which in turn vanish in the dim perspective of innumerable ages . and are passing from an age of mere ideas and theories to one of careful observation and classification of facts. that he will never be able to master its details and produce order out of confusion. progressed by gradual development religion Ancestor worship Belief in a life after death Curious evidence yielded by fractured funeral urns Important Goddesses nation The individual man creates a God position ascribed to after his individual imagi- came Irish belief a colourless religion No great All-Father Christianity with a superior civilization Its long-continued struggle with Paganism medicine the other practice. ourselves are in the transition period. however. men Early Irish Saints take the place of the more ancient tribal In religion. Reasoning of the savage regarding body and soul Similarity between death and sleep Soul after death assumes the form of a butterfly Gradual amelioration in religious ideas Three stages in their development Rude flint-using man vanished without leaving a trace of his religion Polished flint-using man His as elsewhere. and half fears. As the distance increases details tend to disappear. AND THE CONTINUITY OF RELIGION. as in material matters. should essay. kept alive in local religious instinct Absurd theories THE student is puzzled by the chaos presented by the past life vastness. Great results cannot be at We . oppressed by its We obtained. yet.CHAPTER VIII. as he gazes despairingly into it. one custom glided into No hard dividing line Primitive rites banished from public superstitions Superstition a rudimentary Unsympathetic treatment of it therefore unscientific have retarded the proper study of superstitions Times changing rapidly The present an epoch of religious deception On the other hand the men of the Eld believed firmly in their creed Truth must eventually triumph over Error We should hold fast to nothing but that which is certain. or resolve themselves into mere outlines. to read the past in the light of the present. TRANSITIONAL ARCHAEOLOGY. CHAOS presented by the past of ancient Erin Evolution Religion in Ireland. if an uninterrupted view be finally of ancient Erin.

The mind of by An .-. " extinguished theologians already religious dogmas? " as the snakes beside that lie around its cradle. but also in its growth. it matters little whether creation be regarded as carried on by evolution. superior Such beings. and we recognise it is a law of all science that. while Evolution has acted so Is it not more philosophical to far. in our own opinion. U . . . what is also generally to be seen in nature. perceive how. whom usque ad mala. Evolution makes clear as the noonday what before was enveloped in darkness. amidst a veritable " Sahara of mediocrity. and perceive that the VOL. . Evolution is the more wonderful. Geology weathered this storm. If the theory of Evolution be admitted as a satisfactory account of the manifested on existing conditions under which we find life now What this globe of ours. for in the literary limbo. as we are. it can act no farther? mine assume that the same law that. ab ovo Once the existence of a great First Cause. the physical on one side. and continuous movement. Why then the bitter opposition with which it is met by certain sections of the community? Is it that. and the simpler of the two means. step archaeological genius does not suddenly rise up he is the outcome of many more or less successful attempts. to primordial superiors. if they exist. to a great extent. not on its own account. The theory of equally adjusted. the more credible. to master any subject thoroughly. may we not apply the theory further. and existence beings as much our We We feel the action upon us of invisible forces. it is attacked. which though cannot define the line which bounds a reality is invisible. is in therefore. reason have we for supposing that. 289 we must be content to advance as we walk.We live on an island of fact surrounded by an ocean of mystery. ana it would effect. II. there are in operation beyond ourselves. is admitted. no language can describe.We now. or by separate and distinct creative acts. we must have a complete knowledge of it. strangled of Hercules. civilization progressed in the most simple and natural manner." Substituting abuse for argument will not under. from a primitive beginning.EVOLUTION. its position. like the science of Geology. would no more necessarily germs. not only in its genesis. the supernatural on the other." there are to be found many meritorious writers. the master must grasp the whole subject his precursors have succeeded only in branches of a science which he must treat in its entirety for a number of undeservedly obscure and halfforgotten workmen have gathered the materials and rough-hewn the blocks with which the master-builder erects his edifice. a smooth. be apparent to ordinary sight than is electricity. -. and so will the theory of Evolution if it be founded upon truth. once achieved step. but for the reason that it seems to threaten the overthrow of some " As it is.

Hope and fear. gradually lose individuality and and of the meaning and purpose of it. the cave. nature of our existence on this planet. It may be laid down as certain that religion. hunting. . what is which is exerted over us. and manhood in the individual. myths . the reindeer. the mammoth. the practice of reducing limestone into a suitable material for solidifying their stone structures would have come into general use. progressed by gradual development without the . We live merely on the crust or rind The inner essence is absolutely concealed from us. Like their predecessors. youth. By the term savagery it is not implied that there was amongst them a total absence of culture. childhood. Froude justly observes that. they pass rapidly into the class of thus true history may be said to begin only with the introduction of writing. . According to native annalists. No nation. proves this.290 ARCHEOLOGY AND RELIGION. and agricultural phases of advance in the nation." As the writer has elsewhere observed. childhood. These stages are plainly traceable in Ireland. suddenly developed a self-created it must progress even as a man who passes from civilization tottering infancy through successive stages of advancement and it has been remarked that the savage. but that they were devoid of the ordinary arts of then existing civilization. of the origin of our being. the megaceros. definiteness . First comes the period when primitive man. and possibilities become probabilities. and other animals shared the man being then only in his infancy or rude flint-using This race disappears from archaeological observation and is succeeded by men who use smaller stone weapons more this stage is the nation's carefully made and sometimes polished country. Erin burst suddenly on the gaze of mankind in a state of advanced civilization. ancient Erin. But though these questions admit of no conclusive answer. stage. facts. pastoral. conscience and imagination suggest possibilities. and of the nature of the rule as to time. of what is life. however. correspond with those of infancy. Then appears bronze-using man this stage is the nation's youth. they were " " also in a state of savagery. it is believed. of things. when transmitted by word of mouth merely. we really know nothing. like civilization in Ireland. prior to the introduction of If writing had been introduced into Christianity. or if any general or constant means of communication existed between the Continent and Ireland. when allied with high and noble aspirations. there is something in our character which perpetually impels us to seek for an answer.bear. without undergoing intermediate stages of improvement. The mere fact of the aborigines being ignorant of the use of cement in building. death. world in which we live is moving in obedience to some vast over" of the true mastering power.

a sketch of the religion of the ancient Irish. the changes from copper to bronze. from his He observes that the shadow only standpoint.DE VEL OPMENT OF RELIGION IN IRELAND. history. and we cannot set limits to this improvement. Paganism existed in the land for untold centuries. as yet. and the rapid growth in the art of chipping flint sufficiently accounts for the seemingly swift transition from one form of The older primitive life to another. from iron to steel. not only before the introduction of Christianity by the early missionaries. and that to obtain anything like a good result every shred of evidence bearing on the subject must be carefully collected and analysed. Shall not aeon after aeon pass. This theory is in accordance with science. . faint it is true. but long after the period when the religion of Christ became the acknowledged creed of Ireland. very logical. no new and intruding race of human beings arriving upon the scene from unknown regions is needed to explain the apparently sharp break between the Old and the New Stone Age. and touch him into shape. The extinction of the great Pleistocene fauna made it no longer necessary to employ such weighty weapons as hitherto. " Man. mais 1'homme Physically . for no great physical revolution. We may with advantage recall what has happened in our own time upon the employment of electricity to illustrate the results of the changes just mentioned. is. when analysed. The history of the development of religion in Ireland may be we may refer to it said to be the history of almost all religions as a trustworthy guide to the gradual development in the mind of early man of the first crude conception of the Infinite for . est bien vieux. for in these the Pan-song of nature still vibrates. is being made." remains practically unchanged mentally his The mental capacity of the average development European is much higher than that of his remote ancestor. 291 occurrence of any vast hiatus or gap. and ere this crowning age of ages. but slightly more advanced. Man's age on earth " Dieu est is well depicted in the epigram. Man experimented and discovered that a Blighter implement would effect a deadly wound and be easier to * carry. and religious feelings are the greatest problems that invite solution. We have at last learned that man's origin. from bronze to iron. Thus. or ethnological standpoint. implements were now often re -wrought into smaller and more A similar process may be observed in highly-finished weapons. . but still discernible in the peculiar beliefs and customs of the peasantry." The reasoning of the savage. man continues. e'ternel. whether regarded from an archaeological. opens up an immense field of research. geological. and it has left its impress. no great climatic change.

not a mere voice." The fanciful antiquary Vallancey states that a literal translation of the Irish compound name for echo is " the daughter of the voice." a legend regarding the echo told relative to the death of one of Finn MacCool's warriors. and finally voice? "* Again * to the savage. and therefore extremely pro- bable that the ancient. and conveyed his cries to his sister on the opposite side of the lake. alike separate entities from the body. . as his shadow had not altogether returned to abide with him. the spirit departs and returns . the Orientalists and the Irish excepted. Arrah look at that now for a schandal. sank exhausted beneath the Ever afterwards the echo was called in Ireland " The . During captivity amongst the Indians a traveller relates that he overheard a convalescent . there is no proof to the savage mind that its invisible complement dies also.' ' good ." Dick Fitzgerald. Deceiver. Sorely wounded. . he shouted so loudly that the surrounding hills rang again." The inhabitants of Iceland say it is " the voice of the Dwarfs. in exposing himself to the patient reproved for his imprudence atmosphere.' said one of the party who was of a pious turn.292 ARCH^EOLOG Y AND RELIGION. she sprang into the lough to his assistance. the vision of well-remembered hunting An amusing anecdote relating to the celebrated echo at Killarney was " number of boatmen who were quarrelling lately recounted in The Spectator : about the division of ' tips ' indulged at the top of their voices in a deal of A ' profane language which the marvellous echo repeated verbatim. Irish regarded the echo as a supernatural This was. as the shadow leaves the substance in shadow and spirit are therefore. nor to speak first herself. leaves the body in sleep. it in accompanies the body under certain conditions it leaves The spirit the twilight. It is very certain that the modern. but resumes attendance in daylight. But all this was trifling when compared with the mocking echo to whom day and night were alike. one of the most or incorporeal being. undoubtedly." and again formerly possessed " one who has neither learned to hold her describes it as tongue There is after another has spoken." and is a convincing " argument of the Eastern origin of the race for what people in the world. calls the echo " the child of one's own voice. and the echo the daughter of a . Recognising her brother's voice. for it is difficult to convince reasonable of their superstitions an uneducated person that a voice can be heard without proOvid states that the echo ceeding direct from a human being. but the echo deceived her as to the direction she ought to take she . to the absence of the sun The shadow the savage. called the copy of a book the son of a book. in The Lady ofGollerus. . " a body. swam round and round waters. and though departs and returns the visible body dies. " tachingthe poor harmless echo to curse and sware.

Nowadays Death." There can be little doubt but that dreams leave an impress " make us what we upon our waking thoughts. however microscopic. shows us a friendly fuce. and gibing phantoms which appeared to him at night. " when existence here it is over. differs profoundly from the ideas held of any God worshipped by any now existing emanated. far beyond the dread rampart. returns again to the fountain from which The inscrutable energy pervading the universe. but that at birth a portion. " Does a man die but to live again?" After thousands of centuries of inquiry. were thoroughly Whence came the landscapes and the creatures inexplicable. All through the ages the cry of the survivor has been . is no longer regarded as the King Death." Even in our more refined social conditions we are never able to quite shake off their effect and are perpetually drawing from them very much the same conclusions as did our uncivilized ancestors. or in spirit-land ? Why did they vanish with the dawn." . 293 and of the loved ones. small voice which whispers to him that his account is not closed at death. as disclosed to us by science. scenes. And is when unmasked. only to re-appear with the darkness ? " Spirit Land. religious denomination.REASONING OF SA VAGES REGARDING SOUL. startling voices and sounds at strife. a terror onlv at a distance.. the friends. An impassable barrier of unbroken silence is still upreared between the quick and the dead for though love and hope have together created fair fields of beatitude in some fairy-like region far. this momentous question remains unanswered by science." There is stoicism in the mere act of living ". of the already existing universal intelligence is imparted to him. thou land of dreams! A Of A " world thou art of mysterious gleams. in every man and yet there seems to be "a still. yet to the student of physical reality there comes no answer from beyond the barrier." and that they were not what they will. -Men must endure Their going hence even as their coming hither " . " ! And for the touch of a vanish'd hand. the sound of a voice that is still. enemies. world of the dead in the hues of life. of Terrors " to many. which he saw when he was in dream-. In somewhat this fashion did primitive man attempt to solve the still all-absorbing problem.. and that this.

Sleep " the body asleep. sleep is the greatest of mysteries . acts without control We " We are such stuff As dreams are made on. One revolts at the very idea . preferred Next to death. are never to be at our mercy . Death is looked on rather as a kindly nurse. The mind. our loves and hates. incapable of the smallest mental advance. but mere existence " How wonderful is Death ! Death and Is the intelligence that his brother. even unable to draw self-suggestive inferences. however. tired with our day's work. Dr. whom even the Pagan Seneca describes as. even those on the lowest rung of the ladder of civilization. are nevertheless found to believe But implicitly in the perpetuation of life after death. day by day. are all to be absorbed in a material world. nor sleep it is nothing. but gone before. Is it or is it not true that . are all to end in nought that those we loved in this world. not a is rather. but merely transmits. " Not lost. that one would The doctor evidently rather exist in pain than not exist. intellect. who haps us in our narrow bed when we go to sleep. to leave the body and return." Annihilation is. or imagination." the prospective pains of Hell to annihilation. memory. in the words of a great man gone before. We cannot somehow realise that our hopes and fears. mind when is dreams the same intelligence that governs when awake ? The latter governs the mind when the awake. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep" ? The idea of the immortality of the soul is far more widely spread than the existence of one or more Gods for the most degraded tribes. as defined by pleasing sleep without a dream. that the brain does not originate. Therefore. we hope consciousness may be able to continue to exist elsewhere. . but that does not make the idea either true or false. It is well even if the sleep be endless. Now is so much better than nothing. Johnston. our joys and sorrows. when the body is no longer tenantable." are never to be seen by us again .294 ARCH^OL OG Y AND RELIGION. but the brain continues to act automatically . One " may say. that those we hated. . and who wronged us. . the cause of erratic and unconnected dreams. When we enter the dream state we lose something which returns to us in our waking hours. then. hence It appears. know that consciousness is able. thought for when not under waking control it may again and again transmit these already registered thoughts. " neither pleasing. that mind. When the body enters the temporary death of sleep consciousness is dethroned the moment the body re-awakens consciousness returns to its seat.

The natives of Australia. California.. The of idea man's spirit or shall we or soul say doctrine ? of the immortality has taken many different forms in a gradual scale In the of development. thirdly. in the act of We have a body and a 93).dating from the fifteenth century. 295 the very general. as in more advanced religions. belief in a future state of existence cannot be adduced as evidence of its truth. there is an illustration of the soul. Soul rejoining the In one of the numer- ous chapters of the Egypof the tian Book of the Dead. beasts. to cyclical fourthly. the Priestly Official Guide. and in the Christian ideal. were little and whom the missionaries likened to " herds of swine. i. underground form of a semi-butterfly-like looking creature bearing a sail. who were quite as debased. FIG. The aborigines of removed from wild . almost universal. constituent. From the Book Dead (the Egyptian Bible). Dead Body. that of life. 93." possessed not the faintest idea of a God or Gods yet they had a vague notion of an after-life. which in the treats of the rejoining of the soul to the mummified body in the world. p. the emblem of breath. and the Crux ansata. vol. 116)." translated by In a fragment of an Irish Professor Kuno Meyer (Otia Merseiana. comes a malignant being in the second it enjoys a continuous life. : . to advances the metempsychosis and life . it develops into a superior spirit. for a writer who draws this dark picture of their condition adds that he saw them frequently placing shoes on the feet of the dead. its former tabernacle revisiting spirit. when first known. but which is apparently derived from " Then the following passage occurs a much more ancient MS. first stage the spirit be. as on it earth. who. " Vision of Hell. or Manual to Spirit-Land. when but theologians have very weak arguments to rely on man is gifted with any third they attempt to prove that (fig. which demonstrated that they entertained some idea of a journey undertaken by the spirit of the deceased after death.THE SOUL ASSUMES THE BUTTERFLY FORM. believed that after death their souls mounted to the clouds or crossed the ocean to a distant land.

though the agony was horrible could not die until the twenty-four hours had expired. and remains in close until the funeral is proximity to the . therefore. over. therefore. with four snow-white wings. who was watching. by no means confined to Ireland. "What is the use of going so far to learn when the wisest man in all Ireland did not know if he had a soul till he was near losing it. This is a curious instance of the lingering on of a pagan superstition. or of a small bird. Soul she has dressed it up in a rather too modern style the epilogue . and flies abroad in the shape of a The same belief prevails in some of the islands of butterfly. in the neighbourhood of the body. Joseph Ferguson states that a girl chasing a butterfly was chid by her companion. and so pass through torture to purification and peace. 1 dead waiting for the moment when they may enter purgatory. and they watched with his face. . he (the cleric) beheld his soul (hovering) over the of his head. The Bulgarians also hold that it assumes the form of a butterfly. once.296 all at A R CHJ5OL OGY A ND RELIGION. . written in 1810. may be the soul of your grandfather. the Rev. only given " The priest lived." Upon inquiry it was found that a butterfly hovering near a corpse was regarded as a sign of its everlasting happiness. and was only saved at last through the simple belief of a little child?" In some parts of Ireland the soul is supposed after death to remain in the form of a butterfly. A very good example of the idea that the soul assumes the form of a butterfly may be instanced in the story of " The Priest's " in Lady Wilde's Ancient Legends of Ireland. the Pacific. and when they saw it they all knew it was the soul of their master. Unfortunately. : . is. county Armagh. for he At last the agony seemed to cease. and the stillness of death settled on Then the child. " But the schools of Ireland were quite deserted after that time. It was rife in ancient and classic days whilst in modern times Pope's idea of Dying Christian's Address to his Soul " was suggested by the exquisite and beautiful apostrophe of Adrian to his soul. and then to follow it to the grave. wonder and awe until it passed from sight into the clouds. and knew not which way she had corne out of crown the body. corpse The Servians believe that the soul of a witch often leaves her body whilst she is asleep. saw a beautiful living creature. for the people said. and go fluttering round his head so he ran to bring the scholars. mount from the dead man's body into the air. "And this was the first butterfly that was ever seen in Ireland and now all men know that the butterflies are the souls of the . who said to " That her. The idea that the soul assumes this shape is." In a Statistical Account of the Parish of Ballymoyer.

alike by the savage and the philosopher. T." the year 1899. in all creeds. and that so much tin bad. fleeting soul of mine. is reached in which the worshipper believes he can control the material object or objects worshipped. An soul. 297 composed in his dying moments. In Gloucestershire. and recorded by his historian.! . F. sometimes styled Fetichism. et disait. but the indignant fishermen would not be prevented. as gauged. comesque corpons. * " Dear fluttering. T. to ourselves still the most important and interesting that can be proposed. The orthodox Chinese opposed these violent measures. the country-people in Yorkshire " used to call. Irish fairy doctor could easily detect if a man had lost his If he had been bargaining with evil spirits the compact at noonday. Joseph n'avait pas exauce les demoiselles qui JA lui avaient demande de leur accorder un beau jour pour leur excursion." Un paysan de Naples. Washington. vagula. in the mind of the worshippers. night>. " Mesdemoireligieuse avail mis La Sainte Image dans un placard. he deposes them from being his gods and chooses others a This cult develops trait still characteristic of human nature. as by the conception of the Deity or deities. When they do not appear to act in accordance with his demands. il est en penitence. and compel them to comply with his wishes. but there was no improvement in the take of fish. was very local Chinamen engaged in the industry with a view to mending matters. There is at first an absence of all definite ideas on the subject of a deity then a stage. and even in the brightest sunshine. dragged him through the streets and chopped him into atoms. Dyer. the salmon fishing at Tacoma. held a religious festival for a fortnight and prayed to their Joss. religion also attains a higher level. and if so how ? In proportion as civilization rises."* According to Mr. that their devotions were useless.' flying white moths. his body. selles ne regardez pas Saint Joseph. The gradual amelioration in religious ideas should be was readily detected. St. blandula! Hospes.A MELIORA TION IN RELIGIO US IDEA S. the solution of which has been attempted in all ages. priait son saint do . dethroned their Joss from his position in his temple. Nottinghamshire. demoniacally possessed. and even now occasionally do so. ' souls. Spartianus. and Somersetshire. cast no shadow. as expressive of the Emperor's uncertainty as to a future existence : "Animula. there still exist numerous superstitions regarding butterflies. Is there here not the implied belief that the shadow was a man's second self. they wrecked the Joss house. Thou guest and companion of the body. his spirit ? There are two problems. tied a rope about him. They accordingly determined on another course. The Seeing time had been unprofitably spent. Dans un convent a Paris. not so much by the outward object worshipped. namely Do we continue to exist after death. sa femme etant en mal d'enfant.

" See also ante. Sa femme accouche. often turn furiously upon all have been and with they previously worshipping. leaving little trace. faire cesser ses douleurs. But the excitable Latins. Experience has shown that it easily glides into an idolatry not unlike that of the earlier stage. and should there be. p. has vanished. Let all that pleased. la tin il perd patience. Neolithic man believed in a future state resembling that passed by him on earth. met le feu au derriere clu saint. and promising the most costly gifts in the event of their safely reaching port again. containing a supply of food for the departed. probably developed finally into some dim conception of a future spiritual life : " Here bring the last gifts and with these The last lament be said. . et il s' eerie. it will probably be cast into the sea. From it is developed the theology of the present. The journey hence Fictile vessels. Irish Palaeolithic man with his religion. T. 1899. F. where the Deity is an impeccable and altogether into the adoration of natural objects supernatural being. Beneath his head the hatchet hide. . throw them overboard. although their current speech is usually vile and blasphemous beyond belief. 22nd July. and after madly abusing their Bibles. That he so stoutly swung ." A Mr. Bullen writing on "Sea Superstitions" in The Spectator. "Ah. excluding Frenchmen. Nothing is too sacred for insult. were placed beside him for sustenance during his long journey to the land of spirits. repeating with frenzied haste such prayers as they can remember. as there often is. to "The undiscovered country from whose bourn No traveller returns." . And place the boar's fat is haunch beside long." On the non-return of the traveller. Despite the superstitious reverence the former pay to the written word. Be buried with the dead. no name too reverend for abuse. finally the objects worshipped become more powerful than man. if he possessed any. Shakspeare is very positive . 68. and are accessible only through a restricted caste or class of people. an image of a saint aboard. as is witand this belief nessed by the articles buried with his dead . And herein is to be found a curious distinction between seamen of Teutonic and Latin race. This stage seems to have been the acme of religious worship in ancient Ireland. and yet may please.298 ARCHEOLOGY AND RELIGION. none of them would in time of peril dream of rushing to the opposite extreme. the most horrid blasphemies vent their rage upon the whilom object of their adoration. maintenant que tu sais ce que c'est. line 28. after beseeching their patron saint to aid them in the most agonising tones. guilty of such an action would be looked upon witli hoiTor by his shipmates. tu m'ecoutes. draws attention to the fact that it is an unheard of misdemeanour on " " board ship to destroy or put to common use any paper on which good words " The man are printed.

which may be left race or in the individual.and ear-rings. as were the females. according to our great poet. open to keen archasologists to debate. for in graves we discover all conclude that Neolithic entered into a future kinds of female ornaments. Eve in Paradise of the . process of reasoning that. with clothes. for the love of man for showy uniforms and clothes seems to find its analogy in the feathered kingdom in the bright plumage . nor indeed the poet Horace. after the Fall. no one ever returns. from England's bard appears to have borrowed the idea " Qni mine it per iter tenebricosum Illuc unde negant redire quenquam. and accompanied by flints or other weapons. travelling along the shaded path. in their eyes. had golden hair hanging down her back. strings of shells. but that the males of ancient Erin were as proud of what was. and in later times beads of amber and This is to be attributed to the same unconscious other gauds. finery. to they say. the wearing of ornaments. quite as much as do the ladies of the ballroom in the circlets of gold that pass through their ears. 299 not so the ancient Irish. Although." . as with adopting. pierced animal teeth and bones. interments."* whom By the same process of reasoning we man believed that his womankind also state . case. personal ornaments are amongst the earliest suggestions of vanity. being more ancient than bracelets or necklaces most degraded savages rejoice in the string of shells that circle their necks.VARIOUS ORNAMENTS FOUND IN GRA : VES. * " Who now is the spot from which.or nose-rings. whether in the It is a question." or. combs. " Her unadorned golden Dishevelled. The primitive savage had to content himself. in tresses wore " her version. makes the bereaved parents often place a child's toys in the coffin with the infant. together more modern nose." he should also have depicted her. stones. Possibly this is yet the : male bird. however. shells and ornaments wrought from stone and bone did duty for what is now represented by precious metals or the skill of the Judging by the amount of gewgaws discovered with lapidary. with decorations of a very simple description trophies of the chase. in the present day. it would appear as if inordinate vanity was not confined to the fair sex. rings. as to nose-rings or earfor the rings. ear. the Afflicted parents quite naturally imitating the old pagan custom of placing trinkets with the dead to amuse them on their long journey. Carlyle remarks that " the first spiritual want " of barbarous man is decoration indeed.

The old inhabitants of the land were at one stage ancestor worshippers. from the germ to full-fledged modern theology. but again he emerged from the grave and spread terror through the country. King of Connaught. probably. in a standing position. learning the cause of their defeat. in the existence of good spirits. 537. and carrying it northward over the river of Sligo. and the result was that. supplemented by developed orthodox theological training. being mortally wounded. fought in A. his face turned towards Ulster. as long as the body was left in this position the Connaughtmen were invincible. except with men of his own tribe. near Sligo. in a general way. for the worship of the dead is undoubtedly universal. buried it head downwards. the origin of good and evil spirits. : .D. It is curious that in some parts of the country the peasantry still retain a dim traditional memory of this mode of sepulture. primitive man lived in a state he was unsociable. and their religion consisted in communion with the dead and offerings to them. county Derry. the same creed as that held by a present-day child before these rudimentary notions are ." This dwarf was a magician who perpetrated He was buried great cruelties and was slain by Finn MacCool. inimical for. directed that after death he was to be interred at Eathoveeragh. after the battle of Sligo. friendly of other tribes were. In " The the parish of Errigal. the ghosts of their ancestors the ghosts of members were. and of the superstition connected with it. . his blood-stained javelin in his hand. disinterred the corpse. but the following day he appeared in his old haunts more cruel and more vicious than ever. and the men of Ulster always fled before them in terror. Finn slew him a second time and buried him as before. and who hopes to attain to another and pleasurable existence where the future will be spent in an enjoyable manner practically indeed. In the thought of early men. At length the latter. taken as a whole. as if still fighting with his enemies. so as to counteract the talismanic effect of its previous underground attitude. is a locality styled Dwarf's Tomb.800 ARCHEOLOGY AND RELIGION. In fact the Irish aborigines possessed the fundamental beliefs held by primitive mankind throughout the globe the simple creed of the savage who believes very firmly in the existence of bad spirits. however. or not at all. and the stages of the development of the religious idea. Eoghan Bel. and feared and hated other of isolation men hence. devised to control the unruly dead. and less firmly. in a standing position. are as well marked as are the successive forms assumed by the foetus. . For instance. His instructions were carried out. Certain ceremonies were. the reversal of the usual position of a warrior in his last resting place.

weapon in hand. .. who was forced comply with them all. costly treasure. This idea is exemplified in the story of the "Cave of Ainged. on a succeeding Samain. in the external rampart of Tara. he slew the magician a third time. The Irish of this period believed that their dead. still lived the same life as on earth. the King offered a suitable any young warrior who would sally from the banquetinghall and tie a coil of twisted twigs upon the leg of a man whom he had caused to be hanged. though deposited underground. and. and carried off great booty and to The only one who attempted it was a hero named Nera but on completion of the act the hanged man came to life and imposed . like a grand old Pagan. stitious idea is universally crystallized in so-called Christian belief Shakspeare describes : . King and Queen of Connaught. were celebrating the feast of Samain. in their On that night the spirits inhabiting the palace of Croghan. p. When released from his task. was immediately taken prisoner. by his instructions. numerous commands (//*)* on his resuscitator. in military harness. earthly forces broke into the treasure-house of the underground spirit world. and compelled to marry one of the women of the He finally managed to escape to upper air.BELIEF IN A LIFE AFTER DEA TH. head downwards. to the King of Connaught with such an amount of information regarding the cave and its contents. 301 Finn thereupon consulted a Druid. and who was then suspended just to outside the palace. kept at hard work. so that the dwarf never again appeared on earth. "." reward the valour of his household. King Leoghaire would not allow himself to be converted to Christianity. the men of Leinster. and returned place. which device subdued the magical power. one November night.. 56. that. itself breathes out Contagion to the world. as if fighting with them and bidding them defiance. his face turned southwards towards his enemies. and buried him in the same place. the celebrated Medb. he saw the palace of Croghan in flames and a host of strange men plundering the buildings. tombs and other localities were allowed to emerge from their This superretreats and to run to-and-fro upon the earth. but was buried. To test "When churchyards yawn and Hell the very witching time of night. The custom of interring kings and chiefs in a standing position is referred to in Irish tales. He followed them into the cave or souterrain of Croghan. * See ante." The plot is as follows Ailell and preserved in several MSS. or November night.

the window or door of the room which contains the corpse is thrown open. still held and in the present day. or that it could exist without a physical body. spiritual or temporal. so that the spirit * See ante. The crude and materialistic notions of a future state. in some districts. knowing. by even the frailest link. whisper of reply.* This strange passage is also elucidatory communication carried on between the abodes of The old pagans imagined existence the living and of the dead. and to dust we return.302 ARCHAEOLOGY AND RELIGION. but the return is final. because it would be heart-rending to think otherwise. line 9. that although he could not restore Dermod to life. to those they loved on earth. in the thought of the living. We persuade ourselves to believe that they do take an interest in us. . the life they had been accustomed to on earth. after a death has occurred. Their departed lived. When we reach the period of written records. left for that spirit. we find the idea of a spirit or soul coming into existence. in so far as the personality bound up with the dust is concerned." Aengus. Even now. but it cannot even then be quite divorced from the body. but a question of scientific fact cannot be solved by an impassioned Ever since man appeal to feelings engendered by old beliefs. nothing about any actual state of existence other than on earth. after death as a mere slightly differentiated prolongation of earthly life and how could they reason otherwise. we do not know that the dead are held. when the dead having. the enclosing of a funeral urn in a clay cylinder. the magician. in the same way that. and carried the corpse from the heights of Benbulbin to " the Brugh on the Boyne." An aperture left in the side stones of a sepulchre." explaining his action by stating. arrived on the scene after the hero's death. became a reasoning being his plaint has been " there comes no of the constant . become a an exit was spirit. Dust we are. as they did. In "The pursuit of Dermod and Grania. will indubitably be gradually correcj?' idealised. or the fracturing of the base of the vessel when reversed to cover the ashes of the dead instances of which have been found in prehistoric interments in Ireland point to a very late period. nor that they are able to take any interest in our welfare. Even the Greek mind did not rise to the conception that the soul after death might become a greater spirit power than when on earth. We shall no longer believe that another life' simply means a useful opportunity of wearing out one's old clothes. he would send a soul into him so that he would be able to talk for a brief period every day. 134. like the characters presented in the Irish legend. p. and hankered after the fleshpots of the upper world.

or into the crevices of the window. lest the dust thus raised should annoy the ghost." and withdrawing a bolt. nothing strange in an act that provides a material mode of exit for that which is immaterial. they are not made the unconscious instruments of torturing the beloved departed. to him. end strife . on the departure of the dead man's soul from its clayey envelope. . In Ireland it would appear as if. Tain thus refers same ceremony : " The chest unlocks to ward the power Of spells in Mungo's evil hour. Come death. from sweeping out the house that belonged to the dead. An open door or window frustrates this purgatorial performance. . The well-known superstition of opening the door to let the spirit out. " be compelled to make its exit by the chimney of uncultured man. but m oils' 1 . and friends of the departed have the consolation of knowing that. and crushed it against a closed door or window which alone can serve the demons' purpose. for twelve months after a death. and the soul is crushed and tortured by every movement of the shutting or opening of a door or window. exclaiming. The Chinese make a hole in the roof to let out the departing soul whilst the negroes of the Congo have a very dirty but religious custom of abstaining. 303 Merrilees act in this manner. " He cannot pass away with that on his mind. and there is. They thrust it into the hinges. has been taken advantage of by Sir Walter Scott in his tale of Guy Mannering. it is free to do as it likes sometimes it wanders tp-and-fro in the vicinity of the place inhabited by it in life. is after all. . to the J." In his Mountain Muse. she lifts the latch. The German peasant says " that it is wrong to slam a door The same idea is common lest one should pinch a soul in it." This superstition originated in the idea that demons (in i times exclusively the Christian Devil) seized the soul as it left the body.BELIEF REGARDING DOORS may not Hue. not quite strictly logical." in France. and pass life. by thus leaving them ajar. While watching at the bedside of the dying man she exclaims. it tethers him here. when he makes Meg The mind Open lock. I must open the door. published in 1814. it may flit about in the air. it may or it may set out at once to travel to the linger near the tomb world beyond the grave. from a modern standpoint. Thus the Irish peasant still imagines that not alone do demons continually hover all around him. AND WINDOWS.

the people and the surroundings of their times must be considered when we endeavour to form a just estimate of customs once common. at least in part. and beliefs. None of the brute creation. and the travu of thought following therefrom. inexplicably jumbled up The interment of the dead. about a superstition. the gradual building of many who approach thousand years of thoughtful reflection. happy. what the past has handed down to him in the deepest secrecy. "that they regarded with reverence the great mystery of human birth ? Were they impure thus to regard it ? Or are we impure that we do not so regard it ? Let us not smile at their mode of tracing the infinite and incomprehensible cause throughout all the mysteries of nature. It is not to be judged by modern standards. it was nevertheless not only an ancient form of worship. he cherishes citizens. in and these two apparently distinct classes of his imagination. the dead also apparitions The deeply rooted impression of the continual pretogether. and however repulsive to present day ideas it may appear. were encouraged to continue the ancient custom of visiting . sence of the spirits of the departed is part of his unprofessed He is quite creed. Think what we may of sex-worship.801 ARCHEOLOGY AND ." with its shadowy and none too agreeable He is reticent in divulging old beliefs . and was doubtless owir. <l Is it strange. is one of the most distinctive marks human animal. to the associations of maternity. of renewal. Respect for the mere body. The important position ascribed to goddesses." It is extraordinary that there are a large number of otherwise intelligent people who do not possess the power of discriminating between what merely sounds profane and what is really profane. and his answers are palpable evasions. lest by so doing. Question him. however. not even those the nearest to man in exhibition of affection. who for some cause or another had hitherto been without offspring. when deprived of life. in living in an atmosphere of " Celtic Twilight. but was also one of the most natural ways of expressing the ideas of creation. he thoroughly believes. rests on convictions. in which. and his mind is stored with what his forefathers did. sentiments. of adding to their reputation and influence. however. and reproduction. Women. is very noticeable. in this ideal world of his own or rather of his remote ancestors' creation. in ancient Irish religious belief. In later times Christian ecclesiastics were not slow to avail themselves of a means." writes a lady. ready at hand. we cast the shadow of o\ir own grossness on their patriarchal simplicity. in his way. and supplementing their revenues. evince a care for the interment of the body once life has departed. RELIGION. of the are.

the rude but substantial oaken chair of the Venerable Bede is preserved. VOL. " " joyful mother of children according to popular belief. II. of the tribe. will make them the in fact. " * See vol." The superstition existed with quite as much strength in England. as well as the guardians or rulers. The best executed and most artistic statues of the old Roman gods are the product of an age of wide-spread infidelity. This act. ' .* Supernatural generation is a very old as well as a very For instance the native black women of wide-spread idea. nor are heathens as depraved as. nor do they descend to the depths of the worst parts of. the total absence of visible symbols of spirit-like or material beings is almost conclusive evidence that the natives possessed no materialised representations of anthropomorphic deities. until the introducIn this respect mental childhood rises tion of Christianity ? superior to the Christian creed. or deities. with vagueness." and"Stonei. The total absence from Ireland of relics of anything that would seem to our eyes to have been an idol (we except from this the idol-. Does it not afford grave food for reflection that. Northumberland. what we may consider. the masses of mankind neither rise to. At this stage the god or goddess and the worshippers formed a natural unity bound The dissolution of the tribe lip" with the district they occupied. level of their founder. to which brides repair immediately the marriage service is concluded. and as the origin. also under Marriage. with a most thoughtfully displayed care in providing for the future of the dead. sacred pagan " beds. for it clothes the idea of a deity making or deities. a bad It has been remarked that Christians do not rise to the religion.or holed-stones of a latter date).POSITION OF GODS the AND GODDESSES.lore. nor descend to the acknowledged precepts of their faith. pillar. 348-349.. In the vestry of Jarrow Church. when savage man had. not long ago. upon the Christian theory. destroyed the tribal religion. they ought to be. to a certain extent." making proper offerings and going through the prescribed ceremonies. Eapid development in religious ideas only occurred at an advanced stage of mental expansion. and destroyed the tribal deity. there should have been no material personification of a deity. and seat themselves upon it. for. 805 naturally and quite independently of marriage. most brides would not have considered tho marriage ceremony completed unless they had gone through this performance. the god or goddess could no more exist without its tribe than the tribe without its deity. and does not attempt to impersonate them. and gods and goddesses were regarded as semi-spiritual beings. pp. X . ceased to ascribe to material objects a life analogous to that of animated nature." worship. Australia believe conception to take place sometimes super- But one has to be very guarded when generalisations as to the religious past of the aborigines. they do not live up to the best parts of a good religion. as a rule. Well-.

as observed by him on an Island in the Pacific Ocean. This may be explained. Many Christians unconsciously practise what may fairly be described as idolatry. It seems that. but the spirit which he supposes dwells in it. and were certainly worshipped with greater fervour. and Seneca observes that possessed the primitive clay statuettes were much more propitious than those of marble. when they were sincere believers in their deities. or shorter period to develop. E. If this be the case. much otherwise unintelligible becomes intelligible. which the worfor shipper veritably believes to be itself conscious and powerful both good and evil. Still a similar observation would go a long way in explaining. or justifying. be defined as idolaters. that of the heathen a material image.. but only the Atua it represented and that the image Nam Deus est was merely used as a way of approaching him. heathen methods of worship. in a general way to Idolatry and idolater are terms applied be very different things. tangible images of The cult may take a longer supposed superior spirit-like beings. strictly speaking. at a certain stage in all religions. sed non Deusipsa.e. that his God is to some extent a mental.806 for ARCHsEOLOG Y AND RELIGION. The Church of Ireland forbids its members to hold that God has parts and passions like themselves. they did not worship the image itself. The individual man makes God after his individual imagina- . Taylor tells us that in image worship. at least in part. This may be pressed further. The Eev. the well-known African traveller. even in Fetichism it is not the material object that the more intelligent negro worships. strictly speaking." quod imago docet. the Latins but an indifferent statuary. An idolater. many prayers appear to be departures from this injunction but the Christian differs from the heathen in this. hanc cernas sed mente colas quod cernis in ipsa. but it possesses great vitality inherent desire in the human breast to revive gross material worship and idolatry. i. may defined as a person who worships an image. and that it is impossible to form any idea of God without calling anthropomorphism to our aid. According to Miss Kingsley. though as He is worshipped in the Prayer Book. but few can. for it is true of most of the heathen that few amongst them believe the actual image to be endowed with consciousness. by observing that the language of devotion must always be largely the language of poetry. or venerate. . they look upon the image as a visible representation of the invisible being addressed. the Atua (spirit or god) was supposed only to enter the image for " The natives declare the occasion. it may when developed be supand there appears to be an pressed. there is a natural tendency to worship.

MA N CREA TES GOD A FTER HIS IMA GINA TION. Yet numerous singular customs exist which must have originated from a religious idea. In fact it may be said that the development of the religious germ depends." na dhradidheachd. from the days in which they were practised by mere savages. 95) " from Spvs.) is rendered " with " used v. and now. to a crabbed cunning old man. in almost stereotyped form. an old Druid. and in some cases finally lost. the study of the mythological creed of the inhabitants of any land offers a wide and tempting subject to the inquirer. 11.. W. designates them the Irish peasantry still apply the term sean-druid. according to Dr. sorcery. " if the Triangles had a God. Hist. It is alleged that when an oak died. P. 307 We each worship a God of our own. probably. : This led to an inevitable reaction. xvi. on the natural features and geology of the country more than on political surroundings and social habits." The warrior-like nature of the Scandinavian gods reflects the characteristics of their worshippers . and shaped it into a pillar. In the Latin Lives of SS." " The Ethiop's gods have Ethiop eyes. Bronze cheeks and woolly hair: The gods of Greece were like the Greeks. Patrick and In Bishop Columbkille the Druids are styled " Magi. As keen and cold and fair. or cross. antiquarians imagined they saw a Druid in every bush. Pliny (Nat." do bhi na dhraui The old school of Irish" his sorceries. the solitude of the desert welded the Arab into a monotheist. and its growth is accelerated or retarded by those diurnal agencies which control the progress of mental expansion. he would be three-sided. to a great extent. Thus." and. pyramid. and continued to worship it as an emblem of the God. . 9. the Druids stripped off the bark. Acts ix." Bedell's translation of the Bible into Irish. The religious aspect of the rites has been gradually obscured. i. on the nature of the people. If these customs be compared with those described in the passages illustrative of rites and observances in ancient Irish MSS." Siomon (heading. but the customs have been carried on.e. Simon Magus " Simon the Druid. an dradi: v." As a French writer has wittily observed. many people believe that Druidism had no footing in the land. Diodorus describing the customs of the Druidical priesthood " Saruides. the Celtic for that tree. man does as much by him. an oak some connect it derives the word " Druid with darach. Joyce. There is a great foundation of truth in the grim jest " that if God made man in his own image. tion. there will probably be discovered for us the entire secret x2 ." and Goethe remarks that " Man never knows how anthropomorphic he is.

It was. would fully account for the comparatively easy abandonment of the uninteresting divinOn the other hand. Such is almost invariably the case. in the minds ities. and this revolution was therefore not effected without a bitter and prolonged struggle. teachers must have been scarce.808 ARCH^OLOG Y A ND RELIGION. or a Jove. The cherub of Christian art is not the cherub of the Old Testament. without cohesion. Painters have derived their idea from Cupid. of the religious system of our heathen ancestors. far as Traces of the Elder faiths of Ireland have been described as our present knowledge permits. According to a very learned and " orthodox " writer is to be identified. for the latter consisted. more especially when the conquerors tions of the long-continued struggle and unsettled condition of the country. Owing to the wild . the gods of the Saxons. this worship of a host of single without marked individuality. to Ea. not uncommon for one religion to adopt the gods of another. Even Judaism seems to have done this in a modified manner. 1. and we shall see disclosed the means by which the early Christian Church in Ireland dissolved and absorbed the old Pagan Pantheon a comas we have seen. Welhausen translates Psalm xxix. adopting much from the conquered faith. and. so that an effacement of their gods seemed to the Saxons to be a voluntary abandonment of their own kingdom and of their own power which were to be handed over to the guidance of a stranger god. as also the distinct indica- between Christianity and Paganism. the former gradually overcoming the latter. paratively easy task. but there can be little doubt that the Cherub of the Bible is. that was the supreme god under whom the gods of the peoples exercised a delegated power. possessed a marked individuality which forcibly appealed to the idiosyncracies of the race. commissioned by to govern the various nations. an Odin. and there could not have been that oversight from any responsible and restraining authority which would keep the are numerically inferior to the conquered." " Judaism has turned the and he remarks on the passage heathen gods into angels. however. not held together by any apparent principle and without a great All-Father. or Sin." The earlier idea may possibly have been. in popular usage. the moon-god of Another and probably a clearer instance of the Babylonia. " Ascribe to JHVH. ascribe to honour and praise. of whose ancestors they had originated. This colourless religion. influence exercised on Judaism by heathen thought. the winged bull of spirits JHVH : JHVH JHVH JHVH Assyria. in its original. of a number of supernatural beings without bond. is to be noted in connexion with the cherubim. or Ya. or rather entirely His origin is to be traced. ye sons of God.

In this onward course it merely followed the natural order of events and the bent of human nature in all ages. coming as it did with a superior civilization. is. and. 309 standard of Christian doctrine pure amongst the various warring The so-called Irish alphabet. . finally. doubtless.. than in half the creeds.CREEDS. gradually purifying from the physical force with which it formerly associated itself like modern science it is re-adjusting itself to what alone can stand the test of criticism but in former days. . however. now-a-days. as far as circumstances permitted. the creeds bear the same relation to the truths they are supposed to express. be a careful concealment from catechumens of much of its teaching (a course of conduct borrowed from must have paganism with to its mysteries) which would gradually be conveyed them when they became illuminati. tribes. itself . is composed of the ordinary cursive characters used in everyday transactions of the Roman literature of the first centuries of the Christian era a sentence in Irish characters might be easily mistaken for a copy of the scratchinga of a popular phrase. endeavour. political. and elsewhere. fig. and "Irish. after its initial successes. But early forced its way into a recognised place. by persecution. " Christians have burnt each other. 75) to a well-finished work of the present century. i. or catch sentence. introduced by the early Christian missionaries. or rather. that a small scale map to to a continent. or moral standpoint. In a later stage the two religions would be on an of popular influence and. probably for the first time. Believe me. They would now learn. it would. vol." it is a misnomer to designate **"" Christianity. At this stage there would. whether regarded from a religious. or initiates into the Christian mysteries. or to put it in another way. for a time. as Ptolemy's Map of Ireland (see antt. Christian theology. as do the rude attempts . that their former gods were regarded by their teachers as devils. be barely tolerated and forced to propagate itself almost in secret. many of which may be seen scrawled on the walls of the buried villas and buildings of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Roman it lapidary inscriptions. This running hand differs considerably from the familiar square-shaped letters of . quite persuaded That all the apostles would have done as they did. the religion of the equality more civilized would attain ascendancy. to stamp out the conquered faith." For creeds (if correct synopses) bear somewhat the relation does religion and to the scriptures." Creeds : " There lives more faith in honest doubt.

innocent of arrogance of pulpit discourses. Science has never sought to advance her cause by alliance but in the with the civil power. and. . . and by inculcating an introspective and narrow habit of thought. as monuments. with its accompanying rites and ceremonies. point) men wrangled. The works of a child to the finished works of a trained artist. but that. as a beacon to the antiquarian explorer in his researches on religious evolution. . apparently hopeless contest. of religion numbers of people. of the old Fathers. name any offence. little by little. is its great source of strength. to some extent. afford a fresh field to the imagination. trifles. . namely. . have been socially ruined. for free thought and for free knowledge. if uttered by an Irish pagan of the fifth century. to show posterity over what trifles e. was antagonistic to the growth of a love of nature and of its mysteries but now the wonders which science has revealed. and slew each other for the greater honour and glory of their Creator whilst incorporated pagan theology. .810 ARCH^OLOG Y AND RELIGION. of the Christian religion in Ireland in the present century would. . but it is frequently brought about by the narrowness and . as a release from sufferings inflicted in the name of the founder of the Christian Church." though apparently simple. fought. may remain. and a good guarantee of its practical perpetuity. religion commanded their faith and subjugated their reason to our fathers it became a dogma . will serve. which force scientifically trained minds into active opposition. What has been observed. is not easily made. has been very slow but great minds have waged the prolonged. as it is. at times. that it cannot well be done without. In the case of our remote forefathers. and." to " there is no God. as regarded from a strictly non-theological stand(i. mentally and physically tortured. Christianity by setting itself to dissipate. where it could not absorb. Through the ages the progress of the great battle against compulsory ignorance. for the great reserve of adaptability to the circumstances of the age with which it is endowed. it cannot be universally accepted its outward aspect must. have added to the range of what may be publicly discussed without fear of legal penalties being inflicted by either Church or State. by some thoughtful writers. The stride from " there is no such God as is now preached. change with the times. the ancient mythology. have been equally applicable. and have welcomed death. to many of the present generation it is a mighty problem which invites solution for we have arrived at a very We may be described unsatisfactory stage in mental expansion. and is unstained by crimes for all time. and do violence to the common sense of even the wayfaring man. and of some of their modern imitators.

Than when I was a boy. Were close against the sky It was a childish ignorance. Mr. it seems as satisfied belief which came in if. who lived in the second century. To know I 'm further off from Heaven. Dialogue of the Gods. from the loud avowals of incredulity j&i on one side. under the same trials. before the advent of St. some of whom attained to literary and ecclesiastical eminence. are the footprints of a friend who has travelled before us the road on which . however. In this Lucian simply Olympus. and appeals to facts. Patrick's mission. they show themselves vehement and unscrupulous partisans. teresting point to be on is.FROM PAGANISM TO CHRISTIANITY. : infidel opinions. The pagan divinities he treated with open derision." Froude remarks that " If I may judge from the prevailing tone modern popular literature. where he depicts Jupiter as expressing his if the human race lost its faith in the divinities of the gods might cease to exist. But now 'tis little joy. . does not appear to entertain a high opinion of either the moral or intellectual characteristics of early Irish ecclesiastics." but a sceptic and a scoffer to boot. number of stories are extant in which the Irish saints play a part that assorts singularly ill with our idea of the saintly character . was not only a "robust thinker. The fir trees. 811 as having attained the position pathetically described by the following lines : Hood in " I remember. pushed anthropomorphism to a logical conclusion." " Eevealed religion commands our faith and subjugates our reason science requires freedom of search. they But the inresort to trick and dodge to achieve their ends. instances of Irish Christian priests travelling or living on the continent of Europe. The theory of a sudden and complete conversion of Ireland from Paganism to Christianity is incompatible with the survival of so much that is distinctly pagan in the thoughts and practices There are even. it is alleged. I remember. I used to think their slender tops. after sixteen hundred years of with Christianity." Lucian. we were passing once more into a cycle of analogous doubts the sentiments of so robust a thinker as Lucian. Christianity he There are few finer specimens of humour than his ignored. the lamentations on the other. and points out that there was little to choose fear that "A between the Christian priest and the tribal medicine-man. dark and high . on the spread of . some recorded of the peasantry. they likewise approve . we are entering. that whilst they approve themselves the same moral level as the pagan Druid. Alfred Nutt.

with which the writers could not It must. Patrick's Confessio "with his life by Jocelin. in sepulture as in religion. however. compare St. possibly have been acquainted." viving by sheer force of tradition.812 ARCHsEOL OGY A ND RELIGION. There is the themselves to be on the same intellectual level. graves formed in pagan fashion are of by no . It is in the after the saints' deaths. indeed. when comparatively simple and free some centuries biographies. 94. be stated that contemporaneous documents. from miracle. or to be the earliest documents which have come down to compared with the_more modern. "for it is difficult to imagine that centuries after the firm establishment of Christianity. in the efficacy of symbol and spell. composed above-mentioned characteristics become most apparent. belief in the irresistible power of formula. Reproduced from the Journal of the present Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. one custom lided into the other without any hard dividing line. are. in all fairness. us. Cromleac-like Grave in the County Leitrim. in the irrevocable Most nature of the oath. that the more correct." legends bear. In material matters. For example. witness to the fact that the early Irish saints were "mere tribal medicine-men." same FIG. Irish story-tellers went out of their way to vilify their national saints by describing their barbarous acts and their archaic and preChristian modes of thought. with a Christian instead We should look upon them as surof a pagan bag of tricks. In many icient cemetnes connected with the earliest monastic establishlents in Ireland.

but both demolished cromleac and surviving sepulchral mound indicate that the place was a centre for human interment in very early times. when lying stretched before one For example. \ ' which the early missionaries selected for the burial . their longer axis pointing towards the centre. rude sarcophagi resembling cromcists. The tombs of the early Christians present a variety of forms. a seemingly pagan pillar stone of their camp fires. The of their converts. Pn -UpWll. but smaller than those found in the chamber . Near the Sugar-loaf Hill a cromleac.*'. so that sepulture. hillock in the churchyard of Knock. means 813 rare occurrence. There (fig. but now bearing Christian emblems./ /7*7f*V\*' \ \. Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. concentric with the outer At the base of the pillar stone (A) lies a round basin-like circle. the cists are arranged in pagan manner in the form of a circle. and pre-Christian . IQ a very early church at St. demonstrating that. i.PA GAN CEMETERIES. Plan of a Pagan the Journal of the present Reproduced from and also in Other localities.und subject open to discussion.- Eepeated instances I... flat graves. direction in which these early Christian graves point is generally east and west but in a cemetery adjoining .e. 94). Down Johns TOint.-. in this spot.. stone (B) not unlike. Tnlin' Pninf CO. or small earns enclosed by a circular wall of uncemented stones. stands at the northern edge of a circle./ \^j 95 p.. is a is also a fine sepulchral is . under the Castlerea hills. in material as in spiritual matters. stands in a churchyard. or wTiether the hill on which the graveyard is placed has a better claim to this title. '?-"" / / ''-. formed by numerous low. 95). marks the site of a demolished cromleac.. in the same position as the tenants assumed in life. / /oj \e\ \ & \ / : ^) / I 1 \) --. with an inner circle of much smaller graves. Cemetery at Kilnasaggart. A mound not far distant whether this the "knock" which gives name to the locality. mo.?. dates back to pre-historic and pagan times. and there is another cromleaclike grave in a Christian burial place in the county Leitrim leacs. appear to prove the existence of pagan cemeteries. it is stated. at Kilnasaggart (fig. there was a gradual and easy transition from one religion to the other.

as special characteristics of the ancient Irish. which have revolutionized the world. who adopted it readily into their pagan legends. of the lovely young Mother with her Child-God. But primitive folk living in the midst of nature. they merely represent a certain stage in the evolution of most primitive folk. has no wish for change. but on the contrary served as a frame to show off its beauty. wrought upon the tender feelings in the naturally sympathetic hearts of the Irish. upon the past. have been caused more slowly. For in the present day no one can fully understand the mental standpoint. the qualities of a deep-seated vein of melancholy. and this feeling finds crude expression in numerous superstitious observances. were feeding. and with it a period of new life and light. as well as folk-lore evidence. by the exclusive study of the Bible. of graves is marked by a smaller pillar stone (c). All this cumulative material. and are found in equal force amidst other and apparently very dissimilar races. a weird imaginativeness joined to this passionate love of the beautiful. which was in turn overwhelmed by the darkness of the Middle Ages. but as surely." Many writers have described.814 ARCHAEOLOGY AND RELIGION. were like in their infantine beginnings. in fact no ideas enter his head which tend to effect a transformation in his everyday existence. and to see what those ideas. The common centre of these two circles of the Grange Cam. intellectual life. however. and continually witnessing natural phenomena. It is a difficult process to trace back to their original source some chains of thought still current. caused immediately by the break up of the Roman Empire. to new The -Rome tianity. are no peculiar heritage of the Irish . This Middle Age period of darkness would. Then came the Saracenic revival of Men . as a rule. are bound to be constantly impressed with a sense of nature's mysteries. force of the current of thought in ancient Greece and seems to have been spent before the introduction of Chris- Christianity came. in Ireland. demonstrates that Christianity was. accepted by the " The beautiful and poetical tale majority of the ancient Irish. together with its addenda of voluminous patristic literature. . or even the ideas of the civilization on which the ancient inhabitants based their everyday life primitive man. as then expounded. or rather vegetating. which were not overthrown by it. and to this very day the old heathen mythology holds its ground with a vitality but little affected by modern ideas or by scientific criticism. The transforming motor. These characteristics. came through the introduction of a new religion its philosophy and classic modes of thought woke the slumbering mass of the unreasoning multitude . after a time. however.

TWO FORMS OF RELIGION CO-EXISTED. which have been banished for centuries from religion as publicly never practised. side by side the traditional creed believed in by the mass of the people. may be traced the genesis of the modern world from them are derived the forces which have transformed the world. which more or less permeated a later period came the capture of 815 In Western literature. For more than fourteen their flank. . The higher knowledge to which man has now almost universally attained is " an outgrowth from the lower the knowledge. Thus the early Christian missionaries. the new. god or goddess. and At length the worship of those who held the Christian faith. have suddenly vanished. but turned and instead of exterminating the enemy they only routed and scattered them. resulting in a European revival of classic art and classic studies." From these. while he at the same time embraced. the names of the seven days of the week every day is . in endeavouring to wean the masses from long-established paganism. both physically and morally. like the outcrop of older rocks above newer rocks. Constantinople by the Turks. or tried to embrace. crust of the earth. and ultimately mighty upheaval of art and of thought called respectively " the Kenaissance " and " the ^Reformation. paradoxical as it may at first sight appear. are kept alive in local superstitions for there has been an epoch in the existence of any race in which all old institutions. Primitive rights. by which he held on to the old faith. did not attack time-honoured usages directly in front. resistance sometimes there occurred a rally. demonstrates that primitive beliefs are practically indestructible new ideas overlie the old." might induce their converts to pray to the saints but when the paescribed rite was performed the honest half pagan would turn in that . for example. . with affection to the elder hierarchy. which we see in the dedicated to an old pagan . as well as their fusion together. yielding place to a brand-new religion. and the flight of Greek scholars to the West. which process. hundred years there existed two forms of religion. but do not extinguish them. and traces of heathenism are now only to be detected by the differences apparent between the religion of the educated and of the uneducated for experience . and Christianity was checked in its conquering career. a singleness of religious feeling was the motor of this seemingly double action. " Mit Kettenklang und einem neuen Gotte. In the days of the conversion of Ireland. was a long and slow one. though in general passive. and. Here and there detached bodies remained. zealous Christian priests. as a later source. often overlays or is mingled with more modern . which still offered a resolute. and this. literature. Take. the reader will bear in mind. all old ideas. the antagonism between the two ceased by the almost entire absorption of the former by the latter.

Lacedemonian thief and Scandinavian murderer alike. waifs are neither recognised by the present dominant Christian religion nor by the law of the land in fact. Thus. witnesses to the correctness of the descriptions of the scenes and ideas of the Eld. Eventually worship. if detected. Hence it is plain that beneath the present-day custom. when the former had What is upon approving successfully committed his larceny and the latter had carefully brained his rival but nowadays these former virtues are. yet customary observances nevertheless continue. the present is as the past . present-day religion will in time indubitably die out. the prey of the nearest policeman. the past becomes as the present. . and should be treated on scientific methods. With unchanged and stereotyped customs and ideas beliefs. regarded as law at one stage of culture may be looked as crime at another. felt the glow of a thoroughly conscience. disregarding tradition. the old divinities are apt to be treated in a very cavalier fashion . in old Scandinavian society the murder of a troublesome rival was looked upon as the proper way of extrication from an awkward predicament. and folk-lore elements are to a great extent traditional. doubtless. and nothing is more foreign to them than the introduction of forms for which there as . is no precedent." before us for analysis. For instance. These unadopted . Perhaps the Christian philosopher and seer had caught some glimpse of such a future when he tells us that the heavenly city had " no temple irrational for the adoration of a and therein. after the marriage ceremony has been performed according to law. unconsciously to themselves. but are now more or less incorporated with. we have seen. They are mere embodiments of man's childlike notions as regards the respect due to the unseen.816 ARCHEOLOGY AND RELIGION. and their perpetrators become. in ancient Sparta undetected theft was meritorious. tunately. cusfor worships that contain heathenish toms. ." When an older religion has given place to a younger. Traces of this are. clearly discernible in popular proverbs. from the point of view of those who practise them. lie other and more ancient traditional beliefs waifs drifted down to us along the stream of time from a dim and remote past but these primitive customs and illusions which long hung on the borders of. will develop into true religion. regarded by society in the light of crime. they are now to . based upon a worship of the forces of nature. Customs of the peasantry should be approached in an appreciative spirit. the veil which has hitherto shrouded bygone ages is to a great extent lifted the living become. customs and material objects will be disregarded one and only God. unfor. traditional custom imposes the performance of certain rites which appear irrational.

" All this chain of amelioration things which are now believed to be of the greatest antiquity were once new . and. at the period of the introduction had placed the inhabitants above the class of many Christianity. of iron and of society. Though essentially the exclusive property of the least cultured portion of the community. which. therefore. some extent discountenanced by the former. Thus an archaeological writer brings to the light of day things which would otherwise remain unnoticed. Students who have undertaken the task of trying to unravel the tangled skein of the religious ideas of savages are of opinion that the ideas of savages. logical. not only important but also unimportant facts. fortified by the production of facts. an Irish archaeological writer must also be a cold scientist. are in Generated in a reality far removed from anything of the sort. . There is complete continuity in tribes of present-day savages. mental atmosphere that we should probably consider as permeated with intense ignorance. however. which his opinions. but an amelioration in the general status of . too callous to be affected by the shock. record with amplitude." now The what is be thus roughly described ancient becomes venerable. as a rule. The festivals of the Christian Church are traceable to heathen worship and we shall doubtless some time or another discover links in this chain may : . it is self-evident that they were not invented by them.FESTIVALS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. mere stereotyped fragments of ancient barbaric thought. like Gallic of old. who. are certainly with superstitions and customs prevalent amongst present-day savage tribes. it is apparent that there was a slow but constant progress in the ascending scale of religious no sudden transition from as well as of material civilization savagery to culture. and are. cares for none of these things unless they are written in a popular manner. but were inherited for they accord . and tries to place an abstruse and dry subject interestingly before the modern reader. when ment. strictly properly analysed and classified. or rather series of shocks. must. display the principles of their original formation and subsequent develop- savages are nevertheless. what is venerable becomes holy. the beliefs and practices of according to their ideas. To do his work properly. The archaeological writer. may have on those reared in the sentimental atmosphere of romantic glamour surrounding the past of human existence in ancient Erin. though apparently bordering upon the gruesome or the ridiculous. and 317 punished by the latter when they run counter to present-day practices. for archaic life in Ireland can now be traced back to an almost protoplasmic state of society. and what we defend by example will one day be quoted as an example. From a review of the past.

after all. at the bottom of the social scale. has his convictions of. "somewhat supersti- . and that they know more about the unknown than has ever been as stition. At the head of the evolutionary scale there is a steady and continuous effort to get rid of it but. " The footprints of an elder race are here. this appears to be an impossi- for even with the most intellectual the superstitious instinct often breaks out in some distorted fashion. are founded upon what he considers as erroneous conceptions of God and of the now for almost every man. except with bility. We cast ridicule at " medicine men." * Acts ". And shadows of the old mysterious faiths. R. desirous of shielding themselves from the anger of any god whom they might have unintentionally neglected to propitiate but St. his its applicability extends to every age and to now-a-days pride ourselves on our freedom from superand are. There is the greatest difficulty in defining where what may be considered " " superstition" ends and where what may be considered "religion commences. every people. 22. right or wrong. which is liable to become strangely distorted. inclined to err in the other extreme. Paul's criticism applies not to to the . perhaps. or religious. and an instinctive feeling that this world of matter is not to bound our existence. some strong intellects. under other names. mind of the hearer or beholder. . which. men who firmly believe that they have power with the unseen." quite oblivious of the fact that among us now there are still found. that these were observances borrowed from a remoter past. In the sense of the above definition St. V. appears as if the germ of the religious idea had been implanted in the human breast that there is within us a strange blending of the spiritual with the material. :. age alone.V. xvii. . the faint reflex of another and mysterious genesis. it it quite possible that there may form of superstition be some savages of low type guileless of any again. Superstition." margin. what he considers to be. On the other hand. no matter well known laws of Nature how low he may be on the rungs of the ladder of civilization. A. We yet given to man to find out. " too superstitious " tious.: .318 ARCHsEOLOG Y AND RELIGION. The superstitious or religious instinct is found in almost all mankind. is primarily a mere rudimentary reliIt gious instinct. Paul doubtless used " when he criticised the astuteness of the word "superstitious the philosophic Athenians. there may be some in whom the ." Superstitions may be defined as beliefs and practices.

at a later date. The mere tribal God of Israel. or religions. for any creed to claim immunity from criticism Christianity. and the grosser the rite the more the mind must have been fixed on its inner sense. with their doubtful morality. is rarely. is on a much higher intellectual plane than the savage who devours the carcase without any propitiatory offering. lege when it overturned the powerful religions of the ancient It was superior to them. for the slightest intellectual or moral advance is pregnant with promise. play a disingenuous role. To the more thoughtful. Thus those who essay to depreciate superstitions in order to exalt Christianity. germ 819 of superstition is still in protaplasin. the interesting divinities of the Greeks and Romans. such as Christianity or Mahomedanism. A savage who arrives at the lowest stage of superstition has. nevertheless. who was described or rather foreshadowed it was no mere years ago in the Prophets and in the Psalms. It would be fatal. hard and fast definitions. unless it has greatly changed since its It enjoyed no such priviearly years. professed Of these writers it of Erin. for blind chance that shaped the growth of the religion of Israel and finally transformed it into one suitable for all mankind. is self-evident to any thinking mind. The absurd theories started by visionary antiquarians of the last century have greatly retarded the proper study of the ancient religion. The growth of Theism as embodied in Christianity. The importance of a sympathetic treatment of the relics of ancient Faiths. with its . . just as. ancient rites must always have had an esoteric meaning. for there is a germ and no one can properly weigh the merits of truth in them all of different trains of thought unless he uses the same just balance. too.TREATMENT OF SUPERSTITIONS. certainly does not do so. . such as has been attempted. and overthrew them on its world. made a great advance from the mere brute. merits. taught in childhood and once accepted. have yielded place to the impeccable but personal God of Christhousands of tianity. and its personal relations with a great and only Spirit has gradually developed from a much lower form of belief in the supernatural. its ethical ideas. The unsympathetic treatment of superstitions is unphilosophic as well as unscientific for superstitions are not the swaddling bands of infancy. by the pre-Christian inhabitants may be said. if ever. the undefinable God of the Vedas. Mahomedanism overthrew heathenism and a very debased form of Christianity. . Quot homines tot . The savage who sacrifices the tit-bits of the victim of his bow or of his spear to his god. Heathens may be converted to a higher religion but a greater Faith. they may rather be compared to the bark growing on the tree from its infancy and adapting itself to its gradual development and to the growth which it stimulates or causes. conscientiously changed for another.

We call to mind now -a-days that the so-called " historical" Irish writers were probably often as far. but religious history is only too we have long passed the time when statements are admitted without question simply because they were made at a remote period. The proverb which says that " nothing is certain but the unforeseen. The time has gone by when the "history" of all credulous Keating and the various Irish Annals can be placed as classic works on the level of ancient Greek and Latin histories. The difficulty of presenting a clear account of a country's past and unrecorded secular as well as evident. that is almost entirely occupied with long accounts of mere local struggles is but a poor history indeed. Mr. Colonel Vallancey. and but little else remains when supernatural occurrences that could never. one of the most warmly debated being the fixing of the definite number of angels that could.320 sentential. which can be paraphrased " so many archaeologists so This school is. who revel in extravagant. Yates. and repose. are subtracted from the text. according to modern science. Populus vult decipi. critical age takes account of what may be called the historical perspective for scepticism has its useful side. dance on the point of a needle. idealisms. Archaeological publications are inundated with an increasing number of contributors sadly wanting in sobriety. not quite fancies. We have the mediaeval Tres medici. M. however. and the Anglo-Irishman. the former being represented by the Dedanann. : . representing the contests between the powers of Light and Darkness. Jubainville." many extinct. affirms his belief. It is a sign of the times we live in. The Frenchman. that the narratives of the battles between the Dedanann and the Firbolgs are simply twisted and distorted allegories. a recent French writer. have happened. ARCHEOLOGY AND RELIGION. however ancient. removed from the events Our more they pretend to explain than they are from our times. with convenience to themselves. these writers being " more Irish than the Irish themselves. which may be roughly rendered saying that any man who is an adept in science or in research makes a bad the . in which he is followed by Mr. A nation's record. or of Good and Evil. duo atheisti. Yates." Their deliramenta doctrina may in weight and importance be compared to the questions once seriously argued amongst schoolmen. for M. will probably keep literary hadesian company (apologies to the shades reader for the use of the adjective which the writer and to the cannot find in the dictionary) with the Englishman. Jubainville. the latter by the Firbolgs." was never better exemplified than in the modern resurrection of a school of archaeology which died of ridicule nearly a century ago. even yet. and even grotesque. if not indeed farther. breadth. and the general reading public (decipiatur) accepts them at their own valuation.

and rescued their ancestors from the dominion of brutish ignorance . O'Donovan traditional lore) as a great influence that has been. in the form of national and traditional conclude with the summary of this interesting subfolk-lore. and implicit belief In almost every age to its growth. and systems. enunciations. from rude primeval simplicity. like many modern writers. If it be true that the general idea of religion expands with the intellect if there be no one final statement of the truth but only provisional shrinks in proportion . . appeared when Hades has lost its terrors. are not alternations of ages of faith with ages of criticism exactly what might be expected under the circumstances ? " " which could accept unquestioned age of faith Certainly the the imaginative statements of mediaeval history writers has long passed. and was the parent cultivated it nourished the latent instinctive aspirations of the : . and most men will acknowledge that nothing can be more interesting to us. to true civilization and positive . there is a sceptical stage this may be said to be well marked even in the Bible (Ecclesiastes) for scepticism makes its appearance in every period when man commences to reflect on the problem of life. a change of faith is surely impendechoed round the Again the awful voice which long ago ing." Times are indeed changed. and of the strange waifs which have come down to us from bygone ages. present. n. and (national no longer is. man. when the local goddesses have departed. in this point of view. past. It fed the poetical flame within the of true poetry in the more people's mind. The only interest it can have is a historical and a poetical one. or can be. may Irish race. churchman. will raise this ancient and noble standard among the civilized imaginative people to a truly but its office has been fulfilled it is nations of modern Europe no longer necessary to the exigencies of modern society. ject. than the progress of our ancestors. and to come. which when established on a right basis. of human advancement. . science. Y . Our examination "I respect it given by the great Irish scholar. and our lines are fallen upon an seem to be disappearing in the epoch when gods and saints universal swirl and general break-up of all ancient landpresent divinities have dismarks. and directed their movements. that we may hope to arrive at some idea of the life of prehistoric of the survival in Ireland of the traces of older faiths than Christianity. with which the Irish race must either amalgamate or perish.TIMES CHANGING RAPIDLY. and the Preacher. and it is by patient work and study of folk-lore. VOL. gave them aliment. beliefs. for when the from Olympus. does not attempt to solve the enigmas he propounds. for 821 knowledge begets doubt. stirred them up with insatiable thirst for true knowledge.

forth afresh the dreadful news. and waiving aside all obstructions to the view. quite as little knowledge of the workings of the will of the Great Ruler of The Unseen. for society ! stage in intellectual development in which religious restraints are beginning to be disregarded. the men of old believed firmly in their creed. few statesmen that will that believe all that they preach not betray their supporters. will benefit by the betrayal. If one could only obtain a good look from within at any particular organization included in what theologians style the Church Universal. either in the religious or political world in office. provided they imagine they. nor in the formulae of most religious organizations. evolution must be regarded as arising from the action of an intelligent First Cause. The most serious strain that any civilization has to encounter occurs in that aside the veil which hides the hates beneath. . until the sound reverberates now in The majority of leading every corner of the civilized world. without its local god to this " And With day the peasant still cautious fear avoids the ground. prevent to bring themselves within the pale of orthodoxy. we have. Could we but take an Asmodean flight. They could not behold a well without seeing there the abode of a beneficent being a tree .822 A RCH^SOLOG Y AND RELIGION. the age of faith in all things is shaken to its foundation. There are few men in whom we can now unsuspectingly in the pulpit few trust. or at best is pointed to as a brutally candid thinker to thus tear to We seething mass of unbelief those that try to unmask it. look down on this globe. in old-world manner. to But their teachers admitting the doctrine of evolution. what a world we would behold Moral bonds are loosening. as an irreligious man. In each wild branch a spectre sees And trembles at each rising sound. as a blasphemer against the gods. reckless as to speak the truth he is hounded down. Many are now literally in search of a religion. or their Political expediency is party. and surely there itself. Christian teachers appear to be evolutionists of a more or less is nothing in Christianity pronounced type. with influence from on high. If anyone be so transition and in an atmosphere of sham." gives shores of the central sea. Whatever we may otherwise think of them. transformed into the goddess of Reason whom we are called upon live in an epoch of political and religious worship. flat heresy would probably be found common enough. in reality. " The great god Pan is dead. If we think we possess more wisdom." They regarded all nature as permeated through and through.

Goldwin following appeared in the Contemporary Review from the pen Smith: "If we know anything of the law of the Universe. and most obviously in the intel.TR UTH MUSI' TRIUMPH O VER ERROR. as morning shows Christianity. and to a great extent absorbed into " childhood shows the man. . is not matter." Let us nevertheless try to possession. One of the most far-reaching "* received no questions in the New Testament. that man cannot ascertain absolute truth." . be surveyed in all lights and from all standpoints. lies at the bottom of a well it is difficult but not impossible to reach its certain and eventual triumph over error will become a recognised fact in material as well as in moral It is not too sanguine to predict that it will at matters. or that they tell nothing beyond themselves. There are but few lovers of truth that will not agree in this. Many a now acknowledged truth was once a struggling and much controverted theory the basis of every science has been. on that account." The late Professor Huxley states that early in life. considered a fundamental fallacy. Quid est veritas ? is answered by the anagram Est vir was written. * Pilate's question. and will exhibit early human life in Ireland in a very different light from that in which it has been hitherto depicted. . are not merely physical though. shrink from exTruth" ploring the past. and that the forget final result of human inquiry into the matter is. paradoxically. Paul's " Prove all advice. agnosticism he is irresistibly impelled to inquiry Our business now is to look for rational data. At the same time it is necessary to remember that archaeological truth is purely relative. if action is subject to causation. he discovered " that one of the unpardonable sins. and qualified freedom of will. it is that our salvation lies in the single-minded pursuit of truth. sense of responsibility. with its consciousness. admits apparently of no finality. i. its the day.e. its aspirations. and which has been verified by time. " We must never may not silence be regarded as the answer. or. however conditioned by matter. Since the above of Prof. following St. Man will not rest in blank into his origin and destiny." but we should not. establish the sway of what we consider to be the truth over the wild swirl of a seething archaeological chaos our sure ally is time we should hold fast to nothing but that which is certain. Nor is it easy of an unconscious Universe. for it with its horrors will never return. it is the man here present. as it may seem. physical and moral causations are to suppose that they are the accidental product not the same. however evolved. jflnst : . but the Roman Governor did not wait to listen to an answer had it been granted. that we are that even if the truth be in our incapable of perfect knowledge we cannot be sure of it. things hold fast that which is good. 323 The upward course of paganism in Ireland has now been traced (as far as present day knowledge will allow) until the time when it was conquered by. "what is truth ? answer. lectual and moral nature of man. in the eyes of most people. at one time. and . its These. length be reached. the qui adest. it is said. : .

and the general reader prefers fallacious information to blank pages for sensible beings who do not require fiction. the under proper control. man to presume to go about unlabelled." Nothing has knowingly been extenuated. The world such a person as the police do an unmuzzled dog.324 is ARCHEOLOGY AND RELIGION. " the truth. gazes with regret at the wreck wrought by the blows of his iconoclastic hammer. and there are also few acts which draw down greater opprobrium on a writer than the demolition of popular fallacies. nothing has knowingly been set down in malice throughout the attempt has been made to narrate. in the greatest depths of despondency. much in the spirit of the zealous Greek. . the whole truth. for no spectacle can be more mournful than watching the dying agonies of an ancient and cherished belief. untrammelled by shaky theories based on premature conclusions there are certainly no pet cranks to uphold at any cost. after shattering the beautiful statues he had formerly regarded as his gods. which. . The text is. the belief in a former almost paradisiacal Ireland. and nothing but the truth. not regards Now si parra licet maynis componere. who. and it is hoped successfully. but prefer positive concrete information are at present in a very small . has given for a consolation. can he agree with those who paint the natives of Erin The as any worse than their neighbours across the Channel. nor. It is difficult to replace them by well established facts. to many generations of Irishmen. minority." writer is also a vagrant and unlabelled animal." . there is no "axe to grind. he can neither defend the chimera of the ancient glories of Ireland. on the other hand. it is thought. writing of this work has been undertaken with reluctance. in its day.

This direction should always be with the course of the sun. further reports that. line 4. Mr. when registering births. 40. VOL. as ' THE UNHOLY ROUND. deceased widows are registered under their maiden name instead of their married name.' " Varieties and Synonyms of Surnames and Christian Names in Ireland. " The Registrar of Tuam. Withershins ganging roun' And kimnier and carline had for licht The fat o' a bairn they buried that nicht. and return on the other. and the old Irish and Scotch custom is to make all movements Desiul. or sunwise. Robert Matheson. The Llama monk whirls his praying cylinder in the way of the sun. says. went withershins. evils. in some cases in his is used by the children instead of the John Keane. Unchristen'd beneath the moon. " district. And the muckle Bible upside doon A' ganging withershins roun' and roun'.' . so as to make a circuit with the sun. and pointed to connexion with the devil. Meeting the Sun. it is said. which would take from it all the virtue it had acquired. the mother's maiden surname ' father's.' real name John Dunne. To move against the sun was improper and productive of evil consequences. line 22."] It is a common practice for mothers of children.' " Togo withershins and to read prayers or the creed backwards were great The author of Olrig Grange. and fears lest a stranger should get at it and turn it contrary. Cases have also frequently come under notice when. 2. after the word sun. They also build piles of stone. Simpson in his work. 25. And backwards saying the prayer ! About the warlock's grave. "Witches in their dances and other pranks always. No. [Note to p."] " One very ancient and persistent superstition had regard to the direction of movement either of persons or things. Mahommedans make the circuit of the Caaba in the same way.ADDITIONAL NOTES. round houses and graves. Y 2 . and the name given to this direction of movement was withershins. IKEEGULAK USE OF MAIDEN SURNAMES. but we had grand fun Wi' the meikle black deil in the chair. after the word " kindred. in an early poem. The ancient dagobas of India and Ceylon were also traversed round in the same way. 57. the maiden name having been resumed on the death of the husband. and always pass them on one side. sketches this superstition very graphically ' : ' " Hech sirs. in death entries. [Note top. as well as at weddings and other ceremonies. II. p. to sign the entry with their maiden surname. and to turn their bodies in this way at the beginning and end of a journey for luck.

ray of " Sir Walter Scott. F. [Note to p. to certain fixed ideas in relation to the sun. that portion was considered to possess certain powers. kneeling in front of it. The above rites are generally performed by a substitute for a friend who is : The following cure suffering from an infirmity. on certain occasions. he returns to the Altar . designates the locus of the bogus mining operations directed by the charlatan Dousterswivel as Glenwithershins. line 12. by James Napier. throws the first stone into the water in the name of the first person of the " the Trinity. in their grave.826 ADDITIONAL NOTES. is derived from information given by a person who has frequently made the prescribed rounds " Stations of the Cross " are recited Before coming to the well. he again performs the " Stations of the Cross. approach it by going When the dead are laid round the place from east to west on the south side.S. The bride is conducted to the spouse in presence of the minister round the company in the same direction indeed all public matters were done according . the grave is approached by going round in the same manner. which are referred to in the following verse of an old song : ' Tammy gae doun to the Howe a rock of the widdershins grow. and approaches the well". reverently he enters it. and the people joining hands and dancing three times round At haptisms and marriages it south-ways.R. the by the postulant kneeling in front of the Altar. the second for Son. in his tale of " The Antiquary."] for diseases. Of good rantree for to carry my tow. that were no doubt survivals of ancient heathen worship. . in going to bathe or drink in a consecrated fountain. 133. The postulant then picks up three " blessed stones." Folk-Lore. 101. without touching the water. " If a tree or plant grew with a twist contrary to the direction of the sun's movement. after the word "flowers. 135." and the ceremony is concluded.e. placing a foot into each side-wall of the well without touching the water (for if he does so. pp. all pointing to a lingering sun-worship. stoops." and the third for " the Holy Ghost. And a spindle of the same for the twining o't. and to do so his head must go partially into the recess on the opposite side of the wall.' I '11 And gar cut my ain me " Pennant refers to some other practices in Scotland in his day.. as performed at the above-named well. they walked three times round the church sun-ways. looking up towards the sky." CEREMONIES AT TUBBERNALT WELL." This done. "the unlucky Glen.E. or according to the course of the sun. it invalidates the ceremony). i. The Highlanders. Such as. He then turns round. kindling a fire.

.% Arranged alphabetically by Subjects and Authors. .BIBLIOGKAPHY OF PAPERS AND WORKS ON Erisjj $re= Christian ^rdjarologg anfc JFolklore WHICH CAME UNDER THE WRITER'S NOTICE.


REV.A : On amber. REV. vol.H. I.A. Belfast Nat.. 150. EDWARD : of the Primeval or Pagan Vestiges and Relics in the vicinity of Youghal period.A. GRAVES.. 1 AMBER. ROBERT. 2 Trans.H. M. FITZGERALD. p. 34-36. 1880.I. pp. vol. Prehistoric remains in East Cork..K. vol. 1858.. JAMES: On an amber bead with an Ogham vol. 4th series. Society. El. Society.A. Proc.. 537. : GRAINGER. II. M. 210-213.B. v. i. iii. Diggings of an Antiquary. 511-513.. JVN.. pp.A. : Drawings of Irish Antiquities. 249-262.M. ii. A. V.A. 3 ANTIQUITIES IN GENERAL.. Du NOYER. 7 viii. 6 Journal R.. pp.. iii. H. R. 4th series. pp. R. pp.A : Antiquities at Cork Industrial Exhibition. VOL. BALL. Journal R.I. J. new series.A. ROBERT : Means used by the ancients for attaching handles to metal implements..K. 302-315... Z . 52-54. inscription. Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. vol.A. 149. 1883. 8 Youghal. : 4 COLEMAN. Topography and Traditions of the Great Island and Cork Harbour. vol.I. 163-168. pp.. Hist. G. D. Journal of the Cork Historical^and Archaeological Society. vol. 5 DAY. vii. 429-441.. KlNAHAX. Proc.I. pp. Kil. pp.C. Proc. 61-67.I. vi. 282-289. G. vol.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PAPERS AND WORKS. 48-52. H..I. F. and Phil.

Kil. 18 MULVANY.A. vol. 20 PATTERSON. LL. 162. 312-316. pp.D. Journal R. Collection of Antiquities. JOHN. pp. Society. 14 JOYCE. R. of M.. Belfast Nat.. v. LL. pp..A.I. 11 GRIFFITHS. A. and Phil. pp. HI. 243-245 Appendix No.. 13 JONES. Proc. 110 10 GRAY. KEMBLE. 4th series. : Collections of Antiquities made by the Officers of the Board of Proc. . new seiies. vol.A. T. 294-303. G. WILLIAM H.R. Society. 1-17. vol.A. Trans..880 9 GUAVES. R. 40-54. R. pp. W..I. vii.A. 1875. BIBLIOGRAPHY. of Society. 1886-7. vi. and Phil. : Utility of Antiquarian Collections in relation to the Prehistoric Annals Proc.). 594.I..I.. W.: Geology of Ireland. Proc. A. ii. RICHARD Miscellaneous 140. vol. H. A. series. A.A.A..A. 1st and 2nd series (2 vols. 12 to the Museum pp. pp. Belfast Nat. ii.I. Proc. RICHARD: Shannon Commissioners ii. HITCHCOCK. Hist. . COLONEL : Antiquities found in the River Shannon..I. R. M. 15 Names of Places. 17 MILLIGAN. Report on the Glenny Journal R. 595. 280-295. 16 KINAHAN. i. REV..H. pp. : Origin and History of Irish Dublin. 462-480. P... Trans.. A. Archaeological Court of the Exhibition Society. pp. Proc. 7 vols.I. vol. 2. Society. 1853. 239. v. The Benn vol. Museum 139.I.. SEATON F. Antiquities presented by the R. J. 1882. 19 O'DONOVAN. : Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters (translated by above)..D. vol..H. JAMES : What we learn from Wilde's Catalogue of the Kil. vol. Hist. ii. of Europe. E. : Archaeological Exploration. pp. Kil. vol. : Description the Benn Collection. pp. 4th 163. : Antiquities.I. Journal WILLIAM : Collection. Belfast Museum.A. Works.

R. z 2 .I. Journal Kil.. new series.A. : Antiquities discovered in trenching a small rath. 185-187.. J.I.. 22 PRIM.I. H. Lough Corrib its shores and islands..J.. 1891. : Contents of an ancient bronze vessel. On Antiquities weapons. 30 WILDE. 23 ROBINSON. Dublin. R. A. 336-342. 428. 24 SMITH. 31 WORSAAE. . MR. iii. pp. London. 6 vols. GOVERNOR I Account of some Irish Antiquities. ancient tumuli. 27 VAI. iv. Belfast Nat. 237-246. A. iv. A... Proc. pp. Statement on the presentation of certain Antiquities. REV.I. vol. vol. 324-330. pp. 21 881 PoWXALL. vol.. and some animal remains found in vol. urns. on : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Catalogue.I.A. 1849. A. J. v. Pagan and Archajologia Hibernica: a Handbook Christian (2nd edition). : Antrim series. Proc. 310-315. W.. pp. J. 1857. A. F. R. Irish Antiquities. 1872.LANCEY. Proc. K. 327-344. pp.. viii. George. Dublin. 2nd 25 Toni).A. R. "W...BIBLIOGRAPHY. REV. 29 WESTROPP.R. : Antiquities presented by the King of Denmark and the Royal Society of Antiquities of Copenhagen. Museum R. GENERAL CHARLES : : Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis (valuable as a contribution to general knowledge 28 facts correct. 150-155. HODDER M. n. Archaeologia.r>. Letters Mu. 308. On the same Petrie. WAKEMAX. pp. The Beauties of the Boyne and its tributary the Blackwatcr. vol. Dublin. 1872. pp 250. D. : 26 TREVELAN. T. Field Club. iii. M. 260-263.I. domestic implements. : Prehistoric Phases or Introductory Essays on Prehistoric Archaeology. iii. R. iii. Proc. its S. : Classification of Antiquities found in West Europe. vol. ornaments. REV.. iv. SIR W. R. History.D. 307. theories baseless). pp. Antiquities and 13-19. vol... Society. A. 355-370. sepulchral Proc.. : of Irish Antiquities. vol. 253. vol.. pp. : Dublin.

Journal Kildare Arch. : Description of Staigue Fort (1821). &c. Trans. 33 BEAUFORT. Donegal. p.A. iii. viii. 4th series.A..I... 34 ofj the Anglo- BERNARD. i. GEORGE V.. [R. : Architecture and Antiquities previous to the landing Normans. : London. i. Kerry. 1-24. J. vol.. On the origin of Eaths.. 32 ANONYMOUS : Description of an ancient Building on Greenan Mountain. A.H. fortresses and habitations occurring to Archaeological Journal. Kil.. 1875. vol.H.. vol. DR. Du NOYER. THIRD EARL OF : Notes on Irish Architecture. pp.. Trans. Aileach. 42 HAVERTY.. E. A.832 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 415-423. 3rd series. 38 DEANE. The 40 DUNUAVEN. G. pp. 36 BUCANAN. 101-242. 88. vol... Co. 87. WALTER : [Restoration of the Grianan of Ant. 273. pp. iv.I. 17-29. 1859.I.I. Pol. and 35 BLAND. vol.A. 41 GEOGHEGAN. E. F. pp.. Lit. pp.. pp. EDWIN.I. 349. Dublin Penny Journal. 2nd series. A. E. Kerry. Journal K. Journal' B. : CROWE. Dublin. 328-330. 2 vols. A. p. vol. xiv.A. iii. 100-107.. MARTIN : The Aran Isles. ^^. vol. .-ARCHITECTURE. M.I.. Society. Society. Note on Vitrified Forts. 186-197. vol. 4th series." as applied to a class of Irish Origin and meaning of the word Pagan and early Christian buildings.R. A. 350. EDWARD : Sweat House. C. A. pp. Proc. O'BKIRNE " clocan. i. ii. C. Trans. The Moat of Ardscull. 344. SIR THOMAS NEWENHAM : Eeport on ancient monuments in Co. 37 Ulster Journal of Archaeology. xv. pp.I. vol.. 39 Proc. L. vol. pp. : Eemains of ancient stone-built the west of Dingle. A..

R.I. hot-air bath. 590. and towers of MOORE. Hist. vol. On 50 a Vitrified Fort.. An 51 ancient Irish hot-air bath. p. v. vol. M. iv. 4th series.A. Co. A. GEORGE. xx. Proc. architecture a most important work and a good authority. : in Greece and Ireland... A. 4th series. Cashel. : 53 WAKEMAN.A. vol. pp. A.I. Trans. 268-270. I. R.D... pp. 5th series. 43 KIRKEE. x.S. : Resemblance between some ancient remains Journal R.S.S. K. CAKSAR: Vitrified fort. R.I. an ancient settlement in the County of Kerry. Society. : Rathmore.I. Dunnamoe F. : Danish mounts. Proc. ix. vol. : xiii..S. Mayo. i. A.A. also twice reprinted as an annual volume of the series. 44 KINAHAN.. pp.. M. &c. 589. 282-284. R. 69. ix. Donegal. 182-183. Journal R.A. S.R. R. Trans.. vol. vol.I. 5th series. W. A. pp. Proc.I.A. On Vitrified Forts. A. vol. : 45 MACALISTER. i. pp. Ancient Villages. B. SEATON Ancient Irish Irish forts. pp. 47 MitLiGAN. W. Sweat House at Glentidaly. Journal R. Trans. G. and Phil. A. 37-41. ii. 282. Journal R. vii. Journal R. M. EARL OF: Journal Kildare Arch. Proc.A. I.. pp. 25-30.E. M.I. series. R. 3rd series. pp.A. xx.I... Proc.. 1725. &c.. x. p. 551-555. On ^*" 46 MAYO. pp. xxx. I.. vol.. W. OTWAY. vol. A. of the Barony of Corkaguiney. 271-279. : A 49 discourse concerning the Ireland.I. p. 5th series. 52 PETRIE. &c. Ireland.H. P. London. R.. 112-115. Architecture anterior to the Anglo-Norman invasion.. Trans. A. REV. pp. The round towers and ancient architecture of Ireland.H. MULCAHY.A.. hot-air Proc.A. pp. 175-332 Shows the connecting links between Pagan and Christian Society. C. i.H.I. F. vol. Cromleac-like Doorway to a Less.. The hot-air bath. . 123-127. REV. pp.. vol. or EarthenFort.. pp. v. 165. Belfast Nat. vol.A.I.H.. bath. R.H. R. A.A..A. R. Co.. vol. vol.I.A. Ruins of Ardilaun. 5th series. ix. vol.R.A. Society. 574-582.R. 4th Inismurray and its antiquities. D. S. A. 4th series. R.H. 4th ..BIBLIOGRAPHY.... forts. JournalR. P. i..A. pp. A.I. 1-521. 756.A.. vol. GEORGE. 1889-90.I. F.. 757.. .I..I. S.H... vol. Journal R. REV. vol. THOMAS. 48 MOLYNEUX. STEWART.. : Proc.

.C. HITCHCOCK. pp. was buried in bogs pp... 5th Prehistoric stone forts of central Clare.. MR. vi. Society. 59 DAI. Kil. 63 O'LAVERTY. 62 M'Evov. 288-294. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol. S. Sweat House near Eglish.S.TON.. series.I. pp. 64 O'LAVERTY. 148. Clare the place of inauguration of the Dalcossian Kings. p. 5th series. Ulster Journal of (No. : Bog butter. Society.I. 288-293. pp. R. new series. iv.A. VARIOUS Cyclopean ruins near Hibernicis Dundalk.. Prehistoric stone forts of northern Clare. vol. vol.I. 55 WINDELE. vol. ii.. Journal R. : On a discovery of bog butter. vii.S. pp.S. JAMES: Why butter series.. 180. Collectanea De Rebus Vallancey's 10) Wright's Louthiana. 363-369. p. 60 FRAZER. vii.A. pp. Trans. 175-178.. ? Journal R. Magh Adhair. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. : viii. pp. Journal E... 96. : i.R. Journal E.I. 5th . vol. 356.I. Society. Proc. pp. new series.. iii. : Bog 61 butter.A. R. 58 CLIHHORN.S. W. Clare.. A. vol.A. 142-157. 5tli series.S.. 232-242. 432.I. 240.S. A. RICHARD Discovery of a quantity of bog butter. pp. F. On cashels and stone forts.I. 5th series. MR. vol. The Reliquary. 57 BOQ BUTTER.. IV. S. REV. 4. iv. iv. 357.. Archaeology. 116-127. vol. THOMAS JOHNSTON of : Antiquities Tara. Journal R. vol.. 3rd series.I. p. BIBLIOGRAPHY. vol. S. Proc. 234-235. Prehistoric stone forts of northern 5th series. vol. JOHN : Cahir Conri.A. Journal Kil.A. : i.. Trans. EDWARD : Bog butter. vol. vol. vol.A. 300-321. p.A. 56 WRITERS. ANONYMOUS : Ancient Irish butter.I.. 111-126. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol.. pp. 281-291. 5th series. pp. ii. pp. iv..A.884 54 WESTROPP. 5th series.. JAMES Bog butter.I. A. 55-60. pp. Kil.. vol. 583-8. Co. Journal R. Journal R. vii... vii.

pp. ROBERT : On the Crotal. iii.. vol. 27-29. vol. M. 179-181. 65 SCOTT. Co. 369. : 385 Discovery of bog butter. "4 BALL. 5th series. Ulster Journal Antiquities discovered on the shore of Ballynass Bay.I. Journal R. pp. 351-353. REV. ix.I. Armagh.I. REV. 45.. Kil. 123.. ix. vii. 73 ATKINSON. 350. 46. A. 64-66. 147. p.H. 75 BARRY. pp. 314. pp. Society.A. : 68 WRIGHT. vi. E. 56. pp. pp. Bronze dagger with original handle. 5th series. Cat.. v. vol. . 423-425.... 321. Trans.I. 2. 370. 322.H. Ballinling West.I. 66 STANLEY. 135-6. 191. R..BIBLIOGRAPHY. 4th series. vol. R. pp. 124. ANONYMOUS Ancient bronze brooches. pp.I. new series. : Proc. vol. ROBERT On 'S a discovery of bog butter.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology..R. Dublin Penny Journal.. Journal R. SIR W. Cork..I. GEORGE M. vol. p. vol. vol. 146.. A.. R. R.I. Journal R. 72 ARMSTRONG. REV. Bog butter.. Society. V. Bronze caldrons. 271-277. : 4th series. 69 ALLMAN. pp. ii. pp. Interesting find in Moyntaghs.A. Proc. pp. p. PROFESSOR : BRONZE. S.A. vol. vol. J.. On a bronze sword.H. vol. : Proc. 189. vi.I. v. M..A. found near Castleisland. R. WM.A. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.I. 4th series. On the use of certain antique bronsie articles. ii.A. Mtis.A. vol. iii.I.. vol. A.. butter... 67 WILDE.. 4th Bog Journal R. Proc. R. of Archaeology. : Bronze ring found in a kist. vii. p.. iv. Kil. A. Kerry.. THOMAS : On the discovery of some bog butter. vol. Journal R. H.A. J. Trans.H.I. vol. vol. Co. 70 ANXETELL. A. : On certain bronze antiquities. 638-640. pp.A.. pp. A. Journal R. Ancient copper mine.A. A. iv. A... Co. series. iv.S. 267-269. : A 71 collection of shoes of bronze.

I. 4th series... vi. Find of fragmentary bronze series. Trans. articles. 4th series. 6. vol. EDWARD: On the discovery of iron cores in certain bronze antiquities in the Museum. Proc. v... Journal R..A. Journal R.H. Journal R. p. 77 BERANGER. S. 3rd series.A.I. 117. 19. p. 3rd series. King's County. SIR WILLIAM.A. M. Journal R. viii. 11. JUN.T. 78 BETHAM.H.R. iii. On a bronze leaf-shaped sword found in The Ireland. Journal R. Society. 65. ARTHUR.I. vol. GABRIEL: Bronze implement.. ROBERT.I.D: Ancient trumpets dug up in a bog near Armagh.386 76 BELL..... Discovery of a hoard of bronze antiquities. Proc. 4th series. Trans. Journal R.A. iii. A. pp.. WILLIAM : BIBLIOGRAPHY.I. pp. vol. iii. . Journal R.A.. i. pp. vol. 4th series.I. 4th Journal R. pp. Proc. pp. R. Dublin Penny Journal. vol. : 81 CARKUTHEHS. i. vol.H. 65. 3-6. R.. 123. 23-25..A. 83 COFFEY..H.. R. A. Instrument of bronze. vol. A. A. x. SAMUEL ARTHUR 4th series. A. On stone hammers from old copper mines. 324 George Petrie. i.H. I.I. : On an 79 astronomical instrument. L.pp.I. xvii. pp. 12.H.. R.C. 422-432. B KEN AN. 4th series. 84 COOKE. I. vi.. 266. 20.F. A. p. A. 86 DILLON. A. p. I. i.I. A. HON. vol. vol. Supposed workshop of bronze 439.I. R. iv. pp. DR. Journal R. vol. 4th series. 281.I. A. with bone haft.. pp. A. Irish bronze war trumpets. iii... A. Reliquary. Bronze leaf-shaped sword. 124. vol.A.A. viii.. p. articles. R. 299-301. I.I. : Bronze antiquities found vol. vol. pp.. REV. 82 CLIBBORN. GEORGE : Classification of spear-heads of the bronze age. 253-268. GERALD : Bronze leaf-shaped sword. 85 DAY. vol.. MR. A.. M. : at Downs. retaining the original bone handle. Proc. On ring money... A.H..I. pp. A. 80 BKOWNK. 64. 423-440.H.A. pp.I. A. vol.H. Kil. 66.R.. A. vi.. vol. A. 120.. THOMAS L.. R. : Trans. pp. A.. vol. 486-510. vol. 263. Bronze sword.

H. pp.. Journal Geologica Society. Classification bronze Arch. R. 89 Du NOYER. 279-285.. Mayo. 87 DONOVAN. D. vol. 91 ENNISKILLEN. 566. 327-337. F. 463-470. vol. 246-248. : 887 Analysis of the gold-coloured bronze antiquities found at Dowris. GEORGE V. 4th series. pp. called sickles of bronze found in Ireland. Journal R. M. 565.I. vol.I..A. Arch. The ancient bronze implements. B. Classification : of bronze of arrow-heads.I. London.C. 157. . Proc.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 90 EDITOR ULSTER JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY #~*" : African and Irish fibulae.A. : vi. On two bronze fibulae. 2nd series Proc. Ulster Journal of Archeeology. 187.A.. pp.A.. : Bronze shields.A. Bronze pin found near Ballymoney. A. 103. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol. Armagh. 258. vol. R...I.C. 777.. pp. On So three bronze celts found in Co. Proc. Journal R. S. 4th series... Journal R. p. Bone-hafted bronze sword. 348. 437. JAMES. celts... weapons and Britain and Ireland. iv.. REV. : Interesting find of a bronze vessel in the Monttaghs. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. &c. 2nd series.. 1-6. 438. W. 417-423. HAUGHTON. 778. C.. 4th series. p. : ornaments of Great 93 FRAZER. pp. King's Country.. 347. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 488. EARL OF : Bronze sword. pp. pp. 95 Journal R.R. 487.. vol. 281-283.I. 5th series. 4th series. v. A. pp. REV. pp. JOHN. Bronzc-hafted dagger. vol iv. vi. SAMUEL Geological and : Statistical Notes on Irish Mines. iv. vii. 94 GRAVES. and a dagger hilt of bronze. v. A. Archaeology. 257. G. Journal R.A. vol... pp.. vol. pp. ii.. Ulster Journal of Bronze spear-head.H. Co.H.. 92 EVANS. 186. pp. 1881. vol. Proc.I. iii. vol. vol.I. R.. v. IT.. Journal.A. 116. pp. On two bronze fibulae.L. 88 DUGAN. pp. A. v. ii. W. vol. vol. A.. : On presenting some Antiquities to the Academy. vii. County Antrim. R.I.A. vol. 104.S. pp..I.A. Journal. 381-390.. vol. iv. W.H. 96 HEMANS.I.

: On the age of the various stone and bronze antiquities found during the Shannon Navigation operations. 155.. J. xxii. A. COLONEL H. 99 JONES. oth series. Antrim. ROBERT: Ancient Irish trumpets. vol. Donegal 5th Series. vi. pp. vi. C.. vol. viii. Society. p. Society.H. Journal R. R. vol. and Ant. J. vol. : On a magnificent specimen of an antique bronze caldron.I. M. pp. A.. MAURICE. LAMB. i. pp...I.. bronze celt. : Trans. S.I. 4th series. p. 59.I. : Journal R. A. W. C. vol.I.R.P.. Report on some recent finds in Co. 103 LENIHAN.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol. pp. A. 100 KNOWLES.E. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 108 MALLET....H. G.. P.. A. vol.. D. ii.A. Lit. Society. REV.I. 264-267. A. 68. A. A. 156. Kil.. J. vol.E. vol. M.I. ii. . vol... R. pp. Pol. I.. pp. Proc. : Finds of bronze weapons.A. A.. 175-178. GEOKGE : Bronze caldron found at Cape Castle. 4th series. ix.. 484. pp. 107 M'Nui/TY.A. 106 M'EvoY. 4th series. pp. 58. Trans. D. A. On certain Antiquities. 98 HITCHCOCK. R. i. vol. 132. 131. -Proc.. R.888 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY. pp. 20-23. Observations relative to a rare example of an ancient shield. Journal R. 102 LANGTKY. A. : Trans.H. &c. new series. v. Kil. 4th series. PATRICK. 107-113. 4th series.I. vol. 382. pins. Journal R. Kil. pp. Antrim. 101 Journal R.I. pp. A. pp. W. i.A. : Report on the chemical examination of antiquities from the Museum.A.. 105 MACADAM. as bearing on the antiquity of man in Ireland. J. : On the discovery of bronze celts..R. 104 LONG.... Brazen cauldron. A. R. 99-110.H.. Proc.I.I. S. Journal E. Recent find in Co. 118-121. : iv..H.I. Co. 394-396. On two bronze 67.. : Bridle bit of bronze. Trans.A. vol. HEWSON. vol. R. 485.A. iii. vol. 82-90. pp. iii. iii. R. 313. On an ancient bronze shield.A.

. W. 25. and Ant. vol.I. I. Lit. Journal R.A. I. vol. vol. : ii.. A.I.BIBLIOGRAPHY. A. iii. G. H. 4th series.. 4th series.H. vii. Ancient bronze implement. pp. JOHN : Bronze reaping-hook. p. I. 287. i.L. 11. A. 88.H. 117 O'LAVERTV. vol. THOMAS : Bronze dagger with oaken handle i. 167. 181. pp.H. 4th MOKE. 120 PATTEHSON. vol. Pol.. vol. in the County of Limerick in the pp. JAMES: Journal R. vii.... vi.A.L. 26. RALPH : Account of three metal trumpets found year 1788. pp. ! Proc.. vol. vol. 113 O'CoxNELL.H. Society..H. vol.I. pp. pp. vi. Journal R. 'DONOVAN.A. vol. and anvil of bronze. iv. A. iv. R. new series. F. Relative antiquity of stone and bronze weapons. Ulster Journal of 118 O'LKARY. 4th series. 4th series. : Journal ll. i. Trans..I.H. vol.. Journal R. Cavan.I.. 110 MILLIGAN. Archaeology. Co. Journal R. 148-152. pp.H. Journal R. A. vol.. : 339 On an ancient bronze object. Journal Kil. 116 0' GORMAN. 4th series. pp. 3-6.A. JAMES. R. 3rd series. vol. 108. 115 Journal R. crannogs in the Co.A. On 111 series. 164-168. A. vol. 122-127. 166..A. Antrim. A. 109 MARTIN. : Bronze sword and axe.I. i..I. DENIS A. SEATON F. A. Dublin Penny Journal..I. 119 OUSLEY. R. still attached. ix.. REV. Proc... pp. A. A..S. 163. MAURICE : An 114 account of certain antiquities presented to the Academy. Contents of a sepulchre of the bronze period...A. 11? NORREYS. 277-279.. R. O'DONOVAN OF LlSSAKD Curious object composed of ivory and bronze. : Hammer p. 89. pp.. M. 286. pp.A. SIR DENHAM JEPHSON: Observations on the mode of constructing a remarkable Celtic trumpet in the Museum.H. A. 12. v. p. A. 182. . A. 4th series.D.. 538..A. Bronze hatchet found near Stoneyford.

vol. 130 STANLEY.. : On Journal of the a find of bronze implements in County "Waterford. Kil. Journal Kil. of Ireland Archaeological Society. 47-53. iii. A. Society. 59.I. 96. GEORGE H. A. vol. 237-246. 195. EEV. Ancient Irish war club. Society. Trans. : Observations on some brass celts and other weapons discovered in Ireland.. ii. 84-95. R. p. Historical sketch of the past and present state of the Fine Arts in Ireland. vol. Proc. ii. "W... 128 ROIHNSON. Society. 287. iii. T. A.A. 122 PEGGE. . pp. 4th series. vol. 388.. 423. On two bronze Antiques. Waterford S. D. REV. Antiquities discovered on trenching a rath. Enamelled bridle-bit and boss of bronze. 123 PETRIE.. i. vol. REV. A.. i. T. 129 SEARANKE.. A. ii. pp. C. A. p. 376. Archaeologia. Dublin Penny Journal. I. vol. p. fibulae. vol. Trans. new series. vol. A. Proc.H.. vol. 127 RICHARDSON. i. Kil. REV. Dublin Penny Journal. pp.. skull. new series. Journal Kil. On some bronze and other antiquities. A. 27-30. : Bronze spear-head found embedded in a human Society... 422. 83. 53. GEORGE : Ancient Irish bells or crotals. 307.L. 308. iv. 97.I. Kil. P. vol. 32.. iv.. REV. Ancient Irish trumpets. pp.H.. vol. Journal Kil. 194. ii. pp. vol. 438.. Trans. new series. A. JOHN G. iii. M.340 121 PEAKSON. 154. pp. J. Society. : Journal R. B1BLIO GRA PHY. pp. 389. i. i.A. R. : On certain antiquities presented to the Academy. 1780. S.. J. p. : Bronze pin found in a bog. p.D.. 153. 124 POWER. iv. On two bronze p.. ix. vol. new series. A. pp. p. 125 PRIM. Contents of an ancient bronze vessel found in the King's County. vol..A.. 4th series. Dublin Penny Journal. pp. Society. Society. pp.. vol. vol. vol. 126 READE. R. Journal R.-E. ii. iv. vol. W. Dublin Penny Journal. new series. Journal Kil. : Ancient bronze antique. : Discovery of a number of bronze antiques. A. pp. new series. 20. 84.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.I. G. 204. vol. VII 139 ADAMS.H. 4th series. 438.H. 133 WOOD-MARTIN. 3rd series. vol. Society of Ireland. v. vol. 4th series. pp.. A. 439.S. vol. pp. Index.I. 357-366.. 39. 4th Observations on bullans. MACNAMAKA. vi. under Bronte.A.. Journal R. Journal R. : CAVES. or rock basin. A. M. GEORGE V. COL.A. vol. Journal E. R. vol. 205. 4th series. Co.. 5th series.A. pp. A. R.. A. vol.A. : Kilmannan Bullan. p. 170-172.I..R. R.I. on the exploration 140 ADAMS. 137 MARTIN. On the bullan.A. 4th series. USSHEK.I.: Journal R. . viii. vol.H. 135 KINAHAN. OnbulKns.S.H..H. i. A.. 195-198. "Wexford.. : Journal R.. pp. F.A. p.. p. Proc.. .-BULLANS. 136 Journal R.I. F. F. W. 97-99. associated with traces of Man. iii. 131 VIGORS. vol.. On the original handle of a fine bronze rapier.I.. JAMBS. v. 4th series. : Notes on the discovery of a bone cave containing remains of the Irish Journal Royal Geological Elk. WAKEMAN. N. vol.. Journal R.R. 155-160.A. A. pp... 257-264. PROFESSOR LEITH of. I. A. : iii. new series. I.I. : Bronze pins. 132 WAKEMAN. M. W.I.. On bullans or stone basins.H. p. A. J.. 174. pp. 841 COLONKL PHILIP D. : vii. vi. f 4th series.I.A. Slings and sling stones. LEITH. A.. 79.. xxvi.. Journal R. series. Double bullan. 138 Journal R. G. 187. 439. . apparently of whalebone also a bronze dagger with its haft of the same metal still attached.H. A. Ornamented bronze celt. H.. Probable use of bullans for bruising grain. M.H.I.A. A.D. W. vol.A.. vol... pp.. vol.I. 4th series. ii.H. vi. p.. Journal R.A. i.A. 214. \JL.R. Shandon Cave. 4th series.I. Trans. A. vol. 258-261. pp. 4th series. On two ancient brooch pins.A.A. : See Lake Dwellings of Ireland. pp.H. S. v. Journal R.

152 PETRIE. vol..I. pp.R. ANONYMOUS : African and Irish fibulae... Sligo. 395-397. 151 O'NEILL: Irish crosses. T. v. A. pp. Fermanagh. : Irlande et cavernes Anglaises. A. . pp.. 1-5. appendix to report.. WILLIAM.. xiv. R. pp. THOMAS: account of the exploration of Knockmore Caves. i. 145 PETRIE. and Arch. Knockmore. iii. vol. i. WALKER On : the clothing of the Irish. M. Society. x. 327-329... vol. R. p.. VIII. i. 149 MACADAM. vol. 131-140. : 142 GRAY. . : cavern.. 1877-9. Pol. Royal Dublin Society. Ireland.. Co. : The Caves 146 PLUNKETT. MACALISTKR. 143 HAUGHTON. vol. Geological and Archaeological questions connected with the North of Belfast Nat. ix. detailed A Fermanagh. W. vol.D. DR.R. DR. 1829. pp. vol. vol. A. and Ant. iv. series 2. PROFESSOR. M. Journal of the Cork Hist. 147 WAKEMAN. i. 433. The Irish Penny Journal.S. Exploration of the Knockninny Cave. pp. REV. 150 O'KELLY. vol. F. PROFESSOR.. Exploration of the Knockninny Cave. Journal Royal Geological Society of Ireland. An inscribed Cavern at F. REV. Cave of Knockmore. vol.. . A.I. 246-248.. ii. A.. CANON : The Mitchelstown Caves. pp.I. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. BIBLIOGRAPHY. R.. Co. vol. 2nd series. 294-300. Proc.A. M.I. Proc. Proc. pp. Proc.. Paris. 144 MARTEL. A. A. pp. new series. 148 CLOTHING. Co. .I.. pp. R. 465-483. 329-334.D. Proc. Field Club..842 141 COURTENAY. Lit. ROBERT : Ancient leather cloak.: Dublin Philosophical Journal. PLUNKETT. : M. E.. x. x. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 1825. 10.I. R. 153 vol. pp. vol. 9. 229-232. 346-348. Proc. of Kish-Coran.

136-139.. Society. GEORGE. 101. vi. Journal Kil. 369. Archaeology.A. vol. pp. 659-666. vol.. vol. p. A. p. RICHARD (and other writers) : On 162 sepulchral remains. Society. new GEORGE R.. R. R. 144.. 97... Co. Journal Kil.E. A. On a cairn excavated by Thomas Plunkett. REV. 161 COOK. S.. pp.I. 3rd series. 108. Down.. WILLIAM.. vol. Society. : Cinerary urns discovered near Dundrum. vol.. 155 ARMSTRONG. 128 : 160 COFFEY. vol'.. Discovery of some cinerary series.. ^ Ancient sepulture discovered in the Co. Dublin Penny Journal. Down. Proc. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. COURTOWN. JAMES: On some vol. Meath. iv. pp. vol. ix. 747-752. in the Co. Journal K. pp. Antiquities of Co. pp. Ulster Journal of . antiquities found near Belfast. pp. Antrim. Dublin Penny Journal. vol. iv. pp. A.. Co. series. 164. Proc. 51. iv. H.R.A.I. Journal Kil. Society. ii. EARL OK: Discovery of a cinerary urn. Remarkable ancient cemetery. EDWARD : Curious discovery of a cinerary urn. vol. vol. 133. on Belmore mountain. R. 189. A. 216-220. iii. A. Ulster Journal of 159 CARRUTHERS. : Ancient earthenware vessel.-Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 98. Kil. 190.. iv.. 145. Fermanagh. 156 BEAUFORD. 127.. R.A. A. p. pp. REV. 111-113. Trans. 158 BUICK. iv. Prehistoric burial. Double cist. Co. 134. 102. iii. : Proc. 5th series. i. ix.. v.I. new 163 EDITOR. grave and remains recently discovered at Oldbridge. vol. Down. Discovery of urns in Co. new new series..I. pp.. A.. ULSTER JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY : Remarkable ancient cemetery Archaeology. Society. Kildare in the year 1788. WM. A. vol. 157 BENN.. M. i.I. pp. pp. 111-113. pp. Trans.BIBLIOGRAPHY. vii. vol. Journal Kil. 370. 848 154 ANONYMOUS : Ancient urns. A. iii. pp. fictilia. K. series.I.. 3rd series. vol. vol.

vol. : Journal Co.I. 161-162. REV. A. vol. 744. pottery from the 5th series. : 173 KNOWLES. On antiquities in the neighbourhood of Drumdarragh.A. Society.H. v. M. Co.A. J. Journal R. A. vol. Journal R. Journal R. 4th series.. M. REV. ii. R. series. vol.I. Cinerary urns found at Danesfort. 166 GEOGHF. Antrim. pp. J. 169. H. p. 204.. BIBLIOGRAPHY. W. 760.A... ix.I.. Discovery of several sepulchral urns. M. R. pp. A.. Dublin.A.844 164 FRENCH. new series. pp. Prehistoric Journal Sandhills. The sandhills of Ballintoy. pp. vol. 374-380.I. REV.... 4th series.H. : On fragments of two large iii.A. vol. 4th series...I.I. 29.H. 4th series. County Wicklow.A. 304.. 172 KlNAHAN.A. I. Society.A. x. Kil. new series.. 107-113.. WILLIAM : Ancient burial. Antrim. vol.. : Earthen vases found at Palmerston. pp. Cinerary urn found in the parish of Adamstown. A. 5th series. A.A.H.. A. new 285. pp.H. 201-205. : Trans. 30. vol. Journal Kil. and its antiquity pp. Notice of an urn found at Ballykale. vol.. G.. A. Wexford. : 168 GKAVES. p. J.A. p. ix. 169 GRAY. F. Wexford.R. 4th series. A. W. pp. 19.I. H. 759.. fictile vessels. A. THOMAS in : Urn found 171 HASSE. ii. one with a cover or lid. Urn-burial on the site of Monasterboice. 5th series.. 243-255. Proc..A.I. Journal Kil. Belfast Nat. 170 GREEN. Journal R.GAN. series. 165 FKAZEK.I. pp.. 336-340.D. 168. : Journal R.A. Report on some recent "finds" in Co. Co.I. vol. Co. A.S.. p.' LEONARD. Journal R..I.A. i.. County Antrim.A.I.H. 20. pp. ix. 305. Trans. p. iii. Discovery of cinerary fictilia. 4th series.. vol. Co.R. JAMES Trans. Cinerary urns found in the parish of Adamstown. iv. 70. Wexford. vol. Journal R. 1897. A. 145-150. 74. v. Journal R. vol.. Co.R.. M. S. R. p. iv. Hist.. R.S.I. I. vol. pp. A.A. On some peculiarities in sepulchral urns. pp. vol. Louth. Kil. Society. . ARTHUR GERALD: An Journal R.A. 1887. 4th series. Society. ii.. Proc.H.I. Society.. iii. Notes on some megalithic structures and other ancient remains. 167 GLASCOTT. 4th account of an interesting fictile vessel. vol. and Phil. viii. 17.H. M.

.D. v.S. DD 187. ornamented. 176 LECKY. vessel. A. 845 M. ii. pp. T. highly ornamented urn of small size. VOL. 446.. : Cinerary urns found at Tallaght. REV. 401.. II. : Discovery of an urn. Field Club. Journal R. oth series. 184 MOOBE. 481. 400. SEATON Cist and urn found near Carrickfergus. : On On Journal R. vol. pp.A. series. Co. 182 MARTIN. iii. a perfect and 183 MILLEN. Journal R. 178 LETT. 10. 4th series. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp.I. 382. new series. 2 A . vol. On a fictile vessel curiously 4th series.. A. Trans.. F. 183AMiLLiGAN. : On an urn and the fragment of another.. iv. vol. Carlow. Society. WILLIAM: Urn burial. Proc.. M. vol.H. 86.. i. iv. 188. H. W. Ireland. pp. A. : iv. vi. A. 2nd 179 LONGFIBLD. vi. vol. A. vol.I. R..D... W.A. 3rd series.A. 252. JOHN: Discovery of a fictile. 4th series. pp. I. Kil. A. 4th series. Journal Kil. p. 12. 180 M'NULTY. a cinerary urn. Journal Kil..A A I vol v 175 LAWLER. : Excavations made in the pagan cemetery at Ballon Hill.A. J.I. 55. M. Society.I. 13.. 271.H.I. 4th series.K. vol. pp. 328. p.. v.A. Dublin. vol. ix. ii.. and urn discovered near Coleraine.. 253. 1879-1881.H. pp.. vol. pp. 210. M. MR.BIBLIOGRAPHY. series. Journal R. H. new series.I. JAMES. vol.. : On two cinerary urns found at Magheralin.H. ii. vol.A. 56. pp. 437. A. JOHN: Cinerary urns discovered at Columbkill.A. 177 LKNTAIGNE. new Journal Kil..A. 270. vol. Society. Fictile vessel : found in Co. vol. Society. 181 MALCOMSON.H. &c. A. R. 436. : Description of a discovery of kists. 430. vol. Proc.. R. vi. new series. pp. 174 LALOR. 329.. Journal R. 447. 87. p.. 209. Belfast Nat. R. Journal R.

H.I. Report on the excavation of Topped mountain 3rd series. HENRY A. pp. pp. 4th series.E. v. : Observations on some sepulchral urns. A. 507.I. COLONEL P.. A. THOMAS. J. S.. 116. 520. 195 UPTON. A. County Dublin..A. Society. I. ii. Belmont. v. 523. J.A.. 384. new series. ROTHERAM.A. GEORGE. M. On certain antiquities. vol. viii. A. 4th series. 4th series. vol. Cinerary urn found series. Prehistoric remains discovered at Broughderg. vol. Proc. iv. A..H. 338-347. pp. vol. I. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.. vol. F. J. vol. Tyrone. On a cist and urns found at Greenhills. : Two 191 sepulchral vases. Tyrone.. pp.I. pp. 197 Journal R... 183-200. R. pp. 193 SIGERSON. pp. pp. Journal R. vol.A.I. 259-261. Pol.. 2nd series.. 115. 186 PATTERSON. HUBAND : Cinerary urns discovered in the Hill of Rath. iv. 388. near Drogheda. E.. i.. 184.. Proc. vol. : fine Discovery of a remarkably vol.I. AND COFFEY.I.I. Co. Belfast. 389. Journal R.. and 194 SMITH.H.A. A. iv. vol. : Ancient grave in the County Carlow. Journal R. T. i. Kil. 3rd series. : Trans. CROFTON Remains of urn found in a Cavan bog. Proc. near Omagh. G. R. 196 VIGORS. On a pagan cemetery at Drumnakilly. near vol. Journal R. pp. 499-513.A. : 188 PLTJNKETT.R. 435. S. vol.A. R. Journal R. pp. : Notice of a chambered earn at Cavancarragh. : : 187 PERCEVAL. 491-494.A. A. v. 522. near Belfast. . 185.. A. Fictile vessel found at Altegarron. fictile vessel.. pp.I.I. v.A.346 185 NEART. Journal R.H. MR..H. I. Proc. 4th series. A... pp. 5th series. Proc. 506. Journal R. A. pp.. ii. S.. vol.. On some antiquarian discoveries in Co. Tallaght. : graves..A. 177. W. R. pp. R..H. 4th series. Fermanagh.. ii. viii. 189 PLTTNKETT. Journal R. vol. 657.. p. : Journal R. near Wexford. M. 4th series. LT. 740-744. H... Co. D. Lit. Cavan. ii.I. A. p. 658.I. On some prehistoric 387-389. 5th 385. &c. W. 234. 190 PRIM. R..H. 14-19.. GEORGE: cairns. A. WAKEMAN. A. Ant. vol. 434. A. S. JOHN G..I.. J. See also under Lake Dwellings. series. vi. Co. pp. REV.D. Discovery of cinerary urn at Campbell College. S. 5th 192 SEARANKE. I.. 4th series. BIBLIOGRAPHY. vol.A.-COL.

vol. ROBERT : Means used vol. R. X.R. 294-300. v. I. REV.. vol. Proc. Society. R. 198 847 WALSH.R. pp. series 2. 128. pp. : ANONYMOUS Flint implements found in the gravel near Whitehead. vol. pp. series 2. Belfast investigate the Gravels of Ballyrudder. Journal R. pp. 202 BALL. iii. : workshop flint Journal R. vol. ii. vol. pp. Belfast Nat. vol.. Field Club.. COLONEL W. vol. REV.H. 1867.A.. 36.I. R. Journal Kil. JAMES: Antiquities found near Belfast.. Antrim. of the knife in pp. L.. A. series 2. and determine the position in them of the Flint Flakes and Cores for Proc.. R. II. Praeger. A. Nat. A. 120-126. : See Lake Dwellings of Ireland.. 511-513. (1st Report) : Proc.I.. Field Club. vol. Co. Sec.D. Co. R. I. A. pp. pp. Field Club..Committee appointed to Proc.. The development 4th series.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 200 WOOD-MARTIN. 206 CARRUTHERS. pp. SIR W. 205 BUICK. pp. Field Club. A. Belfast Nat. 296-298. vol. Report of a Committee of Investigation on the Gravels and associated beds of the Curran at Larne.I. v. : Sepulchral urn found in the parish of Kilbride. Proc. 198-210. A. Report of the Sub. A. 201 FLINT AND STONE IMPLEMENTS.. new series.A.. EDWARD : Flint implements. 4th series. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. flint.. 35. 6. 204 BENN. 199 WILDE. G.. vol. under Fictilia. FIELD CLUB Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Larne Gravels. iii.S. 241-248.. 127. M. R.. which they are noted. iii. ROBERT.. A. Flint Irish GEORGE RAPHAEL. 169-194. 41-63.... Proc.I. ii. LL. 518-525. viii. Belfast Nat. pp. sites. 519-530.A. Praeger.. pp. for attaching handles to stone implements.I. vi. M. iv. . Antrim. 2nd Report. 203 BELFAST NAT. pp. Journal U. 7. :> Catalogue Mus. L. M. Sec. R. Index. arrow-heads.A.I. 5th series. Cinerary urn found near Bagnalstown.I. i. A.

220.A. i. R. viii. On two flint celts. 44-48. 294. : Danish spear-head. ROBERT. 342. 505.I.I.I. M.848 207 CLIBHORN.A. 176.. Journal R.. 640.. and ornaments of Great Britain. Antrim. 4th series.A. iii. pp. vol.I. Worked G.. Society. Belfast Nat. iv.K. WILLIAM. 324-333. I. Proc. new series. vol. 4th series.H. pp. 388-390. v. Co.. Flint flakes from the neighbourhood of Belfast. series ii..A..K.R. v. E. vol. 287-289. 138. 293. A. Sandstone mould. vol.I. ix.. S. Rough flint celts of the Co. xii.. vol.H.A. Field Club. 1868. pp.. 3rd series. : Character and distribution of the rudely-worked flints of the North of Ireland. vol..H. Stone implements in Lough Neagh... pp. pp.. i. vol. R. JOHN. 212 FFRESCH.. 2. 147. 227. vol. 1882. ii. Probable age of flint instruments found in gravel beds.. : 211 EVANS. vol.I.H. A. Journal R. 228.A. 210 Du NOYEK. A. v. A. Field Club. A. REV. Journal R. pp. Journal Kil.S. 213 FUAZER.H. p. On flints from the gravels. Proc.S. 548.. pp. A. pp. 287. pp. Proc. vol. P.A.A... : BIBLIOGRAPHY.. ix. : flints. 343.. R. Ancient stone implements. 4th series. Antrim raised beaches. 4th series. F. V. pp.. F. Stone celts found near Belfast.H. pp.S. 216Polished stone implement. pp. 380.C. pp. A. Journal Royal Geological Society of Ireland. Journal R. Belfast Nat. 307. F. W. weapons. new series. 506. &c. of the pre-Adamite Theory. : Stone mould. vol. 148. J.. i.I. 109-143. Field Club. A. vol. Journal R. vol. JUN. of Archaeology. Journal Kil. 397-408. 5th series... 214 GRAY. S. new series. 289-291. 5th series. London.A. Small hammers. i. 1883. 308. 4th series. F. pp. Archseologia.S. Contains a bibliography of papers on the subject up to date.I. ancient and modern.I.. A. Belfast Nat. : Journal R. 1866. vol. Proc. pp. Field Club.A. i.A. &c. I.H..I. vol. M : Small object in stone. 288.. p. Flint implements fotmd on Toome Bar. 108-113. 4th series. pp. vol. Belfast Nat. 3rd series. vii. pp.. pp. The rudely-worked flints of Antrim and Down.I.. Worked flints. Journal R. The Flint-Flake Foundation . A. Society.. 5th series. 545. 1872. Ulster Journal 208 CODY. 209 DAY. vol. Journal R..A. series ii..

: 216 HITCHCOCK. AND COFFEY.I. iv. vii.. 154. pp. Journal R. pp. iii.H. vol. pp. Belfast Nat. 221 O'LAVERTY: Relative antiquity of stone and bronze weapons. vol.I. 126-128.. Journal R. 4th series.I. Survivals from the Palaeolithic Irish Neolithic implements.. 497-502.52. On a primitive Stone Implement. British Assocation Meeting. : Flint implements found at Ballymisert... Belfast Nat.. voliii.K.. Journal R. 188. 113. LEONARD: Classification of flint flakes 849 Antrim. : Belfast.H.I. J. Co. A.. i. On the age of the various stone antiquities found during the Shannon Navigation operations. v. pp.A. pp. Dublin.. H. A.A. 217 KNOWLES. Proc. celts. 341-348. and Phil. vol. 219 M'Nui/TY. ROBERT: Stone battleaxe. 383.A.. R. W. A. 651-658. 1880. Journal R. pp. 155. Flints from the raised beach at Lame.. S. 410-414. 4th series.A.. Tracked stones. 383. ii. series ii. vol. 166. Journal R. Worked 1878 . 5th scries.I. Flint implements of the N. 153-158.E.A. 5th series. 4th series. 165. Society. S. vol. : Trans. vol. ^*~. R. R. Proc.A.A. Archaeology. Journal R.H.. vi.. series ii. 3rd series. vii. pp.A.I. &c.. Flint arrow-head with wooden shaft attached. pp. S. 4th series. pp. vi. Down. Antrim. vol.I.E.A. 384. vol. 215 HASSE. iv. vol.i. Journal R.A. Flint arrow-head with portion of shaft and ligature of sinew.I. &c.I. vol. pp.. 382. Site for worked flints. R. Stone axes and chisels.I..I..A. pp.R. vol. 222 PATTERSON. Sheffield. M.S..I. p. 3rd series. iii. 223 PLUNKETT. vol. viii. GEORGE: Report on the excavation of Topped mountain cairns. A. Field Club. Ulster Journal of Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 5th series. Co. found on the raised beach at Carnlough.. C. 4th series. vol.. 1-18. 4. 220 MACADAM.. Proc. Proc. 1874. stone pp..BIBLIOGRAPHY. 233. : Graves. Field Club. ix... vii. Belfast Nat.. REV.. THOMAS.H.. 264-267.I. 122127. vol. Journal R. 5th series. A. ii. Society. Journal R. S. Journal R.. 5th series. pp. pp. flints. pp..A. M...I. vol. Kil.H. Irish flint saws. 371. Journal R...A. 539-542. 5th series.. "W. Hist.A. S. On a find of worked flints in submerged peat at Portrush. ii. vol. of Ireland.A. 218 LONG. pp.. J. 189.A. pp. Flint flakes in the Ballyrudder gravels.I. vol. Age among 140-163. p. &c. . Co. 1879.

Pol. xvii. 228 TENISON. 4th series. p. W. 425-427.. 59. 42. flints found on a raised beach. pp. pp. Journal R.A.." All the Year 259-264. pp. A.I. 183-200. Cavan. Jack. J.. vol. 357-366. vol. Slings and sling stones. 314. i. new series. p.. ii. vol. 5th series. Journal R. : Journal R. pp..S. Journal R. Journal R. 1868-1869. Proc. A.H. 4th series. : Journal R. R.. F.I. W.... Journal R. 160-171. 60. 5th series. 3rd series.A. vol. Lit. Inscribed stone on Callan mountain.I.A. v. S. . 234 BENN.. Proc. : Worked 227 STAPLES... Society. 205-7.H. 229 VIGOUS. CROFTON: Discovery of flint implements.. pp.A. LL... J. : Down. vol. Kil.. pp. i.H. new series. p. : i. 663. 171. These beads were part of the cargo of a ship wrecked on the beach.A. Flint knife. and worked flints in the gravel. 77. 4th series. and Ant. vol. : Holy wood. A.I..I. 4th series.. Remarkable stone spear-head.I. pp. viii. A. 155-157. R. pp.I. Society. Antiquities discovered in the Co. i. pp. 231 WRITERS. J. vol. 235 FEKGUSOX." vol. W.. 225 BOTHERAM E.850 224 RAPHAEL. A. Trans. A. (and other writers): Discovery of a number of glass beads on the seashore. VARIOUS : Geological Survey Memoirs. 446-448. 226 SIMPSON. T. vi. Co. of collections of arrow-heads. 5th series pp.D. vol. 202. THOMAS On stone celts. 232 ANONYMOUS Flint : FORGERIES. SAMUEL. Arrangement vol.A. Field Club. : Stone antiquities. XI.A. Proc. ii. GEORGE: BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 230 WAKEMAN. COLONEL PHILIP D.. Flaked. E. 233 BELCHER. v. A.. 258-261. A. 76.A.I. Co.I. S.. vol.H. v. vii. H..D.. 4th series. vol. 95. Journal Kil. M. I. A. &c. R. chipped. pp. Cork. Round.. Belfast Nat.H. Stone celts as found in Ireland. vol.

300-304. 353. Flint Jack and his work. cist. Journal Royal Geological Society of Ireland.A. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. wolf. 10. 4th series.. W. Bear] Irish elk. W. i. 236 FLANAGAN. 4. 1872.... G. W. vii. p. 123. Alpine hare. 431.A. p. dog. 1876. horse.. sheep. A. vol. J. 53. : Inscription in the Co.. and modern forgeries. 187. Counterfeit antiquities. 240 JEWITT. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 1877.. 430. F.. Kil.R. 170. Belfast Nat. pp. 122. part series 4. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. dog. COLONEL Flint Jack. Trans.H.A. Field Club.. vol.BIBLIOGRAPHY. : Flint Jack. p. Kilkenny. red deer.. 118-123. 246. viii.A.H.I. THEOPHILUS See Ogham. fox. 1878. red deer dog. vol. FOSSIL MAMMALIA. bear. A. Teeth of the elk found in a 408. 4th series. vol. horse. fox. vol. i. 1873. LEITH. 1 1. : Journal R. vol. Journal R.I.. wild Alpine hare.R. 9. vol. vol. viii. ii. p. The Reliquary vol. mammoth.-Dublin Penny Journal. Belfast Nat.A. a memoir and an appeal (with portrait). bear. Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. new vol. 1879. 238 GRAY. 242 WOOD-MARTIN. vol. reindeer.R. : 351 237 GRAVES.I.. .. JAMES : Supposed inscription on Tory pp. L. LEWELLYNN 65-76.D. 241 TIGHE. xxvi.I.A. xv.. n.I. i.. pp. 211. Irish Irish wolf p. 0' Flanagan. i. : 239 KNOWLES. pp. XII. M. Field Club. REV. wolf. and goat.. WILLIAM Counterfeit bronze sword. vol. cattle. vol. Society.. --Irish antiquities 1873. new series. 170.S.H. Archseologia. : Hill. M. p. M. 5. p. p. pp. A. pp. xviL.A. Journal Royal Geological Society of Ireland. vol. 177. pp. Irish elk. xiv. Journal R. series 2. 1841. Penny Journal. new series 5. 51-53. 244 ANONYMOUS : Dog. boar. 4th series. : 243 ADAMS..

PROF. Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland.. 166. 252 CANE. Cattle. WILLIAM H. 155159. vol... pp. pp. 1844. x. p.G. i. : 245 BAILEY. 248 BLYTHE.. cattle. and 416-420. W. p. 151. 1880. M. &c.S.. Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. Journal of the Royal Dublin Society. p. Early Man : in Britain. Idem. 1878. Meg. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Irish elk. p. pp. bear.. Trans. 1859. pp.. pp. : Trans.D. pi. F. vol. 114-119. : Alpine hare. 1859. 1864. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.R. 255 CODY. 658.S... Society. (Reprint of a previous Paper. vol. mammoth.. new series 5. : 249 BOYD-DAWKINS. vol. F. Kil. EDWARD Contemporary existence of man and the Cer. p.. Journal of the Royal pp. vol.A. REV. ii. Dublin.S. p.-xm. Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland.. ) Bear. p.. R. Hib.852 BIBLIOGRAPHY. vol.) British Association Reports.. Bear. Irish elk. 214. (Reprint of previous Paper. bear. and 173-4. and p. mammoth. 494-500. reindeer. v. Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland. vol.. p. PATRICK : Head of Cer.D Annals of Natural History. . vol. M. vol. &c. Alpine hare. xv. horse. vii. i. Meg. 173. 253 CAKTE. Society. reindeer. 1878. iii. i. 541. M. : Irish elk.. 344-350. ROBERT. DR. Cattle. A. new series 5. vol. reindeer. A. 1863. sheep and goat. LL. M. E.. Natural History Review. vi. 1859. vol. 250 BREXAN. A. (Ballintoy Caves. Hib.. 254 CLOSE. Idem. Reindeer.) 251 BRYCE. 1864. 1839. JAMES : Horse. Society. xv. Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. 253. i. Kil. 1850. horse. : vol. : Journal Kil... Irish elk. reindeer. new series. 246 BALL. vol.. x.. reindeer.G. Irish fossil deer.D. pp. A. xi.-xii. mammoth. ii. 50. red deer. ii.. p. 1849. Alpine hare. Bear. E. p. p. vol. plates x. cattle. p. H. 74. : 247 BENN. 388. 472. 234. Dublin Society. vol. vol. 351-357. viii.. plates x. bear. iv. 97. 1844. 103-107. 1834. 164-167.. F. 257. Sheep and goats. 1866. horse. vol. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 1864. pp. Bear Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin.

vol. Irish elk.. n.pp. 1863-5.R. : Irish elk.. p.. 1824. 1862. 340. : Extinct wild life. M. REV. 1-36.. 338. 256 DENNY. On the Megaceros Hibernicus.I. vol. ix. vol. Journal R. xi. Idem. p.. : Bear. 2.. Belfast Nat. (N. 1847.. p. plates 1.H. 266 HAUGHTON. 7. pp. Q. 247-248. x. 1870. JOHN Irish elk. REV. 133 of Survey of Ireland. iii. Irish elk. Royal Geological Society of Ireland. 1838.. JAMES : Sawn fragments of deers' horn. Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. p. Zoologist. ii. 435." Dublin. 257 Du NOYKK. VOL. PROFESSOR: Mammoth. 863 HENRY : Proceedings of the Geological and Polytechnical Society Riding of Yorkshire. DR. 253. Field Club. pp.. D. vol. pp.. vol. 1869. 262 GRAVES. vol. 1861.D. 20-23. S. iii. 1863. pp.A. 1864. 258 GENITZ. 238. 260 GOING.U. Irish elk. : Journal of the Geological Society of Duhlin. M. p. 263 GRAY. .BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 15. pp. Red deer. A. " On the Skeleton of the Fossil Deer of Ireland. 265 HART. Bear. vol. Idem. PROFESSOR H. p. A. 1862. Belfast Field Club Report. Journal of the 1867. 2 B ..S. 1863. v. vol. 400-439. F. Co. 1866 i. Irish elk. Geological Magazine. CANON. pp. W. 4th series. M. 437-439. 1589. 264 HARKNESS. p. 1830.I. : Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. 1885-6.S.. vol.R. A. 1855. vol. Antrim.. vol. 34. Ix. vol. pp. ix. REV. "W. : vii. G. 259 GLENXON. vol. : /" Irish elk. Irish elk. V.. R. iv..I. Series ii.). 338-358. 434. Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. 125-127.D. Map of Geological 261 GRAINGER. "WILLIAM. i. Head and horn found at Island Magee.. Explanation to sheet No.

vol.S. 489-512. A.. ii.. vol.. 177. F.. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Irish elk. i. pp.. Antrim. F. (2nd series). 1878... 4th series. " Hist. Philosophical Transactions. Edinhurgh Journal of Science.. EDMUND. p. R.. pp. of the " Irish Elk " 1697. vol. iv. 1883. T. 268 HEWSON. x. 2. 202. : The Irish wolf dog. 1875.D. red deer. : Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. Journal R. 1863 and 1864. xiv. M.. pp. and PLUNKETT.") Irish Naturalist. . vol. 272 JUKES. 15 and 129.R. J. : Dog. G. 1878. 168..... SIR Irish elk. vol.I. ser. with an account of the animal remains. 5th series. MACALISTER. horse. 168-171. 1765. S. 49-53.. p. (" Ballintoy. i. Journal of cattle. p. Exploration of the Knockninny Cave. vol. PROFESSOR J. Irish elk. 274 KNOWLES. vol. 1830. M. S. 1877. : 273 KINAHAN. Remains of the great deer from "Whitepark Bay. pp.D. : Finds of elk heads.R.) Transactions. 1897. 488. Idem. M.D.K. The J. 485- 269 HIBBERT.I.S. H. W.. M.D.. xvii. x. pp. Journal R. and 1881. PI. 267 HAUOHTON. 275 LENTAIGNE.H. 1880 Irish elk. &c. vol. p. 1825. 1864. Institute..R. pp. iii. xxix. 1717. A. p. 127-137. Co.. Philosophical of mammoth teeth.354 : BIBLIOGRAPHY... PROFESSOR E. Fractured bones of Irish elk found in a souterrain at Mullagheep. 276 MOLTNEUX.I. Physical Geology of Ireland. p. 267-272. (" Irish elk in Isle of Man. Duhlin.A. 293. Notices of Irish Elk. 465-483. 370. PI.A. G.") Irish elk. : 271 HULL. (N. : Irish elk. Proc. and pp.. Society. vol. wild boar. : Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. Journal of the Geological Society of Ireland. ii. Mammoth. J. F.S.D. pp. vol. viii. : Irish elk.A.B. vol. PROFESSOR. ix.). pp. p. N. vol.. 4-6. vol. Rev. PROFESSOR. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. Geology of Ireland. the Anthrop. J.I. M. Co.S.S. 306. 286. xix..S." 270 HOGAN. M. vol. Donegal. THOMAS. vii. (Both the above are reprinted in Boates' Natural History of Ireland.

LL.C. pp. R. : 284 OWEN. T..S... R. : 355 Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. 3rd series. R. col. J. History of the Irish wolf-dog. v. Annals of Philosophy.I. H. F. MR. lx. : Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin.. vol. pp. in.D. Idem. p.. Repm t upon with special : the raised' beaches of the north-east of Ireland. p. A. vol. 282 OLDHAM.. senes 2. iv. new series. 305-307. R.. Society. Meg.. FRANCIS Mammoth. A. 1826. p. 1620. F. 28-31 (" Fossil elk Man").. 33..: Hib. of Isle of : Edinburgh Journal of Science. R. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 70. Irish elk Zoologist. vol. 281 O'REILLY. ii. p. 547. pp. Dublin. i.. PROFESSOR. J. Kil. vii. Irish elk. Irish elk. sec. J. 93. vol. vol. Froriep Notizen. iii. : 279 NEVIL. Field Club. Discovery of antlers of the Cer. 1849. 3 2...P. 333-339.. A. 1826. Trans. idem. vol. 3rd series.. 330. R.I. vol. reindeer..pp. pp. pt.-Proc. 1715. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology.. pp. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. vol. 65-71. Bear. 418-420. iv. 416. pp. ARCHDEACON Irish elk. Irish elk. A. Belfast Nat. 286 PRIM. LLOYD : On Field Club.R.. vol.. 305-312. Boates' Natural History of Ireland. 2. 1825. iii.C. Irish elk. 2 B 2 .. 252-253.. vol. 277 MAUNSELL. Megaceros. iii.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Journal Kil. Red deer. vol. Horses and hounds of ancient Ireland vol. 1842. Irish elk. pp. reference to their fmmn.. 1844. SIR R. ix. 1847. p.. 287 PRAEGER. Proc. p.R. pp. Skull of Irish elk. 1876. : 278 Moss. i. 285 PHAYER. C. iv. p. vol. 169 and 211 .S. 30-o4. series traces of the Megaceros-Belfast Nat. : 280 O'KEEFE. 1891-2. : The Irish elk. 283 OSWALD. 1825. F. xiv. 1847. 128. vol. M. Soociety. vol. Ixi.

sheep goat. Avolf.. R. 1861. 1870. Down. Dog. Proc. 177. vol. 1840. series 2. (M'Glashan. : p. 1846. dog. red deer.V. pp.I. 294 USSHEU. cattle. vol. 177. 1881.856 288 RICHARDSON. The Irish giant deer.S. 224-231.D. (" Fossil elk in Co. vol. 1864. 1858. Cattle. R. 1879.. 291 SCOULEK. 15 (N.. F. goat. 197-210. p... 7. Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. R. The Dublin Society. 4. 295 "WEAVER. vol. 170. Idem. pp. : Royal vol. CHARLES. Proceedings of the Royal Irish pp. F. pp. Dog.) : 289 SCHARFF. mammoth's rib. Bear. Origin of the land vol. Idem. PH. pt.I. 58. A. 1623 and 1685. i. "Wolf. pp. i.. : BIBLIO GRA PHY. Ancient and Present State of the County and City of "Waterford.R. On 290 SCOTT..D. Report of the British Association. M. 1861. vol.. vol. i. J . 178. wild boar. : Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. 1844. : x. sheep. great auk. M. iii.S. A. Irish elk.. A.Idem. vol. the origin of the European fauna. vol. : 293 THOMPSON. wild boar.. Ireland. 479-485. p. M. Cattle. p. pp. ix.. 3rd series.. wild boar. H. 64-75. B. The Irish Naturalist... R. Dog. Irish elk.. "WILLIAM Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. p. p..R. Academy. once an Irish bird.. London. Natural History Review.. R. Irish elk. iii. 2. DR. Irish elk. 1-3.. red deer. 1837. History of the County of Kerry. v.A. 15. Geological Magazine. Irish hare. Proc. 173. Idem.^JOHN Irish elk. vol/vii.. 276-287. M.A.") : 296 WILDE. Sm"W. 1825. vol. 413-420. Proc. vii.). Scientific Transactions of the Cattle. p. 53. and freshwater fauna of Ireland. pp. pp. 8. wild boar. 463. vol. H. 143. 5. cattle. Dublin. .I. vol.J.K. R. 181-212. pt.. 427-514. 1847. wild boar. Dog. vol. Irish elk. Irish elk. pp. pp. pp. : Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Cattle. 420-426. 1838. 3rd series. 362. 1741. Irish elk. Irish elk. i. The p. fig. Annals of Philosophy. R. Zoologist. 292 SMITH.I. iv. p. Irish elk. 1756. 1840. p. THOMAS.sc.

S. glass. 1882.. N... R.. A. 1878..I. JAMES.. 105. Journal R. London.. vol. XIV. WILLIAM Irish elk. 420-423.. Trans. 4th series. Ornaments in 112-114. The Irish 299 BALL. Royal Dublin Society. pp. p.. 307 FFRENCH...H. vol. F.S. M.. A. : London. C. LL. R.S. 301 HULL. G.R.. vol. 302 KINAHAX. 277-293. A.A.E. iii.I. vol. 1.BIBLIOGRAPHY.A.pp.R. M. etc. : Journal R. : The great ice age and 1874. p. pp.H.A. viii.. 304 BALL. vol. in Belfast. Geological Magazine. : 354.. pp.. I. 303 ATKINSON. A.I. H. J. ii. LL. 1878. 300 GEIKIE. GEORGE M. -. 306 DAY. : Ancient glass manufactory.. &c. A. of Lan.I..I.The cause of an ice age. On a block of glass enamel. . F. 82. 4th series. M. S. : London.A. : Physical History of the British Isles. London. SIR ROBEKT. On a recent find of Irish elk hones.R. vol. EDWARD. Historic. its relation to the antiquity of man. 1892. A. M. vi. 1881.. : 867 Scientific Proceedings of the pt. : Ancient glass beads. vol.4th : series. The physical geology and geography of Ireland. 297 WILLIAMS. Naturalist.D. 305 BEJJN. B. GLASS. Glass heads.D.. LL. EDWARD: Proc. 69-71. Geology of Ireland. A. 81. A. 1878. Ornaments of 335-338. xxx. vol.D. vii. vii. i. pp. Journal R. ROBERT. and Cheshire.. pp. Journal R.B.H. 298 YOUNG. JUN.. 1.. glass. 3rd series. Irish elk. A. V.H. F. REV. viii. vol.

pp. Modern and ancient ring money..A. 7-20.R. pp.A. Society.H. 6. A.S. 522- 311 NESBITT. REV. 312 O'BYRNE... vol.I.. 287-289. 4th Journal Kil. pp. 144. vol... 122-125. 152-154. : Archseologia. 313 PATTERSON. A..I.A..A..I. 314 WILDE. "W.I. DANIEL Glass bead..A. 4th series. Ireland. pp. vol. xlvi. LL. ALEXANDER. i. Dublin Penny Journal. vol. Dublin Penny Journal. Prpc. vol. i. : The dying gladiator. pp. R. 296.S. xv..A.. Irish beads. ROBERT. xvii. R.I.R. The ring money of the Celtse. G. pp. Proc. 318 BETHAM. Gold in Ireland.I. 25-27. Glass beads. Antique ornaments of gold found in the County Clare. Druid's Altar. The original use of certain golden ornaments and other articles in the Museum R.858 BIBLIOGRAPHY. M. Journal R.A. Beads and amulets. : 310 KNOWLES. etc. vol. vol. R.A. vol. 20. .. vol. pp. "W. p. 1899. 115-116.A. H.. 65-162. 592-596.I.A. LEONARD.R. viii.I. p. pp. 386. Ulster Journal of Acbseology. 209. Chambers' Journal.. F. : 308 FOWLER.. Journal R.H.I. 8.. SIR WILLIAM. Ireland. On the process of decay in glass. pp. pp.A. new series. 147-153. pp. p.S. vol i. 317 BALL. Journal R. A. 309 HASSE.A. M. A. vol. Dublin Penny Journal.. 5th series.R. v. 382-391. 4th series. p.H. 5.D.H. 4th series. 91-98. A. A.R. iii. p. i. : ii. SIR. iv. JAMES. M. series.. vol.A. J. "W. COLONEL Lake Dwellings of Ireland. : Journal E.I.I. pp. 537.I.. 316 ANONYMOUS : Ancient gold balls. A.A. v. Journal R. vol. The "Wlcklow gold mines.A Catalogue : Museum R.S. p. Proc. 5th series. vol.I.. Benn collection.A. Gold Fibulae discovered in Ireland. M. Belfast Mus... Trans.. 162-169. 359-366. : 315 WOOD-MARTIN. : Probable origin of beads of glass. pp. vol.. F. vol v. W.I. : iii. Journal R. -GOLD. R. part 16.

A. vol. vol. Donegal.I. Field Club.A.. M..I.I. and others Gold Torques.R. pp. . Society. 509-534. The ring money pp. ROBERT. vol. and other collections and on the source of gold vol. : 321 CANE.S. Kil.. 53-66. vol v. pp. LORD ALBERT. pp. 324 CROKER.A. On Irish gold ornaments. Journal R.U. Trans. CROFTON. F.S.A. vii. 337.S.H. 182-185. i.A. Ireland.. vi. M. 322-328. T. 3rd series. A. employed to make Irish gold ornaments. vol. 359-370. vol. pp. : Trans. A recent important find of gold torques in Co.. xxx. Proc. pp. 323 CONYNGHAM.I. 336. A. vol. Ireland.D. Whence came the gold. 3rd series. iii... vol. vol. The gold antiquities found in Ireland.. R.R. M. iii.A. : The precious metals and ancient mining in i. Kil.. pp. and when ? Part 2.. . series ii. 5th series. vol.vol.I... EDWARD : Historical arguments on the origin of the Irish gold antiquities. F. Journal R. viii. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. RICHARD ROLT. M. Gold ornaments lately found near Naas.I. 328 FRAZEIC. W. 326 DAY. of the Celts.I.. recently found in Ireland. Irish gold lunulae. : Belfast Nat.S. 36-54. iii. v.A. Collectanea Antiqua. The Archaeological Journal.I.T. Society. R.A.BIBLIOGRAPHY. vol.H..A. series. 137. .A. Journal R. 88-98. pp. with description of those contained in the Royal Academy's museum. On the manufacture of a gold fibula purchased for the Museum R. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.A.. 219.C.S. 8. iii. vol.H. 4th series. Proo. pp. On 776-783.. i. 327 DUOAN. pp. A.A. 3rd art processes used in their manufacture. 99. 322 CLIBBORN..S. p. ROBERT. lately discovered in the south of Ireland.A.5th series. viii..A. C. Journal On a collection of gold ornaments. vol. 304. Ireland.A. 221-250. and on the Proc. JUN. 4th series. : 325 DAY ROBERT. 319 BIRCH. A. 320 BRASH. WINSTON. On fine gold fibulae. pp.I. 7.. The gold antiquities of Ireland. p.... Journal R. A. pp. R. 4th series. : iii. vii. p.. vol. pp. F. SAMUEL : 859 The Torque 27-38. R. of ancient Ireland. 131-152. F. : Description of some gold ornaments Archaeologia.

333 HITCHCOCK..I. Antrim. pp.H. vol... new series.. Kil. Society. Co. vol. 332 GREAVES. iii. 138. Journal Kil. : Gold rings found at Strokestown..I. . vol... new series. Journal Kil. 321. south of Ireland. Society. Antrim. A. 338 MADDEN. 335 JOHNSON. vol. Society. 181. R. : 329 GRAVES. ii. Society. Discovery of a gold ring.320. 3rd 776-783. " i. 182. R. 392.I. Journal Kil. new series.. p. Waterford. JAMES Gold The extraordinary discovery Trans. A. pp. J. 353. vol. vol. 164-168. 331 GRAY. Clare. CHARLES An antique gold ornament.. 398. new series. ii. EDMOND : On fine gold fibulae lately discovered in the art processes used in their manufacture. 351.. new series. p. of gold ornaments in Co. " money found in the Co. pp. vol iv. Society. 79. 254.. A.. p. 336 M'NAUGHTON. Archaeologia. 339 MADDEN.I. new series. REV. Society. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol i. Gold dish found in Ireland. 399. A.. 4th series. 352. A. iii. Trans. SAMUEL pp. i. vol.. Society. Omagh.. CAPTAIN EDWARD Ancient Celto-Irish unique collar of gold.. A. 389. Kil. iv.. vol.. : Proc. R. A. penannular ring of gold. xvi. JOHN ALEXANDER : An account of a golden rod found by a peasant in the neighbourhood of Ballycastle. A. p. vol. A. REV. Society. WILLIAM : A gold torque R. R. : 337 MACADAM. series. 255. Journal H : Unique specimen of gold ring Journal Kil. Journal Kil.A. A penannular gold ring. : Proc. 330 GHAVES. fibula. REV. new : series. 360-362. RICHARD : The discovery A. pp. vol. Co. A 391. discovered near Bushmills. of a curious gold ornament near i. E. A. ii. vol. A. pp. and on the Proc. i. ROBERT pp. Trans. 334 HOARE. Kil. 460-463. pp.360 BIBLIOGRAPHY. iii. vol. pp.

WILLIAM : Concerning some golden antique instruments found in a bog.I. Proc. celt. PROFESSOR J. iv. ii. vol iv. Dublin Penny Journal. RICHARD. vol. pp.. 348 POCOCKE. R. 349 POWNALL. RIGHT REV. 156/244. M. A.. pp. Dublin. Armagh. pp. vol.I.. A. vi. Proc R.... late Lord Bishop of Meath : An account of some antiquities found in Ireland. GEOUGE. Gold rings found at Strokestown. p. 342 MOORE. pp. 31-33. vol.. 274-276. REV... i.A.S.I.A. vol.I. MAURICE " : An account of certain R. Society. vol. vol. Trans. 269-277..R. vol. Trans.. WILLIAM : 861 On the minerals of the auriferous districts of Wicklow. and a bronze Journal R. Co. pp. 347 PLUMMER. 27.. vi.. pp. R.E. vol. R. 340 MALLET.D.. Kil.A. PHILIP : Discovery of a gold torque. Academy. antiquities presented to the 167... 355-370. p. EEV. THOMAS: Further observations on early Irish antiquities. vol. 345 OUSLEY. LL.. pp. 37-39. : The discovery of three gold fibulae. R. Geological Society. Ireland. 166. pp. Two gold torques found at Tara. Archaeologia. pp. vol. A. R. 343. vol. 346 PETRIK. 5th series. GOVERNOR: Account of some Irish -350 antiquities.A.. Journal 341 MOLESWOUTH. vol. : Account of four circular plates of gold found in Ireland.I. Froc. C.. 164-169. 3rd series. iii. . p. Proc. RALPH. 32-41. 389. i.P.I. A. Archaeologia. Plates of gold found in Ireland. 344 O'REILLY. iv. : The Milesian colonization considered in relation to gold mining. Trans.I. i.BIBLIOGRAPHY.. POWNALL. 343 O'CONNELL. Archoeologia. vii. 36-78. iv. pp. : Gold torques found near Tara Hill. a gold bracelet. A. i.

AQUILLA.. 358 WINDELE.M.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 61. R. Society. 1-100. ix. EUNEST A.. R. vol. A...I. Dublin. : in the year 1673 relative to the theft of ancient gold Trans. 48-100... 207- 354 SMITH. new series. of gold and hronze. A. 4th series. Kil. pp.. new series... 1862. 197-222. J. p. vi. 733-746. Society.. Kil.D. Ancient Irish gold and its origin. Notes on the composition of ancient Irish gold and silver ornaments._ pp. pp. R.C. Kilkenny..A I. 3rd series. A.. &c.862 351 ROBERTSON. The Archaeological Journal. Royal viii. pp. 28-50. M. 406-409.A. vol. 353 SMITH. Proc. Trans. Co.R. Depositions made torques. The pp. Museum. : Gold mines in Ulster.. i.S. pp. M. : BIBLIOGRAPHY. M. R. 328-333. iii. A gold ornament found at Claragli.I. 83-86. ix.. . vol.I. Assoc.. The gold antiquities recently added to the Museum..A. 481.H. vol. ii. Proc. new series. vol. vol. pp. viii.S.A. iii. Journal R. Proc. ALEXANDER : Gold ornament discovered in the Parish of Dungiven. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.. 305. R. pp.. vol. 304. A Society. new series. ii. A. 96.I. Gold antiquities found in Ireland prior to 1747. vol. R. 359 YOUNG. 445. destruction of a splendid gold fihula. ii. F. Parochial Survey pp. 480.. ALBERT : Gold armillae and rings. G. vol. 356 WELSH. REV. pp. The ring money of ancient Ireland. or an early attempt at counterJournal Kil. ALEXANDER COLVILLE : An ornament made feiting. 357 WILDE. vol. vol 352 Ross. SIR W..' i. iii. 95.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp. vol. pp. p. Journal Kil. 355 WAY. JOHN : Ancient Irish gold. : A descriptive catalogue of the antiquities of gold in the Irish Academy.. of Ireland. A. 209. Society. vol.

559-562. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp. Ireland.S.I.S. R. pp. Irish anthropology. 74-111.C. Proc. 317-370. 147. R. Journal R..S. 365 DAVIES.R. Ireland. : Report on a prehistoric burial at Newcastle. Proc.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Proc. i. Proc.I. 364 'CUNNINGHAM. pp. Proc.. A.S. pp. vol.I. R. Proc.E.. The ethnography of Garumna and Lettermullen. vol. Journal R. 869 XVI.D. v. 6th scries. Co. vol. vol. pp.. Iniskea Islands. Co. Irish crania. A. T. pp. Ireland. C. ii.D.K.I.. 363 COFFEY. 3rd series. vol.S. iv.I. pp. 3rd series. iii. in the County Galway. ii. pp.A. Dunfanaghy. County of Wicklow. B... 366 EDITOR ULSTER JOURNAL OF ARCHJEOLOOY Sepulchral Chamber. Co. : &c.. W. GEORGE. 421-427. : BROWNE. ix. 3rd series.. 391-404. Irish J... pp.S. R.. pp. R.... iv.. 223 268.D... Co. 3rd series.. and Portacloy. 3rd series. 3rd serise. 3rd series. The ethnography of Ballycroy. pp..I. : and BROWN. iv. R.. A. Find of cist with human remains. f pp. vol. M..I. R.R. . pp. : Journal R.S.C. vol. Discovery of an ancient sepulchral chamber. vol. pp.. 587-649. oth series.A. On some human remains recently discovered near Lismore. M. Inishboffin.D. 5th series. Ulster Journal of : Archmology. 3rd series. F.I... Meath.. Proc. vol. C.I. vol. Proc. F. R.I. A. : WESTKOPP. County Mayo. pp. M. Dublin. iii. D. 552-558. iii. pp. 747-752. Donegal. J. Crania Britannica. Double-cist grave and remains recently discovered at Oldbridge.. A. iii. 358-365.A. iii. The ethnography of the Mullet. Mayo. ANONYMOUS Crania. 358-365... 360 HUMAN : CRANIA..A. R. vol. &c. vol. : new series.I.A. vol. 49-52. vol.E. M. J. Proc. vol. 362 COFFEY. M.A. Proc. 643-647.. 145-148. BARNARD. p. 367 FRAZER.. vol.. CHARLES Ethnography of R. Ethnology viii. Prehistoric burial. 3rd series. : Osseous remains found at Old Connaught. viii. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 190. A. F. R. vol. On some Crania. iii. 361 BROWNE. R. vii... A. 649-654. Bray. M.A.. OSSEOUS REMAINS AND ETHNOLOGY. 189.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. GEO. A.

vol. Society. 369 GHATTAN..I. pp. Skulls. 377 LYNCH. pp. 4th 13.R. Human remains.I. Journal R. teeth in ancient skulls. Proc R.. 264-267. Ulster Journal of Archasology. pp. 370 HADDON. 311 316. On the antiquity of man in Ireland.A. W. 3rd series. R.A.I.H.. J. : Discovery of human remains. vol. 4th series. i. On measuring human crania. : Stone axe found embedded in a vol.. iv. pp. Hist. iv. p. PROFESSOR A.. : Examination of a sepulchral mound.. 1873-4. Mu.. ii. and Phil.. iii. Kil. vol. II. 126. ii. human skull.. 373 LALOR. Inisbofin. 8. Belfast Nat. pp.. 4th series. R.E. vi.A.. JOHN vol. 121. pp.I. : v Journal R.S.. 221-246. 187. CHARLES. pp. vol. vol. pp. 7. &c.. pp. new series. Human remains. 3rd series.364 368 GEOGHEOAN. : Proc.. Studies in Irish craniology. 446.. P. : Discovery of a skeleton. Galway. vol. i.. J.I.D. Studies in Irish craniology. : On some 376 LONG. vi. L. M. Proc. 375 LENTAIGNE. 3rd series. Proc. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp.I.A. BIBLIO GRA PHY. Journal R. .A. new series. 274-285.H. 5th series. vol. 768-830. A. vol.S.H.I. ARTHUR GERALD Journal : Human crania. Irish craniology. 570-585. Proc R. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. A.. Co. 372 KINCHELLA. vol. 343-345. 198-208. Worn down Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 374 LAWLOR.I.. : Ethnography of Aran Island. ii. 188. iv. vi. iii.I. III. 759-767.A.H. vol. pp. Irish craniology.. v. J. pp..A.. vol.A. 80-82. 3rd series. A.I. 447. p. Co.. vol. : Report on human osseous remains. 4th series. Neolithic cist-burial at Oldbridge. J. portions of a skeleton. ii.. vol.. Human remains. C.. 311-316.. 239.. p. 255. A. of Meath.. vol. vol. C. A. i. Journal R. R.A. and casts of skulls from various Irish sources. ix. Proc. A. vol.A. Journal Kil. M. 27-39. 3rd series. Journal R.C. Society.I.. series. pp. R. Ireland. pp. Proc. pp. A 371 JAMES. iv. Society..A. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp.

386 SMITH.E. 375. Ulster Journal of Archte- 382 PEARSON.. A.A.A..A. Kil.. 342. Kil. osseous remains. stone 382-383.. &c.. : On some prehistoric pp. vol. vol. : Graves. vol. 447-449. Journal R. 388 USSHER. 389. County Clare. 651-658. Proc. pp. 389 WESTROPP. A. &c.A. 4th series. 341. iv. J. pp. 4. Journal R. J. : Bronze spear-head found embedded in a human i. R. REV. vol. Journal R. pp. graves. JOHN. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.I. series. new On human 385 SEARANKE. R. : On certain antiquities. Ireland. A. GEOKGE H. pp. J. Society. Society. 178.C. vol. vol. 277. S. 3rd series.I. R. Society. iv. iii. v. A.I. vol. ii. . GEORGE : Report on the excavation of Topped mountain cairns. vol. THOMAS : COFFEY. pp.D. 30.. Ethnological sketches. pp.S. vi. discovery of a decapitated skeleton. 5th series. 3rd high above the present valley of the Blackwater. vol. T. p.. S. 384 READE. vi.I. 5th series.S.. M.S.. LL. Kil. iii. 374. Journal R. celts. A. RICHARDSON : Explorations in a pagan cemetery. 551. Kil.. series. 160-167. J. 381 O'DONOVAN. Society. vii.E. 550. Proc. vi. : 86& The Fisherman of the Claddagh. iv. JAMES. pp. A. Trans. vol. JOHN. C. vol. pp. Trans. Ireland. ology. 179. R. : Ancient interment at Dromiskin.. 383 PLUNKETT. REV. 378 M'ELHERAN. 380 M'NULTY. Proc. 388. A. 379 M'CORMACK.. p.. : Discovery of human skeletons. 191-202. at Galway. JOHNSON : Primitive Burial at Rylane. : Physical characteristics of the ancient Irish. : of a crannogc. Ireland.I.S. 199-206. skull. 5th series. 387 UPTON. vol. M.. pp.BIBLIOGRAPHY. A. 387-389. Discovery of human and other remains similar to those R. vol. Trans.. HENRY A. Trans.H.

Proc. REV. pp. F.S66 390 WHITK. H. series. A. 392 WRITERS (VARIOUS) : Human interments. : An account of mediaeval Ireland... : Geology of Ireland. vi. discovered in the Co. A.. pp. Ireland. pp. .C.R. Co. vol.K. : ii. p. vii. GEORGE M..I.I.H.I. R. 1878. On different kinds of rocks called Jade. pp. pp. also in a cam.. Trans. GEORGE. 69-71. iii. Meath. 1849. EEV. I.A. SIR W. vol. A.I. XVIII.S. JET. 287. A. M. 240. I. A. pp. A. C. new on trenching a 307-308. Journal R. pp. JOHN. vol. V. 26-29.. : BIBLIOGRAPHY.. v. 221-223. 399 PRIM. 74- 76. Antrim. p.. 391 WILDE. pp. vol. Journal R. 395 ATKINSON.A. Antiquities discovered iii. Trans. JADE. Society.. pp. p. Dublin.. A.H.A. vol. vol. R.S. vol. On human remains. series. A. 212240. : On a collection of large jet heads. : Double cist-grave and remains recently discovered at Oldbridge. vol. 4th 323. Journal R. vol. Kil. rath. vol.. W. XVII. 397 COFFKY.A. The Irish Naturalist.I. Kil. 536. 89-91.A. 41. vol. 747-752. 4th series.. 537. Journal E. vol. 394 KINAHAN. JOHN F..I. iii.. 32. K. A. Society. 4th series. : Journal R. 5th series. 40.I. pp. ii. Kil. G.. Jet Beads.R. A.. M..E. 400 SHEARMAN.CANON : Jade axe. 398 FRAZER.H. Proc. 396 BALL. 2nd series. B. v. : Jet ornaments.A.. Society. G. 4th series.. i. Trans.A. 316-323..H..B. P. 393 MAcIi/WAiNE. i.. iii.. : Beauties of the Boyne and Blackwater. Human remains found in a cist.

403 ANONYMOUS: Open-air cooking places.A. JOHN : Journal R...A. pp.I. R. 142. 258-261..H.A. 12. 122. Kil.I. Society. vol. Society. 185. 411 MARTIN. vol. 587. Ancient 'kitchen midden. Some unrecorded antiquities. pp.R.. A. JAMES. Journal Kil. pp.A. V* Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 10-13. Trans.. M. 373.R. series. 4th series. A. M.. new 410 MALCOMSON. 205. 169. 89. pp. vol.A. ii. 401 WILDE. Kil. Trans. M.H. pp. 240-242. v. R.. ix. Journal R. Trans.H. 181. XIX. 4thseries. 121-123.|M.H. PATRICK. : 367 "Catalogue" Museum 402 WOOD-MARTIN.A. 117-121.A.D. G. p. vol.. A. 530-532.BIBLIOGRAPHY. pp. G. SIH "W..A. 409 LYMBEURY.I. 407 KEATIKOE. pp. 404 ATKINSON. M.. vol. ix. 59-61. series.. iii.A. 4th series. vol. Journal R. 177.I. 191. vol. new Ancient cooking places. : Lake Dwellings of Ireland. GEORGE M. pp. A. : Kitchen middens. vol. JAMES Ancient Pagan cemetery. Journal R. pp.. pp. pp.A. COL.. A. A.D.. : Journal Kil.R. Society. 293. Society. : iii. 529. WILLIAM : Ancient cooking places. 405 GRAVES. 11. REV. KITCHEN MIDDENS OR REFUSE HEAPS AND OPENAIR COOKING PLACES. vi.. : 408 KINAHAN. Kil.I. : ii. 121.I.I.A. 88. H. 101. v. 191. ROBERT : Kitchen midden near Ardnahue. vol. 406 HACKETT.. Supposed ancient open vol... . W. ii. 182.I. 4th series. Kitchen middens on Clare Island. 286. 182. REV. Pagan Ireland. Society. air cooking place. 201w.

of Switzerland Cork and Co.A. pp. Journal Kil. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. A.A. vol. pp. froma MS. vol. Cork. 418 ANONYMOUS : Account of an attack on a crannog in the year 1566 (extracted by Dr. Society. LAKE. 4th Primitive cooking place. lake dwelling with prehistoric hearths ronnd the margin of the lake). " Find" in A (The probable site of a Coolasluasty Lough. Cork. : air cooking places. in the Public Record Office.. pp. Down. Note on Lake Dwellings. 153. vi. 415 TOWN SEND Open p. Ireland. iii.I. 362-368. 4th series. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Co. vol. Antiquities discovered vol. 344. vii. 4th series. Journal R. Ancient iron fetters from a crannog. vol. pp... 174. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. . new series.A.. Society. 390-392. in trenching a small rath.. vii.. pp.868 412 PRIM.. 4th series.A. p. Society. vi. J. i.A.. vol. Trans. Journal R. iii. 1815. vii. 53-55. JAMES G. vol.A. vi. JOHN G. Clare. pp. pp. p. Statistical Survey of Co. pp.. vol. iii. 664 . vol.. p. JOHN : Cooking places of the Stone Age. vi. 57.. vol.I. Canoe vol.. 5th series. Co.. 119-127.. 431. viii. vii. 58 Keating's History of Ireland. Trans. 417 WRITERS (VARIOUS) : : Ancient Cooking places. p. 145. 179-194. pp. DWELLINGS. p. Journal R. 169. : Journal R. vol.S. series. vol.I.H. Journal R. ii. vol.A. 145 Journal R. A.H. 4th series..H... 168. vii. Ancient helmet found in an Island in Killeney Lough. p. Breasagh.H. A.. Ireland. vol. Kil. p. Journal R. 663. 414 ROBERTSON.A..A. . 416 DSSHER.A. A.. Lake habitations logy. : BIBLIOGRAPHY.A. : Objects found in the kitchen middens of raths. 5th series. Also Ulster Journal of Archaeology.S.. iii. Caulfield. Kil. Ulster Journal of Archaeovii. 279. XX. 185 p.H. 101. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol. .H. 308. i. Excavation of a rath. vol. finds in the Co.A.. 413 QUINLAN.I. 179. and Ireland... R.. v. Townsend's Survey of the Co. A. 307. 101. A.I. pp. vol.I. Journal R. Roscommon. vol.

: Notice of an ancient Irish cott found at Maghery. ROBERT... August. Journal R. RIGHT HON. pp. Journal R. notice.S. WINSTON. iii." pp. Co.A. Lough Neagh. 1894. Toome A. 27-43. new- vol. crannog sites. J. 424 DAY. Ireland. A.A. O'BEIRNE : Ancient lake legends of Ireland. i.. R.A. vol. 3rd series. 215.H. DENIS H. i. vol.S. A. : found in the parish of Loughguile.A.I. v.. Journal R. (I.S. pp.. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Etymology of the series. series. (II. Journal R. G. 154-156. 2 C . word " crannog. i.. Bar.A.. Journal R. LL. vol..S.. I. 425 DUGAN.A. 20-22. : vii. Society.A.. (III.H. i. . Society. some antiques found in crannogs.A. C. A.. 228.. EARL OF. of antiquity iii.A. On new series. 214. 419 BALL. iv. pp. LL. Journal Kil. 427 EDITOR ULSTER JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY Articles found on the site of a crannog.. M.. GENERAL : Crannog in Lough Annagh. 421 BUICK. VOL. 5th series.D. vol. Discovery of bones of the Fossil Elk.R. v. 100. Journal R.D. 422 CROAVE. EDWARD : Observations on Irish Crannogs.) Antiquities discovered in the Lake of Cloonf ree. on supposed Journaal Kil. See BALL.H. iv. vol. County Armagh. Society. Journal R.. pp.H. 426 DUNNE. 389-403. 5th series. vol. Du. pp. pp. Co.BIBLIOGRAPHY. pp. vol. 86-90. LL. ENNISKILLEN. 36-38. 382. M. A crannog near Clones. vol. Ireland.) 420 BENN.A. v.. Journal R. PETKIE.I.D. vol. p. 6th series pp. II.I. 205-220. 428 ENNISKILLEN. 224-226. 221-223. Ireland. On some objects Antrim. R. ROBERT. A. 101. GEORGE. 315-331. pp.. A. vi.A.. Ireland. JUN.I. REV. 3rd series..A. new series. : 869 KELLY. S. pp. 103. vol. 6th series. 4th series. p. vol. vol.) On Crannog Islands Proc. Roscommon. A. Journal Kil. EARL OF. 3rd 423 D'ARCY. *" Crannog Second of Moylarg. Flint implements found on 227.I.

. : scenery. &c. v.H.A. Ulster Journal 439 KANE. vol. Ireland . pp.. vi. 1886-1887. 4th 440 KELLER.H.A. Notes on crannogs in Leitrim. M. Drumkeery Lough. J. 251. vol. pp.A. JAMES: Stone and bone antiquities found at a crannog in Ballinderry Lough.A. p. Crannog. CANON. Field Club. : On a submarine crannog. PROFESSOR B. REV. vol. 216-218. ii. M.. 371.A. 177.S.A. . 431 GARDINER. An ancient Irish lake dwelling. Journal Kil.A. vol.A... 437 HAYMAN. pp. p. : iii. 435 HALL. A. vol.A. vii. 372. xxxix. R. vi.A. C. : Journal R. 228. A. STARKIE. v. 517-519. vi.. 430 FITZPATRICK. 375-408.. series. 4th series. Trouvaille from the crannog of Lisnacroghera. Journal Journal R. vol.. 155.H. vi. Queen's County. Pro.. Westmeath. 1878.. A. series vol. Society. pp. M.I. 407-409. The crannogs of Lough Mourne. Antrim. vol. Notice of a crannog at Lough-a-Trim. A. 259. near Broughshane. 196-202. Belfast Nat. new series.I. FERDINAND : The lake dwellings of Switzerland. DE V. WILLIAM.. Antrim. : The Earl of Essex' enterprise for the recoveiy of Ulster.. I.H. Journal R. vol.. Field Club. pp. : On a helmet from a crannog. 4th series. 434 GRAY.I. p. pp.. pp. 154. BERNARD vol. vol. Co. pp.I.D. WILLIAM : Crannog canoe from Lough Mourne. of Archaeology. & MRS. Belfast Nat. A.. &c. 4th series. F. HERBERT F. 3rd series. : 432 GRAINGER. Journal R.. REV. pp. series ii..L. A.. ii.. County Westmeath. Journal R. 1884-1885. D. R. ii.H. W. Co. Archaeologia.I. 433-440.R. Killucan.. viii. Co.. A. 433 GRAVES. 229. MR. ix. pp. REV. I... vol. 364-368. 436 HARKNESS.H.. London. vol. 438 HORE. REV. its J.370 BIBLIO GRA PHY. S. 4th series. Co..I. : 429 FALKINEU. Cavan. : Crannogin Grantstown Lake.

G. 442 KELLY. M.I. : Cloughoughter Castle..A. REV. i.G.S. 2c2 . : Ancient canoe found at Lisnagonnell.A.I .S. Cavan. vii.I. vol. Stone crannogs in Lough Bola.A.A. 4th series.R. A.I. ix.. series. 31-33. : i^. 5th series. 10-13.. C. Geology of Ireland.. A. : Portion of a harp and other objects found in the crannog of Carnervagh. Crannogs in Ballin Lough.I. "W. 445 KIRKER. Co. R.S.. Journal R...R. Journal R. ii.A. vol. 3rd series. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.S. pp. x. 177. vi. K. 175. R. R. vol.I. pp. REV. Roscommon. 170-174. v. pp.I. Journal R. pp. vol. EDGAR L. pp.A.... 444 KINAHAN.A. Journal R.A.H. Connemara.R. vol. On the crannogs of Lough Mourne. p.I.. : 371 Antiquities discovered in the Lake of Cloonfree. 5th series. vol. Proc. 446 KNOWLES. 373-378. Proc. pp. F. W. ii.A.A. : "Find" in Co.. M.. J.G.. v. : vol. vol. M. 233. 443 KILBUIDE. 180. DENIS H.. pp.M.S. Lough Mourne. 448 LETT. Belfast Nat. 219-222.BIBLIOGRAPHY.A.. Journal R. 115. ii. 441 KELLY. Co. series 2. 438. 5th series. F.. in Lough Annagh." Journal R. Antrim. near Carrickfergus. pp. Observations on the exploration of crannogs. Ireland. Examination of crannogs. Journal R. 447 LAYARD.. vol. A.. 208-214. 459-461. vii. vol. Proc. Crannog in Lough Naneevin.A. A. GEORGE A..A. 4th series. vol. p. pp. Journal R.A. p. vol. 294-297. 114. Proc.H. 5th W. Crannogs in Loughrea. I. : Etymology of the word " crannog. i. new series. : Fortified stone lake dwellings on Islands in Lough Skannive. H. Field Club. 5th series. vol. W... vol. Ireland.H..I. Unrecorded antiquities in lar Connaught. vol. pp.S. Proc. vol. 4th series. A. Journal R. Crannog in Lough Nahinch. : 449 LEWIS' TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Wooden house 450 LOCKWOOD. Proc. p... 1878. P... Ireland. pp.A. R..I. Co. R. i. HENRY.A..A. vii. 176-179. 412-427. Ireland. M. pp. Roscommon. viii. Ireland.I. 234.H. ix.. 172-176... S. pp.

194. . series. The structural features of lake dwellings. series.A. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. .N. Co.. pp. 361-367 Journal. H.I. J. Society. : brooch found at the crannog of Aghaloughan.I. 459 OTWAY. Journal E..A. : stockaded islands in Leitrim. E.A. CJESAR: Sketches in Erris and Tyrawley.I.. 198. Cavan. 1836. also Dublin Penny Donegal. E. Cargaghoge.A. Journal Kil. 148-152.. 455 MULVANY. Second notice. vol. EEV. vol. Antrim. vol.. Cassell & Co.372 451 BIBLIOGRAPHY.H. vi. vii.D. A.. Artificial J. i. Proc. ii. 4th series. 379. 458 0' DONOVAN. 454 MUDGE. 452 MILLIGAN. pp. : Froissart.A. Lake dwellings in Lough Mourne. A. The 457 O'CALLAGHAN.. vol. 600.. p. 3rd 270.S. SBATON F.H. LL. crannogs in the Co. iv.A. 460 PATTERSON. vol. 105-114. 269. Archaeologia. pp. Cavan. : Ancient structure dug out of Drumkelin Bog. W. (Scotland). 4th 453 MORANT. v. near Carrickfergus. p. p. 43. vol. WILLIAM. Silver W. 4th series. G. parish of Inver.A. Antrim.A.I. : Crannogs in Lough Bridgid. JUN.. : Examination of crannogs in Lough Mourne.H. new series. pp. p. and Monaghan. : floor...A. Crannog in Monalty Lake. pp. A. Ireland. Journal Kil. pp. pp. Co. vi. 381-383. Crannogs in the lake of Ballyhoe.H. 209-221.. pp. GEORGE. vol.^Clare. vol. Proc. xx. Journal : On series. vol. 321-330.A. Society. new vi. 5th series. i. pp. Ancient vol.. 8-10. Journal E. H.. 5th series.A. LOCKWOOD. T. Journal R. Johne's translation quoted. vol. 74. Ireland. EGBERT : lake dwellings of Europe. 487. pp. S. C. barony of Farney.. iv... 456 MUNKOE. Journal E.I. Co. xxvi. Journal E. CAPT. 195. vol.. 197. pp.S. Co. JOHN.

A.. pp. R. . to Queen Elizabeth. Archaeological Journal. London. Archaeological Journal. Caulfield. Proc. 466 STANLEY. Proc.I. Journal R. 212-217. ii. : 378 462 PLUNKETT. pp. 464 REEVES. 66. MAJOR-GENERAL F. its ancient occupants. On certain crannogs in Ulster.. 156. 3rd series. vol. : Discovery of a crannog.I. vol. LL. A..H.I.. pp. vol. D. (Innis-a-lochen and 4th series. GEORGE H. i. B.A. REV.. v. vol. 271-276.. : Antiquities of Dromiskin..BIBLIOGRAPHY.A. Louth. 17. A. GEORGE. pp. Journal Kil. ANTONY.A. ix. Society. vi.. sent hy the Lord Deputy. R.I. Co. Co. : On two crannog R. Journal in the Public Record Office. vol.A. pp.. REV. London. HON. W.H. p.. SIR HENRY: Account of an attack on a crannog in the year 1566.. 101-108. A. *- "Crannog of Inishrush and pp. LL.. 4449. 16. Fermanagh R.D. Sir Henry Sydney. 469 TRAILL.A. 467 STUBBS. parish of Aghnamullen. : Crannogs and remains discovered in them.I. vii. pp. pp. . : Ancient structure found in peat. A. 463 READE. R. p. H. T.. P.H. ix. 157.D. 153-158.I. Journal R. vii.I.I. vol. Crannog in Lough Nahinch. new series.A. 229 (correction) p. Monaghan. 334. i. Co. vol. vol. vol. R.. 168. 176-179. Journal 470 TRENCH. E. 4th 468 SYDNEY. near Boho. See BALL. 2nd series. Proc. 471 TALHOT. vol. JAMES: Antiquities found at Lagore.H.A. A. series.. 4th series. by Dr. Proc. 461 PETHIE. Ireland. THOMAS: Crannog in Lough Annagh. p.. W.D. 465 SHIRLEY.. iii. : sites vii.. Territory and Dominion of Farney. Extracted from MSS. Ballylough). vol.

pp.I. Cavan. EDWARD : Account of Ireland. v. A.. 61. i. 4th series. otherwise Trillick and Lankill. Crannogs in Lough Eyes. Journal R.. A.I. p. Crannogs in Drumgay Lake.. vol.. 232-235. i. vol. 360-371. 37-44.A. i. Co.. i. R..I. vol.. Crannog at Ballydoolough. vol.. Fermanagh.H. Belfast Nat. Proc. : BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1867.. vi.H. Ireland. p. i. Third notice. 553564.I. R. 4th series. A. i. i. vol. vol. vol.H.. pp. vii. i. : Outline sketch of crannogs.A. Fourth notice. 305-314.A. vol.I. vol. Fermanagh.A.... " Catalogue" antiquities Museum. pp.I. Submarine crannog discovered on the peat under high-water mark at Ardmore Bay. : Account of three crannogs.I. pp. 473 VIGORS. M. SIR WILLIAM R.A. . Fermanagh. vol.I.H. ii. Ireland. Journal R. Journal R. 4th series. near Enniskillen. 154 also.I. 147-153.. 94. pp. Journal R. 5th series. R. Discovery of human and other remains similar Blackwater between Lismore high above the present valley of the Proc. Journal R.I. vol. A. Journal Observations on the principal crannogs of Fermanagh.A. ii. Irish Antiquities. Animal remains and antiquities found at Dunshaughlin. W.H. Co.A. COLONEL P.. R. 542-545.A. 220-237. v. pp.. 550-561. 4th series.. 324-339. 673-675.. i.A. p. Proc. Collectanea Antiqua. Trouvaille from the crannog of Lisnacroghera.R.A. Journal R.I.A. Soc.. Journal Kildare Arch. Journal R. pp. D. 476 WILDE... vol. ix. iv. Co. 274-278.. Crannog in the Co.. Antrim.H. Field Club.A.. Remarks on Irish crannogs. 375-408. Proc. A.. Field Club. pp.. pp. vii. E. Journal R. Miss : Crannog of Ballylough.A. A. R. 47-49.A. pp... 475 vol.. 372-389. Cavan. 391-402. near Broughshane. Fermanagh. 420-426. Proc. 22-26. vol. 3rd series. A. pp. chiefly in the Co.I. viii. 2nd series. Castle and Cathedral. : Journal Antiquities discovered in the crannog of Cornagall.H. . i. 5th series. Journal R. 477 WILSON. Journal R. Proc. to those of a crannog..I.A..374 472 TTssHER. 4th series. 96-106. F. pp. J.A.H. A. pp. R. pp.H. vol. 4th series. R. 4th series. 305-324. WAKEMAN.H.. Discoveries of ancient crannog structures. vol.A. Second notice. vol..S. vol. R. A. 474 WAKEFIELD. pp.. new series.. 4th series. 4th series. 461-465.I. pp.I. vol.. with some notes on a crannog recently discovered in the County Kildare. Co. Crannogs of Drumdarragh.S.A. Co. 4th series.A.. vol. pp. pp. Belfast Nat.. vol. iii.I. pp. pp.A.I...

THE VEN. 8. 4th series. Society. Ogham stones.H.. stones seen in Kilkenny County.A. 4th series. VERY REV. WILLIAM MICHAEL. A. i.I.H.E. 9. Journal Kil. vol. vi.BIBLIOGRAPHY. pp. Various references to crannogs. Meath. 348-368.. vol.T. v. 41-44. 128-136.A.A.. vi. : Ogham monument.. OGHAM. vol. 228-233. Journal R. vol. vol.I. pp. 268. Co. Kerry. iii.H. . pp. The Lake Dwellings : 479 WYLIE. xxxviii. R. A. pp. Journal R..A. Dingle.S.. Ogham cave at Dunloe. series. Dublin.. 665-667. 202-236. vol. Cork. 483 ARMAGH. Kerry. Journal R. 523-524. vol.. (Read at Meeting. Journal R. F. pp. Proc. THE DEAN OF: stone Ogham R. Ireland. Journal R.) Ogham inscribed stones. Cork.I. ii. 276. Lit. vol. v... v.. vii. REV.. Journal of the Cork Hist.A. Journal R.A.. A.. Fifteen EDMOND : ogham inscriptions at Ballyknock.A. vol. Vol.I. Proc. 367-370. vol. 478 WOOD-MARTIN. XXI 480 ALLEN.. 875 W. 5th series. preserved at the Public Library. 5th series. Journal R. Notes on crannogs in Longford. : Crannog site. of the early period. 481 ANONYMOUS: Dunloe ogham cave. vii. i. Nobber..A.. Ireland. vol.A. J. COL. M.A.H.A. Meath.. 4th series. G. 5th series.S.A. and Arch. vol.. Three ogham stones near Kilmacthomas. 485 BARRY. F.H. p. 615. Co. Discovery of an ogham inscription at Rathcanning in the County Cork.A. vii. pp.A. Armagh. vii.R. Journal of the Waterford and On ogham S. Journal R. 410. Archaeologia Cambrensis. 165-170. Archaeologia. 80.I.. iii. of Ireland Archaeological Society. A. pp. Ogham inscription in Co. Journal R. 1888.. Journal R.S. R.S..H. 612. vol.S.. pp.A. pp. The ogham Rosetta stone. Co. Society. 514-535. 4th series. pp. I. vol. 79. 3rd pp.. pp. pp.A. A.. 122-135. vol.S. 6th scries. ii. 482 ARDFEUT. vi. new series.I. pp. Lake Dwellings 177-187.. vol.. 5th series. 4th series. 100-106.. and Ant. vol. A. pp. Journal 484 ATKINSON. Ireland. pp. 307-310. 12. pp. (Scot. GEORGE MOUNSEY : Ancient Irish Treatise on ogham writing.) of Ireland. pp. A. Pol. Ogham stones at Lisgenan and Glenawillan. 2nd series. Co. pp.. Ireland. vol. Ireland. ARCHDEACON OF Co. Lacustrine settlement in Moynagh Lake. Nov.A. vi. ii. 4th series. 5th series. R. : ROMILLY. M.A. 255-267. 480-484.S. illustrated by tracings from the original MS..I.I..

vi. x. 437-444.. inscribed stones at Camp. inscribed stones at Killeen Cormack. Waterford. readings.. i. pp. pp.. ii. I.I. A. 450-452.. Proc.I. Ogham inscribed pillar-stone at Kilcullen. i. : Ogham inscribed monuments of the Gaedhil. vol. R. 320-322. i..H. Pol. I. or Glenfais.R. Lit. Kerry.I. Journal R. R.. Review of a work by R. 118-130.. vol. R. A. vol.. 265-271. Cork. Co. R. M. pp. iii. Co. pp. Ogham inscribed stone at Kilbonane. vol. Journal R. Ogham series. Proc. Ogham Lit. vol. at Gowran. inscribed stones at Glen Fais.I. Co. Cork.H. p.. A. Waterford. Co. REV. Journal R. Kilkenny.I.... Co. pp.. vol. Journal R. R.I. Co. R. vol. I. 4th Ogham iii. 27-29. pp. Proc. 238-246. and Ant..H. and Ant.H.H.H. Lit.. and Ant. i. R. 387. 487 BIIASH.I. A. vol.. A. pp. R. Pol. Ogham inscribed stones vol. 3rd series. pp. 3rd series..D. A.I.H. and Ant. L. vol. R. County Antrim. Proc. A. 3rd series. Proc. inscribed stones at Ballycrovane. Ogham inscribed stone at Kiltera. i.c.. Ogham inscribed pillar-stone at Monataggart. Co. pp. A. : Ogham inscription.A. 4th Proc. Cork. pp. 1879.1 R.. pp. Journal R.. Observations by the Right Rev..A.I.. pp.. 7-9. R. inscribed stone at Seskinan. Waterford. Cork.. 4-7. new series. 186-191. 490 CAULFIELD. Ogham inscribed stones.I. 438. 4th series. Journal R.. 196-200. Proc. .I. 489 BUICK. series. A. pp.. Journal R.D. 103-121. iv. Ogham inscribed stones at Tinahally. Kerry.. v.I. D. 384-395. R. 172-175. i. 388. x. pp. Cork. Co. 4th series." etc.A. vol..A.. Lit. Joun.. CHAKLES GRAVES.. 4th series. Ogham inscribed bone pins and stone amulets. RICHARD : Ogham inscription in a souterrain in Co.. vol. 4th Ogham iii. A.. A. 165-182. Proc. 11. pp. Lit. Lord Bishop of Limerick. : Ogham chamber at Dunloghan. A.A. i.. series. pp. Pol.I. pp. Co Kerry. Co..A. I. iv. A. R. : Report on Ogams recently discovered near Connor. vol. ii. Pol. vol.H. G. Pol. snd Ant. The London. 168-186. 488 BKOWN. vol.A. 254-264.A. entitled "The Ogham inscribed monuments of the Gaedhil. W. BIBLIOGRAPHY. and Ant. vol. series. Journal R. Ogham Lit. Co. vol. A. Proc.. LL. 3rd Ogham vol. pp. A.I.H.. J.. A.A.. 304-316.A.. vol. Brash... Journal Kil.I A. pp. Society.. 439. i. Pol. A.I.. Ogham inscribed stone at Dunbel. Proc.876 486 BLACKETT. A. A. vol. RICHARD ROLT. R.

vol. 30-64. Pol. Trans. 282-284. 289-297. DR. Co. p. 47-56. Cavan. Society. i. series. vol. Proc.. and Ant. at Monataggart. Ogham monument at Ardmore. 160-170. A.A. v. Ardmore. .I. Co. Ogham inscriptions at Breastagh..D. Mayo. pp.H. R. vol. Leacht and the Diiivhin Deglain. 493 ELCOCK. Supposed Ogham inscription.I. Co. vol. i.A.A. R. viii. Co. Co. pp.. inscription. St. Kil. vol. Difficulties attendant : on the transcription of Ogham legends. A. Trans. pp. 192-195.. Kil. R. i. 153. County Gal way. Ogham vol. Co. 4th series. 287.I. series. pp.. SIR SAMUEL. 4th 495 FERGUSON. 122. Lit.I. Proc.. CHARLES : Ogham stone.. Proc. Meath. 268. i. Proc. F.... A. and Ant. 47-53. Society. A. R. : Stone bearing inscribed scorings. vol. 303. ii. Society. Journal R. 491 COCHRANE. A. pp.A.A. J. Society. 5th series.. Journal Kil. new series.. 227. Cork. vol.I. Pol. viii. pp. Lit.... A. pp. i.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 504. : 377 Notes on the newly -discovered Ogham stones in County Journal E.H.A. and the means of removing them. Edinburgh.A. vol. pp. R.I. Ogham pp. vi. PURKFOY : Note on a supposed Ogham stone. ii. 201-214. A. p. Journal R. Ogham inscribed stone on Callan Mountain. R.S. Ireland. Journal Kil. new series. Co.I. Trans..A. Pol. Journal Kil.. 503.. new series. 496 FITZGERALD.I.. 371. A. Mount Music. Society. ix. pp. Roscommon.. Society.. vol. 160-171. Fasciculus of prints from photographs of casts of Ogham inscriptions. A.. and at Mullagh. Pol. 152. The Ogham monuments of Kilkenny. vol. Ross Hill. 494 ELLIOTT.. and Ant. On LugncTi. 4th series. 497 GEOGHEGAN.H. new 286. Journal vol. REV. Journal R. 492 COLLES. JOHN . Cork. 370. Declan's Oratory.A. Cavan. vol.A. Journal Kil.H. inscribed stone.. A. new series. xxvii.. Clare. &c. Ogham inscriptions in Ireland. Ogham inscriptions in the cave of Rathcroghan. ROBERT. 53-60. LL. 1887.I.. vol. Lit. i. : Ogliam stane.. vol.A. iii.S. and Ant. vol. Lit.. 40-49. pp. pp. A. 4th series. 222-238. "Wales and Scotland. iii. EDWARD: Jotting in archaeology.. pp. Proc.. vol. A. A. R. G. i. 351-353. pp..I.

vol.. vi. R. A. pp. On the Ogham character. of Priscian. 665-672.. vol.A. (The paper contains a good deal of information relative to Irish Oghams). pp.A. the age of Ogham writing. Hermathena. Ogham monuments. iii. On On On 3rd series. 183.I. Trans.H. Trans...A.. Proc.I. vol.H. vol.A.I. i.. 33-42. i. R.I.D. Ogham monument at Kilcolman. Proc. 150. Proc.A. 374-379. REV.. 173-180. . iii.878 BIBLIOGRAPHY. along with Ogham inscriptions. 234. R. pp. 356-369.. R. pp.. R. i. R. A. p. pp. Notes on the Ogham character on the margin of an ancient MS. 1-4. R. JAMES : Ogham vol.A. vol. new series. v.. vol.. Ogham inscription supposed to bear an Anglo-Saxon name. A.I.Proc. Ireland. 401-403. Lit. R. Pol. 374-379. Ogham character.I.I.. 4th series.. applicable to the Irish Ogham. pp.312-317. vi. 4th scries. with a note on Scythian letters Hermathena..A. Ogham character and alphabet.. vol. Note on Oghams. On an Ogham inscription lately discovered near Gortalea..H. 424-456. vol. i. R. i.S. Journal R. vi. pp. On the Ogham Beithluisnin. 208-252. vol. : Tory Hill.. 498 GRAVES. 31-40-45. vol. pp. On an Ogham monument recently found in Co. 241-268.. Lit. pp.. ii.. 199. Journal R.. REV. inscription in the Co.. A. pp.. p. vol. Journal R.I. pp. earliest inscribed monuments of Britain and Ireland. CHARLES. vol. pp. vol.. 305-307.I. pp. Co.. pp. iv.I.. 149.H.A. pp. Journal R. 97-108.. On Ogham inscriptions. A.. vol. 499 GRAVES. 5th series.I. vol. Trans. pp. Proc.. Crosses on stones.. R. Ogham monument found in Co. 209-216. pp.. xxvii. Proc. Trans. 196-202. pp. On a general method of deciphering secret alphabetic writings. pp. ii. Kerry. Journal On vol. Kilkenny. with an inscription in the iv.. 5th series.. Trans.A.. pp. D. 300-304. Kil. Proc..I..A. On an Ogham ii. 157-159. H. 439-440. 443-472.I.S.A. iv. vol. vi.. Comparison of the Kil.. R.. Kerry. with oghamic inscriptions. part ii. REV. iv. vol. LORD BISHOP OF LIMERICK: Proc. A. Society. 313. xxx. Cryptic inscription on the cross of Hackness in Yorkshire. R... 70-73. 500 HAIGH. Journal R. Kil.A. Proc. Ogham inscription. vol. Trans. Kil. 170-194. vi..I. 4th series.I.A.. a silver brooch. as Proc. R. R. pp. A. xxix. the supposed Pilasgian inscription on Society.I. pp. A. 3rd series. Kerry. Ogham inscription at Cahirciveen. new series. Proc. Trans.A.. 432-434. 312. A.A. vol. vol. Hermathena. On an amber bead with an Ogham inscription. Proper names occurring in Ogham inscriptions in the cave of Dunloe.. vol. The Ogham alphabet.. vol. vol.A. Society. Ireland. and Ant.I.A. On stone and bone antiquities. vol. . D.I. pp. and Ant. 4th series. pp. A. v. 184. pp. vol. v. i. R... iii.. Society. Pol. cave at Dunloe.A..

Ireland. 22-28. SAMUEL. S EATON F. M. R. 5th 6th series. Journal R. M. 482. Journal R. M. Proc.. The Ogham retrospect of 1897. 506 LETT.S.. Co. 184. H. pp. pp. vol. vol.R. vol. iv. vol.A.A. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 177. pp. 1887-8.I. 177.I. R. Journal R. HEWSOX. including three recently discovered in the Co. Cork. 4th series. T XS-E Fox. vol. Studies in Irish epigraphy. p. 6. 439-441. Wicklow and Kildare.I. 5th series. Tyrone.I. and stones inscribed with Oghams. Journal R. : inscription containing Latin words. Journal R. 507 MACALLSTER.H.S. vol. Fragment of an Ogham stone. p. vol. AUGUSTUS : Roovesmore Fort.A.. 392.S.. : Ogham inscription. vi.S. Society. vii. i. Ireland. vol. Ogham Journal R. vi. and one in the Co. Ireland.. 272. v. p ...A.A.S..S. vol. series. REV. Kilkenny. 4th series. Ireland. p. 4th series.H. viii. Sliobhan na Geela. Journal R.. 3840. The Ogham retrospect of 1896.A.A. 5th series. vol. 221-231..A . pp. 501 879 HATMAN. vi. A. 81-83. Proc. Journal R.S. The Killeen Cormaic stones. Journal R. pp. vol.. Ireland. Journal R.. pp.S. iii..A. pp. 5th series. Ireland. vol. 178. p. pp. p. stones. vol. 74-76. 5th series.. pp.. 175. vii. 505 LANGRISHE. B. Ireland.A. 64. 67. 393. REV. vii. pp. vol. Notes on some of the Kilkenny Oghams.A. COL. Co. inscriptions. Ballyboodan : Ogham stone. vol.S.. ")08 MlLLIOAN. 503 HITCHCOCK. F. pp.BIBLIOGRAPHY. : Ogham stone. nnd Phil. 5th series. containing the The Currans Ogham. 178.A. 123-139. Journal R. W. Journal R..A.A.A. Aglish.A. . Ireland. Ireland..A..A. Belfast Nat. vi..A. E. viii. R. pp.A. Waterford. Ogham inscriptions of the barony of Corkaguiney and the Counties of Mayo. Journal R. 5th series. Hist. M. vol. pp. S. xxiv. vol..A. 101-105. 502 Youghal. : On Oghams. vi. pp. : Discovery of an Ogham stone in the North of Ireland. 163-165. vol. 5th series. Ireland.. iv. RICHARD : Discovery of some Ogham Ogham Ogham 504 inscription. vii.. 5th series..S. Proc.A. 4th series.H.A. 271. 175-177..I. Archaeological Journal.

L. A. Ulster Journal of Archaeology..A. pp. vol.. A.H. i. vol. . 397-408. E.H. ii. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. R. Proc.. MAC CULLAGH. vol. A. v.A. new series.T. pp. Society. Kil.A. pp. vol. Query as to Killarney pp. THOMAS : Supposed Ogham inscription on a ruined cromleac at Castlederg. pp. Journal R. vii. LIEUT. A. : Proc.. pp. pp. 185.A..I.D. i. Journal Ireland.. 315. in the rath of Dunbel. D. vol. 517 REDMOND. Oghams. Kil. pp. M. and Ant. 298-302. 3rd series. A. Journal R. Ogham 516 of Kilkenny. : Wexford..A.A..S. 5. Notes on an Ogham hunt in the North of Ireland.. 136. pp. Tyrone. pp. Trans. A. 514 OLDHAM. M. Ogham 282. iii. 513 O'GoRMAN. Irish : Ogham inscriptions.A. GABRIEL. 87. vol. Co. F. 9-13. Society.. vol. 101105.I. 184. THOMAS: On some stones with Ogham 517. Proc. Kerry Ogham 176. K. : Demesne. Ogham JAMES. pp. Trans. Kilkenny. : Ogham stone.. pp. 511 O'DALY. 314. iii. monument. vol. pp. 86. 518 RICE. R. A. characters.. A. Kil. viii. THEOPHILUS Ancient inscription in. inscription. Journal R.. vol. Co. near Ballyhaunis. Co.. p. on the Island Ogham at Brucklaghhoy. Co. Ireland. Society.I. Kilkenny. Ogham monuments 4th vol. 519 RHYS.H. Ogham character. : 512 O'FLANAGAN.I.. JOHN. -CoL. Report R. vol.S. A. Journal R.L. iii. JOHN G. 5th series.I. Journal R. A. vi. vol. R. 4th series..S. i. A.I.. Trans.. 510 NEVINS. Trans. ii.L. Irish : BIBLIOGRAPHY.. vol. vol. 419. pp. Ogham inscriptions. 281. Ogham stone in Salterhridge 4th series. Lit. finds. R. ii. 279-282. Tullaherin.. Society. 60-66.. vol. vol. 418. JOHN Ogham inscriptions and evidence of their antiquity. Proc. p. Pol. 3rd series.H. 3-16. Journal Kil. W. 5th series. vi. J..(F.69. series. HUGH N. pp. : stone.A..I. &c. vol. iii.D..A. Co. 222-238. 179. 513- 515 PRIM.380 509 NASH. Wexford. : Ogham monuments A. iii.C.

I. vol. vol. pp.A. vol. pp..A. COL.. vol. Society. F. 268. pp.A. Society. Ogham readings. 142. Castletimon. ix. i. M. Journal R.. On an Ogham from 750-756. 524 VALLANCEY. A. Co. 324-340. Fermanagh. iv. Kil. Journal R.A. new Trans. .I). 544-561. A.H.A. R.. i. Trans. Fermanagh. Drumloghan. pp. 529 BELCHER. 307- JLJLII. 3rd series. pp.. 527 WINDELE. 10. A. 276-285. the earn on Topped Mountain. A.A. 529-542 vol. REV. pp. vol. 187-194. Kil. Trans.H. 528 ANONYMOUS : Druid's altar. iv. 411. T. &c.. iii. Tyrone.. vol. Society..-PILLAR-.. Co. pp. A. Journal R. pp. Kil.I. 520 SHEARMAN. D.. Kil. R. Irish JOHN : Ogham inscriptions. PATRICK: Pillar-stones. Kil.. REV. Billingual vol. A. Trans.I.A. Society. 4th series.A. 385-389. iii. vol.. A. Waterford. vol. 16. 4th series.I.D. 253-260. new series. vol. Co. pp. WILLIAM at : Ogham chamber i.: Pillar-stones. vol.. 521 STEPHEN. 12. Trans. Wicklow. 525 WAKEMAN. vol. ii. On an Ogham 523 TUOMEY. JOHN FRANCIS: 881 Ogham inscription at Killeen-Cormac. near Dunlavin. &c. JAMES HENTHORNE. Society. Ogham monument. 530 CODY. i. vol. pp. pp. . Journal Kil. A.H. W. 43-52. i. Co. J. Inscribed stones at Killeen-Cormac. /- vol. pp. pp. v. 4th series.. Trans. Proc. i. pp. Kil.H. CHARLES: Observations on the alphabet of the Pagan Irish.. 11. ii. HOLED-STONES. series. 410. Society... W. Archaeologia. vol..I. 143. new series. 35-39.. vii.. p. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. iv. Dublin Penny Journal. JournalR. On the age of Ogham writing. ii. pp. 4th series. 317-322. : 522 TODD. A. : Ogham pillar-stone at Aughascribbagh. Society.. 269. vol. 526 WILLIAMS.. Co.I. : inscription.BIBLIO GRA PHY. PROFESSOR GEORGE : On scrihings from a cave. C. 311. On Ogham inscriptions. p. Proc..

) : Journal R. A. series.. 533 HITHCOCK..A.A. Journal R.. series.I. 158169.I.. E. : Proc.. vi. 538 WAKEMAN.S. Kil. F.R. Primitive hand-mill found near Youghal. W. 4th series.R. vi. pp. pp.S.382 531 CONWELL.I.. BIBLIOGRAPHY. new series. vol. -542 Journal Kil. 537 MAC RITCHIE. vol. Holed-stones. M. SMITH. Co. COL. : Journal R. H. pp. : Observations on the history of holed-stones in France and Ireland. pp. Holed-stones. 445-474.. 534 JOLY. pp. On holed and perforated stones in Ireland.E.I. G. Journal R. ix. 540. 5th series. P. : On standing-stones in the County Wexford..I..C. 280-282. 194-297. Mayo. 539. 471. A. 37. C... Society.S.A.A. pp. Carlow.. : Inscribed pillar-stones. vol.. pp.A. were erected. HUBAND : On the querns used by the Irish. 94-108.. iii. F. . vol. 536 KINAHAN. Ireland. vol. pp. &c. vii. pp. (Scot.. 535 KELLY. Ireland. M. A.. F.A.A. A. vol. : Dublin Penny Journal. Trans. : ii. 472. vol. 4th WOOD-MARTIN. DAVID. Ireland. 39-41. R. : The Lia Fail on Tara Hill. viii.I. -540 ANONYMOUS : Ancient hand-mill or quern. iii. Journal R.H. pp. Markings on pillar-stones...A. vol.H. pp. i. 4th monuments of Ireland. J. XXHI. W. 36. QUERNS. E.I.. A.. vii. A. Rude stone Journal R. W. 5th series. 5th series. : Holed-stone in the Co.S. i. R. MONS.A. 539 &c..A. vol.H. Journal R. Proc. G. EUGENE A. Ireland.. "W". 185-187. 295.A. 243-245.S. RICHARD Original purpose for which gallauns Society. 390-393. vol. I. 632 FRAZER.R. pp. iv.S. vol. Avv 541 Frrz GERALD. vol. pp. 5th series.

5th series..I. The ancient vol.A.BIBLIOGRAPHY. pp.A. vol. REV.. G. 186-197. A. : Belfast Nat. pp.I. M. vol i. : Lake-dwellings of Ireland. 2nd Rath.. : The rath of Borrismore. vol. Society. of iv.. Westmeath. i..R. 298-300. Belfast Nat. RATHS. vol. pp. 247. 71-82. Notes upon a Rath souterrain at Gurteen. . Co. vol. : On the origin of Raths. : On the quern. 549 BYRNE.A.. 490. G. Kil. pp..A. i. p. 247. Duhlin Penny Journal. FRANCIS JOSEPH... 103-115.I. 43-50. pp. ii. vol. 207.. vol. vol. W. M. JOHN M. Field Club. Trans. vol. R. R. i.H. Trans. M. Society. new series pn 352- 544 WILDE. vol. Los-an-Chorain. A. Kil.. v.. Cromleac. 85-90.. DANIEL The Dun of Cloch-an-Phuca and i. or Horseleap.. 354. Journal Kil. A. Ireland. vol : iii. Report on the souterrain of a rath. p. 551 FALKINER. Society.R. 888 THOMAS J. 211-215. Prehistoric Ruths in the vicinity of Belfast..I. A. Trans. : Relative antiquity Field Club. pp. Kil. 550 DICKSON. W. ii.A. 547 BIGGER. 3rd series. A. near Kilbeggan. Garristown. Trans. : Mus. 546 ANONYMOUS Irish : and Danish Raths. 553 GRAVES. A. R. Proc. Society. pp.I. M. 2nd series. series. A..S. REV. ^**Phe Moat of Ardscull. 552 GEOGHEGAN. WILLIAM. 3rd series. JAMES : Rath at Glenfoyle. R. Society.. 87. 182.I. vol.I. 545 WOOD-MARTIN. 548 BROWNRIGG. Journal R. series.. COL.A. 43 TENISON. iv. 88. pp. i. SIR Cat. XXIV. Society. Trans. 4th 208. Journal Kil. Co. REV. tribes and territories of Ossory. 55-70. 554 HEALY. Journal R. 246. A. A. : Westmeath. and Tumulus.R. ii. pp. A.. W. 246. pp.A. JOHN : The fort of Ardnorcher. pp. pp. Kil.

R. Proc. Note on Barrow n-Eanach. vol.I. Curragh of Kildare. &c.H. series.D. iii. 558 MAYO. iii. 557 MARTIN.I.I. pp. vol. A.. A discourse concerning the Danish mounts.K. Journal R... S... Belfast Nat. pp. GEORGE. 566 Ross. pp. THOMAS. 1887-8. 316. Society. 562 MOORE.A. 56Q MOLYNEUX. Antiquities discovered in trenching a small rath.A. 556 KINAHAN. pp.H.. JAMES.. M. Society.. . : i. pp. REV.I. : On On the antiquities of Tara Hill. pp. 443. Society. PHILIP Observations on raths. 76.. Dublin. DENIS pp. Society. pp. RICHARD BIBLIOGRAPHY. 175-178.. vi. CAI-T.. 564 PETRIE. 365 PRIM.. ii. new : series.. 22-26. A. Rath.U. 4. Trans. Society. Kil. F. pp. ETC. : On some explorations on the Society. i. 4tlt series. vol. pp. R.. and Phil. 4th series.. EARL OF : Rathmore.A. vol. Journal Kil. A. Co. Kilkenny. : On a liss at Portnascully.H. forts of : Proc. Society. A. Kil. 75.A. vi.A. A. vol. vi. 563 O'DONOGHUE. A. 54-60. M. pp. A. Rathgorey. forts. CHARLES. and towers of Ireland. Hist... 112-115.384 555 HITCHCOCK.. R. 315. pp. 4th series. Society. A. new series. 1725. 119-127. Journal E.A. 39. at Dunbel. A. 3. G. Wexford. Trans. : Double ditched quadrangular fort. 559 MILLIGAN. 444.I. M. G. Co. REV. xviii.H. M. 307. ix. vol. 561 MOORE. pp. : ii..R.. the history and antiquities of Tara Hill. vol.D. new Journal Kil. vol. M. 68-71. 40. Jourual R. : Trans. 25-232. : On bones found in the souterrain of a rath. Journal Kil. The Erin from the Firbolg to the Norman.A. vol. A. vol. Journal Kildare A. Kil. A. MONTGOMERY ii.I.I. H. vol. vol. 308. JOHN. : Trans..

i..A. 5th series. Funeral customs. Folk-lore. vii. Some Irish legends. an introduction to the antiquities of Ireland. AND FOLKLORE. The cow legend of Corofin. Exclusion of women from sacred places. vols. 86. v. Proc.. Bonfires of bones.. vol.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 126-129. p.. pp. pp. Cannibalism in Ireland.. **""* 570 ANONYMOUS : Archaic Eock Inscriptions.. 87. p. 365-367. vol.A.A. London. See under heading of Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Ireland.A.S.A. p.. 4th series.. G. vol. Folk-lore of the months. . p. 74. 567 USSHER. iu. Belfast Nat. 286.H.S. iv. Clare. and ix. v . i. pp. viii. iii. 70. ii. London (circa 1560).. vii.. 413-420. pp. Co. 401.. Cities buried beneath the waters of lakes. vol.A. v. vol. Weasel folklore in Munster. vol. 440- 572 BALDWIN. p. Healing Well. vol.S. II. Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. Fairy Annals of Ulster. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 71. Ireland. J. vol... 348. : Louthiana or. Holed stone near Ireland. 1758. 227. p. vol. vol. 256. 257. ii. pp. round tower. 362-368. Ulster Journal of Archaeology... pp. 73. vol. Fairy Superstition. Couvade. vol. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. . p. 5th series.S. vi. Galway. M. 568 WRIGHT. 569 WIUTEKS (Various) : On the fort of Tullaghhog. : Imokilly amulet.I. Field Club. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. : 885 Objects found in the Kitchen middens of raths.H. vii. p. 66. cat. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Ulster. vol. Journal E. Journal Cork Historical and Archaeological vol. vol. pp. Eustic proverbs current in 571 ATKINSON. vii.A.. 155. London. pp. Journal R. Journal E.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 76. p. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Journal E. Ireland. 133-136. new series. E. Eoscan viii. 444. 131-143. Journal E. Journal E. pp..A. 553-557 160. 4th series. vol. 2nd series. 2 D . 235-242. 5th series. 1891. 282 vol v. pp.. 316-323. 157Society.. v. Notes and queries. iv. THOMAS . Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol. vol.. 5th series. 7th series.I. vii. pp. vol. WILLIAM: Beware the VOL..

B. The ethnography series. vi. 4th series. WILLIAM. 580 BRADY. Cloyne. p. p.I.. M. pp. p.. or. iii.. 574 BANON. 178. viii. 545548. 190.S. Waterford. 2nd series... Belfast Nat. of Ballycroy.H. 582 BROWNE.I. Trans. 74-111. . the ancient Irish lamentation. pp. 575 BARING-GOULD. vol. vol. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. R.. Records of Cork.I. 41-54. Ireland. vol. 583 BUCHANAN. Field Club. Local folklore. Finan's. vol. 4th series. M.A. pp. A. BERNARD : Need fire. vol. MRS. A. v. 5th series. Journal K. pp. A. 583-586.. i. The shamrock. vol. : The origin and development of religious : helief. M. Inishkea Island. S. Co. 3rd series. CHARLES.D.. iv. EDWARD : Cure for warts. 577 BIGGER. pp. REV.. 314. Holy well and bullan stone at Temple Feaghna and the holy well and shrine of St. iii. iv.. : Journal R... 2nd series. MAZIERE : Swearing stones. 59-63. i. : Antiquities in the Co. 65. Mayo. 272. Caoinan. ix. Co. R. Mayo. pp.. Proc. vol. 579 BLAIR. 136.A.. vol. -Kil. 581 B KENAN. Field Club.A. : vol. Kerry. 2nd series. vol. and Portacloy. Journal R.I.S. iv. 587-649. The ethnography of the Mullet.A. 179. Ireland. vol.R.. Co. London. Dublin.I. 64.. 3rd pp. A. Trans. pp. Proc.I. PATRICK : BIBLIOGRAPHY. Holy well.A. iii. Journal U. iii.A. p. : Belfast folklore. Belfast Nat.886 573 BABDAN.. : Items of folklore. vol. p. J. and Ross.H. SAMUEL ARTHUR Folklore. Society. R. 578 BLACKETT. R. 497. 576 BEAUFORD. 5th series. DR.A.A. W.A. 1871. vol. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. FRANCIS JOSEPH...

The story of Creation. D. 585 BYRNE. and critical chronology.A. EDWARD : The childhood of religious. Folklore.I. pp. 414. vol.. i. A.R. 590 COLGAN. Wright. pp. 307-334.H. A. Witchcraft in the Arran Islands. London. London. 5Sif Journal R. DR. 589 CODY.A. i. 5th series. pp. 87-102. ROBERT.. Fairy legends and traditions of the south of Ireland. 5th series. 4th series. iv. Society. 1896.. vol. 84. The childhood of the World. 1843.B. vol.S.A. pp. vol..I. 594 DUNCAN. CKOFTON : London. 1893. Society. p. pp. pp. A. CLODD. : Trans.A.H.. 591 CROKER. 211-226. 149-154. : Anthropological studies. Folklore. A. Journal R. A. v. Thos.I. prosecuted for Edited by sorcery in 1324 by Richard De Ledrede.A.S.S. 887 W. London.. JOHN : Fenian traditions of Sliabh-na-m-Ban.. H. Kil. A. 586 CAMDEN SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS Witchcraft . 2 D 2 . F. : Pagan Irish.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Journal R. vol. PATRICK Folklore. Religious 3rd series. i. 176- 595 DUNNE. Trans.. 194. : beliefs of the Journal R. O'BEIRNE. 349-362. : viii. 1862. : Garnavilla amulet. 415... A. Ireland. I. The keen of the south of Ireland. 85. T.A. 584 BUCKLAND. NATHANIEL. A..A. Printed for the Percy Society. 592 CROWE. Folklore gleanings from County Leitrim. LELAND L. vol. 333-362. The shamrock in literature. London.S. M. R. Kil. v. 4th series.. Society. vol. : proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler. vol. : Trans. Ireland. Bishop of Ossory. 1891. 347. pp. 593 DAY. Kil. vi. J. A. 587 CAULFIELD. 1891. Journal R.. : ii. vol. Folklore. pp.

F. 150. Society. London.. i. THISELTON DYER. ETC. vol. L. Society. 1884. pp.S. Ireland. Similarity between Irish and Eastern customs. v. Ireland. F. vi. 128-132. Lit.S. Lit. JOHN T. London. vol. 355-364. WILLIAM.D.A. pp. H.I." Proc. i..A.S.R. 187. Journal R. 40-49.R. Pol. and Ant. A. : Ethnology in Folklore. A. Proc. : 596 DYER. LL. series. v. Journal Kil. new- .. vol. On holed and perforated stones in Ireland.. vol. 600 FITZGERALD. Journal R. p. 315-322. folklore.. 5th series. new series. 597 EDITOR ULSTEK JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY : The shamrock... 12-20. pp. ETC/ Evidences hearing on Sun worship. vii. 265-272.. plotted on a map of the Geographer Royal to Louis XIII. 599 FERGUSON..A.S. Journal Kil. : 605 GOMME. A. A. pp. 58. R. LORD WALTER. pp. F. Amulet for the cure of sore eyes..S. 601 FLAHEUTY. Journal Kil. T.A. F. &c. Trans. Holed stones found in France..A. English.A. G. pp. iv. i. 158-169. : The Holestone of Castledermot. 5th 604 GOMME. 68. (Edited by) The Gentleman's Magazine Library. series. p.. A. vol.. vol.. 1885. new series. Pol. a traditional island off the west coast of Ireland. M. pp. 603 FITZGEUALD.A.C. E : Jottings in Archaeology. R. vol. Society. i. vol.. r 5th series.I... : Religion of the Celtic Nations.I. B. pp.S. 149. REV. pp. ii. iv. B.A. Ireland. JAMES : London. vol. The ceremonial Turn called " Desiul. The Shamrock. : Journal R. On Hy-Brasil. Journal R. 132-135. 598 FELTTJS. 69. M. 606 GRAVES. pp. v.. A.888 BIBLIOGRAPHY.S.I.. vol. Journal Royal Geographical Society of Ireland. 1889.. SAMUEL. Ireland. 602 FRAZER. London.I.. GEORGE LAURENCE. and Ant. 5th series.A.. R. 1892.. new series. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. &c. 79-139. The folklore of plants. vol. vol.

86-95. M. Proc. London. and Stories of Ireland.. Trans. vol. A. 499. 618 HOPE.. F. Dublin. 608 Proc. Society. 614 HENNESSY. 611 HALL. 1836. 612 HARDY. series 2. : London.. vol. pp. 1893.. Field Club. pp. 451-470. STEPHEN 1901. Folk-lore. vol. ii. R. 303-310. Belfast Nat. 470. 170. Kil. its S. pp. 124.. pp. Holy Wells of England. Holy Well. character. . MR.. 4th series. GWYNN. Folklore. 349-364. Ireland: scenery.A..A. Bovine Legends. : 889 Holy Wells.. vol. RICHARD: Journal R. C.A... Folk-lore.A. 617 HITCHCOCK.S. Folk-lore. : Mad Stone. R.BIBLIOGRAPHY. vol. pp. iv. viewed archceologically. C. vol. Kil. C.A. Mayo. viii. 615 HEWSON. Trans.I. A. Co. 616 HICKSON.A. vol. or professional beggar. Society. Wedding Dance-Mask. Society. Pin-wells and F. Kerry.S. PHILIP DIXON Legends. &c. 500. Kil.. The Holy Wells of Ireland. war of the ancient Irish. 311-319.. 171..B. 265-271. PROFESSOR A. x. Dublin. 607 GRAY. 123. of The Goddess 421-440. Irish : 610 HADDON. W. : A specimen of mediaeval 609 HACKETT.R. : viii. The *~* Bacach. : -Folk-lore. AND MRS. ix. E. : Rag : Bushes. pp. 1827. A batch of Irish Folk-lore. A. M. The Fortnightly Review. pp. iv. 1843.I. 3 vols. iv.. 613 HARTLAND. Tales. 5th series. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.H. : i. Ireland. GEORGE T. March. A.. pp pp.I. SIDNEY. ETC. vol. vol. pp. pp. 471. Co. MAKY AGNES Legend of Molaga's Well. iv. WILLIAM. Porcine Legends. WILLIAM : Irish poetry. vol. Trans. ii. vol. Journal R..

Extinct Monsters. in art. 278-287. D... N. REV. A. 250-267. the Irish Celts.H. J. 630 MACADAM. 1879.. and xix. Ireland. London.. vol. ..A. 284.A. vi. p. : Doctor Stones. 2nd ed. BIBLIOGRAPHY HERBERT : Origin of the Irish superstition regarding Banshees and Journal K. 193-200. 72. vol. 72. LLEWJELLYNN. 294-315. vol.A. Pantheism and Christianity. : ":*"").A. Society.I. 4th series. 2nd series.A. . 5th edition. The Mermaid^ and the symholism of legendary lore.890 619 HORE. vol. : Six hundred Gaelic Proverbs collected in 'Ulster. The 621 HUNT. Co. vol. P. Donegal. 628 LUBBOCK. 620 HORE. pp. F. 172-183. Ulster Journal of vol. : . JOHX. vii.D. I.. FANE : Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Journal. Madstones. 1875. 564-566. pp.-". ix. Journal R. - . 2nd series. M. WILLIAM West Irish Folk Tales and Romances. 1891. A. p. G. 1884. vol. : pp. Trans.L.I. 627 LARMINIE. literature.H.H. 5.A. vol. REV.. 279-282. ix. Folk-lore. pp. 626 KINAHAN. vol. pp. Journal R.I.H. Capture. 115-129.. H... Fairies. The Reliquary. 1875.. i.A. ROBERT Archaeology. Old Celtic Romances. 223-236. 623 JEWITT. : London. Journal R.. 4th series. HERBERT Ossiariic FIIANCIS: Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Kil. ix. SIR JOHN. 5th series.. 4th series. 624 JOYCE. BT. Some Holy Wells. pp 415-417. : the fish.S. vol. : London. Legend of Mount Leinster..D. The Origin of Civilization. "W. Legendary fictions of . PATRICK : Duhlin. London. vol. 625 KENNEPY. H. 14-18.. pp. 1898. Ireland.S. iii. : ix. pp.. Marriage by 629 LYNCH.. Age. 2 vols. 111-134. vi. The Couvade. 1893. The origin and history of Irish Names of Places. 622 HTTTCHINSON.A.

ii. vol. 187-192.. 4th series. : Journal Kil. Journal R. pp. i. 87-89. Myth and .A.S. London. KUNO AND NUTT. 633 MALCOMSON. vol. : Gaelic Incantations.A.A.. 387-424 vol. vol. vol..C. Ireland.A.R. 348-350. Saga. ii. 640 NAPIER. . Folklore. Witchcraft in the Co. pp. H5--128. 643 O'BYRNE. 4th series. SEATON F. i. A. 631 MACALISTER. pp. Journal R. 365-387.BIBLIOGRAPHY.. The Patriarchal Theory. JAMES. Notes on the well called Toberkeelagh. pp. iv. WILLIAM SHAW. S. pp. JOHN F. entitled "Beware the Cut.I. 5th series. M... 642 NUTT. The Vision of MacCouglinn.. The Voyage of Bran. vol. 406. vol. Journal R. Sliobhan na Gula. i. London. A. pp. London. Ireland. Folk-lore. "W. F. Otia Merseiani. : Primitive" Marriage. vol. : Inverness. 11. pp. Tyrone. : Journal R.. pp. 234-260. ALFRED : and Songs from Irish MSS. ROBERT On an ancient pamphlet.I. Hew Beries. pp. 71.A. : 641 NOLAN.I.A : Statistical Account or Parochial Survey of Ireland..R. 63*f~MAxwELL..A. L. 5th series. pp. 1885. 639 MOLLAN. WILLIAM HAMILTON Wild Sports of the West of 636 MEYER.H. DANIKL Folklore of the midland Counties of Ireland. 407.A. London.. Ireland/ vol.S. ALFRED Celtic : Journal R. M.. vol. pp. vol. : London.* i. 105-109. 638 MCLENNAN. 130. Kil. with translations.H. Trans. 177. Irish version of the Jealous Stepmothers-Folk-lore. 178. vii. 634 MASON. M. : 891 A Dingle District. pp. Lake Legend in the 632 MACKENZIE. pp. i. 3rd series. E. JOSEPH. 4th series. iii. 1865. 348-350. Edinburgh. A. Stories vol.A. vol. Ireland.E.. 1895.S..I.. &c.. F.A.S. Folk-lore. .S. 5th series. viii. p. : Pishogues from Tipperary." Society. i.. Ii Irish Tales among the Redskins. 3 : vols. 637 MILLIGAN.R. Society.

JOHN. Healing Stones. W. iv. ology. 653 PATTERSON. A. C. 334-346. A. . REV. 652 PATTERSON. JAMES: Correspondence of Irish. Field Club.. 3rd letter London.. i. Dublin. Co. 55. pp. Belfast Nat. pp... pp.D. 171.SSAR : Sketches in Erris and Tyrawley.. 1871. : Irish Penny Journal. Society. vol i. 636-643. series 2. Ireland.A. iii. vol. 651 OTWAY. DR. LL. 144-148. ii. R. pp. 364. new series. day and midsummer.A. 98. 645 0' DONOVAN. Joyce's paper on the occurrence of the number two in Irish proper names. C. i. : The Wren Bovs. 54.. p. p. M.. M. Proc.A.. Well. R.. Journal R. 469. pp. St. Trans. pp. 240- 650 OLDEN. Dublin. pp.-r-Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 654 PEACOCK.. Folklore.A. May On Trans. vol. Field Club. Society.S. vol.. : Antiquities in S. i. A... pp. Journal.. "W. 32-39. and Oriental legends. Kil. 118-143.H.A. vol. pp. EKV. Fechin's cursing stone.. D.I. Society. pp. Trans. of Archaeology. T. 573-583. 648 O'LAVERTY. 401. : Persecution of the Wren.. 172. Society.892 : BIBLIOGRAPHY. 373-382. 644 O'CoNOR. A. vol iv. Kil. i. Society. : Edmond Kavanagh. pp. pp. vol. pp.I. 4th series. vi.I. vol. Ulster Journal 649 O'LAVERTY. 5th series. 646 O'KEARNEY. JAMES..D. A. vol i. : Journal R. NICHOLAS: Folklore. vol. Trans. Elegy on the death of the Rev. vii. H.^Folklore. Traditions of Kilkenny. 77-105.. GEORGE. Journal Kil. Columbanus ad Hibernos. vol.A. : 4th series. 477. vol. R. iv.H. 242. Holywell. W. Kil. vol. 349- 655 PETRIE. 362-372.A.. 191-202. pp. Ulster Journal of ArchaePhysical characteristics of the ancient Irish. 402. 3rd series. 1841. i. Belfast Nat. vol. 647 O'KEEFE. vol. Donegal. : Remarks supplementary to Dr. Kil. MABEL Folklore gleanings from County Leitrim. i.R. H.I.A. Tour in Connaught. 1810. pp. REV. Greek. vol..H. ii. Clare. Irish Fairies.

Trans.D. S. Journal R. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp. p.. 4th series..... LD. vol.. Wells in the N. : The sacred tree. with Magazine. Kil. 662 SALMON. C. v.A. iii.D.I. vol. 658 PRIM. vol. London. pp. C : On the couvade. 333.. F. A Bundoran legend. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 659 PURDON. STANILAND: The development 667 WAKEMAN. pp. JOHN : Folklore. vol. 206.S.S. 1897. ii. H. 205. 661 RYCHE. 84. : Journal R. pp.. 1727. 1624. 308-310. vol. superstition.. Miss L. new series. 66(^*fiiCHARDSON. of Ireland. JOHN.W. BARNABY : A new Irish prognostication. : London. 834.. A. 365-384. THOMAS H. vol. The Archaeological Review. pp. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 668 WALKINGTON. WILFRED MARK. Ireland : Druidical sacrifices in Ireland: were there human victims? Journal of Archaeology. CLK. 218-226. and idolatry of pilgrimages in Ireland. : Dublin. REV. pp. vol. vi. 12-16. vol. 669 WEBH. J. : of marriage and kinship. London.A. : The Bodleian Dinnshenchus. 666 WAKE.S. Society. Great folly. 656 PHILPOT.. M. True shamrock. Ulster 663 SEATON. new series.B. ii. pp. "W. vol vi.H. Second edition. 467-516.A. 665 TOLAND. 393 H. illustrations. 664 STOKES.L. Note on an old surgical remedy. 5th series. WHITLEY.. i. 657 POUTER. . and sham shamrocks. iv. MRS. v. : Ireland. pp.A. JOHN. &c. The shamrock.. History of the Druids. Harmsworth 106-8. R. 1889. A. or the tree in Religion and Myth. M.D. D. F. : Customs and games at wakes. JOHN G. 1814.

vol. 248-253. vol. Magh 672 WILDE. GEOKGE. 28-52.S. A. Journal R. 46-48. A.R. vol. H. R. A. 677 YEATS. London. Cat. 16-29. COLONEL "W. series 2. 5th 671 WESTROPP. pp. Camden Society. pp. 100-180. SIR W.. London. A. A. pp. JOHN 306-326. vol.S. Co. 4th series. M. vol".. 349-379.. Proc. vol. J. recently discovered at Dowth. vol. J. Altar stones. 678 /?OCAT : SCULPTURINQS AND ORNAMENTATION.. Op stone markings. 34-69. pp.I. the place of inauguration of the Dalcassian Proc. History of Sligo. Fortnightly Review. iu. pp. A..I. 5th series. pp. Ireland.S. 1-96. iv. pp. M.A..S. 360-369. pp. The churches of County Clare. 1898. vol.A.894 670 WESTROPP. viii. Journal R. vi. THOMAS JOHNSON. in the County of Meath... vol. 5th series. : Adhair.S. vol. RlCHARD R.I. A. mystic charms and superstitions of Ireland.- E... Contains a list of holy wells.. Journal R. iv.A. Mus. 3rd series. : Medical superstitions. Inscribed stones at - .. A. F.. Journal R.I.. New Grange^&e.R. Folklore in Limerick "and Clare. : 680 COFFEY. G. A. v. iv. A. vii'.. 5th series. 492. : iii. vol. ship figure. XXVI. LADY : Ancient cures. A.. Note on the derivation of the New Grange spirals...I. 3rd series. M. charms and usages of Ireland. &c.. Ancient legends. "WINDELE. B. 491. pp. 55-60. Journal Kil. W. pp.I. B. R.U. THOMAS. iv. 675 WOOD-MARTIN. vol. vii.3rd series. The origin of Prehistoric Ornamentation in Ireland.P. Ireland. vi. JournalR. : ANONYMOUS Archaic Rock inscriptions. : London. The broken gates.I.S. Field Club. - . (edited by) Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler.. Ireland. vol. : Cursing and healing stones. 93-111. 101-103. Proc. 131. April. Knockmany.^Trans. 5th series. R.. i. The origin of Prehistoric Ornament in Ireland. Ireland. v. vol. I..A. : BIBLIOGRAPHY. 58G-588. second notice. Journal R.A. series. R. Kings. pp.I. its Lough (574 Corrib. : Irish Folklore. 1891. 132.. xxx. 5th series. shores and islands. Inscribed cromleacs. A.pp. 195-211. pp. 673 WILDE. vol.A. 676 WRIGHT. Belfast Nat. pp. B.. 5th series.I..A. M. Society. 679 BUASH. new series. Ireland.. pp... A. Clare..R. pp..

D.. : Boulder with carvings at Clonanlough.A. 690 GRAY. series.. Society. Rude bone pins of large size. Co.A. ix. (Scotland). . SAMUEL. Co. ii.A. v. "WILLIAM. Proc.R. i. A. 683 DBANE. Journal R.A. 541-545.C. Inscrihed cromleacs. CHARLES. S. by the late G. in County Cork. a series of coloured drawings of scribed stones in the Loughcrew cairns. A. pp.I. M. 684 &c. Proc. Du Noyer... : f Carved rock at Ryefield. Journal R. pp... iv. vol. JAMES. Proc. Du Noyer. pp. 451-453. Journal Kil. i. 340- 687 GRAVES. R. 686 FRAZER.S. v.I. On cup-markings 345.I. Cavan.D.IBLIOGRA PHY. Field Club. V.. from a series of ground plans and water-colour sketches. 4th series. JUN. King's County. 161- Du NOYER.I. 91. 283-286. A. Proc. vol. ROBERT. F. vol. 64-71. 1894. . Kerry. new series. 427. vol. 4th series. vol. R. 354-362.. pp.. Society. Society. pp. 523-531. by the late G. REV. : On cup markings 1879-1880. 3rd series. 1896. 3rd series. REV. : 685 FERGUSON. pp. Meath. : Inscribed cromleac.A. Proc. 92. vol. GEORGE V. vol.A.. new series. A. v. 497-501. 368.. v. : Inscribed in the Co. Co.H. vol.I. Cup and circle sculptures asoccurringin Ireland. : 682 DAY. ix.A. Ireland.. : Notes on incised sculpturings on stones in the cairns of Sliabh-naCalliaghe. A. A. 5th series. near Loughcrew. F.. pp. Journal Kil.H. EUGENE A. A. 294-340..I. CHARLES : On a rubbing of an inscription at Lennan. R. N.H.. 379-385. 2nd Belfast Nat. Journal R. s 689 GRAVES. Remarks on a kistvaen and some carvings on an " earth fast " rock in the Co. A. 428. A. M. in megalithic monuments due to Echinus Lividus.A. 179-181. 369. I.I. Proc.A. new series. Proceedings On 1 of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. with Illustrations. 681 CONWELL. of the Geological Survey of Ireland. vol.R. VERY REV.. pp.M. Journal Kil. iv.S. : Some ancient monuments. Ireland.pp. 688 GRAVES. 165. i..I. vol. Rock carvings pp. pp. in the north of Ireland. i. 3rd series. R. vol. LL. I.S. vol.I.A. pp. V..R. R. pp. AY. Monaghan. Journal R. Louth. monuments D. T. vol.. pp..... pp.A..

. 5th series.H.A. 4th series. pp. 240-242.T. Ireland. Journal Kil.A.. W.H. 99 SMITH.S. A.. pp. Dublin." on Knockmore mountain.I.. Ireland. : Archaic sculpturings of cups. Ireland. 96 PARKINSON. iv..S. 185-187. Slieve-na-Caillighe. pp. pp. Co.I. 427-437. COLONEL: Proc. BIBLIOGRAPHY.A..A. Journal R. ford. E. M..S.. A. P. vi. vol. 700 SMITH.. Ireland.. p. near Derrygonnely. R. Tyrone. Edinburgh. vol.. The Mevagh inscribed stones and other antiquities. 222-237. 5th series. A. 5th series. vol. v. 98 SIMPSON. p.A. pp. iii. OWEN: Journal R. Society. pp. 171 . SIR J. of Knock 191.. : Cup-marked and inscribed stones in the Counties of "Wicklow and "WexJournal R. ii. Proc. 171. 12. vol. SIDNEY. pp. 147-149. 94 MILLIGAN. 92 KELLY. 4th series. x. vol.A. Co. 5th series. Co. vol. Y. : Inscribed pillar stones. G.S.A. 257.I. D. Journal R. 5th series. A.A.. 95 MAGENNIS.. Mayo. iii. 97 ROTHEKAM. .A.. Bone comb. Ireland. viii. Journal R.A. Scribings on a rock at Drumlish. 190. Ornamental bone flake from Slieve-na-Caillighe. J. pp. Journal R..S. viii. vol. new series. vol.II. viii.. 526-528. vol. Fermanagh. G.896 91 JONES. vol. iv. Co. : Cup-marked cromleacs.A. Meath. Co. Journal R.. vii. 172. vol. 93 KINAHAN.I.I.. upon stones and rocks. A.. BT. known as the " lettered cave. &c. CROFTON : Stones. REV. pp. 390-392. 11.. Kilmessan.E. Pioc. pp.. HENRY : Curious inscribed stone found near R.D. 4th series. circles. Inscribed Cabinteely.H. : An account of some characters found on stones on the top manny Hill. 427. pp. SEATON F. vol. vi. Journal R. R. C.. vol.I. : Incised scorings on the sides of a natural cave. E. 258. 1862. H.

x. Fermanagh. Trans. R.I. : Monument exhibiting cup markings and circles with channels.. Isles. 281.. xlviii. 51-77. vol..BIBLIOGRAPHY. iv. Society. Co. with remarks on the character of the primitive Proc. On Roman facture. the Pre-Christian Cross.) remains. pp. 705 BETHAM. the discovery of some coins. x. x. vol. 1854: see also Ulster Journal of Archaeology. pp. viii.I. 50. 29-34. Society. vol. D erry.A. pp. The cave of Knockmore. A. ANTIQUES. 4th series. Lipsiae. pp. pp. 80.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 707 CARRUTHERS. vol. A... vol. AND PRE-CHRISTIAN NOTICES OF IRELAND. On certain markings on rocks. 81. pillar stones. On the discovery of some coins. vol. vol. Proc.A. A. 4th series. Co.I. pp. JAMES : native manu(The remains appear to be of purely new series. 395-397. 322-324..I.I. Society.I. 327-329. 897 W. pp. F. according to Ptolemy. ii. On the inscribed cavern in the parish of Bohoe. series. Wuttke. SIR WILLIAM (AND OTHERS) vol. pp. vol. Recent discovery of Roman coins and other articles near Coleraine. classification. R. vol. Journal R. pp. On logy. . Proc. Trans. 538-561. Proc. HODDEU M.. x.I. 74. ROMAN 703 AETHICUS : COINS. H. Ancient Ireland. 702 WESTKOPP. pp. Istrii. and other monuments. v. 165. Fermanagh. A. 11.. 701 "WAKEMAN. pp...H. 49. 187-192. ed. : On ~^0n rock carvings.A..I. vol. scorings. with suggestions for their Journal R. 377-396. R. 229-232. vol. pp. XXVII. ab Hieronymo. Journal R.H. On sepulchral scribings and rock markings. A. vol.. pp.. Kil. 37. Co. : Etruscan coins supposed to have been found in Ireland. HENRY : Ptolemy's Geography of the British pp. v.. R. Kil. Kil. vol.. 282 . i. vol.. 706 BRADLEY..H. ii. 603. On the cavern called " Gillies' Hole. 232-234. Proc. iii. Cosmographia Aethici. new pp. WILLIAM.A. R. vol. Ulster Journal of ArchaeoList of Roman coins found near Coleraine..A. 164. R. Trans.B. vol.. pp.I. : 704 BKAUFORD. 182-192.A.. Journal.A..A...A. 4th series. i. pp. Proc. R. iii. 75.A.." at Knockmore. 445-474. A. 604.. vol. iii. Archseologia.I.. ii.A. from the neighbourhood of Youghal. pp. 36.

. 709 FRAZER. Archaeology.. Ulster Journal of pp.S. Co. 184. : Roman coins. H.vi. JOHN : Pre-Christian notices of Ireland. R. ii.A. 115-128. relating to Ireland. A. 182-192. J. Kil.D. A.. G. A.B. Proc. A.A. 711 LEDWICK. i.C. F. 712 MACCULLAGH.. 720 READE. ii. 200. viii. : Roman intercourse with Ireland. pp... 185. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.I. 713 M'SwEENEY.. R. 50.A. A. 715 ORPEN. 81. ii. 4th series. Proc. : Ptolemy's map of Ireland.I. Romantic History of Ireland. pp. 3rd series. v. GODDAKD H. LL.. 719 PORTER. pp. EEV. vol. ADOLPHE : name of Ireland. REV. 5th series. vol.. pp.I. vol. 103-106. iii. 185-190.B. vol. LL.. . &c.. viii. pp.A. A.898 708 BIBLIOGRAPHY. R...I. Ireland. Trans. Derry. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. W. 441 717 PICTET. : Journal R.H. iv. p. 714 O'DoNOVAN. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.. 239-251. H. GEORGE. vol. vol. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. vol. Maps... : On a find of Roman coins. W. C: Antiquity of letters in Ireland.. vol. ETC. iii. 57. pp. Roman coins. 199.I. vol.I. pp. R. 177-180. A. vol.. Roman coins found near Rathfarnham. : EDWARD. DRUMMOND.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. SCOTT: Discovery of Roman coins and other articles near Coleraine. JAMES. 21-32. M. vol.. pp.I.U. 716 PETEIE. vol. : Roman coin found at Brugh-na-Boinne. REV. xiv. 80. PROFESSOR I Trans.. vol. v.S. Ancient coins. p. vol. 445. vol. Proc. D. Contribution towards a history of Irish commerce. Society. R. Trans.. ii. iv.I. vol. 32-36. 281.. 718 PINKERTON. R. pp. "W. pp. 710 HAEDIMAM.D. Proc.. 282. v. I. : Journal R. PROFESSOR Origin of the pp. pp. 52-60. pp.. 58..

Druid seat.. RINGROSE. 381. R. Journal R. 358-365. REV. pp. : Ancient geography of the British 725 Isles.. *~Mixture of fable and pp.E. vol. of Ireland Archaeological Society. 5th 727 ANONYMOUS : Cromleac. LORD : Cromlech near Castle william. 728 ATKINS. Dublin Penny Journal. GRAVES. vol... p.A. i. 213. 190. vol. vol.I. 306.A. AND CEMETERIES. WILLIAM. Journal R.. Proc. A. Ireland.. pp. CISTS.R. iii. pp. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. ii. R.BIBLIOGRAPHY. x. pp. Excursion to the Loughcrew Hills. i.A. Ireland. Parochial Survey of Ireland.. vol.. series. Dublin Penny Journal. ii. THOMAS. Journal R.D. Ireland. 5th series. 293.. p. : 729 ATKINSON.. xiii. 82. M. G. 723 WALKER. 303-310. R.. vii. Parochial Survey of Ireland. 4th series. pp. vol.A. 722 TRAIL. vol. circle. M. 309.. vi. : Origin of romantic fabling.A. p.. A. i. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.D.A.I. 6080. Journal of the Waterford and S.. M. 5th 81. Rocking stone. Dublin Penny Journal.. Trans.^vol. p. ii. Fires of bones. p. M. vol. 721 Ross.D. pp. Loughcrew. : On a stone 307. vol. The rude stone monuments of our own and other lands. series. 144. The Finner Cairn.S. vol. 1-19. &c. vol. M. Dublin Penny Journal. Journal R. 77. 101. 3-80.. Discovery of an ancient sepulchral chamber. Trans.. 256.. M.. Ireland. v. 724 WEST. 245. ROBERT : Coin of the Emperor Valentinianus. 287Pre-historic burial. pp.S. vii. : fact in the early annals.. REV. 382. 131-161. vol. vol. T 726 ANNESLEY. 308. p. Cromleacs. pp. vol. 87. vii. v. iv. ii.I. JOSEPH COOPER.. i. Dublin Penny Journal. vol..I.A. 189. . 899 ALEXANDER : Coin of the Emperor Nero. 5th series. 155. vol. p. A.A. RUDE STONE MONUMENTS. vol. WOOD. 301. XX% III. p.I.S.S. Journal R. p.H.

: Notes on the Tinncarra Cromlech near Boyle.I. x. monument. pp.. D. 3-9. 101-103.... REV.. A. viii.R. A. Society. LL.. 738 CLAKK. 131. vol.I. in a grave. R. 132.. 181 .. M. . PATRICK: On some cists. REV. 255-259. Proc.H. Trans. 139. vol. 385-389. A. Journal E. Journal E. vol. series. RICHARD E. pp. vol.A.. vol. White stone 336. 4th series. 4th series. 739 CLARK.D. pp. Trans. DR. pp.A. pp.I. Society. vol. pp. ne\v series.I.H. 272-276. 151.. vol. 4th series. GABRIEL : Eude stone 150. Society. : The gallan at Tallaght. iii. A.D.. vol.. Society. Vicar's earn. M. A...A. vol. Tumuli.. Kil. v.A. 732 BRASH. : i.. Small sepulchral pp. : Cromleac at Castlemary. Kil.S.I. Trans. F. Journal Kil. S. Society. pp. Kil. A. new series. Inscribed Cromleacs. pp..A. 440-443.. T. Journal R. ii. Trans. vol.D.. : 735 BROWN.. 733 BKILEY. 740 CLIBBORN. R. Suggestions as to the manner in which great covering stones were lifted on their supports. 737 BYRNE.. Ireland. Trans.A. W. FRANCIS E.. : Proc. E. Trans.. iii. i. pp.A. p. pp. 734 BROGAN. A..A. 107-109. Kil. pp. vol. HENRY P. 337. ETC. Journal E. Alleged discoveries in a earn. new- 731 BERANGER. pp. vol. Society. Trans. ii. 173.: On a cromleac. : viii. ii. GEORGE R.. vol. Society. 3rd series. 736 BUICK.H. P. E. Kil. Kil.I.I. vol.C. 374-376. M. i. vol. A.. 484-486. 140. 5th series. i. 174. pp. A..400 730 BKNN.. cist. GEORGE : BIBLIOGRAPHY. : Sepulchral monuments. v. 741 CODY. viii. A.



Double cist grave and remains recently discovered at Oldbridge, Co. Meath. Proc. K.I. A., vol. hi., 3rd series, pp. 747-752. Knockmany. Journal E.S.A. Ireland, vol. viii., 5th series, pp. 93-111. Notes on the prehistoric cemetery of Loughcrew. Trans. 11. 1. A., vol.
xxxi., pp. 23-38.
M.K.I.A., on Belmore mountain, Proc. E.I.A., 3rd series, vol. iv., pp. 659-661. Co. Fermanagh. On stone markings (ship figure) recently discovered at Dowth, in the County of Meath. Proc. R.I.A., 3rd series, vol. iv., pp. 586-588. Proc. E.I. A., vol. iv., 3rd series, pp. 16-29. Prehistoric Cenotaphs. Tumuli at New Grange, &c. Trans. E.I. A., vol. xxx., pp. 1-96.

On a cairn excavated by Thomas Plunkett,


C., M.D.



J., M.A.


Eeport on a prehistoric burial near Newcastle, County of Wicklow. Proc. E.I.A., 3rd series, vol. iv., pp. 559-562.

Ancient cemetery of Loughcrew.


Proc. E.I. A., Pol. Lit. and Ant. vol.i.,

pp. 72-106. Ancient sepulchral cams and other remains. Proc. E.I. A., vol. 42-50, 355-379. Cromleac near Eathkenny. Proc. E.I.A., vol. ix., pp. 541-545. Tomb of Ollamh Fodhla. London, 1873.


745 COOPER, COLONEL EDWARD H. Megalithic remains at Carrowmore, Co. Sligo. vol. v., 4th series, pp. 155-157.

Journal R.H.A.A.I.,



Graves near Killucan.

Proc. E.I.A., vol.

iv., p.



Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol. iii., pp. 57, 58. Sepulchral monument. Journal Kil. A. Society, vol. i., new

series, p.


748 DEANE, SIR T. N.


Ancient monuments. Proc. E.I.A., Ancient monuments in Co. Kerry. pp. 100-107.
749 DICKIE, G.


i., 3rd series, pp. 161-165. Proc. E.I. A., vol. iii., 3rd series,

Tumulus near
pp. 276, 277.


Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. vi.,




Relative antiquity of rath, cromleac, and tumulus. Club, vol. iv., 2nd series, pp. 55-70.

Belfast Nat. Field

series, p. 19.



Eemarkable megalithic monument.

Journal E.H. A.A.I., vol.





2 E

752 Dix, E. R.







Grange, Co. Meath. pp. 83-84.

Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol.





V., M.K.I. A.


Cromleacs near Tramore, &c. series, pp. 474-482.

Journal Kil. A. Society, vol.



Eemarks on

a certain class of cromleacs.

Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol.

3rd series, pp.
pp. 497-501.

Journal Kil. A. Society, vol.

Remarks on a Kistvaen.





Cemetery pp. 111-113.

in the

County Down.

Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. ix.,



Notes on the prehistoric monuments at Carrowmore near Sligo. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1883, 1884. Series 2, vol. ii., pp. 249-258. On the stone monuments at Carrowmore, near Sligo. Belfast Nat. Field Series 2 vol. ii., pp. 179-181. Club, 1882, 1883. Prehistoric monuments at Carrowmore. Systematic Lists illustrative of the Archaeology, &c., of the North of Ireland, vol. i., pp. 249-258.



Ancient cemeteries, &c. Proc. R.I. A., Pol. Lit. and Ant., vol. i., pp. 114-128. Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol. ii., 4th series, pp. Inscribed cromleacs. 523-531.



Megalithic sepulchral chamber, Co. Wicklow. vol. iv., 4th series, pp. 183, 184.

Journal R.H. A.A.I.,



Cromleac in the Co. Kilkenny.

Archaeologia, vol. xvi., pp. 264-271.



the construction of cromleacs. vii., pp. 314-323.

Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol.

760 FRAZER, "W., M.R.I.A.

Find of cist with human remains, Dunfanaghy, Co. Donegal. R.S.A. Ireland, vol. viii., 5th series, pp. 49-52.
761 GOODMAN, REV. JAMES Tulachs as places of sepulture.


Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.


pp. 185,




Proc. R.I.A., vol.


pp. 368, 369.

763 GRAVES, REV. JAMES Ancient Pagan cemetery.



Kil. A. Society, vol.





Excavation of a earn. Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol. i., pp. 289-294. Injury to the great chambered-tumulus at Dowth. Journal R.H.A.A.L vol. v., 4th series, pp. 13, 14, 205-209. On cromleacs. Trans Kil. A. Society, vol. i., pp. 129-132. On the "Ancient Monuments Protection Act, 1882." Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol. vi., 4th series, pp. 220-222. Pagan cemetery. Trans. Kil. A. Socieiy, vol. ii., pp. 295-303. Sepulchral tumulus. Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol. ii.. p. 358. Tumulus, &c. Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol. ii., p. 358.

764 GRAY, WILLIAM, M.R.I.A. Ancient remains, Co. Antrim.

Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1871, pp. 65-


Cromleacs in Counties of Down and Antrim. vi., 4th series, pp. 354-367.
.'""Cromleacs of

Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol.

Antrim and Down. Systematic Lists illustrative of the Archaeology, &c., of the North of Ireland, vol. i., pp. 226-248. Discovery of an ancient sepulchre. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. i., 5th
series, pp. 164, 165.

Notes on the rude stone monuments of Antrim and Down.

Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1882, 1883, series 2, vol. ii., pp. 182, 183. The cromleacs of Antrim and Down. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1882, 1883, series 2, vol. ii., pp. 225-248.





Remarkable megalithic


structure pp. 57-65.

near Sligo.




767 HILL,

burial on the site of monasteries.

Journal R.S.A. Ireland,

vol. ii.,

5th series, pp.





Report on a cairn in the Co. Clare.
series, p. 12.

Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol.




J. SINCLAIR, M.D. Description of a tumulus and its contents. Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol. 3rd series, pp. 350-352. Giants' graves. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1879, pp. 44-47.
: :



Opening of a tumulus, Co. Westmeath.
4th series, pp. 177-183.

Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol.


770 KINAHAN, G. H., M.R.I.A.


Journal R.H.A.A.L, vol. i., 3rd series, pp. structures. vol. iii., pp. 442-445 vol. ii., 4th series, pp. 10-13, 201-205 374-380; vol. v., pp. 253-257; vol. vi., pp. 434-436; vol. vii., pp. 424-429 vol. ix., pp. 277-286. The Rocking- Stone, Dalkey Island. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. v.i.,
; ;

5th series, p. 433.




Note on the dolmen at Ballina, in the County of Mayo.
R.S.A. Ireland, vol.
772 LALOR, M.


5th series, p. 430.



Discovery of


Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol. v., 4th

series, pp. 446,



Opening of a tumulus.
169-171, 276, 277.

Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. vi., pp.

774 LETT, REV.



Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol. v., 4th series, p. 303. Report on ancient monuments. Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol. vi., 4th series, pp. 431-434.
Megalithic structures.




Notes on Irish sweathouses and on several rude stone monuments. Ulster Journal of Archaeology, 2nd series, vol. vii., pp. 82-92.


C., F.S.A.



a cromleac 492-497.

Journal Kil. A. Society, vol.



series, pp.


Opening of a earn.
Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol.


pp. 315-320.

778 MACALISTER, R. A. STEWART, M.A. The Gallans near Dingle. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. pp. 161-164.


5th series,




Discovery of graves. 447-449. 780

Journal R.H. A.A.I.,









Opening of a sepulchral mound,



Co. "Wicklow.


R.H. A. A. I.,

vol. viii., 4th series, pp. 163, 164.




Tulachs as places of sepulture. 182-185.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.



782 M'Noi/TY, R.


Graves, stones, celts, &c. pp. 382, 383.

Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol.






Discovery of a On a cromleac.


Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol. i., pp. 382-389. Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol. i., new series, p. 359.

784 MILLIGAN, SEATON F., M.R.I. A. Notes on a cist and urn. Journal



A.A.I., vol.


4th series, DD

86, 87.

On some


Journal R.H. A. A. I., vol.


4th series


Sepulchral structures, &c. 1888-9, p. 43.
Proc. Belfast Nat. Hist, and Phil. Society,





monuments in Antrim. new series, p. 351.



Nat. Field Club,




On some

explorations. pp. 443, 444.

Journal Kil. A. Society, vol.




Giants' graves.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.


pp. 11-14.




Tumulus near Rush, Co. Dublin.

Proc. R.I.A., vol.


pp. 247-249.

Discovery of two


near Timahoe.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.




pp. 105, 106.

790 O'DALY, JOHN: Tulachs as places of sepulture.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.



791 O'DoNOVAN, "W. J. Kistvaen. Journal Kil. A. Society, vol.



series, p.


792 O'LAVEKTY, REV. JAMES, M.R.I. A. Pagan monuments. Journal R.H. A. A. I.,






Pagan monuments

in the immediate vicinity of Journal peculiar forms of interments observed. 4th series, pp. 103-108.

ancient churches, and on

R.H. A.A.I.,

vol. v.,

793 O'NEILL,



Rock monuments

of Co.


Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.








the orientation of some cromleacs in the neighbourhood of Dublin. Proc. R.I.A., 3rd series, vol. iv., pp. 589-605.

795 PETRIE, GEORGE, R.H. A., ETC. Coronation Chair. Dublin Penny Journal, vol. i., p. 208. New Grange, Co. Meath. Dublin Penny Journal, vol. i., pp. 305, 306. Proc. R.I. A., pp. 140-142. Stone circles, earns, &c., Carrowmore. Tomb in the Phconix Park. Proc. R.I. A., vol. i., pp. 186-193, 196.



796 PLUNKETT, LIEUT. -CoL. G. T., R.E. On a cist and urns found at Greenhills, Tallaght, County Dublin. Proc. R.I.A., vol. v., 3rd series, pp. 338-347.

Proc. R.I. A., Pol. Lit. and Ant., vol. L,

Exploration of a Long Barrow. pp. 323-328.


THOMAS COFFEY, GEORGE Report on the excavation of Topped mountain cairns. 3rd series, vol. iv., pp. 651-658.


Proc. R.I.A.,


Sepulchral 236-271.

THOMAS monument








800 PRIM,



Giants' graves.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.


pp. 14-22.




County Tyrone.

Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol.


p. 190.

802 READE, REV. GEORGE H. Ancient Pagan sepulchral pp. 159-162.


Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol.


3rd series,

Circular arrangement of graves at Kilnassagart. vol. i., new series, pp. 316, 317.

Trans. Kil. A. Society,

803 RHIND, A.


F.S.A. (Scot.)


Sepulchral earns in Scotland identical in internal design with tumuli on the Boyne. Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. ii., pp. 100108.

804 RIGGS, DK. LEDLIE Notice of the "The Vicar's 3rd series, pp. 157-159.


Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol.


805 ROTHERAM, E. CROFTON Inscribed stones. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol.


5th series, pp. 171,

the excavation of a cairn on Slieve-na-Caillighe. Ireland, vol. v., 5th series, pp. 311-316. The Moat of Patrickstown, Co. Meath. Journal


Journal R.S.A.

R.S.A. Ireland,

5th series, pp. 62, 63.


Discovery at Mullahoden. pp. 13-16.

Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol.







in the Co. Tyrone.

Proc. R.I.A., Pol. Lit. and Ant., vol.


pp. 14-19.

808 SMITH,





the recent discovery of a cam.

Proc. R.I.A., vol.


pp. 163-165.

809 SMITH,



Sepulchral chamber near Ballyhaunis. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. iv., 5t.h series, p. 390. Tracked stone. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. iv., 5th series, pp. 390392.




Giants' graves, 279. pp. 27-29.


Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol.


3rd series pp. 278.

Monuments around Tullamore.

Journal R.H. A. A. I., vol.

4th series,

811 STEPHENSON, S. M., M.D. ^r*"" An Historical Essay on the Parish and Congregation of Greyabbey.

Belfast, 1828.



On the cromleac at Leac-an-scall. new series, pp. 309, 310.

Journal Kil. A. Society, vol.



the state of



Journal R.H. A. A. I.,




series, pp. 327,

814 TUOMEY, J. C.


Description of a cromleac.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.


pp. 187-194.





Proc. R.I. A., Pol. Lit. and Ant., vol. i., Antiquities of Knockninnv. pp. 335-338. of stones and other antiquities. Lines Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol. iv., 4th series, pp. 499-512. Megalithic structures, &c. Journal R.H. A. A. I., vol. i., 4th series, pp. 579-590; vol ii., pp. 134-138; vol. iv., pp. 95-106, 266, 267;


vol. vi., pp. 162-171; vol. viii., pp. 107-111. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. i., 5th series, pp. 260-266. Sepulchral mound. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. iv., 5th series, pp. 54-

vol. v., pp.




Journal R.H. A.A.I., 4th series, pp. 434, 435. On a recently discovered Pagan sepulchral mound at Old Connaught, Co. Dublin. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. v., 5th series, pp. 106-114.

Chambered earn at Cavancarragh, Co. Fermanagh.






near Feakle, County Clare.

Proc. R.I. A.,

vol. vi., 3rd series, pp. 85-92. Primitive burial at Rylane, County Clare. vol. vii., 5th series, pp. 178, 179. The distribution of cromlechs in the

Journal R.S.A.

County of

Proc. R.I. A.,

3rd series, vol. iv., pp. 542-549.




Discovery of a tomb near Ennis. Journal R.H.A.A.I., 4th series, pp. 160, 161 vol. iv., pp. 12, 13.





R., M.R.I.A.



Proc. R.I.A., vol. ix., pp. 546-550 Proc. R.I.A., vol. iii., pp. 260-263.


vol. x., pp.


819 WINDELE, JOHN Ancient cemetery.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.


pp. 230-239.

820 WOOD-MARTIN, COL. W. G., M.R.I.A. Monuments of Northern Moytirra. Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol.
series, pp. 442470. Rude Stone Monuments, Co.



Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol. vii., Sligo. 4th series, pp. 470-487; vol. viii., 4th series, pp. 50-94, 118-159, 254-299, 367-381. Republished in the annual volume R.H.A.A.I., 1888-9.


MAJOR-GENERAL J. H., R.A., ETC. Bronze object bearing a Runic inscription. Archaeological Journal, vol. ii., pp. 284-313. Bronze object bearing a Runic inscription. Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol. i., 4th series, pp. 471-502.
: :

822 READE, REV. GEOKGE H. Bronze object bearing a Runic inscription. 4th series, pp. 333, 334, 479-480.

Journal R.H. A.A.I.,



823 STEPHENS, PROFESSOR GEOKGE On scribings from a cave, Co. Fermanagh.
vol. iv.,



Kil. A. Society,


pp. 11, 12.


settlements at Portnafady, 3rd series, pp. 727-732.




825 GRAY, WILLIAM, M.R.I.A. Hunting in the sand-dunes. Belfast Nat. series 2, vol. i., pp. 264-267.



1876, 1877,

826 HASSE", REV. LEONARD, M.R.I.A. Objects from the sandhills at Dundrum, and their antiquity. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. iv., 5th series, pp. 1-13. Objects from the sandhills at Portstewart and Grangemore, and their Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. i., 5th series, antiquity. pp. 130-138.

827 KINAHAN, G. H., M.K.I. A. Notes on ancient settlements in west Galway.


Journal R. II. A. A. I.,




series, pp. 350, 351.

828 KNOWLES, "W.






Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, prehistoric remains at Portstewart. vol. i., new series, p. 100. On prehistoric sites in Whitepark Bay, near Ballintoy, being the first section of a report intended to comprehend the other sites of the Neolithic folk in the North of Ireland. Journal K.H.A.A.I., vol. vii.,

4th series, pp.


Report on the Prehistoric remains from the sandhills of the coast of Ireland. Proc. R.I.A., vol. i., 3rd series, pp. 173-187, 612-625. The prehistoric sites of Portstewart, Co. Londonderry. Journal R.H.A.A.I., vol. viii., 4th series, pp. 221-237. Third Report on the prehistoric remains from the sandhills of the east of
Ireland. Proc. R.I. A., vol. iii., 3rd series, pp. 650663. Investigation of the Prehistoric settlements near Roundstone, Connemara, Proc. R.I. A., vol. v., third series, pp. 433-440. report of a committee.



W. H., M.K.I. A. Notice of a prehistoric site at Ballykinler, Dundrum Bay, Co. Journal R.S.A. Ireland, vol. iii., 5th series, pp. 80, 81.
: :


830 WYNNE, REV. G. R., D.D.

Traces of ancient dwellings on the sandhills of West Kerry. R.S.A. Ireland, vol. iii., 5th series, pp. 78-80.


831 YOUNG, R. M., M.K.I.A


Brief antiquarian notes at Bushfoot and Ballemagarry. Nat. Hist, and Phil. Society, 1892-3, pp. 37-44.

Proc. Belfast



of ancient


Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.



833 DAY, ALDKRMAN, F.S.A. Silver armlet and bracelet dug up in the Co. Kerry.

Journal R.H.A.A.I.,

vol. v.,



pp. 346, 347.


Silver armlet found near Rathcormac, Co. Cork. vol. vi., 4th series, p. 185.

Journal R.H. A.A.I.,

835 HOARE,



Silver penannular brooch.

Trans. Kil. A. Society, vol.


pp. 10, 11.


W. H.





near Randalstown, 4th series, p. 74.




PATRICK : On some Trans.H. vol. 441-444. Trans. Cork... vol. 206. pp.. Souterrain beneath a church. vol.. of ancient Ireland. 294-298.. i. Kil. Cluttahina souterrain. vol. vol. vi.I. A. Proc.H. Journal R. pp. Trans. : 837 SMITH.ER. Kil.S. A. Dublin Penny Journal..I.A.A. : Meath. vol. 844 CODY. T. Cork. v. pp. Co. vii. pp. 842 BRODERICK. Ibid. i. near Cork. R. p. Society. Co. A. A. Co. pp. Clare.. i. i. pp. Subterraneous chambers discovered near Carrigtohill. ERXEST A... Kil. Society. A. L. : Souterrain of Greenville. Trans. A. 638. 384. A. : Trans. R.. A. RICHARD : Discovery of a chamber in Killeen Fort. Proc.. ii. : Twisted silver " torque " found near Rathcormack. XXXII 840 ANONYMOUS : SOUTERRAINS. 385-389.410 BIBLIO GRA PHY. Kil. 4th series. pp.I. R. R. 843 CAULFIELD. xxxiii. v. Cork. 4th series. 79-84. 388.A... in the same county.M. Souterrain at Curraghely.. 350-352. THOMAS CROFTON. .S. Notes on the composition of ancient Irish gold and silver ornaments.I. R. R.S. vol. 271. Cork. vol... Ireland. 207. iv.S. p. A.I. vol. 846 CROK. Society..A. 5th series. &c. vol. vol. Co. 2nd series. Journal R. p. Ireland. Co. near Fermoy. 841 BRASH. x.. Journal near Kilcrea. 72-74.. A. pp. 637. 733-746. ETC. Journal R. R. Society. Proc. pp. 5th series. 387.A.. souterrains. Kil.. F. pp. vol. pp.A. ASS. Discovery of an artificial cave at Oldbridge. 52. 385. vol.. R. T. and at Ballyhendon. vol. R. iv. : Subterraneous chambers in the Co. Society. 845 COOKE. Proc. Galway. Souterrain in the parish of Killahy. iii. iii. pp. Souterrain in the Co.. vol. JOHN : Ring-money 328-333. Archceologia.. 86.I. 838 WESTROPP. 839 WINDELE.

pp. : On a cave. Journal R. Ireland. i. Pol. Society. 854 GILLMAN. ii. 371. pp.I. . vi. A. Society. WILLIAM : On a certain class of small souterrains. : Souterrain in the Grange of Muckamore. &c.. 847 EGAN. Souterrain at Deelish.A. : Problem of the souterrains. : Exploration of a remarkable series of subterranean chambers.. and Ant. 272. iii. LL. 46. series. 4th vi. vol..A. A. 4th series. J. A.. 2nd series.. M.. 850 FERGUSON. 153-157. REV... 866 GRAY. 5th series. 85L. Journal Kil. pp. pp. Sligo. i. 146. A. 129-136. parish of Lis. A. A.I. &c. on various references to.. Kil. vol. 319. i. SAMUEL. 84-86. 1-7. 149-151.I. 208.I. A.L..A. Journal R. p. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. Journal Kil.. 411 W.H. 4th series. p. Journal R.. Journal R. vol. : Notes on some Co. Trans. King's County. vol. 370. vol. Down souterrains. vol.JFlTZGERALD. Journal Cork Hist. pp. : Souterrains at Drumcliffe. 853 FRENCH... pp. vol.H. 852 FOOT. B. A. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY. HERBERT WEBB.. vii. pp. p.. JOHN : On a subterranean chamber. pp. : Evidence touching the age of the rath-caves. Lit. County Cork. Society.. WALTER I The Killashu caves.H.R. The problem of the souterrains. 45. new series. Journal R. 207. WILLIAM. Proc. and Arch. pp. J. vol. iii.. vol. vol. CHARLES H. vol.I.. A. 857 HACKETT.D. 4th series. 417-422. REV.H. vi.. 222-229. new series. A. 848 ELLIOTT. Co.A.. pp. Journal R. 855 GRAVES.I. JAMES : Report on the souterrrain of a rath. Souterrains. REV. iii. 273.S.H. townland of Boon.. iv. 318. 4th series^ 849 FENNELL. vol. Society. I. W. A. ii. A. 166. J. vol. R. 483. pp.

Society.A. series. A. A. P. G. pp.A. DR.I. Journal Kil. 246. Proc. Journal E. pp. EEV. pp... Ireland. M.. W.R. ARTHUR 716.A. 595. COURTENAY Artificial caves. vol. County Meath.. 4th 863 LANYON..S. Journal E. 11. 594. 4th series. Ballygunnermore. new series. 861 KEATINGE..S. Ulster Journal of 864 MILLIGAN. ix. Donegal. vol.. pp. p. new 862 KINAHAN.A. : On some souterrains in Ulster. : Souterrain near Tralee. : Underground Chamber. Journal E.. 407-408. i.412 BIBLIOGRAPHY. EEV. Co. : Subterranean chambers at Connor. A. 277-286.H. vol.I. 11-14.A. Antrim. vol. A. Society. i. pp.A. 245.A. A.I. : On some souterrains in raths. : On souterrains in raths. A. 12. Journal E. On souterrains in the Co. 866 MORGAN.. series. : On an underground series.A. chamber. series. oth series. Ireland. vi. 5th The rath of Borrismore.. vol. "Waterford. 4th series. GEORGE H. ii.I. Mayo.P.. i. 865 MOORE. Ireland. M. GODDARD H. pp. 5th series. SEATON F. : Co.A. 595.. vol. Co. : Subterranean chambers atClady. vol.I.S. 490.. 4th series. Trans. 97-100. p.A. Kil. : 858 HAMILTON.A. vi. Journal E.I. iii. Ireland. PATRICK: Casey's Lios. vol. vol. 175-178. . riii. E. 249-252.. 868 POWER. Co.. pp.S. i. Journal E. E.. Journal E. 5th 867 ORPEN. On a "north house" in the demesne of Hampton. 5th series. Journal E. 859 HEALY.H. vol.H. vol. Archaeology. &c. 150-154. J.. pp... Ireland. Journal E. Antrim.H. i. p. pp. iii. 860 HITCHCOCK. vol. vol.S. pp.. ix.A.

Proc.I.I.R. Co. Col. 379-382. Souterrain at Ardee. supposed Journal R. 3rd series. M. 876 GAGES. 877 WOOD-MARTIN. iv. vol. Mus.. S. WOODEN OBJECTS.I. ROBERT: Stone sepulchral urns. Stone urns. 81. 238. 184.I. objects found in peat bogs. vol. URNS OF STONE. ix. EDWARD : Artificial cave in the townland of Bellurgan. . A. vol. Ireland. Society. vol. pp. pp. 183. 869 ROTHERAM. pp. ALPHONSE : VIVIANITB. County Sligo and Island of Achill. p. A. vii.A. M.A. REV. vol. R. pp. iii.. pp. Journal R. 176- 179. R.A.R.. vi. new series.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 5th series.S.. : Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 878 ALLINGHAM. G.R.. 872 TIPPING. 870 ROWLAND... Ireland. pp. Dublin.. A. 871 SMITH. Journal Kil. 873 MACADAM. SIR W. XXXIII. Journal Geological Society. R. A. 134. : 413 On a cave recently discovered near Oldcastle. HUGH. Cat. : Rude stone monuments of Ireland. vol. On V vianite. 427-429. : Proc.. A. 236 874 ROWLAND. pp. vol.. vol. W. 28. Meath. v. 5th series. Co. vol. Rudely cut stone found in a Souterrain. Louth.. 404-406.. pp. M. C. W. E. viii.I.. new series. 404 406. iii.. JOHN T. 58.S. JOHN T. : Proc. 133. R. A. 305-310. iv. On some caves in the Slieve-na-cailliagh district.I. Souterrain at Tirgracey.. Ulster Journal of Archaeology. R.I. A. 875 WILDE. pp. : XXXIV. parish of Ballymascanlan. pp. XXXV. : Wooden to have been otter traps.

A. 500. p. vol. 536-541.H. vol. ARTHUR GERALD : Journal Kil. Society.A.I.. 887 GEOGHEOAN. vu. vol. 343. Trans.. v. 10 Ancient canoes. vol. 71-75. ii.A. R. p." 140. 165.A. Canoe. . W.... p.A.. vol. 880 BALL. : Proc. The Reliquary.. iv. pp. 33-35. "W. 193-205. LORD : Ancient instrument.. . i 882 BROOKE. 1869-1870. R. vol. G.. iv. RORERT : Means used for attaching handles K. p. : Ancient boat. J. Appendix 1863-4.A. pp. pp.. iv.I.vol. vol. LLEWELLYNN. ix... L. vol. 9 "Wooden implement. p. : On the discovery of some oak canoes. REV. 246-248. : Ancient boat. 886 DUNNE. i. 3rd series. 272. GEORGE R. Proc. T. 210-215. 436-438.S. styled "arrows. 885 DILLON. pp." Pieces of yew.. Society. A. Kil. 14. 141. Trans.. vol. Field Club.. ii.A. Journal R. p. pp. 889 HUGHES. Journal R. pp.A. 883 BUICK. 884 COOKE. F. . to stone and metal implements.. pp. Trans. 4th series. vol. A. A. 1868-9.. called "arrows.I. A. Proc. ii. with wooden implements.I. Ulster Journal of Archaeology.. pp.H. 888 HITCHCOCK. GENERAL : Staked fence found beneath a depth of peat.I.I. new series. iii. Canoes. 511-513. Society. BERNARD : Stakes found under a great depth of peat. RIGHT HON.. R. : Wooden trap. Kil. vol. vol.414 879 ANONYMOUS: BIBLIOGRAPHY. 890 JEWITT. RICHABD : Pieces of wood. xxiv. Ireland. 881 BANNON. E. pp. Proc. pp.I. i. Belfast Nat.S. 501. A. Journal R..A. 5th series.

176. vol. 53. Society. ix.. Ireland. ii. Wooden causeway. Trans. vol. THOMAS. LL. 435. vol.. 3rd series. 897 MOORE.I. 113. 185. 439. vol. A. : vol. 22. Ireland.H. 899 0' BYRNE.A. p. : vol. vol. W. : ii.. Proc.L. 374-380. 903 TARLETON. p. '/'Canoes found in Lough Mourne. : Ancient otter traps. S.I. 898 O'BRIEN..H. 436.A. vii. vessel Journal R. R. Journal E.S. Articles : dug up in peat. 22.A. pp. 52. : Flint arrow head with wooden vol. Kil. series. . 23.. pp. 892 KNOWLES. new series. Journal R. W. vol.. near Athlone. series. Belfast 895 MARTIN. Proc.D.I.BIBLIOGRAPHY. 891 KINAHAN. A. CHARLES BUTLER Road of planks found under peat. MRS. 896 MOONEY. M. D. : shaft attached.A.R. W.D. iii. iii. viii.A. A. : Wooden found at the Doon.R. vol. HENRY : Single piece canoe.A. 21. J. Journal R. p. pp. vol.A.. pp. On the discovery of a cache in Ballintona ii. 184. Nat. : at the Doon.L.L. p. JOHN. Society. vii. iii. Journal R.. A.A. M. 155. i. J. (and other writers) Ancient Irish water mills.. 893 LANGTRY.. Journal R. vol.A.A.A. 156. : Journal R.I. 415 GEORGE H. 901JPoRTER. DANIEL: Wooden enclosure found under new series. County. 75.. vol. Journal Kil.. pp. vol. p. Journal R. 4th series. pp. R. 2nd series. 4th series.. GEORGE Wooden dish.A. 900 O'DoNOVAN. 174-176.. Proc.. 154-164. ENRAGHT Wooden bowl found Ireland. A. F. and in Co. vii. vol.H. pp. pp. pp. 205. ii. Fermanagh. 902 STONEY..S. i. WILLIAM SMITH: Wooden stakes. Journal R. 5th series.I.A. 5th series.. &c. Field Club.. iii. Trans. p. 4th Antiquities near Drumdarragh.I. peat. 182.A.A. REV. 894 LOCKWOOD. King's 5th series. 4th series. Kil.S.A.. new Bog near Blessington. Ireland.H..H. Society.S.

4th series. boat.I. ii..I. M. pp.. clay.R. 507-510. 4th series.. 905 WESTBY..H. R. 4th v. 449. writers. 907 WOOD-MARTIN. vol. pp. : Antiquities of oak. Journal R. 362. 450.A. Worked logs alleged to have been found embedded in boulder v. A.I. F... Wooden yokes.R. 441. Curach. pp.I.. 906 WILDE.. 307-309.A.. WAKEMAN. See Index under Wooden. vol. pp. iv. 16-18. Journal R.A. A. 197-237. pp. SIR Proc. A.A. vol.. ii. : Wooden shield. and skin Journal E. COL.A. W. W. 487-493.A. R. vol. Proc. 74-76. R.H.I. Other . or wicker series.I..A. ROBERT : of Ireland.416 904 BIBLIOGRAPHY. Journal R. pp.. vol.. 361. 440. JAMES : "Wooden sword.A. Catalogue Mus.I.A.H. viii. R. pp. : Lake Dwellings 908 YOUNG. W. 4th series.. M.H.I.. pp. vol. G.A.I.

Atkins. A. 250. 42 1. 571. 243.D. 303. M. : Brogan. E. Dr. M. : 249. 489. 546. 395. 570.D. 547. George Munsey 73. 364. Brooke. M. Beaufort. L. Brown. Charles R. Beauford. Prof. II.F. Barry. the Dean of 483.D.T.C. 727. 244. 824. Eomilly 486. Byrne. 882. : : Aethicus AU^ti. Bigger. Rev. Ardfert. 245. 419. VOL. Walter: 34. Dr. A. Gabriel: 77.D. 247. LL. Anonymous: 32. Edward: 36. John 548. 583. 320. LL. Belfast Nat. V. : 734. Browne. 202.. 582. 841. 704. 577. : 139. Benn. Rev.D. 73U. T. The Ven. Samuel: 319. William : : Briley. Henry 706. Professor Anketell. 581. 679. 528. F. S. Ball.' Brenan. Broderick. 540. 572. : : 233. 74. Dr.-- : 703. 232.363. : 3. : : 733. P. : Boyd-Dawkins. : 579. Edmond 75. 304. 148. 317. LL.D. Buick. Richard R. Brash. Birch. Daniel : 549. 705. 154. Rev. 396. W. Very Rev. Francis Joseph : : M. 842. Blackett.'] ADAMS. Belcher. Arthur. : : 486. Bryce. 728. 201. Bannon. Blythe. 404. Beranger. 140. M. J. : : W. : : 299. Benn. Armstrong. : : Betham. 736. 246. : : : Brownrigg. E. 731. 420. 678. 205. Ball. M. 360. Ringrose. William. 155. 485. Blair. Field Club (1st Report) : Buchanan. Baldwin. 234. C. Armagh. 840. 305. 879. Annesley. Ball. : J. 881. Baring-Gould. 57. 878.INDEX OF AUTHORS. 529. "Wm. : 361. 76. Robert. 403. numbers prefixed to \_The appended figures in this List correspond with the Names of Authors in the Bibliography. William 156. : Bradley. : : Atkinson. 729. Mrs.D. 71. S. George R. F. 418. : 248. Lord : 726.. Brenan. Bernard: 574. S. 481. Brady. 585. 157. 880. 158. 488. Dr. 575. : Brown. 204. Bernard. 735. Archdeacon of: 482. E. Sir Robert. : : 33.. R. W. 487. 316. : W. C. C. Allingham. James 251. George 730. Browne. W. : : : 35. Buckland. Maziere 580.576. Sir William 78. W. Bardan. BAILEY. G. : : 203. : 70. Patrick 573. J. 69. T. Borlace. Bland. 318. Samuel Arthur: 79. J. 737. : 80. 484. 732. LEITK. 2 .D. Rev. Bell. 584. 743. 72. Dr. Hugh Allnmn. W. 578. WILLIAM H..

: 876. Right Hon. 189. John 595. 490. 744. Sir Thomas Newenham : 38. John M. Fitzgerald. Mr. Deane. 754. C. Charles Elliott. Richard Clark. : 590. LL. E. : : 586. Richard (and other writers) FenneU. J. : Flanagan. 398. Thiselton Dyer 596. Fowler.R. 594. 832. J. D. : 798. LL. T. Lord Albert: 323. 91.D. 739. H. 213. 747. 600. 748. Ffrench. Du Noyer. 325. 39. Gerald : 86. 742. : Cochrane. 306. T. H. 255. 159. 494. Robert. GAGES. : : : Clodd. Patrick: 208. J. Earl of : : 599. 885. Fitzgerald. M. 752.D. 846. 93. 428. 684.418 INDEX OF A UTHORS. : 587: Caulfield. &c. Frazer. 760. : 550. 850.D. George "V. FALKINER. WILLIAM: 429. 681. Rev. Elcock. Nathaniel Colles. Donovan. 602. John.: 4. 92. 751.D. M. James : 300. 363. 530. 252. 845. Crofton : 324. S. Dunne. W. James 308. 686. M. Rev. Leland L. 427.E. Dyer. A. 223. 364. 160. Dix. French. Bernard 430.C. Eugene A. : CAMDEN SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS Cane. William. M. Crowe. 327. Carruthers. : Day. Conwell. W. J. Denny. 591. 852. J. 541.D. 593. J. : 83. 756. 321. Winston 88. 161. Colgan. Caulfield. Rev. 82. 162. ALPHONSE Geikie. L.. : Cook. 367. Evans. .S. Conyngham. D ALTON. J.D. Dunne. Robert M. A. 210. 163. 424. : 59. 848. Rev. A. Canon: 141. 307. Francis E. 743. : Ferguson. Thomas L. Charles : 236. Dillon.I. Theophilus Foot. Purefoy : 492. 85. 81. : Flaherty. : Enniskillen. Joseph: 758. 884. Lord Walter: 603. J. REV. . Starkie 431. M. : 5. 328. 419. : H. 707. Robert. Davies. 87. Cody. B. O'Beirne 37. 757. : Fitzpatrick. Drummond.. Egan. Clark.. 60. Edward: : 58. 322. Duncan. 592. Rev. : Dickson. Dr. 496. 740. 211. 682. 551. 423. Edward : 7. Finnigan.L. Dunraven. : 746. H. : 847. 362. Frederick VII. : Clibborn. 532. J. Col. Cosgrave.. B. EDITOR ULSTER JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY: 90.. J. 6. Henry Dickie. : 212. Cunningham. D. Edward 588. Courtenay. James Carte. 254.. Hon. : : 256. King 759. jun. F. Sir Samuel. 749. F. E.C. 738. M'C. 326. Close. 495. Gardiner.E. Coleman. 206. Dr. : 235. G. 741. : George. 366. Corn-town. 165. 753. 209. Cornwall. third Earl of: 40. 597. : 257. R. 89. 709. Cooper. 683.. : 853. Rev. 685. 397.. : 253. 750. 843. 844. 207. Edwin. A. 849. D. Coffey. 851. 589. W. Cooke. Feltus. Earl of. : 531. Dugan. M. : : 598. 745. John T. Dr. : 84. 164.D. of Denmark: D'Arcy. Henry P. : 491. Rev. 422. : : 601. Rev. 755. Kobert. M. 680. C. B. C. : : : : 708. : Croker. Barnard: 365. F. 425. John 493. General 426.

Hore. 405. 762. D.. : Graves. Grainger. : : 858. James: 710. John 369. CHARLES Johnson. Hemans. 170. 533. H. : Haverty. 268.D. Mary Agnes: : Glascott. F. 99. 605. 499. Edmund 270. M. 13. C. Kemble. Haddon. Going. 535. 333. 96. J. 436. Charles. Arthur Gerald. Mr. Leonard: 171. Jewitt. Edward T. 862. M. Patrick. E. : Gray. Hewson. C. Holden. 693. Hardiman. Professor E. P. W. 368. : 439. 432. W. 445. 859. Hogan. W. : 502. H. C. Rev. W. : Gwynn. Kelly. 273. LL. 857. Haymau. 771. : : 95. Sinclair Hope.. : Hore. Oenitz. : 2. 267. 41. 370. 764. George Laurence 604. Rev. 835. Hartland. Denis H. 610. : Hitchcock. K.. Graves. : 371. Kelly. Kelly. 552. 331. Rev. 765. Hutchinson. 826. Richard: 12. 555. Griffiths. J. Ferdinand: 440. Dillon : 769. 500. 855. 302. 142. Kennedy. T. Herbert Francis : 438. 335. E. C. 621. : HACKETT. Haigh. WILLIAM 406. Knox. B. Thomas: Greaves. William : 10. 689. 890. Colonel H. Canon. Professor A. Hamilton. H. Hall. Hughes. Mr. 43. : 407. 434. : 258. 16. Rev. 301. : : 611. 501. 503. 553. James 1. 217. D. J. 263. Professor 419 : H. Rev. DE V. 556. Richard: 11. Hull. B. R. 888.. N.D. 615. 861. 825. 856. M. George T. 259.D. 692. Hart. : 166. Hewson. "W. 763. Haughton.238. W. M. 310. Rev. 216. 446. 269. Mr. 767.E. : H. G.. Geoghegan.D. 497. W. G. Healy. 827. Stephen 608. Glennon. Hibbert. 271. 433. : 889. Professor. 266. 15. Gillman. M. James :. P. 607. : : Harkness. 617. : 100. 498. W. : 14. 828. 168. 618. 330.D. 169. 770. D. J. Joyce. : : Orattan. 215. Dr. Hasse. Hardman. Hardy. Rev. Keatinge. 891. J. 536. Kinchella. Professor J. 688. H. S. E. 274. Hickson. : : 264. 624. : 442. 143. 309. 61. 687. 260. Hill. W. W. Kirker. Herbert 619. Keller. Rev. D. 892. Captain Edward 334. Joly. H. 444. J. : : 8. 534. 237.D. 860.D. 609. : : Kinahan. 554. 94. 9. : : : 372. 691. : 332. George Henry 135. Rev. M. P. 443. A. Mrs. 606. Hoare. Rev. Jukes. 616. 44. 623. Patrick 625.P. John 265. : 97. : Hunt. : Mons. S. : : : 167. 262. 173. Rev. Llewellynn Edmond : : 240. John.INDEX OF A UTHORS. Hennessy. Samuel 437. 854. Philip Dixon 612. 887. and 435. Kelly. Lord Bishop of Limerick 329. Martin 42. 172. 239. George A. W. : Knowles. 622. Green. : : : KANE. 261. 626. 408. 690. : 614. : : : : 768. JAMES. Kilbride. Goodman. 761. Rev. E. Sidney : 613. Professor B.: 2 F 2 . 620. 272. Rev.214. D. 766. Gomme. 394. : 441. Q. 98. Jones. S.

711. Bt. 507. James: 783. S. A. Kvmo and Nutt. Philip: 342. 373. 103. Lenihan. J. Courtenay 865. P. Madden. 18. 712. : : Magennis. Edward : Maunsell. David: 537. Archdeacon T : : 277. James. W. : Mollan. Lanninie. Morgan. George. : 179. 509. Mease. 627. 106. Rev.D. A. 510. : M 17. : 105. : M'Cormack. : Lanyon. AVilliam : : Longfield. 375. 143. Moss. AA illiam 340. 784. 278. R. . Macalister. R. W. William 175. Rev. 448. John F. 111. J. Nash. 506. W. Lymberry. John 184. : Langtry. R. 781. 780. 537. 107. J. Rev. Lamb. S. 379. J. H. 558. Robert: 181. r Mallet. Maxwell. 180.: Lane Fox. T. L. Arthur P. Lynch. J. 218. T. 104.T. : 713. 633. Maurice Lentaigne. 630. More. Lockwood. Lecky. Mac Mahon. 267. : 695. 341. Edgar. Long. Mackenzie. : Mac Enery. M'Naughton. Francis : 279. 411. John : Martin. M. : 49. : : : : : : M'Elheran. R. 393. : M. 450. Mudge. 62. 894. D. 183A. Moore. Langrishe. Fane: 629. M. 275. James. Samuel 339. J. Malcomson. Alfred T. : XAPIER. Augustus 504. George V. P. 376. 220. AV. Mac Ritchie. : 638. Rev. 136. Earl of 46. Seaton F. G. AV. A. Rev. : M'Sweeney. : 109. Nevins. Rev. 560. Thomas. A\ illiam : 785. Moore. Rev. J. M'Evoy. AVilliam 183. : r Millar.D. 779. 897. Munroe. : Macnamara. AV. : Lockwood. J.. Sir Lett. : : Mulvany. B. Patrick. J. 786. : Lewis' Topographical Dictionary 449. 219. : : 447. : : : Mallet. Mulcahy. 777.D. 452. H. P. W. 178. 144. Henry 895. : Martel. 508. 276. Morant.D. T. MAC ADAM. 628. 774. Mr. Moore. 559. William 454. : : 451. INDEX OF A UTHORS. AV. Canon. 50. Neary. . jun. Enraght 896. <>32. Lawler. Capt.C. 110. Milligan. P. E. Moore. William Shaw : : 634. : 48. M. : 108. Mac Ilwaine. Hugh N. Lubbock. R. 338. Col. C. : 773. J. Rev. 775. Mulvany. Sir John. Rev. : 176. : 516. Long. John: 378. JAMES 640. George : 102. AV. R. : : 45. olesworth . Meyer. Rev. M'Evoy. Mason. : Madden. 562. : Molyneux. C. ROBERT 337. 776. : 863. 410. Alexander : 311. Capt. Montgomery : : 561. Ledwick. John Alexander: 336. Nevil. Martin. Robert 456. Rev. 694. : 377. Moore. F. 137. : 174. 637. A. Moore.P. 149. 772. F. M. 185. D. 639. 873. J. Mr. 787.420 LALOR. Lynch. : : 177. 631. 374. : : : McLennan. 101. D. 866. Lee. : : : Xesbitt. 47. Rev. : Layard. J. 455. W. Mr. J. : 635. 453. John 409. 782. James Mac Cullagh. AA illiam Hamilton Mayo. AV. 864. Mooney. 380. L. Rev. M'Nulty. : Millen. Alfred 636. D. 505. 182.

John. : O'Donovan. Olden. 899. Richardson. 117. Pegge. : : Reeves. : O'Donovan. J. 716. 125.INDEX OF A UTHORS. : O'Flanagan. : Plummer. Gabriel. 0' Gorman. Sir R. late Thomas: Pococke. Alfred : : 421 788. O'Byrne. 566. 0'J)onovan. Nicholas : 399. Praeger. T. Mrs. James G. O'Connell. LL. : 518. 412. Rev.D. John : 519. J. Rhys.D. 802. : 662. M. Ralph: 119. Ryche. RAPHAEL. W. J. Theophilus 512. Rev. Maurice: 113. Prim. Lt. 285. 186. : 347. 419. M. 655. 650. Pownall. H. O'Keefe. : Phayer. C. Rowland. Pearson. 115. 128. 869. 643.513. LL. Barnaby : 661. 517. O'Donoghue. 900. Denis : : : 563. Newman. Plunkett. : : QUINLAN. Rev. Crofton : 191. J. : : : : 696. 383. O'Laverty. Owen. 282. : Rotherham. 461. Rev. Lord Bishop of Meath 348. 190. Oldham. Joseph Norreys. Redmond. 644.D. 124. R. 874. 112. 20. 799. 822. : 143. John : 714. Rev. Reade. Goddard H. D. George 281. J. : : Rice. R. J. John T. Robinson. 22. Thomas 116. 23. 267. 462. Denham Jephson 642. Rev. Rev. Pictet. Dr. 836. 187- 805. Ladlie : : : Rhind. 460. O'BRIEN. W.D. 225.D. 288. Purdon. M. H. 120. John: 511. 718. : Porter. S. Scott: 719. Richardson.D. Perceval. Governor: 21. H. : : 126. 658. : 641. : Ousley. Charles. 804. W. H. D. Rev. Lieutenant Nolan. 652. : : 657. : 122. : : 121. : 280. 515. HENRY : 803. M. Rev. 798. C. O'Leary. R. O'Callaghan. O'Reilly. Ross. G. Professor J. Right Rev. O'Kearney. 222. Philpot. 646. A. 188. 564. F. John 660. F. 649.343. 457. . Porter. T. A. 351. O'Conor. : 464. 286. J. Ross. M. Rev. Riggs.D... 189. 345. 791. : 901. 829. 223. : 289. 801. SALMON. M. : 659. 283. 789. T. Rev. Rev. Dr. E. H. Henry PARKINSON. R. Thomas 514. Daniel: 312. 344. Mabel 654. Alexander : 352.-Col. 793. 19. 797. R. Petrie. 463. D. 794. H.D. 868. 647. 123. O'Kelly. Cajsar: 51. James 648. 790. 63.. 715. W. 459. R. : Orpen. Patterson. 653. John G. 349. 381. 458. Rev. 795. Professor Adolphe: 717. 721. : Plunkett.: 284. Oswald. 346. Power. 792. O'Donovan of Lissard : 114. G. R. Thomas H. 382. 796. Robertson. Thomas 350. O'Daly.D. : George. 384. : 118. Denis A. Lieut.: 52.. Otway. J. 414. WILLIAM SMITH : 888. Richardson. Patrick Pownall. : O'Neill: 151. 720. 146. Lloyd: 287. : : 224. 152. : Pinkerton. : : 656. W. Peacock. P. 150. C. : 870. Rev. LL. JOHN : 413. 313.-Col.. JOHN Scharff. 651. 145. 645. Oldham. 221. 697. 127. N. W. 800. Richard. GEORGE Rapmund. T. Sir Nutt.

814. 526. 26. 810. Thomas 700. H.D. A. Wright.D. E. : 228. 823. William Michael 479. 296. : Smith. M. J. 315. Seaton. : 465. 294. W. 387. Sir W. 569. 129. 815. Toland. Whitley. 25. Sydney. J. J. Thomas. : 298. Thomas: 66. John: 55. Writers. 837. YEATS. Edward 872. Stubhs. : 195. Simpson. Owen Smith. 401. Staniland : 666. : J. Sir J. : Wilde. J. 522. 29. 290. 385. Charles Butler : 902. Patrick 813. 667. 525. 475. 698. : : : 314. Sigerson. 831. Stephen. Westropp. 663. Scott. 838. P. Sidney. Wynne. H. . 53. Shirley. R. 147. Huhand . 545. Bt. 674. 28. 198. 354.D. 676. Robert : Antony. 466. C. Williams. 904. 670. Major-General F. Sir Henry 468. 197. 701. : 677. 391. 357. H. Ussher.D. : WAKEFIELD. 808. Walker. D. Scouler. 297. Robert. 820. HON. LL. : Albert : 355. 722. 675. Stanley. M. : 467. Walker: 153. George. 133. Miss : 672. 199. : : UPTON. A. Windele. Charles. Miss L. R. 130. M. : : 471. 542. Rev. 241. Wilde. J. 818. Various: 56. : 725. W. Rev. : Tipping. : Smith. W. 527. 520. M. Smith. John Francis: : : 229. JAMES Tarleton. M. 392. Patrick 390. 907. Professor George: 521. Rev. Westropp. Rev. : : Trail. F. : Worsaae. S. 416. C. 230.D. James Henthorne. Wylie. Shearman. John: 291. 472. Thomas : Thompson. : 699. 477. : INDEX OF A UTHORS. J. 388. 875. 67. M. Stoney. Simpson. VAI.D.. 478. S. C. : 24. 292. : Wright. : 27. Smith. 539. William Tighe. 200. Kev. William. Alexander Colville 356. LL. Westby. W. R. Ernest A. Staples. Young. Thomas Johnston: 54. : Walsh. 665. : S. 363. Richardson 386. 196. Rev. Trench. 906. Wakeman. Mrs. 811. Tuomey. 31. 538. : : 523. 816. Wood-Martin. Aquilla. Robert: 68. Searanke. Hodder M. 469. Dr. 194. 138. 226. : 470. HENRY. Y. 702. H. 192. 227. Stephenson. Rev. 417. West. 476. W. B. 295. J. Wilfred Mark: : 669. : 668. John Townsend 415. : Colonel Philip D. 673. : 193. : 664. Stokes.D. B.D. W. . Thomas 568. Lady Wilson. 819. J. H. : W. LL. Joseph Cooper: 723. : HO. : : 132. 671. 473. A. : 389. R. 543. Walkington. 359. G. J.. 400. 877. 743. 402. White. 567.LANCEY. 830. 724. Scott.422 65. D. M. Mr.D. G. Tray nor. : 131. S. James 905. 903. Traill. Colonel 242. 809. GENERAL CHARLES 524. TALBOT. . : : : Wake. 293. : Welsh. G.D. Webb. Todd.. 908. 544. 817. EDWARD 474. Smith. R. Trevelan. William 839. Vigors. J. Rev. 30. 571. Way. 353. Smith. 231. : : Tenison. Rev. 358. 812. Smith. Dr. : Wood. Weaver.

Amulets (see -116. 75. Baker. 243. 146. language of. 140. women forbidden to set foot on.. instructions as to Britain. 233. 154. early use of. Thomas. Beam. Alphabet. St. sacred stones. 304. on sneezing. 113. Alignments of stones. 29. G. 300. 107. King Connaught. Big Bell Tree. Altagore. Irish. 40. temptations to. Emperor. St. 21. [The figures appended refer to the pages of the Volume. Anvil used as a spell-worker. Animal worsidp. animal tion. Animals. April and -Aran Aristotle March legend. of the Poison Spear. 310.] Acts of Parliament against witchcraft. Barnacle goose. " Shanven " Charms). Pliny's account. idol with nail offerings. tree worship. the Magician and the Soul of Atkinson. Dr. Assaroe "Sweat-house. Baldwin. " 190. Augustine. origin of. 133. 74. well worship. 302. Agate." against Babylonian religion. stone. Ardmore. Imokilly amulet.. trees." ceremonies performed at.. Allen. 235. cure of. 247. Patrick's. 161. superstitions. Baptism customs. 78. " Ainged story. 85. William. "West.INDEX. virtues of. Grant. holy wells. Mission. Alder tree. 64. Ireland. 116. Pantheism. Adder stones. " Cave of of Ailell. 48. Ash Adrian. Irish. 88. Africa. couvade. 301. Island. qualifications. 118. . witch's stone. secondary holed stone. 317. stone. 160. murrain stone. 65. fairy. cat story." 165. ceremonies. Australia. 23. "Tree of Life. transforma- Ballymascanlan cromleac. murrain stone. Dermod and Grania's. Ballysummaghan. 240. 26. Beds. 309. Dermod. " 29. 230. address to his soul. 99. M. origin. 75.Smith's Bally vourney. stones used as charms. Goldwin. cursing opinion. Antrim. Baths. Archaeologist. Ballycotton. Battles. 136. sore-throat cure. 224. 269. 156. 76. strokers. headless beings. 39. " Cloch-a-Phoill " Aghade. 28. 268. Irish. 168. 124. stones. Mount. 151. Apple-peel omen. "Muck Olla" custom. Somerset. Bed of the Holy Ghost. 159. Aengus - Atheism. Barrenness. warns Allen. Ancestor worship. 51. 118."" 153. Athos. 250. 172.

" 254. Tuapholl. Lismore. 26. efficacy of. Caldrons. witches 261. Buckland.. account 30. 180." magical pigs. St. W." 119. 13. Brigid.. 273. 108. St. magical. of. nails clipping superstitions. sick.424 " Beds. Butter. 250. under arched Brambles." 165. chair. Leinster. Book of Ballymote. Bronze caldrons. 4. well-worship. Brady. superstitions. Maziere.. Wilde. T. 167. mention of evil eye. creeping brambles. of. 200. Bells. divining by the blade bone. Bible. account 137. 124. 8. James. cursing stone. holy wells. Cross. poisoned weapons. 125. Cappagh "sweat-house." acBeranger. Brookhill. Fillan's Buddhism and Christianity. 173. 247." stones. Camden.." account of. Breton fairy song.. 31. Ben Jonson. - C. women. T. A. ancient name. 105. 298. INDEX. Birth. Mr. sea superstitions. . Byrne. sacred tree. Carrickard rocking stone. 135. Black leg. 174. 286. 209. Buried treasure. meaning of word. J. Bullen. Carrickfergus. 76. 106. fern seed. 204. 40. witches. Catarrh of the stomach. cursing stone. Boho. 113. sacred stones. story. in cures. Bird omens. Craebhnat's tree. Dr. 98. ornaments. " Desiul. superstitions. "Beware the cat. Big Bell Tree. Burying. Browne. Caher island. Butterfly. of. Brehon's chair. Borlace. belief in. 159. " Butter rolls. origin of. Blarney stone. alignments of stones. Campbell. 136. 185. Lammas Sunday. Druid spells." 159. " Beware the cat. cure. 92. stories. Cattle. cure. Dyer. 30. 21. charms used at. W. 2. 179. 189. sacrifice. Lady. Blindness. " 99. 57. magic caldron. Billa. account. F. 65. 198. Castledermot swearing-stone. 258. - instrument with bird ornaments 143. Boyaghan wells. 304. " Bobby. 154. Macha's chariot race. count of. 260. 141. Burial customs. Cavancarragh." 55. Borrisokane. reverence for. 6. 103.'' 163. Caiiyle quoted. 74. 300. " Carricknabuggadda. 143. F. Cambrensis. cures. Cape of Good Hope. 28. trial. 125. marriage lore. 6. stone heaps in Japan." legends. 239. 296. fairies take the butter. Brudins. "sweat-house. 299. Briar. 254. Brooches. Buccaneers. death watch. hidden booty protected by spirits. 235. T. bird-head ornamentation. burial. Cats. 203." Brudin Da Derga. and hair. uses of. 179. Burton. 145. Mr. origin of. burial standing up. 285. Sir Thomas. cure by. Cahill blood. Bloodstone amulet. 64. " " Well of Assistance. 122. church. 204. 66. black cat. cures. 143. magic caldron. Cancer cure. Mr. well. 47. 66. 203.. 160. Brittany. St. 171. F.

127. May powers of. 198. women's position amongst. Clogher. 251. Conlan Mac Liagh and the scribe's description of himself. pagan. Rev. 52. Childbirth debility of the Ulstermen. 247. elections of. Children. Cowdung cure. feast of. 127. 240. 290. Cormac's Glossary. Christianity. Crom Dubh. Cleena. story. Our Lady's Bed. 76. 425 Connoeh amulet. 308. Creeds. 153. Christian observances accommodated to Cow lore. 130. Cormac. 242. I. remarkable cross. description. 120. 8. 195. Clonmacnoise Cock. superstitions relating to. 155. tree worship. 19. marriage customs in Ireland. 6. 309. holy wells. Mr. Red Cows. Conall. 14. 47. account of. Church Island. 314. Crickets. St. Fintan's day ceremony. Druidic veneration for cows. game at wakes. Aran Island. 75. recipe for magical dream.INDEX. 181. Croker. 29. description. gradual develop- Cramp in the leg. introduction. 188. stones. Crukuaragh hill. St. Connor Mac Nessa. eara. "Couvade. of "gates glory" Chapel wells. amulet. Black. Civilization in Ireland. heathen superstitions. 40. and 127. 4. of. gradual development. holed stones at Loughstone. 113. Charms. 14. 219. 13. Ballyvourney murrain bloodstone amulet. de- family tree. Colours. 321." 159. E. 13. 247. 142. 20. Ireland. 127. connoeh. " Roads of the "White. 129. 248. 31. wolf legend. 312. Ollamh Fodhla's chair. Chfla7 miraculous stone. 265. Consumption cures. agate. 208. Tain B6 Cuailgne. 6. wren story.. day mummers. 44. Greece and Home. 76.. 79. Saints (see that title). crew. 79. 274. honey -tree. Garnavilla amulet. 129. list. 186. 158. possible. scription. existed side - Glasgavlen. Crorn Cruach and Crosses. Conwell. A. 222. 15. 90. to religion. death caused by fairies. story. 76. story. -Boho. Edward. " Corkaguiney. Chiefs. 129. 75. charm. 242. classical source. Columbkille. 273. 149. 53. 75. fairy . 93. 176. " Desiul " de- Mac Carthy Chichester. 204. 69.. 240. battle. 138. 93. 256. Cave of Ainged. Crofton. 224. survival of. 212. stones." by side with Paganism. 315. Cormac Mac Art. Imokilly amulet. ment of. 301." 40. magic stones. sacred tree. black. Tarv Connaire. superstitions relating to cows. " Chairs. Layde. bird omens. fairy changelings. Childbirth superstitions. water worship. Clare. healing fairy song. description. Cooldrumman nounced. Cemeteries. Edward. 130. druid circle near Killarney. Tyrone. salt-water wells. Clenor. Clogher oracle. 213." druids'. healing-stone. "changeling" legend. head in bronze in R. 253. relation Cretans. 224. Glencolumbkill. Churchill. mermaid sacrifice. salt-water holy well. Coollemoneen. origin. Clodd.

superstitions concerning." 58. cure. Iniskea. Cuilirra. burial of. Curson. "Curl-doddy. Caher Island. 139. Door opened to let the spirit out.426 Cuchullin. power of against the blood cure. Dermod and Grania legends. account. Dabehoe. Dogs. O'Curry's opinion of. 65. spitting superstitions. swine banished by. Demons. " 65. account of. INDEX. 6. transference of disease. St. Thomas. effect of. peist. 54. Rev. Downes. Cursing stones. 129. 64. healing stones. Patrick's belief in. Edward. Greek and Roman custom. to set foot on. passing under. " Desiul" or Holy Round. wise women's cures. Hebrides. Declan. chair. 237. 274. 66. St. Death. Mount Athos. medical knowledge. Dreams. Demon 303. 138. 92. Dermod." cures by. 90. Doyle. 53. magic bath. 84. 189. Curses. Greek opinion of. Dr. 39. 293. Glas Gavlen. Cupples. " fire of stones." 57. Sligo. averting. 43. 202. robin omens. ceremony at birth of an infant." 40. 88. cleft tree. Fechin's Stone. 59. 235. 302. cleft tree. Cullen. 167. 52. Culdaff. 138. Trummery Church. black stone.. poison weapons. Cuckoo omens. 221. 2." account. holed stone. sacrifices to.. superstitions re- Ulstermen. 59. 31. 59. Tain B6 Cuailgne. 64. possession of lunatics. 307. 128. women forbidden - Douglas. 82. Curtin. 57- "private curse. flagstone of the seven Dinely. 23. 134. holy well cures. death. toms. daughters. customs of. 70. 293." 64. Denis.. 51. " Childbirth debility of the Days of the week. " bed. Diodorus. 55.. 304. 3. Cures. soul of. St. account of the Caledonians. 139. 302. 73. Sully. . magical recipe for. 193. 132. 94. 235. 141. Dianket. St. Diseases. 61. " St. 28. opinion." 253.. 126. walks without his head. Portugal. agate used for. 131. 26. 141. cursing stones. St. 187. Inishmurray.. fear of. 0' Donovan's account. Deafness. Joyce's account. description. of. description. 112. 106. Divining rods. various. Dead. 160. various views concerning. Danish folk-lore story. holy well. Bishop. examples of. 66. 286. Summaghan Stones. Devenish Island. James. Baptism cus- watch. 145. 84. 161. relic. 39. 233. lating to. 76. 156. 190. cure. Dion Cassius. 65. transference of. 195. 180. 82. 268. 134. Dedanann. - strokers. public curse." 183. 69. various. 228. holed stone. 176. couvade. Stone 61. marriage by capture. Druids. 123. Professor. soul. Bridget's Doagh. Jeremiah. "all flower water.

6. buried standing. "William. 15. 122. . Irish superstitions. to. 88. Somerset. 221. Dullaghans. 219. Egyptian Book of the Dead. battles. 160. Dublin. Evolution. diseases.water story. South Sea Islanders' Magic. proverbs on. Druids. pig in Egyptian and Greek thology. Duan . 201." 166. incantations. soul. T. T. 180. trees. 3. Dyer. spells and incantations. 251. 90. witches. 199. " Dark Fairy Rath. Farrenglogb. virtues of. Sacerdotalism of. magical swine. story. music. Elworthy." 4. holy wells. 23. judgment seat. 196. 125. sacred stones. name. 237. Druid. dis- tinction between. 295. in. mounds. Egypt. 122. Pictish rape of wives. Elian. holes in. plant folk-lore. derivation of word. Dromahaire. 271. iron a charm against. fear of. 4. Curl-doddy. two classes. Danish story. nature of. baptism customs. "Eglone" stone. holed stones." 297. 292. rescue from. Errigal-Keroge "sweat-house. colours obtained from plants. Ellis. spitting as a charm against. 202. circle. hunters. wands. 11. Mr. 8. 12. dog superstitions. Dullaghan. changelings. Drumcliff. 6. 182. 126. cures. 57. Eye. Fairies. 3. cursing well. 8. 108. 5. 19. Christian explanation of. Elixir of life. 21. 202. 274. F. 14. feast of St. at 427 Epilepsy cures. Devonshire superstitions. form moonlight dances. 4. Evil eye. dead and fairies. Dwarf's tomb. origin of name. evil eye. England. must not be partaken of. Haiwaii. mortal mothers. Sir execution of sore throat. Killiney. 284. moon. 168. 11." poem. 68.. customs. spitting custom. sacrifices to. 160. hawthorn trees sacred to. holy wells. 173. 284. 307. 9. 76. 289. superstitions regarding. 273. 307. 286. 156. feet. my- - Ulster. 195. Dual number. 4. Erysipelas cure. " Night of the Big Wind. mention of unlucky. - " Columbkille and Finvarra. "speaking-stones. 300. Killarney. Dyes. moths called " souls. 19. Fairy-rings. 116. Ceara. 235. 136. 5. Gircanash. cat story. Echo. F. leprechaun. 255. - medical knowledge. 5. St. Eyre. 136.57. invisible in daylight. spirits of the Eoghan Bel.. charms against. 219. dust storms. 66. 2. 23. food. Mr." account of. 22. 8. remarks on. 194. 58. description. 8. 13. 196. truth of." 222. Governor. chairs.INDEX. 300. superstitions relating 270. butter taken by. nurses. 187. 13. Australian cure for Drury.. 16. 20. 272. 227. 8. 180. T.

animal transformation. sacred trees." 60. 39. speaking. 179. purposes of existence. Fire of stones. 2. Greek idea of the soul. name for. description. Head-fever. account. Heart-sinking. cure. origin of. 58. " Groves. Fechin. Handshake. 306. Vera. " Grave of the Black Pig. Rev. Foyoges. Garland Sunday. 268. Food offerings to stones. poem on. 5. 60." 131. John. Gleunagalt. Glen of the Lunatics. Fyvie.INDEX. holed stone at Castledermot. pot of. St. " God save the mark. description. Mr. 4. 274. 2 1 .. St. Foxglove. of Knowledge. sanctity of. Fern Sir Samuel. seed. Flags. Giraud-Teulon. J. God. Furies. 274. 114. Generation. term of contempt. Guiana. 285. 118. "Finn's Tooth 109. C. Gwynn. Fish. 156. supernatural... "Headfall" " disease. magical. Glensouthwell. 108-113. 191. fairy treasure. . M. "sweat-houses. Valentine. 132.428 Fe. ornaments found in. stories 10. account of. opinion of. Rev. Dame. Giraldus Cambrensis. 141. resemble those that worship them. sacred stone.. Hardy. Irish John. 123. 75. " Stroker. 264. of. fairies. 41. butterfly form of the soul incident. 4. superstitions relating to. 221. well. 254. Greek name for. interview with Columbkille. cure. 68. mystical properties. Goddesses. 200. 171. Mr. 59. opinions on.. 105. sacred stones. Dick." 190. 166. sacred. Fear. Stephen. fairy king. 266. 53. observances. description. 209. scepticism. quack doctors. Brehon's chair. Rev. Gorse used for luck. 304. Fillan. account. 242. marriage patron. cat legends. Gallows. 290. Cool. goddess. Ferguson. incantation. Fitzpatrick. Philip Dixon. Graves. "bishop's grave. Glencolumbkill cross. 296. 167. 128. Goustan. 105. impoi-tance of." stories. mysterious name. Grania. Garnavilla amulet. 159. to. 170. 239. account of. Griffin. 263. mentions the 4. Grogan. identical with that for wind. 299. Dr. Jeremiah Curtin's account of. Heapstown. Hawthorn tree. 65. Fever cure. superstitions relating Haiwaii. 240. 305. magical wand. cursing-stones. 3. fairies. Hair. St. butter-stones. 302. 287. Hallow Eve. 30. . Lord Walter. 101.stone. "bishop's grave." charm Finn Mac 132. -Glasgavlen. 196. Graham. Finvarra. Maypole. "Desiui" custom. 19. 179. of. Fetichism. couvade. Gigha Island. 6. Gold. Joseph. 297. fickleness to. Headache. Doyle's death. keystone of primitive religions. cursing-stone. Guernsey. rite performed at Aughawale well. 232.." legend." cure. Froude. Hamilton. Glendinning. 292. Greatrakes. marriage with. 4. Gerald. 224. 107." fairy. Gods. boar hunt." account. couvade. 42. echo. 306. 311. Fitzgerald. Fish -eaters. Fernagh church. Mr. 225. 217. 113. Highland reverence for. name of.

61. symbolism of. stone rings." Hydrophobia. value of. 193. Hofer. of. on. 299. 65. women forbidden to Insanity. Island Magee rocking-stone. holy wells. 54. Jews. 200. fairy influence on. 307. Keating. magical bath. Hercules' Temple. Higden. M. cursing-stone. 7. Irish. swine as sacred animals. Jubainville. 198. Iron. influence of heathen thought Idols. 160. Mr. 260. women forbidden to Hebrides. 270. St. on. Iniskea. 30.transformation of human beings into wolves. 230. Prof. ancient.. 213.. cursing-stone. sacred trees. 182. 92. "desiul" practice. Osuna's stone. 29. 185. 80. stone heaps. absence of. 274. ceremonies at birth. bed of the Holy Ghost. Huxley. 66. " holed-stones. 31. Sean Druid. 225. Andreas. W. 52. Images of persons who are witched. C. 8. 429 Inisbofin. 69. 109. marriage contracts.. account. opinion 294. Joyce. 14. herb. 75. 320. St. burial customs. P. unlucky. H. Turkish baths. 200. meaning of.. 39. -^spells t. "Finn's Tooth of Knowledge" story. magical boar of the Mysians. 227. 320. annihilation. 13. 273.. 160. 185. wells (see that title). Jaundice. line.. 248. 131. "desiul" custom. 11. 306... magical swine. praying-stones. E. sacred stones. descent through female 44. Imokilly amulet. Iniskill. Hope. "desiul" custom. Hibbert. . cures made from. Islands. cures. Bed. Hyginus. 11. 320. Hen. "sweat-lodge. in Ireland. man unlabelled. 79. enter. 27. 26. Heartburn. Hennessy. archaeology of. 178. Dr. supersti- Iniscathy Abbey. Isle of women forbidden to land. well." 226. Homoeopathy. cure. History. 201. 76. Wales." 26. Holy. Hound's-tongue. 118. to be be- Kames. Bishop. history of Ireland. lona. cure. number two in Irish names. Heber. 305. Hungry stones and hungry grass. 104. India. Grania.. 38. Infants. "desiul" custom. enter. cure.INDEX. St. for raising the wind. charm against fairies. Kemble. 27. fairy charm. 323. cancer cure. 136. Mr. 308. marriage customs. 155. cure. magical cow. witchcraft. Holy Japan. neewoge. St. Ita. " Pursuit of Dermod and 135. Madron's stone. 106. 161. 183. Horace. mimosa tions. " Bed. 53. superstitions regarding. 107. 172. Prof. 221. account. Inismurray. Dr. cures. Kevin. 35. wells. cursing-stones. Lord. marriage customs." 166. Indian tribes. tree. Holy Ghost. 134. mermaid story. 29. Herodotus. Man. 144. Judaism. Johnston. Invisible. 242. Horse-shoe. Hemorrhoids. 176. Herbs. 55. Inflammation. quoted.. 273. well of assistance. crowing. Howden. 66. to render oneself. 38.

stone circle. MacCarthy armulet. M'Donall of Newhall. John customs. 89. Knock. 230. cursing -stones. church. cancer cure. Sir John. 29. chariot race of. 40. hydrophobia cure possessed by. or Medb. scalded.. 182. account. Layde. Macalister. 42. 190." 79. 7. 44. Killeany. 165. cursing-stones. 135. Lir. couvade. story. Queen of Con" Cave of naught. fairy hattles. St. huried standing. 101. 199.. healing Glory" rocks. 311. 98. Ita's hed. in. anthropomorphism. 97.. 38. mermaid 213. custom relating to the dead. holed stone. 38. Kilmacteige." account. 76. Lucretius. 292. Fillan's cure. Laws. Dr. 306. Madron. 240. 247. Lough Beg. 185." story. 179. Lochgilphead. Colonel. 24. 40. Lir. saliva cure. MacLennan. 93. Maeve. St. . 264. Love potions. 119. Kilchouslan. 101. W. Loughanlea lake. opinions on. Killowen. well "Lee Penny. Magpie omens. 21. cross. Lammas Sunday rites. "MacDatho's Hog. Macnamara 213. 242.. 219. 40. 31. MacGowan Kyteier. King. eye diseases. 120. 147. 202. 129. 255. 54. Pagan cemeteiy. Maghera. royal touch cure. of. King of Arcadia. straining-string. cramp Leinster. 92. Killalta church. rag offerings. Deny. creeping stone. 313. Irish marriage. R. Lunatics. Lady Alice." 159. Lockwood. lactation." story. 231. "sweat-house. Kingsley. turned into a wolf.. story. children of. marriage origin. childbirth debility of the Cltonians. 114. 78. 112. Loman. Lamh. Life. rites. Maimonides. 72. Miss. St. account. cross. cure. Mr. Killady. mermaid of. straining-string. holy well. " Gates of Knott. 22. cures. " 251. " Leoghaire. reverence for. Ainged. 59. Loughadrine. Limestones. A. mill. 167. Book race. Lactation. charm. 171. Tain B6 Cuailgne. paper. poison weapons. fetichism. " fern tree. Lubhock. hag's chair. 257. Pagan cemetery. Killarney. Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny. "desiul" custom. Lycanthropy. F. station. James M. Maev. 286. S. catarrh of the stomach. 247. Khasi. Kilkeary. Macha. sacred lake. account of. Leprechaun. 222. 313. family. 184. Kilmoon. St. St. Mr. MacKinlay. Killiney. 146. 301. cromleac.. Loughcrew hills. enchantment. of. Lammas Sunday. heated. 71. Macha's chariot Madstone. Madron's bed. Killery. Kilnasaggart. Clonmacnoise powers. John. elixir of. used as cures. story of.480 INDEX. well worship. druid's judgment seat." Leg. Kilranelagh churchyard. 44. 29. Manannan Mac 160. Lycaon. F." Kilkenny. 301. Mr. 195. Lucian. echo. 173. 59. Jews. holed stone. 178. Lewis. May-pole. witchcraft family.

230. 140. of. Mumps. 216. herbs. cure." 28. Mather." ac- Moytirra.INDEX. Mweelrea mountain. " Muck Olla " custom. Sion. 265. 39. Merrythought Meyer. pigs sacrificed to. Cotton. charms used in. 38. 38. 299. 52. " Maxwell. 103.. Medical science. S. Ireland. 40. Massage. stone -thro wing. 7. "Vision of Hell. fairy ministrations to children. superstitions rites relating processions. 85. Senan. 219. r. 38. omen. " Desiul " practice. Martin. Muck Inis. capture. 262. " couvade. Nelson. Keating's opinion. 131. 79. 1 89. 113. 33. Martin. cure. cures performed Mars Sylvanus." 175. holed stones. 31. 202. 35. "sweat-house. "sweat-houses. Murrain. 481 Mandrake. 6. Massey. 214. Milligan. "Desiul" or account of. 325. connected 161. 225. to. MacLennan's. ring. 30. Mr. 237. "couvade. 264. 75. Medicinal properties of flowers. 29.. connection witli religion. . Mermaids. sacred 10. Vera. desiul custom. 35. " Straw Boys. morning rites. T. Bobby. Kevin and MacDonald amulet. Monaghan." translation. connected with. observances 201. 295. Midwifery. 42. fairy. 19. 35. Telltown marriage. Kerry." 37. St. 54. Miiller. Maud. Wales. Thomas. St. 176. 98. 167. count of. 78. "bed.. relating to. 121. 13. Moon. - " Irish. Milton. 52. Marsh-marigold. pairing 200. "Eglone" stone. Mr. holy round. accounts of. 233." account Max. legend. 44. Marriage customs " Abduction without leave. offerings. 136. well worship. 272. trees. 193. primitive. meaning of. 268." account of. 32. Napier. 76. and roots. F. Music. 161. description. Milk. name of Ireland. law. 160. Paddy the Dash. custom. 198. libations for fairies. W. Mungo Park." by. Moore. Molaise. lucky flowers. 38." 162. Prof. to fairies. 36. 161. sacred stones. early use of. rites at. with holes in. 200. Jews. March and April. W. Monasterboice cross. Nails. James. 43. 190. May Day. Mermen. strange animals in lakes and rivers of the West. dedicated to. "hungry grass" stories. 265. Quaker proselytisers.. Eve. Gerald. legends relating 212. of. Medicine man. Brittany. rite connected with." Picts. 20. to.. Maypoles. -maiden names of married women. 267. Egyptians' reverence of engines. St. Mistletoe. account. mummers. John. 269. St. 30. Kuno. A. 197. 53.. description. legends 237. 67. Marcellus. Japan. cow Mount Moray. : Medical science.

31. against witchcraft. the Dash. wolves. number two in Irish Ollamh Fodhla's Omens.. Jewish opinions of. curses. Columbkille's poem." account of. regulations re- garding. 150. Sir well. sacrifices to dead. James. coward's cure.482 INDEX. " Peniterry. Ireland. Nennius. Numbers. Olden. Ovid. 175. Mac Datho's hag. of. O'Neill's "chair." 156. divination. Acts 136. 3 Patrick. Elian's curse. Eev. Rev. 132. account. Pins. of. . Paul. value of. Mill of Kilkeary. O'Donovan. bed. Shannon. story. fairy incantation. early Irish ecclesiastics. cursing-stones. 321. transformation of beings into. Australia. 114. T. first day of." wishing-wells. O'Hanlon. St. Irish laws. translation. 202. 135. 59. 209. birds. 204. November. 82. 263. 3. use of. description. second day 274. Nettles. . poem. of. human "Notes and Queries. 266. Brudins. description. Oneirology. 311. 29. "Patrick's Bush. 297. opinions of. 31. Saints (see that title). St. 32. Pantheism Peacock omens. traditions. Nutt. 170. 240. Orkney. place chair.worship. names. 116. Celtic symbol in decoration. Our Lady's Ouseley. number. 251. Patrick's bed. 172. 270. 137.. instance from. 15. 154. mermaid origin. 106. Plague cure. observances. cursing-stone at Caher Island. 145. 292. 153. 118. sacred trees. 81. 154. rape of wives. echo. Sir Henry. descensus per umbilicum. Pennant. O'Flaherty family." 136. Pantheism. superstitions relating 270. 232. 195. 29. god of. Pigs. St. Aran Island pillar-stone. to. 119. witch and fairy doctor. Petronius quoted. St. Alfred. supposed. 213. 131. O'Curry. 147. of. origin of. Picts. Pile-wort. two classes of. 136. 86. fairies. 135. 37. luck attached to. 35. Physic. Mr." history of. New Guinea women. marriage customs. O'Summaghan. 30. ancient science. witchcraft formula. O'Connor." meaning of. Parliament. Neuri. in May. Peist. holy well customs. 137. Paul's pantheism. 73. 140. account 174. 141. 139. account. 155. transformation of into wolves." fairy doctor. Pict. 157. Eugene. 213. efficacy of. Finn Mac Cool's boar hunt. John. Mr. magical red pigs. 67Pentateuch. human beings changed into rocks. Patria potestas. name "Muck. 253. Nine. cure. " crceve. water-wagtail story. Physicians. remarks on. superstitions. of. Eev. Piers. Dr. 65." 78. mermaid origin. divination. Egyptian and Greek mythology. crooked. Persia. 57. O'Sullivan familj*. "Lee Penny. 136.. "William. 193. Watson. "Paddy Page. account. magical significance 272. "William.

many Sacerdotalism.INDEX. Fechin. belief in. Augustine. Martin. Professor. divining. con- Denis walks without his head. John's Day. 69. women. Egypt. 114. 98. stone. propitiation of. interviewed with. 84. Primroses used as a charm. Holiness of Irish saints. 253. " Road of the Black Pig. 74. 90. cricket ceremony. gradual develop- Fintan. well. 230." 29. well. burial Dabehoe. Druid. 290. divination. 300. Red -hills. bed. 131. 40. witch. 101. cow Rathoveeragh." 26. 231. fairies. Ceara. bed. rites. 204. Rag offerings. 259. " "Dark Fairy Rath. 14. virtues of. 221. 140. customs. 27. superstitions cerning. F. . Craebhnat. feast of. 116. rape of. 174. horror of. 253. Rev. opinion of. 176. 76. Irish. Point. Loman. 284. wells. 35. 150. dreams. 23. 154. 53. Declan. rite performed at. sneezing. 190. Ramayana. 27. church. St. pantheism. Rosses Point. sacred tree. Rings used in marriage. Roberts. 233. poem on Quaker proselytisers.. 65. 313. derivation of word. Columbkille. Fillan. holy well. Saints : " desiul" custom. Russian baths. story nations. II. 230. resemblance to Paul. Gospel. cemetery. evil eye. Ireland. mission to. 23. Patrick. Proverbs. Trivialities of Irish saints. Lammas Rickets cure. Malaing and the wren. 275. 262. Red rash cure. 119. 6." 29. symbol. marriage patron. Sacrifices. 12. story. stone. creeping stone. 283. properties of. Kevin. Red-haired people. Rods. cursing well. proverbs " Pulleek stone. transformation of human beings into wolves. 27. 4. Irish holy VOL. Poisoned wounds. black relic. Madron. " Rowan 166. " bed. A. 113. women. evil eye. Plutarch. 155. Bel's Conall's healing stone. Goustan. 171. Brigid's chair. Ryche. 6. 150. slate. on. 44. Rheumatism cure. 5. 274. 54. 70. " bed. place. 29. Britain. holy wells." 131. 264." 28. George. 30. 141. bed. Pliny. Barnaby. 138. Rhys. 147. 129. Elian. Molaise. 285. cures. various. 190. 48. ment. Irish. 106. stone. Quaker. origin. adder stones. agate. 159. purgatory. Religion in Ireland. Potter. Finvarra. 312. Robin redbreast omens." 29. Raven omens. chair. 50. Senan. Rocking stones. Eoghan 142. 87. preached to men without heads. Robin Goodfellow's song. 272. translation. Proselytisers. 66. tree. desiul denounced by. Ita. 307. cures madness. marriage customs." cow dedicated to. 88. 433 common to Sabines. 256.

53. 286. 323. 14. Kirk Braddan. 298. 170. 271.. 125. Dr. 187. 27. Senan. 294. Shakspeare. desiul custom. Senchus Mor. Stone of Destiny. 7Saxon gods. spitting for luck. Blarney Stone. 88. 190. superstitions con- Samoa. holy wells. Spenser. stone circle of Stennis. gallows. Sleep. monks. 27. 233. religion. T. names " Children of the Mermaid. Chila. magical 202. 4. cures. cat story. Whitley. magical number. " Shanven " stone. Stone Age. Bullen. 298. Scott. 179. 257. superstitions relating to. 247. 16. 248. Spitchwich. Ships.. for. Christianity of. cure " legend. 213. Salt. " sweat-bouses. faiiy. 40. independence of. 256. form of. Clocnapeacaib. Seneca. lucky Castledermot swearing stone. 150. Butter-rolls. Glennagalt. 230. 285. departure of. bird omens. St. mystery of. Aran Island. marriage law of Ireland. . origin of. St. opinion of. truth. animal worship. list. 299. 208. - fairy changelings. 224. 310. 291." account. non-return of. 294. belief in. Science. Ardmore. ornaments found in graves. Shields.434 Saliva. Prof.'' fairy mounds. . rag offerings. divining by the blade bone. 297. holed-stones. 164. 217." 57. 131. F." Scurmore. 239. 207. Sligo. by open door.. 285. Mary Queen of. description. account. 295. 30. 243. immortality. magical ash Spitting lucky. 302. 298. 25S. poem on. Mr. 240. 50. 73. 209. Snails. goddess Vera. Scrofula. Prof. Fillan's blessed well. 291. Sprains. tree. cerning. Song. 248. of. Sneezing. Solinus. pursuit of. 236. Scots. South Sea Islanders. Cloughlourish Cowardice. Irish infants. Clogher. origin of. Shark Island. Mr. Shingles. 242. 248. Stennis. 178. Stones : Shannon river. 71. 5. C. Spiders used as cures. practices. influence of 308. 157. Sir Walter. Cuilirra speckled stone. 114. cures. 137. Shadow. 116. Patrick. 228. Dermod's soul. 302. Stone rings. 22. Sheep. 294. Sea superstitions. Seven. " Goldwin. " Sheeauns. amulets. Altagore. 244. superstitions relating to. 193. Bolleit. INDEX. 224. Co. 38. - Palaeolithic Period. 143. cure by Royal touch. 274. 171. casting no shadow superstition. bird omens. " Cloch-a-Phoill " ston