Greek Letters

(Pro audio entries shown bold.) ! - alpha - capital First letter of the Greek alphabet, therefore takes on the meaning of first, best, primary, number one, etc. Used as an adjective as in alpha male or alpha version. " - alpha -small 1. Mathematics. Direct proportionality. 2. Physics. Angular acceleration. Alpha particle and alpha decay. # - beta - capital Second letter of the Greek alphabet, therefore takes on the meaning of being next to first, or almost there, as in beta testing. $ - beta - small 1. Phonology. Symbol for the voiced bilabial fricative [IPA]. 2. Special Relativity. Symbol for the speed of an object relative to the speed of light. 3. Particle Physics. The beta particle and beta decay. % - gamma - capital 1. Electrical Engineering. Symbol for the reflection coefficient. 2. Mathematics. The gamma function, as related to factorials. 3. Probability & Statistics. The gamma distribution. & - gamma - small 1. Physics. Symbol for photon. Also symbol for adiabatic index of a gas. 2. Astronomy. Gamma factor and gamma rays. 3. Mathematics. Symbol for the Euler-Mascheroni constant (sometimes shortened to Euler Constant). ' - delta - capital 1. Data Converters. Delta-Sigma conversion ('-process. A favorite audio data converter technology using a delta change as the heart of the process. 2. Geography. Name for the triangular shape caused by sediment deposits at the mouth of a river. 3. Physics. Delta particles in particle physics. ( - delta - small 1. Calculus. Symbol used to represent a very small change in a value, often called a delta change; a finite increment in a variable. 2. Mathematics. Symbol for the Dirac delta function (or just delta function) ; symbol for the Kronecker delta. 3. Proofreading. Symbol for deletion. ) - epsilon - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "E." * - epsilon - small 1. Electrical Engineering. Symbol for the permittivity constant. 2. Mathematics. A very small quantity; in tensor calculus, the Levi-Civita symbol, also called the permutation symbol; set membership. 3. Computer Science. Symbol for an empty string. + - zeta - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "Z." , - zeta - small Mathematics. The Riemann zeta function and other zeta functions.

- - eta - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "H." . - eta - small 1. Thermodynamics. Symbol for the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine. 2. Physics. Symbol for refractive index of an optical medium. / - theta - capital Symbol for death since it is an abbreviation for the Greek word thanatos, meaning the personification of death. 0 - theta - small 1. Trigonometry. Symbol for an unknown angle. 2. Geometry. Symbol for a plane angle. 3. Phonology. Symbol for voiceless dental fricative [IPA]. 1 - iota - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "I." 2 - iota - small The smallest letter in the Greek alphabet, hence the popular English usage to mean small, as in, "It doesn't matter one iota." 3 - kappa - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "K." 4 - kappa - small 1. Physics. Alternate symbol for adiabatic index of a gas. 2. Mathematics. The Kappa Curve. 5 - lambda - capital 1. Particle Physics. Symbol for lambda particles. 6 - lambda - small 1. Electromagnetic Waves. Symbol for wavelength. 2. Mathematics. Symbol for eigen values in linear algebra. 7 - mu - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "M." µ - mu - small 1. Symbol for micro- and micron. 2. Statistics. Symbol for the mean. 3. Physics. Symbol for coefficient of friction. 4. Electromagnetism. Symbol for permeability. 8 - nu - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "N." 9 - nu - small 1. Physics. Symbol for the frequency of a wave. 2. Particle Physics. Symbol for any of the three kinds of neutrinos. : - xi - capital 1. Particle Physics. Symbol for cascade particles. ; - xi - small 1. Mathematics. Symbol for the Xi-Function. < - omicron - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "O." = - omicron - small Ditto to above. > - pi - capital 1. Mathematics. Symbol for product, as in multiplication. π - pi - small 1. Symbol for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter; a transcendental number, equal to approximately 3.14159. Note that the ratio of the circumference of an igloo to its diameter equals Eskimo Pi. ? - rho - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "P."

? - rho - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "P." @ - rho - small 1. Physics. Symbol for resistivity and density. A - sigma - capital 1. Mathematics. Symbol for summation. 2. Data Converters. Delta-Sigma conversion ('-A) process. A favorite audio data converter technology using delta change and summation. B - sigma - small 1. Statistics. Symbol for the standard deviation. C - tau - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "T." D - tau - small 1. Mechanics. Symbol for torque. 2. Electronics. Symbol for the timeconstant in an RC circuit. E - upsilon - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "Y." F - upsilon - small Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "u." G - phi - capital 1. Physics. Symbol for magnetic flux. H - phi - small 1. Electronics. Symbol for phase or phase shift. 2. Mathematics. Symbol for the number 1.618 ... the golden number. See Phi. I - chi - capital Rarely seen since it is too close to the English letter "X." J - chi - small 1. Physics. Symbol for electric susceptibility. 2. Phonology. Symbol for the voiceless uvular fricative [IPA]. K - psi - capital Rarely seen since it is difficult to distinguish between the capital and the small psi symbols. L - psi - small 1. Quantum Mechanics. Symbol for the wave function. Symbol for psinetwork used in consumer audio. Ω - omega - capital 1. Electronics. Symbol for ohm. 2. Last letter of the Greek alphabet so takes on the meaning of being last. M - omega - small 1. Electronics. Symbol for angular velocity, i.e., frequency in radians/second = 2πf.

Pro Audio Reference Numbers
0 See zero. 0 dBFS See decibel. 0 dBm See decibel. 0 dBr See decibel. 0 dB-SPL See decibel. 0 dBu See decibel. 0 dBV See decibel. 1/3-octave See one-third octave. 1/4" TRS or 1/4" TS See connectors. 1 The other half of all the stored knowledge in a computer; compare with zero. And, surprisingly, not a prime number. A prime number is defined to be a natural number (i.e., a positive whole number) greater than one which has exactly two different factors: one and itself. 1/f noise See flicker noise. 1T DRAM A one-transistor dynamic random access memory design that significantly reduces the area required for a single memory cell. This capacitor-less design works by storing a binary 1 as excess positive charge in the device body and a binary 0 as excess negative charge. First described by Pierre C. Fazan and Serguei Okhonin, Mikhail Naggoga and Jean-Michel Sallese in their paper, "A Simple 1-Transistor Capacitor-Less Memory Cell for High-Performance DRAMS." 3 The number of seconds it takes a bluefin tuna or a Porsche 911 GT3 to go from 0 to 50 mph. 3D See 3D sound. 3-dB down point or -3 dB point See passband.

3-to-1 rule Microphones. The rule for spacing multiple microphones, which says that the distance between them should be at least three times the distance from each microphone to its source. So, for example, if the microphones are placed one foot from their source then they should be spaced three feet apart. This reduces phase cancellations between adjacent microphones. +4 dBu See decibel. 4 Elements see: Four Elements. 4 x 4 x 8 feet A cord of wood (128 cubic feet or 3.62 cubic meters). Not to be confused with chord. 4-wire See Kelvin connection. 5.1 See 5.1 surround sound. 6.1 Extended version of 5.1 surround sound called Dolby Digital EX (previously Dolby Digital ES) where one rear center channel is added to the basic 5.1 group resulting in: left-front, center, right-front, left-surround, right-surround, rear and subwoofer. 6s or 6 Sigma See Six Sigma. 7.1 Extended version of 5.1 surround sound with Dolby True HD, Dolby Digital Plus and Dolby Pro Logic IIx where left and right rear channels are added to the basic 5.1 group resulting in: left-front, center, right-front, left-surround, right-surround, leftrear, right-rear and subwoofer. 8 nickels = 2 paradigms. 8-Track Recording. A popular, albeit short lifespan, analog tape format invented and patented by William Powell Lear, founder of Learjet, in 1963. See: Lear cartridge. Also see: Eight Track Museum. 9 Greek Mythology. The number of muses: Clio (history), Melpomene (tragedy), Thalia (comedy), Calliope (epic poetry), Urania (astronomy), Euterpe (flutes & music), Terpsichore (dancing and lyric poetry), Polyhymnia (mime and sacred poetry), and Erato (love poetry). 10Base-T or 100Base-T or 1000Base-T or 1000Base-F See Ethernet. 10 billion The number of mathematical calculations required for a one-day weather

forecast. (Snapple Real Fact #65) -10 dBV See decibel. 10.2 Somewhat tongue-in-check term created by Tom Holman (of THX fame) for his experimental (but impressive) surround system based on 5.1 surround sound, but with twelve channels. See Kim Wilson "Tomlinson Holman's Next Experiment" for speaker locations and description. 11 Mythical nirvana position of the amplifier volume knob for Heavy Metal rockers, first made famous by the movie “This is Spinal Tap.” Here is the movie dialog: Nigel Tufnel: The numbers all go to eleven. Look, right across the board, eleven, eleven, eleven and ... Marty DiBergi: Oh, I see. And most amps go up to ten? Nigel Tufnel: Exactly. Marty DiBergi: Does that mean it's louder? Is it any louder? Nigel Tufnel: Well, it's one louder, isn't it? It's not ten. You see, most blokes, you know, will be playing at ten. You're on ten here, all the way up, all the way up, all the way up, you're on ten on your guitar. Where can you go from there? Where? Marty DiBergi: I don't know. Nigel Tufnel: Nowhere. Exactly. What we do is, if we need that extra push over the cliff, you know what we do? Marty DiBergi: Put it up to eleven. Nigel Tufnel: Eleven. Exactly. One louder. Marty DiBergi: Why don't you just make ten louder and make ten be the top number and make that a little louder? Nigel Tufnel: [pause] These go to eleven. 12:00 Syndrome The phenomenon affecting too many pro audio sound people whereby they feel obligated to set all rotary controls "straight up," or within an 11:00 to 1:00 aperture, thereby destroying all the product designer's good work to provide them with a large range of adjustment to cover contingencies. 16 2/3 rpm Phonograph recording speed obtained using a half-speed converter on a 33 1/3 rpm machine, used for special recording purposes, but never a standard. However, used in 1956-1959 Chrysler Imperials. See: HighWay Hi-Fi. [Thanks, Bink!] See Record Speeds. 19 The number of electronic music genres cataloged.

24 The number of hours in a day. From Otto Neugebauer's, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity: "A second Egyptian contribution to astronomy is the division of the day into 24 hours, though these hours were originally not of even length but were dependent upon the seasons." A little further on he says, "Thus our present division of the day into 24 hours of 60 minutes each is the result of a Hellenistic (Greek) modification of an Egyptian practice combined with Babylonian numerical procedures." [Ah, but why you ask; why not some other number? See 60 for more on the Babylonian (Sumerians) numerical procedures.] 24/96 Data conversion using 24-bits quantization at 96 kHz sampling rate. 24/192 Data conversion using 24-bits quantization at 192 kHz sampling rate. 25 (sometimes 24) See: quire. 25 or 6 to 4 Song title appearing in 1970 on Chicago II, written by organist/vocalist Robert Lamm. In spite of all the urban legends to the contrary, the title is a reference to the time of day, i.e., "25 or (2)6 minutes to 4 a.m." according to writer Robert Lamm. See The Straight Dope for the interesting details. 33 1/3 rpm record The standardized phonograph recording speed selected for the long-play record. Warren Rex Isom explains the reasons in his article, "Before the Fine Groove and Stereo Record and Other Innovations," published in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, October/November, 1977, Vol. 25, No. 10/11, pp. 815-820. The quick answer is that Western Electric synchronized motion pictures with phonograph records in 1925. A reel of 35-mm film runs for 11 minutes. A record needed to play the same length of time, which was 3.66 times longer than the 3-minute 10-inch 78-rpm standard. After considering optimum needle groove velocity and diameter, while shooting for something approximately half of the 78-rpm standard that would easily lock to the 60 Hz line, 33 1/3 rpm was the answer arrived at by Maxfield (see Isom for the exact details). See Record Speeds. 33/45/78 If you were born in '33, you would be 45 in '78. [Thanks to JR at the BBC for this one.] 42V PowerNet See 42V PowerNet. 45 rpm record The standardized phonograph recording speed selected for the single

45 rpm record The standardized phonograph recording speed selected for the single song record. Warren Rex Isom explains the reasons in his article, "Before the Fine Groove and Stereo Record and Other Innovations," published in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, October/November, 1977, Vol. 25, No. 10/11, pp. 815-820. One popular belief is that 45 rpm was selected because 78 - 33 = 45. While not too far off, it was a more practical engineering matter that created the ballpark number, and perhaps that mathematical nicety determined the exact number. Once marketing decided on a 7-inch disc with 5 1/2 minutes of playing time, and knowing the groove details and cutter restrictions, the speed satisfying these conditions is 45 rpm. See Record Speeds. 60 The base of the Sumerian number system (as opposed to our base-10 number system); the degree is derived from the Babylonian base 60 numerical system. Hours and minutes are similarly divided into 60 (of course, there are minutes of time and minutes of angle - there are 60 minutes in a degree, and, similarly, there are seconds of time and seconds of degree - there are 60 seconds in a minute, 3600 in a degree). [Why 60, nobody seems to know -- if you do, write me.] 62 miles Space begins this distance above the earth. 70-volt line See constant-voltage. 74 minutes The maximum length of music on a CD; reason: so all of Beethoven's Ninth would fit on one CD. 78 rpm record First standardized phonograph recording speed (exact speed was 78.26 rpm for 60 Hz power and 77.92 rpm for 50 Hz power). The reason for 78 rpm is explained by Warren Rex Isom in his article, "Before the Fine Groove and Stereo Record and Other Innovations," published in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, October/November, 1977, Vol. 25, No. 10/11, pp. 815-820. The short summary is that the first machines were handcranked and a comfortable speed was heartbeat rate -- between 60 and 90 per minute. (Interestingly, the same cadence as marching bands and the same speed recommended for handcranked farm equipment.) When it became time to standardize, Victor machines operated at 78 rpm, while competing Edison machines used 80 rpm, but Victor was the predominate sales leader so it was picked for maximum compatibility. The exact speed of 78.26 rpm came from a simple gearing reason: For a 60 Hz synchronous motor, and a simple worm-gear drive, a ratio of 46 to 1 turned the table at 78.26 rpm and synchronized with the line. See Record Speeds. 94 dB-SPL Equals 1 Pascal = one newton per square meter, which is the standard

used to measure microphone sensitivity. 100 MPH The speed at which a sneeze travels out of your mouth. (Snapple Real Fact #58) 160 Refers to the dbx 160 Compressor/Limiter designed by David Blackmer in 1976. -174 dBm/Hz The power in a one hertz bandwidth of a thermal noise source at the reference temperature of 290 kelvin (approximately room temperature). A noise floor rule-of-thumb. 216 MPH 3/5 Mile in 10 Seconds (Marty Balin, 1967, Jefferson Airplane Surrealistic Pillow) 232 See: RS-232. 333 Half evil. 360 The number of degrees in a circle. [Ah, but why you ask? Why 360, and not some other number? The answer lies with the Sumerians and their use of a number base of 60 as opposed to our base-10. Here is a quote from Peter Beckmann's book, The History of Pi: "In 1936, a tablet was excavated some 200 miles from Babylon. Here one should make the interjection that the Sumerians were first to make one of man's greatest inventions, namely, writing; through written communication, knowledge could be passed from one person to others, and from one generation to the next and future ones. They impressed their cuneiform (wedgeshaped) script on soft clay tablets with a stylus, and the tablets were then hardened in the sun. The mentioned tablet, whose translation was partially published only in 1950, is devoted to various geometrical figures, and states that the ratio of the perimeter of a regular hexagon to the circumference of the circumscribed circle equals a number which in modern notation is given by 57/60 + 36/(602) (the Babylonians used the sexagesimal system, i.e., their base was 60 rather than 10)." The Babylonians knew, of course, that the perimeter of a hexagon is exactly equal to six times the radius of the circumscribed circle, in fact that was evi-

dently the reason why they chose to divide the circle into 360 degrees (and we are still burdened with that figure to this day). The tablet, therefore, gives ... Pi = 25/8 = 3.125. [When you work in base-60, 6x60 is a natural choice.] 414 Refers to the AKG C-414 introduced in 1971, the first commercial solid-state condenser mic is still in production and still leads the pack. 451 The number of degrees Fahrenheit that paper ignites. Made famous by Ray Bradbury's book, Fahrenheit 451. 485 See: RS-485. 500 Series An industry standard for a 3U card frame 19" rack first developed by Datatronix, then API Audio Products, Inc. in the late 1980s. A few years ago, the current company formed The VPR Alliance, which is the controlling organization. [Historical Note: The term, "lunchbox," was coined by Art Kelm who purchased 4-position 500 Series racks from Aphex, in the '80s, for his clients.] 550 Refers to the API 550A Equalizer designed by Saul Walker in 1968. 670 Refers to the (now mythical) Fairchild 670 Compressor Limiter designed by Rein Narma in 1959, while at Fairchild Recording Equipment Company in Long Island City, NY. 802.3af See: PoE. 802.11 See: Wi-Fi. 1034 Refers to the original Philips IC part number: TDA1034, which was made by Signetics after their acquisition by Philips, and renamed NE 5534 along with the more often seen dual version, NE 5532. Though not the first audio IC (that credit probably goes to the National Semiconductor LM 381) the TDA 1034/NE 5534 became the first choice for high-qualitity pro and consumer audio products. With a Slew Rate of 13 V/µs, a bandwidth of 10 MHz and a noise performance of 4 nV/√Hz, it set the standard for all audio ICs to follow. 1073 Refers to the Neve 1073 Console Module designed by Rubert Neve in 1970. 1176 Refers to the Universal Audio/UREI 1176 Peak Limiter designed by Bill Putnam in 1968. First use of FETs in audio acting as voltage variable resistors for gain control.

1394 See: IEEE-1394. 1999 Song by Prince recorded in 1982, which became his most popular. 2182 kHz Maritime international voice distress/safety/calling frequency. 4810 The number engraved on the nib of every Montblanc fountain pen, representing the height of the Mont Blanc mountain in meters. Mont Blanc in the French Alps is the highest mountain in Europe and the company's namesake: a symbol for the highest quality standards reached with the products named after it. 5532 Refers to the original Signetics NE 5532. which is the dual version of the NE 5534, which is the renamed part number for the original Philips TDA 1034. 500,000 bicycles = 1 megacycle. 1,000,000 aches = 1 megahurtz. 1,000,000,000,000 microphones = 1 megaphone.

Pro Audio Reference A
A Symbol for ampere. Å See: angstrom. A2IM (American Association of Independent Music) "... serves the Independent music community as a unified voice representing a broad coalition of music labels ... ." AAAF (American Academy of Audiology Foundation) Their mission: "To promote philanthropy in support of research, education, and public awareness in audiology and hearing science." [From website.] AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) Shortened name for the MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding specification, declared an international standard by MPEG in April 1997; however, now the term is used also to refer to MPEG-4 advanced audio coding. Made most popular by Apple using it for compressing audio CDs for their iPod and iTunes products. AAM (Academy of Ancient Music) Founded by British musician Christopher Hogwood in 1973. They perform using instruments that date from the time when the music was composed. "Under Hogwood’s visionary leadership, it established itself as a leading authority on how music was originally performed: this pioneering work had a transformative impact on the world of classical music, and lies at the heart of the AAM’s reputation for musical excellence." AAM (American Association of Museums) "AAM’s mission is to enhance the value of museums to their communities through leadership, advocacy, and service." Valuable resource for sound contractors, integrators, etc. AB Microphones. A stereo recording technique whereby two microphones are spaced apart (anywhere from about 3 feet to as much as 10 feet) to create a time difference between them that the human brain perceives and translates into stereo localization and imaging. Also called time-difference recording. ABA (Audio Branding Academy) "The Audio Branding Academy was founded by Cornelius Ringe, Kai Bronner and Rainer Hirt in Hamburg in February 2009. It is the first independent institution for acoustic brand communication, aiming at promoting an intentional and responsible use of acoustic stimuli within brand communication.

The Audio Branding Academy is a unique competence center for intersection points of brands, sound and environment and combines a forum, think tank, expert network and education. It hosts the annual Audio Branding Congress and regularly organizes workshops on various audio branding related topics." [From website; hit link] A Barking Dog The Weblog of Dave Stevens, the founder of LAB and cofounder of ProSoundWeb. abbreviation 1. The act or product of shortening. 2. A shortened form of a word or phrase used chiefly in writing to represent the complete form, such as Mass. for Massachusetts or USMC for United States Marine Corps. [AHD] Compare with acronym and initialism. Abffusor® Registered trademark of RPG Diffusor Systems for their proprietary panel combining absorption and diffusion characteristics. A-B powering See: T-powering. absolute pitch Music. The ability to name the pitch of a note, or to sing a named note, without reference to a previously sounded one. It is sometimes called 'perfect pitch.' [Sadie] absorption To absorb is to receive (an impulse) without echo or recoil: a fabric that absorbs sound; a bumper that absorbs impact; therefore absorption is the act or process of absorbing. [AHD] The absorption of sound is the process by which sound energy is diminished when passing through a medium or when striking a surface, i.e., sound is attenuated by absorption. [AHD] The physical mechanism is usually the conversion of sound into heat, i.e. sound molecules lose energy upon striking the material's atoms, which become agitated, which we characterized as warmth; thus, absorption is literally the changing of sound energy to heat. A material's ability to absorb sound is quantified by its absorption coefficient, whose value ranges between 0 (total reflection) and 1 (total absorption), and just to keep things interesting, varies with sound frequency and the angle of incidence. See Siegfried Linkwitz's Acoustic absorption and acoustic resistors; contrast with isolation. A-B testing (or A/B testing) A comparison testing methodology where a first test, A, is compared against a second test, B. ABX testing (aka ABX double-blind comparator) A system controller for audio component comparison testing where the listener hears sound-A, sound-B, and sound-X. The listener must make a determination as to whether X is A or B. The subject may go

back to A and B as often and for as long as necessary to make a determination. The listener knows that A and B are different and that X is either A or B, so there is always a correct answer. The "double-blind" part comes from neither the tester nor the listener (can be the same) knows what source is A, B or X, only the controller knows, which is downloaded after the test is complete to determine the results. First invented in 1977 by Arnold Krueger and Bern Muller (of the famous Southeastern Michigan Woofer and Tweeter Marching Society or SMWTMS), later refined and marketed by David Clark and his ABX Company. [For complete details see David L. Clark, "HighResolution Subjective Testing Using a Double-Blind Comparator", J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 30 No. 5, May 1982, pp. 330-338.] AC See: alternating current. AC Abbreviation for air conditioning. [Some of you may wonder why this entry is included in the pro audio reference. Well it is here because back in 1880 a very early air conditioning system was patented by R. Portner and B. E. J. Eils (US Patent 229,750, Process of and Apparatus for Cooling Air) for use in their brewery, creating the very first air conditioned building for making beer, without which the pro audio industry would collapse.] AC-3 (audio coding 3) Dolby's digital audio data compression algorithm adopted for HDTV transmission and used in DVDs, laserdiscs and CDs for 5.1 multichannel home theater use. See Dolby Digital. Competes with DTS Consumer. The terms AC-1 and AC-2 are other versions developed by Dolby for different applications. [See Usage Note under AES3 for transmission gotcha caveats.] Academy of Ancient Music See: AAM. Academy curve The name of the standard mono optical track that has been around since the beginning of sound for film. Standardized in 1938, it has improved (very) slightly over the years. Also known as the N (normal) curve the response is flat 100 Hz-1.6 kHz, and is down 7 dB at 40 Hz, 10 dB at 5 kHz and 18 dB at 8 kHz. This drastic "dumping" of the high-end was to hide the high-frequency "frying" and "crackling" noise inherent in early film sound production. Compare with X curve. a cappella Music. Without instrumental accompaniment. [AHD] Accelerated-SlopeTM A trademark of Rane Corporation used to describe their family of patented tone control technologies that produce steeper slopes than normal, thus allowing boost/cut of high and low frequencies without disturbing the critical midband frequencies.

accommodation Said to be the most misspelled word in American writing (two "c"s and two "m"s). accordion "An instrument in harmony with the sentiments of an assassin." -- Ambrose Bierce. accumulator Computers. A register or electric circuit in a calculator or computer, in which the results of arithmetical and logical operations are formed. [AHD] Acousta-Voicette™ Equalizers. Altec Lansing trademarked name for their model 729A graphic equalizer, a two channel, 24-band, cut-only 1/3-octave design introduced in 1971. This was the first commercially available 1/3-octave graphic equalizer. acoustic calculators Incredible web guide to online acoustic conversion calculators. acoustic cryocooler See: thermoacoustics. acoustic diode An apparatus that transmits sound in only one direction. First use is in medical ultrasound imaging equipment. Details of development of acoustic diodes for audible frequencies by Caltech engineers is found here. acoustic distortion Term coined by Dr. Peter D'Antonio, founder of RPG Diffusor Systems, for the interaction between the room, the loudspeaker, and the listener. acoustic echo canceller See: echo canceller. acoustic enhancement See: EAE. acoustic feedback The phenomenon where the sound from a loudspeaker is picked up by the microphone feeding it, and re-amplified out the same loudspeaker only to return to the same microphone to be re-amplified again, forming an acoustic loop. Each time the signal becomes larger until the system runs away and rings or feeds back on itself producing the all-too-common scream or squeal found in sound systems. These buildups occur at particular frequencies called feedback frequencies. acoustic horn See: horn. acoustic impedance Technically it is the complex ratio of acoustic pressure to acoustic volume velocity, at a single frequency. Equivalently, it is a frequency response function in which pressure is the output and volume velocity is the input. [Morfey]

First described by Webster in 1919. acoustic lens 1. Loudspeakers. An acoustic lens focuses sound in much the same way that an optical lens focuses light. Snell's law describes the refraction of sound as it passes through an interface between two materials of differing sound speed. A high frequency loudspeaker mechanical acoustic lens provides the appropriate apparatus to spread a single point sound source into a parallel wave front. Additional information available from JBL. 2. Ultrasonography. A lens (often electromagnetic) used to focus or diverge a sound beam. acoustic lobe See Linkwitz-Riley crossover. acoustic mirrors See: sound mirrors. acoustics Hearing; from the Greek akouein: to hear. The study of sound. 1. Of or relating to sound, the sense of hearing, or the science of sound. 2. a. Designed to carry sound or to aid in hearing. b. Designed to absorb or control sound: acoustic tile. 3. Music a. Of or being an instrument that does not produce or enhance sound electronically: an acoustic guitar; an acoustic bass. b. Being a performance that features such instruments: opened the show with an acoustic set. [AHD] acoustics and vibration animations Fabulous website created by Prof. Dan Russell illustrating many important acoustic principles. acoustic-suspension loudspeaker Invented by Edgar Villchur in 1954 and co-developed with Henry Kloss . Hit the link for technical details. acoustic treatments There are only three classic (physical) tools available for the acoustician to treat a room: absorbers, reflectors and diffusers. Absorbers attenuated sound; reflectors redirect sound, and diffusers (hopefully) uniformly distribute sound. Or put another way, these tools change the temporal, spectra and spatial qualities of the sound. Additionally, with today's advanced digital audio tools, all of these elements can be electronically manipulated. acoustooptics Abbr. AO The science of the interaction of sound and light. A bit of a misnomer since it usually involves ultrasonic frequencies. For the math, see University of Colorado Acoustooptics Lecture. AC power plugs and sockets Electrical Power. The various plugs and sockets used to connect any country's AC mains and appliances and other electrical equipment. Hit the link to see all the variations and details.

acquisition time The time required for a sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit to capture an input analog value; specifically, the time for the S/H output to approximately equal its input. ACR (attenuation to crosstalk ratio) Category wiring. The ratio of attenuation and crosstalk in a cable, i.e., a measure of the difference between the received signal magnitude vs. the leaked crosstalk signal. acronym A word formed from the first letters of a name, such as laser for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, or by combining initial letters or parts of a series of words, such as radar for radio detecting and ranging. The requirement of forming a word is what distinguishes an acronym from an (or initialism as it is also called). Thus modem [modulator-demodulator] is an acronym, and AES [Audio Engineering Society] is an abbreviation or initialism. Compare with portmanteau word [Unsubstantiated rumor has it that the word "acronym" itself is an acronym, created from the phrase "abbreviating by cropping remainders off names to yield meaning" -but it has never been confirmed.] (Thanks MR.) AC tape bias Tape Recorders. First applied by Dr. Walter Weber at Siemens in the early '40s to ferric-oxide tapes base on previous work in the '20s used on wire recorders. active component Electronics. A component requiring power to operate, e.g. a transistor. Contrast with passive. active crossfader A device found in DJ mixers used to crossfade between two music sources. An active design uses the potentiometer to send a control voltage to some type of voltage-controlled device that controls the audio, while in a passive design the audio appears on the potentiometer itself. Active designs are more robust and offer greater reliability over passive ones. See Evolution of the DJ Mixer Crossfader by Rane's ace DJ mixer designer, Rick Jeffs, for additional details. active crossover A loudspeaker crossover requiring a power supply to operate. Usually rack-mounted as a separate unit, active crossovers require individual power amplifiers for each output frequency band. Available in configurations known as stereo 2-way, mono 3-way, and so on. A stereo 2-way crossover is a two-channel unit that divides the incoming signal into two segments, labeled Low and High outputs (biamped). A mono 3-way unit is a single channel device with three outputs, labeled Low, Mid and High (triamped). In this case, the user sets two frequencies: the Low-toMid, and the Mid-to-High crossover points. Up to stereo 5-way configurations exist for very elaborate systems. See passive crossover and the RaneNote Signal Processing

Fundamentals. active equalizer A variable equalizer requiring a power supply to operate. Available in many different configurations and designs. Favored for low cost, small size, light weight, loading indifference, good isolation (high input and low output impedances), gain availability (signal boosting possible), and line-driving ability. Disliked for increased noise performance, limited dynamic range, reduced reliability, and RFI susceptibility; however, used everywhere. See the RaneNote Operator Adjustable Equalizers. ActiveX A Microsoft developed software technology released in 1996. ActiveX, formerly called OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), is loosely based on the Component Object Model (COM), but provides substantially different services to developers. An ActiveX component is a unit of executable code (such as an .exe file) that follows the Active X specification for providing objects. This technology allows programmers to assemble reusable software components into applications and services. However, component software development using ActiveX technology should not be confused with Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). OOP is concerned with creating objects, while ActiveX is concerned with making objects work together. Simply stated, ActiveX is a technology that lets a program (the ActiveX component or control) interact with other programs over a network (e.g., the Internet), regardless of the language in which they were written. ActiveX components can do similar things as Java beans, but they are quite different. Java is a programming language, while ActiveX controls can be written in any language (e.g., Visual Basic, C, C++, even Java), Also ActiveX runs in a variety of applications, while Java beans usually run only in Web browsers. ActiveX controls are of concern to the pro audio community, because this is the technology that allows designers of computer-controlled sound systems to create common front-end software control panels that will operate different manufacturer's units, without having to know anything about their internal code or algorithms. Each ActiveX control is made up of properties, values associated with the control which might include such things as level settings and meter readings, and events, which tell the computer something significant has happened, such as a switch closer or clip detection. ActiveX allows the manufacturer to create an object that fully describes a device, while hiding the implementation details, such as protocol from the programmer. By hiding the communication details, there is no longer a need for different manufacturer's devices to agree on protocol. This lack of a protocol standard means that cooperation between manufacturers is not required. It allows each manufacturer to choose the best protocol for their devices. ACU (Audio Coverage Uniformity) A standard issued by InfoComm performance

ACU (Audio Coverage Uniformity) A standard issued by InfoComm performance standards program. Read overview here. adaptive delta modulation (ADM) A variation of delta modulation in which the step size may vary from sample to sample. ADAT (Alesis Digital Audio Tape) Digital tape recording system developed by Alesis, and since licensed to Fostex & Panasonic, putting 8-tracks of 16-bit, 44.1 kHz digital audio on S-VHS tape. ADAT ODI (optical digital interface) See ADAT Optical. ADAT Optical Alesis's proprietary multichannel optical (fiber optic) digital interface specification for their family of ADAT modular digital multitrack recorders. This standard describes transmission of 8-channels of digital audio data through a single fiber optic cable. ADC (or A/D, analog-to-digital converter) The electronic component which converts the instantaneous value of an analog input signal to a digital word (represented as a binary number) for digital signal processing. The ADC is the first link in the digital chain of signal processing. See data converter bits See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. add-in or add-on See: plugin. ADE (Amsterdam Dance Event) International conference and festival for electronic music. ADJA (American Disc Jockey Association) An organization of professional disc jockeys that promotes ethical behavior, industry standards and continuing education for its members. admittance Electronics. The reciprocal of impedance. ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse code modulation) A very fast data compression algorithm based on the differences occurring between two samples. ADR (automatic dialog replacement) Film postproduction term used to indicate the act and location where dialogue that is not taped during production or that needs to be redone is recorded and synchronized to the picture. Usually the name of the room where this occurs, containing a studio with a screen, TV monitors, microphones, control area, console and loudspeakers.

Advanced Audio Coding See AAC. AES (Audio Engineering Society) Founded in 1948, the largest professional organization for electronic engineers and all others actively involved in audio engineering. Primarily concerned with education and standardization. AES17 low-pass filter The common name given to the low-pass filter defined by AES17-1998 AES standard method for digital audio engineering -- Measurement of digital audio equipment, used to limit the measuring bandwidth. The rather daunting specifications call for a filter with a passband response of 10 Hz to 20 kHz, ±0.1 dB and a stopband attenuation greater than 60 dB at 24 kHz. AES3 interface (The interface formerly known as AES/EBU). The serial transmission format standardized for professional digital audio signals (AES3-1992 AES Recommended Practice for Digital Audio Engineering - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly represented digital audio data). A specification using time division multiplex for data, and balanced line drivers to transmit two channels of digital audio data on a single twisted-pair cable using 3-pin (XLR) connectors. Issued as ANSI S4.40-1985 by the American National Standards Institute. In addition, information document AES-3id is available describing the transmission of AES3 formatted data by unbalanced coaxial cable. Transmission by fiber optic cable is under discussion. The consumer version is referred to as S/PDIF. See the RaneNote Interfacing AES3 and S/PDIF. [Usage Note for AC-3 and DTS Transmission: The question comes up of whether a unit that passes AES3 will automatically pass AC-3 and DTS. Two industry experts answer "maybe" as follows: Tom Holman warns: " 'Automatically' is the operative word here. You have to pass all the bits unaltered and it will work. We have found things with hidden embedded sample rate converters set to 1:1 conversion that changed bits and thus cause AC-3 bit streams to fail for instance. DC blockage filters in DSP code do it, anything that alters the bit stream can do it. It took a very long time to develop a bit identical path through a production chain to make our test CDs, available from Hollywood Edge. We applied a Prism Sound bit test pattern signal as a track, and it failed at nearly every stage but one in getting from computer to DAT to CD-R to workstation to CD-R to mastering station to CD replication plant. Those steps all failed initially, but the one that didn't is the one all the musicians suspect: the actual manufacturing of the discs was a perfect replication of the bits sent them. Nobody owns the trademark Digital, thus it can be genius or junk. Hard to tell which some times."

And Rich Cabot elaborates: "There are several issues about how hardware operates that will affect whether it passes AC-3. These interact with the design of the AC-3 decoder. First, any buffer/storage device which uses a sample rate converter to eliminate jitter on the received signal would pass PCM but completely screw up any coded audio. There are many receiver chips with built in SRCs. Assuming this is not the problem, there are some more subtle issues that must be considered. There are several flavors of AC-3 over AES/SPDIF (they are described in IEC-61937). The consumer version, which is the most common, puts the AC-3 signal in both channels of the SPDIF. The professional formats allow this two channel packing but also allow AC-3 in either channel and PCM in the other. All three versions pack the AC-3 as 16 bit words so they can pass through consumer interfaces that might not pass all 24 bits. In all versions, the interface status bits are supposed to indicate that it is a coded signal. Also, the validity bit has been hijacked and now indicates that it is a coded signal. If someone builds a device that passes the audio bits but changes status bits and/or the validity bit there could be problems. The decoder design affects what happens. Many decoders do not attempt to decode the signal unless both the validity bits and the status bits indicate that it is coded. Others will decode regardless of the status bit content but still look at the validity bits. I don't know for sure, but some may ignore both status and validity information and only look at the stream. In applications where one interface channel contains PCM and the other contains coded audio the status and validity bits for each channel must be set independently to reflect what the channel is carrying. The decoder is supposed to monitor the channels independently and adjust appropriately. To my knowledge consumer decoders do not do this and there are no consumer devices which produce these split channel formats. However, professional decoders do and some professional installations do carry a linear version of the signal in one channel to simplify monitoring and identification. If a buffer/storage device read only one channel of status bits and repro-

duced them in both output channels it would cause problems with these professional applications. If the buffer/storage device read only one validity bit or combined the two channels of validity bits it would also cause problems. If the product is a simple analog/digital buffer to TOSLINK device I don't see why it wouldn't pass AC-3. However, if the receiver does any reclocking of the signal it would not. Also, if they use a different optical interface that packs the bits into a synchronous optical fiber link might would not pass AC-3, depending on the status/validity bit handling."] AES3-MIC Any microphone having a digital output that conforms to the AES42 Digital Microphone Interface standard. AES/EBU interface See: AES3. aetherphone Musical Instrument. Alternate name for the theremin. AF (audio frequencies) Standard abbreviation for the accepted normal range of human audible frequencies being 20 Hz to 20 kHz. A-filter See: weighting filters. AFL Abbreviation for after fade listen, a term used on recording consoles and mixers, referring to a signal taken after the main channel fader; hence this sampling point tracks the main fader level. Also referred to as post fade solo, but since PFL already meant pre fade, AFL was adopted to prevent confusion. Got it? Compare with PFL and APL. A-format See: soundfield microphone. AGC (automatic gain control), aka ALC (automatic level control) Signal Processing. A circuit or algorithm that varies gain as a function of the input signal amplitude. Commonly found in pro audio applications where you want to automatically adjust the gain of different sound sources in order to maintain a constant loudness level at the output. For example, on deluxe professional DJ mixers the gain adjusts automatically when the DJ switches sources between records, CD, or MP3 files. Not only do signal levels differ greatly between different source technologies but also between any two examples of the same technology, e.g., between CDs, or between MP3 files, etc. AIA (American Institute of Architects) The premier organization for architects and

AIA (American Institute of Architects) The premier organization for architects and those working with architects (sound contractors, integrators, etc.). AIFF (audio interchange file format) Defined by Apple Computer in 1988, it provides a standard for storing monaural and multichannel sampled sounds at a variety of sample rates and widths. air absorption See: absorption. air motion transformer (AMT) Midrange tweeter invented by Dr. Oskar Heil, which operates on a different principle than both dynamic and electrostatic drivers. Known also as the AVT (air velocity transformer), air raid siren See Chrysler Air Raid Siren. A Law Telecommunications. The PCM coding and companding standard used in Europe and in areas outside of North American influence. [Newton] Contrast with Mu Law used in North America and Japan. album covers See Steinweiss, Alex. ALC See: AGC aleatoric Music. Using or consisting of sounds to be chosen by the performer or left to chance; indeterminate. From aleatory meaning dependent on chance, luck, or an uncertain outcome. Of or characterized by gambling. [AHD] algorithm A structured set of instructions and operations tailored to accomplish a signal processing task. For example, a fast Fourier transform (FFT), or a finite impulse response (FIR) filter are common DSP algorithms. algorithmic reverb Audio Signal Processing. Digital simulation of reverberation based on algorithms. Contrast with convolution reverb. aliasing The problem of unwanted frequencies created when sampling a signal of a frequency higher than half the sampling rate. See Nyquist frequency. Also see RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. Allison Effect Loudspeakers & Acoustics. Describes how room boundaries and loudspeaker power output interact. Specifically, the name for the destructive interference pattern that develops when a radiator is located one-quarter wavelength away from a reflective surface; after Roy F. Allison, American acoustic engineer of AR (Acoustic Research) and Allison Acoustics fame, who first wrote of this effect in his paper, "The

Influence of Room Boundaries on Loudspeaker Power Output," J. Aud. Eng. Soc. Vol. 22, p.314 (May 1974), reprinted in Loudspeakers Vol. I, pp.339-345, edited by R.E. Cooke (Audio Engineering Society, 1978). all-pass filter A filter that provides only phase shift or phase delay without appreciably changing the magnitude characteristic. ALMA (American Loudspeaker Manufacturers Association) Founded in 1964, an international trade association for companies that design, manufacture, sell, and/or test loudspeakers, loudspeaker components and loudspeaker systems. alnico (al[uminum] + ni[ckle] + co[balt] ) Magnetics. Any of several hard, strong alloys of iron, aluminum, nickel, cobalt and sometimes copper, niobium, or tantalum, used to make strong permanent magnets [found in loudspeakers]. [AHD] alternating current Abbr. AC or ac (See usage note at end) An electric current that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals of time. Contrast: direct current. [IEEE] [Usage Note: Officially the IEEE dictionary is very clear that the abbreviation for alternating current is "ac" not "AC." However most everyone agrees (mags, technical journalists, me, etc.) that when abbreviating alternating current in a standalone sense, that it looks better and reads clearer if you use uppercase, e.g., "The device runs off AC voltage," instead of "The device runs off ac voltage,", particularly if the abbreviation begins or ends a sentence. Imagine a sentence like this: "Ac is a type of generator voltage." Or, "Do you want ac or dc?" Both work better with uppercase. As for Vac vs. VAC, both are seen and accepted even though Vac is the IEEE standard.] AM (amplitude modulation) Radio broadcast. 1. The encoding of a carrier wave by variation of its amplitude in accordance with an input signal. 2. A broadcast system that uses amplitude modulation. [AHD] ambience 1. Acoustics. A perceptual sense of space [Blesser]. The acoustic qualities of a listening space [White]. 2. Psychoacoustics The special atmosphere or mood created by a particular environment; also spelled ambiance [AHD]. Contrast with reverberation. ambient noise compensator See leveler. Ambisonics A British-developed surround sound system designed to reproduce a true three-dimensional sound field. Based on the late Michael Gerzon's (1945-1996) (Oxford University) famous theoretical foundations, Ambisonics delivers what the ill-fated quadraphonics of the '70s promised but could not. Requiring two or more

transmission channels (encoded inputs) and four or more decoded output loudspeakers, it is not a simple system; nor is the problem of reproducing 3-dimensional sound. Yet with only an encoded stereo input pair and just four decoded reproducing channels, Ambisonics accurately reproduces a complete 360-degree horizontal sound field around the listener. With the addition of more input channels and more reproducing loudspeakers, it can develop a true spherical listening shell. As good as it is, a mass market for Ambisonics has never developed due to several factors. First, the actual recording requires a special tetrahedron array of four microphones: three to measure left-right, front-back and up-down sound pressure levels, while the fourth measures the overall pressure level. All these microphones must occupy the same point in space as much as possible. So far, only one manufacturer (first Calrec, bought by AMS, bought by Siemens, sold, now Soundfield) is known to make such an array. Next, a professional Ambisonics encoding unit is required to matrix these four mic signals together to form two or more channels before mastering or broadcast begins. Finally, the consumer must have an Ambisonics decoder, in addition to at least four channels of playback equipment. [The generic term is now soundfield microphone recording .] AME (Association for Manufacturing Excellence) "A not-for-profit organization founded in 1985 dedicated to helping companies with continuous improvement and their pursuit of excellence." AMI-C (Automotive Multimedia Interface Collaboration) "An organization of motor vehicle manufacturers worldwide created to facilitate the development, promotion and standardization of electronic gateways to connect automotive multimedia, telematics and other electronic devices to their motor vehicles." AMOLED (active-matrix OLED) Electronic Displays. Refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels in OLED displays. AMP (Audio Music Partnership) An alliance of industry partners that develop, manufacture, and support products and services that interoperate with the Microsoft platforms. AMP (Association of Music Parents) A non-profit organization that promotes music education in school systems. AMPAS (Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences) Created in 1927, a professional honorary organization composed of over 6,000 motion picture craftsmen and women. Think Oscars®.

ampere Abbr. I, also A. 1. A unit of electric current in the International standard meter-kilogram-second (mks) system. It is the steady current that when flowing in straight parallel wires of infinite length and negligible cross section, separated by a distance of one meter in free space, produces a force between the wires of 2E-7 newtons per meter of length. 2. A unit in the International System specified as one International coulomb per second and equal to 0.999835 ampere. (After André Marie Ampère.) [AHD] Ampère, André Marie (1775-1836) French physicist and mathematician who formulated Ampère's law, a mathematical description of the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying conductor. [AHD] amp head See head amp. amplifier An electronic device used to increase an electrical signal. The signal may be voltage, current or both (power). Preamplifier is the name applied to the first amplifier in the audio chain, accepting inputs from microphones, or other transducers, and low output sources (CD players, tape recorders, turntables, etc.). The preamplifier increases the input signals from mic-level, for instance, to line-level. Power amplifier is the name applied to the last amplifier in the audio chain, used to increase the linelevel signals to whatever is necessary to drive the loudspeakers to the loudness required. See amplifier classes. amplifier classes Audio power amplifiers were originally classified according to the relationship between the output voltage swing and the input voltage swing; thus it was primarily the design of the output stage that defined each class. Classification was based on the amount of time the output devices operate during one complete cycle of signal swing. Classes were also defined in terms of output bias current [the amount of current flowing in the output devices with no applied signal]. For discussion purposes (with the exception of class A), assume a simple output stage consisting of two complementary devices (one positive polarity and one negative polarity) using tubes (valves) or any type of transistor (bipolar, MOSFET, JFET, IGFET, IGBT, etc.). [Historical Notes marked "GRS" provided by Gerald R. Stanley, Senior V.P. of Research, Crown International, Inc., designer of the famous Crown DC-300, inventor of the Crown K Series switchmode amplifier line and holder of over 30 U.S. Patents.] [GRS on amplifiers: "At first there were no amplifiers as the very thought of amplification had yet to enter the vocabulary of electronics

(another word which had yet to be birthed!). The invention of a threeterminaled device (DeForest Audion U.S. patent 841,386 or later triode) was the invention in 1906 of a more sensitive radio detector and not an element for an amplifier. By 1912 the triode had become both a vacuum tube and an amplifier (multiple names can be attached to this collective achievement). The oscillator also dates to 1912 giving proof to the saying "When you set out to make an amplifier you get an oscillator and when you attempt to make an oscillator you get an amplifier."] [GRS on amplifier classes: "Originally it was adequate to distinguish amplifier classes only by the conduction angles of the control elements (tubes or valves). More recently it has been necessary to add distinctions that relate to topology, degrees of conduction and control methods to be able to determine class."] Class A operation is where both devices conduct continuously for the entire cycle of signal swing, or the bias current flows in the output devices at all times. The key ingredient of class A operation is that both devices are always on. There is no condition where one or the other is turned off. Because of this, class A amplifiers in reality are not complementary designs. They are single-ended designs with only one type polarity output devices. They may have "bottom side" transistors but these are operated as fixed current sources, not amplifying devices. Consequently class A is the most inefficient of all power amplifier designs, averaging only around 20% (meaning you draw about 5 times as much power from the source as you deliver to the load.) Thus class A amplifiers are large, heavy and run very hot. All this is due to the amplifier constantly operating at full power. The positive effect of all this is that class A designs are inherently the most linear, with the least amount of distortion. [Much mystique and confusion surrounds the term class A. Many mistakenly think it means circuitry comprised of discrete components (as opposed to integrated circuits). Such is not the case. A great many integrated circuits incorporate class A designs, while just as many discrete component circuits do not use class A designs.] [GRS Historical Note: "Class A - The most basic of operating modes saw both single-ended and push-pull embodiments by 1913. The first known use of push-pull appears in a patent of E.F.W. Alexanderson of GE U.S. 1,173,079 filed in 1913. While Alexanderson would have been

GE U.S. 1,173,079 filed in 1913. While Alexanderson would have been aware of other levels of biasing his push-pull stage, such as classes B and C, he would have only been able to produce a useful result with a tuned stage such as a transmitter where resonant filtering would have managed the distortion problem. Negative feedback is not understood in 1913 to be able to cope with distortion problems."] Class B operation is the opposite of class A. Both output devices are never allowed to be on at the same time, or the bias is set so that current flow in a specific output device is zero when not stimulated with an input signal, i.e., the current in a specific output flows for one half cycle. Thus each output device is on for exactly one half of a complete sinusoidal signal cycle. Due to this operation, class B designs show high efficiency but poor linearity around the crossover region. This is due to the time it takes to turn one device off and the other device on, which translates into extreme crossover distortion. Thus restricting class B designs to power consumption critical applications, e.g., battery operated equipment, such as 2-way radio and other communications audio. [GRS Historical Note: "Class B - This class has no obvious inventor, but it does have its master and perfector. Loy Barton working for RCA developed tube designs and biasing methods to manage the open loop distortion of class B push-pull power stages. His IRE paper in 1931 titled "High Output Power from Relatively Small Tubes" is a landmark in the history of class B. Technically he only used class AB but the distinction was not in the language. Class AB is a later and probably unnecessary class fabrication."] Class AB operation is the intermediate case. Here both devices are allowed to be on at the same time (like in class A), but just barely. The output bias is set so that current flows in a specific output device appreciably more than a half cycle but less than the entire cycle. That is, only a small amount of current is allowed to flow through both devices, unlike the complete load current of class A designs, but enough to keep each device operating so they respond instantly to input voltage demand s. Thus the inherent non-linearity of class B designs is eliminated, without the gross inefficiencies of the class A design. It is this combination of good efficiency (around 50%) with excellent linearity that makes class AB the most popular audio amplifier design. Class AB1 & AB2 Subdivisions of Class AB developed for vacuum tube

Class AB1 & AB2 Subdivisions of Class AB developed for vacuum tube design. These subsets primarily describe grid current behavior: Class AB1 has no current flowing into the grid of the tube, and Class AB2 has some current flowing into the grid. Class AB1 operates closer to Class A, while Class AB2 operates closer to Class B. Most bipolar solid-state amplifiers would be classified as Class AB2, while power JFET designs mimic Class AB1. Class AB plus B design involves two pairs of output devices: one pair operates class AB while the other (slave) pair operates class B. [GRS Historical Note: "Class AB+B is a term that I'd coined and is intended to be very descriptive but is not truly worthy of its own class. The Crown DC-300 was the first to use this mode of operation in 1968."] Class BD Invented by Robert B. Herbert in 1971 U.S. patent 3,585,517 and improved on by Neil Edward Walker as disclosed in his 1971 U.S. patent 3,629,616. Both patents are concerned with improving original class D design efficiencies by using various bridge connections and cancellation techniques. And most recently more improvements are claimed by inventors James C. Strickland & Carlos A. Castrejon in their U.S. patent 6,097,249 assigned to Rockford Corporation in 2000 for their Fosgate-brand automotive amplifier. [GRS comments: "This is a class designation that would best be forgotten. It has been applied to multiple modulation schemes on a class D derived full-bridge. This is perhaps the most reinvented class design in recent history with "filter-less amplifiers" and other such things. An interleave of two class D full-bridge is what we actually have here, and it is a good improvement to an interleave of one class D full-bridge. However an interleave of four is actually possible on a full-bridge if one uses Class I design."] Class C use is restricted to the broadcast industry for radio frequency (RF) transmission. Its operation is characterized by turning on one device at a time for less than one half cycle. In essence, each output device is pulsed-on for some percentage of the half cycle, instead of operating continuously for the entire half cycle. This makes for an extremely efficient design capable of enormous output power. It is the magic of RF tuned circuits (flywheel effect) that overcomes the distortion create d by class C pulsed operation.

Class D operation is switching, hence the term switching power amplifier. Here the output devices are rapidly switched on and off at least twice for each cycle (Sampling Theorem). Theoretically since the output devices are either completely on or completely off they do not dissipate any power. If a device is on there is a large amount of current flowing through it, but all the voltage is across the load, so the power dissipated by the device is zero (found by multiplying the voltage across the device [zero] times the current flowing through the device [big], so 0 x big = 0); and when the device is off, the voltage is large, but the current is zero so you get the same answer. Consequently class D operation is theoretically 100% efficient, but this requires zero on-impedance switches with infinitely fast switching times -- a product we're still waiting for; meanwhile designs do exist with true efficiencies approaching 90%. [Historical note: the original use of the term "Class D" referred to switching amplifiers that employed a resonant circuit at the output to remove the harmonics of the switching frequency. Today's use is much closer to the original "Class S" designs.] [GRS Historical Note: "Class D is a subset of all possible switch-mode amplifier topologies that is typified by use of the half-bridge (totem-pole) output stage that has two interconnected switches operating in time alternation. The paradigm is that of Loy Barton's class B, but uses the statistics of conduction angle to produce amplification (PWM). There are many subclasses within class D that describe the origins of the modulation. Class D is at least as old as 1954 when Bright patented a solid-state full-bridge servo amplifier U.S. 2,821,639."] Class E operation involves amplifiers designed for rectangular input pulses, not sinusoidal audio waveforms. The output load is a tuned circuit, with the output voltage resembling a damped single pulse. Normally Class E employs a single transistor driven to act as a switch. The following terms, while generally agreed upon, are not official classifications: Class F Also known by such terms as "biharmonic," "polyharmonic," "Class DC," "single-ended Class D," "High-efficiency Class C," and "multiresonator." Another example of a tuned power amplifier, whereby the load is a tuned resonant circuit. One of the differences here is the circuit

the load is a tuned resonant circuit. One of the differences here is the circuit is tuned for one or more harmonic frequencies as well as the carrier frequency. See References Krauss, et al. for complete details. [GRS Historical Note: "Classes E and F are distinguished by their resonant topology and not conduction angle else we would class them with C. A good reference to these is found in the many patents of Nathan Sokal. Also class S which is very old (1929-1930) has similar applications (resonant RF)."] Class G operation involves changing the power supply voltage from a lower level to a higher level when larger output swings are required. There have been several ways to do this. The simplest involves a single class AB output stage that is connected to two power supply rails by a diode, or a transistor switch. The design is such that for most musical program material, the output stage is connected to the lower supply voltage, and automatically switches to the higher rails for large signal peaks [thus the nickname rail-switcher]. Another approach uses two class AB output stages, each connected to a different power supply voltage, with the magnitude of the input signal determining the signal path. Using two power supplies improves efficiency enough to allow significantly more power for a given size and weight. Class G is common for pro audio designs. [Historical note: Hitachi is credited with popularizing class G designs with their 1977 Dynaharmony HMA 8300 power amplifier, however it is shown much older by GRS: "Class G - I have been searching for the proper inventor of this class, but have not been able to find a reference older than 1965 when I first encountered it in a college text "Handbook of Basic Transistor Circuits and Measurements" by Thornton et al., SEEC vol. 7. The method is introduced without references or fanfare. One is led to believe that it was common knowledge in 1965 and earlier. This is not the first known use of extended quasi-linear methods (beyond class B), as there is a dual found in Fisher U.S. 2,379,513 from 1942."] Class H operation takes the class G design one step further and actually modulates the higher power supply voltage by the input signal. This allows the power supply to track the audio input and provide just enough voltage for optimum operation of the output devices [thus the nickname rail-tracker or tracking power amplifier]. The efficiency of class H is comparable to class G designs.

ble to class G designs. [Historical note: Soundcraftsmen is credited with popularizing class H designs with their 1977 Vari-proportional MA5002 power amplifier, designed by Soundcraftsmen's Chief Engineer and Vice President, Paul Rolfes. However like class H above GRS finds precedence: "Class H The apparent inventor of class-H in full-blown multi-level form was Manuel Kramer of NASA in 1964 U.S. patent 3,319,175. Class H optimally applied to a full-bridge was invented in 1987 (Stanley) U.S. 4,788,452. Classes G and H are all members of a class of amplifiers that has articulated rail voltages to improve the efficiency of class B power stages. Examples are available of tracking using binarily weighted segments, (Stanley) U.S. 5,045,990. Continuously variable tracking with switch-mode PWM appears to have been first done by Hamada in 1976 U.S. 4,054,843. The ultimate rail tracker using interleaved technology is found in (Stanley) U.S. 5,513,094. Only with interleave is the converter fast enough to meet the needs of full-bandwidth audio and yet have low switching losses."] Class I operation invented and named by Gerald R. Stanley for amplifiers based on his patent U.S. 5,657,219 covering opposed current converters. [GRS explains: The "I" of the class is short for "interleave" as this is the only four-quadrant converter known that uses two switches yet has an interleave number of 2 in the terminology of interleave. When used with fixed-frequency natural two-sided PWM it forms a theoretically optimum converter having the least unnecessary/undesirable PWM spectra. A good reference is found in the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Vol. 14, No. 2, March 1999, pages 372-380."] Class J operation is the category/name suggested by Gerald R. Stanley for amplifiers that combine class B and class D where converters act in parallel to drive the load. [GRS elaborates: "There are serious problems with the power efficiency of these products when processing fast signals into arbitrary loads. The class B stage is used to actively remove the ripple of the class D stage and other distortion problems that plague class D. No solution is offered for the MOSFET CSOA (current safe operating area) problem of class D. To solve that problem it would be necessary to parallel a class I and class B amplifier but this would be without merit as the class I amplifier generally does not need the class B amplifier to meet fidelity

generally does not need the class B amplifier to meet fidelity requirements."] Class S First invented in 1932, this technique is used for both amplification and amplitude modulation. Similar to Class D except the rectangular PWM voltage waveform is applied to a low-pass filter that allows only the slowly varying dc or average voltage component to appear across the load. Essentially this is what is termed "Class D" today. See References Krauss for details. [Final GRS Amplifier Historical Note: "All of our amplifier classes have thrived under a very important invention, without which most would have floundered. That invention is, of course, negative feedback. Harold Black in 1927 changed our world forever while riding to work on the Lackawanna Ferry. (See U.S. patent 2,102,671.) Harold Black did not stop there however, he also in 1953 wrote the text "Modulation Theory" which we today use to understand the fundamentals of PWM. In 1935, Terman, in his now famous "Fundamentals of Radio" handbook, wrote that it was good that class B was only used in places like radio stations as there needed to be an engineer on duty full time to keep the bias tweaked to where the distortion was acceptable. Thanks go to Harold Black for changing all that and leading us into the next century of amplification."] amplifier dummy load Modeling a real world loudspeaker for power amplifier testing purposes has been studied for years, resulting in many circuit possibilities. An article compiled and edited by Tomi Engdahl entitled "Speaker Impedance" is an excellent summary of the results. He gives a complete (and complex) solution to the loudspeaker dummy load question. However you can get excellent results with a simplified version developed by electronics engineer Michael Rollins appearing below. The series resistor and inductor model the loudspeaker voice coil's DC resistance and inductance, while the parallel inductor and capacitor simulate the mechanical components of suspension compliance and cone mass respectively. The values shown work well for most power amplifier measurements. RS = 6 ohms (aluminum body power resistor bolted to heatsink; power rating twice max testing watts) LS = 0.33 mH (air core inductor; wire sized for max current) LP = 20 mH (air core inductor; wire sized for max current)

CP = 1000 µF (100 V, or maximum expected peak voltage; paralleling two 500 µF caps may be smaller, cheaper) amplitude 1. Greatness of size; magnitude. 2. Physics. The maximum absolute value of a periodically varying quantity. 3. Mathematics. a. The maximum absolute value of a periodic curve measured along its vertical axis. b. The angle made with the positive horizontal axis by the vector representation of a complex number. 4. Electronics. The maximum absolute value reached by a voltage or current waveform. [AHD] amplitude-frequency response See frequency response. amplitude modulation See: AM. AMT (air motion transformer) See: air motion transformer. anacrusis See upbeat. anagram A word or phrase formed by reordering the letters of another word or phrase, such as satin to stain. [AHD] analog A real world physical quantity or data characterized by being continuously variable (rather than making discrete jumps), and can be as precise as the available measuring technique. Animusic Company that creates computer animated music videos that are pure genius and totally entertaining. See: Extraordinaire Instrument de Musique for example. AND Computer Science & Logic. A Boolean logical operator that returns a true value only if both operands are true; a form of multiplication. For example, two series connected switches, A and B, requires both be closed for current to pass, thus it requires switch A AND switch B closed to operate. anechoic Literally, without echo, used to describe specially designed rooms, anechoic chambers, built to emulate a free sound field, by absorbing practically all the sound field. angstrom Abbr. Å A unit of length equal to one-tenth of a nanometer -- used for measuring the wavelengths of light. anisotropic Physics. 1. Not isotropic. 2. Having properties that differ according to the direction of measurement. [AHD]

annealed 1. To subject (glass or metal) to a process of heating and slow cooling in order to toughen and reduce brittleness. 2. To strengthen or harden. [AHD] anode 1. A positively charged electrode. 2. In a vacuum tube, it is the plate electrode. 3. In a forward-biased semiconductor diode it is the positive terminal. Contrast with cathode. ANSI (pronounced "ann-see") (American National Standards Institute) A private organization that develops and publishes standards for voluntary use in the U.S.A. Antheil, George (1900-1959) US Composer, specializing in film music, who described himself as "America's bad boy of music." Among Antheil's early avant-garde pieces, none caused a greater sensation than his Balet mécanique, scored for automobile horns, airplane propeller, fire siren, ten grand pianos, and other instruments. When it was performed at Carnegie Hall in 1924, a concertgoer near the orchestra could stand no more than a few minutes of the racket. Tying his handkerchief to his cane, he raised the white flag in surrender. [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] anti-aliasing filter A low-pass filter used at the input of digital audio converters to attenuate frequencies above the half-sampling frequency to prevent aliasing. anti-imaging filter A low-pass filter used at the output of digital audio converters to attenuate frequencies above the half-sampling frequency to eliminate image spectra present at multiples of the sampling frequency. antiquing Digital Audio. "The act of processing modern audio files to make them appear to have originated from historic technology. It is the inverse of restoring old recordings." From the abstract. antiskating also anti-skating Turntables. A control mechanism on a phonograph designed to compensate for the natural tendency of a pivoted tone arm to pull toward the center. [AHD] That is, it keeps the stylus centered in the groove. AO See acoustooptics. AoE (Audio over Ethernet) Networks. Many systems exist using Ethernet for the transport of digital audio. Hit the link for details about the various proprietary protocols that include Layer 1 (e.g., Digigram's Ethersound®), Layer 2 (e.g. Cirrus Logic's Co-

braNet® also AVB: Audio/Video Bridging) and Layer 3 (e.g. Audinate's Dante®), AOIP (audio over Internet Protocol) Networks. A system for audio file sharing/transport that converts analog or digital audio into Ethernet packers for distribution over a LAN or Ethernet switches. AP (access point) Networks. A device that connects a wireless network to a wired LAN. APA (Audio Publishers Association) The online resource center designed for audiobook listeners and industry professionals. APD (auto power down) Electronics. Term used to describe equipment with a built-in feature that automatically reduces the power draw after a prescribed amount of time. API (application program interface) Software. Protocols for creating software applications. APL (after processing listen) A mixing console term and feature that allows post-processing monitoring of the signal. Compare with AFL and PFL. APPA (Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers) The abbreviation, APPA, comes from their early name: Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, which was changed in 1991. A good resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc., especially for their focus on energy efficient buildings. apparent power The result of multiplying the rms value of the voltage by the rms value of the current in an electronic circuit. It is expressed in watts (W) for resistive loads and in volt-amperes (VA) for reactive loads. It's the amount of power the casual observer thinks is available (hence, apparent), but because of power factor may not be -the real power is usually less. See power factor . appoggiatura Music. An embellishing note, usually one step above or below the note it precedes and indicated by a small note or special sign. [AHD] A melodic tone. A&R (artists and repertory) Historically the record industry term for the department or person that acts as the go-between the artist and the record label. Their job is to select and sign the performers to the label, decide what songs they will record, and select who will work with the artists in the production arranging and performance of the material for the recording of master tapes. These details vary a lot from label to label. For a good discussion on how the A&R world is changing see Rap Coalition's Intelligence Program by Wendy Day.

telligence Program by Wendy Day. architectural columns See: line arrays. Archos Jukebox Multimedia See: Jukebox Multimedia. arithmetic The mathematics of integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. [AHD] arithmetric progression A sequence, such as the positive odd integers 1, 3, 5, 7, . . . , in which each term after the first is formed by adding a constant to the preceding term. [AHD] ARM (advanced RISC machines) The name for a microprocessor group formed from Acorn, backed by Apple, VLSI Technology and Nippon Investment and Finance, in 1990. Acorn Computer was the parent company set up by Dr. Hermann Hauser and Dr. Chris Curry in 1979 to make personal computers, but now enjoys its biggest success selling intellectual property around their proprietary RISC computer, called ARM, which originally stood for Acorn RISC Machines. armonica Musical Instrument. Name for Benjamin Franklin's improvement on the Glass harmonic in 1761. Go to William Zeitler's website for fascinating details from one of the few modern players. Armstrong, Edwin Howard(1890-1954) American radio engineer and inventor of regenerative feedback, FM (frequency modulation) and the superheterodyne receiver. Arnold, H. D. American engineer who invented and patented the thermophone, while working at Western Electric. He is also credited with introducing a vacuum to the triode tube, thus perfecting its performance. ARRL (American Radio Relay League) The national association for amateur radio. articulated line arrays See line arrays. artifact Audio. Anything added, due to technical limitations, that was not in the original signal. ASA (Acoustical Society of America) Founded in 1929, the oldest organization for scientist and professional acousticians and others engaged in acoustical design, research and education. ASCII (pronounced "ask-ee") (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

ASCII (pronounced "ask-ee") (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) An ANSI standard data transmission code consisting of seven information bits, used to code 128 letters, numbers, and special characters. Many systems now use an 8-bit binary code, called ASCII-8, in which 256 symbols are represented (for example, IBM's "extended ASCII"). ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) An international organization organized for the purpose of advancing the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration for the public's benefit through research, standards writing, continuing education and publications. ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) A large-scale integrated circuit whose function is determined by the final mask layer for a particular application or group of applications; for example, an IC that does all the functions of a modem. ASIO (pronounced "az-ee-o") (audio stream input/output) Originally a multichannel audio transfer protocol developed by Steinberg in 1997, for audio/MIDI sequencing applications, allowing access to the multichannel capabilities of sound cards. Today it is a standard driver protocol for digital audio and computer sound cards ASPEC (adaptive spectral perceptual entropy coding) A bit rate reduction standard for high quality audio. Jointly developed by AT&T Bell Labs, Thomson, the Fraunhofer Society and CNET. Characterized by high degrees of compression to allow audio transmission on ISDN. asperity noise Recording. Noise caused by microscopic imperfections in the oxide coating of magnetic tape. Heard as a low frequency rumble similar to rocks banging together. aspiration Speech. Expulsion of breath in speech. [AHD] "It occurs in the phoneme "h" in English, or with less duration after the release of an unvoiced consonant, for example, after the "p" in "pie". [Bregman] ASTC (Association of Science-Technology Centers) "An organization of science centers and museums dedicated to furthering public engagement with science among increasingly diverse audiences." Another valuable resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc. asymmetrical (non-reciprocal) response Term used to describe the comparative shapes of the boost/cut curves for variable equalizers. The cut curves do not mirror the boost curves, but instead are quite narrow, intended to act as notch filters.

the boost curves, but instead are quite narrow, intended to act as notch filters. asynchronous A transmission process where the signal is transmitted without any fixed timing relationship between one word and the next (and the timing relationship is recovered from the data stream). ATA (American Telemedicine Association) "The leading resource and advocate promoting access to medical care for consumers and health professionals via telecommunications technology." Another valuable resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc. A-taper See potentiometer. ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networking An extremely fast networking technology already found on many disk editors (Avid, Sonic Solutions, Studio Audio, etc.) and predicted to infiltrate homes within the coming decade. ATM specifies the protocol (i.e., the order and sequence) of the digital information on the network, but not the physical means of transmission (e.g., fiber optic, twisted-pair, etc.). The protocol controls how the entire network is run and maintained. atmospheric pressure Pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere. At sea level it has a mean value of one atmosphere but reduces with increasing altitude. [AHD] See 0 dB-SPL. atofarad Abbr. aF Nanotechnology. A prefix for 10-18 farads, as in 1 ppm of a 1 pF measurement (10-6 x 10-12). ATRAC (Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding) Very early (1992) Sony proprietary audio data compression technique using psychoacoustic principles to convert standard CD quality audio (16-bit, 44.1 kHz) into a file one-fifth the original size. attack Music. The beginning or manner of beginning a piece, passage, or tone. [AHD] A measure of how long it takes for the beginning to peak. Contrast with decay. Audio Compressors. How fast the gain is turned down once the signal exceeds the threshold setting. Contrast with release. Also see: automatic attack & release. attenuation to crosstalk ratio See ACR. attenuator or attenuator pad Electronics. A passive network that reduces the voltage (or power; see usage note under gain) level of a signal with negligible distortion, but with insertion loss. Often a purely resistive network, although any combination of inductors, resistors and capacitors are possible, a pad may also provide impedance matching. [Compare with fader and crossfader. More details available in an excellent

matching. [Compare with fader and crossfader. More details available in an excellent article by Rick Chinn, "Pads 101" appearing in the Syn-Aud-Con Newsletter, Vol. 32, No. 2 Spring 2004, pp. 8-11.] Pads are referred to by the topology of the network formed, with the two most common being an L-pad and a T-pad: L-pad A two-leg network shaped like an inverted, backward letter "L". It usually consists of two resistors that are fixed or adjustable. A true variable L-pad consists of two variable potentiometers that are ganged (tied) together. The ganged sections work to provide either a constant input or a constant output impedance regardless of the attenuation setting. Since modern analog audio electronic circuits consist of stages characterized by very high input and very low output impedances, the term is now broaden to include all L-shaped networks without the requirement of providing constant impedance to the source or load. Volume and level controls are common examples.

Balanced L-pad (or U-pad) A balanced version of the above L-pad, the following is for general purpose audio, recommended by the IEC, exact and nearest 1% values shown.

T-pad A three-leg network shaped like the letter "T". It usually consists of three resistors that are fixed or adjustable. A true variable T-pad consists of two or three variable potentiometers that are ganged (tied) together. The ganged sections work to provide either a constant input or a constant out-

ganged sections work to provide either a constant input or a constant output impedance regardless of the attenuation setting. Since modern analog audio electronic circuits consist of stages characterized by very high input and very low output impedances, the term is now broaden to include all Tshaped networks without the requirement of providing constant impedance to the source or load.

Bridged T-pad In this configuration, R1 and R2 are fixed to the pad's impedance, while R3 and R4 can be variable.

Balanced T-pad (or H-pad) R1 and R3 are half the values of the unbalanced T-pad above.

O-pad Used when the input impedance is much higher than the impedance across the output.

aubades Music. 1. A song or instrumental composition concerning, accompanying, or evoking daybreak. 2. A poem or song of or about lovers separating at dawn. [AHD] Audimax CBS trademark for a broadcast AGC unit invented by Emil Torick in the '50s to replace the transmitter watch engineer.

audio 1. Of or relating to humanly audible sound, i.e., audio is all the sounds that humans hear (approximately 20 Hz - 20 kHz). 2. a. Of or relating to the broadcasting or reception of sound. b. Of or relating to high-fidelity sound reproduction. (Audio traveling through air is vibrations, or cycles of alternating pressure zones. Rarefaction follows each cycle of compression, which produces a wave.) [AHD] audio books See Pro Audio Reference Books for books used to create this site. audio bridge A communications bridge that allows multiple duplex connections over 4-wire telephone connections. Well designed audio bridges do not connect inputs to their own outputs, thus avoiding feedback. See mix-minus. audio compression See digital audio data compression. audio connectors See connectors. Audio Courses Interesting website, it's an online audio production school but with lots of useful (and free) information. audio coverage uniformity See: ACU. audio levels See levels and decibels. audiology The study of hearing, especially hearing defects and their treatment. [AHD] Audio magazine (1947-2000) America's first and longest running audio magazine. Its demise after 53 years of continuous publication leaves a huge void in the consumer audio world. Gone is the last great rational voice, lost amidst the pseudoscientific din dominating high-end audio. An audio warrior is dead and we are lessened. audion Dr. Lee De Forest's name for his 1906 invention of the triode (three-element vacuum tube), building upon Sir John Ambrose Fleming's thermionic diode, based on

vacuum tube), building upon Sir John Ambrose Fleming's thermionic diode, based on the Edison effect. De Forest credits his assistant, C.D. Babcock for the name. Audio over Ethernet See: AoE. audion piano The first vacuum tube instrument in 1915, invented by Dr. Lee De Forest. audio snake See snake. audio taper See potentiometer. Audio Timeline A most fascinating audio development timeline created by three esteemed AES members, Jerry Bruck, Al Grundy and Irv Joel, as part of the 50th anniversary of the AES. audio websites A truly astonishing and remarkable list of audio related websites compiled daily by Steve Ekblad. Also see Audio & Hi-Fi Page, an equally astonishing and remarkable list of audio related websites compiled by Tomi Engdahl. And for a refreshingly rational voice on hot audio topics check out Rod Elliott's site, particularly his get-rich-quick scheme for exploiting the gullible regarding burning-in audio cables. [Absolutely brilliant.] audition Hearing. 1. The sense or power of hearing. 2. The act of hearing. [AHD] auditory filter Term used to describe the concept of critical bands. Analogous to a bandpass filter with a rounded top ("rounded-exponential" after Patterson and Moore, 1986). The filter is slightly asymmetric, being wider on the low-frequency side. auditory masking Hearing. See: masking. auditory streaming (Shortened form of "auditory stream segregation" dubbed by Ulric Neisser.) Hearing. Term coined by Albert Bregman in his book Auditory Scene Analysis to describe the hearing phenomenon where we separate a continuous sound stream into discrete words or sounds. This explains, for example, the "cocktail party effect" where we separate out specific sounds (words) important to us from a cacophony of surrounding sound. Another example is that speech is a continuous audio stream, even though we "hear" separate words, yet there are no pauses in the audio stream. Yet another example is where musicians separate and listen to one or two instruments from among many playing at once. [I am vastly oversimplifying here to just give you a top-layer understanding. Hit the link and then obtain Bregman's book for the full

give you a top-layer understanding. Hit the link and then obtain Bregman's book for the full treatment.] aulos Musical Instrument. Ancient Egyptian double flute [See vase photo here.] Also used for single flute; hit the link for all the variations. aural Of, relating to, or perceived by the ear. [AHD] aural architecture The phrase coined by Blesser & Salter in their book: Spaces Speak, Are You Listening, to describe the complex phenomenon of how humans sense space by listening. Sensing spatial attributes is a nature human ability and the authors conclusively make the point that every environment has an aural architecture. aural hallucinations See: clairaudient. Aureal 3D (A3D) Proprietary 3D sound technology first developed by Crystal River Engineering, which became the advanced technology subsidiary of Aureal Semiconductor, alas, now defunct. Aureal 3D made many claims. At one time their website stated that "since we can hear sounds three dimensionally in the real world by using two ears, it must be possible to create sounds from two speakers that have the same effect" ... well ... NO ... it's pretty rhetoric, but flawed logic. Our two ears receive sound coming from sources located in every possible direction, and from that information process three-dimensional location -- that is not the problem. The problem is how to make our two ears receive sound from sources located in only two directions, and trick them into hearing three dimensionally -- that is the problem. Aureal claimed to have solved this problem, but didn't stay in business long enough for anyone to find out. auricle See: pinna. authoring DVD, CD or CD-ROM. A term used to indicate more than writing, now used to include all the processes necessary (designing, creating & editing) to add information of any sort onto a DVD, CD or CD-ROM primarily providing search and retrieval features. autoformer Autoformer is short for autotransformer, or self-transformer, from the definition of auto-. An autotransformer is one that self-magnetizes to produce the transformer voltage, it does this by not having a true secondary, i.e., there is only one winding with one part acting as the primary and the other part acting as the secondary, but there is no second winding, and no air gap, and thus no true isolation between the primary and secondary. Therefore an autotransformer is a transformer in which part of one winding is common to both the primary and the secondary cir-

cuits associated with that winding. automatic attack & release Audio Compressors. Automatic attack and release designs typically look at the rate of change of the difference between the threshold and the current signal level (the error signal). If the difference changes quickly, attack and release respond faster to the change. If the rate of change is small, attack and decay are slowed. The result is a relatively fast response to quick changes and a much slower response to slower changes, significantly reducing pumping and distortion. Digital designs do this using DSP algorithms. See THAT Corporation Design Note 114, Adaptive attack and release rates ... for a description of an automatic scheme for an analog design. automatic gain control See: AGC. automatic mic mixer A specialized mixer optimized for solving the problems of multiple live microphones operating together as a system, such as found in boardrooms, classrooms, courtrooms, church systems, etc. An automatic mic mixer controls the live microphones by turning up (on) mics when someone is talking, and turning down (off) mics that are not used, thus it is a voice-activated, real-time process, without an operator, hence, automatic. An automatic mic mixer must adapt to changing background noise conditions. Further it must control the additive effect of multiple mics being on at the same time (see NOM). If one mic is on at maximum gain, opening up another one may cause acoustic feedback, so an automatic mixer must also control the system gain to prevent feedback or excessive noise pickup. Dan Dugan patented the first automatic mic mixer and is recognized as the father of this technology. A final problem that automatic mixers solve is maintaining a natural ambience from the room. This is especially critical in recording and broadcasting. A good automatic mixer must make rapid and dramatic changes in the gains of the input channels while maintaining the sonic illusion that nothing is happening at all. automixer See: automatic mic mixer aux Nickname for auxiliary jack, found on audio equipment and used as an additional input or output. aux fed subs, or aux fed subwoofers A live sound technique becoming popular when subwoofers are used with the FOH system. It is claimed that a properly configured and operated aux fed subwoofer system better maintains gain structure and crossover relationships. See Tom Young's article at ProSoundweb, "A Detailed Explanation Of The Aux Fed Subwoofer Technique." AVB (Audio/Video Bridging) Networks. Name for the IEEE 802 emerging standard for

AVB (Audio/Video Bridging) Networks. Name for the IEEE 802 emerging standard for gigabit Ethernet networks that is finding favor in the live sound industry to transport digital audio between the stage and the FOH console. Since this is a non-proprietary, i.e., no licensing fees, networking standard and is backed by giants Cisco and Intel, many pro audio companies are watching it closely. Also see: AoE. AV Abbreviation for audio- video, referring to systems that contain both. AVD (advanced video disk) A Chinese proposed alternative to the DVD standard to avoid paying what they consider exorbitant royalties. This threatened standard would apply to DVD-like players sold only in China. Replaced by EVD. AVnu Alliance (pronounced "avenue") From website: "An industry forum dedicated to the advancement of professional-quality audio video by promoting the adoption of the IEEE 802.1 Audio Video Bridging (AVB), and the related IEEE 1722 and IEEE 1733, standards over various networking link-layers." AVT (air velocity transformer) See: air motion transformer. average power See apparent power. A-weighting See weighting filters. AWG (American wire gauge) A specification for non-ferrous (e.g., copper, aluminum, gold, silver, etc.) wire diameter. [Note, for example, that this means that 14 gauge galvanized steel wire & 14 gauge cooper wire have different diameters.] Also known as Brown and Sharp (B&S) wire gauge, after J.R. Brown who devised the system in 1857 (I have been unsuccessful in finding out what Sharpe's role was). For more detail, see Douglas Brooks' "How to Gauge Traces." Many tables exist on the Internet. The British standard is called SWG standing for Standard wire gauge, also called Imperial wire gauge. axe Musical instrument, usually a guitar. axial mode Acoustics. Sound reflecting between two parallel surfaces. Compare tangential mode and oblique mode. AZA (Association of Zoos and Aquariums) "AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums are leaders in the protection of endangered species." Another resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc. azimuth 1. The horizontal angular distance from a reference direction, usually the

northern point of the horizon, to the point where a vertical circle through a celestial body intersects the horizon, usually measured clockwise. Sometimes the southern point is used as the reference direction, and the measurement is made clockwise through 360° 2. The horizontal angle of the observer's bearing in surveying, measured clockwise from a referent direction, as from the north, or from a referent celestial body, usually Polaris. 3. The lateral deviation of a projectile or bomb. [AHD] azimuth recording Recording. Magnetic recording trick that reduces crosstalk between adjacent tracks. azure noise See noise color.

Pro Audio Reference B
B Electronics. Symbol for susceptance and, confusingly, also the symbol for magnetic flux density. B+ Vacuum Tubes. The symbol for the high voltage power supply found in batteryoperated radios featuring vacuum tubes. In these designs there was an "A" supply for the filaments, a "B" supply for high voltage, a "C" supply for bias and a "D" supply for screen grids. [Pittman] B-3 Music. Famous organ developed by Laurens Hammond in 1954 and when combined with a Leslie® rotating speaker became a jazz, R&B, and rock 'n' roll staple. babbling tributary In LAN technology, a workstation that constantly sends meaningless messages. babel Loud, confused, or disagreeable sound that stresses confusion of vocal sounds arising from simultaneous utterance and random mixture of languages. After Babel, the biblical city (now thought to be Babylon) in Shinar where God confounded a presumptuous attempt to build a tower into heaven by confusing the language of its builders into many mutually incomprehensible languages. [AHD] back-EMF (back-electromotive force) See also EMF. Literally, back-voltage, is a phenomena found in all moving-coil electromagnetic systems, but for audio is most often used with respect to loudspeaker operation. This term describes the action where, after the signal stops, the speaker cone continues moving, causing the voice coil to move through the magnetic field (now acting like a microphone), creating a new voltage that tries to drive the cable back to the power amplifier's output. If the loudspeaker is allowed to do this, the cone flops around like a dying fish. It does not sound good. The only way to stop back-emf is to make the loudspeaker "see" a dead short, i.e., zero ohms looking backward, or as close to it as possible. See damping factor. background music Abbr. BGM Officially music without lyrics and not performed by the original artist, used as an alternative to silence. Contrast with foreground music. backward masking See temporal masking. baffle Loudspeakers. In its simplest form, the main speaker mounting board in a cabinet, whose primary purpose is to separate the front and rear sound waves, from

here it becomes a very complex subject. bagpipe Musical Instrument. A musical instrument having a flexible bag inflated either by a tube with valves or by bellows, a double-reed melody pipe, and from one to four drone pipes. [AHD] Baker clamp Electronics. A circuit technique dating from the early '50s using a diode as a clamp to prevent deep transistor saturation by providing a path for excessive base drive current. Recently used by National Semiconductor in a popular audio power amplifier IC to aid in fast recovery from peak overloads. Hit the link for details. baking Sound Recording. The name for the process required for old analog tapes where they must be put into an oven and "baked" to remove moisture and prevent the oxide from shedding onto the tape heads. balance control A control found most commonly on professional and consumer stereo preamplifiers, used to change the relative loudness (power) between the left and right channels. Attenuating the opposite channel makes one channel (apparently) louder. This is most often done (in analog designs) with a dual potentiometer with an "M-N taper." An M-N taper consists of a "shorted" output for the first 50% of travel and then a linear taper for the last 50% of travel, operating oppositely for each channel. Therefore, with the control in its center detent position, there is no attenuation of either channel. Rotating it away from the center position causes one channel to be attenuated, while having no effect on the other channel, and viceversa. Contrast with pan and crossfade controls. balanced line The IEC standard on amplifiers explains a balanced interface by saying that "The purpose of a balanced interface is to transfer a desired signal as a differential voltage on two signal lines." (IEC 60268-3:2001, page 111). It goes on to explain "... only the common-mode impedance balance of the driver, line, and receiver play a role in noise or interference rejection. This noise or interference rejection property is independent of the presence of a desired differential signal. Therefore, it can make no difference whether the desired signal exists entirely on one line, as a greater voltage on one line than the other, or as equal voltage on both of them."

Balanced lines are the preferred method (for hum free) interconnecting of sound systems using a shielded twisted-pair. Because of its superior noise immunity, balanced lines also find use in interconnecting data signals, e.g., RS-422, and digital audio, e.g., AES/EBU. The principal behind balanced lines is that the signal is transmitted over

AES/EBU. The principal behind balanced lines is that the signal is transmitted over one wire and received back on another wire. The shield does not carry any information, thus it is free to function as a true shield, but must be earth grounded at each end to be successful. (For a detailed tutorial on proper grounding practices, see RaneNote Sound System Interconnection) This circuit's shining virtue is its great common-mode noise rejection ability. The concept here relies on induced noise showing up equally (or common) on each wire. It is mainly due to EMI (electromagnetic interference: passing through or near magnetic fields), RFI (radio frequency interference: strong broadcast signals), noisy ground references, or a combination of all three. A true balanced line exhibits exactly equal impedance from each line relative to ground, guaranteeing equal noise susceptibility. Since the balanced input stage amplifies only the difference between the lines, it rejects everything else (noise) that is common to the lines. Ball, Roland Sherwood "Ernie"(1930-2004) American musician/entrepreneur who developed guitar strings and accessories into an art form. ballistics See meter ballistics. balun (balanced-unbalanced) A jargon term originally popularized by radio engineers referring to the balanced to unbalanced transformer used to interface with the radio antenna. Today, expanded to refer to any interface (usually a transformer) between balanced and unbalanced lines or circuitry; may also provide impedance transformation, as 300 ohm balanced to 75 ohm unbalanced, or vice versa. Another popular use is in transitioning between balanced twisted-pair and an unbalanced coaxial cable. banana jack or banana plug See connectors. band-limiting filters A low-pass and a high-pass filter in series, acting together to restrict (limit) the overall bandwidth of a system. bandoneon Musical Instrument. A small accordion especially popular in Latin America. [AHD] bandpass filter A filter that has a finite passband, neither of the cutoff frequencies being zero or infinite. The bandpass frequencies are normally associated with frequencies that define the half power points, i.e. the -3 dB points. See Figure 1 of the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers. bandwidth Abbr. BW 1. Electronic filters The numerical difference between the upper and lower -3 dB points of a band of audio frequencies. Used to figure the Q, or quali-

ty factor, for a filter. See Figure 1 of RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers; also download "Bandwidth vs. Q Calculator" as a zipped Microsoft Excel spreadsheet in the Rane Library. 2. Telecommunications The size of the communications channel. In analog communications, bandwidth is measured in Hertz (Hz), while digital communications measures bandwidth (data transfer rate) in bits per second. For example, an analog telephone channel has a bandwidth of 4,000 Hz, while a digitally coded telephone channel has a bandwidth of 64 kilobits/second. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. banhu Musical Instrument. Chinese bowed 2-string fiddle. banjo "I can see fiddling around with a banjo, but how do you banjo around with a fiddle?" -- Duncan Purney [from Barber] Banjo Paterson See: Paterson, A.B. bantam jacks See: TT. bar A unit of pressure equal to one million dynes per square centimeter. (Yeah, I know, you expected some wiseacre response, but you ain't gonna get it.) Bara, Theda (1890-1955) Anagram of "Arab Death," used as a pseudonym by the Cincinnati-born, Hollywood actress Theodosia Goodman in the 1920s, who became the first woman movie star. barberpole tone (or effect) See Shepard function generator. barber's music Used to describe non-professional music named after the fact that barber's shops used to have a guitar or other acoustic instrument on hand for customer's use while waiting. [Kacirk] Baroque 1. Music: of, relating to, or characteristic of a style of composition that flourished in Europe from about 1600 to 1750, marked by chromaticism, strict forms, and elaborate ornamentation. [AHD] 2. When you are out of Monet. (Thanks JF and I'll never tell.) Barr, Keith Elliot (1949-2010) American engineer who cofounder MXR and then Alesis Electronics. barrelhouse Style of boogie piano playing. [Decharne] barrier strips Same as terminal strips, see connectors.

Barron, Louis & Bebe (Louis: 1920-1989; Bebe:1925-2008) American husband and wife team that composed the first electronic-music score featured in the movie, Forbidden Planet, in 1956. baseband A transmission medium with capacity for one channel only. Typically found in local area networks (LANs). In baseband LANs, the entire bandwidth, or capacity, of the cable is used to transmit a single digital signal. Everything on that cable (transmitted or received) must use that one channel, which is very fast, so each device needs only to use that high speed channel for only a little of the time. Therefore all attached devices (printers, computers, databases) share by taking turns using the same cable. Baseband as used in videoconferencing means audio and video signals are transmitted over separate cables. Contrast with broadband baseband signaling Transmission of a digital or analog signal at its original frequencies; i.e., a signal in its original form, not changed by modulation. BASH® (Bridged Amplifier Switching Hybrid) Audio Amplifiers. The registered trademark of Indigo, an OEM company, for their patented (U.S. 5,075,634 & U.S. 5,510,753) Class H power amplifier technology that uses a fast-response, pulse-width modulated power supply and a linear Class AB amplifier. BASH modules are found in many powered loudspeakers. basilar membrane Hearing. A membranous portion of the cochlea in the mammalian inner ear that supports the organ of Corti. [AHD] bass management Home Cinema. A circuit that sums all the frequencies below 80Hz from the main channels and the signal from the LFE channel and delivers it (normally) to the subwoofer. Compare with LFE. bass ratio (BR) Acoustics. An objective measure of sound "warmth." See Concert Hall Acoustics. bass reflex Loudspeakers. Invented by Thuras in 1930, a type of cabinet design featuring a "port" (a vent or opening of any shape) on the baffle to allow the rear sound wave to exit (in phase -- that is the trick) with the front wave. Originally a trademark of the Jensen Company in the 1930s. [White], this popular design is also called a vented loudspeaker. Batá drum Musical Instrument. A set of three double-headed hourglass-shaped drums originating in Africa.

bathythermograph Acoustics. A device used in underwater acoustics to measure water temperature at different depths for the purpose of determining the velocity of sound in seawater. See XBT. battery Electronics. Invented and named by Benjamin Franklin in the 1748. He named his device for storing electrical charge for their resemblance to rows of guns. battle axe Musician slang for a trumpet. [Decharne] baud rate (pronounced "bawd"; after Baudot Code named for the French telegrapher Emile Baudot, 1845-1903) The transmitted signaling speed, or keying rate of a modem. Often confused with bit rate. Bit rate and baud rate are NOT synonymous and shall not be interchanged in usage. For example, one baud equals one half dot cycle per second in Morse code, one bit per second in a train of binary signals, and one 3-bit value per second in a train of signals each of which can assume one of 8 different states, and so on - all brought to you by the magic of advanced coding techniques that allow more than one bit per baud. Preferred usage is bit rate, with baud used only when the details of a modem are specified. Bauer, Benjamin (1913-1979) Russian-American engineer who made powerful contributions to the development of many electroacoustic devices including microphones (see: Unidyne), phonograph pickups and tape recording heads. He worked for Shure from 1936 (as a co-op student) to 1957 (leaving as vice president), then CBS Laboratories as vice president. Baxandall tone controls The most common form of active bass and treble tone control circuit based upon British engineer P.J. Baxandall's paper "Negative Feedback Tone Control -- Independent Variation of Bass and Treble Without Switches," Wireless World, vol. 58, no. 10, October 1952, p. 402. The Baxandall design is distinguished by having very low harmonic distortion due to the use of negative feedback. bazouki See bouzouki. BCC (binaural cue coding) Audio Compression. An audio coding technology. BCD 1. (binary-coded decimal) Pertains to a number system where each decimal digit is separately represented by a 4-bit binary code; for example, the decimal number 23 is represented as 0010 0011 (2 = 0010 and 3 = 0011, grouped together as shown), while in straight binary notation, 23 is represented as 10111. 2. (binary-coded digit) A digit of any number system that is represented as a fixed number of binary digits; from the previous example, the decimal digit 23 is represented as 10111.

beamforming Acoustics. A technique utilizing special microphone arrays combined with signal processing to determine where sound originates. Teleconferencing. For instance, see Rambo U.S. Patent 7,190,775 High quality audio conferencing with adaptive beamforming. beam steering Loudspeakers. Common name for the technology that allows changing the directionality of a loudspeaker array by using separate DSP and power amplifiers for each driver in the array. This allows each driver to be delayed and equalized separately as necessary to manipulate the vertical coverage pattern. The whole beam can be moved upward, downward, and made broader or narrower as desired. Very clever, but oh so expensive. beat Physics. To cause a reference wave to combine with a second wave so that the frequency of the second wave can be studied through time variations in the amplitude of the combination. [AHD] beatboxing Hip-Hop. Using the mouth, throat and nasal cavity as a vocal percussion instrument to create hip hop drum sounds similar to record scratching. beat frequency Equal to the absolute value of the difference in frequency of two waves beating together (see "beat" above). Beat Generation The story goes like this ... In The Origins of the Beat Generation Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) recalled how he borrowed the term that labeled an entire decade from a broken-down drug addict named Herbert Huncke and how he then went on to use it himself. "John Clellon Holmes ... and I were sitting around trying to think up the meaning of the Lost Generation and the subsequent existentialism and I said, 'You know, this is really a beat generation': and he leapt up and said, 'that's it, that's right.'" [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] Holmes went on to publish "This is the Beat Generation" in The New York Times Magazine in 1952; the first published use of the term. Also see Generation X. beat matching or beat mixing Used by disc jockeys to match beats to produce a seamless segue, or transition, between songs, or by turntablists between segments of different songs being mixed together. See Disc Jockey 101 for mixing, and Beat Matching Tips for matching. Beat me daddy, eight to the bar. Play some boogie-woogie for me. (The left-hand bass lines in typical boogie-woogie piano feature a driving, eight-to-the-bar rhythm.) [Decharne]

Beauchamp, George (1899-1941) American inventor and entrepreneur who is credited with inventing the first electric guitar, named the "Frying Pan" in 1931 and cofounding Rickenbacker Guitars. bebop Modern jazz style developed by Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and others in the early 1940s. Dizzy put out a single called "Bebop" in 1945 and also released "He Beeped When He Shoulda Bopped," in 1946. [Decharne] See bop. Begun, Semi Joseph (1905-1995) Born in German, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1935 and pioneered magnetic tape recording. He wrote the first book published on magnetic recording and invented many recording products including the first consumer tape recorder as well as developing the technology that gave birth to the Black Box flight data recorder. Subject of a fascinating book by Mark Clark. bel Abbr. b, B Ten decibels. [After .] The Bel was the amount a signal dropped in level over a one-mile distance of telephone wire. See decibel. Belchfire® Series Term coined by Crown International for their mythical power amplifier, the BF-6000SUX. Based on original research into the first principles of teramagnostriction quasar-quadrature, the BF-6000SUX could have changed the design of all future power amps, but it didn't. In spite of Crown's leap forward into the past of technical declination, the marketplace categorically stated that it did not want 6,000 watts per channel in only one rack space - in spite of its six-foot depth and 206 pounds weight. The only known use of a BF-6000SUX was to drive the experimental Electro-Voice Rearaxial Softspeaker, when Rane demoed their PI 14 Pseudoacoustic Infector using Jensen's JE-EP-ERs Multi-denomial Transpedance Informer for coupling -- but many consider that only hearsay. Bell, Alexander Graham (1847-1922) Scottish-born American inventor of the telephone. The first demonstration of electrical transmission of speech by his apparatus took place in 1876. Bell also invented the audiometer, an early hearing aid, and improved the phonograph. [AHD] bellest bottoms A term coined by Steve King, editor and publisher of Today in Literature, in a note about Robert Heinlein that appeared in the July 7, 2010 issue. He says it is "intended to suggest biggest/best bell-bottom jeans." Bell's Law of Telephony "No matter what technology is used, your monthly phone bill magically remains about the same size." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.]

belly fiddle Guitar. [Decharne] BEM (boundary element modeling) Acoustics. A mathematical modeling method using only a mesh of the surface of a wave, making computations easier and faster. benders or bending See circuit-bending. bending wave physics (also known as Distributed Mode Loudspeakers or DML) Loudspeakers. The latest trend in flat panel loudspeaker innovations based on the bending wave principal. Its simplest form consists of a small driver and a large thin panel. The driver coil excites the panel but due to the large flat surface, it does not move in and out but rather "bends"- that is, deforms in a bending wave. This wave travels throughout the panel provoking 360-degree radiation of sound in the process -- very different from the way a conventional loudspeaker cone produces sound by "pushing" air. Careful and complex design of the rigidity of the thin flexible panel allows it to increase from the middle to the edges at an equal ratio. This allows one panel to control most of the audio range, thus eliminating multiple drivers and crossover networks. See Fraunhofer IDMT for example, and Colloms for theory. Also see Peter Dick's bending wave converter. Benten or Ben Zai Ten Japanese Deity. Goddess of music. The name of one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune, the goddess of music, art, happiness and love. BeOS (Be operating system) An operating system (OS) developed by Be Incorporated in 1996, called the first true "media OS." BER (bit error ratio) (also called bit error rate) 1. The ratio of the number of erroneous bits divided by the total number of bits transmitted, received, or processed over some stipulated period. 2. The number of bits processed before an erroneous bit is found (e.g., 10E13), or the frequency of erroneous bits (e.g., 10E-13). Berliner, Emil (1851-1929) German-born American inventor who made important contributions to telephone technology and developed the phonograph record disc. Bessel crossover A type of crossover utilizing low-pass filter design characterized by having a linear phase response (or maximally flat phase response), but also a monotonically decreasing passband amplitude response (which means it starts rolling off at DC and continues throughout the passband). Linear phase response (e.g., a linear plot of phase shift vs. frequency produces a straight line) results in constant time-delay (all frequencies within the passband are delayed the same amount). Consequently the value of linear phase is it reproduces a near-perfect step response, i.e., there is no overshoot

or ringing resulting from a sudden transition between signal levels. The drawback is a sluggish roll-off rate. For example, for the same circuit complexity a Butterworth response rolls off nearly three times as fast. This circuit is based upon Bessel polynomials; however, the filters whose network functions use these polynomials are correctly called Thompson filters [W.E. Thomson, "Delay Networks Having Maximally Flat Frequency Characteristics," Proc. IEEE, part 3, vol. 96. Nov 1949, pp. 487-490]. The fact that we do not refer to these as Thompson crossovers demonstrates, once again, that we do not live in a fair world. See Ray Miller's Bessel Filter Crossover and Its Relation to Other Types. B-field See magnetic flux density. B-format See: soundfield microphone. BGA (ball grid array) Electronics. A type of miniature package for integrated circuits containing hundreds of pins. BGM See: background music biamp, biamplified, or biamplification Term used to refer to a 2-way active crossover where the audio signal is split into two paths, and using separate power amplifier channels for each driver. bias or biasing Electronics. Preset voltages or currents in an electronic circuit that determine the electrical operating points of certain devices. BICSI® (Building Industry Consulting Services, International) A telecommunications association that is a worldwide resource for technical publications, training, conferences, and registration programs for low-voltage cabling distribution design and installation.

bidirectional microphone See: microphone polar response. bilabial Phonology. Pronounced or articulated with both lips, as the consonants b, p, m, and w. [AHD] BIEM (Bureau International des Sociétés Gérant les Droits d'Enregistrement et de Reproduction Mécanique) An international organization representing mechanical rights societies found in most countries. They license the reproduction of songs (including musical, literary and dramatic works). Their members are composers, au-

cluding musical, literary and dramatic works). Their members are composers, authors and publishers and their clients are record companies and other users of recorded music. They also license the downloading of music via the Internet. bifilar windings A term most often associated (in the pro audio industry) with audio transformer design describing the winding technique of laying two wires side-byside, providing essentially unity coupling, thus reducing leakage inductance to negligible amounts. Literally two threads from Latin bi- two, and filum thread. bigit Very early contraction term for "binary digit," now obsolete. (Mentioned by Edmund C. Berkeley in his book The Computer Revolution, Doubleday, 1962, page 234.) See bit. bilinear transform A mathematical method used in the transformation of a continuous time (analog) function into an equivalent discrete time (digital) function. Fundamentally important for the design of digital filters. A bilinear transform ensures that a stable analog filter results in a stable digital filter, and it exactly preserves the frequency-domain characteristics, albeit with frequency compression. BIM (building information modeling) A term coined by Georgia Institute of Technology for a very complex method of using digital models for design and construction of buildings. It is finding use in pro audio acoustic modeling tools. bimorph Piezoelectric Microphones. A cantilever device having two active piezoelectric layers where an electrical field causes one layer to bend out and the other layer to bend in. Compare with: unimorph. binary A condition in which there are two possible states; for example, the binary number system (base-2) using the digits 0 and 1. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. For a delightful treat see: Binary Hand Dance by Vi Hart. binary logarithm A logarithm based on the powers of 2 (aka base 2). binaural cue coding See BCC. binaural localization Hearing. Locating a sound source using the different arrival times between the ears. See: interaural. binaural recording or binaural sound Believe it or not, the groundwork was laid in the 1920s (no kidding, and some claim even earlier) when the idea of placing two microphones in a dummy head was first introduced as a source of loudspeaker stereo (which wouldn't go anywhere until Blumlein's contributions). It was the Germans who first produced a standard artificial listener for evaluating auditorium acoustics,

who first produced a standard artificial listener for evaluating auditorium acoustics, and then played back the results over headphones -- the startling realism launched binaural recording. A binaural recording is made using two microphones placed in the ear canals of an anatomically accurate dummy head, such that all the normal spatial attributes of the human head are present (just as in real listening situations) when the recording is made. Designed to be played back through headphones, the results are nothing but astonishing. First time listeners to binaural recordings often swear someone is there with them, talking and walking around them, such is the realism accomplished. binding post See connectors. binky See Larry Blake's Film Sound Glossary. biphase mark code (BMC) See: differential Manchester encoding. bi-phase modulation See: BPSK. bipolar transistor Pertaining to a semiconductor technology in which transistors are built from alternating layers of positively and negatively doped semiconductors material. [IEEE]

birefringence Physics. The resolution or splitting of a light wave into two unequally reflected or transmitted waves by an optically anisotropic medium such as calcite or quartz. Also called double refraction. [AHD] bit Abbr. b Abbreviation for binary unit or binary digit. 1. The smallest amount of digital information. A bit can store or represent only two states, 0 and 1. [The original term binary unit was coined by John Tukey of Bell Laboratories to represent the basic unit of information as defined by Shannon as a message representing one of two states.] 2. A little bit -- from Old English bita, meaning a piece bitten off. bit clock The synchronizing signal that indicates the rate of individual data bits over a digital audio interface. bit error rate or bit error ratio See BER. bit rate The rate or frequency at which bits appear in a bit stream. Applied to digital audio, bit rate (kbits/sec/channel) equals the sampling rate (kHz) times the number of bits per sample. The data bit rate for a CD, for example, is 1.41M bits per second (44.1 kHz x 16 bits per sample x 2 channels). [The oft-quoted CD bit rate of 4.3218 MHz

(44.1 kHz x 16 bits per sample x 2 channels). [The oft-quoted CD bit rate of 4.3218 MHz is for the raw bit rate which comes from multiplying 7,350 frames per second by 588, the number of channel bits.] bits -- data converter See data converter bits. bit stream A binary signal without regard to grouping. bit-mapped display A display in which each pixel's color and intensity data are stored in a separate memory location. bi-wire Loudspeakers. A technique that uses two wires to connect between one power amplifier and one loudspeaker instead of the more conventional one-wire approach. Some high-end consumer loudspeakers provide two sets of terminals with a shorting bar that can be removed to allow bi-wiring. It is important to understand that this is NOT a biamped technique where an electronic crossover and two power amplifiers are used to drive the woofer and high-frequency drivers separately. Instead this is a typical loudspeaker with a built-in passive crossover network that separates the audio signal after it enters the cabinet into (at least) low and high frequency components driving the woofer and high-frequency driver(s). [A very popular technique among wire and cable manufacturers.] Black, Harold S. (1898-1983) American electrical engineer and innovator most noted for his invention of negative feedback (U.S. patent 2,102,671). black hole music Name given by astronomers to detecting the deepest note ever generated in the cosmos, a B-flat 57 octaves below middle C. Blackmer, David (1927-2002). American scientist, inventor and businessman best known for founding dbx, Inc. and pioneering audio-grade VCAs for signal processing. black noise See noise color. black stick Clarinet. [Decharne] blame shifter Shifts the pitch of mistakes down one octave so the audience thinks it was the bass player. [Thanks to DD at Sound Path Labs.] bluegrass Music. A type of folk music that originated in the southern United States, typically played on banjos and guitars and characterized by rapid tempos and jazzlike improvisation. [AHD] ["William Smith Monroe (known as Bill) was born near Rosine, Kentucky. His style of music, which we call bluegrass today, probably got its

Rosine, Kentucky. His style of music, which we call bluegrass today, probably got its name from the name of his band, the Blue Grass Boys, which was in turn named after his home state of Kentucky, the Bluegrass State." Visual Thesaurus®. blue moon For half a century, it's been known as the second full moon in the same calendar month; however, recently this definition was corrected by the editors of Sky & Telescope magazine. The correct definition, they say, is that a blue moon occurs when a season has four full moons, rather than the usual three. Further, they claim the misunderstanding is their fault based on an article they published in 1946. For all the wonderful details, see Once In A Blue Moon. blue noise See noise color. blue note Music. A flatted note, especially the third or seventh note of a scale, in place of an expected major interval. [From its use in blues music.] [AHD] Compare with brown note. Bluetooth The code name given a wireless network protocol, after a 10th century Danish king, Harald Bluetooth, who unified Denmark. The code name was adopted in April, 1998, when Intel and Microsoft formed a consortium between themselves IBM, Toshiba, Nokia, Ericsson and Puma Technology. This protocol promised to bring wireless Internet to the masses, making the Web as ubiquitous as radio and TV. The Bluetooth SIG (special interest group), now numbering over 2000 companies, sees a world where equipment from different manufacturers works seamlessly together using Bluetooth as a sort of virtual cable. Check out the website to read the whole history of Harald Bluetooth and get all the details. Heavily challenged by Wi-Fi, which appears to have already accomplished what Bluetooth is still promising. Compare with ZigBee. blue whales See SPL. Blumlein, Alan Dower (1903-1942) English engineer who in a short working life span of 15 years wrote or cowrote 128 patents, developed stereophonic sound, designed new uses for microphones, designed a lateral disc-cutting system making modern records possible, developed much of the 405-line high definition television system broadcast in Britain until 1986, and improved radar systems such that they still operated 40 years later. Indeed, a genius by any definition, yet his story had to wait until 1999 to be told completely. Thanks to Robert Charles Alexander, former editor of AudioMedia magazine, a definitive biography now exists. A website of interest is by the BBC and tells the story of how Blumlein's unique recordings have been cleaned up. Go here: Early Stereo Recordings Restored.

Blu-ray Disc A trademark of Sony for their optical disc video recording format developed for recording, rewriting and playback of HDTV, and is predicted to find its way into audio recording use. BMC See: biphase mark code. BNC (bayonet Neill-Concelman) A miniature bayonet locking connector for coaxial cable. It was developed in the late '40s by a collaboration of Paul Neill and Carl Concelman based on a patent granted to the late Dr. Octavio M. Salati. In 1942, while at Bell Labs, Paul Neill developed what became known as the type N connector, named after him, which became a U.S. Navy standard. Carl Concelman, while at Amphenol, developed a bayonet version of the N connector, which became known as the type C connector, after him (the first true 50-ohm connector). Then, together, they developed a miniature bayonet locking version of the C connector and it was named the type BNC connector, after both of them. There is even an improved threaded version called the threaded Neill-Concelman or TNC connector. [Thanks to all who wrote me to help clarify this correct meaning. My condolences to all, who with passion, conviction, and great creativity, truly believe differently. It is a sad but true tale that BNC does NOT stand for "baby N connector," or "bayonet connector," or "bayonet Naval connector," or "British Naval Connector" (sorry Microsoft). For further verification search the web for info on Paul Neill and Carl Concelman.] Bode, Hendrick Wade (1905-1982) American engineer who pioneered modern Control theory and Electronic Telecommunications. Bode plot or Bode diagram A method developed by Hendrick Wade Bode to represent the gain and phase of a system as a function of frequency. Usually seen as a plot of log-gain and phase-angle values on a log-frequency scale. See Bode plots and contrast with Nyquist diagrams. bodhran Musical Instrument. A hand-held goatskin drum used in traditional Irish music and often played with a stick. [AHD] Bo Diddley (1928-2008) Stage name for the American rock legend. Born Otha Ellas Bates, his name was changed to Ellas B. McDaniel by his mother's first cousin, Gussie McDaniel, who raised him. In 1954, band member Billy Boy Arnold, a leading American blues harmonica player, came up with Bo Diddley as a stage name for McDaniel. He described it as a "bowlegged guy, a comical looking guy." Although another possibility is that there is a one-string guitar -- native to the Mississippi Delta where McDaniel was born, called a Diddley Bow, but it is said that Bo Diddley had never

played one. [Thanks PT!] Bogen, David (1889-1974) American Russian immigrant who helped pioneer the hi-fi audio industry. bonded magnet motors Generic name for a new class of ironless electric motors that do not use iron or ferrite permanent magnets in their construction. Instead they use anisotropic NdFeB (neodymium-iron-boran) bonded magnets (aka neodymium magnets). Of interest to pro audio users since experimental loudspeakers based on bonded magnets are being researched as not only lighter and more eco-friendly but produce audio with lower distortion. See for instance: "Ironless Motor Loudspeaker: Quantization of the Subjective Enhanced Sound Quality" by Ceruti, Daniele; Guyader, Gael; Lemarquand, Guy; Remy, Mathias; Six, Marc-François; Toppi, Romolo, presented at the129th AES Convention, San Francisco, November 4-7, 2010, preprint 8192. Boner, C.P. (1900-1979) American physicist specializing in acoustics, considered the father of room equalization (U.S. patent 3,457,370). bongo Musical Instrument. One of a pair of connected tuned drums that are played by beating with the hands. [AHD] Bonnaroo Yearly music festival held at an 700-acre farm in Manchester, TN. boogaloo Nickname given to Abie "Boogaloo" Ames (1921-2002) in the 1940s for his boogie-woogie (see below) piano style. boogie 1. To dance to rock music. 2. a. To get going; leave: We're late; let's boogie. b. To move quickly: boogied down the road in their car. n. 1. Strongly rhythmic rock music. 2. Boogie-woogie. [From boogie-woogie below.] [AHD] boogie-woogie A style of blues piano playing characterized by an up-tempo rhythm, a repeated melodic pattern in the bass, and a series of improvised variations in the treble. [AHD] bookkeeper "The only English word with three consecutive repeated letters (not including other forms of that word such as bookkeeping." [Oxford Dictionaries.] Boole, George (1815-1864) British mathematician who devised a new form of algebra that represented logical expressions in a mathematical form now known as . [See Maxfield]

Boolean Algebra An algebra in which elements have one of two values and the algebraic operations defined on the set are logical OR, a type of addition, and logical AND, a type of multiplication. [AHD] (After .) boom Microphones. A long movable arm used to maneuver and support a microphone. [AHD] boom box A portable audio system, usually consisting of a radio and a cassette or CD player, with speakers capable of producing loud sound. [AHD] boost converter Switchmode Electronics. A type of step-up voltage converter, used in DC-DC conversion, favored by designers for its low cost and simplicity. Contrast with buck converter. boost/cut equalizer The most common graphic equalizer. Available with 10 to 31 bands, on 1-octave to 1/3-octave spacing. The flat (0 dB) position locates all sliders at the center of the front panel. Comprised of bandpass filters, all controls start at their center 0 dB position and boost (amplify or make larger) signals by raising the sliders, or cut (attenuate or make smaller) the signal by lowering the sliders on a band-byband basis. Commonly provide a center-detent feature identifying the 0 dB position. Proponents of boosting in permanent sound systems argue that cut-only use requires adding make-up gain that runs the same risk of reducing system headroom as boosting. boot Computer Science. The process of starting or restarting a computer. [AHD] boot loader Computer Science. A small program that starts (loads) other data and programs into RAM where they are executed. bop 1. A post-World War II style of jazz characterized by rhythmic and harmonic complexity, improvised solo performances, and a brilliant style of execution. [AHD] The word "bebop" was shortened to "bob" with Charlie Parker's 1947 recording "Bongo Bop." [Decharne] 2. "Playing bop is like playing Scrabble with all the vowels missing." Duke Ellington, Look August 10, 1954. [Crystal] Boucherot, Paul (1869-1943) French engineer who studied the phenomena of electric conduction, introducing the concept of reactive power and inventing the synchronous electric motor in 1898. He also studied the thermal energy of the seas. The ClaudeBoucherot Process described a scheme to power a turbo-alternator using warm seawater from tropical oceans to produce steam in a vacuum chamber. Theorem of Boucherot: In an AC electrical network, the total active power is the sum of the individual active

In an AC electrical network, the total active power is the sum of the individual active powers, the total reactive power is the sum of the individual reactive powers, but the total apparent power is NOT equal to the sum of the individual apparent powers. Boucherot cell After Paul Boucherot above; see Zobel network. boundary microphone See PZM bouzouki (also bazouki) Musical Instrument. A Greek stringed instrument having a long fretted neck and usually pear-shaped body. [AHD] Bowditch curve See Lissajous figure. Bozak, Rudy See Bozak. BPL (broadband over power lines) General term for any of the "carrier-current" systems that conduct signals over existing electrical wiring or power lines. BPM (beats per minute) Music. A measure of music tempo. See beat matching. BPM Exposition. European expo focusing on DJing, club culture & electronic music. Bps (always uppercase B) Abbreviation for bytes per second. bps (always lowercase b) Abbreviation for bits per second. BPSK (binary phase-shift keying) (aka bi-phase modulation) A specific form of PSK that defines two states of carrier phase that are digitally encoded in a binary stream. The states have a change in phase of 180 degrees that correspond to the 0 and 1 binary state. [IEEE] Braille, Louis (1809-1852) French musician, educator, and inventor of a writing and printing system for blind or visually impaired people (1829). He lost his sight at the age of three. [AHD] His braille system was first developed for blind musicians. bray 1. To utter the loud, harsh cry of a donkey. 2. To sound loudly and harshly: The foghorn brayed all night. [AHD] breathing Dynamics Processors. The audible effect caused by varying noise (or hiss) levels down around the noise floor usually caused by turning on and off gates and expanders. [Izhaki] Technically it is a modulation of the noise floor. breve Music. A note equivalent to two whole notes. Also: 1. A symbol ( ? ) placed over a vowel to show that it has a short sound, as the a in bat. 2. A curved mark used

over a vowel to show that it has a short sound, as the a in bat. 2. A curved mark used to indicate a short or unstressed syllable of verse. [AHD] brewer See zymurgy. brickwall filter Electronic Filters. A low-pass, high-pass or bandpass filter exhibiting extremely steep rolloff rates of greater than 50 dB/octave such that the response resembles a "brick wall." bridge 1. In communications networks a bridge is a device that connects two or more different networks and forwards packets between them; specifically a device that (a) links or routes signals from one ring or bus to another, or from one network to another, (b) may extend the distance and capacity of a single LAN system, (c) performs no modification to packets or messages, (d) operates at the data-link layer of the OSI--Reference Model (Layer 2), (e) reads packets, and (f) passes only those with addresses on the same segment of the network as the originating user. 2. A functional unit that interconnects two local area networks that use the same logical link control (LLC) procedure, but may use different medium access control (MAC) procedures. 3. A balanced electrical network, e.g., a Wheatstone bridge. Contrast with hub. bridged amplifier See BTL. bridge rectifier Electronics. The arrangement of four diodes to achieve full-wave rectification; used to convert AC voltage to DC voltage. bridge-tied load See BTL. briole Theater. Name for the adjustable wire ropes used for theater rigging, e.g., loudspeakers, lighting, scenery, etc. BRIT (British Record Industry Trust) Home of the Brit Awards; Britain's Grammy equivalent. broadband Also wideband, a transmission medium having a bandwidth greater than a traditional telephone (speech) channel (4 kHz). [Some argue that to be "broadband" the medium must support 20 kHz.] The most common broadband medium is coaxial cable carrying multiple audio, video and data channels simultaneously. Each channel takes up a different frequency on the cable. There will be guardbands, or empty spaces, between the channels to make sure each channel does not interfere with its neighbor. The most common example is the CATV cable. Contrast with baseband. broadcasting Networks. A message sent out available for anyone to receive (just like radio broadcast), i.e., sending the same message to multiple recipients, as opposed to

radio broadcast), i.e., sending the same message to multiple recipients, as opposed to multicasting. Broadcasting sends a message to everyone on the network; multicasting sends a message to a specified few. brown noise See noise color. brown note Music. An urban myth that there existed a low frequency note that when played at high levels would make listeners loose bowel control. Exposed as false by Meyer Sound in a TV Myth Busters episode. Compare with blue note. B&S gauge (Brown & Sharpe) See AWG. BSI (British Standards Institute) The National Standards organization responsible for coordinating standards preparation for sound equipment in the UK. B-taper See potentiometer. BTL (bridge-tied load) Amplifiers. An amplifier configuration where the loudspeaker load is connected between the two hot outputs of two amplifiers operating in bridged amplifier mode, i.e., anti-phase, where the output of one amplifier drives the the second amplifier out of phase, or inverted, and operates at unity gain. Thus the second amplifier (usually the second channel of a two channel design) acts as a current amplifier (with inverting voltage). This doubles the output voltage (one-half from the first amplifier and one-half from the second amplifier) and theoretically produces four times the power output (double the voltage equals double the current equals four times the power). However this virtually never happens in practice since the amplifier power supply runs out of current long before four times the power is reached. Typically, amplifiers operating in bridged amplifier mode deliver twice their singleended output power. Semiconductor audio power amplifiers use BTL configurations as a way to maximize power output from the small voltage sources found in internet appliances and automotive applications. BTU (British thermal unit) 1. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 60° to 61°F at a constant pressure of one atmosphere. 2. The quantity of heat equal to 1/180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 32° to 212°F at a constant pressure of one atmosphere. [AHD] The Btu is equivalent to 0.252 kilogram-calorie or 1055 joules. And 1 watt equals 3.41 BTUs/hour. buck Money. The nickname for a U.S. dollar. [Short for buckskin (from its use in trade). Poker. A player's passing the marker, or buck, to the next player when not wanting to deal). [AHD]

wanting to deal). [AHD] buck converter Switchmode Electronics. A type of step-down voltage converter, used in DC-DC conversion, favored by designers for its low cost and simplicity. Contrast with boost converter. buckslip (also buck slip) Publishing. A small dollar-bill size (i.e., a buck) printed insert blown into magazines during the binding stage. Common in the direct mail world. Office memo. A routing slip used especially in military offices to indicate the persons to whom the attached material is to go and usually the kind of action to be taken with such material. [Merriam-Webster] Buddha Bar A restaurant/club franchise begun in 1995 by Raymond Visan with his first location in Paris. buds See: personal monitors buffer In data transmission, a temporary storage location for information being sent or received. buffer amplifier The IEEE dictionary defines buffer amplifier as "An amplifier in which the reaction of output-load-impedance variation on the input circuit is reduced to a minimum for isolation purposes." (Vacuum tube cathode followers and solidstate emitter followers are two examples.) This is a bit confusing, but one thing is clear, it says that at the most fundamental level a buffer amplifier isolates (buffers) the loading effects (impedance) of two stages. It separates them, making them independent. In analog designs, buffer amplifiers are used for just this purpose. If the next circuit stage in a design has impedance characteristics that are detrimental to the preceding stage then a buffer amplifier minimizes this interaction. And its use is not confined to analog design, digital circuits use buffers to minimize similar loading effects. The term "amplifier" comes about from the fact that most buffer amplifiers also provide either voltage or current gain. In this sense, a normal audio power amplifier can be called a buffer amplifier - it buffers your preamp from your very low impedance loudspeakers. [Historical Note: Sometimes a buffer amplifier provides speed as well as isolation. In the mid '70s, National Semiconductor offered in their specialty hybrid circuits line, a product simply named "Fast Buffer," whose purpose was to provide impedance isolation, but could do so at high megawiggle speeds (not a trivial task back then), and if that wasn't good enough, they also offered a "Damn Fast Buffer," that could really get the job done (true story).] As can be seen, the term buffer amplifier is a bit vague: it provides isolation, that much is sure, however, it may also offer

voltage gain, current gain, or both. And it may even provide an unbalanced-to-balanced function, or vice-versa. bug A surprisingly old word used most often to connote a problem with a program or computer. From the 1896 edition of Hawkin's New Catechism of Electricity (Theo. Audel & Co.) comes this definition: "The term `bug' is used to a limited extent to designate any fault or trouble in the connections or working of electric apparatus." To get rid of see Agans. Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest A whimsical literary competition that challenges entrants to compose the opening sentence to the worst of all possible novels. Created by Professor Scott Rice, English Department, at San Jose State University in 1982, the contest is still sponsored by the college. The name comes from Edward George Earle Bulwer-Lytton, who wrote the famous line "It was a dark and stormy night ..." as the opening words in his novel Paul Clifford (1830). Check it out -- great fun. When Wilkie Collins's detective novel The Woman in White appeared in 1860, it created a considerable stir. A feature much remarked upon was the villain, Count Fosco. One lady reader, however, was not so impressed and wrote to tell Collins, "You really do not know a villain. Your Count Fosco is a very poor one." She then offered to supply Collins with a villain next time he wanted one. "Don't think that I am drawing upon my imagination. The man is alive and constantly under my gaze. In fact, he is my husband." The writer was Bulwer-Lytton's wife. [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] bumbershoot 1. An umbrella. Derived from an alteration of umbrella + alteration of (para)chute. [AHD] 2. A Seattle arts festival held each Labor Day weekend, featuring over 2,500 artists including comedians, dancers, painters, poets, sculptors, tightrope walkers, acrobats, filmmakers, bookbinders, DJs, thespians, and musicians of every genre -- from classical to hip-hop. Bundle The shortened form for CobraNet® Bundle; always with a capital B to differentiate it from a bundle of wires. burnt-in time code See time code. Burrus LED Electronics. A surface-emitting LED with a hole etched to accommodate a light-collecting fiber, named after its inventor, Charles A. Burrus of Bell Labs. [JAES] burst error A large number of data bits lost on the medium because of excessive damage to or obstruction on the medium.

burst noise See popcorn noise. bus One or more electrical conductors used for transmitting signals or power from one or more sources to one or more destinations. Often used to distinguish between a single computer system (connected together by a bus) and multi-computer systems connected together by a network. buss To kiss. [AHD] Butterworth filter A type of electronic filter characterized by having a maximally flat magnitude response, i.e., no amplitude ripple in the passband. [Contrast with Chebyshev] This circuit is based upon Butterworth functions (or Butterworth polynomials). [For the mathematically inclined, these polynomials represent a specialized solution to a general MacLaurin series based upon a Taylor series expansion. Named after Stephen Butterworth, a British engineer who first described this response in his paper "On the Theory of Filter Amplifiers," Wireless Engineer, vol. 7, 1930, pp. 536-541. Eleven years later, V.D. Landon coined the phrase maximally flat in his paper "Cascade Amplifiers with Maximal Flatness," RCA Review, vol. 5, 1941, pp. 347-362.] Butterworth crossover The category of loudspeaker crossover design (or alignment) based on Butterworth filters (see above). buzznack An old organ, out of order and playing badly. [Kacirk] bypass capacitor (also decoupling capacitor) Electronics. A capacitor connected from (usually) power supply lines to ground, for the purposes of diverting AC ripple voltages and currents to ground in order to keep the DC supple lines clean and quiet. byte Abbr. B A group of eight bits (a word) operating together. Usually abbreviated in uppercase to distinguish "byte" from "bit" which uses lowercase "b". See Bps.

Pro Audio Reference C
C The electronic symbol for a capacitor. C50 (dB); C80 (dB) Intelligibility. Clarity ratings; a logarithmic measure of the early-tolate arrival sound energy ratio; for music the constant is 80 ms (C80) and for speech it is 50 ms (C50). Compare with D50 (%). CABA (Continental Automated Buildings Association) An industry association that promotes advanced technologies for the automation of homes and buildings in North America. cables Audio systems use many different types of cables (for all the details see Lampen): coaxial cable A single copper conductor, surrounded with a heavy layer of insulation, covered by a thick surrounding copper shield and jacket. A constant-impedance unbalanced transmission line. data cable See data cables and Category cables. fiber optics The technology of using glass fibers to convey light and modulated information. Short distances (typically less than 150 feet) use plastic fibers, while long distances must use glass fibers. mic cable (aka audio cable) A shielded twisted-pair, usually designed for low current, high flexibility and low handling noise. The best insulating materials are somewhat inflexible, so most mic cables use rubber, neoprene, PVC, or similar materials, with small gauge wire, and therefore, true mic cables are not intended for long runs. Unfortunately the term "mic cable" has become synonymous with general-purpose audio cable (as distinguished from speaker cable) when it can be quite different. The very best audio cable may not be the best mic cable and vice versa. quad mic cable or star-quad mic cable [a term coined by Canare for the first quad mic cable, but was not trademarked and is now a generic term]. A four-conductor cable exhibiting very low noise and hum pickup (hum reduction can be 30 dB better than standard mic cable). The four conductors are wound together in a spiral, and then opposite conductors are joined togeth-

wound together in a spiral, and then opposite conductors are joined together at the connectors forming a two-conductor balanced line (also called double balanced) with superior performance. speaker cable An unshielded insulated pair, normally not twisted, characterized by heavy (or large) gauge conductors (hence, low-resistance), used to interconnect the output of a power amplifier and the input of a loudspeaker. The coupling between amplifier and loudspeaker may be direct or via transformer (see constant voltage). The star quad design described above also makes excellent speaker cables for use in high noise environments. triax cable Similar to coax, but with an extra layer of insulation and a second conducting sheath, providing better bandwidth and RFI rejection -- for a price. twisted-pair Standard two-conductor copper cable, with insulation extruded over each conductor and twisted together. Usually operated as a balanced line connection. May be shielded or not, abbreviated UTP (unshielded twisted-pair), or STP (shielded twisted-pair). cacophony 1. Jarring, discordant sound; dissonance: heard a cacophony of horns during the traffic jam. 2. The use of harsh or discordant sounds in literary composition, as for poetic effect. [AHD] cadence Music. A progression of chords moving to a harmonic close, point of rest, or sense of resolution. [AHD] calcium light See: limelight. CALM (Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation) Act Federal legislation regulating the loudness of commercials relative to program material, ensuring they are the same level. calypso Music. A type of music that originated in the West Indies, notably in Trinidad, and is characterized by improvised lyrics on topical or broadly humorous subjects. [AHD] Campbell, George A. (1870-1954) American engineer who was one of the pioneers in long-distance telegraphy and telephony, and in that position created the first audio filter/bandpass EQ circuit. See: U.S. Patent 1,227,113 Electric Wave-Filter issued May 22, 1917. Also see: Wave-Filter.

Candombe Musical Instrument. Uruguay drum music. Cannon plug See connectors. canola (Canada oil low acid) A rapeseed oil that is very low in erucic acid content and high in monounsaturated fatty acids. [AHD] cans See headphones. capacitance A force that resists the sudden buildup of electric voltage (as opposed to inductance which resists the sudden buildup of electric current). [IEEE] capacitive reactance See impedance. capacitor Circuit symbol: C. 1. A device with the primary purpose of introducing capacitance into an electric circuit. 2. An element within a circuit consisting of two conductors, each with an extended surface exposed to that of the other, but separated by a layer of insulating material called the dielectric. Note: The dielectric is designed so the electric charge on one conductor is equal in value but opposite in polarity to that of the other conductor. [IEEE] capacitor microphone See condenser microphone. capacitor standard values See values. carat See: karat. cardioid A heart-shaped plane curve, the locus of a fixed point on a circle that rolls on the circumference of another circle with the same radius. [AHD] cardioid microphone A directional microphone with an on-axis response shaped like a cardioid. Different degrees of caridiod-ness exist, termed subcardioid and hypercardioid. A stationary set of chromatically tuned bells in a tower, usually played from a keyboard. [AHD] Carmen® An EAE system developed by the French company, CSTB. Carry-Coder 150 The first portable compact cassette player introduced in 1965 by Norelco (North America Philips). Also see: Walkman. cart Radio Broadcast. NIckname for the Fidelipac.

Cartesian coordinate system 1. A two-dimensional coordinate system in which the coordinates of a point in a plane are its distances from two perpendicular lines that intersect at an origin, the distance from each line being measured along a straight line parallel to the other. [AHD] 2. A three-dimensional coordinate system in which the coordinates of a point in space are its distances from each of three perpendicular planes that intersect at an origin. After the Latin form of Descartes, the mathematician who invented it. cascade Electronics. A series connected string of two or more circuits where the output of one circuit drives the input of the next, etc. cassette (or compact cassette) A small flat case containing two reels and a length of magnetic tape that winds between them, often used in audio and video recorders and players and as a medium for storing data in digital form. [AHD] First developed by Philips in 1962. Category wiring A wire grading system developed by the EIA / TIA ("TIA/EIA 568B: Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard") describing UTP cabling (and hardware) with transmission characteristics. Some of the most popular follow: CAT 3 (Category 3 cable) Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) data grade cable (usually 24 AWG). CAT 3 cables are characterized to 16 MHz and support applications up to 10 Mbps. Typically used for voice telephone and 10BaseT Ethernet systems. CAT 5 (Category 5 cable) Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) data grade cable (usually 24 AWG). CAT 5 cable runs are limited to 100 meters (328 feet) due to signal radiation and attenuation considerations. Longer runs are vulnerable to electromechanical interference. CAT 5 cables are characterized to 100 MHz and support applications up to 100 Mbps. Most common application is 100Base-T Ethernet systems. [With the release of ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B, CAT 5 is no longer recognized and is officially replaced by CAT 5e (see next entry).] CAT 5e (Category 5 enhanced) As above CAT 5 cable except there is a plastic rib running through the center of the cable that separates the pairs, maintaining greater distance between them to reduce crosstalk (there are other non-rib ways to meet this requirement). It also keeps them in position to maintain the proper geometry along the whole cable. It uses better

insulation, making attenuation and crosstalk performance better. IT DOES NOT EXTEND THE BANDWIDTH. The rated bandwidth is the same 100 MHz. It may run faster but the official specification (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B) does not require it, so caveat emptor. CAT 6 (Category 6) Same as CAT 5e except with extended bandwidth to 250 MHz. CAT 7 (Category 7) Same as CAT 6 except with extended bandwidth to above 600 MHz. catenary Mathematics. The curve formed by a perfectly flexible, uniformly dense, and inextensible cable suspended from its endpoints. It is identical to the graph of a hyperbolic cosine. [AHD] The cable used by Nik Wallenda in his 2012 crossing of Niagara Falls formed a catenary, causing him to first walk downhill then back uphill.

caterwaul A shrill, discordant sound. [AHD] cathode Abbr. ka 1. A negatively charged electrode. 2. In a vacuum tube the electron emitting electrode. 3. In a forward-biased semiconductor diode it is the negative terminal. Contrast with anode. cathode follower See buffer amplifier. CATV (community antenna television or cable television) A broadband transmission medium, most often using 75-ohm coaxial cable carrying many TV channels simultaneously. Cauer filters See elliptic filters. CAV (constant angular velocity) A disc rotating at a constant number of revolutions per second. The LP is a CAV system at 33-1/3 rpm. Another example is the CAV laser disc that plays two 30-minute sides. CBGB (country bluegrass blues) Famous Manhattan underground music club and gallery opened in 1973 and closed in 2006. CBID (content-based identification) The method of establishing intellectual property through a system that does not embed digital watermarks into the audio data but instead uses algorithms to analyze an audio segment to determine its unique character-

istics (e.g., loudness, pitch, brightness and harmonicity). CBN (common-bonded network) See mesh ground. CB Scheme (Certification Bodies Scheme) The official name is "Scheme of the IECEE for Mutual Recognition of Test Certificates for Electrical Equipment." CCD (Content Creator Data) The Library of Congress, partnered with The Recording Academy Producers & Engineers Wing and BMS/Chase, standard for media metadata. CCIF (Comité Consultatif International des Téléphonique, or International Telephone Consultative Committee) The CCIF merged with the CCIT becoming the CCITT. In 1992, the CCITT, together with the CCIR, morphed into the ITU. CCIR (Comité Consultatif International des Radio Communications, or International Radio Consultative Committee) (International Radio Consultative Committee) Merged with the ITU and became the ITU-R radiocommunications division. CCIR ARM See weighting filters. CCIR-468 See weighting filters. CCIR 2 kHz See weighting filters. CCIT (Comité Consultatif International des Télégraphique, or International Telegraph Consultative Committee) Merged with the CCIF to become the CCITT. CCITT (Comité Consultatif International des Téléphonique et Télégraphique, or International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) Merged with the ITU and became the ITU-T telecommunications division. CCWLE (counterclockwise lead end) Refers to electric motor rotation viewed from the end where the hook-up wires exit. CD (compact disc) Trademark term for the Sony-Philips digital audio optical disc storage system. The system stores 80 minutes (maximum) of digital audio and subcode information, or other non-audio data, on a 12-centimeter diameter optical disc. The disc is made of plastic, with a top metallized layer, and is read by reflected laser light. Variations (such as the 3" disc) are reserved for special applications. Interesting history found here. [Historical Note: The modern CD is based on James Russell's original work, while at Bettelle Memorial Institute's Northwest laboratory. He is acknowledged as the

inventor of optical data storage where he developed the first digital-to-optical recording and playback system in 1970. In 1985 he began licensing his technology to Sony, Philips and others who bought the manufacturing rights and begun mass production. Russell was born in Bellingham, Washington.] CD-4 (Compatible Discrete 4) also called Quadradisc (No connection to "compact disc" above). JVC introduced this discrete quadraphonic vinyl record in 1971. This was the only successful discrete 4-channel record, although short lived. CD horn EQ See constant directivity horn. CD-I (compact disc interactive) System storing digital audio, video, text, and graphics information interactively, with user control over content and presentation, on a 12-centimeter diameter optical disc. CD+MIDI A System storing MIDI information in a disc's subcode area. CD-PROM (compact disc programmable read-only memory) A write-once CD-ROM disc. CD-R (compact disc-recordable) A compact disc that is recordable at least once. CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) A method of storing digitally coded information, such as computer information or database, on a 12-centimeter diameter optical disc. CD-V (compact disc video) A system storing five minutes of analog video and digital audio plus twenty minutes of digital audio only on a 12-centimeter diameter optical disc, and longer times on 20- or 30-centimeter diameter optical discs. CdS (cadmium sulfide) 1. Chemistry. Known as greenockite in its only native form, it is a naturally occurring light-variable resistor (see LDR). 2. Art & Color. A yellow powder that is used as a pigment. Also of interest: Cadmium Sulfide vs. Silicon. CEA (Consumer Electronics Association) CEA's mission is to grow the consumer electronics industry. CEA-2006 Testing & Measurement Methods for Mobile Audio Amplifiers A voluntary standard published by the CEA advocating an objective and uniform method for determining a car (or other mobile) amplifier's power rating. It specifies that the power be measured with a supply voltage of 14.4 volts, a 4-ohm resistive load, at a 1% THD+N level, and a frequency range of 20 Hz - 20 kHz. Also that S/N be measured

using an A-weighted filter at a reference level of 1 watt into 4 ohms. CEDIA (Custom Electronic Design & Installation Association) A global trade association of companies that specialize in planning and installing electronic systems for the home. CEI (Commission Electrotechnique Internationale) See IEC. Celsius Abbr. C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure. [AHD] (The term "Celsius" is preferred to "centigrade" in technical contexts.) [After Anders Celsius] Celsius, Anders (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1742). [AHD] CEMA (Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association) The definitive source for information about the consumer electronics industry. CE-mark(Conformité Européenne) The letter-logo used in marking units certified for distribution within the European Union (EU) that meet the directives mandated by the European Commission. censor DJ Software Technology. A censor button masks parts of a song, i.e., it is a quick reverse with no timing loss. With a censor button you can reverse a section without losing play position. cent Musical Research. A unit of pitch change equal to 0.01 semitones. [Bregman] center frequency One of the parameters of a bandpass filter. The center frequency occurs at the maximum or minimum amplitude response for Butterworth filters, the most common found in audio electronics. centi- Prefix for one hundredth (10-2), abbreviated c. centigrade Temperature term generally not used in scientific contexts apart from meteorology. See Celsius. cepstrum The word "spectrum" with the first four letters reversed. Created in 1963 by Bogert, Healy and Tukey in their paper "The Quefrency Analysis of Time Series for Echoes: Cepstrum, Pseudoautocovariance, Cross-Cepstrum, and Saphe Cracking." They observed that the logarithm of the power spectrum of a signal containing an

echo has an additive periodic component due to the echo, and thus the Fourier transform of the logarithm of the power spectrum should exhibit a peak at the echo delay. They called this function the "cepstrum," interchanging letters in the word spectrum because "in general, we find ourselves operating on the frequency side in ways customary on the time side and vice versa." The cepstrum is obtained in two steps: A logarithmic power spectrum is calculated and declared to be the new analysis window. On that an inverse FFT is performed. The result is a signal with a time axis. cereal interface A bowl and a spoon. [Thanks PM.] CERN (Conseil Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire) European Particle Physics Laboratory. See World Wide Web. chachka or tchotchke also tsatske A cheap showy trinket, sometimes used as swag or a spiff. [AHD] Chalice drum See: goblet drum. Chandler Circle or Chandler Wobble Astronomy. The earth wobbles slightly and causes the North Pole to shift about a bit. Here is a great description: "If the North Pole were a scribing stylus, it would trace a line every 428 days in the shape of an irregular circle, with a diameter varying from 25 to 30 feet. Over the year, these irregular circles would all fall within an area some 65 feet across, called the Chandler Circle. The average position of the center of this circle is the Geographic North Pole." Barry Lopez, Arctic Dreams: Imagination and Desire in a Northern Landscape, New York: Bantam, 1986, pp 16-20. channel separation See crosstalk. chanteuse A woman singer, especially a nightclub singer. [AHD] Chapman Stick® Musical Instrument. A two-handed fretboard tapping instrument invented by Emmett Chapman in 1969. charge Symbol q 1. Electricity. a. To cause formation of a net electric charge on or in (a conductor, for example). b. To energize (a storage battery) by passing current through it in the direction opposite to discharge. 2. Physics. a. The intrinsic property of matter responsible for all electric phenomena, in particular for the force of the electromagnetic interaction, occurring in two forms arbitrarily designated negative and positive. b. A measure of this property. c. The net measure of this property possessed by a body or contained in a bounded region of space. [AHD]

chassis ground 1. The common point on a conducting chassis surrounding the system electronic circuit boards; usually separate from the signal ground but may be tied at one point. 2. The earth grounding connection provided on the chassis for safety reasons. See the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection. Chebyshev filter A class of electronic filter characterized by having an equiripple magnitude response, meaning the magnitude increases and decreases regularly from DC to the cutoff frequency. Chebyshev filters are classified by the amount of ripple in the passband, for example a 1 dB Chebyshev low-pass filter is one with a magnitude response ripple of 1 dB. Chebyshev filters are popular because they offer steeper rolloff rates than Butterworth filters for the same order, but for audio applications the Chebyshev is virtually never seen due to the superior magnitude and phase responses of the Butterworth class. [After Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev.] Chebyshev, Pafnuty Lvovich [also spelled Tschebyscheff and Tchebysheff] (18211894) Russian mathematician best remembered for his work on the theory of prime numbers. [AHD] checksum The sum of a group of data items used for error checking. If the checksum received equals the one sent, all is well. Otherwise, the receiving equipment requests the data be sent again. Chess, Leonard (birth name: Lejzor Czyz) (1917-1969) Founder of Chess Records famous for his development of electric blues and discovering and promoting such talents as Muddy Waters, Bo Diddley, Chuck Berry and Etta James. chiasmus The term for a reversal in the order of words in two otherwise parallel phrases. For example, the advice from the great sci-fi writer Ray Bradbury to aspiring writers: "You have to know how to accept rejection and reject acceptance," or the familiar adage: "Say what you mean and mean what you say." chiff The name given to the burst of white noise at the beginning of a note (like the "ch" sound in the word "chiff") that occurs in a pipe organ or whistle. Also the hissy white noise heard throughout a note's duration from a whistle. chilihedron Geometry. A solid figure or object with a thousand plane faces. [OED] Chinese string instruments Go here. chirogymnast Music. A mechanical apparatus for the exercising of a pianist's fingers. [Kacirk]

chirp A short, high-pitched sound, such as that made by a small bird or an insect. [AHD] An electronic chirp (swept sine wave) is used in acoustic testing. See for example: Sine Chirps for Measuring Impulse Response by Ian Chan, Stanford Research Systems. Chitlin' circuit Term for the black music scene primarily in the '30s and '40s. See: Preston Lauterbach, The Chitlin Circuit and the Road to Rock ’N’ Roll choke Electronics. Alternate name for an inductor. chopper Slang for any type of SMPS device. chopper-stablized op amp Electronics. A specialized op amp where the input errors associated with offset voltage, bias current, temperature drift and 1/f noise are constantly corrected,. chord Music. A combination of three or more pitches sounded simultaneously. [AHD] Not to be confused with cord. chorusing Recording. An effect where the audio signal is given multiple delays so as to sound like several instruments playing at once. The delay times are short, typically 20-45 milliseconds, and each delayed signal may be pitch-shifted. The effect is similar to hearing a "chorus," where everyone is singing the same thing but at slightly different times and pitches. Chorusing is a slightly elaborated version of doubling. A signal is delayed approximately 15-35 milliseconds and mixed with the undelayed signal. The delay time is modulated by a low-frequency-oscillator to achieve a shimmering effect due to a combination of beat-frequencies and the slight pitch-bending that occurs as the delay time is changed. Christie, Samuel Hunter See Wheatstone bridge. chromatic scale Music. A scale consisting of 12 semitones. chrominance 1. Abbreviated C. The color portion of the video signal - includes hue and saturation information but not brightness. 2. VJ Jargon. A video filter that rejects color portions of an image. Used by VJs to eliminate or feature specific image colors. Popular technique for blending images. See luminance. Chrysler Air Raid Siren Promoted as "The Most Powerful Siren Ever Built," now a much sought after collector's item. Powered by a 180 HP V-8 Chrysler Hemi® gasoline engine driving a three-stage compressor blowing 2,610 cubic feet of air a minute

into a giant siren rotor, with exit velocity of 400 miles per hour, the siren produced loudness levels of 138 dB SPL at a distance of 100 feet. Hit the link to hear a sample. [Impressive. Thanks Rob!] CI (cochlear implant) A hearing assisting device surgically placed in the inner ear that allows a representation of sounds. circuit-bending The popular art of altering low-cost electronic devices -- toys mostly -- to make them produce new and unique sounds such as squawks, beeps and bongs, thus creating a homemade musical instrument. Reed Ghazala is credited with inventing this new music genre. circumaural Headphones. Literally "around the ear," thus headphones with earpieces surrounding the ear and pressing against the side of the head, forming a seal to reduce ambient noise leakage. Compare with supra-aural. CIS (Common Intelligibility Scale) International standard (IEC 60849) that maps all intelligibility tests to a common scale for comparative results. CISAC (Confederation Internationale des Societes d'Auterus et Compositeurs or The International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers) An organization that works towards increased recognition and protection of creator's rights. CISC (complex instruction set computing) See RISC. CISPR (Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques or International Special Committee on Radio Interference) Established in 1934 by a group of international organizations to address radio interference. clairaudience The supposed power to hear things outside the range of normal perception. [AHD] Also called aural hallucinations. claque 1. A group of persons hired to applaud at a performance. 2. A group of fawning admirers. [AHD] clarion Music. 1. A medieval trumpet with a shrill clear tone. 2. The sound of this instrument or a sound resembling it. [AHD] clarity index or clarity measure See C50 (dB). clamor Loud, usually sustained noise, as a public outcry of dissatisfaction. [AHD]

clangor Noise. A loud racket; a din. [AHD] clapperboard The device used to synchronize sound and picture in film and video making, consisting of two boards that bang together and are viewed by the camera to create a picture and sound reference point. Named for the sharp "clap" sound made when the boards are struck together. class-A An amplifier class. Class 1, 2 & 3 wiring See: wiring classes. Class I equipment Equipment where protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but also provides an additional safety precaution allowing connection of the equipment to the protective earth conductor in the fixed wiring of the installation so that accessible metal parts cannot become live in the event of a failure of the basic insulation. Class II equipment Equipment where protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but also provides additional safety precautions such as double insulation or reinforced insulation, but there is no provision for connection of the equipment to the protective earth conductor. clef Music. French, key, a symbol indicating the pitch represented by one line of a staff, in relation to which the other pitches of the staff can be determined. [AHD] CLF (Common Loudspeaker data sheet Format) Loudspeakers. The organization developed a common format for the presentation of loudspeaker data, which also serves as a stand-alone specification sheet for the loudspeaker parameters required by system designers, with a free downloadable data viewer program. click track A series of audio cues used to synchronize sound recordings to a moving image. Hit the link to read the interesting history. client 1. Any device connected to a server on a local area network (LAN), e.g., personal computer, DSP-based unit, workstation, etc. It is a computer program that requests a service from the server program, usually over the network, e.g. a Wi-Fi card is a client in a WLAN. clipping Term used to describe the result of an amplifier running into power supply limitation. The maximum output voltage that any amplifier can produce is limited by its power supply. Attempting to output a voltage (or current) level that exceeds the power supply results in a flattoping effect on the signal, making it look cut off or

power supply results in a flattoping effect on the signal, making it look cut off or "clipped." A clipped waveform exhibits extreme harmonic distortion, dominated by large amplitude odd-ordered harmonics making it sound harsh or dissonant. Hard clipping is the term used to describe extreme clipping of a signal, producing highly visible flattoped waveforms as viewed on an oscilloscope; soft clipping refers to moderate clipping that results in waveforms having softly-rounded edges, as opposed to the sharp edges of hard clipping. For how-to-avoid see the RaneNote Setting Sound System Level Controls. clock A timing device that generates the basic periodic signal used as a source of synchronizing signals in digital equipment. cloud computing Technology that allows accessing vast memory storage or hugh software remotely from a computer via the Internet. The computer being the usual desktop or laptop, or hidden inside a smartphone, tablet or other smart device. One audio application is to have all your music stored on the Internet instead of on your hard drive, giving you pretty much limitless capacity and accessible anywhere by any Internet capable device. CLV (constant linear velocity) A disc rotating at varying numbers of revolutions per second to maintain a constant relative velocity between pickup and track across the disc radius. The CD is a CLV system rotating from 500 rpm (lead-in track) to 200 rpm (lead-out track). Another example is the CLV laser disc that plays two sixty minute sides. CMJ Music Marathon A yearly showcase for new independent music, including rock, hip-hop and electronica genres hosted by the College Music Journal, a music publishing company. CMR or CMRR See common-mode rejection (ratio). Coachella A huge music festival performed yearly in Coachella, California. coaxial Having or mounted on a common axis. [AHD] coaxial cable A single copper conductor, surrounded with a heavy layer of insulation, covered by a thick surrounding copper shield and jacket. A constantimpedance unbalanced transmission line. See cables. coaxial loudspeaker Two or more transducers sharing a common axis. A common example is the car speaker with a small tweeter mounted on axis and in front of the woofer cone. See Frazier white paper for in-depth details.

CobraNet® A registered trademark of Cirrus Logic identifying their licensed networking technology used for the deterministic and isochronous transmission of digital audio, video, and control signals over Ethernet networks. cochlea A spiral-shaped cavity of the inner ear that resembles a snail shell and contains nerve endings essential for hearing. [AHD] cochlear implant See: CI. codec (code-decode also compression-decompression) Originally a device for converting voice signals from analog to digital for use in digital transmission schemes, normally telephone based, and then converting them back again. Broaden now to mean an electronic device that converts analog signals, such as video and voice signals, into digital form and compresses them to conserve bandwidth. Many codecs employ proprietary coding algorithms for data compression, common examples being Dolby's AC-2, ADPCM, and MPEG schemes. It is data compression (and direct digital video & audio inputs) that evolved the meaning of compression-decompression, however today the marketplace offers both compressed and uncompressed versions based on the application. coercivity Recording. A measure of the difficulty of erasure in magnetic recording. coincident-microphone technique See X/Y microphone technique. color-code Resistors. Also see: Resistor and standard component values. color organ Any device that converts musical input to a visual output. One early example being the Optophonic Piano. Contrast with light organ. column array See: line arrays. comb filter Acoustics. A frequency response curve that resembles a comb, having steep peaks and valleys, caused by reflections arriving out of phase with the direct sound, creating reinforcements and cancellations of the sound. [Hit the link to read about signal processing comb filters.] combining response See interpolating response and the RaneNote Exposing Equalizer Mythology. common logarithm A logarithm based on the powers of 10 (aka base-10). common-mode rejection (ratio) Abbr. CMR and CMRR The characteristic of a differ-

common-mode rejection (ratio) Abbr. CMR and CMRR The characteristic of a differential amplifier to cancel all common-mode signals applied to its inputs. The "ratio" is obtained by dividing the input common-mode voltage by the amount of output voltage, thereby giving you some measure of the amplifier's ability to reject common signals. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. common-mode signal Strictly speaking it is the average of the signals present at the two inputs of a differential amplifier, although it is more often meant to be the voltage level present at both inputs, as if they were tied together. compander A contraction of compressor-expander. A term referring to dynamic range reduction and expansion performed by first a compressor acting as an encoder, and second by an expander acting as the decoder. Normally used for noise reduction or headroom reasons. comparator Electronics. A circuit element with two inputs labeled positive and negative and one output. The output goes either high or low depending upon which input is greater. If the positive input is greater than the negative input then the output goes high, and vice versa. Also see Schmitt trigger. complex frequency variable An AC frequency in complex number form. See complex number. complex number Mathematics. Any number of the form a + bj, where a and b are real numbers and j is an imaginary number whose square equals -1 [AHD]; and a represents the real part (e.g., the resistive effect of a filter, at zero phase angle) and b represents the imaginary part (e.g., the reactive effect, at 90 degrees phase angle). complex separation "The theory that, in music, a song gets only one chance to make a first impression. After that the brain starts breaking it down, subdividing the musical experience into its various components -- lyrical, melodic and so forth." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.] component video A video system for color television that stores separate channels of red, green and blue. Becoming increasingly popular on DVD players, as well. composite video A video signal combining luminance, chrominance and synchronization data on a single coax cable using RCA connectors and color-coded yellow. compression 1. An increase in density and pressure in a medium, such as air, caused by the passage of a sound wave. 2. The region in which this occurs. compression driver Loudspeakers. A high frequency dynamic loudspeaker that

compression driver Loudspeakers. A high frequency dynamic loudspeaker that mounts at the rear of an acoustic horn that further amplifies and greatly improves the overall efficiency. First commercial units where developed in 1926 by Western Electric and engineers Wente and Thuras. compression wave A wave propagated by means of the compression of a fluid, such as a sound wave in air. [AHD] compressor A signal processing device used to reduce the dynamic range of the signal passing through it. For instance, an input dynamic range of 110 dB might pass through a compressor and exit with a new dynamic range of 70 dB. This clever bit of skullduggery is normally done through the use of a VCA (voltage controlled amplifier), whose gain is a function of a control voltage applied to it. Thus, the control voltage is made a function of the input signal's dynamic content. [Long answer: What "compression" is and does has evolved significantly over the years. Originally compressors were used to reduce the dynamic range of the entire signal; with modern advances in audio technology, compressors now are used more sparingly. First the classical case: The history of compressors dates back to the late '20s and '30s (the earliest reference I have located is a 1934 paper in the Bell Labs Journal.) The need arose the very first time anyone tried to record (sound-motion pictures film recording, phonograph recording, etc.) or broadcast audio: the signal exceeded the medium. For example, the sound from a live orchestra easily equals 100 dB dynamic range. Yet early recording and broadcasting medium all suffered from limited dynamic range. Typical examples: LP record 65 dB, cassette tape 60 dB (w/noise reduction), analog tape recorder 70 dB, FM broadcast 60 dB, AM broadcast 50 dB. Thus "6 pounds of audio into a 4 pound bag" became the necessity that mothered the invention of the compressor (sorry). Early compressors did not have a "threshold" knob, instead, the user set a center ("hinge") point equivalent to the midpoint of the expected dynamic range of the incoming signal. Then a ratio was set which determined the amount of dynamic range reduction. The earlier example of reducing 110 dB to 70 dB requires a ratio setting of 1.6:1 (110/70 = 1.6). The key to understanding compressors is to always think in terms of increasing and decreasing level changes in dB about some set-point. A compressor makes audio increases and decreases smaller. From our example, for every input increase of 1.6 dB above the hinge point, the output only increases 1 dB, and for every input decrease of 1.6 dB below the hinge point, the output only decreases 1 dB. If the input increases by x-dB, the output increases by y-dB, and if the input decreases by xdB, the output decreases by y-dB, where x/y equals the ratio setting. Simple -- but not intuitive and not obvious. This concept of increasing above the set-point and decreasing below the set-point is where this oft-heard phrase comes from: "compressors make the loud sounds quieter and the quiet sounds louder." If the sound gets louder by 1.6 dB

and the output only increases by 1 dB, then the loud sound has been made quieter; and if the sound gets quieter by 1.6 dB and the output only decreases by 1 dB, then the quiet sound has been made louder (it didn't decrease as much). Think about it -it's an important concept. With advances in all aspects of recording, reproduction and broadcasting of audio, the usage of compressors changed from reducing the entire program to just reducing selective portions of the program. Thus was born the threshold control. Now sound engineers set a threshold point such that all audio below this point is unaffected, and all audio above this point is compressed by the amount determined by the ratio control. Therefore the modern usage for compressors is to turn down (or reduce the dynamic range of) just the loudest signals. Other applications have evolved where compressors are used in controlling the creation of sound. For example when used in conjunction with microphones and musical instrument pick-ups, compressors help determine the final timbre by selectively compressing specific frequencies and waveforms. Common examples are "fattening" drum sounds, increasing guitar sustain, vocal "smoothing," and "bringing up" specific sounds out of the mix, etc.] See the RaneNote Dynamics Processors and the RaneNote Signal Processing Fundamentals. concealment Digital Audio. An interpolation technique where the value of a missing sample is estimated from those nearby. concert sound See: History of Concert Sound. condenser Electronics. Old name for a capacitor. condenser microphone [Also called capacitor microphone but more properly, the correct name is electrostatic microphone.] Invented by Wente in 1916, a microphone design where a condenser (the original name for capacitor) is created by stretching a thin diaphragm in front of a metal disc (the backplate). By positioning the two surfaces very close together an electrical capacitor is created whose capacitance varies as a function of sound pressure. Any change in sound pressure causes the diaphragm to move, which changes the distance between the two surfaces. If the capacitor is first given an electrical charge (polarized) then this movement changes the capacitance, and if the charge is fixed, then the backplate voltage varies proportionally to the sound pressure. In order to create the fixed charge, condenser microphones require external voltage (polarizing voltage) to operate. This is normally supplied in the form of phantom power from the microphone preamp or the mixing console. conductance Electronics. The real part of admittance. cone of confusion Hearing. If a sound presented to one ear is within an on-axis cone,

cone of confusion Hearing. If a sound presented to one ear is within an on-axis cone, then it is not possible to locate it, due to the head blocking the sound from reaching the other ear (or attenuates it so much that the brain ignores it). (The listener can tell from which side the sound comes from but cannot locate it within the cone.) There is a similar effect for sounds occurring exactly in front, or to the rear, where the sound does reach each ear but with the identical level and direction causing localization confusion. If the sound is not heard differently by each ear, we cannot accurately localize the source. This is called the "cone of confusion." CONEQ (convolution equalization) A trademark of Real Sound Lab for their automated EQ system. conjobble An English word no longer in print (except here) meaning to settle, arrange; to chat (late 17th century). conjunto Music. A style of popular dance music originating along the border between Texas and Mexico, characterized by the use of accordion, drums, and 12-string bass guitar and traditionally based on polka, waltz, and bolero rhythms. [AHD] connectionless Networks. Protocols where the host sends messages without establishing connection with the recipients. This is the "hope and pray" school: put the message on the network (with an address) and "hope and pray" it arrives. Examples: Ethernet, and UDP are connectionless. connection-oriented Networks. Protocols where the host sends messages directly to a connected receiver (as opposed to connectionless above), i.e., the protocol requires a confirmed channel before transmission. TCP/IP is connection-oriented. connectors Audio equipment uses many types of connectors as follows: banana jack or banana plug A single conductor electrical connector with a banana-shaped spring-metal tip most often used on audio power amplifiers for the loudspeaker wiring. Usually configured as a color-coded molded pair (red = hot & black = return) on 3/4" spacing. Also used for test leads and as terminals for plug-in components. The British still refer to these as a GR plug, after General Radio Corporation, the inventor (according to The Audio Dictionary by Glenn D. White). binding posts Alternate name for banana jacks above, derived from the capability to loosen (unscrew) the body and insert a wire through a hole provided in the electrical terminal and tighten the plastic housing down over

vided in the electrical terminal and tighten the plastic housing down over the wire insulation, holding the wire in place. BNC A miniature bayonet locking connector for coaxial cable. Used to interconnect S/PDIF digital audio. See BNC for development and name history. Cannon connector or Cannon plug Alternate reference for . Elco connector or Elco plug AVX manufactures several connectors used for interconnecting multiple audio channels at once, most often found in recording studios on analog and digital audio tape machines. One of these, a 90-pin version (Vari*con Series 8016), carries 28 shielded pairs of audio channels, allowing 3-wires per channel (positive, negative & shield) for a true balanced system interconnect. Euroblocks Shortened form of European style terminal blocks, a specialized disconnectable, or plugable terminal block consisting of two pieces. The receptacle is permanently mounted on the equipment and the plug is used to terminate both balanced and unbalanced audio connections using screw terminals. Differs from regular terminal strips in its plugability, allowing removal of the equipment by disconnecting the plug section rather than having to unscrew each wire terminal. Unofficial, but popularly followed, is the colorcode convention where green is used for inputs and orange is used for outputs. RCA (aka phono jack or pin jack) The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) originally developed this type of unbalanced pin connector for internal chassis connections in radios and televisions during the '30s. It became popular for use in the cables that connected phonograph cartridges to preamplifiers because it was inexpensive and easily fitted to the rather small diameter shielded cables used for the cartridge leads (then they were mono cartridges so single conductor shielded cables were adequate -- now you know). The standard connector used in line-level consumer and project studio sound equipment, and most recently to interconnect composite video signals. (excerpted from Yamaha Sound Reinforcement Handbook, pp. 297-298). The controlling standard is IEC Specification 60603-14.

Speakon® A registered trademark of Neutrik for their original design loudspeaker connector, now considered an industry de facto standard. terminal strips or terminal blocks Also called barrier strips, a type of wiring connector provided with screwdown posts separated by insulating barrier strips. Used for balanced and unbalanced wiring connections, where each wire is usually terminated with a crimped-on spade- or ringconnector and screwed in place; not disconnectable, or plugable. Has become known as the U.S. style terminal blocks. Contrast with . 1/4" TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) 1. Stereo 1/4" connector consisting of tip (T), ring (R), and sleeve (S) sections, with T = left, R = right, and S = ground/shield. 2. Balanced interconnect with the positive & negative signal lines tied to T and R respectively and S acting as an overall shield. 3. Insert loop interconnect with T = send, R = return, and S = ground/shield. [Think: ring, right, return] The international standard is IEC 60603-11. 1/4" TS (tip-sleeve) Mono 1/4" connector consisting of tip (T) [signal] and sleeve (S) [ground & shield] for unbalanced wiring. Other popular TRS versions are the mini (3.5 mm) and the submini (2.5 mm) found on cell phones, , iPods, MP 3 players, etc. [Note that the 3.5 mm and 2.5 mm sizes are often mistakenly referred to as 1/8" and 3/32! respectively, but these dimensions are only approximations since 1/8" = 3.18 mm and 3/32" = 2.29 mm.]. Another interesting variant is the TRRS (tip-ring-ring-sleeve) connector commonly found on iPhones, newer model iPods, cell phones and other media players. The extra ring connection is used for microphone audio on cell phone headsets, as well as video on digital cameras, camcorders, and portable DVD players. XLD A proposed version (by Neutrik) of the standard XLR connector (shown below) that is keyed to prevent digital cables from being connected to analog connectors and vice versa. The original application is for AES3MIC digital mics, to make them incapable with standard analog mic inputs. [Note: this is not yet in production.]

XLR 1. Originally a registered trademark of ITT-Cannon in 1958. The original model number series for Cannon's 3-pin circular connectors - invented by them - now an industry generic term. [Ray A. Rayburn tells the whole story: "At one time Cannon made a large circular connector series that was popular for microphones called the P series (now known as the EP series). Mics used the 3-pin P3 version. Some loudspeakers use the P4 or P8 versions of this connector to this day ( NL4MPR 4-pole chassis mount and all Speakon 8-pole chassis mount connectors are made to fit the same mounting holes as the Cannon EP series). In an attempt to make a smaller connector for the microphone market, Cannon came out with the UA series. These were 'D' shaped instead of circular and were used on such mics as the Electro-Voice 666 and 654. There was a desire for a smaller yet connector. Someone pointed out the small circular Cannon X series. The problem with this was it had no latch. Cannon rearranged the pins and added a latch, and the XL (X series with Latch) was born. This is the connector others have copied. Later Cannon modified the female end only to put the contacts in a resilient rubber compound. They called this new version the XLR series. No other company has copied this feature."] 2. The standard connector for digital and analog balanced line interconnect between audio equipment. consonant Speech. 1. (noun) A speech sound in which an articulatory gesture stops or modifies the flow of the voiced sounds (vowels). Examples are "b", "k", and "n". 2 (adjective) Smooth and harmonious. The opposite of dissonant. [Bregman] constant directivity (CD) horn (also known as uniform coverage or constant coverage horns) A horn-loaded high frequency driver that exhibits more or less constant distribution (or directivity) of high-frequency sound in the horizontal direction (and vertical, but horizontal is considered more important). The ideal is a broadband directional loudspeaker producing a beam pattern essentially constant for all frequencies above a certain cutoff frequency (i.e., the crossover point) over a 90, 60 or 40 degree horizontal arc depending upon design (termed long-, medium- and shortthrow respectively), and around 40 degree vertical spread. This is done by using one of several special dual shaped horn designs created to solve the traditional problem of horn-loaded driver output varying with frequency. All CD horns exhibit a high frequency roll-off of approximately 6 dB/octave beginning somewhere in the 2 kHz to 4 kHz area. Fixed EQ boost networks that compensate for this are known as CD horn EQ circuits. Well designed CD horns can produce uniform coverage over a

horn EQ circuits. Well designed CD horns can produce uniform coverage over a wide frequency range of 600 Hz to 16 kHz. constant group delay See group delay. constant-Q equalizer (also constantbandwidth) Term applied to graphic and rotary equalizers describing bandwidth behavior as a function of boost/cut levels. Since Q and bandwidth are inverse sides of the same coin, the terms are interchangeable. The bandwidth remains constant for all boost/cut levels. For constant-Q designs, the skirts vary directly proportional to boost/cut amounts. Small boost/cut levels produce narrow skirts and large boost/cut levels produce wide skirts. See the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers, the RaneNote Operator Adjustable Equalizers, and the RaneNote Signal Processing Fundamentals Compare with proportional-Q and true response equalizers. constant splay array See line arrays. constant-voltage The common name given to the general practices begun in the 1920s and 1930s (becoming a U.S. standard in 1949) governing the interface between power amplifiers and loudspeakers used in distributed sound systems. Installations employing ceiling-mounted loudspeakers, such as offices, factories and schools are examples of distributed sound systems. The standard was derived from the need to minimize cost and to simplify the design of complex audio systems. One way to minimize cost is to minimize the use of copper, and one way to do that is to devise a scheme that allows the use of smaller gauge wire than normal 8 ohm loudspeakers require. Borrowing from the cross-country power distribution practices of the electric companies, this was done by using a transformer to step-up the amplifier's output voltage (with a corresponding decrease in output current); use this higher voltage to drive the (now smaller gauge due to smaller current) long lines to the loudspeakers; and then use another transformer to step-down the voltage at each loudspeaker. Clever. This scheme became known as the constant-voltage distribution method. The term "constantvoltage" is quite misleading and causes much confusion until understood. Point 1: In electronics, two terms exist to describe two very different power sources: "constantcurrent" and "constant-voltage." Constant-current is a power source that supplies a fixed amount of current regardless of the load, so the output voltage varies, but the current remains constant. Constant-voltage is just the opposite. The voltage stays constant regardless of the load, so the output current varies but not the voltage. Applied

stant regardless of the load, so the output current varies but not the voltage. Applied to distributed sound systems, the term is used to describe the action of the system at full power only. This is the key point in understanding. At full power the voltage on the system will not vary as a function of the number of loudspeakers driven, that is, you may add or remove (subject to the maximum power limits) any number of loudspeakers and the voltage will remain the same, i.e., constant. Point 2: The other thing that is "constant" is the amplifier's output voltage at rated power -- and it is the same voltage for all power ratings. Several voltages are used, but the most common in the U.S. is 70.7 volts rms. The standard specifies that all power amplifiers put out 70.7 volts at their rated power. So, whether it is a 100 watt, or 500 watt or 10 watt power amplifier, the maximum output voltage of each must be the same (constant) value of 70.7 volts. This particular number came about from the second way this standard reduced costs: Back in the late '40s, UL safety code specified that all voltages above 100 volts peak created a "shock hazard," and subsequently must be placed in conduit. Expensive. Bad. So, working backward from a maximum of 100 volts peak (conduit not required), you get a maximum rms value of 70.7 volts (Vrms = 0.707 Vpeak). [Often "70.7 volts" is shortened to just "70 volts." It's sloppy; it's wrong; but it's common -- accept it.] In Europe, the most common level is 100 volts rms (although 50 V and 70.7 V are used too). This allows use of even smaller wire. Some large U.S. installations used as high as 210 volts rms, with wire runs of over one mile! Remember, the higher the voltage the lower the current, and consequently the smaller the cable and the longer the line can be driven without significant line loss. [The reduction in current exceeds the increase in impedance caused by the smaller wire because of the current-squared nature of power.] In some parts of the U.S., safety regulations regarding conduit use became stricter, forcing distributed systems to adopt a 25 volt rms standard. This still saves conduit, but adds a considerable increase in copper cost, so its use is restricted to small installations. Modern constant-voltage amplifiers either integrate the step-up transformer into the same chassis, or employ a high voltage design to directly drive the line without the need for the transformer. Similarly, constant-voltage loudspeakers have the step-down transformers built-in. Both 70.7 volt amplifiers and loudspeakers need only be rated in watts. An amplifier is rated for so many watts output at 70.7 volts, and a loudspeaker is rated for so many watts input (to give a certain SPL). Designing a system becomes a relatively simple matter of selecting speakers requiring so many watts to achieve the target SPL (quieter zones use lower wattage speakers, etc.), and then adding up the total to obtain the amplifier(s) power. For example, say you need (10) 25 watt, (5) 50 watt and (15) 10 watt loudspeakers, then you need at least 650 watts of amplifier power (actually you need about 1.5 times this due to real world losses, but that's another story). [See the RaneNote Constant-Voltage Audio Distribution Systems for more details]

contact microphone A musical instrument pickup designed to respond to direct (i.e., in contact) vibrations, such as those found on a violin or cello. One example is the FRAP. content-based identification See: CBID. contour control DJ mixers. A control found on professional DJ performance mixers used to change the shape or taper (contour) of the fader action. Thus at, say, 50 % of travel, a fader may allow 50 %, or 10 %, or 90% of the audio signal to pass depending on the taper of the control. The contour control (switched, continuous or stepped variable) changes this amount. contrapuntal Music. Of, relating to, or incorporating counterpoint. [AHD] control voltage In audio electronic circuits using voltage-controlled amplifiers, or other gain-controllable devices, a DC voltage proportional to the audio input signal amplitude, sometimes frequency dependent, used to set the instantaneous gain of a VCA or other device. It is normally developed in the side-chain of the electronic circuit. convolution A mathematical operation producing a function from a certain kind of summation or integral of two other functions. In the time domain, one function may be the input signal, and the other the impulse response. The convolution than yields the result of applying that input to a system with the given impulse response. In DSP, the convolution of a signal with FIR filter coefficients results in the filtering of that signal. convolution reverb Audio Signal Processing. Digital simulation of reverberation based on convolution mathematical operations. Contrast with algorithmic reverb. Cook, Emory (1913-2002) American engineer and audio pioneer best known for his many contributions to vinyl disc technology including the left-right binaural disc. He produced the first audiophile record in 1949 and demonstrated it at the Audio Fair in New York, subsequently founding the company Sounds of Our Times, the first high fidelity record company. He was a founding member of the AES. Said to be the first to record the sound of rain so accurate that it sounded "wet." cooker wire A British term for the large gauge solid wire (i.e., not stranded) used for electric cookers. Popularly used in ABX testing to confound and expose the aural hallucinations of those obsessed by exotic loudspeaker wire.

Cooper Time Cube Signal Processing. A device built by UREI in 1971 patterned after the Xophonic artificial reverb unit from the '50s. copyright The legal right granted to an author, composer, playwright, publisher, or distributor to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work. [AHD] For an enlightening editorial, see: Joe Bob's (aka John Bloom) write-up titled "Wrong copyright laws." Corba (common object request broker architecture) An ORB (object request broker) standard developed by the OMG (object management group). Corba provides for standard object-oriented interfaces between ORBs, as well as to external applications and application platforms (from Newton's Telecom Dictionary). Not to be confused with . cord Abbr. cd. A unit of quantity for cut fuel wood, equal to a stack measuring 4 × 4 × 8 feet or 128 cubic feet (3.62 cubic meters). [AHD] Not to be confused with chord. core Microprocessors. Shortened form for multicore. Core Audio "A set of services that developers use to implement audio and music features in Mac OS X applications." [Website] Also go here. Coriolis effect Physics. A pseudo force used mathematically to describe motion, as of aircraft or cloud formations, relative to a noninertial, uniformly rotating frame of reference such as the earth. [AHD] The Coriolis effect is the basis of micromachine gyroscopes. corner frequency Same as -3 dB point, or the 3 dB down point; see passband. cornett (also cornet) Musical Instrument. A wind instrument of the trumpet class, having three valves operated by pistons. [AHD] correlation A mathematical operation that indicates the degree to which two signals are alike. CORREQTTM (Computer Optimized Room Resonant EQualization Technique) Acronym created by inventor Ken DeLoria for Apogee Sound International in 1991. corrido Music. A Mexican ballad or folksong. [AHD] CoS (Class of Service) A 3 bit field within a layer-2 Ethernet frame header defined by IEEE 802.1p

IEEE 802.1p Costello, Elvis Stage name of Declan MacManus. COTS (commercial off-the-shelf also commercial off-the-shelf software) Government procurement term. Most often referencing software but general use is found. Compare with MOTS, GOTS and NOTS. coulomb Abbr. C The meter-kilogram-second unit of electrical charge equal to the quantity of charge transferred in one second by a steady current of one ampere. [After Coulomb, Charles Augustin de.] [AHD] Coulomb, Charles Augustin de. (1736-1806) French physicist who pioneered research into magnetism and electricity and formulated Coulomb's law. [AHD] counterpoint Music. 1. Melodic material that is added above or below an existing melody. 2. The technique of combining two or more melodic lines in such a way that they establish a harmonic relationship while retaining their linear individuality. 3. A composition or piece that incorporates or consists of contrapuntal writing. [AHD] Countryman, Carl (19??-2006) American engineer, inventor and entrepreneur founder of Countryman Associates, Inc., whose professional headsets are considered the smallest and lightest available. coupling or mutual coupling Loudspeakers. General term describing the combining behavior of two or more drivers reproducing the same frequency. If two or more identical loudspeakers are mounted such that their acoustic centers are close together (i.e., some fraction of a wavelength), their acoustic outputs over some frequency range will combine (couple) and propagate forward as one waveform, thus two smaller drivers behave as one big driver. [This is the simple vague answer, a detailed specific answer requires a great deal more.] Mark Gander, VP of pro marketing for JBL, puts it this way: "The correct maximum distance that mutual coupling occurs depends on what you want to define as the limit of coupling. For example, is it the maximum approaching +3 dB, or when it reverts to unity gain? It's a gradual transition, so either 1/4 wavelength or 1/2 wavelength separation distance is just a rule of thumb." [Gander sites Lee Henney's Radio Engineering Handbook, 5th ed., Ch. 11 'Loudspeakers and Room Acoustics,' as a useful source that shows the response from groups of pistons at various distances, following the work of Klapman (Klapman, S. J., "Interaction Impedance of a System of Circular Pistons," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 11, p. 289, 1940.)"

John Murray, Digital Audio Lab Manager, Columbia College Chicago, explains: "Mutual coupling is when multiple drivers produce relatively more output at the low end of their response curve than a single driver. This occurs when the drivers are close enough together to have less than 90 degrees of path length difference for the wavelengths of interest at a given listening position. This phenomena is position-dependant, and is, in fact, what causes the high level portion of lobing. At shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) and listening positions farther off-axis of the drivers, the phase difference becomes destructive which results in the nulls of lobing. Even with drivers that are touching, mutual coupling over a wide listening area are virtually always below 300-500 Hz. Chuck McGregor, Technical Services Manager for EAW, says, "It depends." And goes on to explain: "There is no such thing as a correct, maximum source spacing distance for mutual coupling. First one has to define what they consider as mutual coupling (i.e., at what level off-axis does one stop considering the sources as no longer being mutually coupled) and then what is the criteria is for a particular situation, meaning the frequency to which one requires the coupling and the overall angle over which it is needed. Based on this stuff you can figure out the maximum, acceptable driver spacing. Harry Olson analyzes this (although he does not call it mutual coupling) as a double or doublet source in his book, Acoustical Engineering, section 2.3. McGregor's personal view: "First, mutual coupling will occur on-axis even if the center-to-center distance of two sources is 100 light years. At 1/2 wavelength separation they cancel completely at 90 degrees off-axis. At 45 degrees off-axis the signal is roughly 6 dB down, i.e. the equivalent of one source. Does this mean their mutual coupling beamwidth is limited to 45 degrees or is it limited at the 6 dB down point? Maybe it is 3 dB down over a lesser angle?" McGregor offers this as a detailed definition: "Mutual coupling is when the outputs of two or more acoustical sources producing the same signal combine (couple) and propagate forward as one waveform. In this way, two smaller drivers can behave as one larger driver. While any number of sources can mutually couple, for clarity this discussion will focus on two sources.

The amount of coupling directly on axis between two sources producing the same signal will result in a 6 dB increase in level. On-axis, the spacing of these sources has absolutely no effect on this result. However, because the two sources must be physically separated, the coupling decreases off axis as the path lengths from each source to the listener increasingly differ. This is because the two waveforms become increasingly out of phase. For a given source spacing, the higher the frequency is, the more quickly off-axis this occurs. Likewise for a given wavelength (frequency) the wider the source spacing, the more quickly off-axis this occurs. Thus, the amount of mutual coupling at any point off-axis depends on both the source spacing and the wavelength (frequency) of the sound being produced. What is considered mutual coupling? The broadest definition is that any multiple sources producing the same signal whose outputs acoustically combine to produce an increase in level over that of one of the sources means mutual coupling is taking place. For audio purposes, changes of 3 dB and 6 dB are often used as typical criteria for acceptable increases or reductions in level. For two sources, a 3 dB decrease from the on-axis coupling of 6 dB occurs when the path length difference from the sources to the listener is 1/4 wavelength. This equals a 90 degree phase shift between the two waveforms. Likewise for two sources, a 6 dB decrease from the on-axis coupling of 6 dB occurs when the path length difference from the sources to the listener is 1/3 of a wavelength. This equals a 120 degree phase shift between the two waveforms. It also results in a level that equals the output of one source, meaning the amount of mutual coupling is effectively equal to zero. Thus, the best definition for mutual coupling is defined by what is acceptable for any given situation. This can vary from the full, on-axis mutual coupling to the effective absence of mutual coupling, which is where the level decreases to be equal to or less than of one of the sources. Contrary to popular notions, there is no particular driver spacing that results in mutual coupling. Mutual coupling is defined by the level below which mutual coupling is not longer considered mutual coupling. This is an arbitrary level but, in any case, it cannot be below the level of one of the sources. The source spacing and the wavelength (frequency) of the signal then determines the angle over which the combined wavefront falls within the chosen definition of being mutually coupled."

sen definition of being mutually coupled." cover buzz "The sensation felt when hearing a cover version of a song one already knows." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.]

CPC (circuit protective conductor) Chiefly British abbreviation meaning earth ground, or technically a system of conductors joining together all exposed conductive parts and connecting them to the main earthing terminal. cps (cycles per second) Old term for Hz. crap (completely ridiculous audio performance) Favorite acronym used to describe the characteristics of poor sound equipment. (Thanks C.D.!) crate Music.DJ jargon for record box. crate diggin' or diggin' in the crates Music. DJ slang for finding records for their collection (dig for records to play at clubs, or searching for sounds to create new music), or into their record box to find that exactly right record for the moment. CRC (cyclic redundancy check) An integrity checking process for block data. A CRC character is generated at the transmission end. Its value depends on the hexadecimal value of the number of ones in the data block. The transmitting device calculates the value and appends it to the data block. The receiving end makes a similar calculation and compares its results with the added character. If there is a difference, the recipient requests retransmission. creepage distance Shortest path along the surface of insulating material between two conductive parts. crest factor The term used to represent the ratio of the peak (crest) value to the rms value of a waveform measured over a specified time interval. For example, a sine wave has a crest factor of 1.4 (or 3 dB), since the peak value equals 1.414 times the rms value. Music has a wide crest factor range of 4-10 (or 12-20 dB). This means that music peaks occur 12-20 dB higher than the rms value, which is why headroom is so important in audio design. critical band Physiology of Hearing. A range of frequencies that is integrated (summed together) by the neural system, equivalent to a bandpass filter (auditory filter) with approximately 10-20% bandwidth (approximately one-third octave wide). [Although

approximately 10-20% bandwidth (approximately one-third octave wide). [Although the latest research says critical bands are more like 1/6-octave above 500 Hz, and about 100 Hz wide below 500 Hz.] The ear can be said to be a series of overlapping critical bands, each responding to a narrow range of frequencies. Introduced by Fletcher (1940) to deal with the masking of a pure-tone by wideband noise. critical distance Acoustics.The distance between source and listener where the direct sound level equals the reverberant sound level. Good article found here: "Critical Distance and Direct Sound Field," by Peter Mapp, Sound and Communication, April 2009, p. 16. cross-coupled A type of balanced line driver loosely based on servo-loop technology. Developed to emulate some of the features of a balanced line output transformer, the circuit employs positive feedback taken from each side of the outputs coupled back (cross-coupled) to the opposite input circuitry where it is used to fix the gain of the positive and negative line drivers. Each gain is typically set to unity (one) for normal operation and changes to two whenever either of the output lines is shorted to zero. In this manner, it emulates a transformer in that there is no change in output level if one of the lines becomes short-circuited to ground; however, since the gain of the ungrounded side has increased 6 dB then the headroom of the system has been reduced by 6 dB due to the short. In this sense this circuit does not act like a transformer, which does not change gain when one side is shorted to ground. See the RaneNote Unity Gain and Impedance Matching: Strange Bedfellows. [Historical Note: Peter Clark of Harrison Consoles writes that back in late 1978 or early 1979: "The 'MCI' cross-coupled balanced line driver was brought to them by the then German dealer, Rudiger Bart, who brought this circuit and its inventor, Peter Leunig, who wanted to sell it to MCI. MCI said 'That's very nice, but 'No thanks,' then went on to use it anyway!] crossfade or crossfader Within the pro audio industry, a term most often associated with DJ mixers and broadcast. DJ mixers usually feature a crossfader slide-type potentiometer control. This control allows the DJ to transition from one stereo program source (located at one travel extreme) to another stereo program source (located at the other travel extreme). It is the crossfader that becomes the main remix tool for turntablists. The exact origin of the first use of a crossfader in the DJ world has proven difficult to track down. It seems certain to have come out of the broadcast industry, where the term "fader" has been in use since at least the '50s (mentioned throughout the Radiotron Designer's Handbook, 4th ed., 1952) and the term "crossfading" shows up in the Tremaine's Audio Cyclopedia in 1973. Richard Wadman, one of the founders of the British company Citronic designed the earliest example documented so far. It was called the model SMP101, made about 1977, and had a crossfader that doubled as a L/R balance control or a crossfade between two inputs. [Anyone

er that doubled as a L/R balance control or a crossfade between two inputs. [Anyone who can document an earlier example of a DJ crossfader please write me.] For a history of DJ-use crossfader circuitry see Evolution of the DJ Mixer Crossfader by Rane's ace DJ mixer designer, Rick Jeffs, for additional details. Contrast with pan, balance and fader controls. cross-framing A term borrowed from the construction industry (meaning diagonal bracing) by TimeLine Vista, Inc. (now defunct) the original developer and manufacturer of the TASCAM-branded MX-2424 (24-track, 24-bit hard disk recorder) to describe their sync product with "independent cross-framing" capability that allows a longitudinal timecode (LTC) reader and two generators to be set to different frame rates. crossover An electrical circuit (passive or active) consisting of a combination of highpass, low-pass and bandpass filters used to divide the audio frequency spectrum (20 Hz - 20 kHz) into segments suitable for individual loudspeaker use. Since audio wavelengths vary from over 50 feet at the low frequency end, to less than one inch at the high frequency end, no single loudspeaker driver can reproduce the entire audio range. Therefore, at least two drivers are required, and more often three or more are used for optimum audio reproduction. Named from the fact that audio reproduction transitions (or crosses over) from one driver to the next as the signal increases in frequency. For example, consider a two driver loudspeaker crossed over at 800 Hz: Here only one driver (the woofer - "woof, woof" = low frequencies) works to reproduce everything below 800 Hz, while both drivers work reproducing the region immediately around 800 Hz (the crossover region), and finally, only the last driver (the tweeter - "tweet, tweet" = high frequencies) works to reproduce everything above 800 Hz. Crossover circuits are characterized by their type (Butterworth, Bessel and LinkwitzRiley being the most popular), and by the steepness of their roll-off slopes (the rate of attenuation outside their passbands) as measured in decibels per interval, such as dB/octave, or sometimes dB/decade [useful rule-of-thumb: 6 dB/octave approximately equals 20 dB/decade]. See the RaneNote Signal Processing Fundamentals. crossover cable See: Ethernet crossover cable crossover distortion Amplifiers. Term for the distortion products found in class AB amplifiers created by the dead zone between the upper and lower output devices where neither device is fully operating. crossover frequency The -3 dB frequency points of the high-pass, low-pass and bandpass filter sections found in a crossover. crosspoint Audio Signal Processing. Found in matrix-mixers, referring to a device, usu-

crosspoint Audio Signal Processing. Found in matrix-mixers, referring to a device, usually a switch, potentiometer, VCA or DAC, located where two schematic or block diagram lines intersect or cross. Typically this is drawn with the inputs entering from the left and exiting to the top depending upon the setting of the crosspoint device. For example if Input 4 is to exit Output 6 then at the intersection of Input 4's signal path and Output 6's exit path there will be a switch that is closed, or a potentiometer set for something other than off, or a VCA or DAC that is at least partially turned up. Crosspoints form the heart of a router. crosstalk (recording) See print-through. crosstalk (signal) 1. Undesired capacitive, inductive, or conductive coupling from one circuit, part of a circuit, or channel, to another. 2. Any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel. Note: In telecommunications, crosstalk is usually distinguishable as speech or signaling tones. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. crotchet See: quarter-note. Crown microphones See: Crown's Mic Memo and also PZM for further details. crump 1. To crush or crunch with the teeth. 2. To strike heavily with a crunching sound. 3. To make a crunching sound, especially in walking over snow. 4.The sound of an exploding shell. [AHD] crunk1. The harsh cry of a bird; a croak. Giving rise to variations of crunkle meaning wrinkle, rumple, crinkle or to make a harsh dry sound as by grinding the jaws, etc. [OED] 2. Music. A style of Southern rap music. Hit the link for more details. Cry Baby See: wah-wah pedal crystal See: piezo. CTS (Certified Technology Specialist) A certification program created and controlled by InfoComm for the AV industry. cuarto Musical instrument. A small guitarlike instrument of Latin America, usually having four or five pairs of strings. [AHD] cubit An ancient unit of linear measure, originally equal to the length of the forearm from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow, or about 17 to 22 inches (43 to 56

centimeters). [AHD] cue 1. A term found throughout various audio fields meaning to monitor, or listen (via headphones) to a specific source. In mixers (particularly DJ mixers), the term is used interchangeably with solo or PFL as found on recording consoles. 2. Music. a. A section of music used in film or video ranging from a short piece of background music to a complex score. b. An extract from the music for another part printed, usually in smaller notes, within a performer's part as a signal to enter after a long rest. c. A gesture by a conductor signaling the entrance of a performer or part. 3. A signal, such as a word or an action, used to prompt another event in a performance, such as an actor's speech or entrance, a change in lighting, or a sound effect. [AHD] cumulative spectral decay See: waterfall display. Curie, Marie Originally Manja Sklodowska. (1867-1934). Polish-born French chemist. She shared a 1903 Nobel Prize with her husband, Pierre Curie (1859-1906), and Henri Becquerel for fundamental research on radioactivity. In 1911 she won a second Nobel Prize for her discovery and study of radium and polonium. Curie temperature The temperature at which magnetic materials demagnetize. Specifically a transition temperature marking a change in the magnetic or ferroelectric properties of a substance, especially the change from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Also called Curie point. [After Pierre Curie.] [AHD] current Symbol i, I Electricity. a. A flow of electric charge. b. The amount of electric charge flowing past a specified circuit point per unit time, or the rate of flow of electrons. [AHD] [As electrons flow in one direction, the spaces left behind, called holes, appear to flow in the opposite direction. Thus, current can be visualized as electron flow (negative current flow), or in the opposite direction, hole flow (positive current flow, sometimes called conventional current flow).] current intermittor Antiquated name for a snap-action switch. current loop A data transmission scheme that looks for current flow rather than voltage levels. This systems recognizes no current flow as a binary zero, and having current flow as a binary one. Favored for its low sensitivity to cable impedance, and independence of a common ground reference; hence current loops do not introduce ground loops. MIDI is an example of a current loop interconnect system. cut-only equalizer Term used to describe graphic equalizers designed only for attenuation. (Also referred to as notch equalizers, or band-reject equalizers). The flat (0 dB) position locates all sliders at the top of the front panel. Comprised only of

(0 dB) position locates all sliders at the top of the front panel. Comprised only of notch filters (normally spaced at 1/3-octave intervals), all controls start at 0 dB and reduce the signal on a band-by-band basis. Proponents of cut-only philosophy argue that boosting runs the risk of reducing system headroom. cutoff frequency Filters. The frequency at which the signal falls off by 3 dB (the half power point) from its maximum value. Also referred to as the -3 dB points, or the corner frequencies. cycles per second Abbr. cps Old term for Hz. cymbal Musical Instrument. A percussion instrument consisting of a concave brass plate that makes a loud clashing tone when hit with a drumstick or when used in pairs. [AHD] CWLE (clockwise lead end) Refers to electric motor rotation viewed from the end where the hook-up wires exit. Czerwinski, Gene (1927-2010) American engineer who founded Cerwin-Vega designed the earth shaking subwoofer system for the movie Earthquake earning him an Academy Award.

Pro Audio Reference D
D50 (%) Intelligibility. A linear measure of the early-to-total energy ratio expressed in percentage. Compare with C50 (dB). DA-88 Tascam's model number for their digital multitrack recorder using Sonydeveloped "Hi8" 8mm videotape as the storage medium. Becoming a generic term describing this family of recorders. See DTRS. DA (distribution amplifier) Common abbreviation used throughout the broadcast, telecommunication and sound consulting/contracting fields. D-A (digital-analog) The process of converting digital signals into analog signals. See: DAC. DAA (Digital Access Arrangement) Telephony. Name for the physical connection to the telephone line known as the local loop. The DAA performs the four critical functions of line termination, isolation, hybrid, and ring detection. DAB (digital audio broadcast) 1. NRSC (National Radio Systems Committee) term for the next generation of digital radio broadcast. 2. Initials of the compiler of this Pro Audio Reference. DAC (or D/A, digital-to-analog converter) The electronic component which converts digital words into analog signals that can then be amplified and used to drive loudspeakers, etc. The DAC is the last link in the digital chain of signal processing. See data converter bits. damping factor Damping is a measure of a power amplifier's ability to control the back-emf motion of the loudspeaker cone after the signal disappears. The damping factor of a system is the ratio of the loudspeaker's nominal impedance to the total impedance driving it. Perhaps an example best illustrates this principle: let's say you have a speaker cabinet nominally rated at 8 ohms, and you are driving it with a Rane MA 6S power amp through 50 feet of 12 gauge cable. Checking the MA 6S data sheet (obtained off this website, of course), you don't find its output impedance, but you do find that its damping factor is 300. What this means is that the ratio of a nominal 8 ohm loudspeaker to the MA 6S's output impedance is 300. Doing the math [8 divided by 300] comes up with an amazing .027 ohms. Pretty low. Looking up 12 gauge wire in your

handy Belden Cable Catalog (... then get one.) tells you it has .001588 ohms per foot, which sure ain't much, but then again you've got 100 feet of it (that's right: 50 feet out and 50 feet back -- don't be tricked), so that's 0.159 ohms, which is six times as much impedance as your amplifier. (Now there's a lesson in itself -- use big cable.) Adding these together gives a total driving impedance of 0.186 ohms -- still pretty low -yielding a very good damping factor of 43 (anything over 10 is enough, so you don't have to get extreme about wire size). [Note that the word is damp-ing, not damp-ning as is so often heard -- correct your friends; make enemies.] Daniels, Drew (1947-2010) American "pro audio icon." [MIX magazine.] Dansette Phonograph. World's first portable record player brought out in 1952 by the British company, Margolin. Dante™ A trademark of Audinate for their proprietary digital audio networking technology. dan tranh Musical Instrument. A Vietnamese plucked string instrument. DAR (digital audio radio) EIA term for the next generation of digital radio broadcasting standards. Darbuka See: goblet drum. DASH (digital audio stationary head) A family of formats for ensuring compatibility among digital multitrack studio recorders using stationary (as opposed to rotating) heads. The DASH standard, popularized by Sony and Studer, specifies 2 to 48 tracks, with tape speeds from 12 to 76 cm/sec. DAT (digital audio tape recorder )1. A digital audio recorder utilizing a magnetic tape cassette system with rotary heads similar to that of a video recorder. 2. A little bit of something as in dis & dat. data cables Analog audio signals require a relatively small bandwidth and are interconnected using standard cables. In contrast to analog audio, digital audio and digital control signals require a very large bandwidth and must be interconnected with specially designed data cables. See Category cables. data compression See: digital audio data compression data converter bits The number of bits determines the data converter precision. The more bits available, the more precise the conversion, i.e., the closer the digital answer

will be to the analog original. When an analog signal is sampled (at the sampling frequency), it is being sliced up into vertical pieces. Each vertical piece is then estimated as to its amplitude (How large is the audio signal at this instant?). This estimation process is the data converters job. It compares the original signal against its best estimate and chooses the closest answer. The more bits, the more choices the data converter has to choose from. The number of choices is the number "2" raised to the number of bits (this explanation is simplified for clarity). For example, 16-bits creates 2 to the 16th power of choices, or 65,536 possible answers for the converter to choose from. And the higher the sampling rate, the more slices for any given time period. Again, the more slices, the more accurate will be the data conversion. All of which, ultimately determines how well the reproduced signal sounds compared to the original. For example, if a signal is recorded using "16-bits at 48 kHz", then for every one second of the audio signal, it is sliced up into 48,000 pieces. Then each piece is compared against a ruler with 2 to the 16th graduations, or 65,536 voltage levels. Each sample instant is compared against this ruler and one value is assigned to represent its amplitude. For each second, 48,000 samples are given specific values to represent the original signal. If the same signal is recorded using "24-bits at 96 kHz" then for the same one second period, there will be 96,000 slices, or samples, and each one will be compared against a voltage ruler now divided into 2 to the 24th divisions, or 16,777,216 choices. Obviously this converter can choice an answer that is far closer to the original than before, and it gets to do this for twice as many samples. All of which, in the end, means this converter recorded samples that more closely approximated the original audio signal. [Where it gets interesting is in trying to answer the question of what is enough? Sure, more bits are more accurate, but can the human ear tell the difference. In most cases, once you go beyond true 16-bits, the answer is no. All benefits above 16-bits/48 kHz are very small refinements, not monumental improvements. What really is going on, is that the advertised "16-bit/48 kHz" recordings of yesterday weren't. They used 16bit converters but their accuracy was not 16-bits, it was more like 14-bits. Similarly today, the advertised "24-bit" converters are not 24-bit accurate, but they are certainly at least 18-bit accurate, and that makes an audible difference. So, if you can find a true 16-bit system and compare it with a typical 24-bit system of today, they will sound very nearly identical. And the sampling rate getting faster makes even less of an audible difference. For example if you compare a typical 16-bit/96 kHz system against a 24-bit/48 kHz, you will pick the 24-bit system every time. If you have a choice, always choose more bits, over a higher sampling rate.] See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. DAW (digital audio workstation) Any of several software/hardware systems using a computer as the basis for creating, editing, storing, and playback of digital audio, using the computer's hard disk as the recording medium, or a SAN.

Day, Doris Stage name of Doris Kappelhoff. DB-9 connector (Note: the correct term is DE-9 but has lost out to this popular misusage. DE is the shell size for a 9-pin connector; DB is the shell size for a 25-pin connector.) A smaller 9-pin version of the connector used for RS-232 communications. First made popular by IBM in their AT personal computer in the mid-80s. (The "D" originally described the shape of the housing. The second letter: A, B, C D or E originally specified the size of the housing somewhat like drawing sizes. [Newton]) DB-25 connector A 25-pin D-shell connector originally standardized for RS-232 serial communications. dB (decibel) See decibel. dBA See decibel. dBC See decibel. dB calculator Handy online calculator dB drag racer Term applied to auto sound enthusiasts that travel the world to compete in loudness contests. Current record is over 177 dB-SPL (yes, 177 dB-SPL!). DC See: direct current. DC-300 Power amplifiers. One of the most famous power amplifiers ever was the Crown DC-300. Designed and first manufactured in 1967 by Gerald Stanley, Crown's ace engineer, it was named from its design being direct-coupled to allow for direct current operation and having 300 watts of stereo 8-ohm power. And at that time the DC-3 was a popular aircraft so it all fit together nicely. DCA (digitally-controlled attenuator) Also digitally-controlled analog and digitally-controlled amplifier. DCC (Digital Compact Cassette) Philips's digital version of the standard analog cassette tape system. A DCC recorder plays and records digital cassettes, as well as playing analog cassettes. (Now discontinued.) DCE (Data Communications Equipment) Within the RS-232 standard, the equipment that provides the functions required to establish, maintain, and terminate a connection, as well as the signal conversion, and coding required for communication

between data terminal equipment and data circuit -- e.g., a modem or printer. See: DTE. The main difference between DCE and DTE is the wiring of pins 2 and 3, thus the need for a null modem cable when tying two computers together. DC offset Electronics. The amount of extra input voltage required to produce exactly zero output voltage with no applied signal. [In a perfect device if there is no input signal then there would be no output signal, but, alas, 'tis not the case -- ever. There is always some small output voltage present even with no input signal unless the offset voltage has been corrected. DDD (Dick's dipole driver) Loudspeakers. Full name: DDD Bending Wave Converter, after inventor Peter Dick. Also see bending wave physics and Walsh driver. DE-9 connector See DB-9 connector. deadly nevergreen An English word no longer in print (except here) meaning the gallows (late 18th, early 19th centuries). Dead Musician Directory "A site about dead musicians ... and how they got that way" Hey! Don't laugh, these guys are dead serious. Dead Rockers, jazz, reggae, bluegrass, etc. Dead Recording Media (This was the original name, now renamed The History of Sound Recording Technology. I guess someone complained.) A great chronicle of obsolete devices compiled by David L. Morton: "... site devoted to the dead, dying, or very ill technologies of sound recording." decade A tenfold increase or decrease in any quantity. decay Electronics. A gradual magnitude decrease of signal level, occurring immediately after a signal reaches its peak. Contrast with attack. Decca tree Microphones. A microphone technique developed by Decca Records in the early '50s that uses three omnidirectional microphones spaced in a triangular pattern aimed at the source. Two of the microphones are spaced far enough apart that the third microphone provides a center fill function. decibel Abbr. dB Equal to one-tenth of a bel. [After Alexander Graham Bell.] 1. A measuring system first used in telephony (Martin, W.H., "DeciBel -- the new name for the transmission unit. Bell System Tech. J. January, 1929), where signal loss is a logarithmic function of the cable length. 2. The preferred method and term for representing the ratio of different audio levels. It is a mathematical shorthand that uses loga-

ing the ratio of different audio levels. It is a mathematical shorthand that uses logarithms (a shortcut using the powers of 10 to represent the actual number) to reduce the size of the number. For example, instead of saying the dynamic range is 32,000 to 1, we say it is 90 dB [the answer in dB equals 20 log x/y, where x and y are the different signal levels]. Being a ratio, decibels have no units. Everything is relative. Since it is relative, then it must be relative to some 0 dB reference point. To distinguish between reference points a suffix letter is added as follows [The officially correct way per AESR2, IEC 60027-3 & IEC 60268-2 documents is to enclose the reference value in parenthesis separated by a space from "dB"; however this never caught on, probably for brevity reasons if no other.] Hit this link for an online dB calculator. 0 dBu Preferred informal abbreviation for the official dB (0.775 V); a voltage reference point equal to 0.775 Vrms. [This reference originally was labeled dBv (lower-case) but was too often confused with dBV (upper-case), so it was changed to dBu (for unterminated).] +4 dBu Standard pro audio voltage reference level equal to 1.23 Vrms. 0 dBV Preferred informal abbreviation for the official dB (1.0 V); a voltage reference point equal to 1.0 Vrms. -10 dBV Standard voltage reference level for consumer and some pro audio use (e.g. TASCAM), equal to 0.316 Vrms. (Tip: RCA connectors are a good indicator of units operating at -10 dBV levels.) 0 dBm Preferred informal abbreviation of the official dB (mW); a power reference point equal to 1 milliwatt. To convert into an equivalent voltage level, the impedance must be specified. For example, 0 dBm into 600 ohms gives an equivalent voltage level of 0.775 V, or 0 dBu (see above); however, 0 dBm into 50 ohms, for instance, yields an equivalent voltage of 0.224 V -something quite different. Since modern audio engineering is concerned with voltage levels, as opposed to power levels of yore, the convention of using a reference level of 0 dBm is obsolete. The reference levels of +4 dBu, or -10 dBV are the preferred units. 0 dBr An arbitrary reference level (r = re; or reference) that must be specified. For example, a signal-to-noise graph may be calibrated in dBr, where 0 dBr is specified to be equal to 1.23 Vrms (+4 dBu); commonly stated as "dB re +4," that is, "0 dBr is defined to be equal to +4 dBu." 0 dBFS A digital audio reference level equal to "Full Scale." Used in specifying A/D and D/A audio data converters. Full scale refers to the maximum

ing A/D and D/A audio data converters. Full scale refers to the maximum peak voltage level possible before "digital clipping," or digital overload (see overs) of the data converter. The Full Scale value is fixed by the internal data converter design, and varies from model to model. [According to standards people, there's supposed to be a space between "dB" and "FS" -- yeah, right, like that's gonna happen.] 0 dBf Preferred informal abbreviation of the official dB (fW); a power reference point equal to 1 femtowatt, i.e., 10-15 watts. 0 dB-SPL The reference point for the threshold of hearing, equal to 20 microPA (micro Pascals rms). [Note: dB-SPL is defined differently for gases and everything else. Per ANSI S1.1-1994, for gases, the reference level is 20 microPA, but for sound in media other than gases, unless otherwise specified, the reference is 1 microPA.] Since 1 PA = 1 newton/m2 = .000145 PSI (pounds per square inch). Then 0 dB-SPL = ±2.9 nano PSI (rms) change in the ambient pressure -- an unbelievably small value. Also therefore, it is a change in 1 atm ambient pressure of ± 1 atm (±14.7 PSI) that is equivalent to a loudness level of 194 dB-SPL, i.e., equals 2 atm on the overpressure portion of the cycle and 0 atm on the underpressure portion. [Thanks to Bob Pease for pointing out these enlightening facts.] And higher positive pressures are called shock waves, not sound. [Thanks to "Someone" for this distinction.] [Thanks also to Chuck McGregor for the clarifying language.] dBA Unofficial but popular way of stating loudness measurements made using an A-weighting curve, originally referenced to a loudness level of 40 phons. dBC Unofficial but popular way of stating loudness measurements made using a C-weighting curve, originally referenced to a loudness level of 100 phons. . dBPa Preferred informal abbreviation of the official dB (Pa); a reference point equal to 1 Pascal.

decibel calculator Handy online calculator Decibel Festival "International festival of electronic music performance, visual art and new media." Held in Seattle each summer after Bumbershoot. decimal digit Everyday normal, base-10 numbers. deck Music. Popular DJ jargon for turntables and sometimes CD players. decoupling capacitor See: bypass capacitor. DED (pronounced "dead") (dark emitting diode) A variation of LED technology used exclusively by the CIA for clandestine equipment. Also popular as power-off indicators. de-emphasis See pre-emphasis. de-esser A special type of audio signal compressor that operates only at high frequencies (>3 kHz), used to reduce the effect of vocal sibilant sounds. See the RaneNote, "Dynamics Processors: Technology & Applications." DFD (difference frequency distortion) See IM. De Forest, Lee (1873-1961) Known as "the Father of Radio," he was an American electrical engineer who patented the triode electron tube (1907) that made possible the amplification and detection of radio waves. He originated radio news broadcasts in 1916. [AHD] degauss 1. To neutralize the magnetic field of (a ship, for example). 2. To erase information from (a magnetic disk or other storage device). [AHD] degree 1. Physics. A unit division of a temperature scale. 2. Mathematics. A planar unit of angular measure equal in magnitude to 1/360 of a complete revolution. 3. Cartography. A unit of latitude or longitude, equal to 1/360 of a great circle. [AHD] See: 360 to find out why "360" and not some other number. deja-booboo "The inexorable feeling that you've made this mistake before." -[] déjà vu Psychology. The illusion of having already experienced something actually being experienced for the first time. [AHD] [Note that this is the original meaning, which is to think you have experienced something that in fact you have not. It does NOT mean to re-

peat something that you know you have done before, even though that is the most found usage. As maybe you can tell, misuse of this term is one of my pet peeves.] delay 1. Crossovers. A signal processing device or circuit used to delay one or more of the output signals by a controllable amount. This feature is used to correct for loudspeaker drivers that are mounted such that their points of apparent sound origin (not necessarily their voice coils) are not physically aligned. Good delay circuits are frequency independent, meaning the specified delay is equal for all audio frequencies (constant group delay). Delay circuits based on digital sampling techniques are inherently frequency independent and thus preferred. 2. MI. Digital audio delay circuits comprise the heart of most all "effects" boxes sold in the musical instrument world. Reverb, flanging, chorusing, phasers, echoing, looping, etc., all use delay in one form or another. 3. Sound Reinforcement. Acousticians and sound contractors use signal delay units to "aim" loudspeaker arrays. Introducing small amounts of delay between identical, closely-mounted drivers, fed from the same source, controls the direction of the combined response. delay skew Category wiring. The time arrival difference between received signals at the far end. For example, the maximum allowed in CAT 5e wiring is 45 ns. delta modulation A single-bit coding technique in which a constant step size digitizes the input waveform. Past knowledge of the information permits encoding only the differences between consecutive values. delta-sigma (!-") ADC See delta-sigma modulation delta-sigma modulation (also sigma-delta) Symbol !-"; An analog-to-digital conversion scheme rooted in a design originally proposed in 1946, but not made practical until 1974 by James C. Candy. Inose and Yasuda coined the name delta-sigma modulation at the University of Tokyo in 1962, but due to a misunderstanding the words were interchanged and taken to be sigma-delta. Both names are still used for describing this modulator. Characterized by oversampling and digital filtering to achieve high performance at low cost, a delta-sigma A/D thus consists of an analog modulator and a digital filter. The fundamental principle behind the modulator is that of a single-bit A/D converter embedded in an analog negative feedback loop with high open loop gain. The modulator loop oversamples and processes the analog input at a rate much higher than the bandwidth of interest (see: Sampling (Nyquist) Theorem). The modulator's output provides 1-bit information at a very high rate and in a format that a digital filter can process to extract higher resolution (such as 20-bits) at a lower rate. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters.

dempo "In music, taking a song or a part of a song down tempo, or slower." [] Compare with umpo. denominator Mathematics. The bottom part of a common fraction (numerator/denominator).

dereverberation Acoustics. Reverberation reduction; alternative term for room correction (or compensation or equalization -- exchangeable terms). All use advanced DSP methods to improve room acoustics. Descartes, René (1596-1650) French mathematician and philosopher. Considered the father of analytic geometry, he formulated the Cartesian system of coordinates. [Then there's the story about how Descartes met his ultimate demise: It seems he was in a bar in Paris sipping a glass of Kir when the bartender asked if he would like another. M. Descartes responded "I think not," whereupon he disappeared without a trace.] (Thanks to Glenn D. White for this.) deserializer A serial-to-parallel data converter; used in buses and networks. destructive solo See: solo. device driver See: driver. DI (digital audio input) AES3 (& IEC 60958-4) abbreviation to be used for panel marking where space is limited and the function of the XLR AES3 connector might be confused with an analog signal connector. DI (direct input) box See direct box. Diagram Prize The name of the award given by The Bookseller, a British magazine, for the oddest book title of the year. A couple of pro audio reference books come to mind as possible entries: Bebop to the Boolean Boogie and Spaces Speak, Are You Listening?. diatonic 1. Music. Of or using only the eight tones of a standard major or minor scale without chromatic deviations. [AHD] 2. A popular summer drink without the gin or the sugar. DICE™ (Digital Interface Communications Engine) Trademark created originally by TC Electronic, now used by TC Applied Technologies Ltd. for their IEEE-1394, AES3, et al., transceiver single chip integrated circuit.

dichotic Hearing. Pertaining to different sounds present at both ears. Contrast with diotoc. dichotic listening Hearing. Listening to a different message in each ear at the same time. Dickinson, Jim (1941-2009) American musician/producer who became a great cult hero to many musicians including Bob Dylan. dictionary "A malevolent literary device for cramping the growth of a language and making it hard and inelastic. This dictionary, however, is a most useful work." -- Ambrose Bierce. Diddley, Bo See Bo Diddley. Diddley Bow (also seen as Diddlie Bow) Musical Instrument. A one-string guitar made by stretching a string between two nails in a door. Native to the Mississippi Delta region. [Thanks PT!] dielectric A nonconductor of electricity, especially a substance with electrical conductivity of less than a millionth (10-6) of a siemens. [AHD] dielectric constant See permittivity. difference frequency distortion (DFD) See IM. difference-tone IMD See IM. differential amplifier Electronics. A three-terminal analog device consisting of two inputs designated positive and negative and one output that responds to the difference in potential between them. Invented by Otto Herbert Schmitt in 1934 while still a graduate student. [Otto H. Schmitt, "A Simple Differential Amplifier," Review of Scientific Instruments8 (April 1937): 126-127.] Although Schmitt arrived at his version of the differential amplifier independently, L. A. Geddes has recently pointed out that a few others developed a similar device at around the same time. [L.A. Geddes, "Who Invented the Differential Amplifier?" IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 15 (May/June 1996): 116-117.] differential crosstalk Printed Circuit Boards. The electromagnetic coupling possible between two adjacent differential traces and other near-by traces. The differential traces are theoretically immune to common mode coupling but can induce noise into neighboring traces. A nice visualization diagram is presented by Howard Johnson in

neighboring traces. A nice visualization diagram is presented by Howard Johnson in his EDN article Visualizing differential crosstalk differential Manchester encoding A signaling method used to encode clock and data bit information into bit symbols. Each bit symbol is split into two halves, or signal elements, where the second half is the inverse of the first half. A 0 bit is represented by a polarity change at the start of the bit time. A 1 bit is represented by no polarity change at the start of the bit time. Differential Manchester encoding is polarityindependent. [IEEE] Used in AES3 diffraction Acoustics. The bending of waves around obstacles and the spreading of waves through openings that are approximately the same as the wavelength of the waves. See link. diffraction grating A usually glass or polished metal surface having a large number of very fine parallel grooves or slits cut in the surface and used to produce optical spectra by diffraction of reflected or transmitted light. [AHD] diffuse Widely spread out or scattered; not concentrated. [AHD] diffuse sound A sound field without directionality; random sound. diffuser (or diffusor, British spelling; in acoustics, the British spelling is seen most often.) A commercial device that diffuses, or scatters sound. First invented by Manfred R. Schroeder ["Diffuse Sound Reflection by Maximum-Length Sequences," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 57, No. 1, pp 149-150, Jan 1975], and made commercially successful by Dr. Peter D'Antonio and his company RPG Diffusor Systems. See D'Antonio's book, Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers: Theory, Design, and Application for more info. Diffusors are the acoustical analog of diffraction grating -- see above. digital audio The use of sampling and quantization techniques to store or transmit audio information in binary form. The use of numbers (typically binary) to represent audio signals. digital audio data compression Commonly shortened to "audio compression." Any of several algorithms designed to reduce the number of bits (hence, bandwidth and storage requirements) required for accurate digital audio storage and transmission. Characterized by being "lossless" or "lossy." The audio compression is "lossy" if actual data is lost due to the compression scheme, and "lossless" if it is not. Well-designed algorithms ensure "lost" information is inaudible -- that's how you win the game. digital audio watermarking See watermarking.

digital clipping See 0 dBFS. digital filter Any filter accomplished in the digital domain. digital hybrid See hybrid. digital overs See overs. digital signal Any signal which is quantized (i.e., limited to a distinct set of values) into digital words at discrete points in time. The accuracy of a digital value is dependent on the number of bits used to represent it. digitization Any conversion of analog information into a digital form. Dilettante's Dictionary Great audio/video/recording/computing dictionary started and maintained by Sandy Lerner, one of the founders of Cisco Systems. diminished fifth 1. A fifth is an interval of 3:2 (interval is the ratio of frequencies between a base note and another note). A diminished fifth is a half step lower. 2. What's left after you've had a few shots. [Thanks GD] din A jumble of loud, usually discordant sounds. [AHD] DIN Acronym for Deutsche Industrie Norm (Deutsches Institut fuer Normung), the German standardization body. diode Semiconductor. A two-terminal device consisting of a cathode and anode that conducts only in one direction of polarity. diotic Hearing. Pertaining to the identical sound present at both ears. Contrast with dichotic. dipless crossfader A crossfader design that does not attenuate the first audio signal until the fader is moved past the 50% travel point, while simultaneously increasing the second audio signal to 100% at the center point. With this design there is no attenuation (dip) in the center position for either audio signal, hence "dipless." dipole bass or dipole subwoofer system Loudspeakers. Literally "two poles," the name derives from the physics definition: "A pair of electric charges or magnetic poles, of equal magnitude but of opposite sign or polarity, separated by a small distance." [AHD] In dipole woofer designs the rear wave is left untreated, and the overall system response is tuned by varying the baffle size and the system "Q." It acts like a

figure-of-eight source and thus excites room modes less than monopole woofer systems. For detailed theory and DIY examples buy the Linkwitz Labs Archive CDROM, the best source available. direct box Also known as a DI box, a phrase first coined by Franklin J. Miller, founder of Sescom, to describe a device that enables a musical instrument (guitar, etc.) to be connected directly to a mic- or line-level mixer input. The box provides the very high input impedance required by the instrument and puts out the correct level for the mixer. direct current Abbr. DC or dc (See usage note) An electric current that flows in one direction. Contrast: alternating current. [IEEE] [Usage Note: Officially the IEEE dictionary is very clear that the abbreviation for direct current is "dc" not "DC." However most everyone agrees (mags, technical journalists, me, etc.) that when abbreviating direct current in a standalone sense, that it looks better and reads clearer if you use uppercase, e.g., "The device runs off DC voltage," instead of "The device runs off dc voltage," particularly if the abbreviation begins or ends a sentence. Imagine a sentence like this: "Dc is a type of generator voltage." Or, "Do you want ac or dc?" Both work better with uppercase. As for Vdc vs. VDC, both are seen and accepted even though Vdc is the IEEE standard.] directional microphone One whose response is more sensitive to sound arriving from one direction than another. See unidirectional microphone. directivity Loudspeakers. The ratio, expressed in dB, of the on-axis sound power to the overall power output of the loudspeaker at a particular frequency. Microphones. See: microphone polar response. direct out Term for auxiliary outputs found on some mic preamps, mixing consoles, and teleconferencing equipment. Direct outputs are taken before any signal processing (other than normal mic preamp functions like gain, buffering, phantom power, bandlimiting filters, etc.), or mixing with other channels is done, hence, normally at line-level. direct sound Sound first arriving. Sound reaching the listening location without reflections, i.e., sound that travels directly to the listener. See also early reflections. disambiguate To establish a single grammatical or semantic interpretation for. [AHD disc The term used for any optical storage media. Originally popularized to refer to phonograph records. From Latin discus, the term refers primarily to audio and video storage systems, such as compact discs, laserdiscs, etc., but the advent of CD-ROMs

and computer optical storage units blurs this distinction. Compare with disk. disc jockey Abbr. DJ From Wikipedia: "In 1935, American commentator Walter Winchell coined the term "disc jockey" (the combination of "disc" (referring to the disc records) and "jockey" (which is an operator of a machine) as a description of radio announcer Martin Block, the first announcer to become a star. The world's first woman disc jockey is said to be Yvonne Daniels (daughter of jazz singer Billy Daniels) who spun jazz records in Chicago beginning in 1964. disc lathe See: stereo disc lathe. disco from French, discothèque meaning a record library. disco ball or mirror ball A round ball covered with small mirror pieces that reflect light as it turns producing a dazzling display throughout the dance floor. [Been around since 1897 as amazing as that seems.] discothèque The first disco dance club is said to be the Scotch Club in Aachen, Germany with the first disco DJ being Heinrich (real name: Klaus Quirini) who started it all in October 1959. discoidal capacitor Also known as feed-thru capacitors, they are used mainly by connector designers to create in-line EMI/RFI filters for each pin. Constructed of ceramic dielectric, and toroidal shaped, these capacitors help suppress electromagnetic interference by shunting the interference to ground, and if combined with a series inductor become even more effective. The feed-thru design results in greatly reduced selfinductance compared to standard leaded capacitors. The combination of low inductance and high input/output isolation provides excellent shunting of EMI for frequencies up to and beyond 1 GHz. discordant Music. Disagreeable in sound; harsh or dissonant. [AHD] discreet Marked by, exercising, or showing prudence and wise self-restraint in speech and behavior. [AHD] (You may want to be discreet when bussing someone.) discrete Constituting a separate thing; distinct, or a set of distinct things. [AHD] discrete Fourier transform (DFT) 1. A numerical method of calculating the coefficients of the Fourier series from a sampled periodic signal. 2. A DSP algorithm used to determine the Fourier coefficient corresponding to a set of frequencies, normally linearly spaced. See Fourier theorem.

disk The term used for any magnetic storage media such as computer diskettes or hard disks. From Greek diskos, the term refers primarily to non-audio digital data storage, but the advent of hard disk digital audio recording systems fogs this up somewhat. Compare with disc. Disklavier Musical Instruments. Yamaha's family of reproducing ("player") pianos. dissonance A harsh, disagreeable combination of sounds; discord. Music. A combination of tones contextually considered to suggest unrelieved tension and require resolution. [AHD] Psychoacoustics. The sense of roughness or lack of blending that is heard when certain combinations of musical tones are played together outside a musical context. [Bregman] distance learning A specialized form of videoconferencing optimized for educational uses. Distance learning allows students to attend classes in a location distant from where the course is being presented. Two-way audio and video allows student and instructor interaction. distortion Audio distortion: By its name you know it is a measure of unwanted signals. Distortion is the name given to anything that alters a pure input signal in any way other than changing its size. The most common forms of distortion are unwanted components or artifacts added to the original signal, including random and humrelated noise. Distortion measures a system's linearity -- or nonlinearity, whichever way you want to look at it. Anything unwanted added to the input signal changes its shape (skews, flattens, spikes, alters symmetry or asymmetry, even if these changes are microscopic, they are there). A spectral analysis of the output shows these unwanted components. If a piece of gear is perfect, it does not add distortion of any sort. The spectrum of the output shows only the original signal -- nothing else -- no added components, no added noise -- nothing but the original signal. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. distortion box See: effects boxes. Distributed Mode Loudspeakers (DML) See bending wave. distribution amplifier A splitter with added features. Distribution amplifiers (usually) feature balanced inputs and outputs with high-current line drivers (often cross-coupled) capable of driving very long lines. dither The noise (analog or digital) added to a signal prior to quantization (or word length reduction) which reduces the distortion and noise modulation resulting from

length reduction) which reduces the distortion and noise modulation resulting from the quantization process. Although there is a slight increase in the noise level, spectrally shaped dither can minimize the apparent increase. The noise is less objectionable than the distortion, and allows low-level signals to be heard more clearly. The most popular type of dither is called TPDF. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. For the theory behind dither see stochastic resonance. diversity antenna Radio Broadcast. Name for popular FM receiving system for automobiles (primarily) using two antennas located in different locations (typically one in the front and rear windshields) operating in parallel, configured such that the one receiving the strongest signal at any moment dominates, greatly reducing the effects of multipath. DIY Acronym for do-it-yourself, usually referring to various hobbies, especially audiorelated. DJ (disc jockey) See: disc jockey. Compare with KJ and VJ. djembes (pronounced "jem-bay") Musical Instruments. A goblet shaped hand drum that is the most popular African drum. DJ mixer For a history of, see David Cross's master thesis: The History of the DJ Mixer. DLP (digital light processing) Texas Instrument's proprietary projection display technology. The basis of the technology is the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) semiconductor chip, which uses an array of up to 1.3 million hinged, microscopic mirrors (made using nano-technology) that operate as optical switches to create a high resolution color image. See TI's DLP website. DMC World DJ Championship (Disco Mix Club) Annual DJ competition sponsored by the Disco Mix Club. DMD (digital micromirror device) See DLP above. DML (Distributed Mode Loudspeakers) See bending wave. DMM (digital multimeter) See VTVM. do Music. The first tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD] DO (digital audio output) AES3 (and IEC 60958-4) abbreviation to be used for panel marking where space is limited and the function of the XLR digital AES3 connector might be confused with an analog signal connector.

Dobro® (Dopyera brothers) A registered trademark of the Gibson Guitar Corporation, the name originated from the contraction of "Dopyera brothers" who founded their company, the Dobro Manufacturing Company, in 1928. Usually refers to a resonator guitar but does appear on other musical instruments. Dolby Digital® Dolby's name for its format for the digital soundtrack system for motion picture playback. Utilizes their AC-3 system of digital compression. The signal is optically printed between the sprocket holes. Now being introduced to home theater on laserdisc and DVD. Dolby Digital may use any number of primary audio delivery and reproduction channels, from 1 to 5, and may include a separate bass-only effects channel. The designation "5.1" describes the complete channel format. Surround decoder systems with Dolby Digital automatically contain Dolby Pro Logic processing to ensure full compatibility with the many existing program soundtracks made with Dolby Surround encoding. No abbreviations are to be used. dongle Security device for protected software: a small hardware device that, when plugged into a computer, enables a specific copy-protected program to run, the program being disabled on that computer if the device is not present. The device is effective against software piracy. Doolittle, Thomas Connecticut brass mill worker who, in 1877, developed the process for hard drawn copper wire in the Naugatuck Valley. He had soft, annealed copper wire drawn through a series of dies in order to increase its tensile strength. The hard drawn copper wire was strong enough for overhead wires and copper replaced iron for the telephone market. Doppler effect [After Christian Johann Doppler, 1803-1853, Austrian physicist and mathematician who first enunciated this principle in 1842.] 1. For an observer, the apparent change in pitch (frequency) of a sound (or any wave) when there is relative motion between the source and the listener (or observer). The classic example is the train phenomenon where the pitch of the whistle sounds higher approaching and lower leaving. 2. Gave rise to the variation known as the dope-ler effect, defined as the phenomenon of stupid ideas that seem smarter when they come at you in rapid succession. [Thanks JF.] DOS (pronounced "doss") (disk operating system) A software program controlling data in memory, disk storage, running programs and I/O management. double Music. Tuned an octave lower than (from the fact that a string or pipe that is twice the length of another gives a pitch an octave lower). See: double bass below.

double balanced See cables. double-barreled shotgun Harmonica that can be played from both sides. [Decharne] double bass A large viola that plays one octave lower than the cello, thereby doubling the bass. Also referred to as a baroque doghouse for its deep tones. See Slatford for historical details. double-blind comparator See ABX testing. Double MS See MSM. double precision The use of two computer words to represent each number. This preserves or improves the precision, or correctness, of the calculated answer. For example, if the number 999 is single precision, then 999999 is the double precision equivalent. double refraction See birefringence. doubling Recording. An effect where the original signal is added to a slightly delayed version of itself. The result is a fuller sound, giving the aural impression of more players or singers then originally recorded. The most famous use of doubling is that done by Roger Nichols on Donald Fagen's vocals and Walter Becker's instruments in all Steely Dan recordings. Doumbek See: goblet drum. downbeat Music. 1. The downward stroke made by a conductor to indicate the first beat of a measure. 2. The first beat of a measure. [AHD] Contrast with upbeat. downcut Broadcast. Chopping off the end of a story or sound bite. [KU Input-Output Glossary] downstage Theater. The front of the stage closest to the audience, as opposed to upstage. downward expander See expander. Drag and Drop 1. A protocol where objects from one desktop application can be 'dragged' out of that application, through clicking on the object with a mouse, across the desktop and 'dropped' on another application. Most graphics operating systems use some form of Drag and Drop. [Newton] For an example, see the Drag Net GUI. 2.

Not to be confused with dragon drop -- a mess created by a fire-breathing creature. (Thanks CD.) DRACULA (Dynamic Range Audio Controller with Unobtrusive Level Adjustment) Acoustics. BBC System for reducing the dynamic range of musical sources for AM and FM broadcasts. drain wire A non-insulated wire in contact with parts of a cable, usually the shield(s), used for chassis or earth grounding; in general, a ground or shield wire. dreamt The only English word ending in the letters "mt." driver Computer Engineering. The final software interface between high-level programs and the driven hardware. DRM (Digital Rights Management) Controlling mechanisms for exchanging intellectual property in digital form over the Internet or other electronic media. Basically, DRM is an encryption distribution scheme with built-in payment methods. Content is encoded, and to decode it a user must do something like supply a credit card, or provide an e-mail address, or whatever. Content owners set the conditions. dropout An error condition in which bits are incorrect or lost from a digital medium. Also occurs with analog tape -- audio or video. dry Recording. 1. The original recorded signal before any effects processing. 2. Any signal without reverberation; dead. Contrast with wet. dry circuit See below. dry transformer Telephony. An analog audio transformer designed for AC operation only; no direct current (DC) is allowed to flow in the primary or secondary coils. Derived from the term, dry circuit, referring to a circuit where voice signals are transmitted but does not carry direct current. Contrast with wet transformer. DSD® (Direct Stream Digital®) See SACD. DSP (digital signal processing) A technology for signal processing that combines algorithms and fast number-crunching digital hardware, and is capable of high-performance and flexibility. DSX (dynamic surround expansion) Surround sound. Trademark of Audyssey Labs for their DSP algorithm that derives a left- and right-wide, height and back-surround

their DSP algorithm that derives a left- and right-wide, height and back-surround channels to create a 10.1 surround system. DTA (digital transducer array) Loudspeakers. A type of direct digital loudspeaker. Compare: MVCDL. D-taper See potentiometer. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) 1. Within the RS-232 standard, the equipment comprising the data source, the receiver, or both -- e.g., personal computers or terminals. See: DCE. The main difference between DTE and DCE is the wiring of pins 2 and 3, thus the need for a null modem cable when tying two computers together. 2. CobraNet refers to DTEs as the source and sink devices on the network, i.e., they source and sink audio. Rane's NM 48 & NM 84 Network Mic/Line Preamps are DTE devices. DTMF (dual tone multi-frequency) Normal everyday pushbutton touch-tone dialing system, where a combination of two tones is used for each button pushed. DTRSTM (digital tape recording system) Tascam's suggested term for describing their DA-88 type digital multitrack recorders. DTS Coherent AcousticsT (now DTS Cinema) A competing digital soundtrack system for motion picture playback developed by Digital Theater Systems Inc. (backed by Stephen Spielberg and Universal Studios). Its novelties are: 1) not requiring a special projector to read digital code off the filmstrip like its competitors; 2) using only very moderate compression (3:1 verses Dolby's 11:1); and 3) offering 20-bit audio. The discrete digital full bandwidth six (6) channel sound is contained on a CD that is played synchronously with the film. The synching time code is printed between the standard optical soundtrack and the picture. [See Usage Note under AES3 for transmission gotcha caveats.] DTS-ES (DTS Extended Surround) Digital Theater System's version of THX Surround EX. DTS-ES adds a third surround channel to the left and right surround channels in a DTS-encoded signal. Two versions exist: straight "DTS-ES" matrix-encodes the third surround channel into the existing left and right surround signals in a 5.1 channel source, while "DTS-ES Discrete" is a new format that adds a separate third surround channel. DTS Zeta DigitalT (now DTS Consumer) Digital Theater Systems' audio compression scheme applied to laserdisc, DVD and CD technology for home theater use. Competing format with Dolby's AC-3 algorithm.

Competing format with Dolby's AC-3 algorithm. duality 1. The quality or character of being twofold; dichotomy. [AHD] 2. Physics. The wave-particle theory of light is a duality. 2. Electronics. The theory of duality as applied to electronic-pairs says that if every electrical term in a true statement is replaced by its dual, then the result is another true statement. Here are some important electronic-pairs:

dubbing 1. a. To transfer (recorded material) onto a new recording medium. b. To copy (a record or tape). 2. To insert a new soundtrack, often a synchronized translation of the original dialogue, into (a film). 3. To add (sound) into a film or tape: dub in strings behind the vocal. [AHD] duple 1. Consisting of two; double. 2. Music Consisting of two or a multiple of two beats to the measure. [AHD] dub music A reggae genre of music based on remixing (dubbing). dubplate or dub plate DJ. An acetate one-off version of a vinyl record. The name comes from the Jamaican dancehall reggae scene in the early '70s where "dub" or instrumental versions of songs were produced so the vocalist could "toast" over the "riddims" in club settings. dubstep An electronic dance music genre. ducker A dynamic processor that lowers (or "ducks") the level of one audio signal based upon the level of a second audio signal. A typical application is paging: A ducker senses the presence of audio from a paging microphone and triggers a reduction in the output level of the main audio signal for the duration of the page signal. It restores the original level once the page message is over. Another use is for talkover. Dudley, Homer Inventor of the vocoder. [Dudley, H. (1939) "The Vocoder," Bell Labs Record, 17, pp. 122-126] duduk Musical Instrument. An Armenian woodwind instrument. dummy load Any substitute device having impedance characteristics simulating those of the substituted device. For example, see amplifier dummy load. dundun Musical Instrument. West African talking drum. dunun Musical Instrument. West African bass drum not to be confused with the dun-

dunun Musical Instrument. West African bass drum not to be confused with the dundun. duplex Pertaining to a simultaneous two-way independent transmission in both directions. Often referred to as "full duplex" which is redundant. See also half-duplex. DVD (Officially "DVD" does not stand for anything. It used to mean "digital versatile disc" -- and before that it meant "digital video disc" also once known as hdCD in Europe. See DVD Demystified for all the nitty-gritty.) A 12-centimeter (4.72") compact disc (same size as audio CDs and CD-ROMs) that holds 10 times the information. Capable of holding full-length movies and a video game based on the movie, or a movie and its soundtrack, or two versions of the same movie -- all in sophisticated discrete digital audio surround sound. The DVD standard specifies a laminated single-sided, single-layer disc holding 4.7 gigabytes, and 133 minutes of MPEG-2 compressed video and audio. It is backwards compatible, and expandable to two-layers holding 8.5 gigabytes. Ultimately two discs could be bounded together yielding two-sides, each with two-layers, for a total of 17 gigabytes. There are four main versions: DVD-Video (movies) As outlined above. DVD-Audio (music-only) The standard is flexible, allowing for many possibilities, leaving the DVD-player to detect which system is used and adapt. Choices include 74 minutes for 2-chs at 24-bits, 192 kHz sampling, or 6-chs at 24-bits, 96 kHz, all utilizing lossless compression (type MLP for Meridian Lossless Packing). Quantization can be 16-, 20-, & 24-bits, with sampling frequencies of 44.1, 88.2, and 176.4 kHz, as well as 48, 96, and 192 kHz all supported. [See "DVD-Audio Specifications" by Norihiko Fuchigami, Toshio Kuroiwa, and Bike H. Suzuki, in the J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 48, No. 12, December 2000, pp. 1228-1240 for complete details.] DVD-ROM (read-only, i.e., games and computer use) DVD-RAM (rewritable, i.e., recording systems). Matsushita (Panasonic brand) is currently the leader in density with 4.7 Gb and 9.4 Gb claimed for single-sided and double-sided discs respectively, compared with 2.6 Gb and 5.2 Gb offered by standard DVD-RAM technology. There are several competing formats: DVD-R (Hitachi, Pioneer & Matsushita) Primary 4.7 Gb application is peripheral drive for PCs, but is also of interest for video servers, video-disk cameras and other consumer applications.

servers, video-disk cameras and other consumer applications. DVD-RW (Pioneer) Also 4.7 Gb aimed at VCR replacement. DVD+RW or just RW (because it is not sanctioned by the DVD Forum) (Sony, Philips & Hewlett-Packard) Originally a 3-Gbyte system, positioned as a PC peripheral, but now expanded to a 4.7 Gbyte consumer version. MMVF-DVD (NEC's 5.2 Gbyte Multimedia Video File Disk system) Now officially shifted from a laboratory project to a business project. DVS (digital vinyl system) Generic name for any of the vinyl emulation DJ systems ( Serato Scratch LIve, N.I. Traktor, etc.) dynamics controllers (or dynamics processors) A class of signal processing devices used to alter an audio signal based solely upon its frequency content and amplitude level, thus the term "dynamics" since the processing is completely program dependent. The two most common dynamics effects are compressors and expanders, with limiters, noise gates (or just "gates"), duckers and levelers being subsets of these. Another dynamics controller category includes exciters, or enhancers. And noise reduction units fall into a final dynamics processor category. See the RaneNote"Dynamics Processors: Technology & Applications." dynamic EQ See the RaneNote, "Dynamics Processors: Technology & Applications, Chapter 4." dynamic microphone A microphone design where a wire coil (the voice coil) is attached to a small diaphragm such that sound pressure causes the coil to move in a magnetic field, thus creating an electrical voltage proportional to the sound pressure. Works in almost the exact opposite of a dynamic loudspeaker where an electrical voltage is applied to the voice coil attached to a large cone (diaphragm) causing it to move in a magnetic field, thus creating a change in the immediate sound pressure. In fact, under the right circumstances, both elements will operate as the other, i.e., a dynamic loudspeaker will act as a microphone and a dynamic microphone will act as a loudspeaker -- although not too loud. See electromagnetic induction. dynamic range The ratio of the loudest (undistorted) signal to that of the quietest (discernible) signal in a unit or system as expressed in decibels (dB). Dynamic range is another way of stating the maximum S/N ratio. With reference to signal processing equipment, the maximum output signal is restricted by the size of the power supplies, i.e., it cannot swing more voltage than is available. While the noise floor of

supplies, i.e., it cannot swing more voltage than is available. While the noise floor of the unit determines the minimum output signal, i.e., it cannot put out a discernible signal smaller than the noise. Professional-grade analog signal processing equipment can output maximum levels of +26 dBu, with the best noise floors being down around -94 dBu. This gives a maximum dynamic range of 120 dB -- pretty impressive numbers, which coincide nicely with the 120 dB dynamic range of normal human hearing (from just audible to uncomfortably loud). See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. dynamo A generator, especially one for producing direct current. [AHD] dyne A unit of force, equal to the force required to impart an acceleration of one centimeter per second per second to a mass of one gram. [AHD] Old units for sound pressure.

Pro Audio Reference E
E Archaic symbol for voltage (stands for electromotive force, since it is measured in volts) but the official SI symbol is V, although E is still seen in many equations. e Mathematics. The base of the natural system of logarithms, having a numerical value of approximately 2.71828. [AHD] See Maor. EAD (equivalent acoustic distance) Sound Reinforcement. In a live situation without sound reinforcement there is a speaker, or other source, and a listener separated by a straight line distance. Introducing sound reinforcement acts to make the speaker louder thus effectively shorting the distance to the listener. This is called the equivalent acoustic distance. EAE (electronic acoustic enhancement) (seen shortened to acoustic enhancement and called electronic architecture) Any of several systems that make use of adding sound energy to a listening space rather than using sound absorbers to improve the quality. For examples see: LARES, VRAS, SIAP, and Carmen®. ear Anatomy. The vertebrate organ of hearing, responsible for maintaining equilibrium as well as sensing sound and divided in mammals into the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. [AHD] ear buds See: personal monitors. Eargle, John Morgan(1931-2007) American audio engineer, musician, author, educator, recording engineer and Grammy winner. early decay time (EDT) Time (in seconds) that it takes for a signal to decay from 0 to -10 dB relative to its steady state value. Early, James (1922-2004) American scientist and engineer who pioneered bipolar transistors. early reflections Acoustics. The first sound that arrives at a listener is called the direct sound; the next to arrive is the first reflected sound waves, which take a little longer to reach the listener due to traveling a slightly longer path length. The first several reflected sound waves to reach the listener after the direct sound are called early reflections.

ears See: personal monitors. earth Electronics. Alternate term meaning ground; chiefly British. Earth's Cries A dreadful sound created high above the planet related to the Northern Lights. Hit the link to learn more and hear for yourself. Earth's hum A mysterious infrasonic sound that reverberates through the Earth, believed caused by stormy seas. earthshine The sunlight reflected from the Earth to the moon and back again. Leonardo da Vinci was the first person to figure out that when the Earth reflects enough light, we can see the entire moon, not just the crescent. EASE (Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers) A computer modeling tool distributed by Renkus-Heinz for ADA (Acoustic Design Ahnert), who developed the software and introduced it in 1990 at the 88th AES Convention in Montreux. EBow (energy bow or electronic bow) Musical Instruments. An electric guitar accessory that allows the player to create very eerie sounds. It works by creating a magnetic field near the guitar's pick-ups that causes feedback rich in harmonics and sounds somewhat like a bow on the strings. EBU (European Broadcasting Union) An international professional society that, among other things, helps establish audio standards. echo 1. Acoustics A discrete sound reflection arriving at least 50 milliseconds after the direct sound, and significantly louder than the background reverberant sound field. Contrast with reverberation. 2. Psychoacoustics A perceptually distinct copy of the original sound; a delayed duplicate. A single echo may be the result of multiple surface reflections. [Blesser] echo canceller A technique using DSP (analog circuits exist, but DSP solutions are overwhelmingly superior) that filters unwanted signals caused by echoes from the main audio source. Echoes happen in both voice and data conversation, therefore two types of cancellers are encountered: acoustic and line. "Acoustic" echo cancellers are used in teleconferencing applications to suppress the acoustic echoes caused by the microphone/loudspeaker combination at one end picking up the signal from the other end and returning it to the original end. It is similar to sound system feedback problems (where the sound reinforcement loudspeaker is picked up by the microphone, re-amplified through the loudspeaker, only to be picked up again by the

microphone, to be re-amplified, and so on), only made much worse by the additional time delay introduced by the telecommunication link. "Line" echo cancellers are used to suppress electrical echoes caused by the transmission link itself. Such things as nonperfect hybrids, and satellite systems (creating round-trip delays of about 600 ms), contribute to very annoying and disruptive line echoes. echoic Of or resembling an echo [AHD]. echolocation (also called echo ranging) 1. A sensory system in certain animals, such as bats and dolphins, in which usually high-pitched sounds are emitted and their echoes interpreted to determine the direction and distance of objects. 2. Electronics A process for determining the location of objects by emitting sound waves and analyzing the waves reflected back to the sender by the object. [AHD] echo ranging See: echolocation above. ECM (electret condenser microphone) See: electret microphone. ECS (Engineered Conference Systems) Rane Corporation trademark for their original teleconferencing equipment, now discontinued. eddy current An electrical current induced in electrical conductors by fluctuating magnetic fields in the conductors. The current moves contrary to the direction of the main current, just below the surface of the material, flowing in circular motion like river eddies. First noted by Michael Faraday after his discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831. Non-destructive testing based on eddy currents is a fast growing industry. Electrical currents are generated in a conductive material by an induced alternating magnetic field. Interruptions in the flow of eddy currents, caused by imperfections, dimensional changes or changes in the material's conductive and permeability properties, can be detected with the proper equipment. Edison effect In 1883, Thomas Edison noticed that certain materials, when heated by a filament in a vacuum, emitted electrons that could be attracted to an electrode held at a positive potential with respect to the emitter. This became known as the Edison effect and according to Edison, was discovered by accident when experimenting with his new invention, the incandescent lamp. Twenty years later, this effect became the basis for inventing the vacuum tube. Edison plug An ordinary household plug with two flat blades and a ground pin. EDLC (electric double-layer capacitor) Electronics. A primary energy storage technol-

ogy used to replace batteries. Also called ultracapacitors or supercapacitors. EDM (electronic dance music) Generic term for all types of club dance music. Also see: electronic music genres. EDT See early decay time. EEBAD (Earthed equipotential bonding and automatic disconnection) British abbreviation for a system with all grounds ("Earths") bonded together. EEPROM or E2PROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) A version of read-only memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed by the designer. Differentiated from standard EPROM (one "E") which requires ultraviolet radiation for erasure. effects boxes or effects units Abbr. EFX or just FX Any outboard unit designed to produce an alteration of a musical instrument's sound, used chiefly by guitarists. Go to GM Arts for an excellent discussion complete with real-world schematics of the most popular effects boxes. These are also called stompboxes due to most of them being designed to be footswitch operated and are placed in front of or to the side of the musician. Hit the link to read about all the variations created over the years. effects loop A mixer term used to describe the signal path location where an external (outboard) signal processor is connected. The loop consists of an output Send jack connecting to the effects box input, and an input Return or Receive jack that comes from the effects box output. This is the preferred term when two separate 1/4", or other connectors are provided to patch in an outboard processor using separate cables for send and receive. These jacks are usually unbalanced, but could be balanced. A stereo effects loop requires four jacks. Compare with insert loop. efficiency Electronics. The useful power output of an electrical device or circuit divided by the total power input, expressed in percent. E-field Physics. Electric field. E-flat Music. The strike note of The Liberty Bell is E flat. (Snapple Real Fact #660) EFM (eight-to-fourteen modulation) Compact Disc. A data encoding technique that creates a disc that is highly resilient to handling and storage problems such as dust, scratches, etc. The name comes from the fact that each 8-bit block is translated into a corresponding 14-bit codeword.

EFP (electronic field production) mixer Pretentious equivalent for ENG mixer. EFX See: effects boxes.

EHF See frequency bands. EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) Founded in 1924 as the Radio Manufacturers Association (RMA), The EIA is a private trade organization made up of manufacturers which sets standards for voluntary use of its member companies (and all other electronic manufacturers), conducts educational programs, and lobbies in Washington for its members' interests. EIA-422 See RS-422. EIA-485 See RS-485. EIAJ (Electronic Industry Association of Japan) A standards body in Japan begun in 1948, now merged into JEITA. eigentone (from German eigen meaning "self" or "own") See room mode. Eight Track Museum No, really. EIN (equivalent input noise) Output noise of a system or device referred to the input. Done by modeling the object as a noise-free device with an input noise generator equal to the output noise divided by the system or device gain. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. Elco plug See connectors. electone (electronic tone) A trade-marked symbol of the Yamaha Corporation; the brand name of Yamaha's organ instrument line. electret microphone A microphone design similar to that of condenser mics except utilizing a permanent electrical charge, thus eliminating the need for an external polarizing voltage. This is done by using a material call an electret [acronym for electricity + magnet] that holds a permanent charge (similar to a permanent magnet, i.e., a solid dielectric that exhibits persistent dielectric polarization). Because electret elements exhibit extremely high output impedance, they often employ an integral builtin impedance converter (usually a single JFET) that requires external power to

operate. This low voltage power is often supplied single-ended over an unbalanced connection, or it may operate from standard phantom power. Electret technology was co-pioneered by Jim West and Gerhard Sessler in the 1960s at Bell Labs. Their original research into polymers (an electrical analogy of a permanent magnet) led to electret transducers. electric guitar Musical instrument derived from the standard guitar but having a solid-body and electric pickups using electromagnetic induction to convert metal string vibrations into audio signals that need further amplification before driving a loudspeaker. First invented by George Beauchamp in 1931. electromagnetic induction The generation of an electromotive force (voltage) and current in a circuit or material by a changing magnetic field linking with that circuit or material. Electricity and magnetism are kinfolk and form the foundation of audio transducers found at both ends of any audio chain: dynamic microphones and loudspeakers with voice coils. The principle is beautifully simple: if you pass a coil of wire through a magnetic field, electricity is generated within the coil (dynamic microphone), and if you pass electricity through a coil of wire (voice coil), a magnetic field is generated. Move a magnet, create a voltage; apply a voltage, create a magnet. This is the essence of all electromechanical objects. electromotive force Abbr. EMF Physics. The energy per unit charge that is converted reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy in a battery or dynamo. [AHD] electronic acoustic enhancement See: EAE. electronic architecture See: EAE. electronic music genres Hit the link for an astonishing look at electronic music genres. electrostatic loudspeaker See loudspeaker. electrostatic microphone See condenser microphone. elephant hearing Hit the link to read all about elephants hearing through seismic vibrations. elephant teeth Piano keys. [Decharne] Elliot Sound Products An outstanding collection of audio technical articles by Rod

Elliot (and DIY audio projects). elliptic filters or elliptic-function filters also called Cauer filters after network theorist Wilhelm Cauer. A filter having an equiripple passband and an equiminima stopband. [IEEE] Butterworth filters are all-pole types, while elliptic filters have zeros as well as poles at finite frequencies. The location of the poles and zeros creates equiripple behavior in the passband similar to Chebyshev filters. Finite transmission zeros in the stopband reduce the transition region so that extremely sharp roll-off rates result; however the improved performance is obtained at the expense of return lobes ("bounce") in the stopband. elocution 1. The art of public speaking in which gesture, vocal production, and delivery are emphasized. 2. A style or manner of speaking, especially in public. [AHD] EMC Directive (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility) 1. A directive issued by the European Commission aimed at establishing product compatibility within the EU (European Union). Article 1.4 defines electromagnetic compatibility as the ability of an electrical and electronic appliance, equipment or installation containing electrical and/or electronic components to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment (immunity requirement) without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment (emission requirement). 2. Due to the significant increases in development time and product costs imposed by the EMC Directive, many believe the initials really stand for "eliminate minor companies." [Thanks DC.] EMD (electronic music distribution) Distributing digital music files (compressed using MP3, AAC, AC-3, etc.) from a server to a client. EME (electromagnetic environment) "The spatial distribution of electromagnetic fields surrounding a given site." EMF (electromotive force) Physics. Voltage. See electromotive force & volt; also backemf. EMI (electromagnetic interference) A measure of electromagnetic radiation from equipment. emitter follower See buffer amplifier. emo A genre of dance music. emoacoustics (emotional acoustics) " ... deals with the relationship between sounds

emoacoustics (emotional acoustics) " ... deals with the relationship between sounds characteristics, the individual, and the situation with a focus on the induced emotional reactions." [From website; hit the link]

EMP (Experience Music Project) Paul Allen's (co-founder of Microsoft) interactive music museum, located in Seattle, that celebrates and explores creativity and innovation in American popular music as exemplified by rock 'n' roll. [Very cool place ... come visit sometime.] empath 1. One who practices empathy, i.e., a person who strongly identifies with and understands another's situation, feelings, and motives. 2. A DJ performance mixer combining the vision of Grandmaster Flash and Rane technology. EMT plate reverb Invented in 1957 by the German company, EMT (Elektromesstecknik), and used in all the famous recording studios in the '60s and '70s, it is still considered by many to be the best sounding reverb. EMT 250 Digital Reverb Invented in 1976, this was the first commercial digital reverb. emulate Computer Science. To imitate the function of (another system), as by modifications to hardware or software that allow the imitating system to accept the same data, execute the same programs, and achieve the same results as the imitated system. [AHD] For example digital vinyl systems such as Serato Scratch LIve and Native Instruments Traktor use vinyl emulation control records to manipulate digital audio files. energy time curve See: ETC. ENF (electric network frequency) Criterion Forensics. A method for the authentication of digital audio and video recordings. ENG (electronic news gathering) mixer Portable battery-powered mixer accommodating at least two or three mic inputs, used in the field to record speech and outdoor sound effects. Some specialized models have built-in telephone line interfacing. enhancers See exciters. enharmonic Music. Of, relating to, or involving tones that are identical in pitch but are written differently according to the key in which they occur, as C sharp and D flat, for example. [AHD] Contrast with inharmonic.

ENOB (effective number of bits) A figure of merit for A/D data converters useful in specifying a converter's real AC accuracy and performance. We all know that the data sheet says it's 24 bits, but what is it really? For a perfect sine wave, it can be approximated from the SINAD measurement by subtracting 1.76 from the SINAD (dB) and then dividing by 6.02. (For down-and-dirty quick calculations just divide the SINAD by 6 and you'll be in the ballpark.) For example, if a 24-bit A/D converter has a real world measured SINAD = 100 dB, then it has an ENOB equal to 16, nowhere near the claimed 24 bits. ENR (excess noise ratio) The ratio of a source's noise power when it is on to when it is off. A normalized measure of how much noise the device creates above the rule of thumb thermal limit of -174 dB/Hz. ensemble Music. 1. A group of musicians, singers, dancers, or actors who perform together. 2. A work for two or more vocalists or instrumentalists. 3. The performance of such a work. [AHD] entropy coding Audio Compression. A lossless audio coding technique. envelope Waves. The boundary of the family of curves obtained by varying a parameter of the wave. [IEEE] envelope control Synthesizers. A voltage controlling pitch and volume to create a distinctive contour (envelope). envelope delay See group delay. Epidaurus Acoustics. The Greek theater of Epidaurus is considered one of the most extraordinary acoustic spaces of antiquity. A study by Nico F. Declercq and Cindy Dekeyser of the Georgia Institute of Technology concluded that it was the use of limestone in the seats that created its wonderful acoustic qualities. More details here. E Pluribus Unum Latin. Out of many, one. eponym A person whose name is or is thought to be the source of the name of something, such as a city, country, or era. For example, Romulus is the eponym of Rome. [AHD] EQ (equalizer) A class of electronic filters designed to augment or adjust electronic or acoustic systems. Equalizers can be fixed or adjustable, active or passive. Indeed, in the early years of telephony and cinema, the first equalizers were fixed units designed to correct for losses in the transmission and recording of audio signals. Hence,

signed to correct for losses in the transmission and recording of audio signals. Hence, the term equalizer described electronic circuits that corrected for these losses and made the output equal to the input. Equalizers commonly modify the frequency response of the signal passing through them; that is, they modify the amplitude versus frequency characteristics. There are also fixed equalizers that modify the phase response of the transmitted signals without disturbing the frequency content. These are referred to as all-pass, phase-delay, or signal-delay equalizers. See the RaneNote Exposing Equalizer Mythology, the RaneNote Operator Adjustable Equalizers, and RaneNote Signal Processing Fundamentals. equal level curves (aka isobaric contours) Loudspeakers. A way of mapping loudspeaker coverage pattern. Here is Bob McCarthy's explanation: "The equal level contours are found by mapping the points of equal pressure between the on-axis and offaxis points at half the distance of the on-axis reference point. In such a case, the 6dB loss from moving off-axis is compensated by the 6dB gain from approaching the source. This creates a balloon-like shape that represents equal pressure. If you were to walk along this line, you would experience level uniformity. In a typical room, the response in the far-field on-axis area would have low-frequency buildup due to room reflections. In the off-axis near-field position, there would be HF attenuation because of the axial loss. These two opposing factors come together to create a high potential for frequency response uniformity, depending upon the particular room and array design factors. Therefore, the contour lines represent both level and (potentially) frequency response uniformity, two of our primary goals in array design." equal loudness curves Hearing. See: Fletcher-Munson Curves. equal-tempered scale or equal temperament, also even temperament Music. Today's normal musical scale, it divides a musical octave into twelve equal parts (semitones), i.e., each is 2 1/12 above the other. Compare with just temperament. equivalent acoustic distance See: EAD equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level Acoustics. For airborne sounds that are non-stationary with respect to time, an equivalent continuous sound pressure level (see below) formed by applying A-weighting to the original signal before squaring and averaging. [Morfey] Abbreviated LAeq (15) for a time duration of 15 minutes. equivalent continuous sound pressure level Acoustics. Of a non-stationary sound pressure signal between specified time limits, the sound pressure level of a notional unvarying sound that, for the same specified duration has the same signal energy as

the original signal. [Morfey] Abbreviated Leq. equivalent input noise See EIN. erhu Musical Instrument. Chinese 2-stringed fiddle. Eric "Hoss" Cartwright's given name -- "Hoss" was a nickname. This, for all you Jeopardy! fans. error correction A method using a coding system to correct data errors by use of redundant data within a data block. Often data is interleaved for immunity to burst errors. Corrected data is identical to the original. ESD (electrostatic discharge) Electrical discharges of static electricity that build up on personnel or equipment, generated by interaction of dissimilar materials. [IEEE] Eskimo pi Ratio of an igloo's circumference to its diameter. ESL (electrostatic loudspeaker) See: loudspeaker. ESO (equipment superior to operator) Satirical term popular among service technicians used to code invoices for units returned with nothing wrong -- similar to NPF (no problem found). [Thanks, CD!] ESP See: Elliot Sound Products ESPA (Electronic Systems Professional Alliance) A non-profit organization specializing in entry-level electronic systems technicians (EST). ESR (effective series resistance) Capacitors. The sum of many resistive losses in a capacitor. It includes resistance of the dielectric, plate material, electrolytic solution, and terminal leads at one specified frequency and acts like a resistor in series with a perfect capacitor. It is measured in ohms and is the real part of impedance. EST (electronic systems technician) See: ESPA. ESTA (Entertainment Services & Technology Association) A non-profit trade association representing the North American entertainment technology industry. Now merged with PLASA. E-taper See: potentiometer. ETC (energy time curve) Originally a three-dimensional graphical plot of acoustic re-

sponse where frequency, energy and time represent the three axes. Today it is more commonly seen as a two-dimensional graph with energy (in dB-SPL) and time being the axes. In simplest terms it is a plot of the envelope, or instantaneous amplitude decay of the test signal. ETCP (Entertainment Technician Certification Program) Industry certification program "focusing on the disciplines that directly affect the health and safety of crews, performers, and audiences." ETCP was created under the auspices of ESTA. ether From a Greek word meaning "upper air," a term used in early physics (based on ancient beliefs), a magical medium thought to explain the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Ethernet A local area network (LAN), originally developed by Xerox in 1973 (the name was coined by its inventor Bob Metcalfe, et al. [who went on to found 3Com in 1979] after the old science term ), receiving US Patent 4,063,220 in 1975, used for connecting computers, printers, workstations, terminals, etc., now extended to include audio and video using CobraNet and other new technologies (see: AoE, also see: AVB: Audio/Video Bridging). Ethernet operates over twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or fiber optic cable at various speeds designated "10Base-T" up to 10 megabits/sec (Mbps), "100Base-T", a.k.a. Fast Ethernet, up to 100 Mbps, and "1000Base-T" up to 1 gigabit/sec, or 1000 Mbps, aka Gigabit Ethernet (GE) [uses all 8 conductors and can be up to 100 meters long], and "10Gbase-T" aka. 10-Gbit Ethernet. (The number in the front designates the speed in megabits/second. "Base" indicates the network is baseband. The letter following determines the type of cable and its requirements. 10BaseT, for example is unshielded twisted-pair, using a star topology, and 1000Base-F uses fiber cable.) Other Ethernet designators include: 1000Base-CX A standard for GE connectivity where the "C" means copper and "X" is a placeholder. 1000Base-SX ("S" for short wavelength laser) for laser fiber cabling based on the Fiber Channel signaling specification for multimode fiber only. 1000Base-LX ("L" for long wavelength laser) for laser fiber cabling also based on the Fiber Channel signaling specification for multimode or single-mode fiber. 1000Base-LH ("LH" for long haul) for a multivendor specification (each vendor has a set of transceivers covering different distances). While not an

dor has a set of transceivers covering different distances). While not an IEEE standard, the vendors are working to interoperate with IEEE 1000Base-LX equipment using the gigabit interface connector (GBIC) multivendor specification in order to provide a common form factor and greater flexibility. Ethernet crossover cable A connection cable consisting of two pairs crossed plus two pairs uncrossed. Hit the link for a diagram and chart. EtherSound Networks. Digigram's patented real-time digital audio network based on standard Ethernet cabling and components (see above). EULA (end user license agreement) Software. The terms and conditions of a user rights with respect to purchased software. euphonic Agreeable sound, especially in the phonetic quality of words. [AHD] euphonium Musical Instrument. A brass wind instrument similar to the tuba but having a somewhat higher pitch and a mellower sound. [AHD] Euroblocks Shortened form for European style terminal blocks. See connectors. Eurorack Nickname for 3U high 19" wide powered rack designed to accommodate modular synthesizer modules available from many manufacturers. Similar to FracRack but with minor (but important) differences -- see Elby Designs' Eurorack FracRack Comparisons . Also similar but different from 500 Series card frames. Eventide H910 Harmonizer Offered for sale in 1975, it was the first and still the most famous. EVD (enhanced versatile disc) The Chinese national DVD standard developed to get around paying royalties to the DVD alliances. even temperament See equal-tempered scale. exciters (or enhancers) A term referring to any of the popular special-effect signal processing products used primarily in recording and performing. All exciters work by adding harmonic distortion of some sort - but harmonic distortion found pleasing by most listeners. Various means of generating and summing frequency-dependent and amplitude-dependent harmonics exist. Both even- and odd-ordered harmonics find favorite applications. Psychoacoustics teaches that even-harmonics tend to make sounds soft, warm and full, while odd-harmonics tend to make things metallic, hollow and bright. Lower-order harmonics control basic timbre, while higher-order har-

low and bright. Lower-order harmonics control basic timbre, while higher-order harmonics control the "edge" or "bite" of the sound. Used with discrimination, harmonic distortion changes the original sound dramatically, more so than measured performance might predict. expander A signal processing device used to increase the dynamic range of the signal passing through it. Expanders complement compressors. For example, a compressed input dynamic range of 70 dB might pass through a expander and exit with a new expanded dynamic range of 110 dB. Long answer: Just like compression, what "expansion" is and does has evolved significantly over the years. Originally expanders were used to give the reciprocal function of a compressor, i.e., it undid compression. Anytime audio was recorded or broadcast it had to be compressed for optimum transfer. Then it required an expander at the other end to restore the audio to its original dynamic range. Operating about the same "hinge" point and using the same ratio setting as the compressor, an expander makes audio increases and decreases bigger. From this sense came the phrase that "expanders make the quiet sounds quieter and the loud sounds louder." Modern expanders usually operate only below a set threshold point (as opposed to the center hinge point), i.e., they operate only on low-level audio. The term downward expander or downward expansion evolved to describe this type of application. (The term upward expander is sometimes used to refer to expanders operating only on high-level signals, i.e., increasing dynamic range above threshold.) The most common use is noise reduction. For example, say, an expander's threshold level is set to be just below the smallest vocal level being recorded, and the ratio control is set for 3:1. What happens is this: when the vocals stop, the "decrease below the set-point" is the change from signal (vocals) to the noise floor (no vocals), i.e., there has been a step decrease from the smallest signal level down to the noise floor. If that step change is, say, -10 dB, then the expander's output will be -30 dB (because of the 3:1 ratio, a 10 dB decrease becomes a 30 dB decrease), thus resulting in a noise reduction improvement of 20 dB. See the RaneNote "Dynamics Processors -- Technology & Applications." exponent The component of a floating-point number that normally signifies the integer power to which the radix is raised in determining the value of the represented number (IEEE-100). For example if radix =10 (a decimal number), then the number 183.885 is represented as mantissa = 1.83885 and exponent = 2 (since 183.885 = 1.83885 x 102). exponential horn Loudspeakers. A horn design characterized by having an exponentially increasing cross-sectional area. "Expressman Blues" The first rock and roll song, recorded May 17, 1930 by "Sleepy"

"Expressman Blues" The first rock and roll song, recorded May 17, 1930 by "Sleepy" John Estes, Yank Rachel and Hammy Nix. [McCleary] extensible Of or relating to a programming language or a system that can be modified by changing or adding features. Capable of being extended: AES24 is an extensible protocol. Extreme Programming See: XP. eye pattern An oscilloscope display of the received voltage waveform in a transmission system. So named because portions of the display take on a human eye-like shape. The eye pattern gives important information. An eye pattern is obtained when a high speed transmission system outputs a long pseudorandom bit sequence. A sampling oscilloscope is used to observe the output such that the scope is triggered to sample on every fourth or eighth pseudorandom clock cycle, and every sample point is plotted on the screen. (The pseudorandom digital data signal from a receiver is repetitively sampled and applied to the vertical input, while the data rate is used to trigger the horizontal sweep.) The picture obtained is a superposition of ones and zeros output. The horizontal "fatness" of the lines indicates the amount of jitter and the rise and fall times is measured from the crossing points. See Siemon publication Data Throughput Validation: Making Every Bit Count for an example and more details.

Pro Audio Reference F
42V PowerNet The official name for the 42 V automotive electrical power system. The value of 42 volts comes from a tripling of the normal 12 V car battery to 36 volts which measures 42 volts when running. 5.1 surround sound The digital audio multichannel format developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (see MPEG) for digital soundtrack encoding for film, laserdiscs, videotapes, DVD, and HDTV broadcast. The designation "5.1" (first proposed by Tom Holman of THX fame) refers to the five discrete, full bandwidth (20-20 kHz) channels -- left, right, & center fronts, plus left & right surrounds -- and the ".1" usually refers to the limited bandwidth (20-120 Hz) subwoofer channel, but can also refer to a special effects/feature channel. Terminology used by both Dolby Digital and DTS Consumer (the home version of their theater Coherent Acoustics system). fa Music. The fourth tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD]

facetious One of the words that contain all five vowels in the correct order. Other examples are obscure scientific terms. fader A control used to fade out one input source and fade in another. The fading of a single source is called attenuation and uses an attenuator. fadista A singer of tradition Portuguese musical style of fado (see next entry). fado Music. 1. Portuguese musical genre. 2. A sad Portuguese folksong. [AHD] Fahnestock clip Electronics. A type of spring-clip terminal for electrical wire that is one of the oldest and most popular ever made. Fahrenheit Abbr. F Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 32 °F and the boiling point as 212 °F, under normal atmospheric pressure. [AHD] (In scientific and technical contexts temperatures are now usually measured in degrees Celsius rather than Fahrenheit.) [After Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit.] Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel (1686-1736) German-born physicist who invented the

mercury thermometer (1714) and devised the Fahrenheit temperature scale. [AHD] Fairchild 670 Compressor Limiter designed by Rein Narma in 1959, while at Fairchild Recording Equipment Company in Long Island City, NY. The most revered pro audio compressor. Fairchild, Sherman Mills (1896 - 1971) American inventor and entrepreneur who founded many companies, the most famous of which were Fairchild Recording and Fairchild Semiconductor. fall time Electronics.The time required for a signal to decay from 90 % to 10 % of its maximum amplitude. fandango Music. An animated Spanish or Spanish-American dance in triple time. FAQ (frequently asked question) Acronym commonly seen on bulletin boards, Internet Web sites, and corporate information centers. By compiling FAQ lists (FAQs), organizations significantly reduce time spent repeatedly answering the same questions. farad Abbr. F The unit of capacitance in the meter-kilogram-second system equal to the capacitance of a capacitor having an equal and opposite charge of 1 coulomb on each plate and a potential difference of 1 volt between the plates. [AHD] [After Michael Faraday.] Faraday, Michael (1791-1867) British physicist and chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1831) and proposed the field theory later developed by Maxwell and Einstein. [AHD] After announcing that a new source of energy was possible by moving a magnet in a coil of wire, many declared him a fraud. Faraday responded with his memorable words: "Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature." See Faraday's Magnetic Field Induction Experiment. Faraday Effect See: Kerr Effect. far end Teleconferencing term meaning the distant location of transmission; the other end of the telephone line, as opposed to your end (known as the near end). far-end crosstalk Crosstalk that is propagated in a disturbed channel in the same direction as the propagation of the signal in the disturbing channel. The terminals of the disturbed channel, at which the far-end crosstalk is present, and the energized terminals of the disturbing channel, are usually remote from each other. far field or far sound field The sound field distant enough from the sound source so

the SPL decreases by 6 dB for each doubling of the distance from the source (inverse square law). Contrast with near field. Fast Ethernet See: Ethernet. fat Recording slang. Informal phrase for heavily processed audio, usually featuring lots of reverb, chorusing, or doubling. Also seen as phat sound. fax on demand One of the terms for the process of ordering fax documents from remote machines via telephone, using a combination of voice processing and fax technologies. Also called fax-back. fax-back See fax on demand. FDTD (finite difference time domain) Mathematics. A numerical technique for solving a partial differential equation involving time and space variables. The solution is implemented sequentially in the time domain. [IEEE] Considered easy to understand and easy to implement in software it is a popular technique. FEA See Finite Element Analysis. feedback Acoustics. See acoustic feedback. feedback Electronics. The return of a portion of the output of a process or system to the input, especially when used to maintain performance or to control a system or process. [AHD] feedback The longest word in the English language that uses all the letters "A" through "F." [Thanks, Brad, for being so observant while playing Trivial Pursuit®.] Feedback Stability Margin See: FSM feedback suppressor An audio signal processing device that uses automatic detection to determine acoustic feedback frequencies and then positions notch filters to cancel the offending frequencies. Other methods use continuous frequency shifting (a very small amount) to prevent frequency build up and feedback before it happens. feedback troxelator Faster than an exterminator. More powerful than an eliminator. Able to leap over an obliterator in a single sample -- 'Look; up in the sky;' 'It's a bird;' 'It's a plane;' 'It's The Troxelator ...,' Rane's patented feedback suppressor technology developed by and named after Dana Troxel, one of their senior design engineers, who proclaims: "I AM THE TROXELATOR."

feed-through hole See vias. FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) An ANSI standard describing a 100 megabytes/sec (MBps) fiber optic LAN; now also specified for twisted-pair use. femto- Prefix for one thousandth of one trillionth (10-15), abbreviated f. Fender, Clarence Leonidas "Leo" (1909-1991) American inventor and entrepreneur who founded the Fender Electric Instrument Company in 1946 and invented the legendary Stratocaster and Telecaster guitars. ferrite 1. Any of a group of nonmetallic, ceramic-like, usually ferromagnetic compounds of ferric oxide with other oxides, especially such a compound characterized by extremely high electrical resistivity and used in computer memory elements, permanent magnets, and various solid-state devices. 2. Iron that has not combined with carbon, occurring commonly in steel, cast iron, and pig iron below 910°C. [AHD] ferrite bead Electronic component. A small toroidal shaped part made from a mixture of iron, nickel and zinc oxides used to suppress EMI in audio and other electronic equipment. Usually seen on the inputs and outputs of equipment, ferrite beads act electrically like an inductor in series with a resistor. For more details see "The Use of Ferrites in EMI Suppression" by Steward. FET (field-effect transistor) A three-terminal transistor device where the output current flowing between the source and drain terminals is controlled by a variable electric field applied to the gate terminal. The gate design determines the type of FET: either JFET (junction FET) or MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor FET). Each type has two polarities: positive, or p-channel devices, and negative, or n-channel devices. In a JFET device the gate forms a true semiconductor junction with the channel, while in a MOSFET device the gate is insulated from the channel by a very thin (typically less than the wavelength of light) layer of glass (silicon dioxide) and the gate is either metal or doped silicon (polysilicon), hence the acronym metal-oxide semiconductor. FFL (flat flexible loudspeaker) New loudspeaker technology developed by Warwick Audio Technologies, a spin-off company from The University of Warwick School of Engineering. FFT (fast Fourier transform) 1. Similar to a discrete Fourier transform except the algorithm requires the number of sampled points be a power of two. 2. A DSP algorithm that is the computational equivalent to performing a specific number of discrete Fourier transforms, but by taking advantage of computational symmetries and

redundancies, significantly reduces the computational burden. [It is believed Cornelius Lanczos of the Boeing Co. in the 1940's first described the FFT.] fiber optics The technology of using glass fibers to convey light and modulated information. Short distances (typically less than 150 feet) use plastic fibers, while long distances must use glass fibers. See cables. Fidelipac (aka NAB cartridge or simply 'cart') Magnetic tape recording format that became the industry standard for radio broadcasting, introduced in 1959, field Video. One half of a complete video scanning cycle, equaling 1/60 second, or 16.67 milliseconds for NTSC and 1/50 second, or 20 milliseconds for PAL/SECAM. field Mathematics. A set of elements having two operations, designated addition and multiplication, satisfying the conditions that multiplication is distributive over addition, that the set is a group under addition, and that the elements with the exception of the additive identity form a group under multiplication. [AHD] fig newton One kilogram of falling figs. figure-of-eight See: microphone polar response. filament Vacuum Tubes. The heating element in a vacuum tube. [It's that glowing thing.] film sound glossary See Larry Blake's Film Sound Glossary; find out what a "binky" is. filter Any of various electric, electronic, acoustic, or optical devices used to reject signals, vibrations, or radiation of certain frequencies while passing others. Think sieve: pass what you want, reject all else. For audio use the most common electronic filter is a bandpass filter, characterized by three parameters: center frequency, amplitude (or magnitude), and bandwidth. Bandpass filters form the heart of audio graphic equalizers and parametric equalizers. FinFet (fin field-effect transistor) Solid-state Physics. The term was coined by University of California, Berkeley researchers (Profs. Chenming Hu, Tsu-Jae King-Liu and Jeffrey Bokor) to describe a nonplanar, double-gate transistor built on an SOI substrate. [Huang, X. et al. (1999) "Sub 50-nm FinFET: PMOS" International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, p. 67. December 5–8, 1999] Finite Element Analysis Abbr. FEA A computer-based numerical technique for calcu-

lating the strength and behavior of engineering structures. finite field See: Galois field. fipple Musical Instruments. 1. A whistle like mouthpiece for certain wind instruments, such as a recorder or flageolet, that channels the breath toward the sounding edge of a side opening. 2. An object similar to a fipple in an organ pipe. [AHD] FIR (finite impulse-response) filter A commonly used type of digital filter. Digitized samples of the audio signal serve as inputs, and each filtered output is computed from a weighted sum of a finite number of previous inputs. An FIR filter can be designed to have linear phase (i.e., constant time delay, regardless of frequency). FIR filters designed for frequencies much lower that the sample rate and/or with sharp transitions are computationally intensive, with large time delays. Popularly used for adaptive filters. Firefly See ZigBee. Firewire See IEEE 1394. firkytoodle An English word no longer in print (except here) meaning to engage in intimate physical affection, as a prelude to sexual intercourse; foreplay (17th to 19th century). firmware Computer read-only memory (ROM) code (files) residing inside DSP and microprocessor ICs that controls the hardware response to software instructions -the liaison between software and hardware. Now really a specific type of software since most firmware updates are done via some sort of streaming network rather than burning new hardware ROMS. fishpaper An insulating paper, often fiber- or oilcloth-like, used in the construction of transformers and coils. [Historical Note: Alvin G. Sydor writes: "In 1729 Stephen Gray made the discovery of the conducting and non-conducting power of different substances. Gray found that by using woven silk served as an excellent insulator. Some years later it was found that the paper industry could provide what was equivalent to woven silk. Later it was discovered that if the paper was saturated with fish oil its ability as an insulator was much improved particularly when used in harsh environments and high voltages."] fixed-point A computing method where numbers are expressed in the fixed-point representation system, i.e., one where the position of the "decimal point" (technically

the radix point) is fixed with respect to one end of the numbers. Integer or fractional data is expressed in a specific number of digits, with a radix point implicitly located at a predetermined position. Fixed-point DSPs support fractional arithmetic, which is better suited to digital audio processing than integer arithmetic. A couple of fixedpoint examples with two decimal places are 4.56 and 1789.45. FLAC (free lossless audio codec) A lossless compression standard for music files. flanging Originally, "flanging" was achieved using two reel-to-reel tape recorders playing the same program, in synchronization, with their outputs summed together. By alternately slowing one machine, then the other, different phase cancellations occurred in the summation process. The "slowing down" was done simply by pressing against the flanges of the tape reels, hence the original term "reel flanging," soon shortened to just "flanging." Since the two identical signals would alternately add and subtract due to the introduced phase (timing) difference, the audible effect was one of a sweeping comb filter. It was described as a "swishing" or "tunneling" sound. Soon electronic means were devised to mimic true "reel flanging" by using delay lines and mixing techniques. Adding a low-frequency oscillator to modulate the audio delay line's clock signal created a sweeping effect, much like a jet airplane taking off. The best flangers used two delay lines. Compare with phaser Fleming, Sir John Ambrose (1849-1945) British electrical engineer and inventor known for his work on electric lighting, wireless telegraphy, and the telephone. He invented and patented the first tube, a diode (which he called a thermionic valve, he used for signal detection (although Edison technically developed the first tube with a version of his light bulb). Fletcher, Harvey (1884-1981) American physicist and legendary pioneer in acoustics and hearing most often associated with the Fletcher-Munson Curves below. He published his findings in his book, Speech and Hearing (Van Nostrand Co., 1929). [And H. D. Arnold wrote the introduction.] Fletcher-Munson Curves In the '30s, researchers Fletcher and Munson first accurately measured and published a set of curves showing the human's ear's sensitivity to pure tone loudness verses frequency ("Loudness, its Definition Measurement and Calculation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 5, p 82, Oct. 1933). They conclusively demonstrated that human hearing is extremely dependent upon loudness. The curves show the ear most sensitive to pure tones in the 3 kHz to 4 kHz area. This means sounds above and below 3-4 kHz must be louder in order to be heard just as loud. For this reason, the Fletcher-Munson curves are referred to as "equal loudness contours."

They represent a family of curves from "just heard," (0 dB SPL) all the way to "harmfully loud" (130 dB SPL), usually plotted in 10 dB loudness increments. D. W. Robinson and R. S. Dadson revised the curves in their paper, "A Redetermination of the Equal-Loudness Relations for Pure Tones," Brit. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 7, pp. 156-181, May 1956. These curves supersede the original Fletcher-Munson curves for all modern work with pure tones. Robinson & Dadson curves are the basis for ISO: "Normal Equal-Loudness Level Contours," ISO 226:1987 -- the current standard. Users of either of these curves must clearly understand that they are valid only for pure tones in a free field, as discussed in the following by Holman & Kampmann. This specifically means they do NOT apply to noise band analysis or diffused random noise for instance, i.e., they have little relevance to the real audio world. A good overview is T. Holman and F. Kampmann, "Loudness Compensation: Use and Abuse," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 26, no. 7/8, pp. 526-536, July/August 1978. For real audio use, the Steven's curves are more applicable: S. S. Stevens, "Perceived Level of Noise by Mark VII and Decibels (E)," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 51, pp. 575-601, 1972. [Used to create ISO 532:1975 and ASA S3.4-1980] See Holman & Kampmann above for discussion. flicker AC Power Systems. The effect caused when load switching creates a shortduration dip in the AC voltage, as when the lights dim momentarily when the refrigerator compressor kicks in. flicker noise or 1/f noise Noise whose amplitude varies inversely with frequency. Mainly used in solid-state physics to describe noise with 1/f behavior, such as the noise resulting from impurities in the conducting channel, generation and recombination noise due to base current in transistors, etc. Pink noise has a 1/f characteristic so the two terms are often interchanged, however when used to describe semiconductor noise (in op amps for instance) it is uniquely a low-frequency phenomena occurring below 2 kHz, while in audio, pink noise is wideband to 20 kHz. floating-point A computing method where numbers are expressed in the floatingpoint representation system, i.e., one where the position of the decimal point does not remain fixed with respect to one end of numerical expressions, but is regularly recalculated. A floating-point number has four parts: sign, mantissa, radix, and exponent. The sign indicates polarity so it is always 1 or -1. The mantissa is a positive number representing the significant digits. The exponent indicates the power of the radix (i.e., the number base, usually binary 2, but sometimes hexadecimal 16). A common example is the "scientific notation" used in all science and mathematics fields.

mon example is the "scientific notation" used in all science and mathematics fields. Scientific notation is a floating point system with radix 10 (i.e., decimal). See FLOPS. floating unbalanced line A quasi-balanced output stage consisting of an unbalanced output connected to the tip of a ¼" TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) jack through an output resistor (typically in the 50-300 ohms range). An equal valued resistor is used to tie the ring terminal to signal ground. The sleeve connection is left open or "floating." Thus, from the receiver's viewpoint, what is "seen" are two lines of equal impedance, used to transfer the signal. In this sense, the line is 'balanced," although only one line is actually being driven. Leaving the sleeve open, guarantees that only one end of the shield (the receiving end) will be grounded. A practice that unbalanced systems often require. For trouble free interconnections, balanced lines are always the preferred choice. floobydust A contemporary made-up term, one meaning being derived from the archaic Latin miscellaneus, whose disputed history springs from Indo-European roots, probably finding Greek origins (influenced, of course, by Egyptian linguists) -- meaning a mixed bag, or a heterogeneous motley mixed varied assortment. Popularized within the audio community when borrowed and used by the author of this web page as a chapter title in the National Semiconductor Audio Handbook, first published in 1976. FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) A measure of computing power. flugelhorn or fluegelhorn A bugle with valves, similar to the cornet but having a wider bore. [AHD] flute Musical Instruments. A high-pitched woodwind instrument consisting of a slender tube closed at one end with keys and finger holes on the side and an opening near the closed end across which the breath is blown. Also called transverse flute. [AHD] The oldest wooden musical instruments discovered to date were found in Greystone, Ireland and date from 4000 BC. And the oldest instrument of any sort is a flute made from bird bones found in Germany dating from 35,000 BC. flutter 1. Analog Recording. Any significant variation from the designed study rotational speed of a recording or playback mechanism, e.g., turntables and analog tape recorders (typically at 5-10 Hz rate). Heard as rapid fluctuation in pitch when played back. Compare with wow. 2. Telecommunications. Any rapid variation of signal parameters, such as amplitude, phase, and frequency. flutter echo Acoustics. An acoustic effect in some rooms where sound is reflected back and forth between two parallel surfaces, such as opposite walls. In order to qualify as a flutter echo the reflections must be fewer than about 15 or so per second.

qualify as a flutter echo the reflections must be fewer than about 15 or so per second. This happens when the walls are more than about 25 feet apart. Parallel surfaces closer than this give rise to standing waves that result in nonuniform distribution of sound between the surfaces. [White] flux Physics. The lines of force found in an electric or magnetic field. fluxivity Magnetic Recording. The recorded flux per unit track width. See AES7: AES standard for the preservation and restoration of audio recording -- Method of measuring recorded fluxivity of magnetic sound records at medium wavelengths. flux unit See: jansky. FM (frequency modulation) Radio broadcast. The encoding of a carrier wave by variation of its frequency in accordance with an input signal. [AHD] focalization (a.k.a. near-field focalization (NFF) Acoustics. A beamforming technique based on near-field measurements. FOH Abbreviation for front of house, used to describe the main mixer usually located in the audience for sound reinforcement systems. Meant to differentiate the main house mixer from the monitor mixer normally located to the side of the stage. foldback The original term for monitors, or monitor loudspeakers, used by stage musicians to hear themselves and/or the rest of the band. The term "monitors" has replaced "foldback" in common practice. Foley A term synonymous with film sound effects. A recording studio Foley stage is where the sound effects are generated in synch with the moving picture. Named after Jack Foley, who invented sound effects for film sound while working for Universal. He simultaneously added music and effects to the previously silent film "Showboat" and the first "Foley" session was born. follower Shortened form for a number of electronic circuit buffer amplifiers named voltage followers, cathode followers, emitter followers, etc. Fonz Foot Wedge Loudspeakers. A special floor monitor developed for the Dave Matthews Band that utilizes a tactile transducer (like the one found in drummers butt thumpers) to produce a tactile pounding on the musicians foot. foreground music Officially music with (or without) lyrics and performed by the original artist. Used where it is believed people will pay attention to it. Contrast with background music.

background music. formant Any of several frequency regions of relatively great intensity in a sound spectrum, which together determine the characteristic quality of a vowel sound. [AHD] Formants are what you emphasis in a sound system (or hearing aid) to improve intelligibility. form factor Electronics. The ratio of RMS value to average value for an alternating current waveform. [There are many more types of form factors: go here. forward masking See temporal masking. Four Elements Hip-Hop. The four elements of hip-hop culture were outlined by DJ Afrika Bambaataa in the late '70s as being DJing, MCing, breaking and graffiti writing. Fourier analysis Mathematics. Most often the approximation of a function through the application of a Fourier series to periodic data, however it is not restricted to periodic data. [The Fourier series applies to periodic data only, but the Fourier integral transform converts an infinite continuous time function into an infinite continuous frequency function, with perfect reversibility in most cases. In this sense, it is not an approximation. The DFT and FFT are examples of the Fourier series, but are not approximations either unless the time data is an approximation itself, such as for sampled data systems, which introduces sampling errors.] Fourier, Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph (1768-1830) French mathematician and physicist who formulated a method for analyzing periodic functions and studied the conduction of heat. [AHD] Fourier series Application of the Fourier theorem to a periodic function, resulting in sine and cosine terms which are harmonics of the periodic frequency. [After Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier.] Fourier theorem A mathematical theorem stating that any function may be resolved into sine and cosine terms with known amplitudes and phases. Fourier transform A circuit analysis technique that decomposes or separates a waveform or function into sinusoids of different frequency which sum to the original waveform. It identifies or distinguishes the different frequency sinusoids and their respective amplitudes [Brigham, E. Oren, The Fast Fourier Transform and Its Applications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1988.] FPGA (field-programmable gate array) A programmable logic device which is more

versatile (i.e., much larger) than traditional programmable devices such as PALs and PLAs. fps (frames per second) See: frame. FracRack (Fractional Rack) Nickname for 3U high 19" wide powered rack designed to accommodate modular synthesizer modules available from many manufacturers. First introduced by PAiA, called FracRak™. Similar to Eurorack with minor (but important) differences -- see Elby Designs' Eurorack - FracRack Comparisons . Also similar but very different from 500 Series card frames. frame Video. One complete video scanning cycle, equals two fields for NTSC and PAL/SECAM. Also frame rate is expressed as frames per second, abbreviated fps. frame Ethernet. A element of Ethernet systems made up of three elements: two addresses, the data, and an error checking field. frammel Loudspeakers. In arrays it is sometimes necessary to separate and angle the cabinets a small amount to reduce phase interference. This is often done using a narrow wood strip called a frammel. [For reasons I cannot determine. If you know the origin of this word, write me.] FRAP (flat response audio pick-up) Transducers. A type of piezoelectric pick-up developed by Arnie Lazarus in the late '60s. Made famous by attaching them to the Golden Gate Bridge and recording its sounds. [Really!] Freed, Alan (1921-1965) Famous American radio disc jockey who jump-started the rock 'n' roll revolution that shook up the last half of the 20th century. free field or free sound field A sound field without boundaries or where the boundaries are so distant as to cause negligible reflections over the frequency range of interest. Note that if the boundaries exist but completely absorb the sound then a virtual free field is created, thus anechoic chambers are used to measure loudspeakers. frequency 1. The property or condition of occurring at frequent intervals. 2. Mathematics. Physics. The number of times a specified phenomenon occurs within a specified interval, as: a. The number of repetitions of a complete sequence of values of a periodic function per unit variation of an independent variable. b. The number of complete cycles of a periodic process occurring per unit time. c. The number of repetitions per unit time of a complete waveform, as of an electric current. [AHD] frequency bands Broadcast. Broadcast transmission frequency bands are broken into

frequency bands Broadcast. Broadcast transmission frequency bands are broken into groups as follows: HF (high frequency) 3 MHz to 30 MHz VHF (very high frequency) 30 MHz to 300 MHz UHF (ultra high frequency) 300 MHz to 3 GHz SHF (super high frequency) 3 GHz to 30 GHz EHF (extremely high frequency) 30 GHz to 300 GHz frequency modulation See: FM. frequency-modulation (friction) noise See: scrape flutter. frequency response Audio electronics. It connotes amplitude-frequency response and quantifies a device's maximum and minimum frequency for full-output response. The electrical passband of an audio device. The measure of any audio device's ability to respond to a sine wave program, and therefore is a complex function measuring gain and phase shift (see phasor). It is used to express variation of gain, loss, amplification, or attenuation as a function of frequency, normally referred to a standard 1 kHz reference point. frequency response of musical instruments See: musical instrument frequency ranges frequency shift keying Abbr. FSK Telecommunications. A modulation technique in which binary 0 and 1 are represented by two different frequencies. [IEEE] fricative Phonology. A consonant, such as f or s in English, produced by the forcing of breath through a constricted passage. Also called spirant. [AHD] friction noise See: scrape flutter Frying Pan See: George Beauchamp. FSK See: frequency shift keying. FSM (Feedback Stability Margin ) Acoustics. The acoustic gain safety margin for a sound system to minimize acoustic feedback problems, usually set at 6 dB. full duplex Redundant term. See duplex. full-range Any audio device capable of capturing, reproducing or processing the full audio frequency spectrum of 20 Hz to 20 kHz.

full tilt boogie Slang phrase combining "full tilt" from the alternate word for jousting at top speed and "boogie" meaning to dance, so it means dancing at full speed. full-wave rectification Term used to describe a rectifier that inverts the negative halfcycle of the input sinusoid so that the output contains two half-sine pulses for each input cycle. [IEEE] fundamental Music. The first harmonic in a harmonic series; the lowest harmonic. Physics. The lowest frequency of a periodically varying quantity or of a vibrating system. [AHD] fuzz box also fuzzbox One of the earliest guitar effects units made popular in the '60s psychedelic and heavy metal sound. Early fuzz boxes were not much more than a heavy clipped signal, which tends to sound clarinet-like due to it squaring up the signal which adds lots of odd harmonics characteristic of the clarinet. fuzzy clustering Mathematics. Analysis technique where complex problems are divided into groups or "clusters" for easier understanding. When the division between clusters is not sharp then you have "fuzzy" clusters that more accurately model real life situations. The importance to pro audio comes from it's use in modeling acoustic fields to predict SPL and other phenomena (for instance see Sunil Bharitkar and Chris Kyriakakis, "A Cluster Centroid Method for Room Response Equalization at Multiple Locations"). F-wrench Slang term for vernier calipers due to their resemblance to the letter "F." FX unit Slang for "effects unit." See: effects boxes.

Pro Audio Reference G
G The symbol for conductance. gack Live audio. Popular slang: 1. To pretend to play a musical instrument, especially guitar. 2. An excessive or disordered collection of miscellaneous gear. [Thanks Bink!] gadulka Musical Instrument. A Bulgarian bowed stringed instrument. gagaku Music. A type of Japanese music. gaida (also gajda) Musical Instrument. A form of Balkan bagpipe with the bag made from the whole skin of a goat or lamb, sometimes with the wool still left on so it looks like the player is squeezing a lamb under their arm. [Thanks, GD!] gain The amount of amplification (voltage, current or power) of an audio signal, usually express in units of dB (i.e., the ratio of the output level to the input level). For example, amplifying a voltage signal by a factor of two is stated as a voltage gain increase of 6 dB. [Historical Usage Note: originally the terms 'gain/loss' were restricted to power use only, and 'amplify/attenuate' were used for voltage and current -- although I can find no historical explanation for this arbitrary split, and no existing standards can be found that continue to make such a distinction. It is interesting to add that conformity with such a narrow definition of 'amplification' says that the original manufacturers misnamed their products: they should have been called a 'gainifier' -- not an 'amplifier.' According to the true believers a 'power amplifier' is a contradiction since you cannot 'amplify' power, only 'gainify' it. 'Power gainifier' is the correct term, according to them.] gain bandwidth product See GBW. gain riding Recording term. The act of constantly monitoring and adjusting as necessary the gain of a recording process to prevent overloading the medium. gain-sharing Microphone Automixers. A shortened form meaning a gain-sharing algorithm. Using a gain-sharing algorithm, each individual microphone input channel is attenuated by an amount, in dB, equal to the difference, in dB, between that channel’s level and the level of the sum of all channels. A gain-sharing automatic mixing algorithm provides several benefits. First, the algorithm produces a mix that has a constant gain from all inputs to the output. When the gain of the system is constant, an operator can create a public address system in which the acoustic gain is

constant, and equal to the Needed Acoustic Gain (NAG). In such a system, the Feedback Stability Margin (FSM) may be maximized, and remains constant regardless of the number of microphones. Also, in a system where background noise is detected evenly by all microphones, a gain-sharing algorithm produces a constant level of background noise at the mix output regardless of the number of microphones or their input signal levels. In other words, the gain-sharing algorithm produces no gating, pumping, or breathing effects in the reinforced background noise of the public address system. A gain-sharing algorithm also reduces the comb filtering effect produced by two or more microphones detecting the same acoustic signal. Using Rane’s proprietary (patent pending) method for distributing a gain-sharing automixer across multiple devices, the gain-sharing algorithm and all of its benefits are preserved even though the mixing and inputs are shared among various physical devices. gain stage Any of several points in an electrical circuit where gain is taken (applied). gain suppression See suppression. GAL® (generic array logic) Registered trademark of Lattice Semiconductor for their invention of EEPROM-based low-power programmable logic devices. Galois field (aka finite field) (after French mathematician Évariste Galois) Mathematics. A field with a finite number of elements. galvanic Electronics. Of or relating to direct-current electricity, especially when produced chemically. [AHD] galvanic isolation Electronics. Prevention of electrical current from passing between sections. Common examples are transformers and optocouplers. Any system with ground common is NOT galvanically isolated. gang, ganged, ganging To couple two or more controls (analog or digital) mechanically (or electronically) so that operating one automatically operates the other, usually applied to potentiometers (pots). The volume control in a traditional two-channel hi-fi system is an example of a ganged control, where it is desired to change the gain of two channels by the same amount, and now in home theater and DVD-audio applications, used to change 6 or more channels simultaneously. Gantt chart A chart that depicts progress in relation to time, often used in planning and tracking a project. [After Henry Laurence Gantt (1861-1919), American engineer.] Gaohu Musical Instrument. Chinese bowed string instrument.

gap Recording. The space between opposite poles of a recording or playback head in a magnetic tape recorder. gap detection threshold Hearing. Measure of the shortest interruption of a signal that can be detected by a listener. [Lass & Woodford] gate See noise gate. gated or gated-on Teleconferencing. Term referring to microphone inputs on an automatic mic mixer that turn off (close) after speech stops. Contrast with last-on. gateway Networks. A network point that acts as an entrance to another network, similar to a router. gauge Wire & Cable. A measure of the diameter of wire. See AWG for more details. gauss Abbr. Gs The centimeter-gram-second unit of magnetic flux density, equal to one Maxwell (one line of flux) per square centimeter. [After Gauss, Karl Friedrich.] [AHD] Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855). German mathematician and astronomer known for his contributions to algebra, differential geometry, probability theory, and number theory. [AHD] Gaussian distribution Statistics. Same as normal distribution. A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve symmetrical about the mean. [AHD] GBIC (gigabit interface connector) See Ethernet. GBW (gain bandwidth or gain bandwidth product ) (aka unity gain bandwidth) Op Amps. Alternate specification for the unity gain frequency of the device. An op amp's frequency vs. gain response rolls off at a 20 dB/decade (6 dB/octave) rate. Because of this the unity gain bandwidth specification (the frequency where the open loop gain is one or unity) also equals the gain bandwidth product. For example, say an op amp has a unity gain frequency equal to 10 MHz. This can be restated as a GBW of 1 x 10 MHz. Since the slope is 20 dB/decade, then this device will have 20 dB of open loop gain at 1 MHz, 40 dB gain at 100 kHz, 60 dB gain at 10 kHz, and so on. G clef See: treble clef. GE (gigabit Ethernet) See Ethernet.

geeeezzzeeee! Favorite expression of George Sheppard, CEO, Rane Corporation. Generation X The tenth generation of Americans since 1776. [From Roman numeral X meaning 10.] See Beat Generation. geometric progression A sequence, such as the numbers 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, in which each term is multiplied by the same factor in order to obtain the following term. Also called geometric sequence. [AHD] Gerzon, Michael (1945-1996) British mathematician considered one of the true geniuses of the twentieth century. Made many pro audio inventions the most famous of which is Ambisonics and the theory behind the tetrahedron microphone. See Robert Charles Alexander's biography Michael Gerzon: Beyond Psychoacoustics for details of his too short but fascinating life. getter A small amount of material added to a chemical or metallurgical process to absorb impurities. In vacuum tubes it is a small cup or holder, containing a bit of a metal that reacts with oxygen strongly and absorbs it. In most modern glass tubes, the getter metal is barium, which oxidizes very easily forming white barium oxide. This oxidization removes any oxygen remaining after vacuumization. Gibbs phenomenon Signal Processing. The ringing and overshoot that can occur when constructing a waveform by adding together harmonics and abruptly stopping the harmonic series after a finite number of terms. [Greenebaum] gibi Symbol Gi New term standardized by the IEC as Amendment 2 to IEC 60027-2 Letter Symbols to be Used in Electrical Technology to signify binary multiples of 1,073,741,824 (i.e., 2E30). Meant to distinguish between exact binary and decimal quantities, i.e., 1,073,741,824 verses 1,000,000,000. For example, it is now 16 gibibits, abbreviated 16 Gib, not 16 gigabits or 16 Gb. Gidget Nickname for girl-midget from the 1959 movie of the same name, based on the book by Frederick Kohner about his surfer daughter Kathy. [This for all you Jeopardy! fans.] giga- A prefix signifying one billion (10E9), abbreviated G. gigabyte Popular term meaning a billion bytes but should be gibibyte meaning 2E30 bytes. See gibi. GIGO (garbage in garbage out) Popular acronym used by programmers to indicate that incorrect information sent to a system generally results in incorrect information

that incorrect information sent to a system generally results in incorrect information received from it. gigue See jig. glass Popular jargon referring to glass fiber optic interconnection, or fiber optics in general. glass harmonic or glass harmonica Music. A musical instrument comprising separate glasses, playing the rims, or a long tapered cylinder rotating and played by hand. First mentioned in the early 1740s and later improved by Benjamin Franklin in 1761. glide See portamento. glissando Music. A rapid slide through a series of consecutive tones in a scale-like passage. [AHD] [Like way too many rock guitar solos.] glitch A perturbation of the pulse waveform of relatively short duration and of uncertain origin. [IEEE] 1. A minor malfunction, mishap, or technical problem; a snag: a computer glitch; a navigational glitch; a glitch in the negotiations. 2. A false or spurious electronic signal caused by a brief, unwanted surge of electric power. [AHD] Word History: Although glitch seems a word that people would always have found useful, it is first recorded in English in 1962 in the writing of John Glenn: "Another term we adopted to describe some of our problems was 'glitch.' " Glenn then gives the technical sense of the word the astronauts had adopted: "Literally, a glitch is a spike or change in voltage in an electrical current." It is easy to see why the astronauts, who were engaged in a highly technical endeavor, might have generalized a term from electronics to cover other technical problems. Since then glitch has passed beyond technical use and now covers a wide variety of malfunctions and mishaps. [AHD] [In digital audio glitches sound bad. ] glitch edit DJ. A popular remixing effect. See Jason Scott Alexander's "Fractal Tendencies" published in Remix magazine for how-to tips. glockenspiel A percussion instrument with a series of metal bars tuned to the chromatic scale and played with two light hammers. [AHD] glottis Sound. 1. The opening between the vocal cords at the upper part of the larynx. 2. The vocal apparatus of the larynx. [AHD] GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) See: universal time. GND (ground) Electronics. Common abbreviation seen on electronic and electrical

schematic diagrams. gobble pipe Saxophone. [Decharne] goblet drum (aka Chalice drum, Darbuka or Doumbek) Musical Instrument. A wine glass shaped hand drum indigenous to the Middle East. gobo (Might be a shorten form for "go between" but I cannot find any verification.) 1. Cinematography & Photography. A portable screen used to shield a camera lens from light or a microphone from noise. 2. Acoustics & Recording. A sound absorbent screen used to isolate instruments during multitrack recording, minimizing microphone crosstalk. Goddard, Robert Hutchings (1882-1945) See Roswell, NM. googol The number 10 raised to the power 100 (10100), written out as the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeros. [Coined at the age of nine by Milton Sirotta, nephew of Edward Kasner (1878-1955), American mathematician.] [AHD] googolplex The number 10 raised to the power googol, written out as the numeral 1 followed by 10100 zeros. [AHD] Golden Ratio or Golden Rectangle See phi. Golliwogs The original name of the band that evolved into Creedence Clearwater Revival. GOTS (government off-the-shelf ) Government procurement term. Most often referencing software but general use is found. Compare with COTS, MOTS and NOTS. GPI (general purpose interface) GPIB (general purpose interface bus) See IEEE-488. gradient microphone See pressure-gradient microphone and ribbon microphone. graffiti Plural of graffito. Usage Note: The word graffiti is a plural noun in Italian. In English graffiti is far more common than the singular form graffito and is mainly used as a singular noun in much the same way data is. When the reference is to a particular inscription (as in There was a bold graffiti on the wall), the form graffito would be etymologically correct but might strike some readers as pedantic outside an archaeological context. There is no substitute for the singular use of graffiti when the word is used as

a mass noun to refer to inscriptions in general or to the related social phenomenon. The sentence Graffiti is a major problem for the Transit Authority Police cannot be reworded Graffito is ... (since graffito can refer only to a particular inscription) or Graffiti are ... (which suggests that the police problem involves only the physical marks and not the larger issue of vandalism). In such contexts, the use of graffiti as a singular is justified by both utility and widespread precedent. [AHD] graffito A drawing or inscription made on a wall or other surface, usually so as to be seen by the public. Often used in the plural (see above). [AHD] gram Abbr. g or gm. or gr. A metric unit of mass equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a kilogram. [AHD] gramophone British term referring to any sound reproducing machine using disc records, as disc records were popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. Invented by Emil Berliner. Grammy Shorten form of gramophone, name of the Grammy Awards given by The Recording Academy. granulation noise An audible distortion resulting from quantization error. graphene A one-atom-thick sheet of pure carbon which won the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics; among many different things it is experimentally producing silicon-less transistors. graphic equalizer A multi-band variable equalizer using front panel mechanical slide controls as the amplitude adjustable elements. Named for the positions of the sliders "graphing" the resulting frequency response of the equalizer. Only found on active designs. Center frequency and bandwidth are fixed for each band. Grashof, Nusselt and Prandtl numbers Thermodynamics. All are found in the study of natural convection as occurs, for example, from heat sinks in audio power amplifiers: Grashof (Gr), is the ratio of buoyant force to viscous force; Nusselt (Nu) is the coefficient of heat transfer; and Prandtl (Pr) is the ratio of the molecular diffusion coefficients of momentum in terms of heat, i.e., a property of air. And for those who love a good formula, this is the correlation for natural convection from a flat plate: Nu = 0.59 (Gr Pr)0.25 [Kordyban] Gray code A sequence of binary values where only one bit is allowed to change between successive values. Generally "quieter" (producing less audible interference)

than straight binary coding for execution of commands in audio systems. Gray, Elisha (1835-1901) American electrical engineer who invented the Musical Telegraph after developing the first telephone, more or less simultaneously with Alexander Graham Bell. gray noise See noise color. Gray, Stephen (1666-1736) British chemist who is credited with the discovery of electrical conduction and insulation. Green Book Nickname for the Philips and Sony's ECMA-130 standard document that defines the format for CD-I (compact disc-interactive) discs; available only to licensees. Compare with Red Book and Yellow Book. green noise See noise color. Greenwich time See: universal time. greenockite A yellow to brown or red mineral, CdS, the only ore of cadmium. [After Charles Murray Cathcart, Second Earl Greenock (1783-1859), British soldier.] grid Electron tubes (valves). The current controlling element in a tube located between the plate and the cathode. It is equivalent to the base in a transistor. A triode tube consists of a plate, cathode and grid, which are directly analogous to the collector, emitter and base of a transistor. See audion. grill Cooking. To broil on a gridiron. [AHD] grille 1. A grating of metal, wood, or another material used as a screen, divider, barrier, or decorative element, as in a window or on the front end of an automotive vehicle. 2. An opening covered with a grating. [AHD] grille cloth Loudspeakers. A tough acoustically transparent cloth (or metal) put over the front of a loudspeaker to protect the speaker from damage. groan box Accordion. [Decharne] ground Electronics. The common reference point for electrical circuits; the return path; the point of zero potential. grounding: correct, proper & best See Steve Macatee's Considerations in Grounding and Shielding, the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection; Tony Waldron and Keith

and Shielding, the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection; Tony Waldron and Keith Armstrong, "Bonding Cable Shields at Both Ends to Reduce Noise," EMC Compliance Journal, May 2002, and Jim Brown's Power and Grounding for Audio and Audio/Video Systems: A White Paper for the Real World. ground lift switch 1. Found on the rear of many pro audio products, used to separate (lift) the signal ground and the chassis ground connection. 2. Common three-pin to two-pin AC plug adapter used to reduce ground loops. [NOTE: This is unsafe and illegal. DO NOT USE.] For discussion See Steve Macatee's Considerations in Grounding and Shielding and the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection. ground loop 1. Electronics. Within a single circuit, or an audio system, the condition resulting from multiple ground paths of different lengths and impedances producing voltage drops between paths or units. A voltage difference developed between separate grounding paths due to unequal impedance such that two "ground points" actually measure distinct and different voltage potentials relative to the power supply ground reference point. See Steve Macatee's Considerations in Grounding and Shielding and the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection 2. Aviation. The tendency of a tailwheel aircraft (vs. tricycle gear) to pivot around its vertical axis during runway operations in the presence of a high crosswind. [Thanks DK.] groups (aka subgroup or submix) A combination of two or more signal channels gathered together and treated as a set that can be varied in overall level from a single control or set of controls. Mixing consoles often provide a group function mode, where the level of any group of incoming singles may be adjusted by a single slide fader, which is designated as the group fader. Likewise in certain signal processing equipment with splitting and routing capabilities, you will have the ability to group together, or assign, outputs allowing control of the overall level by a single external controller. group delay Same as envelope delay [technically the time interval required for the crest of a group of waves to travel through a 2-port network -IEEE.] The rate of change of phase shift with respect to frequency. Mathematically, the first derivative of phase verses frequency. The rate of change is just a measure of the slope of the phase shift verses linear (not log) frequency plot. If this plot is a straight line, it is said to have a "constant" (i.e., not changing) phase shift, or a "linear phase" (or "phase linear" -European) characteristic. Hence, constant group delay, or linear group delay, describes circuits or systems exhibiting constant delay for all frequencies, i.e., all frequencies experience the same delay. Note that pure signal delay causes a phase shift proportional to frequency, and is said to be "linear phase," or "phase linear." In acoustics, such a system is commonly referred to as a "minimum phase" system. For a circuit example, see

Bessel crossover. Also see Siegfried Linkwitz's Group delay and transient response, and the RaneNote Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer. GR plug See connectors: banana plug. grunge (aka Seattle sound) Music. A style of rock music that incorporates elements of punk rock and heavy metal, popularized in the early 1990s and often marked by lyrics exhibiting nihilism, dissatisfaction, or apathy. [AHD] The defining sound of the 1990s; click Nirvana for example. GUI (graphical user interface) A generic name for any computer interface that substitutes graphics (like buttons, arrows, switches, sliders, etc.) for characters; usually operated by a mouse or trackball. First mass use was Apple's Macintosh™ computers, but is now dominated by Microsoft's Windows™ programs. gumbo ya-ya New Orleans slang for everybody talking at once. guqin See qin. guitar A musical instrument having a large flat-backed sound box, a long fretted neck, and usually six strings, played by strumming or plucking. [AHD] Also see: electric guitar. guitarron Musical Instrument. A six string bass instrument most popular among Mariachi groups, but found throughout Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Puerto Rico. gut scraper Violinist. [Decharne] Gutta-percha Wire & Cable. A type of insulation used for early wire cables. gyrator filters Term used to describe a class of active filters using gyrator networks. Gyrator is the name given for RC networks that mimic inductors. A gyrator is a form of artificial inductor where an RC filter synthesizes inductive characteristics. Used to replace real inductors in filter design. See the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers.

Pro Audio Reference H
H The symbol for henry, a measure of inductance. Haas Effect Also called the precedence effect, describes the human psychoacoustic phenomena of correctly identifying the direction of a sound source heard in both ears but arriving at different times. Due to the head's geometry (two ears spaced apart, separated by a barrier) the direct sound from any source first enters the ear closest to the source, then the ear farthest away. The Haas Effect tells us that humans localize a sound source based upon the first arriving sound, if the subsequent arrivals are within 25-35 milliseconds. If the later arrivals are longer than this, then two distinct sounds are heard. The Haas Effect is true even when the second arrival is louder than the first (even by as much as 10 dB.). In essence we do not "hear" the delayed sound. This is the hearing example of human sensory inhibition that applies to all our senses. Sensory inhibition describes the phenomena where the response to a first stimulus causes the response to a second stimulus to be inhibited, i.e., sound first entering one ear cause us to "not hear" the delayed sound entering into the other ear (within the 35 milliseconds time window). Sound arriving at both ears simultaneously is heard as coming from straight ahead, or behind, or within the head. The Haas Effect describes how full stereophonic reproduction from only two loudspeakers is possible. (After Helmut Haas's doctorate dissertation presented to the University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany as "Über den Einfluss eines Einfachechos auf die Hörsamkeit von Sprache;" translated into English by Dr. Ing. K.P.R. Ehrenberg, Building Research Station, Watford, Herts., England Library Communication no. 363, December, 1949; reproduced in the United States as "The Influence of a Single Echo on the Audibility of Speech," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 20 (Mar. 1972), pp. 145-159.) habanera 1. A slow Cuban dance. 2. The music for this dance, in duple time. [AHD] [Not to be confused with habañera and habañero chili peppers.] Hafler, David (1919-2003) American engineer, inventor and member of the Audio Hall of Fame, considered one of the fathers of high fidelity. He founded Acrosound (1950), Dynaco (1954) and the David Hafler Company (1972). half-duplex Pertaining to a transmission over a circuit capable of transmitting in either direction, but only one direction at a time. See also duplex. half-normalled See: patchbay.

half-step or half-tone Music. 1. A marching step of 15 inches (38 centimeters) at quick time and 18 inches (46 centimeters) at double time. [AHD] 2. A pitch change equivalent to that produced by two adjacent piano keys. A semitone. half-wave rectification Term used to describe a rectifier that passes only one-half of each incoming sinusoid, and does not pass the opposite half-cycle. [IEEE] Hall effect or Hall voltage In a semiconductor, the Hall voltage is generated by the effect of an external magnetic field acting perpendicularly to the direction of the current. Hall, Edwin Herbert (1855-1938) American physicist best known for his 1879 discovery of the Hall effect. Hammond, Laurens (1895-1973) American engineer/inventor/founder of the Hammond Organ company in 1935 and developer of the spring reverb based on a Bell Labs invention. Hamster switch DJ Mixers. A control found on professional DJ performance mixers that reverses fader action. For example, if a fader normally is off at the bottom of its travel and on at the top of its travel, then activating the hamster switch reverses this, so off is now at the top and on is at the bottom of travel, or alternatively, it swaps left for right in horizontally mounted faders. Used to create the most comfortable (and fastest) fader access when using either turntable, and to accommodate left-handed and right-handed performers. Credited to, and named after, one of the original scratch-style crews named The Bullet-Proof Scratch Hamsters. handshaking The initial exchange between two communications systems prior to and during transmission to ensure proper data transfer. happiness "An agreeable sensation arising from contemplating the misery of another." -- Ambrose Bierce. haptic Of or relating to the sense of touch; tactile. [AHD] Hardanger fiddle Musical Instrument. An 8 (or 9) string violin, indigenous to Norway, that is narrower and shorter-necked than a normal violin. hard clipping See clipping. hard disk A sealed mass storage unit used for storing large amounts of digital data.

hard disk recording See DAW (digital audio workstation) and HDR. hard-drawn copper wire See Thomas Doolittle. hardware The physical (mechanical, and electrical) devices that form a system. hardware key See dongle. Harley-Davidson It is a common misconception that the sound of a Harley is trademarked. It is not; although they did try. An application was filed on February 1, 1994, describing it as "The mark consists of the exhaust sound of applicant's motorcycles, produced by V-Twin, common crankpin motorcycle engines when the goods are in use." The application was never granted and was abandoned on September 22, 2000. For interesting reading see Michael Sapherstein, "The Trademark Registrability of the Harley-Davidson Roar: A Multimedia Analysis." Harman, Sidney (1918-2011) Pro audio industry icon and Chairman Emeritus of Harman International Industries. harmonic 1. Any of a series of musical tones whose frequencies are integral multiples of the frequency of a fundamental tone. 2. A tone produced on a stringed instrument by lightly touching an open or stopped vibrating string at a given fraction of its length so that both segments vibrate. Also called overtone, partial, partial tone. A marching step of 15 inches (38 centimeters) at quick time and 18 inches (46 centimeters) at double time. Contrast with ultraharmonic. harmonic distortion See THD. harmonicity The degree to which a sound's timbre conforms to a harmonic series (Thanks to Scott Wilkinson for this succinct definition). harmonic overtones Music. Redundant term. See: overtone and harmonic. harmonic series 1. Mathematics. A series whose terms are in harmonic progression, such as 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + 1/5 + ... 2. Music. A series of tones consisting of a fundamental tone and the overtones produced by it, and whose frequencies are consecutive integral multiples of the frequency of the fundamental. [AHD] harmonic telegraph The original name given by Alexander Graham Bell to his idea that the telegraph could be used to transmit sound.

harmonium Musical Instrument. An organ-like keyboard instrument that produces tones with free metal reeds actuated by air forced from a bellows. [AHD] Harmonizer® Registered trademark of Eventide for their pitch-shifting signal processing product line. See: Eventide H910 Harmonizer. Harrison, David (1942-1995) American musician and engineer who founded Harrison Consoles. He pioneered the modern "in-line" audio console in 1970, licensing his first design to MCI who sold it as the MCI 400. Harrison, Ercel B. American engineer who was the chief designer at Peerless Transformers, where he designed the first full frequency transformers for the motion picture industry. He is regarded as a legend of transformer design and innovation. harrumph To make a show of clearing one's throat. [AHD] Harvard sentences Speech Quality Measurements. IEEE standard recommended sentences for measuring speech quality. Find the list here. HATS (head and torso simulator) Acoustics. A dummy head, with artificial ears and ear canals fitted with microphones, and a torso, used to measure acoustic parameters. HAVi (Home Audio/Video interoperability) An industry standard for home networks designed to link consumer electronics products. Developed by eight consumer giants -- Grundig, Hitachi, Panasonic, Philips, Sharp, Sony, Thomson Multimedia and Toshiba -- the main aim of this protocol is to ride on IEEE 1394 interface, connecting digital TVs, set-top boxes, DVD players and other digital consumer products. HDBaseT Abbr. HDBT Networking. A multimedia connectivity standard optimized for full uncompressed HD video, audio, 100Base-T Ethernet, power over cable and various control signals through a single Cat 5e cable. hdCD (high density compact disc) See DVD. HDCD (high definition compatible digital) Pacific Microsonics' (now owned by Microsoft) trademark for their encode/decode scheme that allows up to 24 bit, 176.4 kHz digital audio mastering process, yet is compatible with normal 16 bit, 44.1 kHz CD and DAT formats. Claimed to sound superior even when not decoded, and to be indistinguishable from the original if decoded. HDD (high-capacity hard disk drive) See: HDR below.

HDR (hard-disk recorder) An audio recording device based on computer hard disk memory technology. Typically, these machines are configured like analog tape recorders offering 24-48 tracks, utilizing 24-bit / 48-96 kHz data converters with optional I/O to interface with ADAT, TDIF, or AES3, and file format interchangeability with DAWs. HD Radio Formerly called IBOC, the digital radio technology that allows simultaneous broadcasting of analog and digital signals using present radio spectrum allocations. HDTV (high definition television) The standard for digital television in North America, still being revised. When finished will include a definition for picture quality at least that of a movie theater, or 35 mm slide, i.e., at least two million pixels (compared to 336,000 pixels for NTSC). head amp Electronics. 1. A pre-preamplifier or simply a preamplifier. A very low noise, high gain audio preamp used to boost signal levels from very low sources such as moving coil phono cartridges, some acoustic pick-ups, etc. 2. Slang for headphone amplifier. 3. A guitar amplifier without speakers that usually sits on top of and forms the "head" of a loudspeaker stack, classically comprised of two cabinets consisting of four 10" or 12" drivers each. Also called amp head. headphones An electromagnetic transducer usually based on the principle of electromagnetic induction used to convert the electrical energy output of a headphone amplifier into acoustic energy. Popular nickname:"cans." headphone sensitivity See sensitivity. headroom A term related to dynamic range, used to express in dB, the level between the typical operating level and the maximum operating level (onset of clipping). For example, a nominal +4 dBu system that clips at +20 dBu has 16 dB of headroom. Because it is a pure ratio, there are no units or reference-level associated with headroom -- just "dB." Therefore (and a point of confusion for many) headroom expressed in dB accurately refers to both voltage and power. Which means our example has 16 dB of voltage headroom, as well as 16 dB of power headroom. It's not obvious, but it's true. (The math is left to the reader.) headshell Turntables. The removable part of the cartridge mounting assembly attached to the end of the turntable arm. HeadWize A non-profit (i.e., no ads) site specializing in headphones and headphone

listening, featuring articles, essays, projects and technical papers on all things headphone -- very informative. H.E.A.R. (Hearing Education and Awareness for Rockers) A non-profit volunteer organization dedicated to raising awareness of the real dangers of repeated exposure to excessive noise levels from music which can lead to permanent, and sometimes debilitating, hearing loss and tinnitus. hearing Perceiving sound by the ear. [AHD] See "What Is Up With Noises?" by Vi Hart [Absolutely brilliant contribution by a true genius. Hit the link on her name and check out her homepage; you won't be disappointed.] Also for the best presentation of the medical details of hearing see "Auditory Transduction" by Brandon Pletsch. He marries symphony with digital graphics guaranteed to stimulate and educate. hearing loop (aka inductive loop ) Audiology. A thin copper wire surrounding an area that transmits audio wirelessly to standard hearing aids and cochlear implants, so equipped. heat sink Electronics. A protective device that absorbs and dissipates the excess heat generated by a system. [AHD] Generally a mass of metal (usually aluminum) having much greater thermal capacity than the attached heat source. Also see: Kordyban. Heaviside, Oliver (1850-1925) British self-taught engineer, mathematician and physicist, a giant among giants who independently discovered Laplace-like operatives used to simplify differential equations and co-invented vector analysis which he used to reformulate Maxwell's equations (from twenty equations to the famous four of today). [All this before breakfast.] heavy-metal Music. A form of rock music characterized by extreme volume, highintensity electric guitar, flashy costumes and dramatic stage performances. Originally coined by William Burroughs in his book, Naked Lunch, it was first voiced in music, "heavy-metal thunder," in Steppenwolf's "Born to be Wild." The song believed to be the first heavy-metal piece was a remake of Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" recorded by Blue Cheer in 1968. [McCleary] hecto- or hect- Mathematics. Prefix meaning one hundred (10²) hectometer Abbr. hm A metric unit of length equal to 100 meters. [AHD] HEI (House Ear Institute) Established in 1946, a private nonprofit organization, with an international reputation as a leader in its field through its applied otologic re-

search and education programs. Heil, Oskar (1908-1994) German electrical engineer and inventor famous in pro audio for his invention of the air motion transformer loudspeaker. Heinrich See: discotheque Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901-1976) German physicist and a founder of quantum mechanics. He won a 1932 Nobel Prize for his uncertainty principle. Heisenberg uncertainty principle "The more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant, and vice versa." -Heisenberg, uncertainty paper, 1927. Helmholtz Equation Used in acoustics and electromagnetic studies. It arises, for example, in the analysis of vibrating membranes, such as the head of a drum, or in solving for room modes. (After Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz below.) Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821-1894) German physicist and physiologist who formulated the mathematical law of the conservation of energy (1847) and invented an ophthalmoscope (1851) [AHD] (An instrument for examining the interior structures of the eye, especially the retina, consisting essentially of a mirror that reflects light into the eye and a central hole through which the eye is examined. You aren't a real doctor without one.) Famous for his book, On the Sensations of Tone first published in 1862. Helmholtz resonator When you blow air across the top of an empty bottle to make a sound, you are demonstrating the principal of a Helmholtz resonator. Click the link to read the details and do the math. Hellertion Synthesizers. An early synthesizer from 1928. A monophonic instrument using four leather touchtone fingerboards. henry Abbr. H The unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per second. [After Joseph Henry.] [AHD] Henry, Joseph (1797-1878) American physicist who performed extensive studies of electromagnetic phenomena. [AHD] hertz Abbr. Hz. A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second (cps). [After Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.]

Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf (1857-1894) German physicist who was the first to produce radio waves artificially. [AHD] heterodyne Radio & Television. Having alternating currents of two different frequencies that are combined to produce two new frequencies, the sum and difference of the original frequencies, either of which may be used in radio or television receivers by proper tuning or filtering. [AHD] heuristic Computer Science. Relating to or using a problem-solving technique in which the most appropriate solution of several found by alternative methods is selected at successive stages of a program for use in the next step of the program. [AHD] hexadecimal A number system using the base-16, i.e., each number can be any of 16 values. Normally represented by the digits 0-9, plus the alpha characters A-F. A fourbit binary number can represent each hexadecimal digit. Heyerdahl, Thor (1914-2002) Norwegian anthropologist and explorer made famous by his book Kon-Tiki about his epic 1947 expedition voyage to Polynesia. On a visit to London, Heyerdahl had a busy schedule of appointments. Shortly after recording a program for the Independent Television Network, he was due at the BBC studios for an interview. Having been assured by the BBC that a taxi would be sent to pick him up from the ITN studios, Heyerdahl waited expectantly in the lobby. As the minutes ticked by, however, he began to grow anxious. He approached a little man in a flat cap, who looked as if he might be a taxi driver and was obviously searching for someone. "I'm Thor Heyerdahl," said the anthropologist, "Are you looking for me?" "No, mate," replied the driver. "I've been sent to pick up four Airedales for the BBC." [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] Heyser, Richard C. (1931-1987) American engineer best known to the pro audio world for his pioneering work with time delay spectrometry (TDS). HF See: frequency bands. H(ermon) H(osmer) Scott (1909-1979) American engineer most famous for his very successful and important contributions to consumer hi-fi systems. Hi8 See DA-88. hichiriki Musical Instrument. A type of Japanese flute. hide A set of drums. [Decharne]

high-cut filter also hi-cut filter See low-pass filter [In audio electronics, we define things like this just to make sure you're paying attention.] Contrast with high-pass filter below. high impedance Abbr. Hi-Z Electronics. A device having an electrical impedance of at least 2,000 ohms. [Note: This value is arbitrary as there is no standard defining exactly what constitutes a 'high impedance.'] Examples include headphones rated 600 ohms and up (headphone division between hi-Z and lo-Z is lower than other devices); microphones rated 10k - 100k ohms; and most circuit inputs are high-impedance, rated at 2k-100k ohms. Contrast with low impedance. highlife Music. Popular West African dance music that combines African rhythms and Western-style pop melodies. high-pass filter also hi-pass filter A filter having a passband extending from some finite cutoff frequency (not zero) up to infinite frequency. An infrasonic filter is a high-pass filter. Also known as a low-cut filter. Hilliard, John Kenneth (1901-1989) American physicist and distinguished acoustical engineer who began his career pioneering audio soundtracks for movies. Hi-NRG (High Energy) From the Evelyn Thomas disco hit, "High Energy." A form of electronic dance music popular in the '80s. hip-hop Music. A musical genre term whose origin is still debated, but most credit Afrika Bambaataa and the Zulu Nation who used the term in the late '70s to describe their South Bronx block parties. Afrika Bambaataa credits Lovebug Starski as the first to use the term to relate to the hip-hop culture. hiss Random high frequency noise with a sibilant quality, most often associated with tape recordings. Acoustics. Term for noise in the 2 kHz to 8 kHz range. History of Concert Sound Great repository of concert sound history created by Doug Fowler. Hi-Z See high impedance. hoaxes, audio See Bob Pease's wonderful "What's All This Hoax Stuff, Anyhow?" holodigital square Mathematics. Square number containing each decimal digit exactly once, e.g., 9,814,072,356 is the largest example (i.e., 99,0662). Holophonics An acoustical recording and broadcast technology claimed to be the au-

ral equivalent to holography, hence the name. Holophonics is an encode process that occurs during the recording session using a special listening device named "Ringo." It is claimed that "playback or broadcast is possible over headphones or any existing mono or stereo speaker system, with various levels of spatial effect. Optimal effects occurs when two tracks (stereo) are played utilizing digital technology over headphones and minimal effect when played over a single mono speaker (two tracks merged into one and played over a single speaker)." HomeRF Lite See ZigBee. homicide "The slaying of one human being by another. There are four kinds of homicide: felonious, excusable, justifiable and praiseworthy, but it makes no great difference to the person slain whether he fell by one kind or another -- the classification is for advantage of the lawyers." -- Ambrose Bierce. homophone Words, such as taper and tapir, or timbre and tambour, that are pronounced the same but differ in meaning, origin, and sometimes spelling. [AHD] hope "Desire and expectation rolled into one." -- Ambrose Bierce. horn Loudspeakers. A sound radiator cone mounted onto a loudspeaker diaphragm to amplify its output based on the same principal found in musical instrument horns. Horner, William George (1786-1837) English mathematician and inventor of the Zoetrope. horse-head fiddle See: morin khuur. horsepower Abbr. hp A unit of power in the U.S. Customary System, equal to 745.7 watts or 33,000 foot-pounds per minute (550 foot-pounds per second). [AHD] hot water Running hot water has a lower pitch than running cold water. hour Abbr. h One of the 24 equal parts of a day. [AHD] hourglass drum See: talking drum. house curve Sound Reinforcement.The name given to the weighting, or alteration, of the sound equalization for a room. It is a rule-of-thumb for what to do after achieving the flattest possible response. Different venues require different house curves with wide variation between many favorites. The most common one is for speech reinforcement in large auditoriums (only) and measures 10 dB down at 10 kHz with re-

spect to 1 kHz (this is a 3 dB/octave slope). This contrasts to the 2 -3 dB used in many small control rooms. The proper choice is heavily dependent on the source material (speech vs. music) and the venue (large vs small; reverberant or dry); there is no one standard. House Ear Institute See HEI. house mixer See FOH. house sync A distributed master signal used to guarantee all digital devices run at the same speed. Hit the link for details. HOW (house of worship) Generic term for any structure used for religious gathering, includes churches, synagogues, temples and mosques; a sacred space. howlround What the British call acoustic feedback. H-PAS (Hybrid Pressure Acceleration System) Loudspeakers. A proprietary loudspeaker technology licensed Atlantic Technology, in collaboration with Solus/Clements Loudspeakers, based on a concept developed by Philip R. Clements circa 1979 (U.S. patent 4,373,606, Loudspeaker enclosure and process for generating sound radiation, granted on February 15, 1983). Not relying on electronics, this bass extending idea uses a specially designed chamber to acoustically amplify low frequencies, e.g., a -3dB point of 28 Hz for a single 5 1/4" driver is achievable. HRMAI (high-resolution multichannel audio interconnection) From AES standard AES50: AES Standard for digital audio engineering -- High-resolution multichannel audio interconnection (HRMAI). "A high- performance point-to-point audio interconnection rather than a network, although the auxiliary data may operate as a true network, independently of the audio." Also see the companion application document AES-R6: AES project report -- Guidelines for AES standard for digital audio engineering -- High Resolution multichannel audio interconnection (HRMAI). Download both here. HRRC (Home Recording Rights Coalition) An advocacy group that includes consumers, retailers, manufacturers and professional servicers of consumer electronics recording products. HRTF (head-related transfer function) The impulse response from a sound source to the eardrum is called the head-related impulse response (HRIR), and its Fourier transform is called the head-related transfer function (HRTF). The HRTF captures all of the physical cues to source localization, and is a surprisingly complicated function of

four variables: three space coordinates (azimuth, elevation & range) and frequency, and to make matters worst, they change from person to person. Interaural (i.e., between the ears) time differences, interaural time delays and the physical effects of diffraction of sound waves by the torso, shoulders, head and pinnae modify the spectrum of the sound that reaches the eardrums. These changes allow us to localize sound images in 3D space and are captured by the HRTFs. HRTFs have been named and studied since at least the early '70s [Blauert] HTML (hypertext markup language) The software language used on the Internet's World Wide Web (WWW). Used primarily to create home pages containing hypertext. HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) The name for the protocol that moves documents around the Internet/Web. Used by the various servers and browsers to communicate over the net. hub 1. In broadband LAN use, a central location of a network that connects network nodes through spokes, usually in a star architecture. Think of it as a digital splitter, or distribution amplifier. 2. In complex systems, hubs perform the basic functions of restoring signal amplitude and timing, collision detection and notification, and signal broadcast to lower-level hubs. hubbub Loud, confused, or disagreeable sound or sounds that emphasizes turbulent activity and concomitant din. [AHD] Huffman coding or Huffman algorithm One of the MP3 and AAC techniques used in digital audio data compression. While not a compression technique in itself, it is used in the final steps to code the process, and is an ideal complement of the perceptual coding. Huffman codes are used in nearly every application that involves the compression and transmission of digital data, such as fax machines, modems, computer networks, and high-definition television. For more details, see: Huffman Coding [After David Huffman (1925-1999).] huh See: [Some things are too clever, creative and funny to explain; they are better left experienced. Enjoy.] hullabaloo Great noise or excitement; uproar; disorderly tumult together with loud, bewildering sound. The lagging of an effect behind its cause, as when the change in magnetism of a body lags behind changes in the magnetic field. Human Jukebox Name of the famous ("Often imitated. Never duplicated!") Southern

University Band Program, Baton Rouge, La., and its signature step: the Jaguar rock. Humanthesizer Hit the link to read & see performance artist Calvin Harris take MIDI to a new extreme as created by Phil Clandillon and Steve Milbourne of Sony/BMG. humbucking pickup Musical Instruments. A pickup arrangement usually found on electric guitars designed to reduce the effects of 50 Hz or 60 Hz hum products. Typically this is done using two pickups wired electrically and magnetically opposite so as to cancel (buck) induced hum and other noise interference. Invented by engineer Seth Lover at Gibson and patented as US 2,896,491 granted in 1959 but filed in 1955, and first appeared on Gibson steel guitars in 1956 and then on the legendary Les Paul models beginning in 1957. Leo Fender received his humbucking pickup patent, US 2,817,261 in 1957 after filing in 1956. hum components The harmonics of the AC mains supply. The Americas (except the southern half of South America), Japan, Taiwan, Korea and the Philippines use a 60Hz system, placing the most annoying 2nd and 3rd harmonics at 120 Hz and 180 Hz. For Europe, and the rest of the world using 50-Hz mains, these components fall at 100 Hz and 150 Hz. huqin Musical Instrument. Chinese bowed string instruments. hurdy-gurdy Musical Instrument. 1. A medieval stringed instrument played by turning a rosined wheel with a crank and depressing keys connected to tangents on the strings. 2. Any instrument, such as a barrel organ, played by turning a crank. [AHD] (Hit the link for photos of this strange and wonderful instrument.) HVAC Construction. Term used to stand for the heating, ventilating, & air conditioning system of any building. Electrical engineering. Term used to mean high-voltage alternating current. hybrid Telecommunications. A term used to describe an interface box that converts a conversation (or data signal) coming in on two pairs (one pair for each direction of the conversation or signal) onto one pair and vice versa (i.e., a 2-wire to 4-wire converter). This is necessary because all long distance circuits are two pairs, while most local circuits are one pair. The name comes from the original use of a "hybrid coil" in the telephone whose function was to keep the send and receive signals separated. Both analog and digital hybrid designs are found. A fundamental (and unavoidable) problem in any 2-wire to 4-wire design is leakage (crosstalk) between the transmit and receive signals. In analog designs leakage is reduced by modeling the impedance seen by the transmit amplifier as it drives the hybrid coil. Because

the impedance seen by the transmit amplifier as it drives the hybrid coil. Because telephone-line impedance is complex and not well modeled by a simple passive RLC circuit, only 10 dB to 15 dB of leakage reduction is usually possible. Digital hybrids use DSP technology to model and dynamically adapt to provide much greater reduction than analog designs, typically resulting in reductions of 30 dB to 40 dB. However, the best digital hybrids incorporate acoustic echo cancelling (AEC) circuitry to gain even greater improvements. The AEC works to cancel out any remaining signal coming from the loudspeaker (far-end received signal) from the microphone signal before they can be retransmitted to the far end as acoustic echo. Digital hybrids with AEC achieve total leakage reduction of 50 dB to 65 dB. hybrid shield termination Audio wiring. The name for the termination technique where the shield is bonded to the sending end's metal chassis and is capacitively-coupled to the receiving end's metal chassis. For an example of a connector designed for this see Neutrik's EMC-XLR. hydrophilic Having an affinity for water; readily absorbing or dissolving in water. [AHD] hydrophone Acoustics. An electrical instrument for detecting or monitoring sound under water. [AHD] hypercardioid microphone See cardioid microphone. hyperlink The protocol that allows connecting two Internet resources via a single word or phrase; allowing the user a simple point-and-click method to create the link. HyperPhysics A website concept created by Carl R. (Rod) Nave, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University. "An exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation." [An incredible site. You can get lost here for hours. I can't recommend it enough.] hypersonic sound Term that describes the emerging audio technology of using wireless ultrasonic signals and nonlinear signal mixing techniques to produce sound located only in very specific areas. First discovered and described by Helmholtz in the late 1800s, it is now finding use in ATMs, dynamic signage and museum exhibits. For examples see: American Technology Corporation's HSS® HyperSonic Sound products and Sennheiser's Audiobeam. hypertext Within WWW documents, the linking of words to other sections of text, pictures or sound is called hypertext. Hypertext is created using the HTML software

language. Also used frequently in Help files. hysteresis Magnetism& Electronics. The lagging of an effect behind its cause, as when the change in magnetism of a body lags behind changes in the magnetic field. [AHD] The maximum difference in value for a digitizer code transition level when the transition level is approached from either side of the transition. [IEEE] In simple terms a circuit that has a different threshold point going high than it does going low. The phenomenon was identified, and the term coined, by Sir James Alfred Ewing in 1890. [From Wikipedia: hysteresis] Hz See: hertz.

Pro Audio Reference I
I The symbol for current. IAAPA (International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions) "Our mission is to serve the membership by promoting safe operations, global development, professional growth, and commercial success of the amusement parks and attractions industry." Another great resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc. IACC (interaural cross-correlation coefficient) A measure of the difference in arrival times between the ears of a listener. It is expressed in values ranging from -1 (arriving signals equal in magnitude but exactly out of phase) to 0 (arriving signals have no similarity) to +1 (identical arriving signals, i.e. same amplitude & phase). IAEE (International Association of Exhibitions and Events) "Organized in 1928 as the National Association of Exposition Managers to represent the interests of trade show and exposition managers, the International Association of Exhibitions and Events is today the leading association for the global exhibition industry." IATSE - The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, Moving Picture Technicians, Artists and Allied Crafts of the United States, Its Territories and Canada. Ibiza A Spanish island of the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea southwest of Majorca [AHD], famous for its nightclubs and electronic dance music. See: Ibiza Rocks. IBOC (in-band on-channel) Original name for the digital radio technology that allows simultaneous analog and digital broadcasting using existing band allocations. See HD Radio for new name and details. IC (integrated circuit) A solid-state device with miniaturized discrete active components on a single semiconductor material, invented by Jack Kilby. ICIA (International Communications Industries Association) The founder of InfoComm. ID3 tag (Identification 3 tag) Adds a small chunk of extra data ("tag") to the end of an MP3 file to carry information about the audio and not just the audio itself. Developed by Eric Kemp in 1996.

IDMA (International Dance Music Award) The premier awards show for the dance and electronic music industry worldwide sponsored by the Winter Music Conference. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) A European organization (headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland) involved in international standardization within the electrical and electronics fields. The U.S. National Committee for the IEC operates within ANSI. IECEE (IEC System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) The largest professional organization for electrical engineers. Primarily concerned with education and standardization. IEEE-488 also referred to as the general purpose interface bus (GPIB). Most common parallel format computer interface for simultaneous control of up to 15 multiple peripherals. IEEE 754-1985 Standard for binary floating-point arithmetic often referred to as IEEE 32-bit floating-point. A standard that specifies data format for floating-point arithmetic on binary computers. It divides a 32-bit data word into a 24-bit mantissa and an 8-bit exponent. IEEE 802.3af See PoE. IEEE-1394 (aka Firewire) A joint Apple and TI implementation of the IEEE P1394 Serial Bus Standard. It is a high-speed (100/200/400 Mbits/sec now, with 1 Gbit/s on the horizon) serial bus for peripheral devices. Supported by Apple, IBM, Intel, Microsoft and Sony, it is intended to replace Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) and SCSI (Microsoft announced Windows support for IEEE 1394). Firewire supports automatic configuration ("plug and play") and hot-plugging (changing peripheral devices while running). It is also isochronous, meaning that a fixed slice of bandwidth can be dedicated to a particular peripheral - video, for instance. IEEE 1394 aims to become the optimal digital interface for 21st-century applications. Fast, inexpensive and reliable for audio/video as well as computer peripherals, IEEE 1394 carries all forms of digitized video and audio. A single Firewire interface can be used for all entertainmentcenter interconnections, done in a daisy-chain fashion. New computer peripherals such as digital television, CD-ROM, DVD, digital cameras (Sony was first) and home networks are the first users. See USB for the complementary low-speed system.

IEM In-ear monitor. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) "The mission of the IETF is to make the Internet work better by producing high quality, relevant technical documents that influence the way people design, use, and manage the Internet." [from website] IEV (International Electrotechnical Vocabulary) A valuable database, made available on-line by the IEC. It contains over 18,500 electrotechnical concepts divided into 73 subject areas (IEV parts). Each concept contains equivalent terms in English, French and German. IFB (interrupted foldback) (aka talent cueing) An audio sub-system allowing on-air personnel ("talent") to receive via headphones, or ear monitors, the normal program audio mixed with audio cues from the production director, or their assistants. IFPI (International Federation of Phonographic Industry) The organization representing the international recording industry. It comprises a membership of 1500 record producers and distributors in 76 countries. IGBT (insulated-gate bipolar transistor) A hybrid form of a MOSFET and bipolar transistor producing an electrically insulated gate instead of a base connection combined with a robust bipolar output. It combines MOS gate control with bipolar current control. IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor) Formal name for MOSFET or an FET with one or more gate electrodes electrically insulated from the channel. [IEEE] IGTP (isolated ground technical power) Audio/Video Electrical Power Systems. IHF (Institute of High Fidelity) The old organization of North American hi-fi manufacturers that created voluntary industry standards for testing and specifying consumer electronics. The IHF merged with the EIA in 1979. The IHF worked closely with the IRE. Today the AES is responsible for setting audio standards for the United States. IIR (infinite impulse-response) filter A commonly used type of digital filter. This recursive structure accepts as inputs digitized samples of the audio signal, and then each output point is computed on the basis of a weighted sum of past output (feedback) terms, as well as past input values. An IIR filter is more efficient than its FIR counterpart, but poses more challenging design issues. Its strength is in not requiring as much DSP power as FIR, while its weakness is not having linear group de-

lay and possible instabilities. ILD (interaural level difference) See interaural. IM or IMD (intermodulation distortion) An audio measurement designed to quantify the distortion products produced by nonlinearities in the unit under test that cause complex waves to produce beat frequencies, i.e., sum and difference products not harmonically related to the fundamentals. For example, two frequencies, f1 and f2 produce new frequencies f3 = f1 - f2; f4 = f1 + f2; f5 = f1 - 2f1; f6 = f1 + 2f2, and so on. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. Numerous tests exist, each designed to "stress" the unit under test differently. The most popular follow: SMPTE/DIN IMD The most common IMD measurement. SMPTE standard RP120-1994 and DIN standard 45403 are similar. Both specify a two-sine wave test signal consisting of a large amplitude low-frequency tone linearly mixed with a high-frequency tone at ¼ the amplitude of the low frequency tone. SMPTE specifies 60 Hz and 7 kHz mixed 4:1. The DIN specification allows several choices in both frequencies, with 250 Hz and 8 kHz being the most common. (old CCIF), Twin-Tone, or Difference-Tone IMD, or Difference Frequency Distortion (DFD) All these terms refer to the same test and are used interchangeably. The test specifies two equal-amplitude closely spaced high frequency signals. Common test tones are 19 kHz and 20 kHz for full audio bandwidth units. While all combinations of IM distortion products are possible, this test usually measures only the low-frequency secondorder product falling at f2-f1, i.e., at 1 kHz. The principal standard is IEC 60268-3. DIM/TIM (dynamic/transient intermodulation distortion) A procedure designed to test the dynamic or transient behavior, primarily, of audio power amplifiers. The other IM tests use steady-state sine wave tones, which do not necessarily reveal problems caused by transient operation. In particular, audio power amplifiers with high amounts of negative feedback were suspect due to the inherent time delay of negative feedback loops. The speculation was that when a rapidly-changing signal was fed to such an amplifier, a finite time was required for the correction signal to travel back through the feedback loop to the input stage and that the amplifier could be distorting seriously during this time. The most popular test tech-

nique consists of a large amplitude 3 kHz square wave (band-limited to ~20 kHz). [Historical Note: This test proved that as long as the amplifier did not slew-limit for any audio signal, then the loop time delay was insignificant compared to the relatively long audio periods. Thus, properly designed negative feedback was proved not a problem. Subsequently, this test has fallen into disuse.] IMA (International MIDI Association) The original association that developed MIDI, now defunct and replaced by the MMA. image impedances The impedances that will simultaneously terminate all of a network's inputs and outputs in such a way that at each of its inputs and outputs the impedances in both directions are equal. In this manner the input and output impedances "see" their own "image." [IEEE] imaging or stereo imaging Acoustics. Usually refers to the localization of sounds in a two-channel (normally) stereo sound system, i.e., left-to-right (or vice versa) apparent performer positions. image parameters Fundamental network functions, namely image impedances and image transfer functions, used to design or describe a filter. [IEEE] imaginary number A number whose square equals minus one, or, alternatively, a number that represents the square root of minus one. See Nahin's An Imaginary Tale for its incredible history. imaginary part Mathematics. See: complex number. impact-echo technology A process where sound waves are sent into concrete and the rebound is measured for nondestructive evaluation of concrete and masonry. impedance A measure of the complex resistive and reactive attributes of a component in an alternating-current (AC) circuit. Impedance is what restricts current flow in an AC electrical circuit; impedance is not relevant to DC circuits. In DC circuits, resistors limit current flow (because of their resistance). In AC circuits, inductors and capacitors similarly limit the AC current flow, but this is now because of their inductive or capacitive reactance. Impedance is like resistance but it is more. Impedance is the sum of a circuit, or device's resistance AND reactance. Reactance is measured in ohms (like resistance and impedance) but is frequency-dependent. Think of impedance as the complete or total current limiting ohms of the circuit -- the whole banana. Since AC circuits involve phase shift -- i.e., the voltage and current are rarely

in phase due to the storage effects (think time; it takes time to charge and discharge) of capacitors and inductors, the reactance is termed "complex," that is there is a "real" part (resistive) and an "imaginary" part (bad terminology, but it means the phase shifting resistance part). To summarize: resistance has no phase shift; reactance (capacitors & inductors in AC circuits) includes phase shift; and impedance, is the sum of resistance and reactance. Just that simple. impedance matching Making the output driving impedance and the next stage input impedance equal, often requiring the insertion of a special impedance matching network. For why impedance matching is not necessary (and, in fact, hurtful) in pro audio applications, see William B. Snow, "Impedance -- Matched or Optimum" [written in 1957!], Sound Reinforcement: An Anthology, edited by David L. Klepper (Audio Engineering Society, NY, 1978, pp. G-9 - G-13), and the RaneNote Unity Gain and Impedance Matching: Strange Bedfellows. impulse response Acoustic measurements. A theoretical impulse has an amplitude vs. time response that is infinitely high and infinitely narrow -- a spike with zero duration and infinite amplitude, but finite energy. This means the energy is spread over a very large frequency range, making impulses an ideal source for acoustic measurements. Real world use of the mathematical impulse consists of a test impulse that has a very short time duration and whose amplitude is limited to whatever will not overload the system components. The Fourier theorem tells us that this rectangular pulse is nothing more than a sum of sine and cosine functions with known amplitudes and phases, therefore the impulse response of a linear system occurs in the time domain, but also contains all of the frequency information. By capturing the system impulse response with a digital storage scope and then performing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, the frequency-domain response (amplitude and phase) is obtained. [Very powerful tool.] inch Abbr. in or in. 1. A unit of length in the U.S. Customary and British Imperial systems, equal to 1/12 of a foot (2.54 centimeters). 2. A unit of atmospheric pressure that is equal to the pressure exerted by a one-inch column of mercury at the earth's surface at a temperature of 0°C. [AHD] incident sound Hearing. Sound heard directly from the source, i.e., first arriving sound without reflections. inductance A force that resists the sudden buildup of electric current (as opposed to capacitance which resists the sudden buildup of electric voltage). [IEEE] inductive loop or inductive coupling The association of two or more circuits with

inductive loop or inductive coupling The association of two or more circuits with one another by means of inductance mutual to the circuits or the mutual inductance that associates the circuits. [IEEE] See: hearing loop. inductive reactance See impedance. inductor Circuit symbol: L. A device consisting of one or more windings, with or without a magnetic core, for introducing inductance into an electric circuit. [IEEE] in-ear monitor See: IEM inert Electronics. Inactive; not requiring power. infinite baffle Loudspeakers. A separator allowing no path or acoustical crosstalk between the front and rear of a loudspeaker, i.e., it provides complete isolation between the back and front. An infinitely large flat mounting board is an example; another is a sealed box. InfoComm See ICIA. infrasonic Generating or using waves or vibrations with frequencies below that of audible sound. Compare with subsonic -- commonly used (erroneously) to mean infrasonic. infrasonic filter (aka rumble filter) A high-pass filter used with phonograph turntables to reduce the effects of low frequency noise and vibration, called rumble, caused by imperfections in turntable performance and warped records. Often mistakenly called subsonic filter. Since typical rumble frequencies occur in the 3-10 Hz area, most infrasonic filters have a corner frequency of around 15 Hz, with a steep slope, or rolloff rate, of 18 dB/octave, and a Butterworth response. inharmonic Music. Not harmonic; discordant. [AHD] Contrast with enharmonic. inharmonicity Music. The discrepancy between the actual overtones produced by a vibrating sting and the theoretical overtones, which are whole-number multiples of the fundamental (lowest) frequency of vibration. (from Electronic Musician, October 2006, p. 56.) inherent noise See: self-noise. initial time-delay gap See ITDG. initialism An abbreviation consisting of the first letter or letters of words in a phrase

(for example, IRS for Internal Revenue Service), syllables or components of a word (TNT for trinitrotoluene), or a combination of words and syllables (ESP for extrasensory perception) and pronounced by spelling out the letters one by one rather than as a solid word. Compare with acronym. inline mixer Term referring to the normal long narrow vertical strip format common to all medium to large-scale mixing console designs (mixers). Non-inline designs typically refer to rack-mount mixers, i.e., those that are 19" wide, and designed to fit into standard rack cases. These are as small as 1U space (1.75" high). Sometimes these are designed similar to an inline design laying on its side, now having a horizontal control flow instead of a vertical one. In the middle of the pack are rack-mount mixers that still use the inline vertical format, but do rack mount, but normally take up 10 or more spaces. in-phase In a synchronized or correlated way. See polarity and phase et al. input impedance Electronics. The input impedance of a device, usually high in the 2k - 100k ohm range. Input impedance can be frequency dependent and may vary with circuit feedback, therefore the value given should state the frequency range it covers. input referred noise See EIN. insertion loss The loss of voltage (or power), as measured in dB, resulting from placing a pad (or other power absorbing network) between a voltage (or power) source and its load impedance. It is the ratio of the voltage (or power) absorbed in the load without the pad (or network) to that when the network is inserted. For example if the voltage across a load is 2 volts without a network and 1 volt with the network, then the insertion loss is stated as 6 dB. insert loop The preferred term for a specialized I/O point found on mixers utilizing a single 1/4" TRS jack following the convention of tip = send, ring = return, & sleeve = signal ground. Used to patch in an outboard processor using only one cable, with unbalanced wiring. A stereo insert loop requires two jacks. Compare with effects loop. in situ In the original position. [AHD] instrument-level See levels. integrated circuit See IC. intellectual property See: IP.

intelligibility See speech intelligibility. intensity Acoustics. The external measured level of a sound, i.e., the sound pressure level. Note that intensity is an objective measurement; contrast with loudness which is a subjective measurement. intensity stereo Microphones. Another name for the X-Y microphone technique. interaural Hearing. Literally "between the ears," it is the comparison of sound heard by one ear verses the same sound heard by the other ear. Specific terms include interaural time difference (ITD) (different arrival times due to the distance between the ears) and interaural level difference (ILD) (different arrival intensities due to the diffraction or shadowing caused by the head as an obstacle). See: sound localization. interference Acoustics. Anything that hinders, obstructs, or impedes sound travel, including another sound wave. See link. interferometer Any of several optical, acoustic, or radio frequency instruments that use interference phenomena between a reference wave and an experimental wave or between two parts of an experimental wave to determine wavelengths and wave velocities, measure very small distances and thicknesses, and calculate indices of refraction. [AHD] interharmonics Power Electronics. IEC-1000-2-1 defines it this way: "Between the harmonics of the power frequency voltage and current, further frequencies can be observed which are not an integer of the fundamental. They can appear as discrete frequencies or as a wide-band spectrum." interlayer-transfer See print-through. interleaving The process of rearranging data in time. Upon de-interleaving, errors in consecutive bits or words are distributed to a wider area to guard against consecutive errors in the storage media. intermittor See: current intermittor intermodulation distortion See IMD. internal voice blindness "The near universal inability of people to articulate the tone and personality of the voice that forms their interior monologue." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.]

International Music Products Association See NAMM. International System of Units See SI. Internet To try and define the Internet in a few words is a futile task. Click the hyperlink for a wonderful Internet history timeline. Contrast with WWW. interonset time or interonset interval The time between the onsets of adjacent events in an ordered event series. [Greenebaum] interpolate Mathematics. To estimate a value of (a function or series) between two known values. [AHD] interpolating response Term adopted by Rane Corporation to describe the summing response of adjacent bands of variable equalizers using buffered summing stages. If two adjacent bands, when summed together, produce a smooth response without a dip in the center, they are said to interpolate between the fixed center frequencies, or combine well. [Historical note: Altec-Lansing first described their buffered equalizer designs as combining and the terminology became commonplace. Describing how well adjacent bands combine is good terminology. However, some variations of this term confuse people. The phrase "combining filter" is a misnomer, since what is meant is not a filter at all, but rather whether adjacent bands are buffered before summing. The other side of this misnomer coin finds the phrase "non-combining filter." Again, no filter is involved in what is meant. Dropping the word "filter" helps, but not enough. Referring to an equalizer as "non-combining" is imprecise. All equalizers combine their filter outputs. The issue is how much ripple results. For these reasons, Rane adopted the term "interpolating" as an alternative. Interpolating means to insert between two points, which is what buffering adjacent bands accomplishes. By separating adjacent bands when summing, the midpoints fill in smoothly without ripple.] See the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers and the RaneNote Exposing Equalizer Mythology. interrupted foldback See IFB. intimacy See ITDG. IntMDCT (integer MDCT) Audio Compression. A lossless form of MDCT. intonation Music. The opening phrase of a plainsong composition sung as a solo part. [AHD] inverse square law Sound Pressure Level. Sound propagates in all directions to form a

inverse square law Sound Pressure Level. Sound propagates in all directions to form a spherical field, thus sound energy is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, i.e., doubling the distance quarters the sound energy (the inverse square law), so SPL is attenuated 6 dB for each doubling. inversion Turning something upside down. See discussion of phase shift vs. inversion at polarity. Music. a. A rearrangement of tones in which the upper and lower voices of a melody are transposed, as in counterpoint. b. A rearrangement of tones in which each interval in a single melody is applied in the opposite direction. c. A rearrangement of tones in which the notes of a chord are rearranged such that the bass has a different pitch. [AHD] inverter Power Electronics. A device that converts direct current into alternating current. I/O (input/output) Equipment, data, or connectors used to communicate from a circuit or system to other circuits or systems, or the outside world. IP (intellectual property) Referring to protected proprietary information, usually in the form of a patent, maskworks (integrated circuits or printed circuit boards), a copyright, a trade secret, or a trademark. Often misused to mean many different things. IP (internet protocol) IP is the most important of the protocols on which the Internet is based. Originally developed by the Department of Defense to support interworking of dissimilar computers across a network, IP is a standard describing software that keeps track of the Internet work addresses for different nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognizes incoming messages. It was first standardized in 1981. This protocol works in conjunction with TCP and is identified as TCP/IP. IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) A phonetic alphabet and diacritic modifiers sponsored by the International Phonetic Association to provide a uniform and universally understood system for transcribing the speech sounds of all languages. [AHD] IP address Another name for an Internet address. A 32-bit identifier for a specific TCP/IP host computer on a network, written in dotted decimal form, such as, with each of the four fields assigned 255 values, organized into hierarchical classes. Whenever you click on a name address like, this creates a path to the domain naming system (DNS) that translates the name into the IP address, which is used to connect.

ips (inches per second) Magnetic tape recording. A measure of tape speed. IR (infrared) Standard abbreviation found A/V remote control units, among many other things. IRE ( Institute of Radio Engineering ) Now defunct, the organization merged with IEEE. Also see IHF. IRMA (International Recording Media Association) An advocacy group for the growth and development of all recording media and is the industry forum for the exchange of information regarding global trends and innovations. iron vane Electrical meter mechanism. Rugged design and construction, used primarily in AC voltage, current and power measurements. It features an accurate true rms measurement capability when measuring distorted or non-sinusoidal waveforms. ISBN (International Standard Book Number) In bibliography, a 13-digit number assigned to a book which identifies the work's national, geographic, language, or other convenient group, and its publisher, title, edition and volume number. Its numbers are assigned by publishers and administered by designated national standard book numbering agencies, such as R.R. Bowker Co. in the U.S., Standard Book Numbering Agency Ltd. in the U.K., Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulterbesitz (Prussian State Library) in Germany, and the Research Library on African Affairs in Ghana. Each ISBN is identical with the Standard Book Number, originally devised in the U.K. , with the addition of a preceding national group identifier. [Now if that isn't more than you will ever need to know about this subject then I'll eat a book.] ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) A high-capacity digital telecommunication network (mainly fiber optic) based on an international telephone standard for digital transmission of audio, data and signaling -- all in addition to standard voice telephone calls. A cost-effective alternative to satellite links. ISE (Integrated Systems Europe) European trade show for professional AV and electronic systems integration. iSMO See: MSO ISO (International Standards Organization or International Organization for Standardization) Founded in 1947 and consisting of members from over 90 countries, the ISO promotes the development of international standards and related activities to facilitate the exchange of goods and services worldwide. The U.S. member body is

ANSI. [Interesting tidbit: according to ISO internet info, "ISO" is not an acronym. It is a derived Greek word, from isos, equal. For example, isobar, equal pressure, or isometric, equal length. Take a small jump from "equal" to "standard" and you have the name of the organization. It offers the further advantage of being valid in all the official languages of the organization (English, French & Russian), whereas if it were to be an acronym it would not work for French and Russian.] isobar A line on a weather map connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure. Also called isopiestic. 2. Any of two or more kinds of atoms having the same atomic mass but different atomic numbers. [AHD] isobaric contours See: equal level contours. isochronous (pronounced "i-sok-ronus") ("iso" equal + "chronous" time) A term meaning time sensitive; isochronous transmission is time sensitive transmission. For example, voice and video require isochronous transmission since audio/video synchronization is mandated. isolation Acoustics. The isolation of sound is the process by which sound energy is contained or blocked as opposed to being converted into heat (see absorption). For a good discussion of the differences read the excellent short article by Kurt Graffy, "More Or Less: The Difference Between Absorption And Isolation," System Contractor News, April 2003, p. 96, who also provides this wonderful quote attributed to Ted Schultz of Bolt, Beranek and Newman: "Mistaking sound absorption for sound isolation is like mistaking a diaper for an umbrella." [... that clears up all the confusion now doesn't it!] isotropic Physics. Identical in all directions; invariant with respect to direction. [AHD] ISRC (International Standard Recording Code) The international identification system for sound recordings and music video recordings. ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code) A unique, permanent and internationally recognized reference number for the identification of musical works per International Standard ISO 15707. IT (information technology) Defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) as "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware."

ITD (interaural time difference) See interaural. ITDG (initial time-delay gap) Acoustics. The difference in time between the first arrival of direct sound and the first arrival of reflected sound at the listener. The sensation of intimacy is quantitatively measured by the ITDG. First defined in 1962 by Beranek in Music, Acoustics & Architecture. ITF (International Turntablist Federation) Founded in 1996, an organization dedicated to the spread of turntablism. Itsy Bitsy See: Lee Pockriss. ITU (International Telecommunications Union) Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, ITU is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecommunication networks and services. The ITU is divided into three sectors: radiocommunications (ITU-R), telecommunications development (ITU-D), and telecommunications standards (ITU-T). ITVA (International Television Association) A global community of professionals devoted to the business and art of visual communication. Now renamed Media Communications Association - International (MCA-I). iyailu Musical Instrument. The "mother drum" of the talking drum ensemble. IxD ( Interaction design) "... defines the structure and content of communication between two or more interactive "beings" to understand each other." [From website]

Pro Audio Reference J
j Mathematics. The symbol for the imaginary number , i.e., a number representing the square root of -1. See: complex number. [A lower case "i" is also used in mathematics but not in electronics since "i" is the symbol for current.] J The symbol for joule, the SI unit of energy or work. jabber To talk rapidly, unintelligibly, or idly. To utter rapidly or unintelligibly. Rapid or babbling talk. [AHD] jacket Wire & Cable. The insulating layer of material that surrounds a wire or cable offering protection; also called sheath. jackfield British term for patchbay. Jack Mullin See: John Mullin. jacks and plugs Common name for audio connectors, where jack = female and plug = male is the standard convention for 1/4" and RCA -- only -- not followed for other types of connectors. If a connector is on the end of a cable -- XLR and others -- then either sex is a plug. [Hey, don't yell at me, I don't make the rules; I just report them.] Jackson, Bruce (1948-2011) Australian audio engineering sound pioneer who did live sound for Elvis Presley, Bruce Springsteen, Barbara Streisand and others. He started out cofounding JANDS and went on to invent and develop many digital audio innovations. Jacob's ladder (aka high voltage traveling arc) Electricity & Magnetism. "The spark gap is formed by two wires, approximately vertical but gradually diverging away from each other towards the top in a narrow "V" shape. It was named for the "ladder to heaven" described in the Bible." [From the Wikipedia link, found about halfway down the page on spark gaps.] JADE (Joint Audio Decoder Encoder) Siemens trademark for their device that implements voice compression algorithms. JAES (Journal of the Audio Engineering Society) Also see: AES. Jaguar rock See: Human Jukebox.

ja ja Spanish laugh. jam session Music. An informal gathering of musicians to play improvised or unrehearsed music. [AHD] jam sync 1. The process of regenerating SMPTE timecode from an original source. Used for repair as well as for new copies. 2. A recording studio in Nashville specializing in multichannel and multimedia founded by KK Proffitt and Joel Silverman. James Bullough Lansing (James Martini, 1902-1949) American entrepreneur and inventor most famous for his companies: Lansing Manufacturing, Altec-Lansing and JBL. James T. Russell American physicist who came up with a CD concept in 1965 that he licensed to Sony in 1970. See: Klass Compaan. jamming Wire & Cable. The wedging of cables in a conduit when three cables lie side by side in a flat plane. [IEEE Std 576] JANDS Famous pro audio, lighting and staging company, which started out as a distributor in Australia. See: Pro Audio Names Section jangle To make a harsh metallic sound: The spurs jangled noisily. [AHD] jangle pop The first and most famous jangle pop band was The Byrds. Janovsky, W. German engineer responsible for one of the earliest papers on non-linear distortion thresholds as published in his 1929 paper: "The Audibility of Distortion (in German language), Elek. Nachr.-Tech., vol. 6, pp. 421-439 (Nov., 1929). jansky Abbr. Jy A unit of spectral power flux density: 10-26 times one watt per square meter per Hertz (IEEE Std 211). Also called the flux unit. jarana jarocha Musical Instrument. Stringed guitar-like fretted instrument with eight strings. JASA (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America) Also see: ASA jass Jazz music, written both ways from 1913 up until around 1920, when the word "jazz" became the accepted spelling. [Decharne] Jawaiian Music. A reggae genre combining traditional Hawaiian and Jamaican styles. Compare with reggaeton.

Compare with reggaeton. JavaTM The trademarked name for a powerful object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java allows high-speed fully interactive Web pages to be developed for the Internet or any type of platform. jazz A style of music, native to America, characterized by a strong but flexible rhythmic understructure with solo and ensemble improvisations on basic tunes and chord patterns and, more recently, a highly sophisticated harmonic idiom. [AHD] See jass. Jecklin disk Microphones. Official name, after inventor Jürg Jecklin, the former Swiss Radio chief sound engineer, for placing a baffle between two microphones in an AB setup. JEDEC (Joint Electron Device Engineering Council) Standards creating body for the microelectronics industry. jeep Probably pronunciation of the letters "GP", the designation for this vehicle in the manufacturer's parts numbering system : G(overnment) + P, designator for 80inch wheelbase reconnaissance car. [AHD] JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) A trade organization for the electronics and IT industries. jellyfish display Multichannel Sound. A type of metering used to display multichannel surround sound characteristics, i.e., usually the relative amplitude between channels; so-called for its roundish changing jellyfish-like pattern. jerk Mathematics. The (first) derivative of acceleration, i.e., it is a measure of the rate of change of acceleration -- just as velocity is the derivative of speed, and acceleration is the derivative of velocity. Elevator makers are among those interested in measuring it. For example Otis Elevator Company has a transducer that measures jerk by differentiating acceleration. (Thanks to Glenn White for the Otis information.) jerking or jerkin' Hip-Hop Dance Style. Originated in Los Angeles, it is a dance movement consisting of rapidly moving your legs in and out, as well as other complicated moves. jew's harp Musical Instrument. A small musical instrument consisting of a lyreshaped metal frame that is held between the teeth and a projecting steel tongue that is plucked to produce a soft twanging sound. [AHD] [For those controlled by political correctness, the revised name is "jaws harp." ]

JFET (junction field-effect transistor) See FET jiffy An actual unit of time, representing 1/100th of a second. [See Rowlett's "How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement" for the complete details.] jig Music. Any of various lively dances in triple time. The music for such a dance. Also called gigue. [AHD] jiggumbob A trinket; a knick-knack; a slight contrivance in machinery. [Lynch] Jim Williams (1948-2011) American engineer, analog IC guru, and cofounder of Linear Technology. Wonderful tribute video here. jinghu Musical Instrument. Chinese bowed 2-stringe fiddle. jingle Noun 1. The sound produced by or as if by bits of metal striking together. 2. A piece of light singsong verse or rhyme. 3. A catchy, often musical advertising slogan. Verb 1. To make a tinkling or ringing metallic sound. 2. To have the catchy sound of a simple, repetitious rhyme or doggerel. To cause to make a tinkling or ringing metallic sound. [AHD] JIRA Software. Popular software development tool that eases bug tracking, issue tracking and project management. The name is not an acronym; it is a truncation of the word "Gojira," which is the Japanese name for Godzilla, that wonderful fictional Japanese monster. JITC (Joint Interoperability Test Command) A military compatibility testing organization. jitter A tendency towards lack of synchronization caused by electrical changes. Technically the unexpected (and unwanted) phase shift of digital pulses over a transmission medium. Time skew; a discrepancy between when a digital edge transition is supposed to occur and when it actually does occur -- think of it as nervous digital, or maybe a digital analogy to wow and flutter. Here is the official definition from AES-12id, AES Information Document for Digital audio measurements -- Jitter performance specifications: "Jitter is the dynamic deviation of event instants in a stream or signal from their positions in time, excluding modulation components below 10 Hz." jitter timing error Short-term deviations of the transitions of a digital signal from

their ideal positions in time. jnd (just noticeable difference) Physiology. The smallest difference in a sensory input detectable by a human being. Joe, cup of Coffee. There is no clear origin but according to World Wide Words the most probable suggestion is that it is a modification of java or jamoke for coffee and that "It is significant that an early example appears in 1931 in the Reserve Officer’s Manual by a man named Erdman: 'Jamoke, Java, Joe. Coffee. Derived from the words Java and Mocha, where originally the best coffee came from'." John T. "Jack" Mullin (1913–1999) American who pioneered modern tape recording based on his discovery of the first German tape recorders during WWII. Johnson noise or thermal noise A form of white noise resulting from thermal agitation in electronic components. For example, a simple resistor hooked up to nothing generates noise, and the larger the resistor value the greater the noise. It is called thermal noise or Johnson noise and results from the motion of electron charge of the atoms making up the resistor (called thermal agitation, which is caused by heat - the hotter the resistor, the noisier. [After John Bertrand Johnson (1887-1970), Swedishborn American physicist who first observed thermal noise while at Bell Labs in 1927, publishing his findings as "Thermal agitation of electricity in conductors," Phys. Rev., vol. 32, pp. 97-109, 1928.] John William Strutt See: Lord Rayleigh joint probability Mathematics. The likelihood that two or more things will occur together. Jones, R.G. Founded in 1926, near London by Reginald Geoffrey Jones, the RG Jones company, along with Swanson Sound Service (Oakland, CA) are considered the first sound companies, and both are still going strong. Joplin, Scott(1867-1917) American musician and composer of ragtime music. joule Abbr. J or j. 1. The International System unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy. 2. a. A unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere is passed through a resistance of one ohm for one second. b. A unit of energy equal to the work done when a force of one newton acts through a distance of one meter. [AHD] Joule, James Prescott (1818-1889) British physicist who established the mechanical

Joule, James Prescott (1818-1889) British physicist who established the mechanical theory of heat and discovered the first law of thermodynamics: a form of the law of conservation of energy whose discovery he shared with Hermann von Helmholtz, Julius von Mayer and Lord Kelvin. [AHD] Joule's Law It was James Prescott Joule (see above) who came up with (and published in 1841) the basic power equations P = I2R; P = IE; & P = E2/R, NOT Georg Simon Ohm as is commonly believed. Contrast with Ohm's Law. joystick Potentiometer/Encoders. A type of potentiometer or digital encoder with movement over two axes (sometimes three with the third being in-out, z-axis). [This is also called two or three degrees of freedom]. Usually the axis are left-right, x-axis, and updown (or away-toward), y-axis, with each controlling a separate potentiometer or encoder. The term is borrowed from aviation technology meaning an aircraft control stick. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A standard for lossy compression of graphic-image files. JSA (Japanese Standards Association) The National Standards organization responsible for coordinating standards preparation in Japan. jùjú Music. A style of NIgerian popular music featuring electric guitars and traditional drums. [AHD] juke A roadside drinking establishment that offers inexpensive drinks, food, and music for dancing, especially to the music of a jukebox. [Derivative Note: probably from Gullah juke, joog disorderly, wicked of West African origin; Wolof dzug to live wickedly Mandingo (Bambara) dzugu wicked. Gullah, the English-based Creole language spoken by Black people off the coast of Georgia and South Carolina, retains a number of words from the West African languages brought over by slaves. One such word is juke, -- bad, wicked, disorderly, -- the probable source of the English word juke.] Used chiefly in the Southeastern states, juke (also appearing in the compound juke joint) means a roadside drinking establishment that offers cheap drinks, food, and music for dancing and often doubles as a brothel. "To juke" is to dance, particularly at a juke joint or to the music of a jukebox whose name, no longer regional and having lost the connotation of sleaziness, contains the same word. [AHD] ... and you thought you were smart. Jukebox Multimedia Portable Media Player. Developed by Archos and released in 2002, it is recognized as the first handheld MP3/MP4 media player, combining an audio player, image viewer and video player.

dio player, image viewer and video player. julian date A chronological year date system where the days are sequentially numbered beginning with January 1, 4713 BC, Greenwich noon. Here is a handy converter. jump cut Broadcast. An edit between two video shots or audio sound bites that creates a "jump" or break in continuity. [KU Input-Output Glossary] jumper Electronics. A conductor placed across the clear space between the ends of two conductors, or to connect conductors on different layers, on a printed circuit board. junction Semiconductors. The transition boundary between semiconductor regions of different electrical properties (e.g., n-n+, p-n, p-p+ semiconductors, or between a metal and a semiconductor). [IEEE] junction, rectifying Semiconductors. A region between two materials, typically n-type or p-type semiconductors, or between a metal and a semiconductor, arranged to provide a very low resistance to current flow in one direction and a very high resistance to current flow in the opposite direction. [IEEE] just intonation or just temperament Music. A musical scale employing frequency intervals represented by the ratios of the smaller integers of the harmonic series. [Olson] Compare with equal temperament. just noticeable difference See: jnd. justify To shift a numeral so that the most significant digit, or the least significant digit, is placed at a specific position in a row.

Pro Audio Reference K
k The symbol for kilo. K The symbol for Kilo. K2HD (K2 High Definition) Recording Mastering. A high-end CD mastering and remastering technique developed by JVC that uses 24-bit, 192 kHz sampling for all mastering steps up to the final 16-bit CD pressing. Said to give the listener the best possible 16-bit CD recording. K2-W Designation for a famous tube-based 'modern' general-purpose operational amplifier built by Philbrick beginning in 1951. ka 1. Electronics. Abbreviation for cathode. 2. Philosophy. Egyptian concept of duality, which is also an important electronics concept -- check out the link. Kabuki Theater. A type of popular Japanese drama, evolved from the older No theater, in which elaborately costumed performers, nowadays men only, use stylized movements, dances, and songs in order to enact tragedies and comedies. [AHD] Kahn, Al (1906-2005) American entrepreneur who co-founded Electro-Voice with Lou Burroughs. Kaisermarsch Music. Work by Wagner for unison male voices and orchestra (1871), celebrating the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War and the election of Wilhelm I as emperor. [Sadie] kalimba Musical Instrument. The original thumb piano. Kaman, Charles H. (1919-2011) American musical pioneer (as well as an aeronautical engineer) who developed the Ovation ® Roundback guitar and went on to found Kaman Corporation, now KMC Music. kamanche Musical Instruments. A bowed spike fiddle of Middle East origin. Kámán Line Astronomy. The boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space (the edge of space) that lies roughly 100 km above sea level. kankles Musical Instrument. Lithuanian zither.

Ka-on vase A flower vase fitted with audio input ports that use the flowers as loudspeakers. Invented by Let's Corporation. karaoke Music. 1. A music entertainment system providing prerecorded accompaniment to popular songs that a performer sings live, usually by following the words on a video screen. 2. The performance of such music. [From Japanese: kara, void, empty + oke(sutora), orchestra.] [AHD] karaokeal amnesia "Most people don't know the complete lyrics to almost any song, particularly the ones they hold most dear." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.] See also: lyrical putty. karat also carat Abbr. k or kt. A unit of measure for the fineness of gold, equal to 1/24 part. Pure gold is 24 karat; gold that is 50 percent pure is 12 karat. [AHD] Karnaugh map Mathematics of Computing. A rectangular diagram of a logical expression drawn with overlapping rectangles representing a unique combination of the logic variables such that an intersection is shown for all combinations. The rows and columns are headed with combinations of the variables in a Gray code sequence. [IEEE] kazoo A toy musical instrument with a membrane that produces a buzzing sound when a player hums or sings into the mouthpiece. The word origin is believed to come being imitative of its sound. [AHD] kb See kilobit kB See kilobyte Kb See Kilobit KB See Kilobyte KCL See: Kirchoff's Current Law. Kell factor Video. After RCA researcher Ray Kell who discovered in 1934 the phenomenon that the actual human visual resolution is only about 70% of the number of physical lines used in a video system. That is, humans have a reduced visual resolution due to line-scanning structures. Visual information is lost due to the probability that some of the video information will be displayed during the retrace instead of the active portion of the scan line. Even though it may seem like half the information would be lost because there are equal number of scan and retrace lines, empirically it

has been shown that about 30% is lost to this effect, yielding a Kell factor of about 0.7. (Bandwidth Versus Video Resolution, Maxim Application Note 750.) Kellogg, Edward & Chester Rice Loudspeakers. General Electric researchers who invented and patented the moving-coil direct-radiator loudspeaker in 1925. kelvin Abbr. K The International System unit of absolute temperature equal to 1/273.16 of the absolute temperature of the triple point of water. This unit is equal to one Celsius degree. A temperature in kelvin may be converted to Celsius by subtracting 273.16. (After First Baron Kelvin) [AHD] Kelvin, William Thomson, First Baron (1824-1907) British physicist who developed the Kelvin scale of temperature (1848) and supervised the laying of a transatlantic cable (1866). His pioneering work in thermodynamics and electricity helped develop the law of the conservation of energy. [AHD] Kelvin worked out an improved method for measuring the depth of the sea using piano wire and a narrow-bore glass tube, stoppered at the upper end. While experimenting with this invention, he was interrupted one day by his colleague James Prescott Joule. Looking with astonishment at the lengths of piano wire, Joule asked him what he was doing. "Sounding," said Thompson. "What note?" asked Joule. "The deep C," returned Thompson. [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] Kelvin connection also 4-wire Kelvin connection A 4-wire, 2-pair, connection used to make resistance measurements that are independent of the measuring lead resistance -- one pair is a current source and the other pair is a voltmeter.

keeper A bar of material (usually soft iron) with very high magnetic permeability placed across the poles of a permanent magnet (effectively shorting out the magnetic field) to protect it from demagnetization. Most often seen on horseshoe or U-shaped magnets. [Thanks to Glenn White.] kena See: quena. Kennelly, Arthur E. (1861-1939) An Iris-American engineer who was professor of electrical engineering at Harvard University and later at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1893, he presented his famous "Impedance" paper to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. In it he demonstrated the first use of complex numbers as applied to Ohm's Law in alternating current circuit theory.

kerfuffle Fuss, commotion, disorder, agitation. [OED] Keronite® Name of a company and of a surface treatment of light alloys that has the potential for creating superb loudspeaker cones. For details see Steve Mowry's Why Keronite®?. Kerr Effect (aka Faraday Effect) Physics. If an isotropic dielectric is placed in an electric field and a beam of light is passed through the sample orthogonally to the field then the material displays birefringence. (After Rev. John Kerr, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. [1824-1907].) This forms the basis of recordable optical discs. K-factor or K-rating Transformers. Transformers designed for operation in non-sinusoidal environments with non-linear loads. Kevlar® Registered trademark of Dupont. Used in loudspeaker driver cones due to its high strength-to-weight ratio. key Music. 1. The pitch of a voice or other sound. 2. The principal tonality of a work: an etude in the key of E. 3. A tonal system consisting of seven tones in fixed relationship to a tonic, having a characteristic key signature and being the structural foundation of the bulk of Western music; tonality. [AHD] keyable or keying Signal Processors. The ability to start or trigger a process by applying an external signal, usually to a side-chain. key lock Music. Phrase for pitch matching two or more sources using pitch-shifting techniques. It refers to the fact that the key or pitch of the music remains the same, even though the tempo is changing. keynote The tonic of a musical key. [AHD] Key West audion Nickname given the first use of the audion tube by the Navy at their wireless station in Key West, Florida. KHN filter See state-variable filter. kHz (kilohertz) One thousand (1,000) cycles per second. kibi Symbol Ki New term standardized by the IEC as Amendment 2 to IEC 60027-2 Letter Symbols to be Used in Electrical Technology to signify binary multiples of 1024 (i.e., 2E10). Meant to distinguish between exact binary and decimal quantities, i.e., 1024 verses 1000. For example, it is now 16 kibibits, abbreviated 16 Kib, not 16 kilo-

bits or 16 Kb. kik Recording. Popular jargon meaning "kick" (bass) drum sound or just the drum itself. Kilby, Jack American electrical engineer and Noble price winner for his invention of the monolithic integrated circuit while working for Texas Instruments. kill switch DJ Mixers. Control for removing whole frequency sections like bass, mids or highs. kilo- Abbreviated k (always lower-case). A prefix signifying one thousand (10E3). Kilo- Abbreviated K (always upper-case). A prefix popularly used in computer work to signify multiples of 1024 (i.e., 2E10), but should use kibi. Meant to distinguish base-2 (binary) from base-10 (decimal) magnitudes. For example, a "16 K" memory is actually 16,384 bits (i.e., 16 times 1024, or 2E14), but should now read "16 Ki". kilobit - Abbreviated kb (lower-case k and b). A term signifying one thousand bits. Also kb/s or kbps for kilobits per second. Kilobit - Abbreviated Kb (upper-case K and lower-case b). A term signifying 1024 bits, but should use Kibibit. Also Kb/s or Kbps for Kilobits per second or Kibibits per second. kilobyte - Abbreviated kB (lower-case k, upper case B ). A term signifying one thousand bytes. Also kB/s or kBps for kilobytes per second. Kilobyte - Abbreviated KB (upper-case k and B). A popular term signifying 1024 bytes, but should use Kibibyte. Also KB/s or KBps for kilobytes per second or Kibibytes per second. kilogram Abbr. kg The base unit of mass in the International System, equal to 1,000 grams (2.2046 pounds). [AHD] kilovar A unit equal to one thousand voltamperes. Kirchoff's Current Law Abbr. KCL Electronics. The amount of current flowing into a node exactly equals the amount of current flowing out of the same node; or the sum of all currents flowing into a node equals zero. (After Gustav Robert Kirchoff.) Kirchoff, Gustav Robert (1824-1887) German physicist noted for his research in spec-

trum analysis, optics, and electricity. [AHD] Kirchoff's Voltage Law Abbr. KVL Electronics. The sum of all voltage drops and rises in a closed loop equals zero. (After Gustav Robert Kirchoff.) Kirshner, Don (1934-2011) American record producer, manager and song publisher, as well as TV host and producer of rock concerts. KJ (karaoke jockey) As in DJ and VJ, only different. Klass Compaan Dutch physicist who came up with the idea for the CD in 1960. He teamed up with Philips and produced a glass prototype in 1970. See James T. Russell. Klaus Quirini See: discotheque Klippel Analyzer System A new loudspeaker parameter measurement tool invented and developed by Wolfgang Klippel. Theory and details are covered in his AES 2000 convention paper: Diagnosis and Remedy of Nonlinearities in Electrodynamical Transducers. AES Preprint #5261. Lots of technical application note downloads available here. Klipsch, Paul W. (1904-2002) American engineer and inventor best know for inventing the "Klipschorn" below. He was one of the American audio pioneers. Member of the Audio Hall of Fame. Klipschorn® A type of full-range loudspeaker developed in 1941 with a revolutionary low end (Paul W. Klipsch, "A Low Frequency Horn of Small Dimensions," JASA, Vol. 13 October 1941; U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,310,243 & 2,373,692). By using the corner of the room as an extension of the folded horn within the cabinet, it was able to reproduce low-distortion tones down to 30 Hz. The Klipschorn is claimed as the only speaker in the world that has been in continuous production since the '40s. (After Paul W. Klipsch above.) Kloss, Henry (1929-2002) American engineer and inventor, best known for co-developing the acoustic-suspension loudspeaker (along with Edgar Villchur) and the large-screen projection television; founded four successful consumer electronics companies: Acoustic Research, KLH, Advent and Cambridge SoundWorks. Member of the Audio Hall of Fame. kludge or kluge A system, especially a computer system, that is constituted of poorly matched elements or of elements originally intended for other applications. [AHD]

Or as an article by Jackson Granholme in "Datamation" put it: "An ill-assorted collection of poorly matching parts, forming a distressing whole." [From AHD: The word kludge is not "etymologist-friendly," having many possible origins, none of which can be definitively established. This term, found frequently in the jargon of the engineering and computer professions, denotes a usually workable but makeshift system, modification, solution, or repair. Kludge has had a relatively short life (first recorded in 1962 although it is said to have been used as early as 1944 or 1945) for a word with so many possible origins. The proposed sources of the word, German klug, kluge, "intelligent, clever," or a blend of klutz and nudge or klutz and refudge, do not contain all the necessary sounds to give us the word, correctly pronounced at least. The notions that kludge may have been coined by a computer technician or that it might be the last name of a designer of graphics hardware seem belied by the possibility that it is older than such origins would allow. It seems most likely that the word kludge originally was formed during the course of a specific situation in which such a device was called for. The makers of the word, if still alive, are no doubt unaware that etymologists need information so they can stop trying to "kludge" an etymology together.] klystron The name -- from the Greek, as coined by scientists at Stanford University -was registered by Sperry Gyroscope Company in the late 1930s for their velocitymodulated, ultra-high-frequency tube. As described by them in an ad published in a 1945 issue of Scientific American, "it is an apt description of the bunching of electrons between spaced grids within the tube." In the spirit of voluntary standardization they gave the name to the public for free use as the designation for velocity-modulated tubes of any manufacture. [Old klystron tubes make the best TV lamps.] Knechtel, Larry (1940-2009) American musician who won a Grammy for his arrangement of Simon and Garfunkel's "Bridge Over Troubled Water." For nearly 50 years he performed live and in the studio with top-selling artists. knee (of a curve) The point on a curve where change begins to occur; a section resembling the human knee exhibiting bending. knife switch A form of switch in which the moving element, usually a hinged blade, enters or embraces the stationary contact clips. [IEEE] knoup To toll the church bell. [Kacirk] Knudsen, Vernon Oliver (1893-1974) American physicist who studied and worked under Dr. Harvey Fletcher , helped found the ASA, and was the first dean of the UCLA Physics Department, then vice chancellor of the university and finally chancellor.

kobsa Musical Instrument. Ancient plucked lute (also called Thracian lyre) found in eastern europe and still manufactured in Romania (click the link for photo and history). Kodak See Muzak. konghou Musical Instrument. Chinese ancient instrument similar to a harp. Korner Killer™ Acoustics. A trademark of RPG Diffuser Systems, Inc. kSPS (kilo samples per second) One thousand (1,000) samples per second. A measurement of data converter speed. KUDO (K-Louver modular directivity United with DOSC waveguide technology) Loudspeakers. Designation by L-Acoustics for their line array. Kundt's tube Named after A.A. Kundt in 1866 who developed this apparatus for measuring the speed of sound in gases. It allows visualizing acoustic standing waves. kunstkopf Recording. The German word for an artificial recording head, used primarily for binaural recordings. Küpfmüller, Karl (1897-1977) German engineer who was a university professor before becoming the Director of R&D at Siemens & Halske and made significant contributions to network theory, communications technology and acoustics. kVA (kilovoltamperes) One thousand (1,000) voltamperes. See voltampere. kvar (Pronounced kay var, with emphasis on the first syllable) a) The size or magnitude of a reactive power source, which would usually be measured in (units of) kilovar. b) Abbreviation for kilovar, a unit of reactive power. [ IEEE Std 1531] KVL See Kirchoff's Voltage Law. KVM (keyboard/video/mouse) Computers. An adapter box that allows multiple computers to share the same keyboard, monitor and mouse. K-weighting See: weighting filters.

Pro Audio Reference L
L The electronic symbol for an inductor. la Music. The sixth tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD] LAB (Live Audio Board) Topics related to sound reinforcement and application of audio for live events -- the most active pro audio forum on the Web, created by road dog Dave Stevens and hosted by lacquer crackers Records, platters, waxings, discs. [Decharne] LAeq See equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level. Laff Box Invented by American sound engineer Charles Douglass (1910-2003) in 1953, it provided canned laughter for TV programs, including I Love Lucy. lag Electronics. 1. The difference in phase between a current and the voltage that produced it, expressed in electrical degrees. 2. The delay in action of a sensing element of a control element. [ IEEE Std 241] Lamarr, Hedy (1924-2000) Born Hedy Kiesler in Vienna, this Hollywood actress used her knowledge of musical harmony, along with composer George Antheil, to obtain a patent on technology for military communications in 1942, establishing the groundwork for today's spread-spectrum communication technology. LAN (local area network) A combination of at least two computers and peripherals on a common wiring scheme, which allows two-way communication of data between any devices on the network. Lansing Iconic Loudspeaker. The first recording studio monitor loudspeaker designed and manufactured by Lansing Manufacturing Company in 1927. Hit the link for pictures and details. Laplace, Marquis Pierre Simon de (1749-1827) French mathematician and astronomer who formulated the theory of probability. Laplace transform Electronic circuit analysis. A powerful circuit analysis technique that transforms difficult differential equations into simple algebra problems. Omitting all the mathematical details to get to the essence, the Laplace transform substi-

tutes the Laplace operator "s" to represent complex frequency impedances. Therefore inductive reactance, XL is represented by "sL" and capacitive reactance, XC becomes 1/sC. LARES (Lexicon Acoustic Reinforcement and Enhancement System) The time-varying reverberation system invented and developed by David Griesinger while at Lexicon beginning in 1991. Details here: Improving Room Acoustics through time-variant synthetic reverberation by David Griesinger. This is an example of an EAE system. Larsen Effect Acoustics. Name for acoustic feedback. (After Søren Larsen.) Larsen, Søren (1871-1957) Danish physicist (or physician -- both are seen; neither can be confirmed) notable for his contributions on acoustic feedback. [Write me if you can direct me to a biography for Larsen. I cannot find one.] larynx See voice box. laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) A device that generates coherent, monochromatic light waves. All CD players contain a semiconductor laser in their optical pickup. laser microphone Microphones. An entirely new type of microphone invented by David Schwartz that promises conversion of acoustical to electrical energy with zero distortion. laser turntable Phonographs. A phonograph that plays vinyl records using a laser instead of a cartridge so there is no contact between the record and the laser sensor. Beginning at $15,000, it is not cheap, but very innovative. last-on Teleconferencing. Term referring to microphone inputs on an automatic mic mixer that stay on (open) until another mic input turns on. Contrast with gated-on. A last-on mic becomes a master mic if left open long enough. LAT (linear array transducer) Loudspeakers. Trademarked name for a new loudspeaker technology developed by Tymphany Corporation. For details see AES preprints #6191, 6247 and 6250. latency Similar to propagation delay but broader in application. Used to describe the inherent delay in signal processing as well as software processing. The time it takes for a system or device to respond to an instruction, or the time it takes for a signal to pass through a device. It is how long it takes for a result to happen from a command. In telecommunications it is the length of time it takes packets to traverse the media.

In telecommunications it is the length of time it takes packets to traverse the media. laugh box See Laff Box. lavaliere or lavaliere microphone A small electret microphone designed to be worn on a person. The first lavaliere mics were worn around the neck on a lanyard, hence the French name lavallière, a type of necktie, used to describe a pendant worn on a chain around the neck (after the Duchess de La Vallière who started the fashion [AHD]). Today most lavaliere (the final "e" is commonly dropped) mics are attached by clips rather than hung from a cord. lawful "Compatible with the will of a judge having jurisdiction." -- Ambrose Bierce. lawyer "One skilled in circumvention of the law." -- Ambrose Bierce. lay Wire & Cable. To place together (strands) to be twisted into rope. To make in this manner: lay up cable. [AHD] The number of twists per unit length in twisted cable, called the lay. The helical arrangement formed by twisting together the individual elements of a cable. [IEEE] layback Recording. A post operation that rejoins audio and video after all other editing is complete. LCD (liquid crystal display) A display of numerical or graphical information made of material whose reflectance or transmittance changes when an electric field is applied. An LCD requires ambient light or backlighting for viewing. LCR (left center right) Sound Reinforcement. A three-channel sound system utilizing a left channel, a right channel and a center channel to stabilize the phantom images. LDI (Live Design International) The largest US trade show and conference focused on technologies for the live entertainment industry. LDR (light-detecting resistor or light-dependent resistor) An optoelectronic device whose resistance varies (inversely proportional) as a function of light ; a photocell, often constructed from CdS. Leach Jr., William Marshall (1940-2010) American engineer and professor who made significant contributions to audio engineering throughout his life, including authoring 26 JAES papers. lead-acid battery A storage battery in which the active material of the positive plate is lead dioxide, the negative plate is lead, and the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid. [

IEEE Std 1578] Lear cartridge (aka 8-track cartridge) Recording. Invented by William Powell Lear, the man behind the LearJet; eventually superceded by the compact cassette. LeBel, C. J. (1901-1960) American inventor and founder and first president of the Audio Engineering Society. Leccese, Albert (1953-2010) American engineer who helped pioneer touring sound as Director of Engineering at Audio Analysts. LED (light-emitting diode) Invented by Nick Holonyak, Jr. in 1962, a self-lighting semiconductor display of numerical or graphical information based on the light emitting characteristics of a solid-state device that emits incoherent (i.e., random direction) light when conducting a forward current. See LEVD. LEDE (live end-dead end) Acoustics. Recording studio acoustic treatment developed by Chips Davis in the late '70s where a room is designed to have a live end, i.e., reverberant and a dead end (opposite) that is heavily damped. Hit the link for the original AES paper written by Chips Davis and Don Davis (no relation) in 1980. LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) A registered trademark of USGBC (US Green Building Council) An environmental rating system for the building industry -- a "benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high performance green buildings." See RaneNote: LEED and the MA 4 Multichannel Amplifier. Leet Internet-based written slang, e.g., "leet" is Internet slang for "elite," "L8tr" for "later," and "l00kin6" for "looking, etc. Used to encrypt text messages, but it is much more sophisticated than the elementary "B4" for "before." It is a complicated use of letters and numbers that look like letters, e.g., "m4d" for "mad." legacy devices Something handed down from an ancestor, or a predecessor, or something from the past [AHD]. Used in the computer world to refer to yesterday's solutions, for example including an RS-232 port on a USB machine. LEO (low earth orbit) Telephony. Term referring to communications satellites positioned 200-900 miles (320-1450 kilometers) high. lepatata See: vuvuzela Leq Symbol for equivalent continuous sound pressure level.

Leq(A) Symbol for equivalent continuous sound pressure level (A-weighted). Also seen as LAeq. Leslie™ Loudspeaker. A special loudspeaker design made famous by its use with the Hammond B-3 organ, featured prominently in much of the 1960's and 1970's music (Procol Harum, et al.) characterized by a swirling pitch-shifting sound. Designed in the 1940s by Don Leslie, it uses a fixed loudspeaker and a rotating horn assembly to cause a doppler sound effect. Les Paul See: Paul, Les LEV Acoustics. Acronym for listener envelopment. [Morfey] LEVD (light emitting vegetable diode) True story; kimchi, actually. Some other foods also do it. leveler A dynamic processor that maintains (or "levels") the amount of one audio signal based upon the level of a second audio signal. Normally, the second signal is from an ambient noise sensing microphone. For example, a restaurant is a typical application where it is desired to maintain paging and background music a specified loudness above the ambient noise. The leveler monitors the background noise, dynamically increasing and decreasing the main audio signal as necessary to maintain a constant loudness differential between the two. Also called ambient noise compensator and SPL (sound pressure level) controller. levels Terms used to describe relative audio signal levels: (Also see decibel). mic-level Nominal signal coming directly from a microphone. Very low, in the microvolts, and requires a preamp with at least 60 dB gain before using with any line-level equipment. line-level Standard +4 dBu (pro) or -10 dBV (consumer) audio levels. See decibel. instrument-level Nominal signal from musical instruments using electrical pick-ups. Varies widely, from very low mic-levels to quite large line-levels. lexicographer The author of a lexicon or dictionary. "Every other author may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach; and even this negative recompense has been yet granted to very few." -- Samuel Johnson, 1755. Leyland number Mathematics. Any number that can be expressed as xy+ yx, e.g., 593

Leyland number Mathematics. Any number that can be expressed as xy+ yx, e.g., 593 = 29 + 92. Hit the link to see other examples. LFE (low frequency effects) [Note: it is "effects" NOT "enhancement".) Popularly called bass management, but this is technically wrong. The "point-one" in "5.1 surround systems". It refers to the limited bandwidth (20-90 Hz, 20-120 Hz, or 20-150 Hz depending on the encoding system) special effects/feature channel, but can also refer to a subwoofer channel. Both Dolby Digital and DTS Consumer use the term. The "bass management" part comes from having the option of leaving the bass in the five fullrange channels or sending all the lower bass to the subwoofer, or some combination. LFO (low frequency oscillator) Synthesizers. A very low frequency (less than 10 Hz) sine wave oscillator used to slowly vary other parameters to create effects like flanging and tremolo, or vibrato. licorice stick Clarinet. [Decharne] LIDAR (light detection and ranging) A system based on the same principles as RADAR developed for locating, ranging and profiling applications. lift/dip Popular European term meaning boost/cut. light organ Electronic device popular in the '60s and '70s where different colored lights would flash in response to different musical frequencies. Contrast with color organ. light pipe or light guide A device made from optical plastic that couples light from a source (usually a surface mounted LED) to a user interface panel. Design and theory here. light wave coupling See LWC. Lilith or Lilith Fair An all-women festival tour begun in 1997 by artist Sarah McLachlan along with Dan Fraser, Marty Diamond and Terry McBride, as a celebration of women in music. History here. limelight a. An early type of stage light in which lime was heated to incandescence producing brilliant illumination. b. The brilliant white light so produced. Also called calcium light. [AHD] limestone Acoustics. See: Epidaurus. limiter A compressor with a fixed ratio of 10:1 or greater. The dynamic action effec-

tively prevents the audio signal from becoming any larger than the threshold setting. For example, if the threshold is set for, say, +16 dBu and the input signal increases by 10 dB to +26 dB, the output only increases by 1 dB to +17 dBu, essentially remaining constant. Used primarily for preventing equipment, media, and transmitter overloads. A limiter is to a compressor what a noise gate is to an expander. See the RaneNote "Dynamics Processors -- Technology & Applications." line arrays Loudspeakers. (also called articulated line arrays) A vertical line (or linear) configuration for large venue multi-cabinet loudspeaker systems creating tight (and steerable) beamwidth coverage (degrees of arc for the propagating sound wave, vertically and horizontally). Favored for their controlled directivity that reduces room reflections and produces less reverberation and improved sound intelligibility, as well as reducing the sound that bleeds back onto the performers. The three most popular configurations are (a) uniform array: typically 2-8 boxes arranged in a flat straight line popular in smaller venues and usually tilted downward above the audience; (b) constant splay array: forms a smooth arc by tilting each box the same amount (pitch) resulting in a wider beamwidth popular in concert hall settings, particularly those with balconies; (c) progressive splay array: combines both previous examples by starting out with a straight flat array that gradually creates an arc at the lower end, forming the letter "J" like shape. Popular for large arenas and concert settings. Individual and unique variations are offered by all major loudspeaker companies. line driver A balanced output stage designed to interface and drive long lines. Long output lines tax output stages in terms of stability and current demands. Designs vary from direct-drive differential (sometimes using cross-coupled techniques) to transformer drive. See the RaneNote Practical Line Driving Current Requirements. line echo canceller See echo canceller. linear array transducer See LAT. linear distortion Any change to the amplitude or phase of the incoming signal frequency components. Contrast with nonlinear distortion. linear PCM A pulse code modulation system in which the signal is converted directly to a PCM word without companding, or other processing. linear phase response Any system which accurately preserves phase relationships between frequencies, i.e., that exhibits pure delay. See group delay. linear system or linear device A system or device that meets two criteria: 1) propor-

tionality -- the output smoothly follows the input; 2) additivity -- if input x results in output U and input y results in output V, then input x+y must result in output U+V. This means the system or device is predictably and its cause and effect relationship is proportional. Contrast: nonlinear. linear taper See potentiometer. linear time code See time code. linearity error Electronics. The maximum permissible deviation of the actual output quantity from a reference curve or line. Think of it as an error-window surrounding the reference: anywhere inside is okay, anywhere outside is not. The size of the window is the linearity error. line-level See levels. line source arrays See: line arrays. linguistics The study of the nature, structure, and variation of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics. [AHD] Linkwitz-Riley crossover The de facto standard for professional audio active crossovers is the 4th-order (24 dB/octave slopes) Linkwitz-Riley (LR-4) design. Consisting of cascaded 2nd-order Butterworth low-pass filters, the LR-4 represents a vast improvement over the previous 3rd-order (18 dB/octave) Butterworth standard. Named after S. Linkwitz, a Hewlett-Packard engineer at that time, who first described the problems and solution in his paper "Active Crossover Networks for Noncoincident Drivers," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 24, Jan/Feb 1976, pp. 2-8. In this paper, he credited his co-worker Russ Riley for the idea that cascaded Butterworth filters met all his crossover requirements. Their effort became known as the Linkwitz-Riley alignment. Linkwitz showed that a significant weakness of the Butterworth design was the behavior of the combined acoustic lobe along the vertical axis. An acoustic lobe results when both drivers operate together reproducing the crossover frequency band, and in the Butterworth case it exhibits severe peaking and is not on-axis (it tilts toward the lagging driver). Linkwitz showed that this results from the Butterworth outputs not being in-phase. Riley demonstrated an elegant solution by cascading two 2nd-order (any even-ordered pair works) Butterworth filters, which produced outputs that were always in-phase and summed to a constant-voltage response. Thus was created a better crossover. See the RaneNote Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer and RaneNote Signal Processing Fundamentals.

neNote Signal Processing Fundamentals. Linux A computer Unix-type operating system (OS) invented by Linus Torvalds in 1992, who wrote it as a student at the University of Helsinki. He created this OS because he couldn't afford one that could accomplish what he wanted with his available hardware. He then posted it on the network for other students, where it grew and became very stable and powerful. Today, for free, the software, source code, etc., is available off the Web. LIPA (Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts) A state-of-the-art performing arts higher education institution co-founded by Paul McCartney and Mark FeatherstoneWitty; located in a renovated old school that McCartney went to. History here. Lissajous figure also Lissajous curve and Bowditch curve (after Nathaniel Bowditch, in 1815 who first studied these curves) Oscilloscopes. A special case of X-Y plot in which the signals applied to both axes are sinusoidal functions. For a stable display the signals must be harmonics. Lissajous figures are useful for determining phase and harmonic relationships. (After J. A. Lissajous) [IEEE] For some educational fun check out Lissajous Lab. Also fun is Crop Circles of Consciousness. Lissajous, Jules Antoine (1822-1880) French mathematician. listening "It is the province of knowledge to speak and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen." Oliver Wendel Holmes [Crystal] liter Abbr. l or lit. A metric unit of volume equal to approximately 1.056 liquid quarts, 0.908 dry quart, or 0.264 gallon. [AHD] litz wire Derived and shortened from the German word "litzendraht" meaning strand, or woven wire. It is a cable constructed of individually insulated magnet wires either twisted or braided into a uniform pattern, which increases the total surface area compared to an equivalent solid conductor. The pattern is formed to reduce skin effect by guaranteeing that along a significant length, any single conductor will be, for some portion of its length, located in the center, the middle, and the outer portion of the bundle. This transposition prevents any one conductor from being subject to the full forces of magnetic flux, thereby reducing the effective resistance of the entire bundle. Litz wire bundles of 50, 100 or even more conductors are available. They are constructed by winding smaller bundles of six conductors into larger bundles. Those bundles may be "litzed" with other bundles to create progressively larger cables. Litz constructions counteract skin effect by increasing the amount of surface area without significantly increasing the size of the conductor. liuqin Musical Instrument. Chinese 4-string mandolin.

liuqin Musical Instrument. Chinese 4-string mandolin. live sound See: History of Concert Sound. LKFS (loudness K-weighted digital full scale) Broadcast. A standard ( ITU R BS.1770-2) aimed at normalizing broadcast loudness levels. An increase of 1 dB in signal level will cause the loudness reading to increase by 1 LKFS. For a particularly good overview see: Florian Camerer's paper, "On the way to Loudness nirvana: audio levelling with EBU R128." Also see: LUFS. load Electronics. A device or the resistance of a device to which power is delivered. [AHD] load shedding Power Supplies. Term for any sort of automatic rationing of available power when demand exceeds capacity. When power companies do this it is commonly called a rolling blackout. lobing error Electronic crossovers. The amount of on-axis deviation in amplitude from zero (i.e., perfect combined radiation pattern) resulting from phase deviations at the crossover point. Term coined by Lipshitz (Lipshitz, Stanley P. and John Vanderkooy, "A Family of Linear-Phase Crossover Networks of High Slope Derived by Time Delay," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 31, No. 1/2, January/February 1983, pp. 2-20). See the RaneNote Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer. lodestone (also loadstone) A piece of magnetite that has magnetic properties and attracts iron or steel. [AHD] Loft Scene Musical jazz and early hip-hop phenomenon occurring in New York city during the '70s, where people would dance and party in renovated old industrial loft spaces. log Short for logarithm. logarithm Mathematics. A shortcut method that uses the powers of 10 (or some other base) to represent the actual number. The logarithm is the power to which a base, such as 10, must be raised to produce a given number. For example, 10³ = 1,000; therefore, log (to the base 10) 1,000 = 3. The types most often used are the common logarithm (base 10), the natural logarithm (base e), and the binary logarithm (base 2). logic A system of reasoning first formulated by Aristotle. 1. The study of the principles of reasoning, especially of the structure of propositions as distinguished from their content and of method and validity in deductive reasoning. Computer Science a. The nonarithmetic operations performed by a computer, such as sorting,

comparing, and matching, that involve yes-no decisions. b. Computer circuitry. c. Graphic representation of computer circuitry. [AHD log taper See potentiometer. Long, Richard (1933-1986) Founder of RLA (Richard Long and Associates), dance club sound designers during the disco heydays of the '70s and '80s. Richard's success grew out of his experience working as the sound engineer for the Paradise Garage in Greenwich Village during the mid-seventies. After developing his chops at the Paradise Garage, Richard designed many famous dance clubs including Studio 54, Annabel's (London), Regine's (a chain of 19 clubs scattered around the world from Paris and NY to Cairo) and many others that were the vanguard of the disco era. Indeed, continuing years beyond Richard's unfortunate death in 1986, his designs flourish today in such icons as the Ministry of Sound (London). Further information available at GSA and see Richard and Alan Fierstein's seminal paper "State-of-the-Art Discotheque Sound Systems -- System Design and Acoustical Measurement," presented at the 67th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, New York , 1980, preprint 1694. Longacre Square Original name for Times Square; renamed in 1904. longitudinal Of or relating to longitude or length. [AHD] long-tailed pair Analog Electronics. The most common form of differential amplifier usually consisting of a top-side current mirror and a constant bias current source tied to the common emitters point, forming the "tail." First designed and patented by Alan Blumlein (wasn't everything!) in 1936 as an amplifier for small signals. loop Electronic circuits. A closed circuit, i.e., a set of branches forming a closed current path, provided that the omission of any branch eliminates the closed path. An electric circuit providing an uninterrupted path for the flow of current. loopback address Internet. Pinging yourself by using IP address Lorentz force Physics. The orthogonal (right angle) force on a charged particle traveling in a magnetic field, named after H. A. Lorentz. [AHD] Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon (1853-1928) Dutch physicist, famous for the Lorentz force and co-receiving a Nobel Prize for researching the influence of magnetism on radiation. [AHD] loss See gain.

loss See gain. lossless See digital audio data compression lossy See digital audio data compression. loud Having offensively bright colors: a loud necktie. [AHD] loudness The SPL of a standard sound which appears to be as loud as the unknown. Loudness level is measured in phons and equals the equivalent SPL in dB of the standard. [For example, a sound judged as loud as a 40 dB-SPL 1 kHz tone has a loudness level of 40 phons. Also, it takes 10 phons (an increase of 10 dB-SPL) to be judged twice as loud.] Note that loudness is a subjective measurement; contrast with intensity which is an objective measurement. loudness curve See Fletcher-Munson. loudspeaker, acoustic suspension See: acoustic suspension loudspeaker. loudspeaker Dynamic. An electromagnetic transducer based on the principle of electromagnetic induction used to convert the electrical energy output of a power amplifier into acoustic energy. The heart of a dynamic loudspeaker is a coil of wire (the voice coil), a magnet, and a cone. The amplifier applies voltage to the voice coil causing a current to flow that produces a magnetic field that reacts with the stationary magnet making the cone move proportional to the applied audio signal. Other loudspeaker technologies exist, among these are electrostatic (a thin sheet of plastic film suspended between two wire grids or screens; the film is conductive and charged with a high voltage; the film is alternately attracted to one grid and then the other resulting in motion that radiates sound), but for pro audio applications, dynamic loudspeakers dominate. The first loudspeaker was patented by Ernst Siemens in 1877. See also ribbon tweeter and back-emf. loudspeaker directivity See: Q. Loudspeaker Health Care Fun and educational tips developed by MC2 System Design Group. [Check it out, you won't be disappointed.] loudspeaker line arrays See line arrays. loudspeaker model See amplifier dummy load. loudspeaker reconing See reconing.

loudspeaker sensitivity See sensitivity. loudspeaker surround See surround. low-cut filter also lo-cut filter See high-pass filter [In audio electronics, we define things like this just to make sure you're paying attention.] Contrast with low-pass filter below. low impedance Abbr. Lo-Z Electronics. A device having an electrical impedance of at less than 1,000 ohms. [Note: This value is arbitrary as there is no standard defining exactly what constitutes a 'low impedance.'] Examples include loudspeakers in the 4-16 ohms range; headphones from 32-150 ohms; microphones rated 50-600 ohms; and electronic circuit outputs are low-impedance, rated at 50-300 ohms. Contrast with high impedance. low-pass filter also lo-pass filter A filter having a passband extending from DC (zero Hz) to some finite cutoff frequency (not infinite). A filter with a characteristic that allows all frequencies below a specified rolloff frequency to pass and attenuate all frequencies above. Anti-aliasing and anti-imaging filters are low-pass filters. Also known as a high-cut filter. low voltage Electricity. A term with many definitions, some of which surprise, like that 1000 Vac is considered "low voltage" by the IEC. Lo-Z See low impedance. L-pad See attenuator pad. LRAD (long range acoustic device) A non-lethal sonic communicator/weapon developed by American Technology Corporation capable of producing sound pressure levels of 153 dB-SPL. LRC (inductance-resistance-capacitance) Electronics. Shorthand for the most common passive circuit elements. Also seen as RLC, LCR, CRL, etc. LSB (least significant bit) The bit within a digital word that represents the smallest possible coded value; hence, the LSB is a measure of precision. LTC (linear time code) See time code. LUFS (loudness unit digital Full Scale) Alternate term for LKFS. Lully, Jean-Baptiste (1632-1687) French composer. [AHD]

The baton used by a seventeenth-century conductor was a much longer and heavier affair than the little wand used today. On January 8, 1687, in the course of conducting a Te Deum, Lully struck his foot with his baton, injuring it so seriously that gangrene set in and he died ten weeks later. [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] Lumière, Auguste and Louis French brothers who invented the "cinematograph," reportedly the first all-in-one camera/projector/printer, in 1895. luminance 1. Abbreviated Y. That part of the video signal that carries the information on how bright the TV signal is to be. The black and white signal. 2. VJ Jargon. A filter that controls the video brightness. Used to blend clips by limiting the bright or dark image pixels. See chrominance. Lunchbox Nickname for the narrow 500 Series of modular card frame racks. Coined by Art Kelm. "API Lunchbox" is a registered trademark of API Audio. lute Musical Instruments. A stringed instrument having a body shaped like a pear sliced lengthwise and a neck with a fretted fingerboard that is usually bent just below the tuning pegs. [AHD] LWC (light wave coupling) Electronic Displays. Experimental very flexible flat panel display technology under development at Extreme Photonix, a University of Cincinnati spin-off from their Nanoelectronics Laboratory. Lynard Skynyrd American rock band who took their name from their high school gym teacher, Leonard Skinner, as a way of mocking him, since he was a strict disciplinarian and had their guitarist, Gary Rossington, kicked out of school for having hair too long. lyra Musical Instruments. Three stringed bowed instrument with a bowl back carved from the solid. Popular in Greece and the Balkans. lyre Musical Instruments. A stringed instrument of the harp family having two curved arms connected at the upper end by a crossbar, used to accompany a singer or reciter of poetry, especially in ancient Greece. [AHD] One of the oldest known musical instruments dating back to the Sumerians. lyric French word literally meaning of a lyre; the words of a song. lyrical putty "The lyrics one creates in one's head in the absence of knowing a song's real lyrics." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.]

September 12, 2010.]

Pro Audio Reference M
m (lower-case) The symbol for milli-. M (upper-case) The symbol for mega-. MAC Address (Medium Access Control Address) (Also called MAC Name) Computer Networks. The (usually) 48-bit hardware address number unique to each LAN NIC (put there by the manufacturer), which identifies every network node. macintosh (also mackintosh) Chiefly British A raincoat or a lightweight, waterproof fabric that was originally of rubberized cotton. [After Charles Macintosh (1766-1843), Scottish inventor] [AHD] MADI (multichannel audio digital interface) An AES recommended practice document Digital Audio Engineering - Serial Multichannel Audio Digital Interface (MADI) AES-10-1991 (ANSI S4.43-1991) specifying and controlling the requirements for digital interconnection between multitrack recorders and mixing consoles. The standard provides for 56 simultaneous digital audio channels that are conveyed point-to-point on a single coaxial cable fitted with BNC connectors along with a separate synchronization signal. Fiber optic implementation is specified in document AES-10id-1995, entitled AES information document for digital audio engineering - Engineering guidelines for the multichannel audio digital interface (MADI) AES 10. Basically, the technique takes the standard AES/EBU interface and multiplexes 56 of these into one sample period rather than the original two. magic "An art of converting superstition into coin. There are other arts serving the same high purpose, but the discreet lexicographer does not name them." -- Ambrose Bierce. MaGIC (Media-accelerated Global Information Carrier) An acronym trademark of Gibson Guitar Corp. for their digital transport protocol. magnet Physics. A body that produces a magnetic field external to itself. [IEEE] magnetic field Physics. The electric field surrounding any current-carrying conductor. [IEEE] A condition found in the region around a magnet or an electric current, characterized by the existence of a detectable magnetic force at every point in the region and by the existence of magnetic poles. [AHD]

magnetic flux density Symbol B or B-field. The amount of magnetic flux through a unit area taken perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic flux. Also called magnetic induction. [AHD] magnetic induction See: magnetic flux density above. magnetic pickup See: pickup. magnetite The mineral form of black iron oxide, Fe3O4, that often occurs with magnesium, zinc, and manganese and is an important ore of iron. [AHD] magnetostriction (magneto + (con)striction) Magnetism. Deformation of a ferromagnetic material subjected to a magnetic field. [AHD] Discovered by James Joule in 1842. The reciprocal effect, the change of the susceptibility of a material when subjected to a mechanical stress, is called the Villari effect, named after E. Villari, a 19thcentury Italian physicist. magnitude Mathematics. 1. A number assigned to a quantity so that it may be compared with other quantities. 2. A property that can be quantitatively described, such as the volume of a sphere, the length of a vector, or the value of a voltage or current waveform. [AHD] Maine The only American state whose name is just one syllable. mainframe Computers. 1. A large powerful computer, often serving many connected terminals and usually used by large complex organizations. 2. The central processing unit of a computer exclusive of peripheral and remote devices. [AHD] mains Electricity. Name for the AC line voltage input. Short for mains power system. Manchester encoding A method of encoding data in which separate data and clock signals can be combined into a single, self-synchronizable data stream, suitable for transmission on a serial channel. [IEEE]. Also see: differential Manchester encoding. mandolin Musical Instrument. A small lute-like instrument with a typically pearshaped body and a straight fretted neck, having usually four sets of paired strings tuned in unison or octaves. [AHD] mandolin rail A device installed within a piano used to create the classic ragtime honky-tonk sound popularized in player pianos and nickelodeons. "The rail consists of a rod of wood spanning the strings of an upright piano. Fringed leather hangs from the rod. Each fringe is approximately two inches long and half an inch wide. Al-

though steel buttons were often used, brass buttons affixed to the string side of the leather worked best. The rail was usually hinged to pivot upward when not in use or to pivot down when in use. The felt from the piano hammer will hit the leather fringe, knocking the brass button against the piano string. The result is a metallic, honky-tonk piano sound." -- Howard Byrne, Assistant Curator, The Music House Museum, Acme, MI. mantissa The fractional part of a logarithm, e.g., in the logarithm 1.83885, the mantissa is 0.83885. (The integer part of a number is called the characteristic. In the example the characteristic is 1.) Floating-point arithmetic also calls this the significand. maraca Musical Instrument. A Latin-American percussion instrument consisting of a hollow-gourd rattle containing pebbles or beans and often played in pairs. [AHD] Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937) Italian engineer and inventor who in 1901 transmitted long-wave radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean and opened the door to a rapidly developing wireless industry. In 1909 he won the Nobel Prize in physics, shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun whose modifications to Marconi's transmitters significantly increased their range and usefulness. [AHD] Marshall, Steven Curtis See Stephen St. Croix. Martenot See Ondes-Martenot. Martin, Christian Frederick (1796-1893) German emigrant who founded the legendary Martin & Co. guitar company in 1833. Marshall, Jim (1923-2012) Famous English businessman who founded Marshall Amplification. mask or masking (aka auditory masking) Psychology of Hearing. The human hearing phenomenon where the response to one stimulus is reduced in the presence of another, i.e., two sounds arrive but only one sound is heard. Particularly evident when one sound is louder than another, with the result being that we hear the louder sound, even if arriving at a slightly different time. Frequency plays a part: a louder sound heard at one frequency prevents softer sounds near that frequency from being heard. However, not all frequencies mask the same. Mid-band frequencies mask far better than low frequencies, for example. Related to critical bands. Also see: temporal masking (e.g., forward and backward masking) and sound masking. Massa, Frank (1906-1990) American engineer who is considered the father of modern

electroacoustics for developing the fundamental technology that became the foundation for electroacoustics. He is the recognized pioneer in the design of transducers and systems for both air and underwater applications, as well as the founder of Massa Products Corporation. Frank Massa and Harry Olson authored the first textbook on electroacoustics, Applied Acoustics, in 1934. See Fundamentals of Electroacoustics for further details. mastering Audio recording. The final step in the recording process, completed before the replication or streaming process. The act of creating the master from which all copies will be made. The following lists many of the required artistic and technical steps, although some of these are more accurately referred to as pre-mastering steps leading to a preliminary master used to create the final production master. Transfer the recording into the highest digital (or analog) format for the mastering steps. Fix unwanted noise problems, either captured during the recording process, or for restoration archival purposes. Edit and apply signal processing as required to optimize timbre, clarity, smoothness and impact. Maximize the stereo or surround-sound balance and spread. Maximize and smooth out differences in song levels. Add pre-emphasis equalization if required for the duplication media. Add ISRC and other subcodes as required. Sequence the songs into their optimum playing order. Create fade-ins, fade-outs, segues and spacing between songs. Hide bonus tracks by using creative subcoding, if requested. Format and transfer the final results to the required media for duplication. And sometimes, create the package artwork. Or, as DRT Mastering succinctly puts it: "Mastering creates a seamless whole out of a collection of individual tracks." master mic Teleconferencing. Term referring to the microphone input on an automatic mic mixer that is the last to detect audio. A last-on mic becomes a master mic only if left open long enough. master port Teleconferencing. Term referring to the audio input port that is the last to detect audio. mathematics The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quanti-

mathematics The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols. [AHD] mathmusician The merger of mathematics and music. See examples from Vi Hart [Absolutely one of the most brilliant contributions to the Internet by a true genius. Check it out; you won't be disappointed.] and another, quite different, from Dr. Larry Lesser, matrix-encoding Audio. A technique of storing more than two audio channels on a two-channel medium or transmission format. Dolby Surround is an example, where the center and surround channels are electronically encoded into the left and right channels of a stereo signal (usually by broadband 90° phase shifting and summing). On playback, the center and surround channel are decoded from the left and right signals. The problem inherent with matrix-encoding is the mathematical dilemma of trying to solve for four unknowns (left, right, center & surround) when you only have two equations (the stereo signal); you can get close but you cannot get the exact right answer (so you always have crosstalk). This contrasts with today's discrete digital channels. matrix-mixer Similar to the matrix switcher (or router) below, but with additional signal processing features on all the inputs and outputs. With a matrix-mixer, not only can you assign any input to any output but you may add EQ, compression, change level, etc. Very elaborate models exist with as many as 32-channels in and 8 or more output channels (and as big as a Volkswagen). Also see mix-minus. matrix switcher See router. maverick Being independent in thought and action or exhibiting such independence. Believed after Samuel Augustus Maverick (1803-1870), American cattleman who left the calves in his herd unbranded. [AHD] Maxfield, J. P. American engineer who developed and was granted U.S. Patent #2,019, 616 for the first three-channel stereophonic system in 1935. He was a pioneer of motion picture sound while working for Western Electric. He also is credited with creating the 33 1/3 RPM record speed for synchronizing sound and motion pictures. maximally flat magnitude response See: Butterworth crossover. maximally flat phase response See: Bessel crossover. maximum-length sequences See: MLS.

Maxwell's equations Electronics. Four differential equations relating electricity and magnetism that form the basis of electrical and electronic engineering. MAU (multistation access unit) See token ring. Mbps (million bits per second) (always lower-case b) A popular measure of transmission speed, but should be Mibps, or mebi bits per second. See mebi. MBps (million bytes per second) (always upper-case B) A popular measure of transmission speed, but should be MiBps, or mebi bytes per second. See mebi. MCA-I (Media Communications Association - International) See: ITVA McIntosh, Frank (1906-1990) American engineer and founder of McIntosh Labs. MD (MiniDisc) Trademark term for the Sony digital audio recordable optical storage system utilizing data compression to reduce disc size. MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) Audio Compression. A popular audio coding technology. MDM (modular digital multitrack) Generic term used to describe any of the families of digital audio multitrack recorders. The most common examples being the Alesis ADAT series and the Tascam DA-88 series. MDS (multidimensional scaling) Statistics. A method of displaying differences between items. mebi Symbol Mi New term standardized by the IEC as Amendment 2 to IEC 60027-2 Letter Symbols to be Used in Electrical Technology to signify binary multiples of 1,048,576 (i.e., 220). Meant to distinguish between exact binary and decimal quantities, i.e., 1,048,576 verses 1,000,000. For example, it is now 16 mebibits, abbreviated 16 Mib, not 16 megabits or 16 Mb. media converter or media manager The ability to manage and the process of managing different media (coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable, and fiber-optics cable) used within the same network. Media management involves cable performance monitoring, cable break detection, planning for cable routes, as while as converting data signals between the various media. medical conferencing See telemedicine.

medium 1. In telecommunications, the transmission path along which a signal propagates, such as a twisted-pair, coaxial cable, waveguide, fiber optics, or through water, or air. 2. The material on which data are recorded, such as plain paper, paper tapes, punched cards, magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, or optical discs. MEDUSA (Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio) A microwave ray gun that beams sounds directly into people's brains, developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation. Short microwave bursts rapidly heat tissue, which causes a shockwave inside the skull that is detectable by the ears. Also see: Mosquito™. [Ah yes, science at its best.]

mega- 1. A prefix signifying one million (106). abbreviated M. 2. A prefix popularly used in computer work to signify multiples of 1,048,576 (i.e., 220), but should use . megabyte Popular term meaning a million bytes but should be mebibytes. See mebi. megacycle See megahertz. megaflops See MFLOPS megahertz Abbr. MHz One million cycles per second. Also called megacycle. MEIEA (Music & Entertainment Industry Educators) An international organization formed in 1979 to bring together educators with leaders of the music and entertainment industries. mel filter See MFCC. melisma Music. A passage of several notes sung to one syllable of text, as in Gregorian chant. [AHD] Mellotron Musical Instrument. The first sampling keyboard, made famous by The Beatles, who used it prominently on their 1967 hit Strawberry Fields Forever. Not digital, it uses strips of magnetic recording tape. memristor (memory resistor) Electronic-circuit theory. The theoretical fourth two-port passive-component element, with the other three being resistors, capacitors and inductors. First postulated by Leon Chua, Professor at UC Berkeley, in his 1971 paper for IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory. The first practical example was demonstrated by R. Stanley Williams, a Hewlett-Packard senior fellow in 2008. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) The acronym says it all. Check out this

clearinghouse website for the latest info. MEMS microphone Pro audio theory and application for new microphones based on MEMS technology. First commercial products available from Akustica. Mercer, Johnny (1909-1976) American songwriter who wrote the lyrics to more than a thousand songs and received nineteen Academy Award nominations. Mesa filter Term coined by Lake Technology Ltd for their Lake Contour™ EQ technology. mesh ground (a.k.a. common-bonded network) "A system where every piece of structural and non-structural metalwork in a building is bonded together. This includes concrete reinforcing bars, girders, cable trays, ducts, deck-plates, gratings, frameworks, raised-floor stringers, conduits, elevators, window and door frames, and the metal pipe-work used for HVAC to make a highly interconnected system that is finally connected to the lightning protection system." From A Practical Interference Free Audio System by Tony Waldron, Technical Manager, CADAC Electronics PLC. METAlliance (Music Engineering & Technology Alliance) " ... collaborative community in which producers, engineers and audio technology manufacturers work together to ensure the highest standards of audio production and delivery through developing consumer formats." [From website.] metadata Data about data. See: Michael Day, "Metadata in a Nutshell," and "Demystifying Audio Metadata," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 51, No. 7/8, pp 744-751, July/Aug 2003. meter Abbr. m 1. The international standard unit of length, approximately equivalent to 39.37 inches. It was redefined in 1983 as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. 2. Indicators. Any of various devices designed to measure time, distance, speed, or intensity or indicate and record or regulate the amount or volume, as of the flow of a gas or an electric current. 3. Music. a. Division into measures or bars. b. A specific rhythm determined by the number of beats and the time value assigned to each note in a measure. [AHD] meter ballistics Term describing the response characteristics of a meter indicator. Applies to all meters from original iron vane, taut-band or pivot & jewel mechanical analog designs to LED, LCD or plasma ladder arrays. Two universal standards exist for audio use: the VU meter and the PPM (peak program meter). The indicator attack (or rise) times are specified as well as the decay (or fall) rates along with the recommend-

ed detector method. Also see: peak hold. metric Of or relating to the meter or the metric system. [AHD] metronome Music. A device used to mark time by means of regularly recurring ticks or flashes at adjustable intervals. [AHD] Originally mechanical devices that produced clicks over a range of 40-240 BPM (beats per minute), today most are electronic wonders. MFCC (mel-filtered cepstral coefficients) An important analysis parameter in CBID systems. These coefficients describe the harmonic spectrum shape perceived by the human auditory system, i.e., they characterize the shape of sound. For details, see Audible Magic, one of the leaders in CBID systems. MFLOPS (pronounced "mega-flops") (million floating point operations per second) A measure of computing power. mi Music. The third tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD] MI (musical instrument) A broad term used to describe the musical instrument marketplace in general. Reference is made to "the MI market," or to a specific "MI store." If a store sells band instruments, for instance, it is an MI store. MIAC (Music Industries Association of Canada) "A national not-for-profit trade association that represents Canadian manufacturers, distributors and retailers of musical instruments and accessories, keyboards, sound reinforcement products and published music." mice music "Scientists have known for decades that female lab mice or their pheromones cause male lab mice to make ultrasonic vocalizations. But a new paper from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis establishes for the first time that the utterances of the male mice are songs." Hit the link for the whole story. mic-level See levels. mickey-mics See mmF. micro- Prefix for one millionth (10-6), abbreviated µ. microbar A unit of pressure equal to one millionth of a bar. [Not to be confused with microbrew.]

microcontroller See: microprocessor. microfarad Abbr. µF or uF A unit of capacitance equal to one millionth (10-6) of a farad. microfiche One millionth of a fish. micrometer Abbr. µm A unit of length equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a millimeter or one millionth (10-6)of a meter. micron A deprecated unit of measure equal to a micrometer, one-millionth of a meter. No longer used. microphone Abbr. mic (never "mike"); however the abbreviation for the verb is miking (never "mic'ing") [One of the many inconsistencies of pro audio jargon.] An electroacoustic transducer used to convert the input acoustic energy into an electrical energy output. Many methods exist; see, for example, electret microphone, condenser microphone, and dynamic microphone. The inventor of the carbon microphone is Emil Berliner. microphone directivity See: microphone polar patterns. microphone, optical See: optical microphone. microphone polar patterns (also called microphone directivity response) omnidirectional A response pattern that is as close to a perfect sphere as possible, i.e., it is not directional at all, or is a non-directional microphone. cardioid An on-axis response shaped like a cardioid with essentially no pickup to the rear. supercardioid cardioid-shaped response that includes small pickup directly to the rear. hypercardioid A cardioid-shaped response that includes greater rear pickup than the supercardioid design. subcardioid A cardioid-shaped response that does not tuck-in or null at the rear, instead has a smooth flat response to the rear. figure-of-eight A bidirectional microphone or one that responds equally front and rear and not at all to side sounds. shotgun The most directional response pattern, characterized by small sensitivity lobes on the left, right, and rear, with extreme sensitivity to the front.

microphone positioning See: Positioning Microphones Cheat Sheet microphonic cables See: triboelectric effect. microphone sensitivity See sensitivity. microphonic General. Any noise cause by mechanical shock or vibration of elements in a system (IEEE Std 100). Audio. Electrical noise caused by mechanical or audio induced vibration of the object. Common examples are vacuum tubes where mechanical vibration of the tube causes modulation of the electrode current, and capacitors that induce noise when tapped or vibrated in any manner. microprocessor An integrated circuit that performs a variety of operations in accordance with a list of instructions. The core of a microcomputer or personal computer, a one chip computer. microsecond Abbr. µs One millionth (10-6) of a second. Microsoft® (microcomputer software) Founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975, whose relationship began with their first business venture named Traf-O-Data. microstrip Electronics. A flat transmission line consisting of a conductive strip and a ground plane separated by dielectric. Contrast with stripline. mic splitter A phrase first coined by Franklin J. Miller, founder of Sescom, to describe a box fitted with female (inputs) and male (outputs) XLR mic connectors that allowed mic inputs to be routed to two, or more outputs. Usually passive, either hard-wired, or transformer connected. One common usage is for on-stage mic splitting, where one output goes to the monitor mixer and one to the FOH mixer. middle C Music. The tone represented by a note on the first ledger line below a treble clef or the first ledger line above a bass clef. It is the first C below international pitch. [AHD] The pitch equals 261.6 Hz and is the MIDI note number 60. MIDEM An exhibition for music professionals held in Cannes, France each year at the Palais des Festivals. MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) Industry standard bus and protocol for interconnection and control of musical instruments. First launched in 1983, now generalized and expanded to include signal processing and lighting control. See MMA [Historical Note: MIDI began with Dave Smith, President of Sequential Circuits, who delivered an AES paper in the Fall of 1981 (The "USI," or Universal Synthesizer Interface by

ered an AES paper in the Fall of 1981 (The "USI," or Universal Synthesizer Interface by Dave Smith and Chet Wood, 70th AES Convention, 1981, preprint 1845). He is credited with the original concept, but he admits that the initial idea of needing some sort of standard interface originated by both Oberheim and Roland. Sources: Polyphony, February 1983, pp. 36-40 and an official IMA (International MIDI Association) publication, Exploring MIDI by David Droman in 1984.] MIDI show control A term originally created by Charlie Richmond (Richmond Sound Design) to describe a new form of MIDI control designed for live theater venues. His efforts resulted in the official MIDI Show Control (MSC) specification. This document states: "The purpose of MIDI Show Control is to allow MIDI systems to communicate with and to control dedicated intelligent control equipment in theatrical, live performance, multi-media, audio-visual and similar environments." MIDI time code See time code. military music "Military justice is to justice what military music is to music." -- Groucho Marx [from Barber] Miller effect Electronics. The input impedance, and hence frequency response, of an inverting voltage amplifier stage is strongly affected by the feedback from the output to the input. This effect was first described by John M. Miller in his paper, "Dependence of the input impedance of a three-electrode vacuum tube upon the load in the plate circuit," Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards Vol. 15, pp. 367-385, 1920. This effect is used often in power amplifiers and op amps to set the frequency response and guarantee stability by forcing a single-pole (6 dB/octave, 90 degree phase shift) roll-off. Analog power amplifiers in their simplest form consist of an input differential pair that produces a single-ended output to drive a class A common-emitter amplifier voltage gain stage, followed by a push-pull emitter follower current gain class AB output stage. If a single capacitor is connected between the base and collector of the class A stage (called the "Miller capacitor") it will create a stable dominate pole for the entire amplifier. In this circuit the effect described by Miller acts as a capacitance multiplier, allowing a small capacitor to set the overall response. milli- Prefix for one thousandth (10-3), abbreviated m. milliampere Abbr. mA A unit of current equal to one thousandth (10-3) of an ampere. millihenry Abbr. mH A unit of inductance equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a henry. millimeter Abbr. mm A unit of length equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a meter.

millisecond Abbr. ms A unit of time equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a second. millivolt Abbr. mV A unit of voltage equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a volt. MIM (Music Instrument Museum) "With musical instruments from every country in the world, MIM will pay homage to the history and diversity of instruments and introduce museum guests to their varied and unique sounds. MIM will be an engaging, entertaining, and informative experience, in which the uninitiated and the knowledgeable, the young and the old will feel welcome." [From the website.] Here is a preview video. MIMO (pronounced "my-moh" or "me-moh") (multiple-input multiple-output) A broadcast technology utilizing multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver for better communication. Minifon An early portable dictating machine developed in the 1950s using wire recorder technology. An example of "dead recording media." minimum-phase Networks. "If a network is minimum phase, there exists a unique relationship between amplitude and phase which allows a complete determination of phase from amplitude." [Richard C. Heyser, "Loudspeaker Phase Characteristics and Time Delay Distortion: Part 1," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 17, p. 31 (Jan., 1969). minimum-phase filters Electrical circuits. From an electrical engineering viewpoint, the precise definition of a minimum-phase function is a detailed mathematical concept involving positive real transfer functions, i.e., transfer functions with all zeros restricted to the left half s-plane (complex frequency plane using the Laplace transform operator s). This guarantees unconditional stability in the circuit. For example, all equalizer designs based on 2nd-order bandpass or band-reject networks have minimum-phase characteristics. Acoustics A term used to mean a linear phase (or phase linear, European term) system. See group delay and the RaneNote Exposing Equalizer Mythology. minimum-phase loudspeaker One where "the measurement of either phase or amplitude is sufficient to characterized the frequency response completely." [Richard C. Heyser, "Loudspeaker Phase Characteristics and Time Delay Distortion: Part 1," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 17, p. 31 (Jan., 1969). minute (time) Abbr. min A unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour, or 60 seconds.

minute (plane angle) Abbr. ' A unit of angular measurement equal to one sixtieth of a degree, or 60 seconds. MIPA (Musikmesse International Press Awards) More than 100 international pro audio magazines award the best of each year's Musikmesse trade show. MIPS (million instructions processed per second) A measure of computing power. mix-minus A specialized matrix-mixer where there is one output associated with each input that includes all other inputs except the one it is associated with. (The output is the complete mix, minus the one input.) In this manner, the simplest mix-minus designs have an equal number of inputs and outputs (a square matrix). For example, if there were 8-inputs, there would be 8-outputs. Each output would consists of a mix of the seven other inputs, but not its own. Therefore Output 1, for instance, would consist of a mix of Inputs 2-8, while Output 2 would consist of a mix of Inputs 1 & 37, Output 3 would consist of a mix of Inputs 1,2 & 4-7, and so on. Primary usage is large conference rooms, where it is desirable to have the loudspeaker closest to each microphone exclude that particular microphone, so as to reduce the chance of feedback. See the RaneNote Introduction to Speech Reinforcement with Conferencing. mixer At its simplest level, an audio device used to add (combine or sum) multiple inputs into one or two outputs, complete with level controls on all inputs. From here signal processing is added to each of the inputs and outputs until behemoth monsters with as many as 64 inputs are created -- at a cost of many kilobucks per input for fully digitized and automated boards. At these price points a mixer becomes a recording console. mLAN (music local area network) A technology developed and licensed by Yamaha based on the IEEE 1394 standard. It is a high-level multichannel audio, video and MIDI networking and connection-management protocol. MLP (Meridian Lossless Packing) A lossless audio coding scheme developed by Meridian Audio Ltd. MLP has been selected as the optional coding scheme for use on DVD-Audio, as well as other transmission, storage and archiving applications. It is a true lossless coding technology, in that the recovered audio is bit-for-bit identical to the original. Unlike perceptual or lossy data reduction, MLP does not alter the final decoded signal in any way, but merely "packs" the audio data more efficiently into a smaller data rate for transmission or storage. It is simple to decode and requires relatively low computational power for playback. mirror ball See: disco ball.

mirror ball See: disco ball. MLS (maximum-length sequences) A time-domain-based analyzer using a mathematically designed test signal optimized for sound analysis. The test signal (a maximumlength sequence) is electronically generated and characterized by having a flat energyvs.-frequency curve over a wide frequency range. Sounding similar to white noise, it is actually periodic, with a long repetition rate. This test signal is most often tailored to be pink noise, as the preferred response for fractional octave analysis. Similar in principle to impulse response testing - think of the maximum-length sequence test signal as a series of randomly distributed positive- and negative-going impulses. See: MLSSA MLSSA (pronounced "Melissa") (maximum-length sequences system analyzer) Trademarked name for the first MLS measurement instrument designed by DRA Laboratories (Sarasota, FL). M.R. Schroeder used maximum-length-sequences methods for room impulse response measurement in 1979 (based on work dating back to the mid-60's); however, it was not until 1987 that the use of MLS became commercially available. The first MLS instrument was developed and made practical by Douglas Rife, who described the principles in his landmark paper (co-authored by John Vanderkooy, University of Waterloo) "Transfer-Function Measurement with Maximum-Length Sequences" (J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 37, no. 6, June 1989), and followed up with new applications described in "Modulation Transfer Function Measurement with Maximum-Length Sequences" (J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 40, no. 10, October 1992). MMA (MIDI Manufacturers Association) The original source for information on MIDI technology, where companies work together to create the standards upon which MIDI compatibility is built. MMCD (multimedia compact disc) See DVD. mmF (micro-micro-Farad) Capacitors. Old term used before pico- became standard. Pronounced "mickey-mics" by old-timers. MMVF (multimedia video file) See DVD. MNEC (Mass Notification & Emergency Communications) A trade organization providing resources for personnel working with the National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code (NFPA 72). Möbius, August Ferdinand (1790-1868) German mathematician and astronomer famous for his "strip" and as a pioneer in the field of topology.

Möbius (or Moebius) strip Mathematics. A topological oddity, it is a continuous closed surface with no outside and no inside, i.e., it is a one-sided two-dimensional surface. Cutting it lengthwise down the middle does not produce two pieces, instead it produces a larger loop! See link for how to make a Möbius strip. [After .] MOBO (Music of Black Origin) An organization that "identifies, showcases and celebrates music derived from black heritage." A U.K. award show called the MOBO Awards. modal Acoustics. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a room mode or modes. [AHD] modes Shorten form of room modes. modem (modulator-demodulator) A peripheral device used to convert digital signals ("1s" and "0s") into analog signals (tones) and vice versa, necessary for communication using standard telephone lines. modified discrete cosine transform See MDCT. modulation 1. The act or process of modulating. 2. The state of being modulated. 3. Music a. A passing or transition from one key or tonality to another. b. The result of such a transition. 4. a. A change in stress, pitch, loudness, or tone of the voice; an inflection of the voice. b. An instance of such a change or an inflection. 5. The harmonious use of language, as in poetry or prose. 6. Electronics The variation of a property of an electromagnetic wave or signal, such as its amplitude, frequency, or phase. [AHD] modulation noise Signal Processing. Any artifact that did not exist in the original signal and that varies with the signal strength. Common to analog tape recorders. mojo 1. A charm or amulet thought to have magic powers. 2. Slang: power, luck, etc., as of magical or supernatural origin. 3. Mojo Series Rane Corporation trademark for their discontinued series of economical products designed for high quality performance and reliability aimed at the working musician. 4. Abbr. Mother Jones magazine, or reference to their Internet news network: The Mojo Wire MOL (maximum output level) Magnetic tape. The maximum output level of a magnetic tape is defined as the magnetization level at which a recorded 1 kHz sine wave reaches 3% third-harmonic distortion (note that is 3% THIRD-harmonic distortion -- not 3% TOTAL harmonic distortion). Also referred to as 3% distortion of the musical twelfth. See third-harmonic distortion.

Moldavian pan flute See: nai. MOMM (Museum of Making Music) "Founded in 1998 by the National Association of Music Merchants (NAMM), the Museum of Making Music was developed to showcase and celebrate the music products industry." [From website.] monaural See mono. mondegreen The term for representing a series of words resulting from the mishearing of a statement or song lyric. Variously attributed to Sylvia Wright, who is credited with coining the word in a 1954 Harper's column, and also to Jon Carroll by Pinker. Monitor World Live sound. Area of the live sound stage where the monitor engineer mixes his/her magic and attempts to decipher cryptic hand signals from the performers. Not to be confused with "Guitar-Tech-Land", where all the babes hang out. monitor mixer A mixer used to create the proper signals to drive the individual musician stage loudspeaker monitors. Also called foldback speakers. Compare with FOH. mono Shorten form of monophonic, or monaural, relating to a system of transmitting, recording, or reproducing sound in which one or more sources are connected to a single channel; monaural. [AHD] Compare to stereo. monoed One of many pro audio inspired jargon terms it is the verb form for mono. Usually meaning the result of mixing left and right channels. [Yes, it is a word; yes, it is correct.] mono 3-way, etc. See active crossover. monophonic See mono. monopole woofer system Loudspeakers. Literally "one pole," the most common form of woofer system that acts like an omnidirectional sound source, thus exciting room modes more than the alternative dipole woofer systems. monotonic Mathematics. Designating sequences, the successive members of which either consistently increase or decrease but do not oscillate in relative value. Each member of a monotone increasing sequence is greater than or equal to the preceding member; each member of a monotone decreasing sequence is less than or equal to the preceding member. [AHD]

preceding member. [AHD] Monte Carlo method Of or relating to a problem-solving technique that uses random samples and other statistical methods for finding solutions to mathematical or physical problems. [AHD] month One of the words in the English language without a rhyme -- some others are "orange," "purple" and "silver." Moog, Robert A. (1934-2005) American engineer best known for inventing the Moog synthesizer. Moogfest "Moogfest is the annual event that honors the remarkable vision of Robert Moog and his amazing musical inventions that changed the course of music. Moogfest is a 3-day, multi-venue event held in Asheville, NC – the place Bob Moog called home for the last 30 years of his life ... Moogfest will host artists and audiences from throughout the world in different venues across Asheville’s beautiful, historic downtown." [From website.] Moog synthesizer The first electronic keyboard invented by US engineer Robert A. Moog in collaboration with composer Herbert A. Deutsch. Introduced in 1964, but not made popular until Wendy Carlos released the megahit album Switched-On Bach in 1968. For the complete history see Electronic and Experimental Music by Thom Holmes. moon guitar See yue qin Moore's Law 1. Named by the physicist Carver Mead, after Gordon E. Moore, a cofounder of Intel, who wrote in an Electronics magazine article in 1965, that computer chip complexity would double every twelve months for the next ten years. Ten years later his forecast proved to be correct. At that time, he then predicted that the doubling would happen every two years for the next ten years. Ten years later, he was, once again, proved correct. By combining the two predictions, Moore's Law is often stated as a doubling every 18 months. 2. The dictum that requires you to buy a new computer every two years. [Thanks DC.] MOR (magneto-optical recording) An erasable optical disc system using magnetic media and laser reading/writing. morin khuur Musical Instrument. Mongolian horse-headed violin. Nickname is horse head fiddle. [Think two-string cello.] morphing Shorten form of metamorphose. To transform (an image) by computer:

cinematic special effects that morphed the villain into a snake. [AHD] See sound morphing. Morse, Samuel Finley Breese (1791-1872) American artist (true fact) and inventor best known as co-inventor of Morse code. MOS-CQE (Mean Opinion Score; Conversational Quality, Estimated) A measurement of voice quality in communication systems. MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) See FET. Mosquito™ Teenage Deterrent A security device used in the U.K. that emits a highpitched scream at a frequency audible only to young people (roughly below the age of 20). With an effective range of about 20 meters, its aim is to break up loitering youths by annoyance and is, needless to say, a very controversial device. Also see: MEDUSA. motional feedback See servo-loop. MOTS (modified or modifiable off-the-shelf ) Government procurement term. Most often referencing software but general use is found. Compare with COTS, GOTS and NOTS. MOV (metal oxide varistor) See: TVS. Movement Electronic Music Festival Beginning in 2000, an electronic music festival said to be the largest in the US, held yearly in Detroit over Memorial Day weekend. moving coil Abbr. MC Transducers. A type of electromagnetic transducer that operates by having a mechanical device move a coil of wire in a magnetic filed to convert the mechanical movement into an electrical current. Invented and patented by General Electric researchers Chester Rice and Edward Kellogg in 1924. Contrast with moving magnet. moving magnet Abbr. MM Transducers. A type of electromagnetic transducer that operates by having a mechanical device move a magnet in a coil of wire to convert the mechanical movement into an electrical current. Invented in 1957 by ELAC. Contrast with moving coil. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791) Austrian composer. Mozart was approached by a young man, little older than a boy, who sought his advice on composing a symphony. Mozart pointed out that he was still very young

vice on composing a symphony. Mozart pointed out that he was still very young and it might be better if he began by composing ballads. "But you wrote symphonies when you were only ten years old," objected the lad. "But I didn't have to ask how," Mozart retorted. [Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes] MP3 (MPEG-1, Layer 3) A type of digital audio compression popularized for transmitting songs over the Internet. MP3 allows real-time audio streaming for Internet encoding and downloading. MP3 files are identified by the suffix ".MP3" Typically MP3 compresses CD-quality audio down to about one minute per 1MB file size. MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) A working group within SMPTE who set, among other things, specifications for compression schemes for audio and video transmission. A term commonly used to make reference to their image-compression scheme (MPEG-2) for full motion video. MPEG-2 See AAC. MPEG-4 Structured Audio This specifies a set of tools that allow powerful and flexible description of sound in a variety of ways, all based on what has become known as "structured audio," meaning transmitting sound by describing it rather than compressing it. Also see: SLS MPGA (Music Producers Guild of the Americas) The original professional guild for music producers and audio recording engineers, however in 2000, the Recording Academy absorbed it and established the Producers & Engineers Wing. MPX Abbreviation for multiplex as found in FM analog stereo broadcasting. MR (magnetoresistive) A technology based on the effect where electrical resistance in a material changes when brought in contact with a magnetic field Mr. Mojo Risin Lyrics Anagram constructed from "Jim Morrison" used in the Doors song, L.A. Woman. M/S or M-S (mid-side or mono-stereo) microphone technique. Invented by Alan Blumlein and awarded US Patent 429,054, "Improvements in and relating to SoundTransmission, Sound-Recording and Sound Reproducing Systems, filed in February 1934. It was first commercialized in the mid '50s by the Danish radio engineer Holger Lauridsen (H. Lauridsen & F. Schlegel, "Stereophonie und richtungsdiffuse Klangwiedergabe," Gravesaner Blätter, 1956, Nr. V, August, S.28-50). It is a method for capturing stereophonic sound using two microphones. One microphone with a cardioid response (although any polar pattern will work) is aimed straight ahead to-

ward the sound source (this is the mid or mono M part), and a second microphone with a figure-8 (or bipolar) response is placed so that the two lobes are directed toward the sides (this is the side or stereoS part). The two signals are then combined using an M-S matrix circuit that yields two signals: M+S and M-S. See Streicher & Everest for complete details. M/S matrix See M/S above. MS-DOS® (Microsoft® disk operating system) Microsoft's registered trademark for their PC operating system. MSB (most significant bit) The bit within a digital word that represents the biggest possible single-bit coded value. MSM (mid-side-mid, also called Double MS) An extension of the M-S microphone technique using two coincident M-S pairs sharing the same side-facing figure-ofeight microphone, one pairing for the Front L and R and the other pairing for the surrounds Ls and Rs (from Mike Skeet's article "MSM Mic Surround Technique," Audio Media, May 2003, pp. 58-59. MSO (Music Store Owners) Originally called iSMO (Independent Music Store Owners) this organization exists to serve as a link between dealers, manufacturers and the public. MSPS (million samples per second or megasamples per second) A measurement of data converter speed. MTBF (mean time between failure) Reliability Analysis. A measure based on statistical experience of how reliable a hardware product or component is, expressing in thousands or tens of thousands of hours as the predicted average time between failures. MTC (MIDI time code) See time code. MTTR (mean time to repair or mean time to recovery) Reliability Analysis. A measure of the maintainability of a piece of equipment. It is the average time required to fix any removable item in a product or system. Helpful in analyzing how long repairs and maintenance tasks will take in the event of a system failure. mu Vacuum Tubes. Symbol for the tube's amplification factor. Mu Law Telecommunications. The PCM voice coding and companding standard used in Japan and North America. [Newton] Contrast with A Law used in Europe.

in Japan and North America. [Newton] Contrast with A Law used in Europe. Mullin, Jack See: John Mullin. mult Recording. Slang shortened form for "multiplex" or "multiple." Refers to routing or splitting signals to multiple destinations. Found on patchbays where several "mult" jacks make a signal available to many devices. multicasting See broadcasting. multiclient ASIO driver Software Drivers. Refers to a software ASIO driver capable of interfacing external hardware devices with multiple software applications (clients) on a computer. multicore Microprocessors. Two or more processors in a single package, which allows simultaneous processing of multiple instructions, thus greatly increasing processing speed. multi-denomial transpedance informer Term coined by Jensen Transformers for their mythical product, the JE-EP-ERs, first introduced in 1987, which almost changed the whole audio transformer industry. The Jensen JE-EP-ERs pioneered the use of triple electonomic shielding and intrinsic eddy-breeding, until outlawed by Congress in 1988. Voluntarily discontinued when their stock of zeta-metal ran out, preventing any further use of interstage transpedance informance. Considered by many to be the only necessary accessory when coupling a Rane PI 14 Pseudoacoustic Infector to a Crown Belchfire® BF-6000SUX amplifier for playback using an Electro-Voice Rearaxial Softspeaker. multidimensional scaling See: MDS. multimedia Generally refers to personal computers capable of multiple forms of communication methods. These constitute a minimum combination of stereo audio, video, text, and graphics, plus the more complex system includes fax and telephony provisions. multing See mult. multipath Broadcast. Short for "multipath interference" or "multipath distortion." Interference due to multiple arrivals of the same broadcast signal due to reflections off buildings (usually). The difference in path lengths creates different arrival times thus causing signal cancellation and degradation. Most commonly occurs in FM and TV broadcast signals. The experience in car audio FM systems is static and signal weakening heard while slowing down and stopping; the signal comes and goes, weakens

ening heard while slowing down and stopping; the signal comes and goes, weakens and distorts then clears, creating a phenomena called "picket fencing." Since AM broadcast frequencies are lower in frequency the wavelengths are longer and multipath does not occur. See diversity antenna. multiplex To interleave two or more signals into a single output; a process of selecting one of a number of inputs and switching its information to the output. multipoint conference Telecommunication term referring to conferencing between three or more sites. multitrack Recording. The most popular method of music recording where each instrument, or group of instruments, is recorded on separate tracks (called stems) and then mixed down to a final version. mu-metal Metallurgy. A nickel-iron alloy used primarily for magnetic shielding. Not to be confused with nu metal. Munson, W. A. American physicist who first measured the human ear's loudness response with Harvey Fletcher and known today as the Fletcher-Munson curves. Murphy, Edsel and Murphy's Law The dictum that if anything can go wrong, it will. For the full treatment see: "The Contributions of Edsel Murphy to the Understanding of the Behaviour of Inanimate Objects." This momentous presentation is believed to have been first published in EEE, vol. 15, no. 8, August 1967. [EEE (Electronic Equipment Engineering) magazine morphed into today's EDN (Electronic Design News) magazine.] Museum of Making Music See: MOMM. Museum of Mathematics Their Mission Statement: " Mathematics illuminates the patterns that abound in our world. The Museum of Mathematics strives to enhance public understanding and perception of mathematics. Its dynamic exhibits and programs will stimulate inquiry, spark curiosity, and reveal the wonders of mathematics. The museum’s activities will lead a broad and diverse audience to understand the evolving, creative, human, and aesthetic nature of mathematics."

music 1. The art of arranging sounds in time so as to produce a continuous, unified, and evocative composition, as through melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. [AHD] 2. The art or science of combining vocal or instrumental sounds with a view to beauty or coherence of form and expression of emotion. [OED] 3. The science of har-

beauty or coherence of form and expression of emotion. [OED] 3. The science of harmonical sounds. Samuel Johnson's definition of músick. " ... what is music but a little wrinkling of the air?" from Gwilan's Harp by Ursula K. Le Guin " ... of all the noises I think music is the least disagreeable." Samuel Johnson "Don't bother looking at the view," he once told a visitor to his country house. "I have already composed it." Gustav Mahler "Music is not sound. Music is using sound to organize emotions in time." Krystian Zimerman musical instrument frequency ranges See the most amazing & informative chart here. Musical Telegraph Musical Instrument. The first electronic synthesizer invented by Elisha Gray that created and transmitted sound over telegraph lines. musical twelfth The third-harmonic of a tone, which equals one octave and a fifth -hence, twelfth (12 not 13 because you don't count the original tone). MUSICAM (masking pattern adapted universal sub-band integrated coding and multiplexing) A flexible bit rate reduction standard for high quality audio. Jointly developed for digital audio broadcast by CCETT in France, IRT in Germany and Philips in the Netherlands. Music Genome Project© A mathematical algorithm, granted US Patent Number 7003515, developed by its inventors to identify and describe music based on over 400 attributes. Using this algorithm it is possible to know a song's genre without listening to it. music genres See: electronic music genres. Music Instrument Museum See: MIM músick Defined by Samuel Johnson in his magnum opus, A Dictionary of the English Language, published in 1755, as "The science of harmonical sounds." music note value Click the link. Music Rising A charity created in 2005 by U2's lead guitarist, the Edge, music producer Bob Ezrin and Henry Juszkiewicz, Chairman and CEO of Gibson Guitar Corp., along with musical partner Guitar Center.

along with musical partner Guitar Center. music temperament See temperament. music vs. noise 1. "The sensation of a musical tone is due to a rapid periodic motion of the sonorous body; the sensation of a noise to non-periodic motion." from On the Sensation of Tone(1862) Hermann Helmholtz. 2. "Of all noises, I think music is the least disagreeable." -- Samuel Johnson [from Barber] Musikmesse The world's largest music trade show help annually in Frankfurt, Germany. musique abstraite Music. Music written for later playing; normal music as opposed to musique concrète. musique concrète Music. Electronic music composed of instrumental and natural sounds often altered or distorted in the recording process. [AHD] The earliest classification for electronic music, invented by French composers, Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer and Pierre Henry, in Paris, in 1948. Contrast with musique abstraite. Mutek A Montreal music festival. "A not-for-profit organization dedicated to the dissemination and development of digital creativity in sound, music, and audio-visual art." [from website] mutual coupling See coupling. mute A control found on recording consoles, some mixers, and certain signal processing units that silences (mutes) a signal path, or output. Various uses. Muzak (music + Kodak) 1. Trademark of the business music company founded in 1928 by General George Owen Squier who patented the transmission of background music (phonograph records played through the telephone system). He created the name by merging the word "music" with that of his favorite high-tech venture, the Eastman Kodak Company. The word "Kodak" was coined by Eastman himself, and in 1888 he first registered it as a trademark. According to Eastman, he invented it out of thin air. He explained: "I devised the name myself. The letter "K" had been a favorite with me - it seems a strong, incisive sort of letter. It became a question of trying out a great number of combinations of letters that made words starting and ending with 'K.' The word 'Kodak' is the result." 2. "I worry that the person who thought up Muzak may be thinking up something else." -- Lily Tomlin [from Barber] MVCDL (multiple voice coil digital loudspeaker) Loudspeakers. A type of direct digital loudspeaker. Compare: DTA.

tal loudspeaker. Compare: DTA.

Pro Audio Reference N
N See: newton. NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) A professional trade organization for people working in the radio and television industry. NACFM (National Association of Church Facility Managers) "A non-profit organization established in 1995 to promote networking and educational advancement opportunities for Facilities Management Professionals. NACFM provides an informational resource for church and religious facility management professionals by discussion groups, forums, panels, lectures, seminars, or similar programs or activities (such as this web site) designed to fulfill the purposes of the organization." Another great resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc. NAG (needed acoustic gain) Acoustics. The gain in decibels required by sound reinforcement to achieve an equivalent acoustic level at the farthest listener equal to what the nearest listener would hear without sound reinforcement. Nagra Recording. Famous Swiss company whose field tape recorders became the standard for all professionals. The name is so associated with portable recorders that today it is becoming a generic label, like kleenex or band-aid or XLR. NAH (nearfield acoustic holography) Acoustics. A sound radiation measurement system developed by Professors J. D. Maynard, E. G. Williams, and Y. Lee at the Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics in 1985. See: "Nearfield acoustic holography: I. Theory of generalized holography and the development of NAH," J. Acoustical Soc. of America, Oct., 1985, Vol. 78, Issue 4, pp. 1395-1413. nai Musical Instrument. Romanian panpipes, also called Moldavian pan flute. NAMA (Native American Music Awards) See NAMMYS. NAMM (National Association of Music Merchants is the original name; today it is officially the International Music Products Association but they didn't change the acronym) A professional trade organization for people working in the music business -- primarily in retailing and manufacturing of music making products. [Popular saying is that NAMM means Not Available; Maybe May.]

NAMMYS The name of the award given yearly by NAMA (Native American Music Awards). nano- Abbr. n A prefix for one billionth (10-9) nanosecond Abbr. ns One billionth (10-9) of a second. nanotechnology The science and technology of building electronic circuits and devices from single atoms and molecules. nanoweber Abbr. nWb A unit of magnetic flux equal to one billionth (10-9) of a weber. Napier, John (1550-1617) Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms and introduced the use of the decimal point in writing numbers. [AHD] Napier's bones Mathematics. A set of graduated rods used to perform multiplication quickly. Lord Napier is credited with creating them to expedite arithmetical calculations. [Kacirk] NAPRS (Nashville Association of Professional Recording Services)Established in 1995 to promote Nashville's finest recording studios, services and engineers worldwide; dissolved in 2009. NARAS (National Academy of Recording Arts & Science) See The Recording Academy. NARM (National Association of Recording Merchandisers) An industry organization made up primarily of music retailers acting as an advocate body for the common interests of merchandisers and distributors of music to industry and public policy makers. narrow-band filter Term popularized by equalizer pioneer C.P. Boner to describe his patented (tapped toroidal inductor) passive notch filters. Boner's filters were very high Q (around 200) and extremely narrow (5 Hz at the -3 dB points). Boner used 100-150 of these sections in series to reduce feedback modes. Today's usage extends this terminology to include all filters narrower than 1/3-octave. This includes parametrics, notch filter sets, and certain cut-only variable equalizer designs. National Electrical Code See NEC. National Music Museum Located in Vermillion, S. Dakota on the Campus of The University of South Dakota, it has more than 13,500 items in its collection (largest in

the world) with some 800 on display at any one time. National Recording Registry Set up by Congress in 2002 to preserve historical recordings. The inaugural list of recognized recordings includes "The Message," by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. (1982) natural logarithm A logarithm based on the powers of e (aka Base-e). N curve (normal curve) Same as Academy curve. NC (noise criterion) curves A unit of measurement for the ambient or background noise level of occupied indoor spaces, i.e., a measure of its noisiness -- true story; real word. The measured noise spectrum (done in octave bands using an SPL meter) is compared against a series of standard noise criteria (NC) curves to determine the "NC level" of the space. The standard NC curves take into account the equal loudness contours of Fletcher-Munson to accurately reflect the listening experience. Each NC curve is assigned a number (in 5 dB increments) corresponding to the octave band SPL measured over the octave centered at approximately 1500 Hz. A space is then said to have a background noise level of "NC-20," for instance, which would be very quiet, comparable to a quality recording studio. Compare with RC rating. near end Telecommunication term referring to your end; the local room, as opposed to the far end. near-end crosstalk Crosstalk that is propagated in a disturbed channel in the direction opposite to the direction of propagation of the signal in the disturbing channel. The terminals of the disturbed channel, at which the near-end crosstalk is present, and the energized terminal of the disturbing channel, are usually near each other. [IEEE Std 802.5] near-field Acoustics. The sound field very close to the sound source, between the source and the far field. Technically, a distance less than one wavelength at the frequency of interest. near-field focalization (NFF) See: focalization. near-field monitor A loudspeaker used at a distance of 3-4 feet (1-1½ meters) in recording studios. NEC (National Electrical Code) The name for the United States electrical safety standard (NFPA-70).

negative Electronics. An excess of electrons in a conductor or semiconductor. negative feedback The act of comparing a fraction of the output signal to the input signal at the input to an amplifier in such a way that the amplifier will keep this fraction of the output signal always exactly the same as the input signal. Negative feedback is of prime importance in designing with op amps and audio power amplifiers. As applied to audio amplifiers, negative feedback is first attributed to Bell Labs scientist Harold S. Black, as described in the Bell Labs Technical Review, 1934 and his monumental 87 page U.S. patent 2,102,671 filed in 1932. negative logic An electronic logic system where the voltage representing one, active, or true has a more negative value than the voltage representing zero, inactive, or false. Also known as negative-true logic, it is normally used in electronic and computing data and communications switching systems for noise immunity reasons. [IEEE Std 1451.2] negative resistor (aka negistor) Electronics. A resistor having the opposite characteristics of Ohm's Law, i.e., the current goes down if the voltage goes up and vice versa. Certain devices and circuits display this trait and are used mainly to make negative resistance oscillators. negistor See negative resistor. neodymium Abbr. Nd Audio Transducers. Popular rare-earth metal used to make superior magnets for loudspeakers and microphones. Neodymium iron boron magnets have a more linear frequency response, are more powerful and smaller, with higher output levels than conventional iron magnets. [No, it was not named after Neil Diamond.] neodymium motors See: bonded magnet motors. nephew node Networks. A node with one port in standby and all other ports (if any) disabled, disconnected, or suspended. The peer uncle node proxies for the nephew node during bus resets. [IEEE Std 1394b] network Generally used to mean a multi-computer system (as opposed to a single computer bus-type system) where multiple access is allowed from more than one computer at a time. Characterized by full two-way (duplex) communications between all equipment and computers on the network. See CobraNet for an example. network glossary See CobraNet glossary for many useful terms.

Neumann, Georg (1891-1976) German inventor, entrepreneur and audio industry pioneer of high-quality microphones. neural spectrogram Hearing. "The idea that the auditory system takes apart the acoustic information in the same way that a spectrogram does. The separation of different frequencies is done by the basilar membrane. Information about the intensity and phase of different frequency components is kept separate in different neural pathways originating at different sites on the membrane. This separation of frequency information is maintained all the way up to the brain. Intensity activity in each neural pathway corresponds to the darkness of the streak on the spectrogram for the corresponding frequency." [Bregman] neutral Electronics. 1. Having no electrical charge. 2. Common point of a star-connected generator or transformer winding. [IEEE Std 1020] Neve 1073 Console Module Designed by Rubert Neve in 1970, this mic-preamp with 3-band EQ set the standard for all mic channels to follow. Neville Thiele Method™ See: NTM newton Abbr. N. The International System unit of force. It is equal to the force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram one meter per second per second. Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. The sight of a falling apple supposedly inspired his treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687). [AHD] NEXT (near-end crosstalk) Category wiring. Interference between signals on twisted pair cable caused by damage (usually a loosening of the tight twist required for high speed transmission) occurring close to the connector. ney Musical Instrument. A Turkish end-blown flute. NFF (near-field focalization) See: focalization. ngoni Musical Instrument. A West African stringed instrument. nibble A group of four bits or half a byte (8-bits). Also called a quartet. NIC (network interface card) Ethernet. The PC expansion board that connects a de-

vice to a LAN, usually Ethernet-based. Nichols, Roger (1944-2011) American recording engineer most famous for his innovative and Grammy Award-winning work with Steely Dan. nickelodeon 1. An early movie theater charging an admission price of five cents. 2. A player piano. 3. A jukebox. [AHD] NIH (not invented here) Popular abbreviation found in technology land, used to described a prima donna corporate attitude that everything they do must be original. Stems from an unhealthy attitude that the only solution worthy is their solution, thus rejecting ideas and inventions not theirs. Makes for very unproductive and unhappy engineering teams. NIME (New Interfaces for Musical Expression) Music. International organization for the development of new musical interface design. Nipper The famous "His Master's Voice" RCA dog. A bull terrier and fox terrier mix born in 1884 and named for his propensity to nip at peoples' legs. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Government organization who produces (among vastly other things) Special Publication 811: Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), the authority on this subject. Nixie tube Vacuum Tubes. A numerical read-out cold-cathode tube first developed by Haydu Brothers Laboratories in 1955, later purchased by Burroughs Corporation who registered the name. The name Nixie was derived by Burroughs from "NIX I", an abbreviation of "Numeric Indicator eXperimental No. 1." Hit the link for photos. No also Noh Theater. The classical drama of Japan, with music and dance performed in a highly stylized manner by elaborately dressed performers on an almost bare stage. [AHD] Similar but older than Kabuki. node Acoustics. A point of minimum amplitude in a one-dimensional standing wave field. A nodal line is a line of minimum amplitude in a two-dimensional filed, and a nodal surface is a surface of minimum amplitude in a three-dimensional field. [Morfey] node Electronic Circuits. A point of interconnection between two or more components. Physics. A point or region of virtually zero amplitude in a periodic system.

noise General. Sound or a sound that is loud, unpleasant, unexpected, or undesired. Physics. A disturbance, especially a random and persistent disturbance, that obscures or reduces the clarity of a signal. Computer Science. Irrelevant or meaningless data. From Latin meaning nausea, discomfort and seasickness. [AHD] noise cancelling headphones Special headphones incorporating a microphone built into the headset that samples the ambient sound and adds it back out-of-phase to the headphone signal. This method actively cancels or nulls out background noise -works best with low frequencies. See Sennheiser NoiseGard® for an interesting demo. noise cancelling microphone A special dynamic microphone designed so both sides of the diaphragm are exposed to the sound field. Close direct sound strikes primarily one side of the diaphragm causing it to move while sounds from far away tend to be canceled because they strike the diaphragm from all sides with no net force. noise color People working in pro audio know the terms white noise and pink noise, but few recognize the terms "azure noise" or "red noise," but they are real terms. Noise that is not white is called colored noise and will have more energy at some frequencies than others, analogous to colored light. White noise and pink noise are well defined and known; much less so are the others. White noise is so named because it is analogous to white light in that it contains all audible frequencies distributed uniformly throughout the spectrum. Passing white light through a prism (a form of filtering) breaks it down into a range of colors. Examination shows that red light is characterized by the longer wavelengths of light, i.e., the lower frequency region. Similarly, "pink noise" has higher energy in the low frequencies, hence the somewhat tongue-in-cheek term. The Federal Standard 1037C Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms defines four noise colors (white, pink, blue & black) and is considered the official source. No official standard could be found for the others. The following list of noise colors is loosely based on a rainbow-prism light analogy, where a prism creates a rainbow effect by separating white light passed through it into a visible spectrum labeled red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet from lowest to highest frequencies. Also shown is the approximate slope of the power density spectrum relative to white noise used as the reference: red noise also called brown noise or Brownian noise after Robert Brown: 6 dB/oct decreasing density (most amount of low frequency energy or power; used in oceanography; power proportional to 1/frequencysquared); popcorn noise.

squared); popcorn noise. pink noise: -3 dB/oct decreasing noise density (but, equal power per octave; 1/f noise or flicker noise; power proportional to 1/frequency). white noise: 0 dB/oct reference noise with equal power density (equal power per hertz; Johnson noise). grey noise: A random pink noise within the audible frequency range subjected to inverted A-weighting loudness curve per IEC 61672. It gives the listener the perception that it is equally loud at all frequencies. blue (or azure) noise: +3 dB/oct increasing noise density (power proportional to frequency). purple (or violet) noise: +6 dB/oct increasing noise density (power proportional to frequency-squared; most amount of high frequency energy or power). black noise: silence (zero power density with a few random spikes allowed). Other noise colors exist for specialized fields like video/photographic/image processing, communications, mathematical chaos theory, etc., but are not found in pro audio circles. noise criterion (NC) curves See NC curves. noise dose or noise exposure Limits of noise exposure published by OSHA (US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration). It is a expressed as A-weighted SPL (dBA) term. Here are some common examples: 90 dBA: 8 hours max 95 dBA: 4 hours max 100 dBA: 2 hours max 105 dBA: 1 hour max 110 dBA: 30 minutes max 115 dBA: 15 minutes max noise figure The ratio between the Johnson noise (or thermal noise) of the equivalent input resistance of a circuit and its measured noise, expressed in decibels. It is the ratio of the output noise to the input noise, so the answer is always positive, with a theoretically noise-free device having a noise figure of 0 dB.

noise floor Normally the lowest threshold of useful signal level, i.e., the residual noise with no signal present (although sometimes audible signals below the noise floor can be recovered). noise gate An expander with a fixed "infinite" downward expansion ratio. Used extensively for controlling unwanted noise, such as preventing "open" microphones and "hot" instrument pick-ups from introducing extraneous sounds into the system. When the incoming audio signal drops below the user set-point (the threshold point) the expander prevents any further output by reducing the gain to "zero." The actual gain reduction is typically on the order of -80 dB, thus once audio falls below the threshold, effectively the output level becomes the residual noise of the gate. Common terminology refers to the gate "opening" and "closing." Another popular application uses noise gates to enhance musical instrument sounds, especially percussion instruments. Judicious setting of a noise gate's attack (turn-on) and release (turn-off) times adds "punch," or "tightens" the percussive sound, making it more pronounced. A noise gate is to an expander as a limiter is to a compressor. See the RaneNotes Dynamics Processors and Signal Processing Fundamentals. noise map Serato Scratch Live. The Serato control vinyl and control CDs each contain a proprietary Noise Map Control Tone that allows Scratch Live to track the motion of the record, simulating the same movement with digital audio. The Serato noise map was co-invented in 2002 by Serato cofounders, Steve West and AJ Bertenshaw ("AJ"). An important distinction is that Serato's noise map is not time code, or anything like time code. It is a unique and proprietary method of tracking the control record's motion based on the mathematical concept of a maximum-length pseudo random bit sequence, which guarantees uniqueness for the shorted possible section. It is a continuously varying signal rather than a sequence of discrete consecutive location labels as is the case with time code schemes. A noise map makes it is more difficult to determine any exact location since a form of fuzzy pattern matching must be used. However, this increased complexity is more than compensated for by the resultant lower latency, the lack of any need to synchronize with lengthy code words within the signal, and better robustness to noise. In AJ's words: "The idea is to get a sequence of bits in which you can find your position uniquely in the shortest number of bits, without having to synchronize. The problem with time code is that you have to know where each code ends and the next begins. With the noise map you don't have the problem because the code is continuous." NoiseMap™ Trademark of Serato Audio Research for their proprietary technology used in the Scratch Live vinyl emulation system. See: noise map.

noise masking Acoustics. The practice of adding white noise to an audio system to make background sounds unintelligible or less distracting; makes use of the human hearing masking phenomenon. noise measurement filters See weighting filters. noise reduction Abbr. NR Recording. A signal processing function used to reduce the amount of background noise. See expander. noise shaping A technique used in oversampling low-bit converters and other quantizers to shift (shape) the frequency range of quantizing error (noise and distortion). The output of a quantizer is fed back through a filter, and summed with its input signal. Dither is sometimes used in the process. Oversampling A/D converters shift much of it out of the audio range completely. In this case, the in-band noise is decreased, which allows low-bit converters (such as delta-sigma) to equal or out-perform high-bit converters (those greater than 16 bits). When oversampling is not involved, the noise still appears to decrease by 12 dB or more because it is redistributed into less audible frequency areas. Further digital processing usually reverses the benefits of this kind of noise shaping. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. NOM (number of open mics) An acronym believed first created in 1967, or 1968, by Bill Snow after he retired from Bell Labs and went to work at Altec Lansing Research. It's use was popularized by Dan Dugan, the father of the automatic microphone mixer and Altec Lansing, the manufacturer of his first design. In Dan's original design, the automatic mic mixer, like human operators, turned the gain down on unused mic channels and turned the gain up on active channels, all the while ensuring that the overall level remained roughly constant. As a rough approximation, each doubling of the number of open mics (NOM) cuts the gain by 3 dB, i.e., as more mics are opened up the mic mixer reduces overall gain. If not, as mics open and close, the reverberation and ambient noise fluctuates unacceptably. NOM attenuation techniques work to provide the gain, stability, and low noise qualities of a single open mic with the benefits of multiple mics. [Historical Note: This concept was first written about by C.P. Boner & R.E. Boner, in their paper "The Gain of a Sound System" April 1969, reproduced in Sound Reinforcement: An Anthology (Audio Engineering Society, NY, 1978.] nominal This word has several definitions but the one of importance to pro audio is its engineering sense meaning: insignificantly small; trifling: a nominal amount. It can also mean "according to plan or design." [AHD]

NOMM (number of open mics & mixers) A term created by Rane Corporation extending the concept of NOM (above) to include multiple mixers as well as microphones. As used by Rane, it is NOM-like in that feedback stability is maintained, however, since large systems have mics across multiple mixers, Rane includes these mixers in the NOMM calculation. For example, in audio conferencing, when the chairman is speaking and someone else quickly answers "yes," coughs, or drops a pen, most mic mixers running in NOM mode are annoying because they reduce the level of the chairman mic just because someone else made a noise. The Rane NOMM approach avoids this annoyance by keeping the chairman's mic at the same gain while still allowing the interruption to be heard, yet at a reduced gain from its full gated level. nomogram 1. A graph consisting of three coplanar curves, each graduated for a different variable so that a straight line cutting all three curves intersects the related values of each variable. 2. A chart representing numerical relationships. [AHD] non-acoustic voice sensor A device that can detect a person's voice without the person actually speaking out loud. See TERC. nonlinear Electronics. The amplitude of the output is not linearly proportional to the input. If a true sine wave were transmitted through a nonlinear device, its shape would be changed. [IEEE] Contrast with linear. nonlinear distortion Introduction of frequency components not present in the original signal. Contrast with linear distortion. nonvolatile Refers to a memory device that does not lose its data when power is removed from the system. norator Electronics. A two-terminal circuit element with a voltage-current (V-I) characteristic curve consisting of all points on the V-I plane (except zero/zero because that is a nullator). The device does not define either the voltage or the current. Used to model complex circuits for analysis. For example the output of an ideal op amp can be modeled with a norator, i.e., its output voltage and current can assume any value. Paired with a nullator creates a nullor. normal distribution See: Gaussian distribution. normalize Recording. The process of linearly increasing all digital samples by the same amount so that the largest original sample reaches a given level. This is done in order to create a maximum signal while maintaining the S/N ratio, and with no clipping when the level selected is 0 dBFS. Analogous to an analog audio system's vol-

ume control. See: 10 Myths about Normalization for an interesting discussion of this subject. normalling jacks See patchbay. Norteño Music. A genre of Mexican music. Norton's Theorem In simple terms, states that a complex linear circuit (i.e., no exponents or roots in its defining equations) can be replaced by a single current source and a parallel resistor. See All About Circuit's Norton's Theorem for detailed explanation. [After Edward L. Norton.] Norton, Edward Lawry (1898-1983) American engineer who formulated Norton's Theorem while working at Bell Labs. notch filter A special type of cut-only equalizer used to attenuate (only, no boosting provisions exist) a narrow band of frequencies. Three controls: frequency, bandwidth and depth, determine the notch. Simplified units provide only a frequency control, with bandwidth and depth fixed internally. Used most often in acoustic feedback control to eliminate a small band of frequencies where the system wants to howl (feedback). note value See: music note value. NOTS (NATO off-the-shelf or niche off-the-shelf) Government procurement term. Most often referencing software but general use is found. Compare with COTS, MOTS and GOTS. Novachord Musical Instruments. The name for Hammond's first commercially available synthesizer released in 1938. See The Novachord Restoration Project for pictures and text. noy Psychoacoustics. A subjective unit of noisiness. For example, a sound of 2 noys is twice as noisy as a sound of 1 noy and half as noisy as a sound of 4 noys. [BBC's J.R. comes through again - thanks!] NPO 1. Ceramic capacitors Temperature coefficient designator meaning negativepositive-zero, i.e., the capacitance drifts negative and positive averaging zero. A marking meaning stable with temperature. 2. Medicine Abbreviation for nil per os, or nothing by mouth NR See: noise reduction.

NR See: noise reduction. NRE (non-recurring engineering charge) A one-time engineering charge for product development, separate from royalty or licensing fees. NRZ (non-return to zero) A system of binary code where one's are usually represented by a positive voltage and zeroes by a negative number, i.e., neither is ever zero volts. NSCA (National Systems Contractors Association) "Founded in 1980 as the National Sound Contractors Association, the NSCA underwent a name change in 1994 to better reflect the diversification found within the hi-tech industry of electronic systems. Rather than focusing solely on the installation of audio systems, today's innovative member companies of the NSCA expanded into other fields, including audio, video, intercom/paging, telecommunications, security/access control, and many others." [from NSCA website] NSP (native signal processing) Intel-designed method of using a powerful microprocessor (like their Pentium CPU) for signal processing functions normally done by separate DSP chips. Not finding many backers. NSSP (National Standards Systems Network) A Web-based service launched by ANSI, along with government and industry partners. A full search & sales service provides for locating and buying virtually any standard. More than 100,000 global standards are available. Over 25 standards groups provide technical specs for this database, including ISO. The EIA endorsed the project. NTMTM Crossover Filter (Neville Thiele MethodTM Crossover Filter) Trademarked term for the patented (U.S. Patent 6,854,005) technology developed by Neville Thiele for Whise Acoustics in Australia. Two choices are offered, a 4th-order with rolloff slopes of 36 dB/octave and an 8th-order with 52 dB/octave slopes. The published curves resemble 4th- and 8th-order cascaded elliptic filters. Rod Elliot of Elliot Sound Products explores the details in his paper: NTM™ Crossovers. NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) The United States and Japan standard for color formatting for television transmission developed in the 1950s. Compare with PAL/SECAM. n-type semiconductor An extrinsic semiconductor in which the conduction electron concentration exceeds the mobile hole concentration. [IEEE] null Mathematics. Of or relating to a set having no members or to zero magnitude. Instrumentation. A reading of zero. [AHD]

Instrumentation. A reading of zero. [AHD] nullator Electronics. A two-terminal circuit element with a voltage-current (V-I) characteristic curve consisting of only the origin point on the V-I plane, i.e., it always has a value of 0-0. Used to model complex circuits for analysis. For example the input of an ideal op amp can be modeled with a nullator; it has zero input current and acts like a virtual short between its inputs, i.e., zero volts between the inputs, thus an input voltage-current characteristic of 0-0. Paired with a norator creates a nullor. null modem cable Special wiring of an RS-232 cable such that a computer can talk to another computer without a modem (thus "null" modem). As a minimum, a null modem cable reverses pins 2 and 3 on a standard RS-232 cable -- but other pins may also need changing and shorting together. nullor Electronics. A four-terminal circuit element consisting of a norator and a nullator; together they model an ideal op amp, i.e., one whose input voltage and current equal zero and whose output voltage and current can be any value. numerator Mathematics. The top part of a common fraction. numerological nonsense John Allen Paulos' wonderful page of rationality helping to fight off the increasing numbers of irrational parents/teachers/politicians/scientists/engineers/audiophiles/(your favorite here). nu metal Music. A very diverse category that is somewhat based on heavy metal genre. Not to be confused with mu-metal. Nusselt number See Grashof. nWb See: nanoweber. nyckelharpa Musical Instrument. A Swedish keyed stringed instrument. Nyquist diagram For feedback circuits, the plot, in rectangular coordinates, of the real and imaginary parts of the open loop transfer function. See: Nyquist diagram and contrast with Bode plot. Nyquist frequency The highest frequency that may be accurately sampled. The Nyquist frequency is one-half the sampling frequency. For example, the theoretical Nyquist frequency of a CD system is 22.05 kHz. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. Nyquist, Harry (1889-1976) Swedish born American physicist most famous in pro audio for his diagram and frequency developments.

dio for his diagram and frequency developments.

Pro Audio Reference O
1/4" TRS or 1/4" TS See connectors. 100Base-T or 1000Base-T See Ethernet. 1/f noise See flicker noise. OAG (old analog guy) As opposed to a YDG. object-oriented or object-based programming (Abbreviated OOP) A software technique in which a system program is expressed completely in terms of predefined things (objects), consisting of a set of variables and operations which can be performed on them, and the connections between objects. oblique mode Acoustics. Sound reflecting between all six sides of a rectanguloid. Compare with tangential mode and axial mode. OCA (Open Control Architecture) An alliance of pro audio manufacturers with the goal of creating an open public communications standard for control and monitoring of devices in professional media networks. ocarina Musical Instrument. A small terra-cotta or plastic wind instrument with finger holes, a mouthpiece, and an elongated ovoid shape. Named after Italian oca, goose, from the fact that its mouthpiece is shaped like a goose's beak. [AHD] Made famous when Bob Hope, Bing Crosby and Dorothy Lamour played ocarinas and sang the song, When the Sweet Potato Piper Plays in the movie Road to Singapore, in 1940. [Thanks GS!] And who can forget the ocarina solo in the soundtrack of The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly in 1967. See Ocarina History; also Viennese Vegetable Orchestra. Occam's razor A rule in science and philosophy stating that entities should not be multiplied needlessly. This rule is interpreted to mean that the simplest of two or more competing theories is preferable and that an explanation for unknown phenomena should first be attempted in terms of what is already known. Also called law of parsimony. [After William of Ockham.] [AHD] occlusion or occlusion effect Hearing. The phenomenon resulting from wearing solid earplugs, hearing aids or some personal monitors that makes the wearer's voice sound hollow and boomy to themselves, i.e., a voice-in-a-barrel effect. The earplugs

block the ear canal resulting in a sound similar to sticking a finger in each ear and talking. This closure effect also produces louder sounds to the wearer since the ear canal blockage allows additional sound pressure to build up (rather than escape out the open ear canal) and be conducted to the inner ear. This is easily demonstrated by pronouncing and sustaining the word "fee," then sticking your fingers in your ears and notice how much louder it sounds (oh go ahead, no one is looking). octal A number system using the base-8, i.e., each digit can be any of 8 values, represented by the digits 0-7. A three-bit binary number (since 23 = 8) can also represent each octal digit. octant Acoustical Geometry. One of the eight equal regions into which a set of three orthogonal planes divides three-dimensional space. An example of an octant is the region (x > 0, y > 0, z > 0), where x, y, z are rectangular coordinates. [Morfey] octaphonic or octophonic Multichannel Sound. Systems using eight discrete channels for recording and playback. octave 1. Audio. The interval between any two frequencies having a ratio of 2 to 1. 2. Music a. The interval of eight diatonic degrees between two tones, one of which has twice as many vibrations per second as the other. b. A tone that is eight full tones above or below another given tone. c. An organ stop that produces tones an octave above those usually produced by the keys played. [AHD] octet Music. a. The interval of eight diatonic degrees between two tones of the same name, the higher of which has twice as many vibrations per second as the lower. b. A tone that is eight diatonic degrees above or below another given tone. c. Two tones eight diatonic degrees apart that are sounded together. d. The consonance that results when two tones eight diatonic degrees apart are sounded. e. A series of tones included within this interval or the keys of an instrument that produce such a series. f. An organ stop that produces tones an octave above those usually produced by the keys played. g. The interval between any two frequencies having a ratio of 2 to 1. h. A music group consisting of eight members & instruments. [AHD] Computers. Eight bits, also called a byte. Octopus Recording. The name given by comedian W.C. Fields for Les Paul's original Ampex 8-track Sel-Sync™ recorder. octothorpe The "#" symbol on the telephone keypad, also known as a pound sign, crosshatch, number sign, sharp, hash, crunch, mesh, hex, flash, grid, pig-pen, gate, hak, oof, rake, fence, gate, grid, gridlet, square, and widget mark. Click the link to

read the history of this creative word. A terrific website for unusual and bazaar music-making creations OEO (one end open) Wiring. Abbreviation used as shorthand when discussion the practice of only grounding one end (the sending end) of a connecting cable. oersted Abbr. Oe The unit of magnetic field strength (intensity) in the centimetergram-second electromagnetic system, equal to the magnetic intensity one centimeter from a unit magnetic pole. [IEEE] Named after Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), Danish physicist. [AHD] oeuvre 1. A work of art. 2. The sum of the lifework of an artist, writer, or composer. [AHD] OFC (oxygen-free copper) Wire & Cables. Another of the popular audiophile myths that OFC power cables can improve sound. See Howard Johnson's wonderful essay titled: OFC madness: Facts, not fantasy, regarding power cables for high-end audio equipment. off-axis response Any direction other than the on-axis response, i.e., the response measured along the imaginary straight line drawn through the geometric center of an object. In pro audio most often used in measurements of loudspeakers, microphones and humans. offset The start or initial stage; the outset. [AHD] Within pro audio typical offset categories are level, time, phase, and wavelength. offset binary A digital coding scheme for bipolar signals that represents the most negative value with all zeros and the most positive value with all ones. Ogg Vorbis An open, royalty-free, pro audio encoding and streaming technology that competes with AAC, TwinVQ and other schemes. The name "Ogg" comes from a video game and "Vorbis" from a Terry Pratchett novel. OHCI (Open Host Controller Interface) Networks. Based on the IEEE-1394 specification, however, it goes beyond the basic specs. It allows for hard drives, CDR’s, scanners, audio and video devices, digital still cameras, mixers, and more to be controlled. ohm Abbr. R or Greek upper-case omega, Ω A unit of electrical resistance equal to that of a conductor in which a current of one ampere is produced by a potential of one

volt across its terminals. [After Georg Simon Ohm.] Ohm, Georg Simon (1789-1854) German physicist noted for his contributions to mathematics, acoustics, and the measurement of electrical resistance. [AHD] ohmage Archaic British term for loudspeaker resistance. No longer used; replaced by the term impedance. Ohm's Acoustic Law The law stating that a complex musical sound is heard as the sum of a number of distinct pure tones which can be resolved by Fourier analysis [OED]. [After Georg Simon Ohm.] Ohm's Electrical Law The law stating that the direct current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between its ends. It is usually formulated as V = IR, where V is the potential difference, or voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance of the conductor. [After Georg Simon Ohm.] [Note: Georg Ohm did NOT formulate the basic power equations; that was done by James Joule: see Joule's Law.] ohnosecond A very short moment in time during which you realize that you have pressed the wrong key and deleted hours, days, or weeks of work. [] OIART (Ontario Institute of Audio Recording Technology) This Canadian school offers a three-term, forty-six week immersion course designed to prepare graduates for a career in the professional audio recording and audio communications industry. oldest musical instrument A 35,000-year-old flute found in Germany is believed to be the first musical instrument. OLED (organic light emitting diode) A type of LED display made from organic polymers (think plastic that glows) that provides a wide viewing angle and uses low power. OLED displays do not require a backlight as do LCD screens. OLED screens can also be fabricated on plastic as well as glass substrates, making them more flexible and durable. See OLED for details. OL light See overload light. Olson, Harry Ferdinand, Ph.D. (1901-1982) American engineer who worked 40 years at RCA labs, recognized and honored as a pioneer and leading authority in acoustics and electronic sound recording. He was granted over 100 patents, along with many awards and medals for his contributions to the science of sound. He authored more than 130 technical papers and wrote several textbooks still considered the best of their genre.

their genre. omele Musical Instrument. The base of the bata drums consisting of 3 or 4 small drums tied together. omnidirectional microphone One with a response pattern that is as close to a perfect sphere as possible. Receives sound from all directions equally well. Compare with unidirectional mic and cardioid microphone. on-axis response See off-axis response. ondes Martenot Synthesizers. (oenz MAR-te-noe) - An early synthesizer from 1928. A monophonic theremin-sounding instrument using a stretched wire under a keyboard with timbre and loudness controls. It was the female voice effect in the original Star Trek TV theme. one-bit data converter Loose reference to any of the various data conversion schemes (e.g., delta-sigma, adaptive delta modulation, etc.) that use only one binary bit (i.e., levels 1 and 0) in the conversion and storage process. one-third octave 1. Term referring to frequencies spaced every one-third of an octave apart. One-third of an octave represents a frequency 1.26-times above a reference, or 0.794-times below the same reference. The math goes like this: 1/3-octave = 21/3 = 1.260; and the reciprocal, 1/1.260 = 0.794. Therefore, for example, a frequency 1/3octave above a 1 kHz reference equals 1.26 kHz (which is rounded-off to the ANSIISO preferred frequency of "1.25 kHz" for equalizers and analyzers), while a frequency 1/3-octave below 1 kHz equals 794 Hz (labeled "800 Hz"). Mathematically it is significant to note that, to a very close degree, 21/3 equals 101/10 (1.2599 vs. 1.2589). This bit of natural niceness allows the same frequency divisions to be used to divide and mark an octave into one-thirds and a decade into one-tenths. 2. Term used to express the bandwidth of equalizers and other filters that are 1/3-octave wide at their -3 dB (halfpower) points. 3. Approximates the smallest region (bandwidth) humans reliably detect change. See critical bands. Compare with third-octave. onomastics 1. a. The study of the origins and forms of proper names. b. The study of the origins and forms of terms used in specialized fields. 2. The system that underlies the formation and use of proper names or terms used in specialized fields. [AHD] onomatopoeia The formation or use of words such as buzz, hiss, splash, sizzle or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. [AHD] See zaa zaa.

oompah Music. A rhythmic sound made by a tuba or other brass instrument. [AHD] OOP See object-oriented. op amp (operational amplifier) An analog integrated circuit device characterized as having two opposite polarity inputs and one output, used as the basic building block in analog signal processing. See vacuum-tube op amps. open circuit Electronics. The condition where there is no connection between two nodes, resulting in zero current flow between the nodes. Electricity. Containing a gap across which electricity cannot pass: an open circuit.[AHD] opera 1. A theatrical presentation in which a dramatic performance is set to music. [AHD] 2. "I do not mind what language an opera is sung in so long as it is a language I don't understand". Edward Appleton, Observer August 28, 1955. [Crystal] 3. "An unalterable and unquestioned law of the musical world required that the German text of French operas sung by Swedish artists should be translated into Italian for the clearer understanding of the English-speaking audiences". Edith Wharton, 1920, The Age of Innocence. [Crystal] optical-fiber cable See fiber-optics. optical microphone Many designs exist but it seems like Sennheiser's new design (based on a licensing arrangement with the Israeli company Phone-Or (owner of US Patent 5,771,091) is the best yet. See: Sennheiser MO 2000. Here's how it works (paraphrased from the data sheet): light from an LED is directed onto a reflective diaphragm via an fiber optic cable. The diaphragm reflects part of the light into a receiver fiber optic cable. If the diaphragm is moved by sound signals, the reflected light bean is deflected, with the result that more or less light is coupled into the receiver fiber optic cable. At the end of the receiver fiber optic cable, a photodiode converts the light intensity variations into electric signals. The results are impressive: an omnidirectional polar pattern with 20 Hz to 40 kHz frequency response and a maximum 134 dB-SPL. Optigan (Optical organ) Musical Instrument. A portmanteau word naming a type of consumer electronic keyboard introduced in 1971 by a division of Mattel. optocoupler Any device that functions as an electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducer. Optophonic Piano Invented by Vladimir Baranoff Rossine, a very early color organ.

OR Computer Science & Logic. A Boolean logical operator that returns a true value if one or both operators are true; a form of addition. For example, two parallel connected switches, A and B, requires one or both be closed for current to pass, thus it requires switch A OR switch B closed to operate. orange One of the words in the English language without a rhyme -- some others are "month," "purple," and "silver." orange noise See noise color. ordinate Mathematics. The plane Cartesian coordinate representing the distance from a specified point to the x-axis, measured parallel to the y-axis. [AHD] organ Music. 1. An instrument consisting of a number of pipes that sound tones when supplied with air and a keyboard that operates a mechanism controlling the flow of air to the pipes. Also called pipe organ. 2. Any one of various other instruments, such as the electronic organ, that resemble a pipe organ either in mechanism or sound. [AHD] organic LED See OLED. organ of Corti Hearing. A specialized structure located on the inner surface of the basilar membrane of the cochlea containing hair cells that transmit sound vibrations to the nerve fibers. [AHD] oronyms Speech. Streams of sound than can be carved into words in two different ways, i.e., it illustrates the seamlessness of speech. For example oronyms are often found in songs and nursery rhymes such as the famous "Mairzey doats and dozey doats, And little lamsey divey, A kiddley-divey do, Wouldn't you?" From Pinker. orotund 1. Pompous and bombastic: orotund talk. 2. Full in sound; sonorous: orotund tones. [AHD] ORTF (Office de Radiodiffusion -- Television Francaise) An initialism formed from the name of the French national broadcasting system, who designed a stereo microphone recording technique known as the ORTF method. The technique uses two cardioid microphones with a spacing of 17 cm between the microphone diaphragms, and with an 110° angle between the capsules. This technique reproduces stereo cues similar to those used by the human ear to perceive directional information in the horizontal plane. The spacing of the microphones emulates the distance between the human ears, and the angle between the two directional microphones emulates the shad-

ow effect of the human head. The ORTF stereo technique provides the recording with a wider stereo image than X-Y stereo while still preserving good mono information. orthogonal 1. Relating to or composed of right angles. 2. Mathematics. a. Of or relating to a matrix whose transpose equals its inverse. b. Of or relating to a linear transformation that preserves the length of vectors. [AHD] oscillator Electronics & Synthesizers. A circuit that continuously alternates between two (or more) states [IEEE]; the period between alternations defines the frequency of oscillation. A common said complaint of electronic engineering students is that they build "amplifiers that oscillate and oscillators that amplify". oscilloscope Electronic Test Equipment. An instrument primarily for making visible the instantaneous value of one or more rapidly varying electrical quantities (typically voltage) as a function of time or another electrical or mechanical quantity. [IEEE] OSD (on-screen display) chip An integrated circuit providing all necessary functions for adding text to television or video monitor display screens. OSI (open system interconnection) The only internationally accepted framework of standards for communication between different systems made by different vendors. The model originally developed by ISO describing computer communication services and protocols without making assumptions concerning language, operating systems or application issues. The main goal is to create an open systems networking environment where any vendor's computer system, connected to any network, can freely share data with any other computer system on that network See The 7 Layers of the OSI Model. ossicles Hearing. The group of the three bones of the middle ear commonly known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup. ostinato Music. A short melody or pattern that is constantly repeated, usually in the same part at the same pitch. [AHD] OTL (output transformerless) Power Amplifiers. Historically vacuum tube power amplifiers had output transformers that isolated the high output impedance of the tubes and the low impedance of the loudspeaker load. Years later tube amplifiers evolved into cathode follower designs that no longer required output transformers, thus they became "output transformerless." OTPROM (one-time programmable read-only memory) A redundant term, incorrect-

ly used to mean PROM -- a PROM, by definition, is a one-time device. oud (aka ud) Musical Instrument. A musical instrument of northern Africa and southwest Asia resembling a lute. [AHD] outboard unit External, usually referring to a separate piece of signal processing gear located remote to a mixer that connects in the effects loop. out-of-phase In an un-synchronized or un-correlated way. See polarity and phase et al. output impedance Electronics. The output driving impedance of a device, usually low in the 50-300 ohm range. Output impedance is frequency dependent and varies as a function of circuit feedback, therefore the value given must state the frequency range it covers. ovcharska svirka Musical Instrument. Bulgarian shepherd's pipe. overdrive box See: effects boxes. overdub Recording. To add (supplementary recorded sound) to a previously taped musical recording especially in order to heighten the total effect. Additional recorded sound that is blended into a musical recording. [AHD] Usually done while listening to the previously recorded music on the same tape recorder or device. overload light or OL light An indicator found on pro audio signal processing units that lights once the signal level exceeds a preset point. There is no standard specifying when an OL light should illuminate, although common practice makes it 3-4 dB below actual clipping. Good signal processing design ensures that the OL light illuminates anytime the signal exceeds the set point, anywhere in the signal path, not just the input or output level. override Signal Processing. See: ducker. overs A term associated with A/D converters used to describe input signals exceeding the full scale range (0 dBFS). Overs indicators vary from simple single LEDs to elaborate calibrated digital meters. To be of genuine value the overs indicator, however displayed, must be based on reading the true digital code associated with the input level. It is important to distinguish between 0 dBFS and overs; they are not the same. 0 dBFS is the absolute highest voltage level that any particular A/D can convert. It produces the equivalent of a digital code consisting of all 1s. No digital level can exceed 0 dBFS. A 0 dBFS voltage level and all levels greater than this produce

level can exceed 0 dBFS. A 0 dBFS voltage level and all levels greater than this produce the same output code of all 1s. A true overs indicator actually counts the number of times that the 0 dBFS level was exceeded and displays this number. As yet there is no standard as to how many samples exceeding 0 dBFS constitutes an over. Everyone agrees that very brief excursions beyond 0 dBFS (producing digital clipping) cannot be heard; however no such agreement exists as to just how many samples it takes before an over is audible. oversampling 1. Sampling at a rate higher than the sampling Nyquist theorem. 2. A technique where each sample from the data converter is sampled more than once, i.e., oversampled. This multiplication of samples permits digital filtering of the signal, thus reducing the need for sharp analog filters to control aliasing. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. overtone Any frequency higher than the fundamental frequency of a sound. See: harmonic. OXCO (oven-controlled crystal oscillator) Electronics. Very stable form of crystal oscillator. oxide, magnetic Recording. Magnetically responsive material forming the basis of magnetic recording. It comes in a variety of types with different recording properties, especially suited to the needs of audio tape or videotape recording at a variety of densities of recording. [Holman] Oz From Frank Baum's "The Wizard of Oz," the name was created when he looked at his filing cabinet and saw "A-N," and "O-Z," hence "Oz."

Pro Audio Reference P
P2C2E (process too complex to explain) [Thanks, Lou!] P2P See peer-to-peer. p The symbol for pico-. p's and q's From old British saying: pints and quarts [... and you know pints and quarts of what.] 1. Socially correct behavior; manners. 2. The way one acts; conduct: was told to watch his p's and q's or he would be fired. [AHD] PA (public address) See Bruce Borgerson's: "Is it P.A. or SR?". PA-232 An RS-232-based variant of the PA-422 AES standard. PA-422 A pro audio implementation of Electronics Industries Association EIA-422 interconnection standard, defined and adopted by the Audio Engineering Society as AES Recommended practice for sound-reinforcement systems - Communications interface (PA-422) AES 15-1991 (ANSI S4.49-1991). PAC (Perceptual Audio Coder) Proprietary bit reduction scheme originally developed by Elemedia, a subsidiary of Bell Labs. packet Ethernet. An Ethernet packet consists of two kinds of data: control information and user data (also known as payload). [Wikipedia; hit the link.] pad See attenuator pad. PAL® (programmable array logic) Original registered trademark of Monolithic Memories Inc. (now owned by Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.) for their fuse-link once-programmable logic parts that have a programmable AND array, but a predefined OR array. See also PLA, PLD & FPGA. PAL/SECAM (phase alternated line/sequential couleur avec memoire or sequential color with memory) The European and Australian standard for color formatting for television transmission developed in the 1960s and used most everywhere in the world except the U.S.A. and Japan, which use NTSC. PALM Expo (Pro Audio Lighting Music) China's Largest International Exhibition on

Pro Audio, Light, Music & Technology. PALME Conferences (Professional Audio, Light, Music and Entertainment) International exhibitions held in Middle East, Asia and Vietnam. PAMA (Professional Audio Manufacturers Alliance) The voice of the professional audio manufacturing community, managed by InfoComm. pan (panoramic) control A control found on mixers, used to "move," or pan the apparent position of a single sound channel between two outputs, usually "left," and "right," for stereo outputs. At one extreme of travel the sound source is heard from only one output; at the other extreme it is heard from the other output. In the middle, the sound is heard equally from each output, but is reduced in level by 3 dB relative to its original value (this is theoretical, the real world is not quite that simple -- see Pan Law). This guarantees that as the sound is panned from one side to the other, it maintains equal loudness (power) for all positions. Contrast with balance and crossfade controls. pandemonium Loud, confused, or disagreeable sound implying disorderly tumult together with loud, bewildering sound. [AHD] pangram A sentence that uses all the letters of the alphabet. [AHD] The most famous example comes from typing class: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. pan law Real world acoustics complicates things immensely when panning a signal. Hit the link to learn why. panoply A splendid or striking array: a panoply of colorful flags. [AHD] Used in pro audio to describe loudspeaker line arrays. Panatrope Phonographs. Designed by RCA and sold by Brunswick in 1925, this was their name for the first phonograph player to use electricity to reproduce the sound stored on the record. Hit the link to see a photo. Go to to see (and buy) their original magazine advertisement. PANS Acronym for personal area network system. Interconnection of IT (information technology) devices within the range of an individual person. Compare with POTS. PAQRAT® A registered trademark of Rane Corporation for their recording converter devices, RC 24T & RC 24A, that converted AES/EBU stereo 18-24 bit digital audio two track data into 16-bit compatible four tracks for recording and playback on 1st-

generation 16-bit modular digital multitrack tape machines such as Alesis ADAT and Tascam DTRS (DA-88) models. parabolic reflector Acoustics. Shape and mathematics behind antennas and special purpose microphones and sound mirrors. paragraphic See parametric equalizer. parallel circuit Electronic Circuits. Two-terminal elements are connected in parallel when they are connected between the same pair of nodes. For example a parallel battery connection is made by connecting all positive terminals together and all negative terminals together, the voltage of the group being only that of one cell and the current drain through the battery being divided among the several cells. [IEEE] parallel interface The printer port in the PC world. A parallel port conforming to the quasi-standard called the Centronics Parallel Standard (there is no EIA standard). Originally a 36-pin connector, now more often a D-25 type connector. A parallel (as opposed to serial) interface transfers all bits in a word simultaneously. See also serial interface. parametric audio coding Audio Compression. An audio coding technology originally developed for speech. Basis of MPEG-4 standard. parametric equalizer First designed and named by George Massenburg in 1969, a multi-band variable equalizer offering control of all the "parameters" of the internal bandpass filter sections. These parameters being amplitude, center frequency and bandwidth. This allows the user not only to control the amplitude of each band, but also to shift the center frequency and to widen or narrow the affected area. Available with rotary and slide controls. Subcategories of parametric equalizers exist which allow control of center frequency but not bandwidth. For rotary control units the most used term is quasi-parametric. For units with slide controls the popular term is paragraphic. The frequency control may be continuously variable or switch selectable in steps. Cut-only parametric equalizers (with adjustable bandwidth or not) are called notch equalizers, or band-reject equalizers. See the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers. parity A redundant error detection method in which the total number of binary 1's (or 0's) is always made even or odd by appending one or more bits. Parkinson's Law "Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion." Prof. Cyril Northcote Parkinson (1909-1993)

partial or partial tone See harmonic. pascal Abbr. Pa. The International System unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter. [After Blaise Pascal.] Pascal, Blaise (1623-1662) French philosopher and mathematician. Among his achievements are the invention of an adding machine and the development of the modern theory of probability. Famous quote: "I have made this letter longer than usual because I lack the time to make it short." - Blaise Pascal, in "Provincial Letters." passband The range of frequencies passed by an audio low-pass, high-pass or bandpass filter. Normally measured at the -3 dB point: the frequency point where the amplitude response is attenuated 3 dB (decibels) relative to the level of the main passband. For a bandpass filter two points are referenced: the upper and lower -3 dB points. The -3 dB point represents the frequency where the output power has been reduced by one-half. [Technical details: -3 dB represents a multiplier of 0.707. If the voltage is reduced by 0.707, the current is also reduced by 0.707 (ohms law), and since power equals voltage-times-current, 0.707 times 0.707 equals 0.5, or half-power.] The opposite of stopband. passive component Electronics. A component that does not require power to operate, e.g., a resistor. Contrast with active. passive crossover A loudspeaker crossover not requiring a power supply for operation. Normally built into the loudspeaker cabinet. Passive crossovers do not require separate power amplifiers for each driver. See active crossover. See the RaneNote Signal Processing Fundamentals. passive equalizer A variable equalizer requiring no power supply to operate. Consisting only of passive components (inductors, capacitors and resistors) passive equalizers have no AC line cord. Favored for their low noise performance (no active components to generate noise), high dynamic range (no active power supplies to limit voltage swing), extremely good reliability (passive components rarely break), and lack of RFI interference (no semiconductors to detect radio frequencies). Disliked for their cost (inductors are expensive), size (and bulky), weight (and heavy), hum susceptibility (and need careful shielding), and signal loss characteristic (passive equalizers always reduce the signal). Also inductors saturate easily with large low frequency signals, causing distortion. Rarely seen today, but historically they were used primarily for notching in permanent sound systems. See the RaneNote Operator Adjustable Equalizers.

PASTI (public address speech transmission index) Chiefly British term for STIpa. patchbay or patch panel A flat panel, or enclosure, usually rack-mounted, that contains at least two rows of 1/4" TRS connectors used to "patch in" or insert into the signal path a piece of external equipment (really dense configurations use 4.4 mm miniature or "bantam" jacks). The two rows consists of "send" (top row) and "receive" (bottom row) jacks wired for true balanced interconnection, i.e., tip = positive signal, ring = negative signal, sleeve = shield ground (unbalanced patchbays exist - but should not so no further discussion). The two rows are tied together by shorting contacts such that the normal operation (hence, "normalling" jacks) is to short the send and receive tipto-tip & ring-to-ring (the sleeves are always connected) maintaining the signal path until something is plugged in (or jacked-in as cyberpunks love to say). Popular in recording studios where it is common to change the units in the signal path for each new session or client. Another popular wiring convention is called "half-normalled" where only one of the insert points (top: send, or bottom: receive) breaks the signal path (in normalling, or full normalling as it is sometimes called, inserting into either top or bottom row breaks the signal path). This configuration allows monitoring of the sent signal or received signal depending on which row is half-normalled. Hit the link to see diagrams. patents See USPTO. Paterson, A.B. ("Banjo") (1864-1941) Australian bush poet most famous for writing the song, "Waltzing Matilda," which became Australia's unofficial national anthem. Hit the link for the fascinating story. Paul, Les (1915-2009) [Birth name: Lester William Polsfuss] American musician legend who was also a gifted songwriter and inventor. His pioneering work on the solid-body electric guitar and multitrack recordings changed the pro audio industry forever. payload See: packet. PBX (private branch exchange) Term referring to hardware allowing several telephones to be connected to a smaller number of lines. PC (personal computer) Original term coined by IBM to describe their first personal computers; now used to mean all IBM-compatible personal computers, or any personal computer. PCB (printed circuit board) Electronics. An electric circuit in which the conducting

connections have been printed or otherwise deposited in predetermined patterns on an insulating base. [AHD] PC-Card See PCMCIA. PC-DOS® (personal computer disk operating system) IBM's trademarked acronym for their PC operating system. If PC-DOS runs on an IBM compatible, it is then called MS-DOS. PCI (peripheral component interconnect) Intel-designed high performance CPU interconnect strategy for "glueless" I/O subsystems. A 32- or 64-bit local-bus specification, characterized by being self-configuring, open, high-bandwidth and processor-independent -- allowing for modular hardware design. PCM (pulse code modulation) A conversion method in which digital words in a bit stream represent samples of analog information. The basis of most digital audio systems, first invented by Alec H. Reeves in 1937. Also see RaneNote: Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) 1. The association and first name given to the standardized credit-card size packages (aka smart cards) for memory and I/O (modems, LAN cards, etc.) for computers, laptops, palmtops, etc. Nicknamed PC-Card, which is now the preferred term. 2. Popularly believed to stand for People Can't Memorize Computer Interface Acronyms. PDA (personal digital assistant) A small palmtop-like computer designed for specific tasks such as a pocket calculator. Other examples include personal electronic diaries, memo takers, communicators, web browsers, dictionary-translators, etc. Apple's Newton is a PDA. IBM named theirs personal communicators. pdf (probability density function) See probability density function. PDF files (portable document format) Suffix letters used (.pdf) to indicate an Adobe Acrobat document. peak hold Metering. An extra function found on some LED, LCD or plasma ladder arrays where the peak value is displayed by a single element displayed above the average program material. Commonly has a slow decay rate where it is usual to see just the peak value element lit with no others once the program material ends. peaking response Term used to describe a bandpass shape when applied to program

equalization. peak program meter See PPM. peak PSD (power spectral density) Physics. PSD measured in a time interval less than one second. Term used to specify UWB radios. PEAQ (perceptual evaluation of audio quality) Term for the ITU-R recommendations for the objective measurement of perceived audio quality for perceptually coded digital audio signals. Popularly called the new "electronic ear" to provide yardstick values for digitally coded audio quality, there are a series of recommendations covering various aspects of this method (e.g., ITU-R Rec. BS.1387, ITU-R Rec. BS.1116 and ITU-R Rec. BS.562-3). For details of this complex issue see the definitive overview paper by Thiede, et al., "PEAQ -- The ITU Standard for Objective Measurement of Perceived Audio Quality," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 48 [Audio Engineering Society, January/February 2000]. See also CRC's (Communication Research Centre) excellent summary with the same title. Pearson, Donald ("Dr. Don") Michael (1942-2006) American live sound engineer who pioneered high-fidelity large-scale sound reinforcement systems. His systems powered many famous groups including Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna, Jefferson Starship, Grateful Dead, Andrea Bocelli and the Dave Matthews Band. Pease, Bob (1940-2011) Famous American engineer known for his innovative analog IC designs, popular for his "Pease Porridge" column in Electronic Design magazine, and writing about hiking and biking in exotic places like Tibet. PEC (parallel earth conductor) Modern best practices for EMC in installations (per IEC 61000-5-2:1998) require the use of trays, conduits and heavy-gauge earth conductors, known as "parallel earth conductors" (PEC) to divert power currents away from cables and their shields. See Williams' EMC for Systems and Installations for full details. PEC (protective earth conductor) Conductor to be connected between the protective earth terminal and an external protective earthing system. peer-to-peer abbreviated P2P A network term popularly used to mean an equal access network where every node can send/receive data at any time without waiting for permission, i.e., each node can act as a client or server. An example would be a group of computers that communicate directly with each other, rather than through a central server.

pennywhistle See: tin whistle. pentode Electronics. A vacuum tube consisting of five elements: cathode, control grid, screen grid, suppressor grid and plate. Percentage Articulation Loss of Consonants (%ALCONS) A term first published in the paper by V. M. A. Peutz. "Articulation Loss of Consonants as a Criteria for Speech Transmission in a Room," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 19, Dec 1971. It is a measure of room speech intelligibility based on the measured RT60 time and dimensions of the room, combined and expressed as a percent, where 0% (no loss of consonants) is perfect, 10% is poor, and 15% is intolerable. Popularized by Syn-Aud-Con's Pat Brown who teaches how to use it to direct loudspeaker line arrays. See Peter Mapp's excellent AES preprint 5668 presented at the 113th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Los Angeles, October 2002. Contrast with STI and RASTI. perceptual coding A lossy digital audio data compression technique based on the human hearing mechanisms of masking and critical bands. AC-3 and AAC are examples of digital audio data compression schemes based on perceptual coding. perfect pitch See: absolute pitch. Perfect-QTM graphic equalizer Rane Corporation's trademark term for their patented true response graphic equalizer technology. See the RaneNote Perfect-Q, the Next Step in Graphic Equalizers. period Abbr. T, t 1. The period of a periodic function is the smallest time interval over which the function repeats itself. (For example, the period of a sine wave is the amount of time, T, it takes for the waveform to pass through 360 degrees. Also, it is the reciprocal of the frequency itself: i.e., T = 1/f.) 2. Mathematics. a. The least interval in the range of the independent variable of a periodic function of a real variable in which all possible values of the dependent variable are assumed. b. A group of digits separated by commas in a written number. c. The number of digits that repeat in a repeating decimal. For example, 1/7 = 0.142857142857... has a six-digit period. [AHD] periodic motion Motion that repeats itself at regular or predictable intervals. peripheral Equipment physically independent of, but which may interface to a computer or a controller. Perkins EQTM Trademark of Mackie for their mixing board EQ designed by the legendary Cal Perkins of Marantz, JBL & Fender fame.

permeability Magnetics. A general term used to express various relationships between magnetic induction and magnetizing force. [IEEE] permeance Magnetics. A measure of the ability of a magnetic circuit to conduct magnetic flux; the reciprocal of reluctance. [AHD] permittivity Abbr. ! A measure of the ability of a material to resist the formation of an electric field within it. Also called dielectric constant, relative permittivity. [AHD] personal monitors Headphones. A special earpiece or earplug containing high quality miniature loudspeaker systems, similar to hearing aids, used for on-stage and recording studio purposes in lieu of traditional floor foldback monitors. PET (protective earth terminal) Terminal connected to conductive parts of Class I equipment for safety purposes. This terminal is intended to be connected to an external earthing system by a PEC (protective earth conductor). peta- Prefix for one quadrillion (1015), abbreviated P. petabyte A unit of information or computer storage equal to one quadrillion bytes, or 1024 terabytes. It is commonly abbreviated PB, when used with byte multiples (however should be peti-), the prefix may indicate a power of either 10005 or 10245, so the exact number may be either: 1015or 250. peti- Symbol Pi New term standardized by the IEC (IEC 60027-2) to represent binary multiples of 10245. It differentiates between decimal and binary multipliers. The abbreviation, PB, should not be used for binary numbers. PFC (power-factor-corrected) See power-factor-corrected. PFL (pre-fade listen) A term used on recording consoles and mixers, referring to a signal taken before the main channel fader. The significance is this signal is not affected by the fader position. Normally used to monitor (via headphones) to an individual input (or a small group of inputs) without affecting the main outputs, particularly useful in that it allows listening to an input with its fader all the way down (off). In broadcast this function is often called cueing, while recording or live-sound users may also refer to it as soloing. Compare with AFL and APL. phantom power Invented by Georg Neumann in 1966, the term given to the standardized scheme of providing power supply voltage to certain microphones using

the same two lines as the balanced audio path. The international standard is IEC 60268-15, derived from the original German standard DIN 45 596. It specifies three DC voltage levels of 48 volts, 24 volts and 12 volts, delivered through 6.8k ohms, 1.2k ohms, and 680 ohms matched resistors respectively, capable of delivering 10-15 mA. The design calls for both signal conductors to have the same DC potential. This allows the use of microphone connections either for microphones without built-in preamps, such as dynamic types, or for microphones with built-in preamps such as condenser and electret types. Why 48 volts is an interesting question. The answer is three-fold: 1) 48 volts is an exact multiple of the 1.5 volt battery cell; 2) 48 volts has been the telephone communication standard since before 1900; and 3) both of these combine to give the background to the explanation direct from Jürgen Breitlow and Stephen Peus at Neumann: "In 1966, a Neumann engineer presented the latest developments in the field of studio microphones at Norwegian Radio and Television in Oslo. The first transistorized condenser microphones were shown at that time, together with the well-known tube microphones. For compatibility reasons, Norwegian Radio wanted the transistor microphones to be supplied with a phantom powering system. Due to the limited amount of daylight available there in winter, an auxiliary lighting system was installed in the studios — fed from a central 48 V supply. This voltage would also be used for phantom powering the microphones. So the 48 volt phantom powering system, which was later standardized in DIN 45 596, came into existence."

Phantom Power Mini-tutorial: Much confusion surrounds phantom power. This is an area where you need to make informed decisions: Is it provided? Do you need it? Is it the correct voltage, and does it source enough current for your microphone? There is a huge myth circulating that microphones sound better running from 48 volts, as opposed to, say, 12 volts, or that you can increase the dynamic range of a microphone by using higher phantom power. For the overwhelming majority of microphones both of these beliefs are false. Most condenser microphones require phantom power in the

range of 12-48 VDC, with many extending the range to 9-52 VDC, leaving only a very few that actually require just 48 VDC. The reason is that internally most designs use some form of current source to drive a low voltage zener (usually 5 volts; sometimes higher) which determines the polarization voltage and powers the electronics. The significance is that neither runs off the raw phantom power, they both are powered from a fixed and regulated low voltage source inside the mic. Increasing the phantom power voltage is never seen by the microphone element or electronics, it only increases the voltage across the current source. But there are exceptions, so check the manufacturer, and don't make assumptions based on hearsay. From the RaneNote Selecting Mic Preamps. phase Audio signals are complex AC (alternating current) periodic phenomena expressed mathematically as phasors, or vectors. Phase refers to a particular value of t (time) for any periodic function, i.e. it is the relationship between a reference point and the fractional part of the period through which the signal has advanced relative to an arbitrary origin. [The origin is usually taken at the last previous passage through zero from the negative to the positive direction -- IEEE.] See Georgia State University's great website HyperPhysics for more detail. phase cancellation When two signals have the same exact time relationship to each other, they are said to be "in-phase;" if they do not, they are said to be "out-of-phase." (Compare with polarity) If two out-of-phase signals add together, since this is vector arithmetic (see phasor), they will, in fact, subtract from one another. This is called phase cancellation. Another type of phase cancellation occurs when water waves interact. One wave's energy becomes stronger when two waves collide in-phase (summing) and becomes weaker when they collide out-of-phase (cancelling). phase delay A phase-shifted sine wave appears displaced in time from the input waveform. This displacement is called phase delay and is usually constant for all frequencies of interest. Used as another name for group delay; however there are instances where they are not the same, for example systems exhibiting ripple in their phase vs. frequency characteristics. phase lag and phase lead Phase shift caused by reactive elements (capacitors and inductors) that either subtracts (lag) or adds (lead) degrees of shift. See the RaneNote Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer. phase linear 1. Chiefly a European phrase meaning "linear phase." Any system which accurately preserves phase relationships between frequencies, i.e., that exhibits pure

delay. See group delay. 2. Consumer hi-fi company where the Rane owners worked before starting Rane Corporation. phase lock loop Abbr. PLL A circuit for synchronizing a variable local oscillator with the phase of a transmitted signal. The circuit acts as a phase detector by comparing the frequency of a known oscillator with an incoming signal and then feeds back the output of the detector to keep the oscillator in phase with the incoming frequency. Commonly used for bit-synchronization. phase plug Loudspeakers. A device and technique that extends high frequency response by preventing cancellation of high frequency waves. Many designs exist. See Cliff Henricksen's AES paper: "Phase Plug Modelling and Analysis: Circumferential Versus Radial Types" phaser Also called a "phase shifter," this is an electronic device creating an effect similar to flanging, but not as pronounced. Based on phase shift (frequency dependent), rather than true signal delay (frequency independent), the phaser is much easier and cheaper to construct. Using a relatively simple narrow notch filter (all-pass filters also were used) and sweeping it up and down through some frequency range, then summing this output with the original input, creates the desired effect. Narrow notch filters are characterized by having sudden and extreme phase shifts just before and just after the deep notch. This generates the needed phase shifts for the ever-changing magnitude cancellations. phase shift The fraction of a complete cycle elapsed as measured from a specified reference point and expressed as an angle. See the RaneNote Exposing Equalizer Mythology. Also see discussion of phase shift vs. inversion at polarity. phasor 1. A complex number expressing the magnitude and phase of a time-varying quantity. It is math shorthand for complex numbers. Unless otherwise specified, it is used only within the context of steady-state alternating linear systems. [Example: 1.5 /27° is a phasor representing a vector with a magnitude of 1.5 and a phase angle of 27 degrees.] 2. For some unknown reason, used a lot by Star Fleet personnel. phat, phatter, phattest Slang Excellent; first-rate: phat fashion; a phat rapper. [Earlier, sexy (said of a woman), of unknown origin.] [AHD] phi Symbol ! Mathematics. The symbol for the "Golden Rectangle" or "Golden Ratio." It is a never-ending, never-repeating number found by calculating this formula: See Livio for all the fascinating details of this most intrigu-

ing number. phlogiston A hypothetical substance formerly thought to be a volatile constituent of all combustible substances released as flame in combustion. [AHD] See smoke. Phoenix-blocks (or -connectors or -strips) A term, becoming generic, meaning disconnectable, or plugable terminal blocks, after Phoenix Contact connector company, although dozens of companies make them. Also called Euroblocks. See connectors. phon A unit of apparent loudness, equal in number to the intensity in decibels of a 1,000 Hz tone judged to be as loud as the sound being measured. phonautogram or phonautograph An apparatus for automatically recording sound vibrations in the form of a tracing on a revolving cylinder. [OED] phone jack Same as 1/4" TRS, see connectors. phoneme The smallest phonetic unit in a language that is capable of conveying a distinction in meaning, as the m of mat and the b of bat in English. [AHD] Phonemes consist of the vowels and consonants that make up English words. phonetic Representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols, each designating a single sound: phonetic spelling. [AHD] phonetics The branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of speech and their production, combination, description, and representation by written symbols. [AHD] phonograph 1. Literally means "writing sound", a term coined from Greek roots. 2. A machine that reproduces sound by means of a stylus in contact with a grooved rotating disk. [AHD] 3. "An irritating toy that restores life to dead noises." -- Ambrose Bierce. phonograph cartridge See pickup. phonography Music. Literally "sound-writing," this term refers to field audio recordings used in music compositions. Speech. 1. The science or practice of transcribing speech by means of symbols representing elements of sound; phonetic transcription. 2. A system of shorthand based on phonetic transcription. [AHD]

phono jack Same as RCA, see connectors. phonology 1. The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation. 2. The sound system of a language: the phonology of English. [AHD] PHY Abbreviation for physical and pertaining to the physical layer of the OSI Model. physics Some claim that studying physics is all you need for a complete education -- after a visit to HyperPhysics you may agree. pi Symbol π (Greek lower-case pi) 1. Mathematics. A transcendental number, approximately 3.14159, represented by the Greek lower-case pi symbol, that expresses the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle and appears as a constant in many mathematical expressions. [AHD] 2. Filters. Equal to 180 degrees or integral multiples thereof. (Why chose pi as the letter to represent the number 3.141592...? Because the letter pi in Greek is like our letter p, as in perimeter (or circumference).) See: Beckmann for indepth history. PI 14 See Pseudoacoustic Infector. piano A musical instrument with a manual keyboard actuating hammers that strike wire strings, producing sounds that may be softened or sustained by means of pedals. [AHD] Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the first hammer-operated piano in 1700. pianoforte Original Italian-derived name for the musical instrument now shortened to "piano." picket fencing See multipath. pickup Transducers. A device that "picks up" sound and converts it into an electrical signal. Many technologies exist, from the most popular electromagnetic models (magnetic pickups) found on electric guitars to piezoelectric models seen on acoustic instruments and used in early phonograph cartridges (soon replaced with electromagnetic models using either moving magnet or moving coil technologies). Music.See upbeat. pickup patterns See: microphone polar patterns. pico- Prefix for one trillionth (10-12), abbreviated p.

PICO (Program In, Chip Out) Hewlett-Packard technology that use computers to design computers. picofarad Abbr. pF One trillionth (10-12) of a farad. piezo Transducers. Greek, to press tight, squeeze. Shortened form for piezoelectric, the name given to a class of materials (dielectric crystals) that produce electricity or become polarized when mechanically strained or stressed. In pro audio used to create pickups, microphones and loudspeakers or buzzers, and in digital circuits quartz crystals for stable timing references. PIGNOSE® The registered trademark of the industry's first truly portable guitar amplifier, which debuted at the Chicago Summer NAMM show in 1973. The origin of the name remains a mystery, although it was patented by Wayne Kimbell and Richard Edlund (U.S. Patent 3,860,755 Novel Portable Amplifier and Speaker ),but the name, Pignose, was not mentioned. pin-1 problem Phrase created by Neil A. Muncy (Canadian electroacoustic system consultant; also see PSW Live Chat With Neil Muncy) to describe the improper connection of the "pin-1" terminal of XLR connectors found on analog pro audio equipment. The correct way to terminate pin-1 of XLR connectors is to bond it to the chassis immediately at the entry and exit points. It should not be connected to circuit signal ground. Equipment with pin-1 left open, or connected to circuit signal ground is said to suffer from a "pin-1 problem." See Steve Macatee's Considerations in Grounding and Shielding, the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection, Philip Giddings' "A New and Important Audio Equipment Evaluation Criteria," and Tony Waldron and Keith Armstrong, "Bonding Cable Shields at Both Ends to Reduce Noise," EMC Compliance Journal, May 2002. pinging Networks. A technique for determining whether a specific IP address is accessible. It works by sending a packet to the specified address and waiting for a reply (much like sonar does, hence the name). pin jack Same as RCA, see connectors. Pink Floyd British rock group founded in 1965 by Roger Keith ("Syd") Barrett (19462006), Nick Mason, Roger Waters and Richard Wright. The name came from two American bluesmen, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. pink noise Pink noise is a random noise source characterized by a flat amplitude response per octave band of frequency (or any constant percentage bandwidth), i.e., it

sponse per octave band of frequency (or any constant percentage bandwidth), i.e., it has equal energy, or constant power, per octave. Passing white noise through a filter having a 3 dB/octave roll-off rate creates pink noise. See white noise discussion for details. Due to this roll-off, pink noise sounds less bright and richer in low frequencies than white noise. Since pink noise has the same energy in each 1/3-octave band, it is the preferred sound source for many acoustical measurements due to the critical band concept of human hearing. The name comes from the filtering of white noise. White noise is analogous to white light in that it contains all audible frequencies distributed uniformly throughout the spectrum. Passing white light through a prism (a form of filter) breaks it down into a range of colors. Examination shows that red light is characterized by the longer wavelengths of light, i.e., light in the lower frequency region. Similarly, pink noise has higher energy in the low frequencies, hence the somewhat tongue-in-cheek term pink. See noise color. pinna Hearing. The outer portion of the ear; acts like an audio filter or equalizer and separates sounds coming from the front and rear. Also called auricle. pipa Musical Instrument. Chinese 4-string lute with 31 frets and a pear-shaped body. pipe Saxophone. [Decharne] pipe organ See: organ. pistonphone Microphones. A calibration device consisting of a chamber and moving diaphragm (piston) that creates a precise pressure at a specific frequency. The frequency is typically 250 Hz with a standard pressure of 120-125 dB SPL. One popular model is the Brüel & Kjær Type 4228. pitch Frequency or tone of a sound. pitch ribbon See ribbon controller. pitch-shifting or pitch-transposing Recording. An effect that changes the pitch (frequency or tone) of musical notes without changing their length, or timing. For example, fast-forwarding an audio cassette results in a higher pitched version of the music at an increased pace. Pitch-shifting does the same thing without changing the music speed. One way to accomplish this is to use continuous wavelet transform, where the musical signal is decomposed into separate wavelets and processed. First, the pitch is modified by a constant related to the required pitch change, then the time scale is adjusted appropriately. pivot and jewel Electrical meter mechanism. Consisting of a hardened pivot between

two polished bearing surfaces. Favored for rugged and shock resistant applications such as industrial and marine. pixel (picture element) The smallest element on a display surface, like a video screen, that can be assigned independent characteristics. PLA (programmable logic array) A programmable logic device in which both the AND & OR arrays are programmable. placement equalization or placement EQ Term coined by Tomlinson Holman (of THX fame) to mean moving around the loudspeaker and listener until the room response (at the listener) is smoothest. planar 1. Of, relating to, or situated in a plane. 2. Flat: a planar surface. 3. Having a two-dimensional characteristic. [AHD] PLASA The lead body for those working in the live events, entertainment and communication industries worldwide; now merged with ESTA. PLD (programmable logic device) The generic name for an integrated circuit offering a vast array of logic function building blocks that the circuit designer defines (programs) to interconnect for specific applications. plenum 1. A ductwork system in which air is at a pressure greater than that of the outside atmosphere. 2. Such a system located in the space above a suspended ceiling, used to circulate air back to a building's HVAC. plenum cable The type of cable used when smoke retardant properties are required. Plenum cable is specifically designed for use in a plenum area (see above) which is typically used as the distribution system in buildings. Most cities requiring all cable ran through a plenum ceiling to be plenum cable which has insulated conductors jacketed with PVDF (polyvinylidene difloride) -- a material providing low flame spread and low smoke producing properties. Underwriters Laboratories approved plenum cables for non-conduit applications located in environmental air spaces. This low cost alternative has replaced traditional conduit use in many commercial installations. PLL See phase lock loop. plosive Linguistics. Of, relating to, or being a speech sound produced by complete closure of the oral passage and subsequent release accompanied by a burst of air, as in the sound (p) in pit or (d) in dog. A plosive speech sound. [From explosive.] [AHD]

plug See jacks and plugs. plugging Motors. Act of reversing the motor connections to develop a strong counter torque to decelerate. plugin or plug-in Software. An accessory program that extends the capabilities of an existing application. Also called add-in or add-on. [AHD] First developed in the mid '70s; back in the days of the Univac mainframe computer. plumbing Trumpet. [Decharne] Plunkett, Donald J. (1924-2005) American recording engineer who was a founding member of the AES and its Executive Director for 20 years. PM See personal monitors. PMPO (peak music power output or peak momentary performance output) An arbitrary made-up specification (marketing gimmick) that supposedly measures the total maximum power output from an amplifier at a given THD+N level during a brief transient. Also used to express dubious loudspeaker power ratings. Typically there is a 12-to-1 difference between PMPO and real apparent power (67:1 is the record). PMPO (purely mythical power output) Tongue-in-cheek alternate satirical definition to the real one above. [Source unknown but thanks to IH in the UK for the tip!] PnP (plug 'n play) 1. Computers. The technology that lets certain operation systems (Windows 95, others) automatically detect and configure most of the adapters and peripherals connected to or sitting inside a PC. 2. Any system with automatic detection and configuration of auxiliary devices. Pockriss, Lee (1924-2011) American composer who biggest hit was a collaboration with lyricist Paul Vance that produced the huge 1960 hit "Itsy Bitsy, Teenie Weenie, Yellow Polka-Dot Bikini." PoE (Power over Ethernet) The name for the technology defined by IEEE 802.3afthat allows Ethernet appliances to receive power as well as data over existing LAN CAT 5 cabling. polarity A signal's electromechanical potential with respect to a reference potential. For example, if a loudspeaker cone moves forward when a positive voltage is applied between its red and black terminals, then it is said to have a positive polarity. A microphone has positive polarity if a positive pressure on its diaphragm results in a positive

phone has positive polarity if a positive pressure on its diaphragm results in a positive output voltage. [Usage Note: polarity vs. phase shift: polarity refers to a signal's reference NOT to its phase shift. Being 180° out-of-phase and having inverse polarity are DIFFERENT things. We wrongly say something is out-of-phase when we mean it is inverted. One takes time; the other does not.] polar response See: microphone polar response. poles Mathematics. The roots of the denominator of a circuit transfer function, i.e., the values that make the denominator equal zero. Compare with zeros. polyphonic Music. Two or more independent melodic parts sounded together. [AHD] Pooh "I am a bear of very little brain, and long words bother me." A.A. Milne, Winniethe-Pooh, Ch. 4. [Crystal] popcorn noise Solid-state physics. Noise primarily found in integrated circuit audio amplifiers that exhibit a sizzling, frying hot-grease kind of sound, similar to popcorn popping. Found to be due to manufacturing defects in the form of metallic impurities in the junctions, often caused by dirty fabrication lines. The frequency spectrum typically conforms to 1/frequency-squared. See red/brown noise under noise color. pop filter or popshield Microphones. A filter, usually made of acoustic foam material, put over a microphone to reduce wind noises and "pop" sounds from users. poppysmic Word for the sound made by smacking of the lips. Hit the link for more. portamento Music. A smooth uninterrupted glide in passing from one tone to another, especially with the voice or a bowed stringed instrument. [AHD] Portastudio® Recording. Registered trademark name for TEAC's Model 144, the world's first 4-track cassette recorder introduced at the 1979 New York AES show. portmanteau word A word formed by merging the sounds and meanings of two different words, as chortle, from chuckle and snort, or motel, from motor and hotel. [AHD] Compare with acronym. Porter, Bill (1931-2010) American recording engineer who created hits with Chet Atkins, Roy Orbison, Everly Brothers and Elvis Presley to name only a few. poseur One who affects a particular attribute, attitude, or identity to impress or influence others. [AHD] (There are a lot of poseurs in the pro audio business.)

ence others. [AHD] (There are a lot of poseurs in the pro audio business.) post-echo See print-through. pot (lowercase) Shorten form of potentiometer (and if you think I'm gonna make some cheap joke about the smokin' kind, you're crazy). potential difference The amount of energy per unit charge needed to move a charged particle from a reference point to a designated point in a static electric field; voltage. Also called potential. [AHD] potentiometer A three-terminal variable resistor. Two terminals connect to the ends of the resistor, while the third terminal is attached to a movable device that makes contact with the resistive element. The movable terminal, or slider, is capable of being positioned from one end of the element to the other. Many physical arrangements exist, with the rotary design being the most common, followed by linear motion (used in graphic equalizers, for example), all the way to tiny SMT devices. Often used as voltage dividers in electronic circuits, the input voltage is applied to the top of the resistive element, while the other end is tied to ground or a common reference and the output is taken from the slider. When the slider is positioned to the top extreme, the output equals the input, or the entire voltage; moving it to the bottom extreme gives an output of zero volts; and every possible level between is available as the slider is moved from one end to the other. The most common application uses this arrangement to control the volume of an audio device. In this manner the voltage, or electrical potential is varied, hence, a potentiometer. The taper of the pot controls the rate at which the voltage changes as the slider is moved. The taper defines the amount of resistive change as a function of travel. Several popular examples follow: audio taper (aka A-taper): Usually 15% resistance at the 50% rotation point. C-taper: usually a reversed audio taper. E-taper Similar to a reversed audio taper but with 25% resistance at the 50% rotation point. linear taper (aka B-taper): Always 50% resistance at the 50% travel point. log taper (aka D-taper): Often used as an audio taper since its 50% rotation point has 10% resistance. MN taper (aka balance pot) Special taper developed for home stereo "Balance" controls. Consists of two sections (one for each channel) operating opposite each other. Exactly one-half of each section is a zero resistance surface (i.e., solid-copper or equivalent), the next 50% of travel is linear taper. Therefore for one channel rotating the slider through the first 50% of travel does not change the level at all, while the other channel is reduce from full to zero, and vice versa, with the middle position (usually featuring a center-detent) always passing full signal to

middle position (usually featuring a center-detent) always passing full signal to each channel. See balance control. RD-taper A reversed D-taper (see log taper above). W-taper: A modified linear taper with the standard 50% resistance at the 50% travel point but is must steeper on both sides, then slows down above and below the 85% and 15% points. A special version is used for the boost/cut control found on analog equalizers. This version adds a dead zone in the middle, which is fitted with a center-tap terminal that is usually grounded by the application so that the center position has no effect on the assigned frequency band. POTS (uppercase) Acronym for plain old telephone system. The normal single line basic land telephone service. Often used in reference to modems associated with regular telephone land lines. See the RaneNote Interfacing Audio and POTS. Compare with PANS. power 1. Electricity a. The product of applied voltage (potential difference) and current in a direct-current circuit (or the voltage squared divided by the resistance, or the current squared times the resistance). b. The product of the effective values of the voltage and current with the cosine of the phase angle (between current and voltage) in an alternating-current circuit. See apparent power and rms power 2. Physics The rate at which work is done, expressed as the amount of work per unit time, and measured in units such as the watt (1 joule per second, which equals the power dissipated (as heat) by 1 ohm of resistance when 1 ampere of current passes through it) and horsepower (equal to 745.7 watts). [AHD] power amplifier See amplifier. power amplifier dummy load See amplifier dummy load. power amplifier sensitivity See sensitivity. power compression Loudspeakers. The phenomena where the power transfer from the amplifier to the loudspeaker decreases as the loudspeaker voice coil heats up. As the voice coil heats its resistance increases reducing the resulting power for the same applied voltage. Typical compression numbers run from 3 dB to 6 dB. QSC shows a nice curve of power compression in their tech note on Power Limiting. power equations See: Joule's Law. power factor Abbr. PF Electronics. The ratio of the total (or real) power in watts (resistive load; aka real power) to the total apparent power in voltamperes (VA) (reactive load). The difference between watts and VA is due to reactive load impedance. Ap-

load). The difference between watts and VA is due to reactive load impedance. Apparent power equals watts only for a purely resistive load (i.e., zero degrees phase shift between the applied voltage and the resultant current). Power factor is best thought of intuitively as the multiplier (ranging between 0 and 1) that you must use to obtain the real power from the apparent power. For example if you measure the rms voltage and current of a circuit and multiply them together you obtain the apparent power, but you must multiply this value by the power factor to obtain the real power. If the load is purely resistive then the phase difference between the voltage and current will be zero and the power factor will be one, and the apparent power will equal the true power -- but only for a resistive load. For a reactive load (any load with inductive and/or capacitive reactance, i.e., any real load) there will be a phase difference between the voltage and the current due to the phase delay introduced by the reactive elements. Simply put, since the maximum voltage and current do not occur at the same instant of time the amount of power developed is less than the measured rms voltage and current multiplied together. Since power factor is a ratio, and hence unitless, it can be expressed in several ways -- all of them equal. It is the ratio of watts to voltamperes, of resistance to reactance, and if the phase shift in degrees is known (phase angle), it is the cosine of that angle, or cos ?. If the angle is zero then PF = 1, and if the angle is 90° then PF = 0. power-factor-corrected (PFC) 1. General. Power factor correction reduces phase error and improves wave shape in electrical sources and power supplies. The PFC circuitry acts to make the load appear more resistive. Power factor varies between zero and one in value. It is unity, or one, when it is purely restive. This is when the input current wave shape and phase exactly match the input voltage wave shape and phase. AC mains voltage is supposed to be sinusoidal, so a power factor of unity requires inphase, sinusoidal current. Power factor correction is any passive or active measure taken to improve the phase relationship and/or harmonic content (shape) of current so that it matches the input voltage. 2. Passive. Any system that has a passive powerfactor-correcting device, such as an inductor or capacitor, installed to reduce the phase difference between the rms voltage and rms current. For example, adding series inductance to reduce the phase lead between voltage and current seen with standard rectifier/capacitor power supplies. 3. Active. Any system using active circuit elements such as switching transistors, in conjunction with reactive components, to improve power factor. The switching elements operate at relatively high frequencies, allowing smaller reactive components (than required by passive methods) to produce the desired results. The majority of active PFC circuits work to insure that mains currents will flow, even when instantaneous line voltage is low. Very high power factor values are obtained by actively controlling instantaneous line current so that it remains proportional to the average power demanded by the load.

mains proportional to the average power demanded by the load. [PFC Mini-tutorial: Real power, i.e., purely resistive load, is measured in watts and gets converted to audio power (to drive loudspeakers, for instance). Apparent power is measured in volt-amperes and is what blows circuit breakers. This is because circuit breakers only measure current. As power factor gets worse circuit breaker ratings must go up to prevent tripped breakers. A power-factor-corrected system allows full power out of each branch circuit. Electronic equipment without PFC draws a surprising amount of apparent power because of the poor power factor. Due to the impedance of the AC mains wiring, the high peak currents associated with poor power factor affect the wave shape of the mains voltage. This is a kind of harmonic distortion that can adversely affect some types of equipment. For example, it's well known that the ubiquitous 60 Hz and 120 Hz magnetic fields can couple to 'ground loops' and cause annoying hum. However the presence of significant mains waveform distortion can make this sort of thing a problem at higher line harmonics (e.g., 180 Hz, 240 Hz, etc.) where magnetic coupling is progressively more effective (proportional to frequency) and the hum is increasingly annoying. Thanks, PM!] Power over Ethernet See PoE. PowerPC A super powerful RISC processor PC jointly developed by IBM, Apple and Motorola, designed to run any PC operating system (MS-DOS, UNIX, Windows, OS/2, Mac OS. etc.). Featured in Apple's line of "PowerMac" computers. power spectral density See PSD. power supply rejection ratio See PSRR. ppm (lowercase) ( parts per million) Indicates one part in 106, with a value of 1 × 106.

PPM (uppercase) (peak program meter) An audio meter originally developed in Europe to accurately measure and display peak audio signals (as opposed to average audio signals; see VU meter). The PPM augments the VU meter and it is normal to find both in modern recording studios. The PPM is particularly valuable for digital audio recording or signal processing due to the critical monitoring required to prevent exceeding 0 dBFS and reducing overs. There are two standards: IEC 60268-10 for analog meters and IEC 60268-18 for digital meters. [These are available to buy on the IEC website.] An interesting aspect of PPM design is that rather than respond instanta-

website.] An interesting aspect of PPM design is that rather than respond instantaneously to peaks, they require a finite 5 ms integration time, so that only peaks wide enough to be audible are displayed. IEC 60268-10 translates this into a response that is 1 dB down from steady-state for a 10 ms tone burst, 2 dB down for a 5 ms burst, and 4 dB down for a 3 ms tone burst -- requirements satisfied by an attack time constant of 1.7 ms. The IEC specified decay rate of 1.5 seconds to a -20 dB level can be met with a 650 ms time constant. Pramanik stylus Phonographs. A ultra-lightweight 4-channel phono cartridge with a Beryllium cantilever and a multifaceted stylus invented by Subir "Pram" Pramanik of Bang & Olufsen in 1973. Prandtl number See Grashof. preamplifier See amplifier. pre-preamplifier See head amp. precedence effect See Haas Effect. pre-echo See print-through. pre-emphasis A high-frequency boost used during recording, followed by de-emphasis during playback, designed to improve signal-to-noise performance. pre-mastering See mastering. presence control Musical Instruments. A control often seen on guitar amplifiers (and occasionally on hi-fi preamplifiers) used to boost high frequencies to make the sound brighter. pressure gradient microphone Microphone. If both the front and rear of a diaphragm are exposed to a sound field, then the force that vibrates the diaphragm results from the difference between the sound pressures in front and to the rear of the diaphragm (called the pressure gradient). The magnitude of the driving force depends on the distance between the front and rear sound entries, the frequency, and the angle of incidence and is therefore a directional variable which can be utilized to design directional microphones. Cardioid, figure 8, or hypercardioid polar patterns can be achieved by incorporating appropriate sound paths. [From AKG Acoustics Glossary] Also see ribbon microphone. pressure zone microphone See PZM.

pretzel A French horn. [Decharne] print-through The name for the magnetic tape recording phenomena where the act of layering, or winding layer upon layer of tape causes the flux from one layer to magnetize the adjacent layer, thus printing through from one layer onto another layer. Also called crosstalk or interlayer transfer. The most vulnerable parts of the magnetic tape are the blank spots, particularly leaders and spaces between material that happen to occur adjacent to loud passages. Two other terms come from print-through: on layers played back before loud passages it gives a pre-echo, whereas on playback following the loud passage it gives a post-echo. printed circuit board See: PCB. Pritts, Roy (1937-2007) American musician and recording engineer who founded the Music Technology/Recording Arts program at the University of Colorado in 1971. probability density function, or pdf, or p.d.f. The name given to a mathematical function that defines a continuous interval (i.e., one without gaps), or curve, such that the area under the curve (and above the x-axis, i.e., the probability is always positive) described by the function is unity, or equals one, or 100% -- whatever way you want to look at it. It simply means that all possibilities are represented. The most familiar example is the famous "bell-shaped curve" or just "bell curve." The bell curve is a symmetrical curve representing a normal or Gaussian distribution. Also called a normal curve. When applied to school grading, for example, it says that there is the highest probability that a student picked at random will receive a C-grade, and rapidly decreasing probabilities that any one student will receive a B- or A-grade, going in one direction, or a D- or F-grade, going in the other direction. Technically, it means the probability of a random variable taking values between two real numbers, or extremes (an A or an F) is given by the area under the curve between these two points. proceleration "The acceleration of acceleration." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.] [Which is actually called jerk.] production master See mastering. Programming, Law of The law states that every program contains at least one bug. The law further states that every program can be shortened by at least one instruction. Therefore, the law concludes, every program can be reduced to one instruction that does not work. The law is not wrong. [Thanks TP.] progressive array See line arrays.

progressive array See line arrays. Project Planner Fun and educational tool developed by MC2 System Design Group. (Check it out, you won't be disappointed.) PROM (programmable read-only memory) A memory device whose contents can be electrically programmed (once) by the designer. proof "Evidence having a shade more of plausibility than of unlikelihood. The testimony of two credible witnesses as opposed to that of only one." -- Ambrose Bierce. propagation The motion of waves through or along a medium. For electromagnetic waves, propagation may occur in a vacuum as well as in material media. propagation delay The initial delay through a signal processing box, i.e., the time it takes for a signal to pass once through a device. It is the unavoidable and uncontrollable (by the user) delay inherent to the processing electronics. Propagation delay is caused most often in analog electronics by phase delay in filter networks, and in digital electronics by computational delay in microprocessors and DSP devices, as well as data conversion. In networking, the time it takes for a signal to pass through a channel. Similar to latency but normally restricted to signal processing devices, rather than computer operations. Prophet-5 Musical Instrument. The first programmable polyphonic synthesizer developed by Sequential Circuits in 1978. The "5" referred to its being able to play five notes simultaneously. proportional-Q graphic equalizer (also variable-Q) Term applied to graphic and rotary equalizers describing bandwidth behavior as a function of boost/cut levels. The term "proportional-Q" is preferred as being more accurate and less ambiguous than "variableQ." If nothing else, "variable-Q" suggests the unit allows the user to vary (set) the Q, when no such controls exist. The bandwidth varies inversely proportional to boost (or cut) amounts, being very wide for small boost/cut levels and becoming very narrow for large boost/cut levels. The skirts, however, remain constant for all boost/cut levels. See the RaneNote Operator Adjustable Equalizers. Compare with constant-Q and true response graphic equalizers. prosumer Shortened form of professional + consumer, often used to refer to home

recording studio equipment. protocol A specific set of rules, procedures or conventions relating to format and timing of data transmission between two devices. A standard procedure that two data devices must accept and use to be able to understand each other. proximity effect Microphones. Term for the increase in low frequency response (bass boost), or sensitivity, of most directional microphones when the sound source is within a few inches. Click the link for all the details. PSD (power spectral density) Physics. A measure of how the power in a signal changes over frequency. It is the total power in a specified bandwidth divided by the specified bandwidth expressed in watts per hertz or dBm per hertz. Pseudoacoustic Infector Term coined by Rane Corporation for their mythical product, the PI 14, first introduced in 1988, which almost caught the attention of the music industry. An acoustic stimulator designed to add a little bit of This and a little bit of That to recordings, to give them a sense of Now previously unobtainable. Rane's PI 14 introduced a unique Here-to-There (and-Back-Again) pan control. Transformer operation required the Jensen JE-EP-ERs when coupling directly into a Crown Belchfire BF-6000SUX for playback through an Electro-Voice Rearaxial Softspeaker. Today, PI 14s are considered quite scarce and highly collectable. pseudo-balanced output A two-wire (with overall shield) interfacing technique for an unbalanced output where a resistor equal to the output resistor is placed in series with the return leg (either pin-3 for an XLR connector or the ring lead for an 1/4" TRS connector). This makes both lines measure the same impedance when looking back from the receiver and allows the common-mode rejection feature of the input differential amplifier to function. See the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection. psi-network Quadraphonics. A special two-port all-pass network that creates a 90 degree phase shift between the two output signals over the full audio bandwidth. Used in encoding and decoding a 4-channel effect into and back from a 2-channel medium. See for example U.S. Patent 3,761,628 Stereo-Quadraphonic Matrix System with Matrix or Discrete Sound Reproduction Capability granted to Ben Bauer and assigned to CBS in 1973. Also another Bauer U.S. Patent 3,940,559 Compatible four channel recording and reproducing system. For the DIY-er and/or mathematically curious see: McNulty Analog Wide Band Audio Phase Shift Networks. PSK (phase-shift keying) The form of phase modulation in which the modulating function shifts the instantaneous phase of the modulated wave among predeter-

mined discrete values. [IEEE] PSPICE See SPICE. psophometric See weighting filters PSRR (power supply rejection ratio) Electronics. In the most general sense, a measure of a circuit's immunity to power supply noise and variations. For details see Nicholas Gray's Application Brief Power Supply Effects on Noise Performance. psst Only word in the dictionary without a vowel. "Used to capture someone's attention inconspicuously." [AHD] psychoacoustics The scientific study of the perception of sound. Called "the music of science" by Roederer. PTT (push-to-talk) A pushbutton switch commonly found on paging and conference room microphones that must be engaged before speaking. Also prevalent in communication systems. p-type semiconductor An extrinsic semiconductor in which the mobile hole concentration exceeds the conduction electron concentration. [IEEE] public address See P.A. PUFF CAD Electronics. Popular microwave circuit simulation program for laying out and analyzing microstrip and stripline circuits on IBM-compatible personal computers. pumping Dynamics Processors. Loud level variations caused by quick noticeable variations of level associated by use of heavy compression or limiting. [Izhaki] punch-in/punch-out Recording studio: To engage/disengage record mode on a track previously recorded, usually for purposes of correcting unwanted segments. punter Chiefly British Slang. A word with many meanings but the one found in pro audio usage refers to "... a member of an audience, a spectator, a paying quest; a participant in any activity." [OED] Pupin, Michael I. (Anglicized name of Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin) (1858-1935) SerbianAmerican physicist who invented the Pupin coil (a special inductor) that greatly extended the range of long-distance telephone communication by adding inductance. These coils were placed at predetermined intervals along the transmitting wire (a

These coils were placed at predetermined intervals along the transmitting wire (a process known as pupinization). Puritanism "The haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy." H. L. Mencken, A Book of Burlesques ( 1916). PURLnet See ZigBee. purple One of the few words in the English language without a rhyme -- some others are "month," "orange" & "silver." purple noise See noise color. PVC cable (polyvinyl chloride) The most common type of cable used when smoke retardant properties are not required, i.e., when a building's HVAC system is run through metal ducts - not open ceilings. This cable is sheathed in PVC, the standard jacketing of most electrical cable. PVC is a tough water and flame retardant material, but is not smoke retardant. If PVC catches fire, it emits noxious gases, and if the cable is run in a plenum area, the deadly gases can be dispersed throughout the building. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) Loudspeakers. A type of plastic exhibiting piezo-electric properties, used by Dr. Koh Seok-keun, P&I (Plasma & Ionbeam) Corporation, to produce a thin-membrane midrange/tweeter driver. The result is claimed to produce a near perfect vertical or horizontal radiation pattern. PWM (pulse width modulation) A conversion method in which the widths of pulses in a pulse train represent the analog information. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. Pythagorean temperament The mathematical principles of musical harmony according to the Greek philosopher Pythagoras. PZM (pressure zone microphone) Patented by Ed Long & Ron Wickersham in 1982 (US 4,361,736), a technique and design where the microphone is mounted on a flat plate which acts as a reflective surface directing sound into the mic capsule. The PZM principle uses the compression and decompression of air between the plate and the membrane in parallel with the plate (the gap is very narrow, typically only a millimeter or less. This arrangement gives about 6 dB extra amplification of the signal, which means 6 dB less inherent electronic noise. Now owned by Crown International, a Harman International Company. For an incredible historical resource, see Crown's Mic Memo, a 503 page print version of their reference CD.

Pro Audio Reference Q
q (lower-case) Physics. The symbol for charge. Q (upper-case) Quality factor. Filters. The selectivity factor defined to be the ratio of the center frequency f divided by the bandwidth BW. See the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers; also download "Bandwidth vs. Q Calculator" as a zipped Microsoft Excel spreadsheet in the Rane Library. Q (upper-case) Quality factor. Loudspeakers. Used to connote the directivity, or a measure of the directional characteristic of a loudspeaker, and is called the Directivity Index, either measured in decibels, or as a dimensionless value of Q. See "A game of numbers" by Joe Brusi for more details. Q-8 RCA's name for their 4-channel, eight-track tape cartridges, the world's first (and last). qanbus Musical Instrument. A short-necked fretless flute indigenous to Yemen. qanoun Musical Instruments. Arabic dulcimer. Contrast with: Quanoon. qawwali A style of Muslim devotional music, associated particularly with Sufis in Pakistan, characterized by a fervent, often improvisatory vocal delivery and with an accompanying rhythm articulated on drums and harmonium; a song in this style. [OED] QD LED See: QLED. QED (quod erat demonstrandum) Latin. Mathematics. Literally, "which was to be demonstrated." Used to connote the end of a mathematical proof. Qi (pronounced "chee") From Asian philosophy, meaning "vital energy." The name adopted for a standard universal battery charging system for mobile devices whereby any Qi-compatible device or adapter can be charged with any Qi-compatible charging pad. qin also guqin A Chinese musical instrument dating from 1000 BC similar to a zither; common name for most Chinese stringed instruments. Also Qin dynasty. See yangqin.

QLED (quantum-dot LED) also seen as QD LED. Latest LED technology based on quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals. QoS (quality of service) Today's usage: "Quality of service is the ability to provide different priority to different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow." [From Wikipedia; hit link.] Original usage: 1. The performance specification of a communications channel or system. It may be quantitatively indicated by channel or system performance parameters, such as signal-tonoise ratio (S/N), bit error ratio (BER), message throughput rate, and call blocking probability. 2. A subjective rating of telephone communications quality in which listeners judge transmissions by qualifiers, such as excellent, good, fair, poor, or unsatisfactory. [From Federal Standard 1037C]. QR code (Quick Response code) A matrix barcode readable by devices with cameras, i.e., smart phones, tablets, etc. QRD (quadratic residue diffusor) Another name for a Schroeder diffusor. Hit the link for more details and also see: diffusers. QS Sansui's name for their quadraphonic sound system using a proprietary matrixing algorithm for encoding four-channel sound down to two-channels. Compare with SQ. QSound The name of a Canadian company and its proprietary and patented 3D sound technology. Designed for two channel playback systems, QSound finds success in the computer and arcade game markets, as well as movie theaters. Using advanced signal processing techniques, QSound adds localization cues to the original material. Since loudspeakers and headphones create quite different playback environments, different algorithms exist for each. QSound allows the music producer to locate specific sound events in virtual positions outside the physical locations of the two loudspeakers. The effect is primarily one of widening the sound field. QSound works best when the listener is positioned in the sweet spot located equidistant between the speakers. QTC (quantum tunnelling composite) Pressure sensors based on quantum physics. Finding use in touchscreens, among other applications. QTR Abbreviation for quarter. QTY Abbreviation for quantity.

quackery The statement floating about cyberspace that a duck's quack does not echo and no one knows why. See Salford Acoustics Experiment. Quad 8 See: Q-8. quad flat pack The most commonly used package in surface mount technology to achieve a high lead count in a small area. Leads are brought out on all four sides of a thin square package. quadlet Computers. Four bytes (32 bits) of data. [IEEE] quad mic cable See: cables. Quadradisc See: CD-4. quadraphonic sound Coined in the '70s, the original term for surround sound. quadratic equation Mathematics An equation in which one or more of the terms is squared but raised to no higher power, having the general form ax² + bx + c = 0, where a, b, and c are constants. [AHD] quadratic residue diffuser A type of Schroeder diffuser consisting of a plane surface with an array of parallel slots all the same width but with varying depths based on a prime number mathematical sequence. quadrature A state of separation or relationship equal to 90°. For example, two same frequency sine waves one-quarter wavelength apart are in quadrature. A phase difference equal to one-fourth of a period. quadrupole sound source Acoustics. Quadrupole is defined as a multipole of order two, therefore two opposite dipoles make up a quadrupole source. quaff To drink (a beverage) heartily: quaffed the ale with gusto. [AHD] quality factor See Q. Quanoon Musical Instruments. Egyptian dulcimer. Contrast with: Qanoun. quant Slang An expert in the use of mathematics and related subjects, particularly in investment management and stock trading. [Probably short for quantitative.] [AHD] quantic Mathematics. A homogeneous polynomial having two or more variables. [AHD]

quantization distortion Same as quantization error below. quantization error Error resulting from quantizing an analog waveform to a discrete level. It is the difference between the actual value of the analog signal at the sampling instant and the nearest quantization value. Therefore, in general, the longer the word length, the less the error, because there are more step sizes to choose the closest. See also SQNR and the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. quantization The process of converting, or digitizing, the almost infinitely variable amplitude of an analog waveform to one of a finite series of discrete levels. Performed by the A/D converter. See also SQNR and the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. [The name derives from quantum physics, where electrons orbit an atom's nucleus at fixed distances and are never found in-between.] quantum Physics. The smallest amount of a physical quantity that can exist independently, especially a discrete quantity of electromagnetic radiation. [AHD] quantum dot A confined and isolated atom such that the removal or addition of a single electron can be detected, i.e., its properties change in a detectable manner -- the ultimate memory cell. In nanotechnology, they are called quantum bits or qubits. quantum entanglement Physics. Einstein called entanglement "spooky action at a distance." Hit the link for a clear simple explanation. quantum microphone A new technology for detecting "... sound at the level of quietness of quantum mechanics." Developed by scientists at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden and is based on a single-electron transistor. quantum noise Physics. Any noise attributable to the discrete nature of electromagnetic radiation. Shot noise is one example. quantum tunneling composite See: QTC. quarter-inch jack Same as 1/4" TRS or 1/4" TS, see connectors. quarter-note Music. A note having one-fourth the time value of a whole note.[AHD] In most popular music, the quarter-note is the value equal to one beat. Also called crotchet (chiefly British). quarter-track stereo Recording. An analog recording head arrangement that allows recording two tracks in one direction and another two tracks in the opposite direction. The name comes from each track and guard band using one quarter of the

tape width. quartet Mathematics of computing. 1. A group of four adjacent digits operated upon as a unit. 2. A byte composed of four bits, i.e., a nibble. quartz crystals Electronics. A small crystal of quartz accurately cut along certain axes so that it can be vibrated at a particular frequency, used for its piezoelectric properties to produce an electric signal of constant known frequency. [AHD] See piezo. quasi- To some degree; in some manner: quasi-stellar object. [AHD] quasi-balanced line See floating unbalanced line. quasi-parametric See parametric equalizer. quasi-peak detector Electronics. A detector having specified electrical time constants that, when regularly repeated pulses of constant amplitude are applied to it, delivers an output voltage that is a fraction of the peak value of the pulses, the fraction increasing toward unity as the pulse repetition rate is increased. [IEEE] In other words, a peak detector with a long time constant. quaternary The word that comes after primary, secondary, tertiary. qubits See quantum dot above. Queen, Daniel (1934-2002) Long-time Standards Manager for the AES, Daniel had a full and productive audio career including his successful consulting company, Daniel Queen Associates, specializing in electroacoustics, architectural acoustics, and noise control. He joined the AES in 1962 and became a fellow in 1970. quena also called a kena Musical Instrument. A shepard's pipe, or flute) without a mouthpiece. [Note: a large quena is called a quenacho.] queueing The only eight letter English word with five vowels in a row. quidnunc A nosy person; a busybody. [AHD] quiescent Being quiet, still, or at rest; inactive. [AHD] quiescent noise Another name for a product's residual noise or noise floor. quieting sensitivity FM Radio. (Also called IHF Sensitivity.) In simple terms it is the minimum input signal required to provide a distortion-free listenable output signal.

In technical terms, it is "the minimum unmodulated signal input for which the output signal-to-noise ratio does not exceed a specified limit, under specified conditions." [IEEE] This test was standardized in 1958 by the IHF (Institute of High Fidelity) to mean the unmodulated carrier amplitude measured in microvolts (rms) required for a specific dB reduction in output noise over the output noise present with no-signal. A typical specification might read: 0.5 microvolts for 20-dB quieting. Also measured in femtowatts (dBf). quinary The word that comes after primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary. Quinnipiac (pronounced KWIN-uh-pe-ack) A private, coeducational, nonsectarian university located in Hamden, CT, featuring a fully digital high-definition broadcast studio. quint Music. Name for an interval of a fifth. quintephone Musical Instruments. A musical instrument that generates sound "informatically," i.e., using information science and technology. For example, synthesizers are a subset of quintephones. quintessence In ancient and medieval philosophy, the fifth and highest essence after the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water, thought to be the substance of the heavenly bodies and latent in all things. [AHD] quinton Musical Instrument. A 17th-centruy treble viol. Also, an 18th-century fivestringed hybrid between the viol and violin families. [OED] quintophonic sound (also seen as quintaphonic sound) The name of the 5-channel discrete surround system developed by John Mosely for The Who's rock opera, Tommy, production. The forerunner of 5.1 surround systems. quire A set of 25 sheets of paper of the same size and stock; 1/20 of a ream. [Originally 24 sheets, but now 25.] Quirini, Klaus See: discotheque quitiplas Musical Instrument. A Venezuelan bamboo instrument. quother Speech. To talk in a low and confidential tone. [Kacirk]

quotient Mathematics. The number obtained by dividing one quantity by another. In 45 ÷ 3 = 15, 15 is the quotient. [AHD] QWERTY Nickname for the computer (or typewriter) keyboard derived from the left side, top row of letter keys.

Pro Audio Reference R
racket A loud distressing noise. [AHD] rack unit See "U" radar (radio detecting and ranging) 1. A method of detecting distant objects and determining their position, velocity, or other characteristics by analysis of very high frequency radio waves reflected from their surfaces. 2. The equipment used in such detection. [AHD] Compare with sonar and sodar. radian 1. Mathematics. A unit of angular measure equal to the angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle, approximately 57°17'44.6 [AHD] 2. Filters. Frequency is measured in radians/second. One cycle (360°) equals 2π (pi) radians. radiation error Loudspeakers. All inclusive term describing the total lobing and cancellation error occurring in a loudspeaker response due to crossover and multiple driver effects. An ideal crossover applied between two sources would exhibit no lobing error and no cancellations off axis. [Coined by Justin Baird and David McGrath, Lake Technology, in their paper "Practical Application of Linear Phase Crossovers with Transition Bands Approaching a Brick Wall Response for Optimal Loudspeaker Frequency, Impulse and Polar Response," presented at the 115th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, New York, NY October 10-13, 2003, Preprint 5885.] radicalism "The conservatism of tomorrow injected into the affairs of today." -- Ambrose Bierce. radio The wireless transmission through space of electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range from 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz. [AHD] radio button A graphical user interface style based on old automobile analog radio designs. Radiolab Broadcast. Popular public radio program that describes itself this way: "Radiolab believes your ears are a portal to another world. Where sound illuminates ideas, and the boundaries blur between science, philosophy, and human experience. Big questions are investigated, tinkered with, and encouraged to grow. Bring your curiosity, and we'll feed it with possibility."

radix Mathematics. The number base, such as 2 in the binary system and 10 in the decimal system. [AHD] radix point The binary equivalent of the decimal point -- think of it as a "binary point." Ragone chart A useful way to compare such things as batteries, this chart plots storage device energy density versus power density on a log-log graph with discharge times represented as diagonal lines. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) [Originally: Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks] A technology providing greater storage functions and reliability using redundancy. Hit the link for details. Finding its way into pro audio studio use by such companies as Glyph's Portagig 62. rail-switcher A term used to describe audio power amplifier designs utilizing more than one power supply for the output, and a means of switching between them based upon the input signal. This scheme improves efficiency. See Class G Amplifiers and compare with tracking power amplifiers. rail-to-rail® Registered trademark of Nippon Motorola, Ltd. for their op amp designs having maximum input and output levels equal to the power supply voltages. See RRIO. rainstick Musical Instrument. English translation for the original Chilean instrument called palo de lluvia. raised cosine filter A low-pass filter found most often in data communication systems. A perfect raised cosine filter is characterized by a frequency response that is symmetrical about 0 Hz, with a flat low frequency passband, then a smooth rolloff following a cosine curve to zero through the transition region and staying at zero (infinite attenuation) throughout the stopband. The response of real world filters (usually DSP FIR designs) approximate this response, with the most noticeable deviation being ripple in the transition region, limiting attenuation to, say, 70 dB, or so, depending on the number of filter taps used. The first known use of this technology in pro audio occurred with a proprietary filter based on raised cosine design used in the Lake Contour™ system. RAM (random access memory) A memory device in which data may be read out and new data written into any address or location.

Randall, Don (1917-2008) American entrepreneur who co-founded Fender in 1946 along with Leo Fender. Beginning in the 1970s he started his own company using the Randall brand. RaneNotes A series of technical notes written by Rane's technical staff. RaneWare® A registered trademark of Rane Corporation used to identify Rane RW 232 software products -- not something to keep you dry. Rankine scale A scale of absolute temperature using degrees the same size as those of the Fahrenheit scale, in which the freezing point of water is 491.69° and the boiling point of water is 671.69°. After William John Macquorn Rankine below. [AHD. Sounds handy to me.] Rankine, William John Macquorn (1820-1872), Scottish engineer and physicist. RAQ (rarely asked questions) The really important questions that should be asked, but never are. The answers to RAQs are kept hidden within government and corporate walls. rarefaction 1. A decrease in density and pressure in a medium, such as air, caused by the passage of a sound wave. 2. The region in which this occurs. [AHD] RASTI (room acoustics speech transmission index) [Originally spelled RaSTI, with lower-case a, which was an acronym for rapid speech transmission index.] A speech intelligibility performance technique developed in 1973 by Dr. Steeneken in Holland, it is simpler than the more complex STI (speech transmission index), however overtime this procedure proved unreliable and was removed as a IEC standard with the 2011 revision to IEC 60268-16. Compare with %ALCONS. rationalism 1. Reliance on reason as the best guide for belief and action. 2. Philosophy The theory that the exercise of reason, rather than experience, authority, or spiritual revelation, provides the primary basis for knowledge. [AHD] [The optimist says the glass is half full. The pessimist says the glass is half empty. The rationalist says the glass is twice as big as it needs to be.] rave Music. Unannounced, unadvertised dance party, often illegal, held in an unmarked location, usually a warehouse; spread by word of mouth. Rayleigh distance Acoustics. "The geometric nearfield of a finite acoustic radiator is the area around the radiator where the sound pressure level does not follow spherical

or cylindrical spreading ... The Rayleigh distance D = ka²/2, where k = 2 f/c, f is the frequency, c is the sound speed, and a is half the largest dimension, has been used to approximate the size of the geometric nearfield of plane radiators." From Kuntz, Hixson and Ryan, "The Rayleigh distance and geometric nearfield size of nonplane sound radiators," Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer., Nov., 1983. Rayleigh, Lord (1842-1919), Third Baron. Title of John William Strutt. British physicist. He won a 1904 Nobel Prize for investigating the density of gases and for discovering argon with Sir William Ramsay. R&B See: rhythm & blues. RC (room criteria) rating A new noise criteria adopted by ASHRAE to replace the NC criteria. The RC rating is based on ASHRAE sponsored studies of preference and requirements for speech privacy ratings for "acoustical quality." RC ratings contain both a numerical value and a letter to describe the expected spectral quality of the sound. The numerical part is called the speech interference level (SIL) equal to the arithmetic average of the measured SPL in the 500 Hz, 1 kHz and 2 kHz octave bands, and the letter part denotes the timbre or sound quality as subjectively described by an observer as neutral (N), rumbly (R), hissy (H) or acoustically induced vibration noise (RV). The RC curves serve as optimum spectrum shapes for background sound in buildings. Octave band analysis that meet a specific RC curve are considered neutrally balanced, i.e., they have the desired amounts of low-, mid- and high-frequency content to be heard as not offensive. RC curves are straight lines set at -5 dB/octave slopes (of course -- couldn't be 6, had to be 5). The RC rating standard is Criteria for Evaluating Room Noise, ANSI S12.2. See Trane's excellent summary "How To Determine The RC Noise Rating," for a step-by-step tutorial. RCA jack See connectors. RCDDTM (Registered Communications Distribution Designer) A designation for individuals who demonstrate expertise in the design, integration, and implementation of telecommunications (voice, data, video, audio, and other low-voltage control) transport systems and their related infrastructure components. RC time constant Electronics. One time constant equals the time required for the output voltage to increase to 63%, or decrease to 37%, of the final value, due to a step input voltage change. This action is fundamentally controlled by a resistor-capacitor pair. [Although not obvious, time (in seconds) equals resistance (in ohms) times capacitance (in farads).]

R-DAT or DAT (rotary head digital audio tape recorder) A digital audio recorder utilizing a magnetic tape cassette system similar to that of a video recorder. RD-taper See: potentiometer. re Music. The second tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD] REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) The EU's latest legislation bans additional chemicals from electronic products. reactance The imaginary part of an impedance. reactive power Same as apparent power. Reado The name of the first FAX machine, introduced by Crosley Radio in 1940. reality "Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away." -Philip K. Dick [Hit the link for the whole story.] real part Mathematics. See: complex number. real power The total circuit power in watts (resistive load). Contrast with apparent power. real-time analyzer See RTA. real-time operation What is perceived to be instantaneous to a user (or more technically, processing that completes in a specific time allotment). real-time transport protocol (RTP) This protocol adds timing and sequence information to Ethernet packets, which allows accurate packet reassembly for real-time audio and video. Reamp® Registered trademark by John Cuniberti for his patented reamplifying device first produced in 1994; now owned by Radial Engineering Ltd. reamplifying Originally this term meant to take an already recorded guitar sound and use it to drive another different sounding guitar amp -- literally reamplifying it as a means of changing the original recorded sound. Now used on any recorded sound with a real amplifier or virtual plug-in. rearaxial softspeaker Term coined by Electro-Voice for their mythical loudspeaker, the SP13.5TRBXWK. Claimed by many to be the speaker that couldn't be made, it

might have changed all future loudspeaker design, but it didn't. Characterized by being undirectional, the designer's claimed it produced silken highs and woolen lows. The only loudspeaker known to incorporate both "presence" and "absence" controls. Based on a ridiculously simple principle that still cannot be explained, the SP13.5TRBXWK was only heard once, during the Rane demo of their PI 14 Pseudoacoustic Infector, coupled by a Jensen JE-EP-ERs Multi-denomial Transpedance Informer to a Crown Belchfire BF-6000SUX amplifier. No one survived. rebab Musical Instruments. A type of bowed or plucked string instrument indigenous to the Middle East. Recklinghausen, Daniel von (1925-2011) American engineer and audio inventor who was associated with the AES for over 50 years. Famous for his quote: "If it measures good and sounds bad, it is bad; if it measures bad and sounds good, you've measured the wrong thing." Here is a list of his major engineering contributions while at H. H. Scott. reconing Loudspeakers. The act of replacing a blown, torn, or cracked cone on a dynamic loudspeaker -- a highly skilled operation. See Loudspeaker Reconing by Thomas P. Colvin for details. reconstruction filter A low-pass filter used at the output of digital audio processors (following the DAC) to remove (or at least greatly attenuate) any aliasing products (image spectra present at multiples of the sampling frequency) produced by the use of real-world (non-brickwall) input filters. Recording Academy, The The organization formerly known as NARAS. Think Grammy; often confused with SPARS. recording console See mixer. recording technology history See site posted by Steve Schoenherr. recording terminology See the Recording Institute of Detroit, who claims to have posted the largest glossary of recording terms on the web. rectangular coordinates Mathematics. A coordinate in a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. [AHD] rectifier An electronic component used to convert from alternating current (AC) to direct-current (DC). Works by only conducting current in one direction which allows inversion or suppression of alternate half cycles. Several types exist from early seleni-

inversion or suppression of alternate half cycles. Several types exist from early selenium rectifiers to modern semiconductor diodes. See full-wave and half-wave. rectifying junction See: junction, rectifying. recursive A data structure that is defined in terms of itself. For example, in mathematics, an expression, such as a polynomial, each term of which is determined by application of a formula to preceding terms. [AHD] Pertaining to a process that is defined or generated in terms of itself, i.e., its immediate past history. Red Book Nickname for the Philips and Sony's ECMA-130 standard document that defines the format for CD-Audio (compact disc-digital audio) discs; available only to licensees. Compare with Green Book and Yellow Book. red noise See noise color. reed relay Electronics. A relay using glass-enclosed, magnetically closed reeds as the contact members. Some forms are mercury-wetted. Reed-Solomon code (after Irving S. Reed and Gustave Solomon) The most popular and powerful error-correcting code in use. Reeves, Alec Harley (1902-1971) British physicist who first proposed PCM (pulse code modulation) See: reflection Acoustics. Sound that is reflected. See link. reflectors In acoustics, an object or surface that reflects, or bounces back the original signal. A perfect reflector would reflect with no loss of energy. A diffuser is a special kind of reflector. refraction Acoustics. The bending of sound waves caused by entering a medium where the speed of sound is different. See link. refrigerator There is no "d" in this word -- it is quickly becoming the most misspelled word in the United States. reggae Music. Jamaican English, ragged clothing. Popular music of Jamaican origin having elements of calypso and rhythm and blues, characterized by a strongly accentuated offbeat. [AHD] reggaeton Music. A genre of dance music characterized by Entertainment Weekly as "a Spanish-language, pan-American fusion of Stateside hip-hop rhymes, Puerto Rican

salsa flourishes, and Jamaican dancehall rhythms." Compare with Jawaiian. rejustor™ Trademark of Microbridge Technologies for their family of non-volatile, electrically-adjustable resistors. REL (Rights Expression Language) A unified vocabulary for individuals to express copyright law rights. relay Electronics. An electromechanical device with a coil that when energized creates a magnetic field that either opens or closes metal contacts, for making or breaking electrical connections. Invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. release Audio Compressors. How fast the gain is turned back up once the signal drops below the threshold setting. Contrast with attack. Also see: automatic attack & release.

reluctance Magnetics. A measure of the opposition to magnetic flux, analogous to electric resistance. [AHD] R.E.M. (Remember Every Moment) Music. Athens, Georgia band formed in 1980 by Michael Stipe, Mike Mills, Bill Berry, and Peter Buck. Upon being inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007, Michael Stipe disclosed that the band's name came from a favorite saying of his mother. remixing DJ Recording. An alternate variation of one or more original song (or video, etc.) compositions created by manipulating the original using various recording techniques to create a new version. REO Speedwagon Music. American rock group formed in 1967. REO Speedwagon took its name from the Reo SpeedWagon, a truck manufactured by the REO automobile company. ("REO" are initials the company's founder, Ransom Eli Olds, who also lent his name to the Oldsmobile division of General Motors.) resistance See impedance. resistivity Symbol ! (Greek letter small rho). Electricity. An intrinsic property of a material that is measured as its resistance to current per unit length for a uniform cross section. [AHD]

resistor Electronics. Circuit symbol: R 1. An element within a circuit that has specified resistance value designed to restrict the flow of current. 2. A device with the primary purpose of introducing resistance into an electric circuit. (A resistor as used in electric circuits for purposes of operation, protection, or control, commonly consists of an aggregation of units. Resistors, as commonly supplied, consist of wire, metal, ribbon, cast metal or carbon compounds supported by or embedded in an insulating medium. The insulating medium may enclose and support the resistance material as in the case of the porcelain tube type or the insulation may be provided only at the points of support as in the case of heavy duty ribbon or cast iron grids mounted in metal frames.) [IEEE] See: color-code and standard component values. resistor standard values See values. resonance 1. Electronics. In an LRC circuit, it is the condition where the inductive and capacitive reactances are equal; this is called the resonant frequency. 2. Physics. The increase in amplitude of oscillation of an electric or mechanical system exposed to a periodic force whose frequency is equal or very close to the natural undamped frequency of the system. [AHD] A dynamic condition which occurs when any input frequency of vibration coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the structure. That is, the inclination of any mechanical or electrical system to vibrate (resonate) at a certain frequency when excited by an external force, and to keep vibrating after the excitation is removed. 3. Acoustics. Intensification and prolongation of sound, especially of a musical tone, produced by sympathetic vibration. 4. Linguistics. Intensification of vocal tones during articulation, as by the air cavities of the mouth and nasal passages. [AHD] resonant frequency Electronic Circuits. See above. resonator guitar Invented by John Dopyera, who founded the Dobro Manufacturing Company with his brothers Rudy, Emile, Robert and Louis, after leaving the National String Instrument Corporation, a company he cofounded. retro audio Termed coined by Tomlinson Holman of THX fame, referring to new audio gear designed using legacy or old technology, usually tubes, with cosmetics to match. return loss Category wiring. The ratio of the transmitted signal strength to the reflected signal strength. A characteristic often degraded due to excessive bending of the cable. reverb Recording. Shortened form of reverberator, or reverberation unit. Any electron-

reverb Recording. Shortened form of reverberator, or reverberation unit. Any electronic or acoustical device designed to simulate, or capture, the natural reverberation of a large hard-surfaced (echoic) room, and mix it back with the original recorded sound. Reverb today is accomplished by digital devices using complex DSP algorithms; previously done using a chamber, a plate, or springs. See: algorithmic reverb and convolution reverb for DSP techniques. . reverberation The total sound field remaining in a room after the original source is silenced. The length of time of this collapsing sound field is called the reverberation time and is defined below. Contrast with echo and ambience. "Reverberation represents the energy decay process after the initial echoes" [Blesser]. reverberation time also RT60 and more often today as T30 Reverberation is all sound remaining after the source stops. The time it takes for this sound to decay is called the reverberation time, and it is quantified by measuring how long it takes the sound pressure level to decay to one-thousanth of its original value. Since one-thousanth equals a 60 dB reduction, reverberation time is abbreviated "RT60," however since most all acousticians measure the decay time for a 30 dB reduction and then doubles the number to express it as RT60, it is more accurately called T30. Now this is a very simplified definition; for a very thorough discussion see: Averaging RT60 Values for RoomAcoustics by Eric Desart. reverse mixing Live Sound. A term coined by Rick Chinn of Uneeda Audio who defines it this way: "Reverse Mixing refers to the practice of listening to a mix and NOT raising the level of something that you can't hear sufficiently but instead looking for the source that is masking what you can't hear and bringing its volume down. This is a good strategy to avoid Climbing Fader Syndrome."

RF (radio frequency) Broadcast. General term for radio waves. RFI (radio frequency interference) A measure of radio frequency (RF) radiation from equipment. An RF disturbance is an electromagnetic disturbance having components in the RF range. RFID (radio frequency identification) Technology using RF signals to ID individuals. It uses silicon chip tags with radio frequency functions and on-board memory that holds unique ID numbers, allowing it to ID and track just about anything. RF-Lite See ZigBee.

rhonchisonant Imitating the noise of snorting. [Kacirk] rhythm The only English language word containing two syllables with no natural vowels. [Thanks GS.] rhythm & blues Abbr. R&B Music. Phrase coined by Jerry Wexler, who would go on to become a famous record producer for Atlantic Records. Rhythmicon Brand name for the first electronic drum machine invented back in 1930(!) by Leon Theremin. Hit the link for the fascinating history. RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) A professional trade organization representing the U.S. recording industry. RIAA® members create, manufacture and/or distribute approximately 90% of all sound recordings produced and sold in the United States. RIAA equalization curve The standard first proposed by the RIAA (see above) and adopted by the disc recording industry in 1953, reaffirmed in 1964 by both the RIAA and NAB and issued as international standard IEC 60098 (old IEC 98) by the IEC, which remains in effect today. The curve is used in cutting vinyl records and its inverse is required in phono playback preamplifiers. The curve attenuates low frequencies and amplifies high frequencies (relative to a 1 kHz reference point) in order to achieve the maximum dynamic range for a lateral cut vinyl disc (as opposed to the older method of vertical cutting). The grooves in a stereo phonograph disc are cut by a chisel shaped cutting stylus driven by two vibrating systems arranged at right angles to each other. The cutting stylus vibrates mechanically from side to side in accordance with the signal impressed on the cutter. The resultant movement of the groove back and forth about its center is known as groove modulation. The amplitude of this modulation cannot exceed a fixed amount or "cutover" occurs. Cutover, or overmodulation, describes the breaking through the wall of one groove into the wall of the previous groove. Since low frequencies cause wide undulations in the groove, they must be attenuated to prevent overmodulation. At the other end of the audio spectrum, high frequencies must be amplified to overcome the granular nature of the disc surface acting as a noise generator, thus improving signal-to-noise ratio. ribbon controller (aka pitch ribbon) Synthesizers. A touch-sensitive strip used to vary pitch. The most popular design is a variable resistor shaped into a linear controller where the resistance is continuously variable from one end to another. This form was popularized by Moog synthesizers in the '60s, but early ribbon controllers date back to the late 1920s with models by Hellertion, Ondes-Martenot, and Trautonium.

ribbon microphone Invented in 1923 by Walter Schottky (the same German physicist who invented the famous diode) and Erwin Gerlach of Siemens Halske (German pioneering telegraph company), it is constructed using a very thin metal foil ribbon (~0.002 mm [really] and pleated or corrugated to reduce its longitudinal stiffness, to obtain the lowest resonant frequency so the ribbon is mass-controlled) attached between the poles of a permanent magnet. The acoustic signal (sound pressure variation) causes the ribbon to move and interact with the stationary magnetic field inducing a voltage into the ribbon proportional to the amplitude and frequency of the audio signal. Also called velocity microphone or pressure gradient microphone. These names come about from the physical action of the air particles hitting the ribbon. The motion of the ribbon is proportional to the velocity of the air particles striking it, due to its mass being so small that its resonant frequency is infrasonic (2-4 Hz); looked at another way, it responds to the air particle velocity which is developed by the pressure gradient, i.e., the difference in air pressure between the two sides of the ribbon (both sides of the ribbon are open to the atmosphere) causes the ribbon to move. [Historical Note: In 1931, Harry F. Olson, along with Frank Massa, successfully developed the first commercial ribbon microphone based on Schottky & Halske's patent filed eight years earlier on ribbon loudspeaker and microphone theory. They received a US patent for the first cardioid ribbon microphone using a field coil instead of a permanent magnet. Because of this Olson is usually credited as the inventor of ribbon microphones, even though this is historically incorrect.] ribbon tweeter Also invented by Schottky and Gerlach simply by reversing the physical effects of their microphone; it is the inverse of the ribbon microphone described above. It creates a high frequency loudspeaker consisting of a paper-thin metal foil ribbon suspended in a magnetic field (i.e., placed between the poles of a permanent magnet). The audio voltage signal drives the ribbon causing a current to flow creating a magnetic field that reacts with the stationary magnet to create sound proportional to the applied waveform. Very similar in principle to the dynamic loudspeaker, only much smaller, with the ribbon replacing the voice coil and cone arrangement. Rice, Chester & Kellogg Edward Loudspeakers. General Electric researchers who invented and patented the moving-coil direct-radiator loudspeaker in 1924. Rickenbacker Guitars. Name for the company credited with producing the first com-

mercially available electric guitar in 1931 (ten years before Les Paul's innovations). The company was founded by Adolph Rickenbacker (WWI flying legend Eddie Rickenbacker's cousin) and George D. Beauchamp with the original name being the Electro String Instrument Corporation. Ricky Guitars. Popular nickname for Rickenbacker guitars (see above) but a term hated by the founder. rider Live Sound. A list of items required by a performer, as an attachment (rider) to the main contract, given to the production/touring company. Go here for some outrageous examples. Rights Expression Language See REL. ring it up Phrase coined from the first cash registers that ran a bell for emphasis when the drawer opened, signifying the end of the calculation. ring modulator Synthesizers. An effects generator with two inputs and one output. The output is the sum and difference frequencies of the two input signals, and does not contain the original signals -- only the sum and difference signals. These signals are harsh and inharmonious. Input signals rich in harmonics such as square, rectangular and sawtooth waves create complex output signals that makes clangor-type, bell-like sounds. ring out Acoustics. Shorten form of "ring out a room," slang meaning for locating and treating a sound system's resonant and feedback frequencies. ring-right-red Old mantra from the early telephone days meaning the ring of a telephone jack always connects to the right terminal, and is red. Now used by audio designers and installers to remind that the right channel is always the ring in a 1/4" TRS connector and the red RCA phono jack and cable. ring topology A network topology where all nodes are daisy chained together (connected) in a closed loop. RISC (reduced instruction set computer) A computer design that achieves high performance by doing the most common computer operations very quickly, utilizing a high speed processing technology that uses a far simpler set of operating commands. Primarily found in workstations and PowerPCs. The alternative to CISC (complex instruction set computing), the original way of doing computing. ritardando Music. Gradually slowing in tempo; retarding. Used chiefly as a direction.

ritardando Music. Gradually slowing in tempo; retarding. Used chiefly as a direction. [AHD] Rivers, Sam (1925-2011) American musician famous as a jazz artist of the Loft Scene in the '70s. RJ (Registered Jacks) As in RJ-12 the ubiquitous modular telephone jack, or RJ45 the connector and wiring used for connecting Ethernet devices. [Note that the RJ designation specifies both the wiring configuration and the connector. Hit the link for more details.] RLA (ribbon line array) See SLS Loudspeakers' white paper; also see line arrays. RLA (Richard Long Associates) See Long, Richard. RLB-weighting See: weighting filters. RMM (Recreational Music Making) Music making just for the fun of it. It is for those who never thought of themselves as musical and just want to learn and play in a fun manner. Recreational Music Making does not compete with traditional music instruction; it is a alternative concept for playing music. [Think a bunch of naked men in the forest beating drums ... hmm ... maybe not.] rms See root mean square. rms power No such thing. A misnomer, or application of a wrong name. There is no such thing as "rms power." Average or apparent power is calculated using rms values but that does not equal "rms power;" it equals continuous sine wave power output into a resistive load. road dog Live Sound. Someone always on the road working as a sound mixer or other live sound jobs. Slang. Homey, homeslice, partner, buddy, cool one, friend, traveling companion. roar Acoustics. Term for noise in the 125 Hz to 500 Hz range. [Things like fans and pumps.] rock and roll (seen more often as rock 'n' roll) In 1922, the words "rock" and "roll", which were black slang for sexual intercourse, appear on record for the first time, Trixie Smith's "My Man Rocks Me (With One Steady Roll)". [Rock 'n' roll Timeline 1877-1959] [Note: Alan Freed did not create the phrase, he just applied it to a (then) new music genre.]

rock crusher Accordion. [Decharne] rock journalism See Zappa, Frank Vincent. Rogowski coils Electronics. (after Walter Rogowski) A type of current transformer used for measuring alternating current or high-speed current pulses through a conductor. RoHS (Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances) European directive restricting the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. See WEEE. rolloff rate Filters. The rate at which low-pass, high-pass and bandpass filters attenuate frequencies outside the passband. Expressed in dB/octave, it is a measure of the attenuation slope. Slopes occur in 6 dB/octave increments (due to the natural storage effects of capacitors and inductors), e.g., 12 dB/oct, 18 dB/oct, 24 dB/oct, etc. ROM (read-only memory) A memory from which data, after initial storage, may only be read out, but new data cannot be written in. The normal audio CD is an example of a read-only system. room modes or eigentones (from German eigen meaning "self" or "own") Acoustics. The acoustic resonances (or standing waves) in a room (or any enclosed space) caused by parallel surfaces. It is the dimensional resonance of a room, where the distance between the walls equals half the wavelength of the lowest resonant frequency (and resonates at all harmonic frequencies above it). Room modes create uneven sound distribution throughout a room, with alternating louder and quieter spots. See room ratios. room ratios Acoustics. The ratios of dimensions for a rectanguloid room recommended to ensure a uniform distribution of low-frequency room modes (see above). There are standards (few) and there are disagreements (many). See link for excellent overview and details. A rough summary follows: (1.1 x W/H) less than or equal to (L/H) less than or equal to [(4.5 x W/H) 4] L/H less than 3.0 and W/H less than 2.0 L = length, W = width and H = height root mean square Abbr. rms (lowercase) Mathematics. The square root of the average of the squares of a group of numbers. [AHD] A useful and more meaningful way of averaging a group of numbers.

averaging a group of numbers. ro-ro Short for road dog. rosenfeld A proposed unit defined as electricity savings of 3 billion kilowatt-hours a year, i.e., equivalent to the amount generated by a 500-megawatt coal-fired plant in one year. After Arthur H. Rosenfeld, who is referred to as the godfather of energy efficiency. Rosie DJ Mixers. First stereo DJ mixer developed by Alex Rosner, named after the designer and for its red paint. rotary equalizer A multi-band variable equalizer using rotary controls as the amplitude adjustable elements. Both active and passive designs exist with rotary controls. Center frequency and bandwidth are fixed for each band. router Audio. An audio device used to selectively assign any input to any output, including the ability to add inputs together. In this way, one input could go to all outputs, or all inputs could go to just one output, or any combination thereof. An n x m matrix forms the core of any router, where there are n inputs and m outputs. Typically, level controls are provided on all inputs and outputs; balanced and unbalanced designs exist. More elaborate designs are called matrix-mixers. Networks. Wired or wireless network routers are devices that connect multiple networks. Also see: gateway. Royal Device subwoofer Link for the ultimate subwoofer. RPM (Remote Programmable Multiprocessor) Rane Corporation's trademark for their line of DSP multiprocessor-based digital audio signal processing devices. RRIO (rail-to-rail input & output) Term created to indicate op amps with maximum input and output levels equal to the power supply voltages, without violating the registered term rail-to-rail®. RS (Recommended Standard) As in RS-232 serial interface standard, et al. RS-232 The standard serial interface (EIA/TIA-232-E)used on most personal computers. A format widely supported for bidirectional data transfer at low to moderate rates. The most common interface method used to connect personal computers with peripheral hardware and instruments. Use is restricted to one peripheral at a time and short distances. The standard originally called for DB-25 connectors, but now allows the smaller DB-9 version.

RS-422 The standard adopted in 1978 by the Electronics Industry Association as EIA422-A, Electrical characteristics of balanced voltage digital interface circuits. A universal balanced line twisted-pair standard for all long distance (~1000 m, or ~3300 ft) computer interconnections, daisy-chain style. [See NSC AN 759 for RS-422 vs. RS-485 comparison.] RS-485 The standard describing the electrical characteristics of a balanced interface used as a bus for master/slave operation. Allows up to 32 users to bridge onto the line (as opposed to RS-422's need to daisy chain the interconnections). Same as EIA-485. [See NSC AN 759 for RS-422 vs. RS-485 comparison.] RS-490 The standard adopted in 1981 by the EIA entitled Standard Test Methods of Measurement for Audio Amplifiers. The power amp testing standard for consumer products. RT60 See reverberation time. RTA (real-time analyzer) A constant percentage bandwidth spectrum analyzer. RTP See: real-time transport protocol. RU (rack unit) See "U." ruan Musical Instrument. A Chinese four-stringed round lute that dates back to the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC). rubato Music. Rhythmic flexibility within a phrase or measure; a relaxation of strict time. [AHD] Rube Goldberg (1883-1970) American cartoonist famous for his contraptions that accomplished something very simple in extremely complicated ways. His name is recognized as an adjective defined as: "Of, relating to, or being a contrivance that brings about by complicated means what apparently could have been accomplished simply." [AHD] rubidium A soft silvery-white metallic element of the alkali group that ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water, used in photocells and in the manufacture of vacuum tubes. [AHD] Used in pro audio applications to create the most precise and stable atomic audio clocks for recording studios. See for example Stanford Research Systems Perfection 10. rumba shakers See: maraca.

rumba shakers See: maraca. rumble Acoustics. Term for noise in the 31.5 Hz to 125 Hz range. [Air turbulence, for example.] Phonographs. A quantitative measure of phonograph turntable noise and vibration resulting from performance imperfections. The rms voltage is measured at the cartridge while playing a blank (silence) record, and the answer expressed in dB below a reference point. rumble filter See infrasonic filter. ruthenium Chemistry. Symbol Ru A hard silver-gray acid-resistant metallic element that is found in platinum ores and is used to harden platinum and palladium for jewelry and in alloys for nonmagnetic wear-resistant instrument pivots and electrical contacts. Atomic number 44; atomic weight 101.07; melting point 2,310°C; boiling point 3,900°C; specific gravity 12.41; valence 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. [AHD] In audio world it is found in the Ultrasone Edition 8 headphones used as a coating on the outer ear cups. RW 232 (also RaneWare) A trademark of Rane Corporation used to identify Rane's RS-232-based variant of the PA-422 AES standard. RYTMO (Reaching Youth Through Music Opportunities) "An after school music program designed to provide a positive, creative and professional environment for underserved youth who demonstrate musical, technical and/or business potential in the arts."

Pro Audio Reference S
70 volt line See constant-voltage. SAA (semantic audio analysis) The automatic extraction of meaning from audio and the means for representing it, typically as metadata. sabin A non-metric unit of sound absorption used in acoustical engineering. One sabin is the sound absorption of one square foot (or one square meter -- a metric sabin) of a perfectly absorbing surface--such as an open window. The sound absorption of a wall or some other surface is the area of the surface, in square feet, multiplied by a coefficient that depends on the material of the surface and on the frequency of the sound. These coefficients are carefully measured and tabulated. The unit honors Wallace Sabine (see below). Sabine used this unit, which he called the open window unit (owu), as early as 1911. [From Rowlett's How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement] Sabine, Wallace Clement Ware (1868-1919) American physicist and Harvard University professor who founded the systematic study of acoustics around 1895. Regarded as the father of the science of architectural acoustics. SAC (sound absorption coefficient) See: absorption. SACD® (Super Audio CD®) Also known as DSD® or Direct Stream Digital®, joint trademark of Sony and Philips for their proposal for the next generation CDstandard. Sony and Philips have split from the DVD ranks to jointly propose their own solution comprised of a 1-bit, 64-times oversampled direct-stream digital SACD format. The original SACD proposal was for a hybrid disc comprising two layers: a high density (HD) DSD layer in the middle, and a standard density CD layer at the bottom. The two layers are read from the same side of the disc; the CD laser reads the bottom reflective layer through the semi-transmissive HD layer, while the middle layer is read by the HD laser delivering high-quality, multichannel sound without sacrificing backward compatibility. The HD layer has three tracks: the innermost is for two-channel stereo; the middle is a six-channel mix; and the outer is for such additional information as liner notes, still images and video clips. Maximum playing time is 74 minutes. This proposal turned out to be too expensive, so the SACD first release is a single-layer SACD-only disc.

SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) The international trade organization comprised of 80,000 engineers, business executives, educators, and students representing 100 countries that functions as the resource for technical information and expertise used in designing, building, maintaining, and operating self-propelled vehicles for use on land or sea, in air or space. SAMPA (speech assessment methods phonetic alphabet) A computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters based on the IPA. sample rate conversion The process of converting one sample rate to another, e.g. 44.1 kHz to 48 kHz. Necessary for the communication and synchronization of dissimilar digital audio devices, e.g., digital tape machines to CD mastering machines. sample-and-hold (S/H) A circuit that captures and holds an analog signal for a finite period. The input S/H proceeds the A/D converter, allowing time for conversion. The output S/H follows the D/A converter, smoothing glitches. Sampling (Nyquist) Theorem A theorem stating that a bandlimited continuous waveform may be represented by a series of discrete samples if the sampling frequency is at least twice the highest frequency contained in the waveform. See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. sampling frequency or sampling rate The frequency or rate at which an analog signal is sampled or converted into digital data. Expressed in Hertz (cycles per second). For example, compact disc sampling rate is 44,100 samples per second or 44.1 kHz, however in pro audio other rates exist: common examples being 32 kHz, 48 kHz, and 50 kHz. [Historical note re 44.1 kHz vs. 44.056 kHz: Since the first commercial digital audio recorders used a standard helical scan video recorder for storage, there had to be a fixed relationship between sampling frequency and horizontal video frequency, so these frequencies could be derived from the same master clock by frequency division. For the NTSC 525-line TV system, a sampling frequency of 44,055.94 Hz was selected, whereas for the PAL 625-line system, a frequency of 44,100 Hz was chosen. The 0.1% difference shows up as an imperceptible pitch shift.] See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. sampling The process of representing the amplitude of a signal at a particular point in time.

SAN (storage area network) A network connecting host computers to storage servers and systems. SAN technology allows high-speed connection of multiple workstations to a centralized hard-disk network (via fiber optics interconnection), allowing each workstation to access any drive from any location (e.g., control rooms in DAW recording studios). sanxian Musical Instrument. Chinese 3-string fretless lute. SAR (successive approximation register) A type of analog-to-digital converter using a digital-to-analog converter to determine the output word successively, bit by bit. saser (sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) The ultrasonic acoustic version of a laser operating in the megahertz to terahertz range. Also see: Hail the sound "lasers." SAVVI (Sound, Audio Visual, and Video Integrators Council) One of ICIA's councils that focuses on the needs and interests of companies that install and integrate AV systems, and seeks to identify best practices. sawtooth wave A periodic waveform characterized by a 50% duty cycle and a Fourier series consisting of both even- and odd-ordered, equal phase, sinusoidal harmonic components of its fundamental frequency. The amplitudes (coefficients multiplying the magnitude of the fundamental sine wave) of the odd-ordered harmonics are the same as a square wave, while the amplitudes (re the fundamental) for the evenordered harmonics are -1/n, where n is the even harmonic number. Therefore the first few even harmonic multipliers are -1/2, -1/4, -1/6, ... etc., and the first few odd harmonic multipliers are 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, ... etc. Sax, Adolphe (1814-1894) Belgian musical instrument designer and inventor of the saxophone. SBR (spectral band replication) Audio Compression. An audio coding technology invented by Coding Technologies. scat Jazz singing using sounds instead of words. A scat singer is defined by Down Beat's Yearbook of Swing, 1939 as a "vocalist who sings rhythmically, but without using accepted English words." [Decharne] Schmitt, Otto Herbert (1913-1998) American scientist most noted for his inventing the Schmitt trigger, the differential amplifier and the cathode-coupled amplifier. Also see the IEEE tribute here.

Schmitt trigger Electronics. A solid state element that produces an output when the input exceeds a specified turn-on level, and whose output continues until the input falls below a specified turn-off level. [IEEE] The on and off levels have different values, making this a comparator with hysteresis. Invented by Otto Herbert Schmitt in 1934 while still a graduate student, he named it a "thermionic trigger" and didn't get it written up until he published it in 1938 [Otto H. Schmitt, "A Thermionic Trigger," Journal of Scientific Instruments 15 (January 1938): 24-26. A useful but highly technical review of the Schmitt trigger can be found in Bryan Hart, "Picturing Schmitt's Trigger," Electronics World (December 1999): 1040-1046. Schottky, Walter (1886-1976) German physicist whose work in solid-state physics and electronics resulted in many inventions that bear his name (Schottky effect, Schottky barrier, Schottky diode). He also invented the tetrode and (with Erwin Gerlach) the ribbon microphone and ribbon tweeter. Schottky noise See: shot noise. Schroeder diffuser See diffuser. Schroeder, Manfred R. (1926-2009) German physicist best known in the pro audio world for inventing the acoustic diffuser. science My favorite example of a common word that violates the "i before e except after c" rule. SCIN (shield current induced noise) Interconnection Wiring. The term coined by Neil Muncy in 1994 to describe the non-uniform magnetic coupling of shield current in balanced audio cables to the two signal conductors. SCMS (pronounced "scums") (serial copy management system) The copy protection scheme applied to consumer digital recording equipment -- it does not apply to professional machines. This standard allows unlimited analog-to-digital copies, but only one digital-to-digital copy. This is done by two control bits (the C and L bits) contained within the digital audio data. Scott, H. H. See: Homer Hosmer Scott. SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) See: thyristor. scrap flutter (also called frequency-modulation (friction) noise) Electronics. Frequency modulation of the signal in the range above approximately 100 Hz resulting in distortion which may be perceived as a noise added to the signal (that is, a noise not

tortion which may be perceived as a noise added to the signal (that is, a noise not present in the absence of a signal). [IEEE] scratching Hip Hop. A turntablist technique originated by Grand Wizzard Theodore developed from Grandmaster Flash. screech analysis Serious but fun analysis done by MC2 System Design Group. [Check it out; you won't be disappointed.] screeched Often cited as the longest one-syllable word in the English language, however scratched, scrounged, scrunched, stretched, and the plural nouns straights and strengths (all with nine letters) qualify. screen Electronics. Alternate term used to mean the same as shield. scribble strip Mixing Consoles. The location used to identify each input and output of a mixing console. Often a plastic strip that can be labeled with a dry marker and erased and used again, or where temporary tape is applied, removed and new tape applied for the next performance. . scrim Theater. A transparent fabric used as a drop in the theater to create special effects of lights or atmosphere. [AHD] scrum (Abbreviation of scrummage.) Software Engineering. A framework for management of software development projects. [In Rugby, a scrum refers to the manner of restarting the game after a minor infraction.] 1. Sports a. A play in Rugby in which the two sets of forwards mass together around the ball and, with their heads down, struggle to gain possession of the ball. b. The mass or formation of players during such a play. 2. Chiefly British A disordered or confused situation involving a number of people. [AHD] SCSI port (pronounced "scuzzy") (small computer system interface) A standard 8-bit parallel interface used to connect up to seven peripherals, such as connecting a CDROM player or document scanner to a microcomputer. SD (super density compact disc) See DVD SDDS® (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound) Sony's competing format for the digital soundtrack system for motion picture playback. The signal is optically printed outside the sprocket holes, along both sides of the print. Sony recently developed a single camera system that records all three digital formats (Dolby Digital, DTS & SDDS) on a single inventory print, thus setting the stage for long term coexistence of all

formats. SDIF (Sony digital interface format) Sony's professional digital audio interface utilizing two BNC-type connectors, one for each audio channel, and a separate BNC-type connector for word synchronization, common to both channels. All interconnection is done using unbalanced 75 ohm coaxial cable of the exact same length (to preserve synchronization), and is not intended for long distances. SDK (software development kit) Computer Software. A programming set-of-rules that enables development of applications for existing program families or platforms. SDMI (Secure Digital Music Initiative) A multi-industry group defining a specification to protect digital music distribution. s-domain Mathematics. The Laplace domain for continuous time systems. Contrast with Z-domain. SDR (software-defined radio) Take an antenna, plug it directly into an ADC, add DSP, software, and—voilà!—a radio. Click the link for details. sea organ Musical Instrument. A 230-foot-long organ built into a stone staircase on the shores of Croatia. Located below its steps are 35 tubes with whistle openings that produce sounds when waves push air through the structure. Seattle sound See grunge. second (time) Abbr. s also sec A unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an minute (time). Technically defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. [I told you it was technical.] second (plane angle) Abbr. " A unit of angular measurement equal to one sixtieth of a minute (plane angle). second-order filter Electronics. An electronic filter described by a transfer function having quadratic equations in the numerator and denominator. SED (Surface-conduction Electron-emitting Display) Video display technology. Proprietary flat-panel, high-resolution display technology jointly developed by Canon and Toshiba, characterized by low power consumption and a very high quality image comparable to CRT.

segue Music. To make a transition directly from one section or theme to another. [AHD] seismic noise Geology. Small vibrations usually thought of as noise are now being used to gather new information about the Earth's crust. Examples include ocean waves crashing on the beach and storms passing by causing small changes in air pressure. self-noise Microphones. Residual noise, or the inherent noise level of a microphone when no signal is present. Microphone inherent self-noise is usually specified as the equivalent SPL level which would give the same output voltage, with typical values being 15-20 dB SPL. Sel-Sync™ (Selective Synchronous) Recording. Ampex trademark for their revolutionary 8-track recorder developed in 1955 for Les Paul by Ampex engineer Mort Fujii. Interestingly, upon advice of their attorney, Ampex did not apply for a patent. SEMA (Specialty Equipment Market Association) An organization for the producers and marketers of specialty equipment products and services for the automotive aftermarket. Today's group grew out of the original SEMA started in 1963, known then as the "Speed Equipment Manufacturers Association" and includes aftermarket audio manufacturers. semantics 1. Linguistics The study or science of meaning in language. 2. Linguistics The study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent. Also called semasiology. 3. The meaning or the interpretation of a word, sentence, or other language form: We're basically agreed; let's not quibble over semantics. [AHD] semicolon Half of a large intestine. semitone Music. An interval equal to a half tone in the standard diatonic scale. Also called half-step, half-tone. [AHD] Contrast with whole tone. Sennheiser, Fritz (1912-2010) German PhD engineer who founded Sennheiser in the late '40s, in post-war Germany. sensitivity 1. Audio electromechanics. The standard way to rate audio devices like microphones, headphones and loudspeakers. A standard input value is applied and the resultant output is measured and stated. loudspeaker sensitivity The standard is to apply one watt and measure the sound pressure level (SPL) at a distance of one meter. [IEC 60268-5]

sound pressure level (SPL) at a distance of one meter. [IEC 60268-5] headphone sensitivity The standard is to apply one milliwatt and then measure the sound pressure level at the earpiece (using a dummy head with built-in microphones). [IEC 60268-7]. microphone sensitivity The standard is to apply a 1 kHz sound source equal to 94 dB- SPL (one pascal) and then measure the output level and express it in mV/PA (millivolts per pascal). [IEC 60268-4] 2. Audio electronics. The minimum input signal required to produce a standard output level. power amplifier sensitivity The input level required to produce one watt output into a specified load impedance, usually 4 or 8 ohms. [EIA-490] radio receiver sensitivity The input level required to produce a specified signalto-noise ratio. sensory inhibition See Haas Effect. separation mastering Recording. A specific group of tracks used in mastering, e.g., drums, bass, vocals, etc. Compare with stems, which are individual tracks instead of a group of tracks. serial interface A connection which allows transmission of only one bit at a time. An example in the PC world is a RS-232 port, primarily used for modems and mice. A serial interface transmits each bit in a word in sequence over one communication link. See also parallel interface. serializer A parallel-to-serial data converter; used in buses and networks. series circuit Electronics Circuits. The connection of components such that the same current passes through each device in completing its path to the source of supply. For example series connection of a battery is made by connecting the positive terminal of each successive cell to the negative terminal of the next adjacent cell so that their voltage are additive. [IEEE] series-mode surge suppression AC Power. Operates by storing the surge energy in a resonant circuit and slowly discharging it back into the power line. Claimed to overcome shunt-mode surge suppression shortcomings, specifically those of finite lifetimes, degrading with time and coupling noise into the ground system. server A shared master computer on a local area network (LAN) used to store files and distribute them to clients upon demand.

servo-loop; servo-locked loop; servo-mechanism A self-regulating feedback system or mechanism. Typically a feedback system consisting of a sensing element, an amplifier, and a (servo)motor, used in the automatic control of a mechanical device (such as a loudspeaker). In audio, usually the name applies to a class of electronic control circuits comprised of an amplifier and a feedback path from the output signal that is compared with a reference signal. This topology creates an error signal that is the difference between the reference and the output signal. The error signal causes the output to do whatever is necessary to reduce the error to zero. A loudspeaker system with motional feedback is such a system. A sensor is attached to the speaker cone and provides a feedback signal that is compared against the driving signal to create more accurate control of the loudspeaker. Another example is Rane's servo-locked limiter™ which is an audio peak limiter circuit where the output is compared against a reference signal (the threshold setting) creating an error signal that reduces the gain of the circuit until the error is zero. servo-locked limiter™ Rane Corporation trademark for their proprietary limiter circuit. See servo-loop. sesquipedalian n. A long word. adj. 1. Given to or characterized by the use of long words. 2. Long and ponderous; polysyllabic. [I am not.] SET (single-electron transistor) Solid-state Physics. A working transistor built around a single electron. One application is the quantum microphone. SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) A testing method used in quantifying highspeed data converters and high-frequency communication integrated circuits. It is the difference in dB between the desired output signal and any undesired harmonics found in the output spectrum. See Intersil Application Note TB326 for measuring details. SFG See Shepard function generator. Shannon, Claude E. (1916-2001) American mathematician and physicist who is credited as the father of information theory (For the mathematically advanced, see his famous paper, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" published in 1948 in The Bell). In his master's thesis Shannon showed how an algebra invented by the British mathematician, George Boole in the mid-1800s could represent the workings of switches and relays in electronic circuits. His paper has been called "possibly the most important master's thesis in the century." See the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters.

shaped triangular See TPDF. Shearer Horn Loudspeaker. After inventor Douglas Shearer, a huge two-way system that marked the beginning of modern sound systems and found instant fame in motion picture theaters. It received a technical Academy Award in 1936. sheath See jacket. shelving response Term used to describe a flat (or shelf) end-band shape when applied to program equalization. Also known as bass and treble tone control responses. sheng Musical Instrument. A Chinese mouth organ. Shepard function generator (aka barberpole tone, also Shepard's tone) Synthesizers. A circuit that produces a continuously ascending or descending tone. Named after American psychologist Roger Newland Shepard, who wrote a paper in 1964 describing his cognitive experiments using this technique ["Circularity in Judgments of Relative Pitch," J. Acous. Soc., vol. 36, no. 12, 1964, pp. 2346-2353]. shepherd's pipe Musical Instrument. A miniature bagpipe. SHF See frequency bands. shield Electronics. 1. A structure or arrangement of metal plates or mesh designed to protect a piece of electronic equipment from electrostatic or magnetic interference. [AHD] 2. As normally applied to instrumentation cables, refers to the metallic sheath (usually copper or aluminum), applied over the insulation of a conductor or conductors for the purpose of providing means for reducing electrostatic coupling between the conductors so shielded and others which may be susceptible to or which may be generating unwanted (noise) electrostatic fields. shielding, proper See Steve Macatee's Considerations in Grounding and Shielding and the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection. shofar Musical Instrument. A trumpet made of a ram's horn, blown by the ancient Hebrews during religious ceremonies and as a signal in battle, now sounded in the synagogue during Rosh Hashanah and at the end of Yom Kippur. [AHD] short circuit Electronics. The condition where two or more nodes are directly connected together, resulting in zero voltage between the nodes. shotgun microphone See: microphone polar response.

shot noise Solid-state physics. Noise caused by current fluctuations due to the discrete nature of charge carriers and random or unpredictable (or both) nature of charged particles from an emitter. [IEEE] Also called Schottky noise. ShotSpotter® Acoustics. Leaders in gunshot and explosion detection and location. [Amazing technology.] show control See MIDI show control. shunt-mode surge suppression AC Power. Technology which shorts surge currents to ground using MOVs and other TVS devices. SI (International System of Units) The International System of Units, universally abbreviated SI (from the French Le Système International d'Unités), is the modern metric system of measurement. SI is the dominant measurement system not only in science, but also in international commerce. See Barry N. Taylor's Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). This free 86 page document is the definitive source of SI info. SIAP (System for Improved Acoustic Performance) An EAE system developed by this Netherlands company. sibilant Linguistics. adj. Of, characterized by, or producing a hissing sound like that of (s) or (sh): the sibilant consonants; a sibilant bird call. A sibilant speech sound, such as English (s), (sh), (z), or (zh). [AHD] SID (slew-induced distortion) See DIM/TIM. side-chain In a signal processing circuit, such as one employing a VCA, a secondary signal path in parallel with the main signal path in which the condition or parameter of an audio signal that will cause a processor to begin working is sensed or detected. Typical applications use the side-chain information to control the gain of a VCA. The circuit may detect level or frequency or both. Devices utilizing side-chains for control generally fall into the classification of dynamic controllers. sidetone Telephony. The feature of a telephone handset that allows you to hear yourself talk, acting as feedback that the phone is really working. Sidetones are actually short line echoes bled back into the earpiece. Too much sidetone sounds like an echo and too little sounds so quiet that people think the phone is broken. Sidetones are good for people but can cause acoustic feedback in teleconferencing systems if not treated properly.

siemens Abbr. S A unit of electrical conductance in the International System, equal to one ampere per volt. [After Siemens, Ernst Werner von.] Siemens, Ernst Werner von (1816-1892) German engineer who made notable improvements to telegraphic and electrical apparatus, and founded the company, Siemens. He patented the first loudspeaker in 1877. His brother Karl Wilhelm, later Sir Charles William Siemens (1823-1883), invented a regenerative steam engine and designed a steamship for laying long-distance cables. [AHD] sigma-delta See delta-sigma modulation. signal ground The common electrical reference point of a circuit, usually separate from the chassis ground but tied together at the power supply. See the RaneNote Sound System Interconnection. signal levels Audio signal levels: see levels. signal present indicator or SIG PRES An indicator found on pro audio signal processing units that lights once the input signal level exceeds a preset point. There is no standard specifying when a SIG PRES light should illuminate, although common practice makes it -20 dBu (77.5 mV), or the pro audio de facto standard line-level of +4 dBu (1.23 volts). signal-to-noise ratio See S/N. sihu Musical Instrument. Chinese 4-string huqin. SIL (speech interference level) The numerical part of the RC noise rating. silence Meaning without sound, yet "The Sound of Silence," was a mega hit for Simon and Garfunkel -- no zen intended. But the most interesting story about silence is told by David Lister in his article "Big noises at odds over the sound of silence," reproduced here: 'The Sound of Silence' may have prompted engaging harmonies from Simon and Garfunkel -- but a more literal appreciation of the absence of noise has prompted one of the more curious copyright disputes of modern times. Mike Batt, the man behind the Wombles and Vanessa Mae, has put a silent 60-second track on the album of his latest classical chart-topping protégés, the Planets. This has enraged representatives of the avant-garde, experimentalist composer John Cage, who died in 1992. The silence on his group's album clearly sounds uncanni-

Cage, who died in 1992. The silence on his group's album clearly sounds uncannily like 4'33", the silence composed by Cage in his prime. Batt said last night: "I've received a letter on behalf of John Cage's music publishers. I was in hysterics when I read their letter. "As my mother said when I told her, 'which part of the silence are they claiming you nicked?'. They say they are claiming copyright on a piece of mine called 'One Minute's Silence' on the Planets' album, which I credit Batt/Cage just for a laugh. But my silence is original silence, not a quotation from his silence." silent disco Term coined by the organizers for Britain's famed Glastonbury music festival, where to meet noise restriction requirements everyone was given wireless headphones for listening and wearing while dancing. Apparently it is quite a sight to see all these wriggling bodies synchronized to silence. Silicon Dust™ Nickname for microchips. Trademarked name first coined by National Semiconductor to describe the world's smallest op amp (as of May 5, 1999), the LMV921. Used in surface mount technology (SMT), they are about the size of a single letter on this page. silver One of the English language words without a rhyme -- others are "month," "orange" & "purple." simplex power Old telephone term for phantom power. SIN (signal induced noise) Tongue-in-cheek term created by John K. Chester for cable shield induced noise found when the analog audio cable shield is grounded at one end only. SINAD (pronounced "sin-add") or S/N+D (signal-to-noise and distortion) Acronym for the ratio: (signal + noise + distortion) / (noise + distortion). Or, as Metzler explains, it is the reciprocal of THD+N stated in decibels (dB). Originally developed for measuring FM receivers, it now also appears on A/D data sheets. Generally, the term "SINAD" is favored by the communication industry, while the audio industry used "S/N+D," but they both mean the same thing. It is the preferred way to specify the dynamic range, or maximum S/N, since the noise and distortion products are measured in the presence of a signal. (A signal is applied to the input, the output is passed through a notch filter to remove the signal and what remains is measured. Then the ratio of the rms value of the measured output signal to the rms value of

everything else coming out [i.e., noise + distortion] is expressed in decibels.) This gives a more accurate picture of real dynamic performance. Sometimes the measurement is stated for three reference levels of 0 dBFS, -20 dBFS, and 60 dBFS. sinc function Mathermatics. The unnormalized definition is sin (x)/x; normalizing adds pi to each x-term. In pro audio it is used in aliasing to design sinc filters. sine Abbr. sin Mathematics. 1. The ordinate of the endpoint of an arc of a unit circle centered at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system, the arc being of length x and measured counterclockwise from the point (1, 0) if x is positive or clockwise if x is negative. 2. In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the side opposite an acute angle to the length of the hypotenuse. [AHD] sine curve Mathematics. The graph of the equation y = sin x. Also called sinusoid. [AHD] sine wave Physics. A waveform with deviation that can be graphically expressed as the sine curve. [AHD] sine wave speech A term coined by psychologists Robert Remez and David Pisoni to describe their experiment consisting of synthesizing three simultaneous wavering sine wave tones. The sound was nothing like speech, yet participants could hear words thus suggesting that the brain can hear speech content in sounds that do not even resemble speech. [Pinker] sinusoid Mathematics. See sine curve. sitar Musical Instrument. A stringed instrument of India made of seasoned gourds and teak and having a track of 20 movable frets with 6 or 7 metal playing strings above and usually 13 sympathetic resonating strings below. [AHD] Six Sigma Abbr. 6s and 6 Sigma In 1986, Bill Smith, a senior engineer and scientist at Motorola, introduced the concept of Six Sigma (a registered trademark of Motorola, Inc.) to standardize the way defects are counted. Simply put, it is a statistical methodology for improving quality control. The Greek letter "sigma" is used in statistics to represent one standard deviation. This measures how far a given process deviates from perfection. Six sigma refers to six standard deviations, which equals 99.99985% of the total (1.5 defects per million). The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many defects you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to zero defects as possible. However, to-

day six sigma methods foster a huge business in and of itself. ska Music. Popular music originating in Jamaica in the 1960s, having elements of rhythm and blues, jazz, and calypso and marked by a fast tempo and a strongly accented offbeat. [From the phrase (Love) Ska (voovie), greeting used by Jamaican bassist Cluet Johnson, one of the early creators of ska, or imitative of the sound of a guitar in tandem with a rim click on a snare drum.] [AHD skin effect 1. Electrical cable. The tendency of high frequency (RF and higher) current to be concentrated at the surface of the conductor. [Long answer: Electrical current seeks the path of lowest impedance, which for low frequencies equals the path of least resistance. This means that at DC and low frequencies the current fills the entire conductor. However for higher frequencies above a few MHz the path of lowest impedance becomes the path of least inductance. The magnetic fields created by AC signals are strongest at the center of the conductor. This produces a higher inductance at the center than on the surface. Therefore the current bunches on the surface or 'skin' of the conductor. ] 2. Induction heating. Tendency of an alternating current to concentrate in the areas of lowest impedance. slack-key Music. Of or being a style of Hawaiian popular music played by fingerpicking an acoustic guitar that has been tuned to any of various open chords. [AHD] slapback See slap echo below. slap echo also called slapback 1. Acoustics. A single echo resulting from parallel nonabsorbing (i.e., reflective) walls, characterized by lots of high frequency content. Socalled because you can test for slap echo by sharply clapping your hands and listening for the characteristic sound of the echo in the mid-range. Slap echo smears a stereo sound field by destroying the critical phase relationships necessary to form an accurate sound stage. 2. Recording. Devices that simulate slap echo are popular in recording. One distinct repeat echo is added to an instrument sound resulting in a very live sound similar to what you would hear in an auditorium. slew rate 1. The term used to define the maximum rate of change of an amplifier's output voltage with respect to its input voltage. In essence, slew rate is a measure of an amplifier's ability to follow its input signal. It is measured by applying a large amplitude step function (a signal starting at 0 volts and "instantaneously" jumping to some large level [without overshoot or ringing], creating a step-like look on an oscilloscope) to the amplifier under test and measuring the slope of the output waveform. For a "perfect" step input (i.e., one with a rise time at least 100 times faster than the amplifier under test), the output will not be vertical; it will exhibit a pronounced slope. The slope is caused by the amplifier having a finite amount of current

nounced slope. The slope is caused by the amplifier having a finite amount of current available to charge and discharge its internal compensation capacitor. 2. Mathematics. Slew rate is defined to be the maximum derivative of the output voltage with respect to time. That is, it is a measure of the worst case delta change of voltage over a delta change in time, or the rate-of-change of the voltage vs. time. For sinusoidal signals (audio), this equals 2 pi times the maximum frequency, times the maximum peak output voltage: SR = (2 pi) (Fmax) (Vpeak). SLS (scalable lossless coding) Popular name for the MPEG-4 standard, ISO/IEC 14496-3, for lossless audio coding. This technology combines lossy audio coding, lossless audio coding and scalable audio coding in a single framework. [Now the question the begs to be asked is why "SLS" as opposed to, oh, I don't know, say, "SLC"? No one seems to know. I'm betting it is a French language thing. If you know and can document it, write me.] slush pump A trombone. [Decharne] smoke From the phlogiston theory of electronics, it is smoke that makes ICs and transistors work. The proof of this is self-evident because every time you let the smoke out of an IC or transistor it stops working -- elementary. This has been verified through exhaustive testing, particularly regarding power amplifier ICs and transistors. (Incidentally, wires carry smoke from one device to another.) [Origin unknown but classic.] smoothing filter See anti-imaging filter. SMPS (switch-mode, or switchmode, power supply) Electronics. An electronic power supply characterized by switching a power transistor on and off with a variable duty cycle whose average is the desired output voltage. Also known as a chopper. See Billings for an excellent design handbook. SMPTE (pronounced "simty") (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) A professional engineering society that establishes standards, including a time code standard used for synchronization. SMT (surface mounting technology) The science of attaching and interconnecting electronic devices, whose entire body projects in front of the mounting surface, as opposed to through-hole devices found on the earliest printed circuit boards. With surface mount technology all components sit on the surface of printed circuit boards and are soldered to conductive pads. With through-hole parts, component leads are placed through holes in the boards and then soldered from the back side. SMT is more costeffective and allows far greater density of parts.

effective and allows far greater density of parts. S/MUX Abbreviation used for several different things: 1. Sample Multiplexing. Proprietary technology licensed by Sonorus used to transmit high bandwidth digital audio using existing lower bandwidth technology. 2. Serial Multiplexer manufactured by MicroRidge. 3. Subtitle Multiplexer manufactured by Cavena. S/N or SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) An audio measurement of the residual noise of a unit, stated as the ratio of signal level (or power) to noise level (or power), normally expressed in decibels. The "signal" reference level must be stated. Typically this is either the expected nominal operating level, say, +4 dBu for professional audio, or the maximum output level, usually around +20 dBu. The noise is measured using a true rms type voltmeter over a specified bandwidth, and sometimes using weighting filters. All these thing must be stated for a S/N spec to have meaning. Simply saying a unit has a SNR of 90 dB means nothing, without giving the reference level, measurement bandwidth, and any weighting filers. A system's maximum S/N is called the dynamic range. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. snake or audio snake Live Sound. The nickname for the cable running from the stage of a live performance to the main mixing console, which is usually set-up in the middle or rear of the audience (in spite of being called FOH). It typically contains one shielded pair (STP) of wires for each of the stage microphones. The name comes from the multiconductor cable looking sort of snake-like. snapshot A term coined by British hunters to describe a quick shot with a gun. First applied to cameras at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893 where Kodak rented and popularized the first point-and-shoot camera. So called because the photographs taken were fast. S/N+D or S/(N+D) See SINAD. Snell's Law States the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction and the indices of refraction of any two mediums. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) The most common method by which network management applications can query a management agent using a supported MIB (Management Information Base). SNMP operates at the OSI Application layer. The IP (Internet Protocol)-based SNMP is the basis of most network management software, to the extent that today the phrase "managed device" implies SNMP compliance. snollygoster Defined in 1895 as "a fellow who wants office, regardless of party, plat-

snollygoster Defined in 1895 as "a fellow who wants office, regardless of party, platform or principles and who ... gets there by the sheer force of monumental talknophical assumancy". [McQuain, Never Enough Words] snoring Doesn't happen in space because there is less airway obstruction in space according to flight surgeon Dr. J.D. Polk: "Earthly snoring occurs when gravity pulls the tongue and soft tissues in the rear of your mouth backward," he said. "If your airway is partially obstructed you get these tissues flapping. In microgravity, the tongue and the jaw do not fall back in the throat, so there is less airway obstruction in space." Snow, William B. (1903-1968) American engineer best remembered for his foundation work for stereophonic reproduction in large rooms. See U.S. Patent 2,137,032 Sound Reproducing System. His paper titled "Basic Principles of Stereophonic Sound," Stereophonic Techniques: An Anthology, edited by John Eargle (Audio Engineering Society, ISBN 0-937803-08-1, NY, 1986, pp. 9-31) is considered the best introduction to this subject. Other papers of interest by Snow are collected in Sound Reinforcement: An Anthology, edited by David L. Klepper (Audio Engineering Society, NY, 1978). His grandson, John Snow, tells the story of how William used to play binaural wire recordings for them when they were kids, which he describes as "lots of surreal, cool stuff." Also see: Steinberg. SNS (sudden noise syndrome) Term coined by Karl Brunvoll of Renkus-Heinz to describe high-level intermittent noise (oscillaiton). Soca (soul calypso) Music. First named for a dance in Trinidad derived from calypso. sodar (sonic detection and ranging) "A meteorological instrument also known as a wind profiler which measures the scattering of sound waves by atmospheric turbulence." From link. Compare with sonar and radar. soft clipping See clipping. software driver See: driver. sol Music. The fifth tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD] sol-fa Music. The set of syllables do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, and ti, used to represent the tones of the scale. [AHD] solfeggio Music. 1. Use of the sol-fa syllables to note the tones of the scale; solmization. 2. A singing exercise in which the sol-fa syllables are used instead of text. [AHD]

solidus Printing. A virgule; a slash. solo A term used in recording and live-sound mixing to describe monitoring (via headphones) a single channel without affecting the main outputs (see PFL) -- same as cueing; however, it can also refer to certain console designs where it replaces the main mix with the soloed channel (called destructive solo). sonar (sound navigation and ranging) 1. A system using transmitted and reflected underwater sound waves to detect and locate submerged objects or measure the distance to the floor of a body of water. 2. An apparatus, as one in a submarine, using sonar. 3. Echolocation. [AHD] Compare with sodar and radar. sone A subjective unit of loudness, as perceived by a person with normal hearing, equal to the loudness of a pure tone having a frequency of 1,000 hertz at 40 decibels sound pressure level. [AHD] sonofusion Name given by inventor Dr. Rusi P. Taleyarkhan, Purdue University physicist, for his cold fusion experiments combining bursts of ultrasonic high-frequency sound waves with neutron pulses. sonorous 1. Having or producing sound. 2. Having or producing a full, deep, or rich sound. [AHD] soss 1. A sound made by the impact of a body on water; a splash. 2. A muffled sound (as) made by the impact of a heavy soft body; a thud; a heavy fall. Chiefly in with a soss. [OED] sound 1.a. Vibrations transmitted through an elastic material or a solid, liquid, or gas, with frequencies in the approximate range of 20 to 20,000 hertz, capable of being detected by human ears. Sound (in air) at a particular point is a rapid variation in the air pressure around a steady-state value (atmospheric pressure) - that is, sound is a disturbance in the surrounding medium. b. Transmitted vibrations of any frequency. c. The sensation stimulated in the ears by such vibrations in the air or other medium. d. Such sensations considered as a group. 2. Auditory material that is recorded, as for a movie. 3. Meaningless noise. 4. Music. A distinctive style, as of an orchestra or a singer. 5. Oceanography. A long, relatively wide body of water, larger than a strait or a channel, connecting larger bodies of water (as in Puget Sound where I live and work). [AHD] Also see the RaneNote: Signal Processing Fundamentals. See: velocity of sound. sound absorption See absorption.

sound absorption See absorption. sound bath Many definitions but generally a meditative experience resulting from an emersion in sound, either music, chanting, chimes, singing crystal bowls, etc., all said to produce calming effects. sound card Computers. An accessory card or outboard unit that allows and controls audio in and out from a computer. soundfield microphone A specialized microphone array comprised of four cardiod or supercardiod microphones: three to measure left-right, front-back, up-down sound pressure levels and another that measures overall sound pressure level. This arrangement is known as the A-Format, while another one, the B-format, is created by signal processing. This forms the heart of an Ambisonics and other such systems. sound intensity See: intensity. sound level meter Acoustics. Electronic instrument for measuring sound pressure levels. sound masking Acoustics. The science of using one type of sound to cover up (mask) other sounds. See: Chanaud for the best in-depth source on this subject. sound mirrors Acoustics. Giant parabolic reflector concrete structures used as an early warning system to detect enemy aircraft approaching Great Britain in the 1920s and 1930s before the advent of radar. Great photos here. sound morphing Combining two sounds to produce a new sound having characteristics of the two originals. sound occlusion See occlusion effect. sound off To express one's views vigorously: He was always sounding off about his boss. [AHD] sound pressure The value of the rapid variation in air pressure due to a sound wave, measured in pascals, microbars, or dynes - all used interchangeable, but pascals is now the preferred term. Instantaneous sound pressure is the peak value of the air pressure, often used in noise control measurements. Effective sound pressure is the rms value of the instantaneous sound pressure taken at a point over a period of time. sound pressure level or SPL 1. A measure of intensity. The rms sound pressure expressed in dB re 20 microPa (the lowest threshold of hearing for 1 kHz). [As points of reference, 0 dB-SPL equals the threshold of hearing, while 140 dB-SPL equals irrepara-

reference, 0 dB-SPL equals the threshold of hearing, while 140 dB-SPL equals irreparable hearing damage.] See: inverse square law 2. Blue whales, the largest living animals, said to make the loudest sounds by any living source. Their low-frequency pulses have been measured at 188 dB-SPL and detected 530 miles away according to The Guinness Book of World Records®. [Note: there is no mention of the reference level, so if this is referenced to the normal 20 microPA for gases then it is, in fact, 26 dB less, or 162 dB-SPL due to the reference level for water being 1 microPA (per ANSI S1.1-1994) -- still an impressive number.] 3. In addition to Blue whales Sperm whales are claimed to make impulsive sounds (clicks) up to 235 dB rms (re 1uPa @ 1m) according to Applied Signal Processing by T. Dutoit and F. Marques [Thanks JMF, Spain] Sound Recording History Fantastic site put together by David Morton. sound reinforcement See SR. Sound Shaper® Registered trademark (now expired) of ADC (Audio Dynamics Corporation) for their line of equalizers/analyzers that pioneered use of RTAs and equalization for the home and studio environment. Sousa, John Philip (1854-1932) American bandmaster and composer who wrote comic operas and marches such as Stars and Stripes Forever (1897). [AHD] sousaphone Musical Instrument. A large brass wind instrument, similar in range to the tuba, having a flaring bell and a shape adapted to being carried in marching bands. [After John Philip Sousa.] [AHD] spanning tree protocol See: STP. SPARS (Society of Professional Audio Recording Services) Founded in 1979, a professional trade organization that unites the manufacturers of audio recording equipment and providers of services with the users. Their goal is worldwide promotion of communication, education and service among all those who make and use recording equipment. Often confused with NARAS. spatial Of, relating to, involving, or having the nature of space. [AHD] Spatializer A single-ended spatial enhancement technique developed by Desper Products, Inc., a subsidiary of Spatializer Audio Labs, Inc. Widely licensed in both the consumer audio and multimedia computing markets, the Desper, or Spatializer process is normally used as a postprocessor. The Spatializer technology manipulates the original signal in a way that causes the listener to perceive a stereo image beyond the boundaries of the two loudspeakers. It claims to place sounds in front of the lis-

tener in an arc of 180 degrees, with excellent imaging and fidelity. S/PDIF (Sony/Philips digital interface format, also seen w/o slash as SPDIF) A consumer version of the AES3 (old AES/EBU) digital audio interconnection standard based on coaxial cable and RCA connectors. See the RaneNote Interfacing AES3 and S/PDIF Speakon® See connectors. spectra A plural of spectrum. In pro audio use, the distribution of frequency of a sound signal, especially the distribution of sound energy, arranged in order of frequency wavelengths. spectral band replication See SBR. spectrogram A graphic or photographic representation of a spectrum. [AHD] spectrum 1. Physics The distribution of a characteristic of a physical system or phenomenon, especially: a. The distribution of energy emitted by a radiant source, as by an incandescent body, arranged in order of wavelengths. b. The distribution of atomic or subatomic particles in a system, as in a magnetically resolved molecular beam, arranged in order of masses. 2. A graphic or photographic representation of such a distribution. [AHD] spectrum analyzer Audio Test Equipment. A type of electronic measurement device used to display the amplitude/frequency components of a continuous signal, as opposed to the amplitude/time domain oscilloscope. The formal IEEE definitions are " (1) An instrument generally used to display the power distribution of an incoming signal as a function of frequency. (2) An instrument that measures the power of a complex signal in many bands. The frequency bands can be either constant absolute bandwidth (e.g., FFT analyzer), or constant percentage bandwidth (e.g., RTA analyzer)." speech intelligibility See STI, RASTI , ALCONS and STIpa. Also Peter Mapp's overview article "Measuring Intelligibility" in S&VC magazine and John Murray's It's The Intelligibility in Live Sound International magazine. speech interference level (SIL) The numerical part of the RC noise rating. speed of sound See velocity of sound. spell checker A software program used by word processors to tell you that the fol-

spell checker A software program used by word processors to tell you that the following truism has no spelling errors: "Dew knot trussed yore spell chequer two fined awl mistakes." spherical wave Acoustics. Sound waves that radiate out from a point source into open space are concentric spheres. SPICE (simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis) A computer circuit analysis program first developed and written by L. W. Nagel and D. O. Pederson of the EECS (Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences) Department of UC Berkeley¹. This was not the first simulation program by members of UC Berkeley's EECS Department. SPICE evolved from forerunners BIAS² and CANCER³. The SPICE program was used extensively for classroom instruction and graduate research. As such, each year it was refined and expanded by each new batch of graduate students (yes, even I worked on SPICE, helping develop op amp models during my graduate years at UC Berkeley) until it expanded beyond Berkeley's domain through licensing and the advent of mini and personal computers beginning in 1981. Indeed, PSPICE (Personal SPICE) developed in 1984 by Wolfram Blume (first doing business as Blume Engineering, then MicroSim, acquired by OrCAD, now owned by Cadence), the first version of SPICE for personal computers, is now the industry standard for circuit-simulation. References 1. L.W. Nagel and D.O. Pederson, "Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE)," presented at the 16th Midwest Symposium on Circuit Theory, Waterloo, Ontario, April 12, 1973. 2. W.J. McCalla and W.G. Howard, Jr., "BIAS-3 -- A Program for the Nonlinear DC analysis of Bipolar Transistor Circuits," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-6, Feb. 1971, PP. 14-19. 3. L. Nagel and R. Rohrer, "Computer Analysis of Nonlinear Circuits, Excluding Radiation (CANCER)," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-6, Aug. 1971, pp. 166182. spider Loudspeakers. The assembly which holds the voice coil of a dynamic loudspeaker centered in the magnetic gap. The spider is a corrugated circular piece of specially treated fabric. The name comes from the early days of loudspeakers when it was made of a plastic material that resembled the legs of a spider. [White] SPIF (sales promotion incentive fund) Same as #3 following: spiff 1. To make attractive, stylish, or up-to-date: spiffed up the old storefront. 2. Attractiveness or charm in appearance, dress, or manners: "He may need more than spiff to get

tiveness or charm in appearance, dress, or manners: "He may need more than spiff to get him through the bad patches ahead" James Wolcott (Possibly from dialectal spiff welldressed) [AHD] 3. Giveaways (usually in the form of money) by manufacturers as added incentive ("make attractive") to personnel selling their goods. Compare with swag. spike fiddle Musical Instruments. A type of string instrument in which the neck passes through the sound chest to protrude as a spike at the lower end; the strings are attached to it. The instrument is known in many parts of the Middle East and Central and South-east Asia. [Sadie] Member of the rebab family of musical instruments. spintronics Electronics. Shorten form for spin-based electronics, it describes technology that makes use of the spin state of electrons. spiral quad Same as star quad; see cables. spirant See fricative. spit harp Slang for a harmonica. SPL See sound pressure level. SPL controller See leveler. splitbox See: splitter. split cue DJ Mixers. Headphone cueing system utilizing a pan control to choose between what is cued and what is playing. In its normal mode the cued program feeds one ear and the master, or program (what is playing) feeds the other ear. This makes beat matching easy and convenient since you listen to both turntables (or CDs, or MP3 files, or any combination) at the same time. Rotating the pan control fully CW, or CCW, puts a monoed signal into one ear with no signal going to the other, and vice-versa. Rotating the pan control to its center position routes equal amounts of cue signal to one ear and program signal to the other ear. Pioneered in 1986 by Rane with the introduction of the MP 24 DJ Mixer. splitter (aka splitbox) An audio device used to divide one input signal into two or more outputs. Typically this type of unit has one input with 6-16 (or more) outputs, each with a level control and often is unbalanced. See distribution amplifier. spooler Comes from the acronym SPOOL derived from simultaneous peripheral operation on-line (also sequential peripheral operations on-line). A program or piece of hardware that controls a buffer of data going to some output device, including a printer or

ware that controls a buffer of data going to some output device, including a printer or a screen. Spooling temporarily stores programs or program outputs on magnetic tape, RAM or disks for output or processing. [Newton] ... and you thought you were done learning for the day -- Ha! spring reverb See: Hammond. spurious signals Test & Measurement. "Any signal(s) in the output of an audio device that are not: the stimulus or program material, harmonic distortion, intermodulation distortion, crosstalk, hum or broadband noise." [David Mathew, Audio Precision, How to write (and read) audio specifications.] SQ Columbia's (CBS - now Sony Music) name for their quadraphonic sound system using a proprietary matrixing algorithm for encoding four-channel sound down to two-channels. Compare with QS. SQL (structured query language) Software. A program used to request information from databases.

SQNR (signal to quantization noise ratio A measure of the quality of the quantization, or digital conversion of an analog signal. Defined as normalized signal power divided by normalized quantization noise power. The SQNR in dB is approximately equal to 6 times the number of bits of the ADC, for example, the maximum SQNR for 16 bits is approximately 96 dB. square wave A periodic waveform characterized by a 50% duty cycle and a Fourier series consisting of odd-ordered, equal phase, sinusoidal harmonic components of its fundamental frequency with amplitudes (coefficients multiplying the magnitude of the fundamental sine wave) equal to 1/n, where n equals the harmonic number. Therefore the first few harmonic amplitudes are 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, 1/9, etc. For a very cool pictorial, see Fourier Series: Square Wave Tool. And if you are missing the math, see Cuthbert Nyack's Fourier Series of Square Wave SR (sound reinforcement) See Bruce Borgerson excellent S&VC article on P.A. vs. SR. SRS (Sound Retrieval System) A stereo image enhancement scheme invented by Arnold Klayman in the early '80s while working for Hughes Aircraft, and since 1993, marketed by SRS Labs, Inc. A standalone spatial enhancement scheme, SRS benefits from not requiring encoding of the signal, but thus prevents the audio producer from determining the location of individual sound effects. The results vary, being heavily

determining the location of individual sound effects. The results vary, being heavily dependent upon the original stereo mix. The goal is to extend the sound field well beyond the limitations of the loudspeakers, and make the overall sound seem more expansive. The elimination of the sweet spot is claimed. SSID (Service Set Identifier) Networks. A sequence of letters or numbers that is the name of a WLAN (wireless local area network). standard component values Electronic Circuit Design. Standard IEC values for resistors and capacitors per IEC 60063. standing wave See room mode. Stanley III, Augustus Owsley (1935-2011) A '60s icon known as "Bear," he was instrumental in helping create the famous "Wall of Sound" for the Grateful Dead while he was their live sound engineer. star quad mic cable See cables. Star-Spangled Banner The flag of the United States. star topology 1. A set of three or more branches with one terminal of each connected at a common node. 2. A communications network based on a star pattern where all equipment is connected to a central location with a single path. star-wired ring See token ring. state-variable filter An electronic filter based on state-variable techniques, first described by W. J. Kerwin, L. P. Huelsman, and R. W. Newcomb, "State variable synthesis for insensitive integrated circuit transfer functions," IEEE J. Solid Circuits, vol. SC2, pp. 87-92, Sept. 1967. State-variable filters are also known as KHN filters in their honor. The concept of state-variable is one where a single variable defines one of the characteristics (or states) of a filter (e.g., the gain, or the center/corner frequency, or the Q). The state-variable approach yields independent adjustment of the transfer function pole and zero locations. [The transfer function is a Laplace transform equation of the output divided by the input consisting of the ratio of two polynomials. Poles and zeros are the mathematical names for the solutions of the numerator polynomial -- called zeros because they cause the numerator to have zero value -- and denominator polynomial -- called poles because they cause the denominator to have zero value which makes the ratio infinity.] This desirable independent adjustment feature allows the design of parametric EQs with independent adjustment of all three filter parameters, or constant-Q graphic EQs with amplitude-bandwidth independence (See the RaneNote Constant-Q Graphic








Equalizers), or simultaneous low-pass and high-pass active crossovers (See the RaneNote Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer). The state-variable topologies also have lower component sensitivities that other designs, thus producing more productionfriendly products. Most commonly seen with three op amps, they may be constructed using from one to four op amps. St. Croix, Stephen Curtis (1948-2006) American inventor, musician, engineer and producer who founded Marshall Electronic and changed his last name from Marshall to St. Croix because he loved the islands. Along with John Ariosa he developed the Marshall Time Modulator in 1976, one of the earliest audio delay units. He wrote The Fast Lane column, for Mix magazine for 20 years, now available in book form from MIX as Life in the Fast Lane. steganography The science of communicating in a way that hides the existence of the actual communication. The practice of hiding information in a wider bandwidth carrier. This field covers the techniques used in digital watermarking schemes. Steinberg, John C. (1895-1988) American engineer who worked with Snow and in 1936 co-patented an improved three channel stereophonic system as U.S. Patent #2,126,929. Steinmetz, Charles Proteus (1865-1923) A German-American mathematician and engineer who first developed the mathematics (based on complex numbers) describing alternating current. Steinweiss, Alex (1916- ) The father of the album cover, he designed the first album cover in 1939 for Columbia Records where he worked as their first art director. See: Alex Steinweiss: The Inventor of the Modern Album Cover. stems 1. Recording. Nickname for the individual tracks used to create the final mix and saved for remixing purposes. Origin is from movie soundtracks where there are three main stems: dialog, music and effects. 2. Music. The vertical line extending from the head of a note found in music notation. Compare with separation mastering. stereo or stereophonic sound 1. "The word stereophonics was derived by combining two Greek words: stereo, which means solid and implicates the three spatial dimensions (depth, breadth, and height), and phonics, which means the science of sound. Thus, stereophonics denotes the science of 3-dimensional sound" [Streicher & Everest]. 2. Term applied to any system of recording (or transmission) using multiple microphones for capturing and multiple loudspeakers for reproduction the sound.

Stereo as the term has become popularly used restricts the number of playback loudspeakers to two, but strictly speaking the term can apply to any number of loudspeakers. Although stereo was first demonstrated at the Paris Opera in 1881 (really) using carbon microphones and earphones, it would not become widespread until the work of Blumlein in the 1930s. Also see William B. Snow. stereo 2-way or stereo 3-way, etc. See active crossover. Stereobelt The first portable stereo cassette player, developed by Andreas Pavel in 1972. stereo disc lathe Phonographs. Invented by Neumann in 1956, the invention that opened the door to the modern stereo LP record. stereo imaging See: imaging. stewardesses Longest English word typed using only the left hand. STI (speech transmission index) "An objective measure to predict the intelligibility of speech transmitted from talker to listener by a transmission channel," thus begins the Introduction to standard IEC 60268-16, Edition 4, 2011-06. From the Abstract: "IEC 60268-16:2011(E) specifies objective methods for rating the transmission quality of speech with respect to intelligibility. It provides a comprehensive manual for all types of users of the STI method in the fields of audio, communications and acoustics. Three methods are presented, which are closely related and are referred to as STI, STIPA, and STITEL. The first two methods are intended for rating speech transmission performance with or without sound systems. The STITEL method has more restricted uses. ... This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: development of more comprehensive, complete and unambiguous standardization of the STI methodology; the term STIr is discontinued. A new function for the prediction of auditory masking effects is introduced; the concept of 'speech level' and the setting of the level of the test signal have been introduced; additional information has been included on prediction and measurement procedures." Here is a nice summary of the technique: "In STI testing, speech is modeled by a special test signal with speech-like characteristics. Following on the concept that speech can be described as a fundamental waveform that is modulated by lowfrequency signals, STI employs a complex amplitude modulation scheme to generate its test signal. At the receiving end of the communication system, the depth of modulation of the received signal is compared with that of the test signal in each of a number of frequency bands. Reductions in the modulation depth are associated with loss of intelligibility." [Meyer Sound Notes] Contrast with obsolete method, RASTI. Compare with %ALCONS.

pare with %ALCONS. Sting Stage name of Gorden Sumner. STIpa (speech transmission index for public address systems) A speech intelligibility measurement described by developers H. Steeneken, J. Verhave, S. McManus and K. Jacob in their paper "Development of an Accurate, Handheld Simple-to-Use, Meter for the Prediction of Speech Intelligibility," Proc. IOA, Vol. 23, Pt. 8, 2001. Goldline manufactures a model. Equivalent British term is PASTI for public address STI. Stick®See Chapman Stick®. stiction Physics. In positioning, the friction that prevents immediate motion when force is first applied to a body or surface at rest. stochastic resonance Communications. The science behind dither. A phenomenon of nonlinear systems where low-level input signals are amplified and optimized by adding noise, i.e., an increase in the input noise produces an improvement in the output signal-to-noise ratio "The effect requires three basic ingredients: (i) an energetic activation barrier or, more generally, a form of threshold; (ii) a weak coherent input (such as a periodic signal); (iii) a source of noise that is inherent in the system, or that adds to the coherent input. Given these features, the response of the system undergoes resonance-like behavior as a function of the noise level; hence the name stochastic resonance." [From Stochastic Resonance by L Gammaitoni, P Haenggi, P Jung, and F Marchesoni. Thanks S.H.!] Stockham, Jr., Thomas G. (1934-2004) American electrical engineer best known for his pioneering work in digital audio recording and editing. Known as the father of digital magnetic sound recording, Dr. Stockham earned Grammy, Emmy and Academy awards for his work and was the founder of Soundstream, Inc. Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1928-2007) German composer renowned for his pioneering work in electronic music. The Beatles featured a photo of him on the cover of their album, "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" (fifth from the left in the back row.) stompboxes See: effects boxes. stopband The range of frequencies substantially attenuated by a filter as opposed to the range of frequencies unaffected by the filter. The opposite of passband. stops Speech. "In phonetics, the class of consonants produced by a complete closure of the flow of air in the vocal tract. Examples are 'p', 'd', and 'k'." [Bregman]

stovepiping 1. Information Technology. Refers to information traveling up and down in an organization with little horizontal sharing or checking. 2. Computer Science. "Retrieval of information from unconnected databases; the situation that exists when it is necessary to climb out of one database in order to climb down into another; sometimes used for protection against wandering hackers." [Word] STP (shielded twisted-pair) See cables; also Scientifically Treated Petroleum, but that's another story from another time. STP (spanning tree protocol) A link management protocol providing path redundancy and preventing network loops by defining a tree to span all switches in a network. It forces redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. If a path malfunctions, the topology is reconfigured and the link reestablished by activating the standby path. [CTRLink] strad Musical Instruments. Affectionate nickname for instruments made by Antonio Stradivari, who created more than 1,000 stringed instruments, with estimates of 600 remaining. Stradivari, Antonio (1644-1737) Italian violinmaker who developed the proportions of the modern violin and created instruments of unsurpassed beauty and tone. His sons Francesco (1671-1743) and Omobono (1679-1742) carried on the family tradition of fine artistry. [AHD] streaming media Internet. A process in which audio, video, and other multimedia is delivered "just in time" over the Internet or company intranet. Pioneered and named by Netscape, as a smarter way to deliver data, their browser immediately loaded text and then followed with graphics in real time as it arrived (streamed in), then RealNetworks came along and applied this technology to audio and video. stripline Electronics. A flat transmission line surrounded by a dielectric between a pair of ground planes. Contrast with microstrip. strophe 1. a. The first of a pair of stanzas of alternating form on which the structure of a given poem is based. b. A stanza containing irregular lines. 2. The first division of the triad constituting a section of a Pindaric ode. 3. a. The first movement of the chorus in classical Greek drama while turning from one side of the orchestra to the other. b. The part of a choral ode sung while this movement is executed. [AHD] strophic 1. Relating to or consisting of strophes. 2. Music Having the same melody used for each strophe. [AHD]

used for each strophe. [AHD] structured audio See MPEG-4. Strutt, John William See: Lord Rayleigh Studio 54 (1977-1979: dates for the original club) Famous disco club located in an old CBS TV studio located at 254 West 54th Street, Manhattan, NY -- hence, the name. stutter edit DJ. A popular remixing effect. See Jason Scott Alexander's "Fractal Tendencies" published in Remix magazine for how-to tips. subcardioid microphone See microphone polar response. subcode Non-audio digital data encoded on a CD that contains definable information such as track number, times, copy inhibit, copyright, etc. subgroups See groups. subharmonic Frequencies that are fractions of the fundamental, i.e., multiples of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 etc. submix See groups. subsonic Having a speed less than that of sound in a designated medium. [AHD] (Use infrasonic if referring to frequencies below human hearing range.) subtend 1. Mathematics. To be opposite to and delimit: The side of a triangle subtends the opposite angle. 2. To underlie so as to enclose or surround: flowers subtended by leafy bracts. [AHD] subwoofer A large woofer loudspeaker designed to reproduce audio's very bottomend, i.e., approximately the last one or two octaves, from 20 Hz to 80-100 Hz. (Actually misnamed since subsonic means slower than audio, while infrasonic means lower than audio, it should be called an "infrawoofer.") See Royal Device for the ultimate subwoofer. successive approximation Early method of A/D conversion. For a detailed example see the RaneNote Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters. supra-aural Headphones. Literally "on the ear," thus headphones with earpieces resting on the ear. Comfortable to wear but the lack of a tight seal allows lots of ambient noise -- sometimes this is desired; sometimes it is not. Compare with: circumaural. supercardioid microphone See microphone polar response.

supercardioid microphone See microphone polar response. supersonic Having, caused by, or relating to a speed greater than the speed of sound in a given medium, especially air. [AHD] (Use ultrasonic if referring to frequencies above human hearing range.) suppression also gain suppression In teleconferencing the term used to describe the technique of instantaneous reduction of a sound system's overall gain to control acoustic feedback and thus reduce echoes. surface transfer impedance See ZT. surround Loudspeakers. The circular ring mechanism that attaches the cone to the frame ("surrounding" the cone), usually rolled (allows greater throw) and made from foam or rubber material. surround sound Generic term for sound systems using more than mono (one front channel), or stereo (two left-right channels) loudspeakers to create a two- or threedimensional experience. For examples see 5.1 surround sound and Ambisonics. susceptance Electronics. The reciprocal of reactance, i.e., the imaginary part of the admittance . It is measured in siemens. Its mathematical symbol is “B” [confusingly the same symbol as that of magnetic flux density]. sustain Music. A prolonged note, especially the ability to maintain a note beyond its natural decay. Electric guitarists produce this effect by leaning toward their amplifier loudspeaker causing the signal to feed back into the pick-up. In popular music, most famously used by Carlos Santana, Jimi Hendrix and Gabor Szabo. S-video Also called Y/C video, a two-channel video channel that transmits black and white, or luminance (Y), and color portions, or chrominance (C), separately using multiple wires. This avoids composite video encoding, such as NTSC, thus providing better picture quality. Found mostly on S-VHS and Hi8 products, and some Laserdisc and DVD players. * swag 1. Slang Stolen property; loot. [According to Mercenary Audio: (pirate term) Stolen without a gun, but I can find no collaboration.] 2. Slang Herbal tea in a plastic sandwich bag sold as marijuana to an unsuspecting customer. 3. Australian To travel about with a pack or swag. [AHD] 4. Slang Acronym for scientific (or silly or sophisticated) wild-ass guess. 5. Slang Giveaways (usually in the form of merchandise "loot") by manufacturers as added incentive to personnel either selling or buying their goods. Compare

ers as added incentive to personnel either selling or buying their goods. Compare with spiff. Swanson Sound Service Founded in 1926, in Oakland, California by Art Swanson, the Swanson Sound Service company, along with R.G. Jones (near London) are considered the first sound companies, and both are still going strong. Sweet Sixteen Loudspeakers. Nickname for a briefly popular loudspeaker design in the early '60s using sixteen 5-inch speakers per channel arranged in a 4 x 4 array on a flat baffle. The idea was for them to combine and act like one huge speaker [well, today we all know how well that works]. Originally published as a DIY article by Jim Kyle in the January 1961 issue of Popular Electronics. sweet spot Any location in a two-loudspeaker stereo playback system where the listener is positioned equidistant from each loudspeaker. The apex of all possible isosceles (two equal sides) triangles formed by the loudspeakers and the listener. In this sense, the sweet spot lies anywhere on the sweet plane extending forward from the midpoint between the speakers. SWG (standard wire gauge) British or Imperial standard. See AWG. switch-mode power supply See: SMPS SWLABR Music. Song title from the album Disraeli Gears by Cream. The title is an abbreviation for "She Was Like A Bearded Rainbow." [Hey, it was the 60s -- lighten up.] SWR See: VSWR symmetrical (reciprocal) response Term used to describe the comparative shapes of the boost/cut curves for variable equalizers. The cut curve exactly mirrors the boost curve. Syn-Aud-Con (Synergetic Audio Concepts) A private organization conducting audio seminars and workshops, sponsored by several pro audio companies. synesthesia also synaesthesia Physiology. A condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces the visualization of a color. 2. A sensation felt in one part of the body as a result of stimulus applied to another, as in referred pain. 3. The description of one kind of sense impression by using words that normally describe another. [AHD] synchronous A transmission process where the bit rate of the signal is fixed and syn-

chronized to a master clock. syzygy Astronomy. Very strange word for when the earth, moon and sun align. Technically: a. Either of two points in the orbit of a celestial body where the body is in opposition to or in conjunction with the sun. b. Either of two points in the orbit of the moon when the moon lies in a straight line with the sun and Earth. c. The configuration of the sun, the moon, and Earth lying in a straight line. [AHD].

Pro Audio Reference T
3-dB down point See passband. 3D sound A term used to describe a three-dimensional sound field. A true 3D sound field positions sound anywhere in a semi-spherical shell surrounding the listener. Sound must come from anywhere directly behind to directly overhead to directly in front of the listener and all points left and right. It if does not, it is not 3D sound. The term is popularly misused by multimedia companies to describe systems, effects and techniques purported to create 3D sound from two sources and designed for twoloudspeaker playback; however, the result is not 3D sound. It is enhanced twodimensional sound. Strictly speaking, a broadening, widening, enhancing, or spreading of the left/right sound stage is not 3D. No two-loudspeaker system is capable of locating sounds directly to the rear of the listener; nevertheless, some of these systems truly impress. The best enhancement schemes come very close to recreating a quarter-spherical sound shell, extending to nearly 180 degrees left-to-right, approaching 90 degrees overhead, with greatly improved depth of field. For further information see the Ultimate Spatial Audio Index. 10Base-T See Ethernet. T-1 (trunk level 1) A digital transmission scheme utilizing two twisted-pair capable of handling a minimum of 24 voice channels. Used for connecting networks across remote distances. [Newton] TA See thermoacoustics. tablature Music. A system of notation using letters, symbols, or other visual cues instead of standard notation to indicate how a musical piece is to be played. For example, guitar or banjo tablature typically consists of a diagram of the strings with finger positions indicated by numerals corresponding to the appropriate frets. [AHD] tagging A graffito featuring a word or words, especially the author's name, rather than a picture. [AHD] TAKI 183 Recognized as the first prolific graffiti writer, whose real name is Demetrius, lived on 183rd Street in NY City and began tagging in 1969. [TAKI is short for Demetaki, a Greek alternative to Demetrius.]

talent cueing See IFB. talkback 1. A recording console feature where a microphone mounted on the console allows the engineer to speak with the musicians during sessions -- a very useful feature when the console is located in a soundproof control room, or out in the audience for sound reinforcement systems. 2. A proposed Rane product line aimed at the coffin market, since abandoned. talk box A poor man's vocoder. Popularized by Peter Frampton and Joe Walsh in the '70s. See Heil Talk Box. talking drum Musical Instrument. Drum design featuring drumheads attached by laces that are squeezed to change the pitch. Many variations and regional names exist. Also called hourglass drums and waisted drums. talkover A term and function found on DJ mixers allowing the DJ to speak over the program material by triggering a ducker. Compare with voiceover. tangential mode Acoustics. Sound reflecting between four surfaces (i.e., two sets of parallel walls). Compare with axial mode and oblique mode. TANSTAAFL "There ain't no such thing as a free lunch," acronym and phrase popularized by sci-fi writer Robert Heinlein in his book The Moon is a Harsh Mistress, but originating much earlier. taper See potentiometer. tapir Any of several large, chiefly nocturnal, odd-toed ungulates (hoofed mammals) of the genus Tapirus of tropical America, the Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra, related to the horse and the rhinoceros, and having a heavy body, short legs, and a long, fleshy, flexible upper lip. [AHD] (Don't confuse with "taper" above.) Tappan, Peter (1928-2007) American physicist and acoustical engineer whose work background included Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and Kirkegaard & Associates where he was a principal consultant and vice president. The author of "Shattering Goblets with Amplified Singing," he consulted with Memorex for their famous "Is it Live or is it Memorex" commercial. taste test or tongue test An actual voltage testing method recommended by Terrell Croft in his book The American Electricians' Handbook, published by McGraw-Hill in 1913. Here's the passage found on page 48:

"The presence of low voltages can be determined by 'tasting.' The method is feasible only where the pressure is but a few volts and hence is used only in bell and signal work. Where the voltage is very low, the bared ends of the conductors constituting the two sides of the circuit are held a short distance apart on the tongue. If voltage is present a peculiar mildly burning sensation results which will never be forgotten after one has experienced it. The 'taste' is due to the electrolytic decomposition of the liquids on the tongue which produces a salt having a taste. With relatively high voltages, possible 4 or 5 volts, due to as many cells of battery, it is best to first test for the presence of voltage by holding one of the bared conductors in the hand and touching the other to the tongue. Where a terminal of the battery is grounded, often a taste can be detected by standing on moist ground and touching a conductor from the other terminal to the tongue. Care should be exercised to prevent the two conductor ends from touching each other at the tongue, for if they do a spark can result that may burn." And from the same book comes these words of wisdom for testing for the presence of electricity by touching the two conductors: "Electricians often test circuits for the presence of voltage by touching the conductors with the fingers. This method is safe where the voltage does not exceed 250 and is often very convenient for locating a blown-out fuse or for ascertaining whether or not a circuit is alive. Some men can endure the electric shock that results without discomfort whereas others cannot. Therefore, the method is not feasible in some cases." [We don't know how Mr. Croft died, but perhaps we could hazard a guess. Thanks RH.] Another interesting item is the case of a Swiss musician who "tastes" combinations of notes as distinct flavors, according to a report in the science journal Nature. The young woman is a synaesthete and when she hears tone intervals, the difference in pitch between two tones, she not only can see the musical notes as different colors but can taste the sounds. Read all about it here. tattoo Music. 1. A signal sounded on a drum or bugle to summon soldiers or sailors to their quarters at night. 2. A display of military exercises offered as evening entertainment. 3. A continuous, even drumming or rapping. v.intr. To beat out an even rhythm, as with the fingers. To beat or tap rhythmically on; rap or drum on.

[AHD] For a festival celebrating this art form see The Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo. [Note: this is the word with Dutch roots; the skin art word has Polynesian origins.] tau Mathematics. In professional mathematical literature the symbol for the Golden Ratio, or Golden Rectangle, but now phi is the more common symbol. taut-band Electrical meter mechanism. Consisting of a permanent magnet and moving coil. Favored for its friction free suspension, allowing precision measurements. Tchebysheff or Tschebyscheff See Chebyshev. tchotchke See chachka. TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol) A set of protocols developed by the Department of Defense in the '70s to link dissimilar computers across many kinds of networks and LANs. Popular with Ethernet users. TDIF (Teac digital interface format) Tascam's (Teac) 8-channel digital audio interface to their DA-88 digital multitrack recorder, using unbalanced signal transmission and a DB-25 type connector. TDM (time division multiplexing) Data Transmission. A transmission interleaving technique where multiple sources, say, data, voice and video, are broken up into pieces and each piece is assigned a unique time slot with no overlap between pieces. This allows simultaneous transmission of multiple signals over a common path. TDS (time-delay spectrometry) A sound measurement theory and technique developed in 1967 by Richard C. Heyser at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology. For a detailed introduction to the theory and practice of TDS see Time Delay Spectrometry: An Anthology of the Works of Richard C. Heyser on Measurement Analysis and Perception by John Prohs. TEA (Themed Entertainment Association) "The only international non-profit association representing the world's leading creators, developers, designers and producers of compelling places and experiences. Our members bring the experience of engaging storytelling and entertainment to a vast number of casinos, restaurants, retail stores, museums, zoos, theme parks and an ever-growing list of destinations that aim to bring a higher level of visitor experiences world wide." Another great resource for audio contractors, integrators, etc. TEC (Technical Excellence and Creativity) Founded in 1985, this foundation is a 501(c) (3) public benefit corporation, dedicated to promoting excellence in audio,

501(c) (3) public benefit corporation, dedicated to promoting excellence in audio, video, music and other communications media arts. TEDS (Transducer Electronic Data Sheet) Microphones. An electronic microphone system (applies to any transducer so fitted but microphones are relevant to this listing). Developed and standardized as IEEE P1451.4, it is an embedded IC and software system that allows the user to read stored information about a particular microphone -- make, model, serial number, calibration date, sensitivity, capacitance, impedance, etc. TEF (time-energy-frequency) The term adopted to describe the entire spectrum of TDS measurements, including energy-time curves. Popularized by Richard Heyser through his participation in Synergetic Audio Concepts seminars. Made practical in 1979 by the Techron division of Crown International -- Cal Tech's first TDS licensee, and introduced as the TEF System 10. Tejano Music. A style of conjunto music originating in southern Texas and combining influences from country music, rhythm and blues, and popular Latin styles. [AHD] tele- Distance; distant: telescope. (Greek tele- meaning far off.) [AHD] telecommunication Communicating over a distance by wire, fiber or wireless means. teleconferencing An audio conference held by three or more persons over a distance. Normal usage refers to voice conferencing, also termed audioconferencing that includes all forms of audio. The term is sometimes extended to include video and document, or data, conferencing. Note that the term does not mean telephone conferencing, but rather distance conferencing, although telephone lines are often used. [Thanks to RG at Q Factor for pointing out this important distinction.] Contrast with videoconferencing. Telegraphone Invented by Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen (1869-1942) in 1898. It received and stored audio signals by magnetizing steel wire and is recognized as the first wire recorder. telemedicine A specialized form of videoconferencing optimized for medical uses. Also referred to as medical conferencing, it allows distance learning in medical education and delivers health care (including assisted medical operations) to patients and providers at a distance. telephone hybrid See: hybrid.

telepresence Video Conferencing. This is where multiple people sit side by side across a table at each end of a video conference (with variants) - as if they were across the table from each other. The audio is imaged so the talker's voice seems to originate from the direction of each talker. [Thanks, SM] Telharmonium Invented and patented (US patent #580,035) by Thaddeus Cahill, in the 1890s, an amazing monstrosity weighing 7 tons that was the first device to successfully send music through a telephone connected to something similar to a gramophone cone that could be heard by an audience. Arguably the beginning of background music and synthesizers. temperament Music. The building up of musical scales. tempo Music. The speed at which music is or ought to be played, often indicated on written compositions by a descriptive or metronomic direction to the performer. [AHD] temporal Of, relating to, or limited by time. [AHD] temporal masking A specific kind of masking where time separates arriving signals. Masking of a later arriving signal due to an earlier one is called forward masking. The effects of a loud first sound can last long enough to mask a later arriving softer one (periods less than 500 ms and greater than 10 dB loudness differences). The opposite effect where an earlier sound is masked by a later arriving one is called backward masking, i.e., the second arriving event covers up the first arriving signal. This is only possible because the ear requires time to form an echoic image before it is processed by the central nervous system. If a later sound is much louder it can take precedence over an earlier arriving one (within about 100 to 200 ms). terahertz Abbr. THz One trillion (10E12) hertz. TERC (tuned electromagnetic resonance collar) Communications. A non-acoustic voice sensor device developed by the Spinlab (signal processing and information networking laboratory) at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts that can create speech from an unspoken voice. tercet Music. See triplet.

terminal strips See connectors. tesla Abbr. T The unit of magnetic flux density in the International System of Units, equal to the magnitude of the magnetic field vector necessary to produce a force of one newton on a charge of one coulomb moving perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field vector with a velocity of one meter per second. It is equivalent to one weber per square meter. [After Nikola Tesla.] [AHD] Tesla, Nikola (1856-1943) Serbian-born American electrical engineer and physicist who discovered the principles of alternating current (1881) and invented numerous devices and procedures that were seminal to the development of radio and the harnessing of electricity. [AHD] tetrahedron Geometry. A polyhedron with four faces. Microphones. Invented by Michael Gerzon and Peter Craven, a microphone design based on tetrahedron geometry used in Ambisonics surround sound recordings. Available from Soundfield. tetrode A type of vacuum tube having two grids, where one is used to reduce feedback related instabilities and oscillations. A tetrode has four elements: plate, cathode, control grid and screen grid. Tex-Mex (Texan - Mexican) See: tejano. thaumaturgy The working of miracles or magic feats, like designing and building a 24-bit audio converter that actually measures 144 dB dynamic range. THD (third-harmonic distortion) See third-harmonic distortion. THD (total harmonic distortion) A measurement technique rarely used, but often confused with the THD+N technique described below. Many people mistakenly refer to a "THD" measurement when they really mean the "THD+N" technique. (For completeness and the abnormally curious: a true THD measurement consists of a computation from a series of individual harmonic amplitude measurements, rather than a single measurement. "THD" is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual harmonic amplitudes. And the answer must specify the highest order harmonic included in the computations; for example, "THD through 8th harmonic." [from Metzler] See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. THD+N (total harmonic distortion plus noise) The most common audio measurement. A single sine wave frequency of known harmonic purity is passed through the unit under test, and then patched back into the distortion measuring

instrument. A measurement level is set; the instrument notches out the frequency used for the test, and passes the result through a set of band-limiting filters, adjusted for the bandwidth of interest (usually 20-20 kHz). What remains is noise (including any AC line [mains] hum or interference buzzes, etc.) and all harmonics generated by the unit. This composite signal is measured using a true rms detector voltmeter, and the results displayed. Often a resultant curve is created by stepping through each frequency from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, at some specified level (often +4 dBu), and bandwidth (usually 20 kHz; sometimes 80 kHz, which allows measurement of any 20 kHz early harmonics). [Note that the often-seen statement: "THD+N is x%," is meaningless. For a THD+N spec to be complete, it must state the frequency, level, and measurement bandwidth.] While THD+N is the most common audio test measurement, it is not the most useful indicator of a unit's performance. What it tells the user about hum, noise and interference is useful; however that information is better conveyed by the signal-tonoise (S/N) ratio specification. What it tells the user about harmonic distortion is not terribly relevant simply because it is harmonically related to the fundamental, thus the distortion products tend to get masked by the complex audio material. The various intermodulation (IM) distortion tests are better indicators of sonic purity. See the RaneNote Audio Specifications. theremin (aka aetherphone) Considered the first electronic musical instrument, invented in 1919 by Russian born Lev Sergeivitch Termen, which he anglicized to Leon Theremin (who also invented the Rhythmicon). The theremin is unique in that it is the only musical instrument played without being touched. Interestingly, when granted a US Patent in 1928, there were 32 prior patents referenced, going all the way back to Lee De Forest. A theremin works by causing two oscillators to "beat" together. The beat frequency equals the difference in frequency between the two signals. Beats are a physical phenomenon occurring in the air when sounds are mixed. A theremin uses one oscillator operating well above the upper limit of human hearing as a reference tone, and another oscillator whose frequency is varied by the proximity of a human hand, for instance, to a capacitive sensing element shaped like an antenna. A typical machine has two antennas and you play it by moving your hands nearer to and farther from the antennas. One antenna controls the volume of the sound, while the other controls the frequency, or pitch, of the sound. Used together you can creates sounds that can range from being very sci-fi-ish -- a sort of quivering sound -- as heard in early sci-fi movies like The Day the Earth Stood Still, to very complex jazz licks. The theremin even appears as Dr. Hannibal Lecter's favorite instrument in Thomas Harris' bestseller Hannibal (Delacorte, 1999). It was the theremin that got Bob Moog (inventor of the Moog Synthesizer and considered the father of modern electronic music) interested in electronic music. Moog Music now makes some of the world's

best theremins. See the Theremin web ring for additional info; and to view the fascinating, bizarre, and stranger-than-fiction true-life story of Leon Theremin, check out the film (available on video), Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey, by Steven M. Martin (1994), including several performances by Clara Rockmore, perhaps the best theremin player ever. thermal noise See Johnson noise. thermion Physics.An electrically charged particle, especially an electron, emitted by a conducting material at high temperatures. Basis for the thermionic valve, or vacuum tube. thermionic trigger See Schmitt trigger. thermionic valve See vacuum tube and Fleming. thermoacoustics (TA) "The study of the conversion of acoustic energy -- compression waves in a gas (sound) -- into heat energy and vice versa. Acoustic energy can be harnessed in sealed systems and used to create powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. Thermoacoustic devices use these compression waves to replace mechanical pistons, crankshafts, and valves, reducing the number of moving parts in their design and making them simple, reliable machines. Thermoacoustic cryocoolers generally have two major sections to their design: an electroacoustic transducer (like a loudspeaker) and a coldhead." See Q Drive Resonant Power Systems. thermophone A telephone involving heat effects, as changes in temperature (hence in length) due to pulsations of the line current in a fine wire connected with the receiver diaphragm. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] Invented by H. D. Arnold who received U.S. Patent 1,398,687 covering its design and theory. Thevenin's Theorem In simple terms, states that a complex linear circuit (i.e., no exponents or roots in its defining equations) can be replaced by a single voltage source and a series resistor. See All About Circuits' Thevenin's Theorem for detailed explanation. [After Léon Charles Thévenin.] Thévenin, Léon Charles (1857-1926) French telegraph engineer most famous for his Theorem. third-harmonic distortion The standard test used on analog magnetic tape recorders to determine the maximum output level (MOL), which was defined to occur at the

to determine the maximum output level (MOL), which was defined to occur at the magnetization level at which a recorded 1 kHz sine wave reached "3% third-harmonic distortion." Of course, third-harmonic distortion is nothing more than a measurement of the amplitude of the third harmonic of the input frequency and is the most prominent distortion component in analog magnetic recording systems. The thirdharmonic level was used as a convenient figure-of-merit because the 2nd harmonic is difficult to hear, since it tends to reinforce the pitch of the fundamental. The 3rd harmonic is easy to detect on pure tones (although less so on music), thus it makes a good benchmark for comparing sound "off tape" with the original. The distorted tone has an edge to it, containing a component one octave and a quint (interval of a fifth in music) above the fundamental. For this reason the third-harmonic is also called a musical twelfth. Here's the interesting twist. This test was commonly abbreviated and listed on the specification sheet as "THD." Which, of course, was mistaken to mean "total harmonic distortion" instead of "third harmonic distortion." This led to it being mistakenly shortened to just "distortion," so you still find old analog tape data sheets, and many text books defining MOL as the point at which there exists "3% distortion," instead of the correct reference to "3% third-harmonic distortion" -- quite different things. third-octave Term referring to frequencies spaced every three octaves apart. For example, the third-octave above 1 kHz is 8 kHz. Commonly misused to mean onethird octave. While it can be argued that "third" can also mean one of three equal parts, and as such might be used to correctly describe one part of an octave split into three equal parts, it is potentially too confusing. The preferred term is one-third octave. Thompson filters See Bessel crossover. Thracian lyre See: kobsa. throb Acoustics. Term for noise in the 8 Hz to 31.5 Hz range. [Vibration, for example; and no connection to 'heart" -- at least that I could find.] Thunderbolt™ Intel developed interconnect technology first used in Apple MacBook Pro notebooks. Thuras Albert L. American engineer most famous as the inventor of the bass reflex loudspeaker. Thuras filed patent No. 1,869,178, "Sound Translating Device," on Aug. 15, 1930, granted July 26, 1932, for the bass-reflex principle while working at Bell Labs. THX® Ltd. (formerly a division of Lucasfilm Ltd.) term meaning several things: 1)

THX® Ltd. (formerly a division of Lucasfilm Ltd.) term meaning several things: 1) THX Digital Cinema: audio playback design and certification program for commercial cinema theaters; 2) THX Cinema: audio playback specification for home cinema systems; 3) THX Home: approved audio/video playback equipment meeting their standards of quality and performance, as well as DVDs, laserdiscs and VHS tapes mastered by them to meet their quality and performance standards. New categories are THX Mobile and THX Games. The term comes from two sources: George Lucas's first film THX-1138 (commercial version), and a somewhat tongue-in-cheek reference to Tomlinson Holman's eXperiment, after their original technical director, patentee and creative force behind all the above (who now runs TMH Corporation). THX Surround EX Surround-sound format that matrix-encodes a third surround channel into the existing left and right surround channels in a Dolby Digital signal. This channel drives a center rear loudspeaker. Compare with DTS-ES. thyristor Semiconductor. A solid-state family of devices with four layers of alternating N-type and P-type material. Devices in the family include SCRs (silicon controlled rectifier) and TRIACs (triode AC switch). ti Music. The seventh tone of the diatonic scale in solfeggio. [AHD] TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) Created in 1988 by a merger of the US Telecommunications Suppliers Association (USTSA) and the EIA's Information and Telecommunications Technologies Group (EIA/ITG). This organization works with the EIA in developing technical standards and collecting market data for the telecommunication industry. Tice Clock An overt act of fraud perpetrated on the audio ignorant who suffer from acute aural hallucinations and beg to be separated from their money. See Bob Pease's wonderful "What's All This Hoax Stuff, Anyhow?" tiger A great cat whose skin is striped, not just his fur. TIM (transient intermodulation distortion) See IM. timbre(pronounced "tambur") 1. The quality of a sound that distinguishes it from other sounds of the same pitch and volume. [AHD] 2. Music. The distinctive tone of an instrument or a singing voice. time 1.a. A nonspatial continuum in which events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future. b. An interval separating two points on this continuum. c. A number, as of years, days, or minutes, represent-

ing such an interval. d. A similar number representing a specific point on this continuum, reckoned in hours and minutes. 2. Music. a. The characteristic beat of musical rhythm: three-quarter time. b. The speed at which a piece of music is played; the tempo. [AHD] (Time is nothing more than a relationship between moving objects. Stop all movement and you stop time. An important concept in understanding just what time is, lies in understanding that time is in the universe; the universe is not in time. Which explains why it is not a valid question to ask, "How old is the universe?" The universe does not have an age; it is not in relationship with another moving object; it is not in time.) ["Time is nature's way of keeping everything from happening at once." unknown source but often contributed to Woody Allen and to Albert Einstein.] Time-Align® Loudspeakers. Trademark of Ed Long for his proprietary crossover techniques. time code or timecode General. A sequence of discrete numeric codes occurring at regular intervals used to determine time. Various time code formats and methods exist. The following are the most popular pro audio applications: SMPTE/EBU. A standardized 80-frame word embedded as part of motion picture or sound recording (standardized for recording by SPARS). A specific identity or address is assigned to each moment of time in a recording, broken down into HOURS:MINUTES:SECONDS:FRAMES. MIDI. MIDI time code (MTC), is used to synchronize MIDI systems with the rest of the audio and video world. AES3 or AES/EBU. Within this standardized digital audio serial interface are provisions for time data. Additional recording time code methods are Linear or Longitudinal Time Code (LTC), Vertical Interval Time Code (VITC), Burnt-In or Burned In Time Code. Time codes for purposes other than video and audio production include Interrange instrumentation group (IRIG), Global Positioning System (GPS), Network Time Protocol (NTP), and Radio Clocks. time constant See: RC time constant. time delay No such thing; a misnomer. You cannot delay time (see above). Misused to mean signal delay or just delay. time-difference microphone technique See: AB.

time-difference microphone technique See: AB. timpani See tympani. tin ear An insensitivity to music or to sounds of a given kind: a writer with a tin ear for dialog. [AHD] tinnitus Hearing. A sound in one ear or both ears, such as buzzing, ringing, or whistling, occurring without an external stimulus and usually caused by a specific condition, such as an ear infection, the use of certain drugs, a blocked auditory tube or canal, or a head injury. [AHD] tin-pan (tinny piano) From the cheap pianos associated with music publishers' offices that sounded like banging on tin pans. In the mid-1880s, gave birth to the name Tin Pan Alley, a district (West 28th St. in Manhattan) associated with musicians, composers, and publishers of popular music, or the publishers and composers of popular music considered as a group. tin whistle Musical Instrument. An inexpensive fipple flute, usually having a plastic mouthpiece and a tin body. tippin' in Jazz. Where a player uses certain notes in his improv that reflect the chords their jamming over. toeology Tap dancing. [Decharne] token ring A LAN baseband network access mechanism and topology in which a supervisory "token" (a continuously repeating frame [group of data bits] transmitted onto the network by the controlling computer; it polls for network transmissions) is passed from station to station in sequential order. Stations wishing to gain access to the network must wait for the token to arrive before transmitting data. In a token ring topology, the next logical station receiving the token is also the nest physical station on the ring. This mechanism prevents collisions on this type of network. Normally connected as a star-wired ring where each station is wired back to a central point known as the multistation access unit (MAU). The MAU forms a ring of the devices and performs the back-up function of restoring the ring should one of the devices crash or lose its cable connection. ton Air Conditioning. Audio equipment rooms require lots of air conditioning, which is specified in "tons of cooling," i.e., it is a unit that specifies the size of an air conditioner. But 'ton' refers to weight so how does it apply to air conditioning, inquiring minds want to know? Well, simple really. It was derived from the amount of heat

required to melt 1 ton of ice in 24 hours, and was standardized as 12000 BTU/hr. They used to cool office buildings and high-rises by dumping tons of ice into the basement and blowing hot air over it, or using it to cool water and then using heat exchangers to move heat from the air into the water. Of course in those days the ice came from the river in the winter and was stored until the summer heat waves. [Thanks, GD.] tone 1. Music. a. A sound of distinct pitch, quality, and duration; a note. b. The interval of a major second in the diatonic scale; a whole step. c. A recitational melody in a Gregorian chant. 2.a. The quality or character of sound. b. The characteristic quality or timbre of a particular instrument or voice. [AHD] tone controls The term most often referring to a two-band shelving equalizer offering amplitude control only over the highest (treble, from music, meaning the highest part, voice, instrument, or range) frequencies, and the lowest (bass, from music, meaning the lowest musical part) frequencies. Sometimes a third band is provided for boost/cut control of the midband frequencies. See also Baxandall tone controls. ToneRite® Registered trademark of the company and their patented electronic devices designed to simulate years of playing on stringed instruments to obtain the optimum sound without having to actually play them in real time. They call it a play-in device. This is done by a device that emits infrasonic sounds that create vibrations that simulate real playing. While still controversial, it is finding many customers. tonic Music. Of or based on the keynote. [AHD] tootle To try the notes in an under tone, as a singing-bird, before beginning the whole song. [Kacirk] The act or sound of tooting softly and repeatedly, as on a flute. [AHD] topology Electronics. The interconnection pattern of nodes on a network. The logical and/or physical arrangement of stations on a network (e.g., star topology; tree topology; ring topology; bus topology, etc.). The geometric pattern or configuration of intelligent devices and how they are linked together for communications. [IEEE] Mathematics. "The branch of geometry concerned only with those basic properties of geometric figures that remain unchanged when the figures are twisted and distorted, stretched and shrunk, subjected to any 'schmooshing' at all as long as they're not ripped or torn. Size and shape are not topological properties since clay balls, dice, and oranges, for example, can be contracted, expanded or transformed into one another without ripping." [Who's Counting?, John Allen Paulos] Torick, Emil (1931-2010) American scientist and musician most notable for his distin-

Torick, Emil (1931-2010) American scientist and musician most notable for his distinguished career of nearly 30 years at CBS as well as being a Fellow, Honorary Member and past-President of the AES. toroid The name for any doughnut-shaped body. Mathematics: a surface generated by a closed curve rotating about, but not intersecting or containing, an axis in its own plane [AHD]. The shortened popular name for the doughnut-shaped (toroidal) transformers common to audio equipment; favored for their low hum fields. TOSLINK (Toshiba link) A popular consumer equipment fiber optic interface based upon the S/PDIF protocol, using an implementation first developed by Toshiba. total harmonic distortion See THD and THD+N. T-pad See attenuator pad. TPi (Total Production International) "Founded in 1998, Total Production International (TPi) magazine is widely regarded as the industry’s most authoritative monthly business-to-business publication dedicated to the design and technology of live events, from concert, gig and festival productions, to theatre shows and temporary events." [From website; hit link for more.]

T-powering also known as A-B powering. Microphones. Named after the German word Tonaderspeisung, It is a special purpose powering system designed for T-power microphones, usually electret or condenser designs. Originally standardized as DIN 45 595. TPDF (triangular probability density function) Also called triangular dither. The most popular form of dither signal, described in detail in the landmark paper by Stanley Lipshitz, Robert Wannamaker, and John Vanderkooy, "Quantization and Dither: A Theoretical Survey," published in the J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 40, No. 5, 1992, pp. 355-375 (issue available from the AES, but only recommended for the mathematically needy). As the name implies, TPDF describes a probability density function shaped like a triangle, instead of the more often seen bell-shaped curve. For dither use, the extremes represent the maximum possible quantization error of ±1 LSB. Also very popular is a variant known as shaped triangular or high-passed TPDF, which is essentially high-pass filtered triangular dither that places most of the dither energy at higher frequencies making it less audible. tracking power amplifiers A term used to describe audio power amplifier designs utilizing a variable power supply for the output, and a means of controlling the pow-

utilizing a variable power supply for the output, and a means of controlling the power supply based upon the input signal. This scheme improves efficiency. See Class H Amplifiers and compare with rail-switchers. trademarks See USPTO. Traf-O-Data See Microsoft. train wreck DJ. Turntablist reference to two records falling out of sync. See DJ Terminology for more terms. trainspotter DJ Music. Any person who identifies all the details about the music a DJ plays, particularly adept at esoteric and obscure details. Derived from the traditional definition of someone who could identify every train car of a particular railroad company. transcendental number Mathematics. 1. Not capable of being determined by any combination of a finite number of equations with rational integral coefficients. 2. Not expressible as an integer or as the root or quotient of integers. Used of numbers, especially nonrepeating infinite decimals. [AHD] transconductance (contraction of transfer conductance) Electronics.The ratio of the current at the output port and the voltage at the input port, measured in siemens. transducer Electrical. A device, such as a microphone, or loudspeaker, that converts input energy of one form into output energy of another. transfer function Electronic circuits. For a linear system, the ratio of the LaPlace Transform of the output to that of the input with no other input signals and initial conditions zero. transform switch Turntablist mixers. This switch selects either phono or line as the channel source, but is commonly used for transforming, or quickly gating the source on and off. transformer Electronics. A passive component that uses electromagnetic induction to increase or decrease alternating electric energy (voltage and current), usually consisting of two wirewound coils (windings) inductively coupled. A step-up transformer raises voltage and a step-down transformer lowers voltage. See Rod Elliott's articles for a thorough and clear exposition of transformer details (highly recommended). transient discontinuous sound Acoustics. An intermittent sound decaying with time, especially as a simple exponential function of time. Characterized as a passing burst

especially as a simple exponential function of time. Characterized as a passing burst of sound marked by breaks or interruptions. transient response The reaction of an electronic circuit, or electromechanical device, or acoustic space to a non-repetitive stimulus such as a step or impulse response. It is the result to a sudden change in the input that is nonperiodic. For example, percussive instruments produce primarily transient sounds. The transient stimulus and resulting response are characterized by the amplitude and the rise time (and fall time if it is an impulse), overshoot, and settling time. The standard reference is to note the maximum amplitude and the time required to reach within 10% of the steady-state value. For a real world example of the comparative transient responses for a fullrange and a 3-way loudspeaker system, see Siegfried Linkwitz's Group delay and transient response; also see group delay. transistor (transconductance + varistor) Electronics. 1. An active semiconductor device with three or more terminals. It is an analog device. 2. A semiconducting device for controlling the flow of current between two terminals, the emitter and the collector, by means of variations in the current flow between a third terminal, the base, and one of the other two. [IEEE] See: The History of the Transistor. transonic Acoustics. Of or relating to aerodynamic flow or flight conditions at speeds near the speed of sound. [AHD] transversal equalizer A multi-band variable equalizer using a tapped audio delay line as the frequency selective element, as opposed to bandpass filters built from inductors (real or synthetic) and capacitors. The term "transversal filter" does not mean "digital filter." It is the entire family of filter functions done by means of a tapped delay line. There exists a class of digital filters realized as transversal filters, using a shift register rather than an analog delay line, with the inputs being numbers rather than analog functions. Trautonium Synthesizers. An early synthesizer from 1928. A monophonic instrument using a stretched wire over a resistor like a ribbon controller, with added pedals and keys. It made the vicious bird sounds in Alfred Hitchcock's "The Birds." traveling wave Something vibrating creates a wave pattern that travels through a medium from one place to another. treble clef Music. A symbol indicating that the second line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of G above middle C. Also called G clef. [AHD] tree topology A LAN topology that recognizes only one route between two nodes on

tree topology A LAN topology that recognizes only one route between two nodes on the network. The map resembles a tree or the letter T. Tremé Famous old musical neighborhood in New Orleans. [Think: marching brass bands, Saints Go Marching In, kind of neighborhood.] tremolo 1. A tremulous effect produced by rapid repetition of a single tone. A similar effect produced by rapid alternation of two tones. 2. A device on an organ for producing a tremulous effect. 3. A vibrato in singing, often excessive or poorly controlled. [AHD] [Think: amplitude modulation as in fast volume changes . ] triamp, triamplified, or triamplification Term used to refer to a 3-way active crossover where the audio signal is split into three paths, and using separate power amplifier channels for each driver. triangle wave A periodic waveform characterized by a 50% duty cycle and a Fourier series consisting of odd-ordered, equal phase, sinusoidal harmonic components of its fundamental frequency with amplitudes (coefficients multiplying the magnitude of the fundamental sine wave) equal to 1/n², where n equals the harmonic number. Therefore the first few harmonic amplitudes are 1/9, 1/25, 1/49, 1/81, etc. For a very cool pictorial, see Fourier Series: Triangle Wave Tool. And if you are missing the math, see Cuthbert Nyack's Fourier Series of Triangle Wave. triangular dither See TPDF. TRIACs (triode AC switch) See: thyristor. triax See: cables. triboelectric effect An electrical charge produced by friction between two objects. [AHD] Trimpin Seattle-based composer and sound artist who constructs fascinating sculptures from new, used and discarded musical instruments that actually play themselves. triode Vacuum Tubes. See: Audion. triple point of water A system is at the "triple point" when ice (solid), water (liquid), and vapor (gas) coexist in equilibrium. This point is the freezing point of water and is set by international agreement to equal 273.16 kelvin (0 degrees Celsius; 32 degrees Fahrenheit)

triplen harmonics 3-Phase AC Power.The name for the odd multiples of the third harmonic (3rd, 9th, 15th, 21st, etc.), i.e., every third odd harmonic. An order of harmonic that is a multiple of three. Common to 3-phase AC voltage generators. triplet Music. A group of three notes having the time value of two notes of the same kind. Also called tercet. [AHD] triskaidekaphobia An abnormal fear of the number 13. [AHD] trombonga Music. Invented by seven-time Grammy winner Eddie Palmieri this trombone-fueled music style combines Afro-Caribbean beats with frantic jazz piano improvisation. trottery Dancehall. [Decharne] troxelator See feedback troxelator. TRPA1 (transient receptor potential #A1) (pronounced "trip-ay-one") Hearing. Protein that translates sound waves into nerve impulses. Discovered in 2004 by a research team lead by neurobiologist David Corey of Harvard Medical School (the team consisted of researchers at U.Va., Northwestern University, Duke University, Harvard Medical School and the National Institutes of Health.). This is the long sought missing link in the ear's conversion of sound waves into electrical signals that the brain can recognize as distinct sounds. The protein is located in a tiny channel located at the tips of the inner ear's hair cells (also found in mice, fish and fruit flies). [Reported in the online edition of the journal Nature: "TRPA1 is a candidate for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of vertebrate hair cells." Corey DP, GarciaAnoveros J, Holt JR, Kwan KY, Lin SY, Vollrath MA, Amalfitano A, Cheung EL, Derfler BH, Duggan A, Geleoc GS, Gray PA, Hoffman MP, Rehm HL, Tamasauskas D, Zhang DS.] Also see U. Va. Researchers Unravel a Central Mystery of Hearing. TRRS See connectors: TRRS TRS See: connectors: TRS true response graphic equalizer A graphic equalizer whose output characteristics perfectly match the position of the front-panel slide controls. Contrast with proportional-Q and constant-Q designs. See Perfect-QTM. trumpet Musical Instrument. A soprano brass wind instrument consisting of a long metal tube looped once and ending in a flared bell, the modern type being equipped with three valves for producing variations in pitch. [AHD] The oldest intact trumpet

with three valves for producing variations in pitch. [AHD] The oldest intact trumpet was found in King Tut's tomb and dates to 1352 BC. truncate To eliminate without round-off some low-order bits, often after performing an arithmetic computation. trundle The motion or noise of rolling. [AHD] Tschebyscheff See Chebyshev. TT (tiny telephone) Shorter and thinner than 1/4" TRS jacks, it is the term for the small patch cables originally used in telephone patchbays. Also called bantam jacks. TTL (transistor transistor logic) The workhorse digital logic integrated circuit family introduced as a standard product line in 1964. TTM (turntablist transcription methodology) A system of music notation developed by John Carluccio in 1997, for turntablism (see below). His system uses a modified musical staff with the vertical axis representing the direction of rotation of the record and the horizontal axis representing time. tube See vacuum tube. Turntable U Online popular and successful DJ school. Hit the link for details. turntablism A form of music founded by turntablists (see below), that is already mainstream enough that the Berklee College of Music publishing arm, Berklee Press has issued books and vinyl records for this music form. For further historical info see Miles White's "The Phonograph Turntable and Performance Practice in Hip Hop Music". First co-credited to three New York DJs: Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash in the '70s. turntablist A performing artist who uses two or more turntables as music sources from which he/she creates original results by quickly cutting and mixing the sounds of each, using specially designed performance mixers. turntablist transcription methodology See TTM. TVS (transient voltage suppressor) Originally MOV (metal oxide varistor) (GE trademark). Semiconductor devices designed to provide protection against voltage and current transients. tweeter High-frequency loudspeaker. See crossover; also ribbon tweeter.

twin-tone IMD See IM. TwinVQ (transform-domain weighted interleave vector quantization) Name of a music compression technology developed at the NTT Human Interface Laboratories in Japan. A transform coding method like MP3, AAC or AC-3. twisted-pair Standard two-conductor copper cable, with insulation extruded over each conductor and twisted together. Usually operated as a balanced line connection. May be shielded or not. See cables. two-bit Costing or worth 25 cents: a two-bit cigar. tympani or timpani Music Instruments. A set of kettledrums.

Pro Audio Reference U
"U" Abbreviation for the "modular unit" on which rack panel heights are based. Per the EIA and ANSI standard ANSI/EIA-310-D-1992 Cabinets, Racks, Panels, and Associated Equipment, the modular unit is equal to 44.45 millimeters (1.75"). Panel heights are referred to as "nU" where n is equal to the number of modular units. Examples are 1U (1.75" high), 2U (3.5" high), 3U (5.25" high), etc. Popularly called rack units and often abbreviated "RU," which is technically incorrect but not misleading. UART (universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter) The device that performs the bidirectional parallel-to-serial data conversions necessary for the serial transmission of data into and out of a computer. uber or über A German term that literally means 'over,' but which is used in academia to refer to the fundamental essence of a concept or idea. Popularly used to mean 'very' or 'really,' as in "Rane audio is uber audio." Hit the link to read 100 different definitions. ud Musical Instrument. See: oud. una corda Music With the soft pedal of the piano depressed. Used chiefly as a direction. [AHD] UDP (user datagram protocol) A TCP/IP protocol describing how messages reach application programs within a destination computer. This protocol is normally bundled with IP-layer software (UDP/IP). UDP is a transport layer, connectionless mode protocol, providing a datagram mode of communication for delivery of packets to a remote or local user. UDP/IP has almost no error recovery services, and is used primarily for broadcasting messages over a network. UDP/IP (user datagram protocol/internet protocol) See: UDP above. udu drum Musical Instrument. A clay pot with two holes, cupped alternatively; sound produced by compression and release of the air inside it. [Glossary of Folk Musical Instruments & Styles from Around the World.] ugh Used to express horror, disgust, or repugnance. [AHD] An example of an onomatopoeia word.

UHF See frequency bands. UI (user interface) As compared with GUI. uilleann pipes (pronounced: illan) Musical Instrument. A Celtic bagpipe whose air supply is produced by a bellows held under the arm and operated by the elbow. Often used in the plural. [AHD] Also called union pipes. ukelin Musical Instrument. A bowed stringed instrument that combines the Hawaiian ukulele (uke) with the violin (lin). [From link.] ukulele also ukelele Musical Instrument. A small four-stringed guitar popularized in Hawaii. [AHD] ULD (ultra low delay coder) One of Fraunhofer's (creator of MP3) proprietary forms of digital audio compression. ULF (ultralow frequency) An electromagnetic wave whose frequency is less than 3,000 hertz. [AHD] ULSI (ultra-large-scale integration) A logic device containing a million or more gates. ultra-directional sound systems Loudspeakers. Pioneered by Dr. F. Joseph Pompei in the late '90s while a grad student at MIT, and patented as US Patent 6,775,388, Ultrasonic Transducers, granted 2004, this technology allows audio reproduction with extreme directionality. Using this technology sound can be literally spotlighted to whatever location is desired, producing audio at that spot only with very minimal leakage. While the ultrasonic transmission is not audible, it works by creating intermodulation frequency products at the beam's end that are audible. ultraharmonic response Frequencies that are not whole number multipliers but fractional multiples of the fundamental frequency of the system, e.g. 1.5 or 2.5 times the fundamental frequency. Contrast with harmonic. Ultra Music Festival See: UMF. ultrasonic Of or relating to acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear, or above approximately 20,000 hertz. [AHD] Compare with supersonic. ultrasonography 1. Diagnostic imaging in which ultrasound is used to image an internal body structure or a developing fetus. Also called echography. 2. An imaging

technique that uses high frequency sound waves to visualize underwater surfaces, boundaries, objects, and currents. [AHD] ultrasound Acoustics. Sound at ultrasonic frequencies in any medium. Medicine. The use of ultrasonic waves for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, specifically to image an internal body structure, monitor a developing fetus, or generate localized deep heat to the tissues. [AHD] ululate To howl, wail, or lament loudly. [AHD] U-matic Recording. Sony's trademarked name for their 3/4" helical-scan professional videocassette technology. umbra 1. A dark area, especially the blackest part of a shadow from which all light is cut off. 2. Astronomy a. The completely dark portion of the shadow cast by the earth, moon, or other body during an eclipse. b. The darkest region of a sunspot. [AHD] UMF (Ultra Music Festival) Yearly huge dance festival held originally in Miami, now expanded to multiple cities. umpo "In music, taking a song or a part of a song up tempo, or faster." Compare with: dempo. UMRK (Utility Muffin Research Kitchen) Name of Frank Zappa's original recording studio completed in 1979. una corda Music. With the soft pedal (the leftmost of a piano's three pedals) of the piano depressed. Used chiefly as a direction. [Italian: una, one + corda, string (so called because depressing the soft pedal causes only one string to be struck of the two or three provided for each note).] [AHD] unbalanced line See balanced line. unblooped Film Sound. Pertaining to motion-picture soundtrack negative wherein the discontinuities due to splices have not been minimized by making opaque the area near the splice with "bloopiing" tape or ink. [Holman] uncertainty principle See Heisenberg uncertainty principle. undamped Physics. Not tending toward a state of rest; not damped. Used of oscillations.

undamped frequency Electronics. Of a second-order linear system without damping, the frequency of free oscillation in radians per unit time or in hertz. [IEEE] underdamped Electronics. Damped insufficiently to prevent oscillation of the output following an abrupt input stimulus. [IEEE] underground (music) Any avant-garde, experimental, or subversive movement in popular art, films, music, etc. [Collins] undersampling The use of too low a sampling frequency, resulting in aliasing. underwater acoustics The science of sound propagation in the sea, and of sound radiation and scattering by underwater objects. [Morfey] unicasting Networks. One-to-one communication (as opposed to broadcasting or multicasting). unicasting Bundle CobraNet. One-to-one routing of audio on the network. Unicode A universal system that provides a unique number for every character, regardless of platform, program, or language. unidirectional microphone or just directional microphone One that is most sensitive to sound arriving directly at its front. Compare with omnidirectional mic and cardioid microphone. Unidyne™ Microphones. Shure Model 55 Unidyne microphone designed by Benjamin Bauer and first sold in 1939 was the first single-element unidirectional microphone. Its performance qualities and distinctive styling ultimately make it “the most recognized microphone in the world.” [Shure History] uniform array See line arrays. uniform coverage horn See constant directivity (CD) horn. unilay Wire and Cable. A conductor with more than one layer of helically laid wires with the direction of lay and length of lay the same for all layers. [Belden}] unimorph Piezoelectric Microphones. A cantilever device having one active piezoelectric layer and one inactive non-piezoelectric layer. Compare with: bimorph. union pipes See: uilleann pipes

units of measurement See Rowlett's How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement for a valuable list (with definitions) of the International System of Weights and Measures, the metric system, and all English customary units. Very highly recommended. unity gain A gain setting of one, or a device having a gain of one, i.e., it does not amplify or attenuate the audio signal. The output equals the input. See the RaneNote Unity Gain and Impedance Matching: Strange Bedfellows. unity gain bandwidth See GBW. unity power factor In an AC circuit, a power factor equal to one, which only occurs when the voltage and current are in phase, i.e., for a purely resistive circuit, or a reactive circuit at resonance. unmodulated track Film Sound. An optical soundtrack containing no deliberate signal. For variable-area soundtracks, unmodulated track is made narrow when there is no signal present to reduce the noise caused by the optical grain of the film. [Holman] unobtainium Reference to all those parts necessary to keep legacy audio devices running that you can never find -- things like old ICs, connectors, etc. [Origin unknown, but thanks to CD for passing it on.] upbeat Music. 1. An unaccented beat or beats that occur before the first beat of a measure. Also called anacrusis and pickup. 2. The upward stroke made by a conductor to indicate the beat that leads into a new measure. [AHD] upcut Broadcast. Chopping off the beginning of the audio or video of a shot or video story. [KU Input-Output Glossary] Upping some real crazy riffs. Playing cool music. [Decharne] uproar Disorderly tumult together with loud, bewildering sound; a heated controversy. [AHD] UPS (uninterruptible power supply) A back-up battery-powered supply (commonly used with computers) that automatically continues to supply power when the main AC source fails. Variations exist where the system always runs from the UPS (the AC line keeps the batteries charged when present), offering immunity from AC line fluctuations and noise.

tuations and noise. upstage Theater. The back of the stage farthest from the audience, as opposed to downstage. upward expander See expander. Urban Dictionary A slang dictionary of user made up definitions, as if the English language isn't difficult enough already. You makes 'um up as yus needs 'em folks. URL (uniform resource locator) A Web address. A consistent method for specifying Internet resources in a way that all Web browsers understand. For example, "," is the URL for Rane's home page on the web. The "http" part tells the Web browser what protocol to use, and the remainder of the URL, "," is the Internet address. USB (universal serial bus) Originally proposed by a consortium of Compaq, Digital, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC and Northern Telecom in March of 1995, it is now the standard computer serial connection. Hit the link for the latest versions. USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) The association of design, production, and technology professionals in the performing arts and entertainment industry. USPTO (U.S. Patent & Trademark Office) Complete patent and trademark information is available free at this incredible website. Here you may search, read and print any U.S. patent granted since 1790 (really). [To download exact full-page patent images, complete with diagrams, requires you have a TIFF plug-in. All Internet US patents are in TIFF image file format, using CCITT Group 4 compression, as mandated by international standards. This requires third-party software to view these images either directly or after conversion to another format, such as Adobe PDF. A free, unlimited time TIFF plug-in offering full-size, unimpeded patent viewing and printing unimpeded by any advertising on Windows PCs is available from AlternaTIFF. Another useful site is it is limited because you cannot do free searches, however if you know the patent number you can print the entire patent with one click, instead of having to print each page individually as required by the USPTO site]. universal time Abbr. UT The mean solar time for the meridian at Greenwich, England, used as a basis for calculating time throughout most of the world. Also called Greenwich time, Greenwich Mean Time, Zulu time. [AHD] updater Someone who dates above their social status.

UT See: universal time UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) See cables. UWB (ultrawideband) radio A type of wireless broadband radio that emits a broad spectrum of radio waves, potentially causing interference; also called impulse radio. FCC defines it as a bandwidth of at least 20% of the center frequency, or at least 500 MHz. UV (ultraviolet) Electromagnetic radiation at frequencies higher than visible light yet lower than those of x-rays. Commonly used to erase EPROMs and in wireless and fiber optic data transmission. uxoriousness 1. Excessively submissive or devoted to one's wife. 2. "A perverted affection that has strayed to one's own wife." -- Ambrose Bierce.

Pro Audio Reference V
V The symbol for voltage. VA (voltampere) See voltampere. Vactec Electronic Components. The name of a company acquired by EG&G, famous for their optoelectronics family and especially their photocouplers and LDRs which featured prominently in early compressors and limiters. vacuum tube An electron tube where virtually all the air has been removed (creating a vacuum), thus permitting electrons to move freely, with low interaction with any remaining air molecules. [AHD] The first tube was a two-element diode, invented and patented by Ambrose Fleming in 1904, based on the Edison effect. Three years later, in 1907, Lee de Forest developed the first triode (known as the Audion) by adding a grid between the cathode (emitter) and the anode (collector), thus creating the first amplifier since a change of voltage at the grid produced a corresponding (but greater) change of voltage at the anode. vacuum-tube op amps Bob Pease posts the best information on vacuum-tube operational amplifiers. valance Theater. A part of the stage draperies, usually ornamental, which hangs in front of the main curtain. valence Chemistry. The combining capacity of an atom or radical determined by the number of electrons that it will lose, add, or share when it reacts with other atoms. [AHD] valiha Musical Instrument. A Madagascar zither-type stringed instrument. values, standard component values Resistors and capacitors. See: Standard Component Values and color-code. valve British term for vacuum tube, popularized because the first tube was known as the Fleming valve named for its inventor Ambrose Fleming. Van de Graaff generator An electrostatic generator using a moving belt and a hollow metal ball. Biggest in the world is at the Boston Museum of Science, built in the 1930s

by Dr. Van de Graaff, it uses two 15 feet diameter aluminum balls and can generate 2 million volts. Hit the link for photos and more in depth details. van den Hul Phonographs. Dutch company said to make the best phono cartridges ever produced. van der Waals equation An equation of state that relates the pressure, volume, and absolute temperature of a gas taking into account the finite size of molecules, and their intermolecular attraction, having the form RT = (P + av-2)(v - b), where R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, P is the pressure, v is the volume, and a and b are constants. [After Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837-1923), Dutch physicist.] [AHD] vanity radio Podcasting. Term coined by Errol Smith, co-founder of INA (International Nanocasting Alliance). Van Vliet, Don Musician. Birth name of musician who performed as Captain Beefheart. vaporware Refers to either hardware or software that exist only in the minds of the marketeers. var (volt-ampere reactive) Electric Power Circuits. The unit of reactive power in the International System of Units (SI). The var is the reactive power at the two points of entry of a single-phase, two-wire circuit when the product of the root-mean-square value in amperes of the sinusoidal current by the root-mean-square value in volts of the sinusoidal voltage and by the sine of the angular phase difference by which the voltage leads the current is equal to one. [IEEE] Variable-D® Microphones. Registered copyright of Electro-Voice for their broadcast dynamic microphone design that claims to virtually eliminate the proximity effect resulting in a uniform low-frequency response, up-close or at a distance. variable-Q graphic equalizer See proportional-Q graphic equalizer. variac (variable AC) Electronics. A variable transformer used to vary AC voltages. varistor (variable resistor) Electronic Component. A two-terminal semiconductor device having a voltage-dependent nonlinear resistance. [IEEE] VCA (voltage-controlled amplifier or voltage-controlled attenuator) An electronic circuit comprised of three terminals: input, output and control. The output voltage is

a function of the input voltage and the control port. The gain of the stage is determined by the control signal, which is usually a DC voltage, but could be a current signal or even a digital code. Usually found as the main element in dynamic controllers, such as compressors, expanders, limiters, and gates. See THAT Corporation's VCA History. VCR (videocassette recorder) A magnetic tape recorder for recording and playback of video programs. "The first VCR was made in 1956 and was the size of a piano." (Snapple Real Fact #180) VCXO (voltage-controlled crystal oscillator) A crystal-based oscillator whose frequency is controllable by an external voltage. V-DOSCA trademark of L-Acoustics, the "V" refers to the V-shaped acoustic lens configuration employed for their mid and high frequency line array sections. The "DOSC" is a French acronym for "Diffuser d'Onde Sonore Cylindrique"-- in English this translates to "cylindrical wave generator," an apt description of the performance of their line arrays. VDT (video display terminal) Computer monitor, or data terminal with a monitor. vector Mathematics. A quantity, such as velocity, completely specified by a magnitude and a direction. vector diagram A drawing that shows the direction and magnitude of a quantity by a vector arrow. See the RaneNote Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer. veena Musical Instrument. A stringed instrument of India that has a long, fretted fingerboard with resonating gourds at each end. [AHD] vegetable diode See LEVD. vegetable orchestra See Viennese Vegetable Orchestra. Velcro® (velour + crochet) Named by combining the first syllable of two French words: velour (velvet) and crochet (hook) by inventor George de Mestral, Swiss Engineer, in 1941. He got the idea while removing sticky cockleburs from his dog. He examined one under a microscope and discovered they were covered with thousands of tiny hooks. He then went on to see if he could duplicate the effect to create a fastener. velocimeter Acoustics. A device for measuring the speed of sound in a liquid, usually

water. Typically done using two transducers arranged as a transmitting and receiving pair, located a fixed distance apart. A short acoustic pulse is transmitted between the two and the travel time measured. velocity Synthesizers & MIDI. How fast a key is depressed. Used to control loudness or other parameters. velocity microphone See pressure gradient microphone and ribbon microphone. velocity of sound Acoustics. The international standard is 331.45 m/s (1087.42 ft/s) at 0 °C (32 °F) and 0% humidity. For the effects of temperature and humidity see: Bohn, Dennis A. "Environmental Effects on the Speed of Sound," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 36, No. 4, April 1988, pp. 223-231. vernier calipers An instrument having a fixed and a movable arm on a graduated stock, used for measuring the diameters of logs and similar objects. [AHD] Venn diagrams Mathematics. A logic diagramming system invented by the British logician, John Venn (1834-1923) that uses overlapping circles to represent mathematical sets and their relationships. vented loudspeaker See bass reflex. vertical interval time code See time code. vestibular system Hearing. The part of the human ear that senses translational and rotational acceleration of the head, and its orientation with respect to gravity. VHF See frequency bands. VHS (video home system) Trademark for the most popular video tape format, invented by JVC in 1976. vias (aka feed-through hole) Printed Circuit Boards. A pad with a plated-through hole connecting one layer to another. vibraphone Musical Instrument. A percussion instrument similar to a marimba but having metal bars and rotating disks in the resonators to produce a vibrato. Also called vibraharp. [AHD] vibration Any time-varying oscillation about a state of equilibrium. vibrato A tremulous or pulsating effect produced in an instrumental or vocal tone by

minute and rapid variations in pitch. [AHD] [Think: frequency modulation as in fast pitch changes.] Victor Shorten form for The Victor Talking Machine Company (1901-1929). The company was named "The Victor" in honor of legal victories by founder Eldrige R. Johnson and Emile Berliner over Zonophone and others concerning their rights to patents on and distribution of their products. Victrola The copyrighted name given to the line of internal horn phonographs made by the Victor Talking Machine Company. videoconferencing Video and audio communication held by two or more people over a distance using a codec at either end and linked by digital networks (T-1, ISDN, etc.). Contrast with teleconferencing. viella Musical Instrument. French name for hurdy-gurdy. Viennese Vegetable Orchestra Music. Innovative (to say the least!) Austrian ensemble that plays nine different instruments carved and peeled from ordinary garden vegetables, played by three men and six women. vihuela Musical Instrument. A Spanish guitar-like stringed instrument. The modern Mexican vihuela is played in mariachi groups. Villari effect See: magnetostriction. Villchur, Edgar M. (1917-2011) American inventor, entrepreneur, educator, audio pioneer, who co-founded Acoustic Research in 1952, with Henry Kloss. Best known for inventing the acoustic-suspension loudspeaker. [Ref: "Problems of Bass Reproduction in Loudspeakers," Jour. Audio Engineering Society, vol. 5, no. 3, July 1957, pp. 122126, and "Commercial Acoustic Suspension Speaker, " AUDIO, July, 1955.) VI meter (volume indicator) See: VU meter vinyl Common name for any phonograph record. Hit the link to read its fascinating history. Also rock vinyl history. And here for DJ vinyl history right from the very beginning of records - fascinating. viol Musical Instrument. Any of a family of stringed instruments, chiefly of the 16th and 17th centuries, having a fretted fingerboard, usually six strings, and a flat back and played with a curved bow. [AHD]

viola Musical Instrument. 1. A stringed instrument of the violin family, slightly larger than a violin, tuned a fifth lower, and having a deeper, more sonorous tone. 2. An organ stop usually of eight-foot or four-foot pitch yielding string like tones. [AHD] violet noise See noise color. violin Musical Instrument. A stringed instrument played with a bow, having four strings tuned at intervals of a fifth, an unfretted fingerboard, and a shallower body than the viol and capable of great flexibility in range, tone, and dynamics. [AHD] Extremely old, the first four-string violin was build by Andrea Amati in 1555. virginal Musical Instrument. A small, legless rectangular harpsichord popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. Believed so called, because commonly used by young ladies. [AHD] virgule Printing. A diagonal mark ( / ) used especially to separate alternatives, as in and/or, to represent the word per, as in miles/hour, and to indicate the ends of verse lines printed continuously, as in Old King Cole/Was a merry old soul. [AHD] Virtual Studio Technology See: VST. virus A self-replicating program released into a computer system for mischievous reasons. Once triggered by some preprogrammed event (often time or date related), the results vary from humorous or annoying messages, to the destruction of data or whole operating systems. Bad bad. VITC (vertical interval time code) See time code. VJ (video jockey) Term coined by the MTV generation for jocks that present music videos on television or nightclubs or parties. [Or for us old farts: V-J Day, the date of Allied victory over Japan, World War II, August 15, 1945.] Compare with DJ and KJ. Vladimir Baranoff Rossine(1888-1944) Russian artist and inventor whose Optophonic Piano was an early color-organ. VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) A network of devices (computers) that look like they are connected to the same network but, in fact, they are physically located on different LANs. VLSI (very-large-scale integration) Refers to the number of logic gates in an integrated circuit. By today's standards, a VLSI device could contain up to one million gates.

VO (voiceover) See: voiceover. vocal cords See: vocal folds. vocal folds "Fold of tissue in the larynx whose vibrations creates the periodic sound present in the voiced sounds of speech." [Bregman] Either of two pairs of bands or folds of mucous membrane in the throat that project into the larynx. The lower pair vibrate when pulled together and when air is passed up from the lungs, thereby producing vocal sounds. The upper, thicker pair are not involved in voice production. [AHD] Voca People Music. An international vocal theater performing group consisting of vocal sounds, a cappella singing and beatboxing. vocoder (voice coder) 1. Invented by Homer Dudley (no fooling) in 1936 at Bell Labs, and called a "phase vocoder." It was an electronic device for analyzing and synthesizing, or generating artificial speech. Homer Dudley was the first person to recognized that the basic information rate of speech is low and that if you broke it down into its basic components, these could be transmitted over a quite narrow bandwidth, and then reconstructed at the receiving end. Thus was born the speech synthesizer. The vocoder principal is based on determining the formants, or vowel sounds, of the speech signal, along with its fundamental frequency and any noise components such as plosive sounds (a speech sound produced by complete closure of the oral passage and subsequent release accompanied by a burst of air, as in the sound (p) in pit, or (d) in dog), hisses, or buzzes. Typically this is done by using two sets of filter banks -- one for analysis and one for synthesis -- and an "excitation analysis" block. The analysis filter bank is much like those used in real-time analyzers. The audio is presented to a bank of parallel connected bandpass filters, whose output levels are converted into DC voltage levels proportional to the signal passing through each bandpass filter. This captures the formant information. The excitation analysis block determines and codes the fundamental frequency and noise attributes. Reconstruction occurs by using the encoded DC levels, mixed with the excitation block output, to gate each output bandpass filter, which are then summed together to recreate a facsimile of the original speech signal. Early pictures and audio samples (from Prof. Edward A. Lee, UC Berkeley). 2. Once vocoder basics were established, they found new uses in electronic music applications. The MI (musical instrument) vocoder uses speech input to modulate another music instrument signal so that it "talks." Use of vocoders peaked in the '70s after being popularized by such notables as Wendy Carlos, Alan Parsons and Stevie Wonder. This vocoder version has two inputs, one for the vocal microphone and one for another instrument. Talk-

ing or singing into the microphone modulates or superimposes vocal characteristics onto the other instrument. Compare with talk box. VoFi (voice-over-IP-over-Wi-Fi) The technology that allows normal telephone calls to be made over the Internet. voice Music. a. Musical sound produced by vibration of the human vocal cords and resonated within the throat and head cavities. b. The quality or condition of a person's singing: a baritone in excellent voice. c. A singer: a choir of excellent voices. d. One of the individual vocal or instrumental parts or strands in a composition: a fugue for four voices; string voices carrying the melody. Also called voice part. [AHD] Synthesizers. Playing two or more patches at the same time. voice box Popular term for the human larynx: "The part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea, having walls of cartilage and muscle and containing the vocal cords enveloped in folds of mucous membrane." [AHD]. voice coil See loudspeaker. voiced Linguistics To pronounce with vibration of the vocal cords. Music a. To provide (a composition) with voice parts. b. To regulate the tone of (the pipes of an organ, for example). 4. To provide the voice for (a cartoon character or show, for example): The animated series was voiced by famous actors. [AHD] voiced bilabial fricative A speech sound. See fricative and link. voiceless dental fricative A speech sound. See fricative and link. Voice of the Theater® Loudspeaker. Famous motion picture theater sound system by Altec, designated the A-4, it replaced the Shearer Horn as the dominate theater loudspeaker system in the '40s. voiceover 1. The voice of an unseen narrator, or of an onscreen character not seen speaking, in a movie or a television broadcast. 2. A film or videotape recording narrated by a voiceover. [AHD] Common examples of voiceovers include cartoon characters, documentary videos of all types, computer software tutorials, audio books, and automated telephone messages. VoIP (voice over Internet protocol) The technology that allows you to transmit voice conversations (i.e., the ability to make telephone calls) and send faxes over a data network using the Internet Protocol. Think, voice email.

volatile Refers to a memory device that loses any data it contains when power is removed from the device. Examples would include static and dynamic RAMs. Volkman, John E. (1905-1980) American engineer who, in the '30s, was the first to use EQ in motion picture theater sound systems. volt Abbr. E, also V. The International System unit of electric potential and electromotive force, equal to the difference of electric potential between two points on a conducting wire carrying a constant current of one ampere when the power dissipated between the points is one watt. [After Count Alessandro Volta.] [AHD] Volta, Count Alessandro (1745-1827) Italian physicist who invented the battery (1800). The volt is named in his honor. [AHD] voltage Electromotive force or potential difference, usually expressed in volts. [AHD] voltage follower See buffer amplifier. voltampere (VA) The product of rms voltage and rms current in an electronic circuit. It is the unit of apparent power in the International System of Units (SI). Volterra, Vito(1860 - 1940) Italian mathematician and physicist, whose original work on partial differential equations and the equation for cylindrical waves is most relevant to pro audio research. Volumax CBS trademark for a broadcast limiter invented by Emil Torick in the '50s to replace the transmitter watch engineer. volume Sound 1. The amplitude or loudness of a sound. 2. A control, as on a radio, for adjusting amplitude or loudness. [AHD] VOM (volt-ohm-milliammeter) A portable test instrument for measuring voltage (volts), resistance (ohms) and current (amperes). Also see VTVM. voodoo boilers A kit of drums. [Decharne] vote "The instrument and symbol of a freeman's power to make a fool of himself and a wreck of his country." -- Ambrose Bierce. VOTT See: Voice of the Theater. vowels "The voiced sounds of speech that are combined with consonants to form syllables. Examples are 'ah', 'oo', and 'ee'." [Bregman]

syllables. Examples are 'ah', 'oo', and 'ee'." [Bregman] VOX (voice operated exchange) Also called voice operated relay, originally a tape recorder feature where speech starts the recording process and silence stops it. However it is not restricted to tape recorders, for instance, cellular phones use VOX to save battery life, and teleconferencing systems use it to determine the number of active mics. See NOM. VPN (virtual private network) A secure Internet connection using encryption and tunneling protocols to create a safe connection, or tunnel, to a private network. [Intel glossary] VPR Alliance (Vertical Powered Rack Alliance) API Audio's program of standardization for 500 Series module manufacturers. VRAS (variable room acoustic system) An EAE system developed by Meyer and LCS Audio. VRML (virtual reality modeling language) A method for describing interactive 3D scenes delivered across the internet. In short, VRML adds 3D data to the Web. At on time heavily supported by Silicon Graphics (SGI) workstations, competing with Sun's Java loaded workstations. vroom The loud, roaring noise of an engine operating at high speed. [AHD] VSL (Video-SL) Serato's software add-on to its Scratch Live system that allows DJs to manipulate video along with music using vinyl emulation control records. VST (Virtual Studio Technology™) A trademark of Steinberg for their interface standard for integrating software plug-ins with audio editors. VSWR (voltage standing-wave ratio) Electronics. A waveguide mode: it is the ratio of the magnitude of the transverse electric field in a plane of maximum strength to the magnitude at the equivalent point in an adjacent plane of minimum filed strength. (IEEE) For pro audio it shows up in qualifying coax cables, where it is a measure of return loss. It is a measure of the reflected energy from a transmitted signal, and is affected by such factors as poor connectors, connections, cable defects and abuse. [Technically it should be SWR as there is only one SWR, not one for voltage and another for current.] VTVM (vacuum tube voltmeter) Antiquated term for a test instrument measuring voltage, resistance and current, constructed using vacuum tubes, which required plugging it into an AC voltage source, thus not portable. Characterized by having

very high input impedance (compared to the standard VOM) that allowed more precise measurements. Replaced today by solid-state DMM (digital multimeter). vulcanize To improve the strength, resiliency, and freedom from stickiness and odor of (rubber, for example) by combining with sulfur or other additives in the presence of heat and pressure. [AHD] After the Roman mythology god of fire and metalworking, Vulcan. Vulcanized fiber See fishpaper. vulgar fractions Chiefly British term for common fractions, although sometimes used to mean improper fractions (those with a larger numerator than denominator). (Word History: Vulgar is an example of pejoration, the process by which a word develops negative meanings over time. The ancestor of vulgar, the Latin word vulgris (from vulgus, "the common people"), meant "of or belonging to the common people, everyday," as well as "belonging to or associated with the lower orders." Vulgris also meant "ordinary," "common (of vocabulary, for example)," and "shared by all.") [AHD] VU meter (volume unit) The term volume unit (originally called VI or volume indicator; now archaic usage) was adopted to refer to a special meter whose response closely related to the perceived loudness of the audio signal. It is a voltmeter with standardized dB calibration for measuring audio signal levels, and with attack and overshoot (needle ballistics) optimized for broadcast and sound recording. Jointly developed by Bell Labs, CBS and NBC, and put into use in May, 1939, VU meter characteristics are defined by ANSI specification "Volume Measurements of Electrical Speech and Program waves, " C16.5-1942 (which is know incorporated into IEC 60268-17). 0 VU is defined to be a level of +4 dBu for an applied sine wave. The VU meter has relatively slow response. It is driven from a full-wave averaging circuit defined to reach 99% full-scale deflection in 300 ms and overshoot not less than 1% and not more than 1.5%. Since a VU meter is optimized for perceived loudness it is not a good indicator of peak performance. Contrast with PPM. vuvuzela (aka lepatata) Musical Instrument. A trumpet-shaped horn indigenous to South Africa; popular at soccer games. For those who find the sound offensive see: How To Silence Vuvuzela Horns. VXCO (voltage-controlled crystal oscillator A crystal-based oscillator whose center frequency can be varied with an applied voltage.

Pro Audio Reference W
W Abbreviation for watt. W3 An abbreviation for World Wide Web. Wachner, Brian Gary (1945-1997) American engineer and founder of BGW Systems. wah-wah pedal (also wa-wa pedal) Music special effects. An electric guitar effects foot pedal that alters the sound in a wavering manner sounding somewhat like the human voice saying the word "wah." Made famous by Jimi Hendrix (and others) in the 1960s using an original Cry Baby pedal. In brass instruments, mostly trumpets, a similar sound is created by covering and uncovering the bell with a rubber toilet plunger. [Hit the link to read its fascinating history.] waisted drum See: talking drum. Walker, Peter J. (1916-2003) British engineer and inventor known as the founder of the legendary British audio company Quad. walla The film industry term for background crowd noises in a movie. Walla Walla A city in southeast Washington near the Oregon border south-southwest of Spokane. Founded in 1856 near the site of an army fort, it is a manufacturing center in an agricultural region famous for sweet yellow onions and world-class wineries. In spite of its name, a quiet community. Wall of Sound One of the most famous PA systems of all time, developed and used by the Grateful Dead in the early '70s. Diagram here. Wally Award given at LDI (Live Design International) trade show each year since its inception in 1992, named after Wally Russell. The full name is the Wally Russell Lifetime Achievement Award. Walkman® Registered trademark of the Sony Corporation originally for their portable audio cassette player. While Philips Norelco's Carry-Coder was first, Sony's Walkman's size and sound quality changed everything in 1979. Walsh driver Loudspeakers. A novel omnidirectional loudspeaker invented by Lincoln Walsh and granted U.S. Patent 3,424,873 in 1969 (filled in 1964). Called a coherent-

sound loudspeaker, a Walsh driver is an inverted-cone that radiates sound all around "... by means of a conical diaphragm operating as a wave transmission line." It is claimed to "... obtain full frequency range, high quality sound omnidirectionally from a single radiator." [US Patent 3,424,873]. Walsh's invention led to the founding of Ohm Acoustics, the exclusive manufacturer of loudspeakers based on Walsh drivers, and whose President/Chief Engineer, John Strohbeen further developed Walsh's concepts (U.S. Patent 4,483,015, et. al.) into what they are today. Also see refinements done by Peter Dick (DDD - Dick's dipole driver). Walsh, Lincoln (1903-1971) American engineer who developed the Walsh Driver and much more. Walzing Matilda Song penned by Banjo Paterson which became Australia's unofficial national anthem. Hit the link for the whole fantastic story. WAM (Women's Audio Mission) San Francisco-based, non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of women in music production and the recording arts. WAN (wide area network) A computer and voice network bigger than a city or metropolitan area. Wangemann, Theo (1855-1906) German engineer who emigrated to the United States and became Edison's assistant and is recognized as the first professional recording engineer. His work includes a surviving phonograph recording of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck done during the Paris World's Fair in 1889. warble tone Test Equipment. An amplitude modulated test tone originally used for making acoustic measurements in loudspeaker enclosures; also used in room measurements. "The frequency of the oscillator is swept slowly from the lowest to the highest frequency while being warbled at the rate of four times per second over a range of 10 percent plus and minus the mean frequency." [Audio Cyclopedia] Use of a warbled tone helps prevent standing waves within the space measured. Warlocks The original name of the band that evolved into The Grateful Dead. warp marker Music Software. A method that attaches a position in a music sample to a particular time in the song. It forces the software to arrive at a specific point in the music sample at a specific time. WASC ( Western Association of Schools and Colleges) One of the six regional associations that accredit public and private colleges and schools in the United States.

waterfall display (aka cumulative spectral decay) Loudspeakers. A two-dimensional, three-coordinate graph displaying frequency on the horizontal, amplitude on the vertical and time on the third leg, back-to-front. Used to display information about a loudspeaker's impulse response. This plot technique is first described and named by M. Bernam and L. Fincham in their paper, "The Application of Digital Techniques to the Measurement of Loudspeakers," Jour. AES Soc., vol. 25, no. 6, 1977, pp. 370-384, where they apply modern DSP techniques to make practical the original work done by D. E. L. Shorter in 1946 ("Loudspeaker Transient Response -- Its Measurement and Graphical Representation," B.B.C. Quart., vol. 1, p. 121 (1946). watermarking 1. Paper The act of adding a translucent design impressed on paper during manufacture and visible when the paper is held to the light. [AHD] 2. Audio or video Embedded data code within the digitized audio or video image that can be recovered but which will not affect the quality of the product. Various methods exist, but all consist of very short (2-5 microseconds long) pieces of code containing all the relevant data about the copyright owner and performance royalties. All make use of the science of steganography. watt Abbr. W Electricity An International System unit of power equal to one joule per second. (After James Watt.) [AHD] Watt, James (1736-1819) British engineer and inventor who made fundamental improvements in the steam engine, resulting in the modern, high-pressure steam engine (patented 1769). [AHD] watts rms No such thing. See apparent power and rms power. .WAV File extension for a Wave file, the Microsoft format that is the de facto audio file format for PCs. WAVE (Women in AV) Organization that "Promotes collaboration, sharing of ideas, and brainstorming about all things AV" plus 10 other points. Click the link to read all. wave field synthesis Abbr. WFS "A means by which a soundfield can be reconstructed within a listening area using an array of loudspeakers, enabling faithful spatial reproduction." From "Wavefield Synthesis," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 52, No. 5, May 2004, pp. 538-543. See also AES Monograph: Wave Field Synthesis by Diemer de Vries. wavelength Symbol ! (Greek lower-case lambda) The distance between one peak or crest of a sine wave and the next corresponding peak or crest. The wavelength of any frequency may be found by dividing the speed of sound by the frequency.

wavelet Mathematics. An algorithm used to efficiently compress and decompress the phase and frequency information contained in a transmitted signal. wax a disc To make a recording. [Decharne] Weber, Dr. Walter (1907-1940) German engineer best know for his application of AC tape bias to ferrite-oxide tape. Weber, Wilhelm Eduard (1804-1891), German physicist famous for his study of the electrical structure of matter. The International System unit of magnetic flux is named after him. Webcast The real time (continuous stream) delivery of audio and video from a server to a client. [Think broadcast] weber Abbr. Wb The International System unit of magnetic flux, equal to the flux that produces in a circuit of one turn an electromotive force of one volt, when the flux is uniformly reduced to zero within one second. After Wilhelm Eduard Weber. [AHD] Web ring A group of websites all sharing a common theme. For example, web rings exist for fans of certain bands, movies, TV shows, authors, racecar drivers, etc. Soon we will have a web ring for web rings. Webster, Arthur G. (1863-1923) American scientist who developed the concept of acoustic impedance in 1919 and also contributed to the theory of horn loudspeakers. wedge loudspeaker also monitor loudspeaker Live Sound. The nickname for a loudspeaker used on stage to aid the musician in hearing the whole band; often shaped like a cheese or pie wedge. WEEE (Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment) European directive on disposal of electrical and electronic equipment. See RoHS. weighted average An average that takes into account the proportional relevance of each component, rather than treating each component equally. [IEEE Std 1680] weighting filters Special filters used in measuring loudness levels, and consequently carried over into audio noise measurements of equipment. The filter design "weights" or gives more attention to certain frequency bands than others. The goal is to obtain measurements that correlate well with the subjective perception of noise. (Technically termed psophometric [pronounced "so-fo-metric"] filters, after the psophometer, a device used to measure noise in telephone circuits, broadcast, and other audio communica-

tion equipment. A psophometer was a voltmeter with a set of weighting filters.) Weighting filters are a special type of band-limiting filters designed to compliment the way we hear. Since the ear's loudness vs. frequency response is not flat, it is argued, we should not try to correlate flat frequency vs. loudness measurements with what we hear. Fair enough. Five weighting filter designs dominate (See: References: Metzler): A-weighting (not official but commonly written as dBA) The A-curve is a wide bandpass filter centered at 2.5 kHz, with ~20 dB attenuation at 100 Hz, and ~10 dB attenuation at 20 kHz, therefore it tends to heavily roll-off the low end, with a more modest effect on high frequencies. It is the inverse of the 30-phon (or 30 dB-SPL) equal-loudness curve of Fletcher-Munson. Editorial Note: Low-cost audio equipment often list an A-weighted noise spec -- not because it correlates well with our hearing -- but because it helps "hide" nasty low-frequency hum components that make for bad noise specs. Sometimes A-weighting can "improve" a noise spec by 10 dB. Words to the wise: always wonder what a manufacturer is hiding when they use A-weighting. "However, an exception has arisen: Digital products using A/D and D/A converters regularly spec S/N and dynamic range using A-weighting. This follows the semiconductor industry's practice of spec'ing delta-sigma data converters A-weighted. They do this because they use clever noise shaping tricks to create 24-bit converters with acceptable noise behavior. All these tricks squeeze the noise out of the audio bandwidth and push it up into the higher inaudible frequencies. The noise may be inaudible, but it is still measurable and can give misleading results unless limited. When used this way, the A-weighting filter rolls off the high frequency noise better than the flat 22 kHz filter and compares better with the listening experience. The fact that the low-end also rolls off is irrelevant in this application." From RaneNote 145, Audio Specifications C-weighting (not official but commonly written as dBC) The C-curve is "flat," but with limited bandwidth, with -3 dB corners of 31.5 Hz and 8 kHz, respectively. ITU-R 468-weighting (was CCIR, but since the CCIR became the ITU-R, the correct terminology today is ITU-R) This filter was designed to maximize its response to the types of impulsive noise often coupled into audio cables as they pass through telephone switching facilities. Additionally it turned out to correlate particularly well with noise perception, since modern research has shown that

frequencies between 1 kHz and 9 kHz are more "annoying" than indicated by Aweighting curve testing. The ITU-R 468-curve peaks at 6.3 kHz, where it has 12 dB of gain (relative to 1 kHz). From here, it gently rolls off low frequencies at a 6 dB/octave rate, but it quickly attenuates high frequencies at ~30 dB/octave (it is down -22.5 dB at 20 kHz, relative to +12 dB at 6.3 kHz). K-weighting Used for loudness normalization in broadcast, it "... is composed of two stages of filtering; a first stage shelving filter and a second stage high-pass filter." [from ITU-R BS.1770-2, page 3. RLB-weighting (revised low-frequency B curve) Used for loudness normalization in broadcast, it is a second-order high pass with a -3 dB corner fixed at 60 Hz. See ITU-R BS.1770-1 , page 4. TU-R (CCIR) ARM-weighting or ITU-R (CCIR) 2 kHz-weighting This curves derives from the ITU-R 468-curve above. Dolby Laboratories proposed using an average-response meter with the ITU-R 468-curve instead of the costly true quasi-peak meters used by the Europeans in specifying their equipment. They further proposed shifting the 0-dB reference point from 1 kHz to 2 kHz (in essence, sliding the curve down 6 dB). This became known as the ITU-R ARM (average response meter), as well as the ITU-R 2 kHz-weighting curve. (See: R. Dolby, D. Robinson, and K. Gundry, "A Practical Noise Measurement Method," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 3, 1979) [Before using these terms be aware that the ITU-R, even after 20 years, takes strong exception to having its name used by a private company to promote its own methodologies.] Z-weighting A new term defined in IEC 61672-1, the latest international standard for sound pressure level measurements. It stand for zero-weighting, or no weighting; i.e., a flat measurement with equal emphasis of all frequencies. Wendel The name given by Steely Dan's famous recording engineer, Roger Nichols, for the sampling sequencer that he built in 1978 for their hit song, "Hey Nineteen." Wente, Edward Christopher (1889-19??) American engineer who invented the first condenser microphone in 1916 while working for Western Electric. wet Recording. 1. The result of mixing the original recorded sound with the processed sound (reverb, chorusing, doubling, etc.). 2. Any sound with significant reverberation; not dead. Contrast with dry. wet circuit See below.

wetting Electronics. 1. The free flow of solder alloy, with proper application of heat and flux, on a metallic surface to produce an adherent bond. [IEEE] 2. Wetted relay contacts prevent damaging chemicals such as oxides and hydrocarbons from forming on the contacts. The build-up increases the contact resistance which can cause a voltage drop and/or heating of the contacts. 2. The practice of wetting reed relay contacts with mercury; called mercury-wetted relay. wet transformer Telephony. An analog audio transformer designed for both DC and AC operation. Derived from the term, wet circuit, referring to a circuit where voice signals are transmitted and also carries direct current. Contrast with dry transformer. WFAE (World Forum for Acoustic Ecology) "An interdisciplinary spectrum of individuals engaged in the study of the scientific, social, and cultural aspects of natural and human made sound environments." WFS (wave field synthesis) See wave field synthesis. WFX Worship facilities conference & expo that brings together three church groups: Church Leaders, Technology Gurus, and Facilities Managers and teams. whammy bar Electric Guitar. Nickname for the metal handle contraption found on some electric guitars that allows the player to momentarily change the tension (or actually stretch) the strings in order to create a vibrato effect (often mistakenly called a tremolo device). Wheatstone bridge An instrument used for measuring resistance. The circuit used is a 4-arm bridge, all arms of which are predominantly resistive. The bridge is a twoport network (i.e., it has two terminal pairs across opposite corners) capable of being operated in such a manner that when voltage is applied to one port, by suitable adjustment of the resistive elements in the network, zero output can be obtained at the signal output port (usually a meter). Under these circumstances the bridges is termed balanced. [Although the circuit used in a Wheatstone bridge was first described by Samuel Hunter Christie (1784-1865) -- the son of James Christie, founder of the well-known auction house -- in his paper "Experimental Determination of the Laws of Magneto-electric Induction" (1833), Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) received credit for its invention because of his adaptation of the circuit in 1843 for the measurement of resistance. Wheatstone also invented the concertina, the stereoscope and contributed significantly to the development of the telegraph.] whippin' that ivory Playing the piano. [Decharne]

whistle or whine Acoustics. Terms for noise in the 500 Hz to 2 kHz range. [Things like air conditioners and diffusers.] white label Music. New twelve-inch vinyl singles with plain white labels used by record companies and DJs for their advance promotional copies. Music. Free promotional download site for DJs and record labels for use with Rane/Serato Scratch Live systems. white noise 1. Physics. Analogous to white light containing equal amounts of all visible frequencies, white noise contains equal amounts of all audible frequencies (technically the bandwidth of noise is infinite, but for audio purposes it is limited to just the audio frequencies). From an energy standpoint white noise has constant power per hertz (also referred to as unit bandwidth), i.e., at every frequency there is the same amount of power (while pink noise, for instance, has constant power per octave band of frequency). A plot of white noise power vs. frequency is flat if the measuring device uses the same width filter for all measurements. This is known as a fixed bandwidth filter. For instance, a fixed bandwidth of 5 Hz is common, i.e., the test equipment measures the amplitude at each frequency using a filter that is 5 Hz wide. It is 5 Hz wide when measuring 50 Hz or 2 kHz or 9.4 kHz, etc. A plot of white noise power vs. frequency change is not flat if the measuring device uses a variable width filter. This is known as a fixed percentage bandwidth filter. A common example of which is 1/3-octave wide, which equals a bandwidth of 23%. This means that for every frequency measured the bandwidth of the measuring filter changes to 23% of that new center frequency. For example the measuring bandwidth at 100 Hz is 23 Hz wide, then changes to 230 Hz wide when measuring 1 kHz, and so on. Therefore the plot of noise power vs. frequency is not flat, but shows a 3 dB rise in amplitude per octave of frequency change. Due to this rising frequency characteristic, white noise sounds very bright and lacking in low frequencies. [Here's the technical details: noise power is actually its power density spectrum - a measure of how the noise power contributed by individual frequency components is distributed over the frequency spectrum. It should be measured in watts/Hz; however it isn't. The accepted practice in noise theory is to use amplitude-squared as the unit of power (purists justify this by assuming a one-ohm resistor load). For electrical signals this gives units of volts-squared/Hz, or more commonly expressed as volts/root-Hertz. Note that the denominator gets bigger by the square root of the increase in frequency. Therefore, for an octave increase (doubling) of frequency, the denominator increases by the square root of two, which equals 1.414, or 3 dB. In order for the energy to remain constant (as it must if it is to remain white noise) there has to be an offsetting increase in amplitude (the numerator term) of 3 dB to exactly cancel the 3 dB increase in the denominator term. Thus

tor term) of 3 dB to exactly cancel the 3 dB increase in the denominator term. Thus the upward 3 dB/octave sloping characteristic of white noise amplitude when measured in constant percentage increments like 1/3-octave.] See noise color. 2. Music. Slang term for music that is discordant with no melody; disagreeable, harsh or dissonant. white space Communication. Term for the theoretically unused frequency spectrum separating analog TV channels. While unused in theory, it is in fact where pro audio wireless microphones and monitors operate. whole tone or whole step Music. Two notes spaced 1/6 octave apart. Contrast with semitone. Wicks, Charlie (1945-2010) American entrepreneur best remembered as the founder of Pro Co Sound company and his self-proclaimed title: Captain of the Universe. wide-range curve Same as X curve. widget (perhaps alteration of gadget) 1. A small mechanical device or control; a gadget. 2. An unnamed or hypothetical manufactured article. [AHD] 3. As developed by Guinness, a small disk with a pinprick-size hole that fits inside their beer cans. As the beer is packaged, a small amount of stout is forced into the widget and held there under pressure. Once the pressure is released by opening the can, the beer is freed from the widget and a stream of bubbles flows upward. Now when the stout is poured, it looks like a pub-poured draught with the characteristic Guinness head (thick collar of foam), without the widget it looks like any other beer. It also reproduces the creamy texture and low carbonation of a draught pint. Now also used by Murphy's and Beamish. Widlar, Bob (1937-1991) Famous eccentric American engineer, pioneer linear IC designer who created the first op amp ICs among many other IC innovations. widow's piano Inferior instruments sold as bargains. [Kacirk] Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) Shorten form for the Wi-Fi Alliance, a nonprofit international association formed in 1999 to certify interoperability of wireless Local Area Network products based on IEEE 802.11 specification. Wi-Fi Certification results from testing 802.11-based wireless equipment to make sure it meets the Wi-Fi standard and works with all other manufacturers' Wi-Fi equipment on the market. See the RaneNote Wireless Control of RPM Series Drag Net Programmable Processors. wiki wiki Hawaiian word meaning "quick" used to create the name of Wikipedia, the

free encyclopedia -- a fantastic resource. wild sound Film & Video Sound. Audio recorded independent of the visual it may accompany. Williams, Jim See: Jim Williams. Williwaw Name for howling ferocious cold winds common to Alaska and the Straits of Magellan. wind profiler See sodar. windshield Microphones. Slang for a pop filter. Wintel A contraction of the words "Windows" and "Intel." Used to describe personal computers made from Intel microprocessors and running Microsoft Windows software. It is reported that this "Wintel standard" accounts for 80% of all PCs. WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) "An international organization dedicated to helping to ensure that the rights of creators and owners of intellectual property are protected worldwide and that inventors and authors are, thus, recognized and rewarded for their ingenuity." wire See cables. wiring classes U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) defines three classes of wiring according to their fire and shock hazard potential: Class 1 Where both fire and shock hazards exist, i.e., the wiring can deliver enough current for a fire hazard and enough voltage for a shock hazard. The most common example is AC power running to equipment. This class requires prevention of all touching and barriers against fire. Class 2 Where neither fire or shock hazard exists, i.e. the wiring cannot deliver enough current (internal limiting) for a fire hazard and not enough voltage for a shock hazard. Examples here are all normal audio interconnect plus most power amplifier output wiring. Class 3 Where there is not a fire hazard but there is a shock hazard, i.e., the wiring cannot deliver enough current (internal limiting) for a fire hazard, but can deliver enough voltage for a shock hazard. Requires touch-proof terminals; seen in audio for very high-output power amplifiers.

wire gauge vs. resistance See chart and info AWG. WLAN (wireless local area network) See Wi-Fi for example. WMC (Winter Music Conference) " ... regarded as the singular networking event in the dance music industry, attracting professionals from over 70 different countries." WOM (write-only-memory) Term coined by Signetics in 1972 for their 25000 Series 9046XN Random Access Write-Only-Memory integrated circuits. Based on SEX (Signetics EXtra secret) processes, these devices employ both enhancement and depletion mode P-Channel, N-Channel, and NEU-Channel MOS transistors (devices which simultaneously, randomly, or not at all, enhance or deplete regardless of gate polarity). The world's supply of WOMs was quickly consumed by newly designed airline baggage-handling equipment, where they are still used today to store the exact real-time location of each bag. WOM production was suddenly discontinued when it was discovered that the only copy of the mask code had been accidentally filed into a WOM location. See: The Best of Bob Pease for the full story and a download data sheet. WOMAD (World of Music, Art & Dance) First created in 1981 by Thomas Brooman along with Peter Gabriel, the first festival was called the International Music and Arts, then renamed WOMAD for the second festival in 1982. Wonder, Stevie Stage name of Steveland Judkins. woodpile Hipster slang for a xylophone. [Decharne] woofer Low-frequency loudspeaker. See crossover. word An ordered set of bits that is the normal unit in which information may be stored, transmitted, or operated upon within a given computer -- commonly 16 or 32 bits. word clock The synchronizing signal that indicates the sampling frequency or rate of sample words over a digital audio interface. word length The number of bits in a word. word-pecker One that plays with words. [Kacirk] work Physics. The scalar product of the force on a body and the displacement of the body. In simpler terms, it is force on a body times the distance the body moves in the

direction of the force. The symbol for work is W and its SI unit is the joule (J). [ IEEE Std 270] worldizing Film & Video Sound. This refers to playing back existing recordings through a speaker or speakers in real-world acoustic situations, and recording that playback with microphones so that the new recording takes on the acoustic characteristics of the place it was "re-recorded." [From the link.] Term coined by Walter Murch, famous film editor and sound engineer. World Wide Web (WWW and/or W3) 1. A way to present resources and information over the Internet, or according to its inventor, British scientist Tim Berners-Lee, while at CERN in 1989, "The World Wide Web (W3) is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge." 2. Satirically called the World Wide Wait. WORM or WOROM (write-once read-only memory) Systems in which data may be written once, but not erased and rewritten. Usually refers to CD-ROM technology that can be recorded once only.

wow A form of distortion due to very slow (~ 1 Hz) variations in rotational speed common to turntables and analog tape recorders. Heard as a slow variation in the pitch when played back. Compare with flutter. WPAN (wireless personal-area network) For instance, see Bluetooth and ZigBee. Wray, Link (1929-2006) American musician most famous for his 1958 hit "Rumble." write To record data on a medium. WWW (World Wide Web) See World Wide Web. wye connector See Y-connector. WYSIWYG (pronounced "whizzy-wig") (what you see is what you get) Popular word processing term. Folklore says it was copied from a catchphrase from the old TV show Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In.

Pro Audio Reference X
X The electronic symbol for reactance -- the imaginary part of impedance. XC The electronic symbol for capacitive reactance. XL The electronic symbol for inductive reactance. xACT ( x audio compression toolkit ) An audio compression GUI app for Mac developers. [Not XACT below.] XACT (cross-platform audio creation tool) A Microsoft digital audio development tool. Hit the link for details. [Not xACT above.] X-ACTO™ Hand-tools. The best known hand-tool manufacturer in the world founded by Sundel Doniger in New York City in 1917. xalam Musical Instrument. A West African stringed musical instrument. xanthous 1. Yellow. 2. Having light brown or yellowish skin. [AHD] Xaudio™ Trademark of Intertrust® for their proprietary multi-platform MPEG audio solution for digital playback development. x-axis The horizontal axis of a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, or one of three axes in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. [AHD] x-band Broadcast. A radar-frequency band between 8 GHz and 12 GHz, usually in the ITU assigned band 8.5 GHz to 10.68 GHz. [IEEE] XBASEY Networks. Nomenclature designation for IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet cabling. The "X" is the data rate and the "Y" is the cabling type or category. See Ethernet. XBT (expendable bathythermograph) Acoustics. Abbreviation found in underwater acoustics studies. See bathythermograph. x-copy A copy made as closely as possible to a 1:1 match. In analog this applies to "equal flux" copying, wherein a copy is made at the same flux levels as the master. [Holman]

X curve (extended curve) In the film sound industry an X curve is also known as the wide-range curve and conforms to ISO Bulletin 2969, which specifies for pink noise, at the listening position in a dubbing situation or two-thirds of the way back in a theater, to be flat to 2 kHz, rolling off 3-dB/oct after that. The small-room X curve is designed to be used in rooms with less than 150 cubic meters, or 5,300 cubic feet. This standard specifies flat response to 2 kHz, and then rolling off at a 1.5 dB/oct rate. Some people use a modified small-room curve, starting the roll-off at 4 kHz, with a 3 dB/oct rate. Compare with Academy curve. x-cut Oscillators. A method of cutting a quartz plate for an oscillator, with the x-axis of the crystal perpendicular to the faces of the plate. Contrast with y-cut. Xe Chemistry. The symbol for the element xenon. Xenakis, Iannis Greek composer who used flicker noise to randomly generate compositions he called stochastic music. xenon Chemistry. The gas found inside vacuum tubes. Xenu Link Sleuth Computer Software. A program used to check for broken hyperlinks. xerography The name created by the Haloid Company in 1946 (from the Greek xeros for dry and graphein for writing) for the process invented by Chester F. Carlson on October 22, 1938, which he named electrophotography. In 1960, Haloid-Xerox introduced the 914 copier, the first pushbutton, plain-paper, xerographic office machine. The company soon became known simply as Xerox. xerothermic 1. Both dry and hot: a xerothermic climate. 2. Adapted to or flourishing in an environment that is both dry and hot: xerothermic organisms. [AHD] Xerox See: xerography. x-fader DJ Mixers. Shortened form for crossfader. xfmr Electronics. Abbreviation for transformer. X Generation See Generation X. XHTML Internet. Extensible HTML. Hit the XHTML link for all the nitty gritty. Xi The 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.

Xiao Musical Instrument. An ancient Chinese flute. Xilinx®(pronounced zi-links; after xi the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet) Leading manufacturer of field-programmable logic devices. xingxong (sing-song) "A term used to describe a song which is overplayed." Xirula Musical Instrument. Small three hole flute from the Basque region. XLD See connectors. XLR See connectors. XM Satellite radio station; now merged with Sirius. Xmas Abbreviation for Christmas. (From X, the Greek letter chi, first letter of Greek Khristos, meaning Christ.) [Usage Note: Xmas has been used for hundreds of years in religious writing, where the X represents a Greek chi, the first letter of !"#$%&', "Christ." In this use it is parallel to other forms like Xtian, "Christian." But people unaware of the Greek origin of this X often mistakenly interpret Xmas as an informal shortening pronounced (eks?m?s). Many therefore frown upon the term Xmas because it seems to them a commercial convenience that omits Christ from Christmas. XMF (extensible music format) A MIDI Manufacturers Association approved new standard that combines MIDI notes with DLS (downloadable sound) samples. XML A metalanguage written in SGML that allows one to design a markup language, used to allow for the easy interchange of documents on the World Wide Web. [AHD] xmtr Electronics. Abbreviation for transmitter. Xophonic Signal Processing. "An artificial reverberation device for the home made by Radio Craftsmen in the 1950s. The Xophonic was a box that looked about like a bookshelf loudspeaker [Hit the link to see a photo]. It contained an analog time delay device in the form of a small loudspeaker connected to a coil of tubing about 50 feet long with a microphone in the other end, producing a time delay of about 50 milliseconds. The incoming signal from the amplifier of the sound system was fed to the time delay unit and to a mixer, which combined it with the delayed signal from the tube microphone. A power amplifier and loudspeaker were included to amplify and radiate this combined signal into the listening room.

The Xophonic was probably the first signal processing device intended for home use. It enjoyed a brief popularity, and then quietly fell into oblivion, aided by the advent of the stereophonic record." [White] The concept was resurrected by UREI in the '70s as the Cooper Time Cube. XOR Acronym for exclusive OR, a type of logic gate where a logic 1 output is based upon A or B inputs being present - but not both. xovr Abbreviation for crossover. XP (Extreme Programming) A popular software development system created by Kent Beck. X/R ratio Electronics. The ratio of reactance to resistance. It indicative of the rate of decay of any dc offset. A large X/R ratio corresponds to a large time constant and a slow rate of decay. [IEEE] x-ray A relatively high-energy photon having a wavelength in the approximate range from 0.01 to 10 nanometers. [AHD] X-SAMPA (Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet) Phonetics. A variant of SAMPA that extends it to cover all characters in the IPA. xstr Electronics. Abbreviation for transistor. XSV Underwater Acoustics. Abbreviation for expendable sound velocimeter. XT Official (FED-STD-1037C) abbreviation for crosstalk. xtal Electronics. Abbreviation for crystal. xun Musical Instrument. A Chinese vessel flute. x-wave Acoustics. A type of localized wave that propagates as an axisymmetric pulse, with a wavefront cross-section (in a plane through the beam axis) that resembles the letter X. Because of their ability to remain focused while propagating over distances comparable with the Rayleigh distance, such waves have acoustical applications in nondestructive testing and medical imaging. [Morfey] X-Y display A rectangular coordinate plot of two variables. [IEEE] xylophone Musical Instrument. A percussion instrument consisting of a mounted row of wooden bars graduated in length to sound a chromatic scale, played with two

small mallets. Word History: Alphabet books for children frequently feature the word xylophone because it is one of the few words beginning with x that a child (or most adults, for that matter) would know. The majority of English words beginning with x, including many obscure scientific terms, are of Greek origin, the x, pronounced (z), representing the Greek letter xi. In the case of xylophone, xylo- is a form meaning "wood," derived from Greek xulon, "wood," and -phone represents Greek phn, "voice, sound," the same element found in words such as telephone, microphone, and megaphone. This famous x-word is first recorded in the April 7, 1866, edition of the Athenaeum: "A prodigy ... who does wonderful things with little drumsticks on a machine of wooden keys, called the 'xylophone.'" [AHD] See woodpile xylorimba Musical Instrument. A xylophone with an extended range to include that of the marimba. X-Y microphone technique A stereo recording technique where two cardioid microphones are placed facing each other, at an angle of 90 degrees, with the center of the source aimed at the center between them. Sometimes this technique is incorporated internally in a single microphone using two capsules. Also called the coincidentmicrophone technique and intensity stereo Compare with ORTF Xyndas, Spyridon (1812-1896) Greek composer. X-Y recorder An output device that sketches the relationship between two variables onto a grid of plane rectangular coordinates. [AHD] xyz - "Examine your zipper." Example: "When seeing someone in class or at work with their zipper down, you can discreetly say, 'XYZ'" --

Pro Audio Reference Y
Y 1. The electronic symbol for admittance - the inverse of impedance. 2. Abbreviation for luminance (black & white) video signal. 3. atomic symbol for yttrium - my absolute favorite element, next to ytterbium. Y2k (year two thousand) yabber Australian To jabber (something) or engage in jabbering. [From Australian pidgin, perhaps from Wuywurung (Aboriginal language of southeast Australia) yaba, to talk.] [AHD] yackety-yack Prolonged, sometimes senseless talk. [AHD] After yack: a snapping sound; engaged in trivial or unduly persistent talk or conversation; chatter. (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th ed.) yada-yada Trivial, tedious, or meaningless talk or writing; chatter. (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th ed.) [And you thought Seinfeld writers made this up!] YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) A type of solid-state laser. Compare with YIG. yagger To talk angrily (Kentucky word). [Dictionary of American Regional English, vol. V: Si-Z, Harvard University Press, 2012; ISBN 978-0674047358.] Yagi antenna Shortened form of Yagi-Uda antenna, a linear end-fire array consisting of a driven element, a reflector element, and one or more director elements -- your basic TV antenna. [named after Hidetsugu Yagi (1886-1976), laboratory director of Shintaro Uda, professor at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan.] yahoo A crude or brutish person; a boor. [And you thought it was a search engine.] yak To talk persistently and meaninglessly; chatter. Prolonged, sometimes senseless talk; chatter. [AHD] yaka mein Favorite Creole food of New Orleans musicians after a long night of drinking and playing. y'allternative "Music known most commonly as 'country rock' which is a hybrid of modern alternative rock and country music." --

yang-qin Musical Instrument. A Chinese hammered dulcimer. yapped Book jargon Refers to the edge of the cover of a book bound in paper or other soft material. Yapped edges are not flush with the pages but extend beyond the edges of the book making them fragile. yarr To growl or snarl like a dog. [Lynch] yaw 1. Nautical To swerve off course momentarily or temporarily: The ship yawed as the heavy wave struck abeam. 2. To turn about the vertical axis. Used of an aircraft, spacecraft, or projectile. 3. To move unsteadily; weave. [AHD] yawp 1. To utter a sharp cry; yelp. 2. To talk loudly, raucously, or coarsely. [AHD] y-axis The vertical axis of a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, or one of three axes in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. [AHD] YaYa Music. 1. What came before music (YaYa). 2. Sittin' here LaLa ... waitin' for my YaYa. 3. The chemistry between musicians and the audience. yayli tanbur Musical Instrument. A Turkish bowed lute. yazheng Musical Instrument. A Chinese stringed instrument. YB (yottabyte) The number of bytes represented by 2 raised to the 80th power, i.e., 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes. Yb The atomic symbol for the element ytterbium. Y/C video See S-video. Y-connector or Y-cord A three-wire circuit that is star connected. Also spelled wyeconnector. It is okay to use a Y-connector to split an audio signal from an output to drive two inputs; it is not okay to use a Y-connector to try and sum or mix two signals together to drive one input. For details, see the RaneNote Why Not Wye? y-cut Oscillators. A method of cutting a quartz plate for an oscillator, with the y-axis of the crystal perpendicular to the faces of the plate. Contrast with x-cut. YDG (young digital guy) As opposed to an OAG. Yehudi Menuhin Festival of Music Held in Switzerland annually since its establishment in 1956. There is another one celebrated at the San Francisco State University

since 2003. Yellow Book Nickname for the Philips and Sony's ECMA-130 standard document that defines the format for CD-ROM (compact disc-read only memory) discs; available only to licensees. Compare with Red Book and Green Book yelp To utter a short, sharp bark or cry. [AHD] yembe Musical Instrument. Alternate name for djembes. yep Informal term meaning yes. [AHD] Yerges, Lyle F. (1918-1985) American engineer, technical author and editor, specialized in acoustical performance of architectural elements. Author of Sound, Noise & Vibration Control, originally published in 1969, revised in 1978, and still in print. yield The number of devices that work as planned, specified as a percentage of the total number actually fabricated. Normally used to quantify a run of integrated circuits. yield strength Materials Science. The magnitude of mechanical stress at which a material will begin to deform. YIG (yttrium-iron-garnet) A crystalline material used in microwave devices. Compare with YAG. [Don't confuse your 'yag-yig' with your 'ying-yang.'] yipper cable Nickname for a component video cable based on the YPbPr color space. Since saying "YPbPr" is difficult, "yipper" was coined as an alternative. Y/N Software program "yes/no" response prompt. A "Y" or "N" keystroke is expected. Ynysddu Welsh district and home to Penny & Giles. yob Chiefly British. Backward spelling of "boy" used to mean an uncouth, loutish, ignorant youth or man; especially one given to violent or aggressive behavior. [OED] A crowd of yelling yobs. yoctosecond Abbr. ys or ysec One septillionth (10-24) of a second. yodel Music. To sing so that the voice fluctuates rapidly between the normal chest voice and a falsetto. [AHD]

yoicks Used as a hunting cry to urge hounds after a fox. [AHD] yoke 1. Any magnetic core interconnection material. 2. The deflection windings of a CRT. 3. A series of two or more magnetic recording heads fastened securely together for playing or recording on more than one track simultaneously. [AHD] YOLO Acronym for You Only LIve Once. Yoruba music A form of music indigenous to West Africa, chiefly Nigeria, characterized by intense drumming. yottahertz Abbr. YHz One septillion (1024) hertz. Young's modulus Abbr. E (Also know as elastic modulus.) Materials. A measure of the stiffness of a given material. "For a solid, it is the ratio of the longitudinal stress to the longitudinal stain in the same direction, when a rod of the material is stretched by a small amount along its axis and allowed to contract freely transverse to the axis." [Morfey] Young, Thomas (1773-1829) British scientist best known for his modulus. Young waves Materials. Longitudinal waves that propagate in a uniform bar of solid material with stress-free sides. [Morfey] yow Used to express alarm, pain, or surprise. [AHD] yowl To utter a long loud mournful cry; wail. [AHD] YPbPr See: yipper cable. YRB (Yellow Rat Bastard) Website, magazine, clothes, music, newsletter, all for the ultra hip, from NYC, of course. Contains adult content. Check it out. YTD Year to date. ytterbrium Chemistry. Named after Ytterby (a town in Sweden) ... "Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions." [Wikipedia] yttrium See definition three for "Y" above. yu Musical Instruments. Ancient Chinese instruments with two varieties: wind and

percussion. yue-qin (also seen as yueqin) Musical Instrument. Chinese lute "moon guitar" (for its round shape) with a circular body and four strings. yuk 1. An exuberant laugh. 2. One, such as a joke, that causes such a laugh. To joke or laugh exuberantly: a student who yukked it up in class. [AHD] yule-hole The last hole to which a man can stretch his belt at a Christmas feast. [Kacirk] YUV video The coding process used in CD-I in which the luminance signal (Y) is recorded at full bandwidth on each line and chroma values (U and V) are recorded at half bandwidth on alternate lines. YUX Musical Instruments. Model number prefix for Yamaha upright pianos. Yvonne Daniels See: disc jockey.

Pro Audio Reference Z
Z Electronics. The symbol for impedance. zaa zaa Japanese. An onomatopoetic word meaning hard rain, hail, the sound of a heavy downpour or rushing water. zag To turn or change direction suddenly. Usually used in contrast to zig: The runner zigged when he should have zagged. [AHD] zajal Music. A Spanish strophic song with refrain. [Sadie] zamacueca A South American, esp. Chilean, dance in which a couple move around one another to the accompaniment of guitar chords and rhythmic handclapping. [OED] zampogna Musical Instrument. Italian bagpipes. See photo here. zampona Musical Instrument. Andes pan flute. Zanuck, Darryl Francis (1902-1979). American motion-picture producer whose works include The Jazz Singer (1927), the first feature-length film with sound sequences. [AHD] zap To eradicate all or part of a program or database, sometimes by lightning, sometimes intentionally. Zaphod Beeblebrox Douglas Adams' Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy, President of the Universe character, famous for being able to scream a diminished fifth. Zappa, Frank Vincent (1940-1993) American composer. My favorite Zappa quote: "Rock journalism is people who can't write interviewing people who can't talk for people who can't read." Zappa's law There are two things that are universal on earth: Hydrogen and stupidity. Zappa Tech See ZIT. Zarzuela Music. A Spanish musical dramatic form that alternates spoken word with

songs. z-axis Mathematics. One of three axes in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. [AHD] Z-domain Mathematics. The discrete time domain. Contrast with s-domain. zeal "A certain nervous disorder afflicting the young and inexperienced." -- Ambrose Bierce. zed British (as well as Australian and Canadian) word for the letter z. zee American word for the letter z. zeibekiko Music. A Greek dance. [Think Anthony Quinn in Zorba the Greek.] Zeisel number Mathematics. Named after Helmut Zeisel; it's complicated, hit the link for details. Zen The Sanskrit word for meditation. zener or zener diode Electronics. A two terminal semiconductor device commonly use in power supply reference circuits. It exhibits a stable voltage over a wide range of currents passing through it, creating a constant-voltage characteristic. zenith Analog Tape Recorders. Pertaining to the angular alignment of a tape head along its vertical axis and at right angles to its azimuth; a forward/backward tilt of the head, when viewed from the front. [Woram] zentropic "The state of someone who has a shallow understanding of Zen, and uses it to excuse the fact that she does absolutely nothing, on the basis that she is in tune with the Tao." -- zeptosecond Abbr. zs or zsec One sextillionth (10-21) of a second. zero Half of all the stored knowledge in computers. Compare with one; See Kaplan's The Nothing That Is for its fascinating story. zero-based mixing Live Sound. Rick Chinn of Uneeda Audio explains it this way: "Zero-based mixing refers to starting the mix with all faders down, then listening to the stage sound, and only adding those sources to the mix that can't be heard in the house. The goal is to minimize the build in volume

level caused by amplification and to make the overall performance as acoustical as possible." "Things that work against zero-based mixing are Really Large Venues, loud monitors, and highly directional, but loud instruments such as trumpets which need the sound system for coverage rather than amplification." zero crossing point Electronics. The point at which a signal waveform crosses from being positive to negative or vice versa. This is the instant the signal has zero value, which makes it the spot where you want to make changes with the least amount of zipper (or other) noise, e.g., change gain in VCAs, or activate switches, transfer data, etc. zero level or zero reference The reference point used for setting audio signal levels throughout a sound system; usually +4 dBu for pro audio use; named for the original practice of using 0 dBm (then 0 dBu) as the reference level and even earlier using zero VU readings. zero lobing error Electronic crossovers. See lobing error. zeros Mathematics. The roots of the numerator of a circuit transfer function, i.e., the values that make the numerator equal zero. Compare with poles. zettahertz Abbr. ZHz One sextillion (1021) hertz. Z-Fold® Wire & Cable. Registered trademark of Belden for their unique cable that improves high frequency performance by reducing crosstalk between multipairs. zheng Musical Instrument. A Chinese zither. Modern ones have between 21 and 25 strings. zhonghu Musical Instrument. A Chinese bowed 2-string instrument similar to a viola. ZIF (zero insertion force socket) A standard IC-socket design requiring the user to move a lever to insert or remove the chip -- as opposed to pressing and prying the chip manually -- hence, zero insertion force. The lever actuator (hopefully) eliminates damaging the IC pins. zig To turn or change direction suddenly. Usually used in contrast to zag: When your opponent zigs, zag! [AHD] ZigBee™ (formerly known as PURLnet, RF-Lite, Firefly, and HomeRF Lite.) A low-

cost, low-power, two-way, wireless communications standard between compliant devices anywhere in and around the home (automation, toys, PC peripherals, etc.), developed by Philips and others. Claiming lower cost, lower power consumption, higher density of nodes per network and simplicity of protocols, it is an alternative to Bluetooth. [Not to be confused with the Zig Zag man.] See also Z-Wave. zilch 1. Zero; nothing. 2. A person regarded as being insignificant; a nonentity. 3. Amounting to nothing; nil. (Perhaps from alteration of z(ero) + (n)il.) [AHD] zill Musical Instrument. One of a pair of round metal cymbals attached to the fingers and struck together for rhythm and percussion in belly dancing. [AHD] Zimmy Nickname for Bob Dylan (birth name: Robert Allen Zimmerman). zine Abbreviation for magazine; usually refers to a small format magazine zinke Musical Instruments. A musical instrument of wood or horn, similar to or identical with a cornett and common in 17th- and 18th-century Europe. Also, a loud reedstop in an organ. [OED] ZIP (zone improvement plan) As in "Zip Code". Zippo George G. Blaisdell invented the Zippo Windproof Lighter in 1932. The lighter was given its name as a derivation of the word "zipper" because the inventor liked the sound of the word, which had been patented in nearby Meadville, PA, in 1925 by B.F. Goodrich. zipper noise Audible steps that occur when a parameter is being varied in a digital audio processor, analog VCA, digitally-controlled attenuator, etc. zirconium Symbol Zr Chemistry. A lustrous, grayish-white, strong, ductile metallic element obtained primarily from zircon and used chiefly in ceramic and refractory compounds, as an alloying agent, and in nuclear reactors as a highly corrosion-resistant alloy ( since it does not easily absorb neutrons). [AHD] It is also used as a getter in vacuum tubes. ZIT (Zappa Institute of Technology) (aka Zappa Tech) Music. School specializing in all aspects of live concert production, founded by Gail Zappa, wife of the legend. zither A musical instrument composed of a flat sound box with about 30 to 40 strings stretched over it and played horizontally with the fingertips, a plectrum, or a bow, or set into vibration by the wind, as in the Aeolian harp. [AHD]

zizz A whizzing or buzzing noise; esp. the noise made by the rapid motion of a wheel. [OED] Zobel network or Zobel filter [Also called Boucherot cell after Paul Boucherot who worked extensively with electrical networks and power.] 1. A filter designed according to image parameter techniques. 2. Audio amplifiers. Zobel networks are used in audio amplifiers to dampen out high frequency oscillations that might occur in the absence of loads at high frequencies. It is the commonly seen series resistor-capacitor combination located directly at the output of the driver stage, just before the output inductor (in analog power amplifiers). Typical values are 5-10 ohms in series with 0.1 microfarads. The network limits the rising impedance of a loudspeaker due to the speaker coil inductance. The output inductor found in most analog power amplifiers used to disconnect the load at high frequencies further aggravates this phenomenon. See Douglas Self's book for a good discussion of audio amplifier Zobel networks. 3. Loudspeakers. Some loudspeaker crossover designs include Zobel networks wired across the tweeter (high frequency) driver to compensate for the rise in impedance at high frequencies due to the inductance of the voice coil. The goal here is to try to keep the load seen by the crossover circuitry as resistive as possible. [After Dr. Zobel's paper appearing in the Bell Labs Journal: Zobel, O. J., "Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave Filters," Bell Sys. Tech. J., Vol. 2, pp. 1-46, Jan 1923.] Zoetrope (pronounced ZOH-uh-trohp) A kind of mechanical cinema invented in 1834 by William George Horner. It was an early form of motion picture projector consisting of a drum containing a set of still images turned in a circular fashion to create the illusion of motion. Horner originally called it the Daedatelum, but Pierre Desvignes, a French inventor, renamed his version of it the Zoetrope (from Greek word root zoo for animal life and trope for "things that turn.") Like other motion simulation devices, the Zoetrope depends on the fact that the human retina retains an image for about 100 milliseconds so that if a new image appears in that time, the sequence was seem to be uninterrupted and continuous. It also depends on what is referred to as the Phi phenomenon, which observes that humans try to make sense out of any sequence of impressions, continuously relating them to each other. zombie Computers. The name given for a computer belonging to someone else that is captured by hackers to do their evil bidding. zone Acoustics. Separate and distinct listening locations within a complex sound system acoustically isolated from each other. A complex sound system is often broken up into zones with individual sound treatment for each.

zone of silence Acoustics. "For a given source a region into which acoustic rays cannot penetrate; also known as a sound shadow. In outdoor sound propagation, upward refraction due to a decrease in temperature with height can combine with the ground to produce a zone of silence near the ground, beyond a certain radius from the source." [Dictionary of Acoustics] Zonophone Record Label. The name applied to the phonograph records and machines sold by founder Frank Seaman from 1899-1903. zoom microphone Microphone analogy to the zoom lens. A design that allows synchronization with a zoom lens so that not only does the action get closer but the audio gets louder and focused. The trick is to make the microphone pickup pattern, or directivity, and sensitivity change from omnidirectional (wide-angle and wide soundstage) to supercardioid. At full zoom this makes the microphone very directional and is combined with higher preamp gain. This allows the audio and video to track in a realistic fashion. See Eargle for details. zoosomnial blurring "The notion that animals probably don't see much difference between dreaming and being awake." [A Dictionary of the Near Future by Douglas Coupland, NY Times, September 12, 2010.] z-plane Mathematics. The complex plane in which the z-transform is represented. Z score Statistics. A measure of the distance in standard deviations of a sample from the mean. [AHD] Zt Symbol for surface transfer impedance, the standard measurement used for quality rating of the RF shielding performance of cables, connectors and shield terminations. It measures how much voltage appears on the inner wires when the shield is driven by a strong RF signal and defines ZT as the induced voltage divided by the shield test current. z-transform A mathematical method used to relate coefficients of a digital filter to its frequency response, and to evaluate stability of the filter. It is equivalent to the Laplace transform of sampled data and is the building block of digital filters. Zulu time See: universal time. zumba Dance. A dance workout featuring hypnotic Latin rhythms. zurna Musical Instrument. A wind reed instrument with a tubular body with finger holes like in a flute. See photos here.

holes like in a flute. See photos here. Z-Wave Another proprietary entry into the home automation wireless market. Contrast with ZigBee. Z-weighting See weighting filters. Zwicker, Eberhard (1924-1990) German scientist who made significant contributions to the field of psychoacoustic masking and loudness perception. Zwicker phons or Zwicker method or Zwicker loudness Acoustics. A single-number scale for rating the loudness of complex sounds. It is based on a model that simulates the nonlinear operation of the human ear, in contrast to simple frequency-weighting such as A-weighting. [Morfey] After Professor Eberhard Zwicker (1924-1990). Zwicker tone Acoustics. A psychoacoustic phenomena where subjects hear a "ghost" as an after tone when presented with a broadband noise source having a "gap," that is, a small band (say, a 1/3-octave band) missing. After the source stops, the subjects report hearing an afterimage centered in the missing gap. (This is a case of hearing something that is not there, after hearing a source that did not contain what you are hearing in the first place! Muy strange.) zydeco Music. Popular music of southern Louisiana that combines French dance melodies, elements of Caribbean music, and the blues, played by small groups featuring the guitar, the accordion, and a washboard. [AHD] zylon A thermoplastic polyurethane trade secret (a new high-performance fiber) developed by Toyobo of Japan. The latest thing in tennis racquets and body armor with excellent ballistic impact properties. (Someday someone will apply this to loudspeaker design -- remember, you read it here first.) zymurgist See brewer. zymurgy The scientific study of the process of fermentation in brewing and distilling. Zyzyyzyski, Zyzeikkel The last name listed in the 1998 Snohomish County, Washington, U.S.A. telephone directory. zyzzyva (The last word in the English dictionary) Any of various tropical American weevils of the genus Zyzzyva, often destructive to plants. [New Latin Zyzzyva genus name probably from Zyzza former genus of leafhoppers] [AHD] ZZ Top Music. They picked this name so they were the last group in the record rack

and thus easy to find. [And it makes them the last entry in the Pro Audio Reference too.] “… Hallelujah … what's it to you?" (Leonard Cohen Hallelujah)