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Y9 Revision: Generating Electricity Revision

Questions

57 minutes
57 marks

Check your answers!! Answers at the end of the paper

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Q1.

Electricity is generated in power stations. It is then sent to all parts of the country through a
network of cables.
(a)

Complete the following sentence by using one of the words in the box.

Grid

Power

Supply

The network is called the National ............................................................................ .


(1)

(b)

In the diagram, A, B, C and D are transformers.

(i)

Which transformer, A, B, C or D, is a step-up transformer?


Transformer ..............................
(1)

(ii)

Which transformer, A, B, C or D, will supply homes, offices and shops?


Transformer ..............................
(1)

(c)

Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box.
In a step-down transformer, the potential difference (p.d.) across the

less than
primary coil is

the same as

the p.d. across the secondary coil.

more than
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

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Q2.

Wind and tides are renewable energy sources that are used to generate electricity.
(a)

Complete each sentence by putting a tick ( ) in the box next to the correct answer.
(i)

The wind is:

a predictable energy source.

a constant energy source.

an unreliable energy source.


(1)

(ii)

The tides are:

a predictable energy source.

a constant energy source.

an unreliable energy source.


(1)

(b)

If wood is to be used as a renewable energy source, what must be done each time a tree
is chopped down?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

In the UK, electricity is generated using renewable and non-renewable energy sources.
The graph shows the percentage of electricity generated using renewable energy sources
between 1990 and 2005.

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Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box.
In 2015, the percentage of electricity generated using renewable energy sources is most
greater than 4%
likely to be

equal to 4%

less than 4%
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q3.

(a)

Water waves are a renewable energy source.

The government wants more electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources.
Some people do not think this is a good idea.
What reasons could a government scientist give to show people that using more
renewable energy sources is a good idea?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b)

The diagram shows a wave-powered generator. The generator transforms kinetic energy
from the waves to electrical energy.

AQA GCSE SCIENCE CORE FOUNDATION STUDENTS BOOK by Graham Hill,


Nigel Heslop, Christine Woodward,Steve Witney and Toby Houghton. Published by
Hodder and Stoughton 2006 Reproduced by permission of John Murray (Publishers) Ltd

The following sentences describe how the wave generator works. The sentences are in
the wrong order.
R
S
T
U
V

Waves push air up and down a chamber inside the building.


The turbine turns the generator.
The generator transforms kinetic energy to electrical energy.
The air rushes through a turbine making it spin.
Strong waves move towards the wave-powered generator.

Arrange these sentences in the correct order. Start with letter V.


V
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

Q4.

(a)

The bar chart shows the start-up time for different types of fuel-burning power stations.

Which type of power station would be the quickest to start producing electricity?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

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(b)

A fuel-burning power station is more reliable than a wind generator at producing electricity.
Explain why.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Fuel-burning power stations may produce air pollution. Why does a wind generator not
produce any air pollution?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q5.

State and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear power stations to
produce electricity.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

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Q6.

Electricity may be produced from a number of different energy resources.


(i)

Complete the table below.


The first one has been done for you.

Device

Energy
resource

Useful energy transfer


from resource

Coal-fired power station


Coal

Chemical

electrical

Hydroelectric power station


Stored
water

....................

electrical

Sun

....................

electrical

Wind

....................

electrical

Gas

....................

electrical

Solar cell in calculator

Wind turbine

Gas-fired power station

(4)

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(ii)

Give one of the five energy resources opposite, which is not classified as renewable.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

State another non-renewable energy resource.


....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q7.

The drawing shows a hydro-electric dam. Water from the top of the dam flows through pipes
to the power station at the bottom of the dam.

(a)

Complete the following boxes to show the useful energy transfer which occurs as the
water flows through the pipes to the power station.

(2)

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(b)

The electricity generated by the power station is transmitted over long distances. Before
this happens its voltage is increased by using a step-up transformer.
State and explain one advantage and one disadvantage of transmitting electricity at high
voltage.
Advantage .................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

Disadvantage ............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q8.

In a traditional power station 30% of the energy input is usefully transferred to electricity, the
rest is wasted as heat. The diagram shows the energy transfers in a combined heat and power
(CHP) station.

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Explain why replacing traditional power stations by CHP stations may be beneficial to the
environment.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 2 marks)

Q9.

The pie charts show the relative proportions of electricity generated in Japan from different
energy sources in 1975 and 2005.

(a)

Describe the main differences in the energy sources used in 2005 compared with 1975.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

In the UK, nuclear fuels are used to generate about 21% of the total electricity supply.
(i)

What is the name of the process by which a nuclear fuel produces heat?
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(ii)

Explain how the heat released from a nuclear fuel is used to generate electricity in
power stations.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Some people have suggested that more nuclear power stations should be built in the
UK.
Give two reasons to support this suggestion.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv)

Nuclear power stations create dangerous waste.


Why is the waste from a nuclear power station dangerous?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

A headline from a newspaper article is shown below.

Explain the possible link between climate change and coal-burning power stations.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

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Q10.

The map below shows an industrial region (shaded).

The prevailing wind is from the west. There is a nearby mountainous area, from which a river
flows through the region. The major road and rail links are shown.
A power station is to be built to supply electrical energy to the region. The energy will be for a
range of domestic and industrial uses.
The choice is between a coal fired power station, wind turbines and a hydroelectric scheme.
Three local groups each support a different option. Choose which option you would support and
justify your choice by making reference to the financial, social and environmental implications of
your choice compared with those of the alternative systems.
(Total 8 marks)

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Q11.

Describe, in as much detail as you can, how the energy stored in coal is transferred into
electrical energy in a power station.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 5 marks)

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M1.

(a)

grid
accept any unambiguous indication
1

(b)

(i)

A (only)
1

(ii)

D (only)
1

(c)

more than
accept any unambiguous indication
1

[4]

M2.

(a)

(i)

an unreliable energy source


1

(ii)

a predictable energy source


1

(b)

plant / grow (at least) one new tree


1

(c)

greater than 4 %
1

[4]

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M3.

(a)

any two from:

(burning) fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases / pollutant gases / acid rain / leads
to global warming
accept a named fossil fuel
accept a named pollutant gas

nuclear fuels produce dangerous waste


accept radioactive for dangerous
accept reference to dangers of nuclear fuels

fossil fuels are non-renewable


accept running out of fuels

renewable energy resources produce no pollutant gases

large amounts of energy are available


accept renewable wont run out

running costs are low


accept any reasonable benefit of renewables
accept any reasonable drawback of non-renewables
do not accept better for the environment on its own
2

(b)

RUST
all in correct order
allow 2 marks for 2 correct
allow 1 mark for one correct
3

[5]

M4.

(a)

gas
1

(b)

fuel burning stations produce electricity at any time / all the time
accept fuel available all the time
1

wind generator can only produce when the wind is strong enough
accept its not always windy
1

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(c)

no fuel is burnt or no fuel is used or uses only energy from wind or


does not emit harmful gases / soot / smoke
do not accept wind is natural / environmentally friendly / renewable
answer must be in terms of wind, not negative of fuel burning
specific examples of gases CO2, SO2,
acid rain and greenhouse gases can be accepted
ozone negates credit
1

[4]

M5.

Read all the answer first. See below.


Mark the first two advantages and disadvantages ( or X) ignoring
neutral answers. Only allow a third advantage if there is only one
disadvantage given. Only allow a third disadvantage if only one advantage is given.
max. 3 advantages (e.g. cheap fuel, good availability, saving fossil fuels,
low running costs, reliable, more energy / kg, less fuel needed, no
greenhouse gases emitted, no SO2 causing acid rain)
max. 3 disadvantages (e.g. danger to health of local community, non
renewable, high cost of decommissioning, long half life of waste
materials, need for safe storage of waste, high cost of commissioning,
danger involved in transporting fuel / waste)
max. 4 marks
[4]

M6.

(i)

gravitational or potential
do not accept stored
1

light
credit solar
1

kinetic or movement
credit moving
1

chemical
1

(ii)

any one from


gas
coal
1

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(iii)

any one from


oil
do not accept petrol or paraffin
peat or turf
nuclear
credit coal or gas if not given as answer to part (ii)
do not accept wood or fossil fuel or chemical
1

[6]

M7.

(a)

mark independently

(from) gravitational
accept potential
do not credit stored
1

(to) kinetic
accept movement
1

(b)

advantage
* the current can be low (for the same power)
* less energy or heat loss or power loss
accept the cables do not have to be (so) thick
accept less cost to support higher (rather than heavier) cables
accept aluminium can be used and aluminium is cheaper than
copper
do not credit efficient or cheaper
do not credit no loss of energy
do not credit electricity loss
2

disadvantage
* it is difficult to insulate high voltage
* pylons have to be taller and so more expensive
...to give a good separation between them and the
ground /people/high vehicles
or ... to prevent/reduce the danger of electric shock or lethal
do not credit dangerous
do not credit get a shock
do not credit reference to step down transformers or
electromagnetic field
2

[6]

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M8.

any one from:


basic idea of reduced use of fuels to heat homes or offices or
st
shops for 1 mark
less (heat) energy wasted (to the environment)
reduced demand for fuels to heat homes etc
simply re-quoting figures gets no credit
1

any one from:


nd

idea of less pollution for the 2 mark


reduced (air) pollution
do not accept no pollution
fewer power stations required or less electricity needs to be produced
less (fossil) fuels being burnt (in power stations)
reduced greenhouse effect
reduced global warming
1

[2]

M9.

(a)

decrease in oil

PLUS
any one from:

increase in (proportion of) coal

increase in (proportion of) nuclear

increase in (proportion of) gas


must have decrease in (proportion of) oil and increase in
(proportion of) coal / nuclear / gas
1

(b)

(i)

(nuclear) fission
accept fision
do not accept any answer that looks like fusion
1

(ii)

water heated to produce (high pressure) steam


1

steam turns turbine which drives generator


1

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(iii)

any two from:

produces no pollutant gases


accept named gas or greenhouse gases
accept no atmospheric pollution
accept harmful for pollutant
accept does not contribute to global warming
do not accept no pollution on its own
do not accept better for the environment unless qualified

it is reliable or can generate all of the time

concentrated energy source or produces a lot of energy from a small mass

produces only small volume of (solid) waste

fossil fuels will last longer


accept a named fossil fuel
accept fossil fuels are running out
do not accept fossil fuels are non-renewable unless qualified

will need to buy less fuel from other countries


accept no new fossil fuel power stations needed
do not accept it is cheap
do not accept import less electricity
2

(iv)

it is / can be radioactive
do not accept answers in terms of kills cells / cancer
or emits radiation (from the nuclei)
accept emits gamma (rays)
1

(c)

coal (burning) power stations / burning coal produces carbon dioxide


they refers to coal-burning power stations
accept sulfur dioxide / nitrogen oxides for CO2
1

(increased) CO2 increases / contributes to / causes global warming /


greenhouse effect
mention of ozone layer negates this mark
do not accept CO2 warms atmosphere
1

[9]

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M10.

To gain marks the candidate must


1.

Select one option

Advantages

Max 4

2.

State 8 valid advantages/disadvantages/relevant


comparisons with either of the alternatives

Disadvantages) Min 1
Comparisons )
If no A or D or C then Max 4
No option then Max 4

Look for As, Ds for chosen scheme.


Then for Cs compared with A/D for chosen scheme.
Below are listed some of the relevant mark scoring points.
Advantages

Disadvantages

Wind

Land available to North


Initial cost
No pollution
Many windmills/much land
Close/low transmission costs Calm day problem
No fuel costs
Few long term jobs
Renewable energy resource

Coal

Waste land to North


Prevailing wind to East
Good road/rail transport
Close/low transmission costs
Save coal industry
Overall labour intensive

Hydroelectric No pollution
Mountains/lake/river nearby
No fuel costs
Renewable energy source

Pollution
Initial costs
Fuel costs
Non-renewable energy
Resource

Possible drought
Distant/transmission costs
Few jobs created
Possible expensive underground
transmission cable
Construction of dam affects environment
[8]

M11.

coal has chemical energy


when burnt heat/energy produced
longest
used to boil water/make steam
sequence
used to turn turbine(s)
which now have ke
turbine(s) turn generator(s)
(where (ke) transferred electrical energy)
(or electrical energy produced
)
any 5 for 1 mark each
[5]

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