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An a omobile, a oca , mo o ca or ca is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems. There are approximately 600 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car per eleven people). Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007; the engines of these burn over a billion cubic meters (260 billion US gallons) of petrol/gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India.
Benz "Velo" model (1894) – entered into an early automobile race as a motocycle Cla ifica ion Vehicle Ind Applica ion F el So Po e ed SelfP opelled Wheel A le In en o ce Various Conveyance Gasoline, Diesel, Electric, Hydrogen Yes Yes 3–4 0–2 Ferdinand Verbiest
1 Etymology 2 History 3 Mass production 4 Weight 5 Seating 6 Fuel and propulsion technologies 7 Safety 8 Costs and benefits 9 Criticism 10 Driverless cars 11 Future car technologies 12 Open source development 13 Alternatives to the automobile 14 Industry 15 Market 16 See also
Passenger cars in 2000
who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines. Wilhelm Maybach. . "self") and the Latin mobilis ("movable"). such as Samuel Brown. His inventions were however handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own 'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine. It was a 65 cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor. believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steampowered road vehicle. whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler. a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. as was the case with others. In November 1881. that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. Ka l Ben generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. he created a steam-powered tricycle. French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile powered by electricity at the International Exposition of Electricity. It is not known if Verbiest's model was ever built. and was of little practical use. Coincidentally. Neither design was very successful.17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links E molog The word a omobile comes. finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil. one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. meaning a vehicle that moves itself. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"). and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile. via the French automobile World map of passenger cars per 1000 people from the Ancient Greek word α τός (aut s. in turn these are said to have originated from the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic Chariot). Hi o Main article: History of the automobile The first working steam-powered vehicle was likely to have been designed by Ferdinand Verbiest. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods. He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army. or the Middle English word carre ("cart") (from Old North French). and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time. The Niépces' Pyréolophore was fuelled by a mixture of Lycopodium powder (dried Lycopodium moss). Samuel Morey. Paris. In 1801. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769. In 1807 Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude probably created the world's first internal combustion engine which they called a Pyréolophore.
By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach. in 1902. became a joint-stock company. In August 1888 Bertha Benz. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. already producing Benz engines under license. and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. which was founded in 1883. It was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer. when his 1885 and awarded the patent for the first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for concept affordability. that was placed in a specially ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on A photograph of the original Benz January 29. Daimler. Because France was more open to the early automobiles.. Germany by Karl Benz in 1885. Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG. a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. because of its size. where they set up shop after disputes with their backers. initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. without the adaptation of other existing components.An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim.. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. Benz. by the time of the merger of the two companies. During the last years of the nineteenth century. They never worked together. undertook the first road trip by car. the first long distance automobile driver in the world Daimler died in 1900 and later that year. 1886. Two years later. Benz was granted a patent for his first engine. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888. . Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Benz & Cie. In 1896. the inventor of the modern automobile Bertha Benz. Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and. Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes. the wife of Karl Benz. now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. In 1879. either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann. that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3. which had been designed in 1878. and sold their first automobile in 1892 under the brand name. to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention. His first Motorwagen was built in 1885. first built in and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890. Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine. It was an integral design. Emile Roger of France. 1886. Patent-Motorwagen. Benz & Cie. and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company. called boxermotor. Karl Benz. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Maybach and the Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each others' early work.
It was road-tested again on November 10. as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others. valid until the year 2000. development of automobiles in the United States. Lawson in 1896. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929. a company founded by Harry J. more than encouraged. and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France. Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design. Ma p od c ion . electric-. Massachusetts. but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. In 1893. but these were both one-offs. and at times. with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. 1926. on Taylor Street in Metro Center Springfield.S. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company. Uppercu and presented to the United States National Museum. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and. purchasing. in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest. but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. and they bore the name Daimler. The first public run of the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on September 21. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application.160 (http://www. the brothers had purchased a used horse-drawn buggy for $70 and then installed a 4 HP. New York. Steam-. spray carburetor. The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Motor Company. German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". along with the Benz name. there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success. and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades. Both enterprises standardized design. The car had a friction transmission. Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894 followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895. Benz & Cie. gasoline-powered American car was built and road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Springfield. Émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines. Patent 549. In 1897. which hindered. and low tension ignition. In 1892. production. the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35 hp.google. and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly. 1895. The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester.Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. he built the first Diesel Engine. This particular car was put into storage in 1894 and stayed there until 1920 when it was rescued by Inglis M. his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.com/patents?vid=549160) ) for a two-stroke automobile engine. In Britain. single cylinder gasoline engine. the first running. baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War. 1893. when the The Springfield Republican newspaper made the announcement. Selden was granted a United States patent (U. although keeping their respective brands. On June 28. with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. Selden applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879. on November 5. and overturned in 1911. In 1890. only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success. Lawson's company made its first automobiles in 1897. after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. To construct the Duryea Motor Wagon.
 This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford. Ford Denmark 1923. at the Springfield Armory in Springfield. in the 1950s. had disappeared." and was copied by most major industries. Olds faster than previous methods. much Ransom E. It was so successful. In 1914. by 1930. Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt the production method. makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. and four-wheel brakes. "any color as long as it's black". by Thomas Blanchard in 1821. independent suspension. doors. paint became a bottleneck. The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U. Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals. companies had to have assembly lines. increasing productivity eightfold (requiring 12. nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs. Massachusetts. used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile. Ford Germany 1925.5 man-hours before. forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1914.S. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods. As a result. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering. until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. LaSalles. Reflecting the rapid pace of change. production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902 based on the assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills. or risk going broke. 1919) Development of automotive technology was rapid.See also: Automotive industry The large-scale. 250 companies which did not. In the automotive industry. in the 1930s. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay. roof. Chevrolet shared hood. and quickly spread worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company. sold by Cadillac. beginning in 1914. so marketing plans often have heavily influenced automobile design. Soon. 1 hour 33 minutes after). For example. its success was dominating. Since the 1920s. for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910–1911). so buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. It was Alfred P. England in 1802. due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Only Japan black would dry fast enough. Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism. Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. and . while using less manpower. This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark. in 1921.
Cole. global energy use could be heavily reduced by using lighter cars. Wrigley (gearboxes). fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. seven or more occupants depending in the internal arrange of seats. According to a research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge. Weigh The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance. such as Wolseley: in 1925. Citroen did the same in France. hatchback. only 17 of those were In Europe much the same would happen. Haynes. and soon outsold Ford. as well as competitors. or Premier. regarded as the first affordable American automobile left. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924. Sea ing See also: Car body style Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants.000 cars in 1925. and very occasionally three seats. only major makers could afford high costs. windows with Pontiac. the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog). buying Hotchkiss (engines). came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924. and even companies with decades of production. while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's practise of vertical integration. and the forthfluing lower fuel use (i. by the 1990s. with 37. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. and Mors.5% of the market. up to a fuel use of 2560 km/l. Morris had 41% of total British car production. Even so. such as Apperson. coming to cars in 1919. 1927. concerns about oil dependence. only 43 survived in 1930. by 1940. The differing needs for passenger capacity and their luggage has resulted in a large variety of body styles to suit personal requirements such as the sedan. These cars are only single-seaters (still falling within the definition of a car. they produced 550. for instance. station wagon/estate and Multi-Purpose Vehicle/Minivan. and Osberton (radiators). tightening . suspension. with more weight resulting in increased fuel consumption and decreased performance. Dorris. Larger cars can often carry six. average car weights of 45 kg have also been achieved. and others could not compete. often with four or five seats. but it nevertheless demonstrates the huge degree in which car weights can still be reduced. Sports cars are often designed with only two seats. Hurtu. and with the Great Depression. could not manage: of some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920. soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany. Rapidly increasing oil prices. corporate powertrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes. from Abbey to Xtra had gone under. Most British small-car assemblers. between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renault's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV. F el and p op l ion echnologie See also: Alternative fuel vehicle Most automobiles in use today are propelled by a internal combustion engine. although 4-seater cars are more common).e. Germany's first mass-manufactured car.Ford Model T. and other parts) were common. and an average weight of 500 kg has been said to be well achievable. In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon.
injury. fuel. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. and the value of the benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. health care. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies. like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests. and insurance. According to the American . repairs. There are now standard tests for safety in new automobiles. society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities.environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. public health. maintenance. land use. can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. C i ici m See also: Automobile emissions Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. tire replacement. plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. transportation provision. taxes. and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Mary Ward became one of the first documented automobile fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown. of automobile production and maintenance. The benefits may include on-demand transportation. their popularity undermines this statistic. The Nissan Leaf is an all-electric car launched in December 2010 Co and benefi Result of a serious automobile accident Further information: Automotive industry Main article: Economics of automobile usage The costs of automobile usage. Ireland and Henry Bliss one of the United States' first pedestrian automobile casualties in 1899 in New York. parking fees. and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. which may include those of: maintaining roads. which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle. mobility. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits. depreciation. and insurance industry-backed tests by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Main article: Effects of the automobile on societies Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use. pollution. independence and convenience. are weighed against the cost of the alternatives. driving time. Safe Main articles: Car safety and Automobile accident While road traffic injuries represent the leading cause in worldwide injury-related deaths. such as job and wealth creation. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles.
the 1985-2003 oil glut even fuelled the sales of low economy vehicles in OECD countries. along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide. Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles. Millions of animals are also killed every year on roads by automobiles—so-called Roadkill.2 million people worldwide each year. Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by automobiles via habitat destruction and pollution. hydrocarbons. as China briefly was the first automobile market in December 2009. residential-only sprawling communities are also more likely to die in car collisions which kill 1. D i e le ca Main article: Driverless car Fully autonomous vehicles. driverless electric vehicles—in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reality for work. Sprawl is more broadly a factor in inactivity and obesity.55 L/100 km. already exist in prototype. This would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers. smaller. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E. Oil consumption in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been abundantly pushed by automobile growth. travel. carbon dioxide annually. passenger car standards have not risen above the 27. and injure about forty times this number.g. Brussels is considered Europe's most congested city.0 mpgimp ) standard set in 1985. also known as robotic cars. Over the lifetime of the average automobile the "loss of habitat potential" may be over 50.000 square meters (540.5 miles per US gallon (8.6 L/100 km.000 sq ft) based on primary production correlations. a limousine could come for a special night out. Growth in the popularity of vehicles and commuting has led to traffic congestion. 26. car designs (e. Light truck standards have changed more frequently. In the United States the average passenger car emits 11. Residents of low-density. federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly.450 pounds (5. hence less polluting.2 miles per US gallon (10. which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases. 33.Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. This would also allow for getting the appropriate vehicle for the particular need—a bus could come for a group of people. and nitrogen. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter.190 kg) of the greenhouse gas. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has worsened over the last decade. and a Segway could come for a short trip down the street for one person. In the United States Congress. would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near constant use. Children could be . more fuel-efficient cars. The BRIC countries might also kick in. or driverless cars. and are expected to be commercially available around 2020. and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution. On average. and pleasure— could reduce the world's 800 million vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades. which are not in use and parked 90% of the time. Arth.7 mpg-imp ) in 2007. or to not drive. and were set at 22. A poster used to promote carpooling as a way to ration gasoline during World War II Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient. today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable.
including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. tramways light rail. and 41. None of the projects have reached significant success in terms of developing a car as a whole both from hardware and software perspective and no mass production ready open-source based design have been introduced as of late 2009. Additional individual modes of transport. subways. biofuels. Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular–the US market leader in car-sharing has experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 2007. A robotic Volkswagen Passat shown at Stanford University is a driverless car New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum. fiberglass. and walking. Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells. DUIs would no longer exist. Bike-share systems have been tried in some European cities. Similar programs have been experimented with in a number of US Cities.000 lives could be saved each year in the US alone. Ind . Open o ce de elopmen There have been several projects aiming to develop a car on the principles of open design. Riversimple (through 40fires. Communication is also evolving due to connected car systems. Stirling engines. such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alternative to automobiles if they prove to be socially accepted. Mobility in mainland Europe. battery electric vehicles. The projects include OScar. and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen. offering a service that enables urban residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods. carbon fiber.chauffeured in supervised safety. cycling. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). F e ca echnologie Main article: Future car technologies Automobile propulsion technology under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids. trains. hydrogen cars. and carbon nanotubes.n.org) and c. through such schemes as City Car Club in the UK. and Zipcar in the US. on a pay-as-you-go basis. trolleybuses. and various alternative fuels.mm. Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars. Some car hacking through on-board diagnostics (OBD) has been done so far. Al e na i e o he a omobile Main article: Alternatives to the automobile Established alternatives for some aspects of automobile use include public transit such as buses.
affecting the health of populations. with the current volatility in oil prices.000 jobs in the sector. urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable. going for smaller cars is not only smart. The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems. 2.Main article: Automotive industry The automotive industry designs. with the loss of another 200. industries such as the automotive industry. this resulted in China becoming the largest automobile producer and market in the world. In the opinion of some. markets. with rapidly rising oil prices. The industry is also facing increasing external competition from the public transport sector. China.4 million in Africa. China 2009 sales had increased to 13.4 million in the Middle East and 1. In 2008. In 2007. the United States may see its automotive market become more like the European market with fewer large vehicles on the road and more small cars. a total of 71. a significant increase from one million of domestic car sales in 2000. For luxurious cars. as consumers re-evaluate their private vehicle usage. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars.4 million in the Asia-Pacific Region. in 2009.9 million new automobiles were sold worldwide: 22.4 million in the USA and Canada. The numbers are increasing rapidly. on top of the 560. develops. Russia. In 2008. are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs and changes in consumer buying habits. About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. 21. major trends in the automotive market. mainly from the demand side. The European automotive market has always boasted a higher number of smaller cars than the United States. 19. Roughly half of the US's fifty-one light vehicle plants are projected to permanently close in the coming years.9 million in Europe. there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007. manufactures. Around the world. including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide.000 jobs lost this decade.6 million. And because fashion is of high importance with the upper classes. Ma ke Main article: Automotive market The a omo i e ma ke is formed by the demand and the industry. the little green cars with luxury trimmings become quite plausible. and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. more than 70 million motor vehicles.000.000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. With the high fuel prices and the world petroleum crisis. See al o Main article: Outline of automobiles Car classification . 4. especially in China and India. Of the major markets. but also trendy. The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant.4 million in Latin America. This article is about the general. while those in South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. and sells the world's motor vehicles. Combined with robust growth in China. consuming excessive energy. they burn over 260 billion US gallons (980. Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth.
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