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An a omobile, a oca , mo o ca or ca is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems. There are approximately 600 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car per eleven people). Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007; the engines of these burn over a billion cubic meters (260 billion US gallons) of petrol/gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India.
Benz "Velo" model (1894) – entered into an early automobile race as a motocycle Cla ifica ion Vehicle Ind Applica ion F el So Po e ed SelfP opelled Wheel A le In en o ce Various Conveyance Gasoline, Diesel, Electric, Hydrogen Yes Yes 3–4 0–2 Ferdinand Verbiest
1 Etymology 2 History 3 Mass production 4 Weight 5 Seating 6 Fuel and propulsion technologies 7 Safety 8 Costs and benefits 9 Criticism 10 Driverless cars 11 Future car technologies 12 Open source development 13 Alternatives to the automobile 14 Industry 15 Market 16 See also
Passenger cars in 2000
or the Middle English word carre ("cart") (from Old North French). in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own 'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler. In 1801. meaning a vehicle that moves itself. such as Samuel Brown. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769. but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. Wilhelm Maybach. . and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile. Paris.17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links E molog The word a omobile comes. It is not known if Verbiest's model was ever built. finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil. Ka l Ben generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. The Niépces' Pyréolophore was fuelled by a mixture of Lycopodium powder (dried Lycopodium moss). in turn these are said to have originated from the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic Chariot). Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive. He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army. Hi o Main article: History of the automobile The first working steam-powered vehicle was likely to have been designed by Ferdinand Verbiest. a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile powered by electricity at the International Exposition of Electricity. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods. In 1807 Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude probably created the world's first internal combustion engine which they called a Pyréolophore. His inventions were however handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. In November 1881. Samuel Morey. and was of little practical use. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"). Coincidentally. "self") and the Latin mobilis ("movable"). as was the case with others. who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines. via the French automobile World map of passenger cars per 1000 people from the Ancient Greek word α τός (aut s. he created a steam-powered tricycle. believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steampowered road vehicle. and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time. Neither design was very successful. It was a 65 cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor. one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. Daimler. and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach. first built in and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893. the inventor of the modern automobile Bertha Benz. and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on A photograph of the original Benz January 29. Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG. and sold their first automobile in 1892 under the brand name. Karl Benz. 1886. Because France was more open to the early automobiles. and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company. Benz. Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine. Maybach and the Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each others' early work. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. In 1879. Two years later.An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim. In August 1888 Bertha Benz. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890. undertook the first road trip by car. became a joint-stock company. Benz & Cie. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and. by the time of the merger of the two companies. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888. that was placed in a specially ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. where they set up shop after disputes with their backers. the wife of Karl Benz. that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann. called boxermotor. which had been designed in 1878. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3. which was founded in 1883. In 1896. Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes. It was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer. During the last years of the nineteenth century. Patent-Motorwagen. It was an integral design. Benz was granted a patent for his first engine.. because of its size. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention. They never worked together. His first Motorwagen was built in 1885. Benz & Cie. already producing Benz engines under license. now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. 1886. the first long distance automobile driver in the world Daimler died in 1900 and later that year. Germany by Karl Benz in 1885. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. without the adaptation of other existing components. . in 1902. when his 1885 and awarded the patent for the first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for concept affordability. Emile Roger of France.
valid until the year 2000. 1895. and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades. in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest. there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success. In 1890. This particular car was put into storage in 1894 and stayed there until 1920 when it was rescued by Inglis M. the brothers had purchased a used horse-drawn buggy for $70 and then installed a 4 HP. production. The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester. as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles. Both enterprises standardized design. development of automobiles in the United States. 1893.S. but these were both one-offs. Lawson in 1896. a company founded by Harry J. The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Motor Company. the first running. and they bore the name Daimler. Massachusetts. which hindered. with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.google.Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. In 1892. Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design. Lawson's company made its first automobiles in 1897. baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz. after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. 1926. In 1897. on November 5. To construct the Duryea Motor Wagon. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application. On June 28. The first public run of the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on September 21. but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929. and overturned in 1911. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others. The car had a friction transmission. more than encouraged. Selden applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879. New York. purchasing. spray carburetor. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War. he built the first Diesel Engine.160 (http://www. In 1893. when the The Springfield Republican newspaper made the announcement. only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success. German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine".com/patents?vid=549160) ) for a two-stroke automobile engine. It was road-tested again on November 10. Steam-. Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894 followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895. Ma p od c ion . and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company. and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly. Selden was granted a United States patent (U. the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35 hp. Benz & Cie. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and. along with the Benz name. on Taylor Street in Metro Center Springfield. and low tension ignition. In Britain. and at times. Uppercu and presented to the United States National Museum. single cylinder gasoline engine. Patent 549. and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France. electric-. with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. although keeping their respective brands. but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. gasoline-powered American car was built and road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Springfield. Émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines.
S. doors. Since the 1920s. It was so successful. Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals. so marketing plans often have heavily influenced automobile design. In the automotive industry. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering. and . 250 companies which did not. independent suspension. Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt the production method. beginning in 1914. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. Reflecting the rapid pace of change. until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. and four-wheel brakes. The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U. or risk going broke. As a result. and quickly spread worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911. roof. paint became a bottleneck. much Ransom E. Ford Denmark 1923. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company. its success was dominating.5 man-hours before. sold by Cadillac. in the 1930s. nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs. 1 hour 33 minutes after). due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. in 1921. Chevrolet shared hood. Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. by Thomas Blanchard in 1821. For example." and was copied by most major industries. an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay. Only Japan black would dry fast enough. Massachusetts. 1919) Development of automotive technology was rapid. Ford Germany 1925. at the Springfield Armory in Springfield.See also: Automotive industry The large-scale. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford. This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark. England in 1802. Soon. forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1914. for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910–1911). In 1914. had disappeared. used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile. It was Alfred P. increasing productivity eightfold (requiring 12. production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902 based on the assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills. so buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. "any color as long as it's black". while using less manpower. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods. by 1930. companies had to have assembly lines. Olds faster than previous methods. LaSalles. in the 1950s.
and even companies with decades of production. and others could not compete. by the 1990s. and with the Great Depression. for instance. with 37. and Mors. Dorris. up to a fuel use of 2560 km/l. tightening . and very occasionally three seats. fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. 1927. Even so. from Abbey to Xtra had gone under.Ford Model T. Larger cars can often carry six. average car weights of 45 kg have also been achieved. Morris had 41% of total British car production. such as Apperson. Germany's first mass-manufactured car. and other parts) were common. coming to cars in 1919. by 1940. between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renault's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV. soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany.000 cars in 1925. Sports cars are often designed with only two seats. only 43 survived in 1930. In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon. came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924.5% of the market. windows with Pontiac. with more weight resulting in increased fuel consumption and decreased performance. Haynes. global energy use could be heavily reduced by using lighter cars. Citroen did the same in France. although 4-seater cars are more common). Most British small-car assemblers. but it nevertheless demonstrates the huge degree in which car weights can still be reduced. Cole. they produced 550. concerns about oil dependence. These cars are only single-seaters (still falling within the definition of a car. regarded as the first affordable American automobile left. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. seven or more occupants depending in the internal arrange of seats. Hurtu. Sea ing See also: Car body style Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants. the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog). suspension. station wagon/estate and Multi-Purpose Vehicle/Minivan. The differing needs for passenger capacity and their luggage has resulted in a large variety of body styles to suit personal requirements such as the sedan. only 17 of those were In Europe much the same would happen. or Premier. and soon outsold Ford. while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's practise of vertical integration. Weigh The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance. Rapidly increasing oil prices. and an average weight of 500 kg has been said to be well achievable. could not manage: of some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920. buying Hotchkiss (engines). Wrigley (gearboxes). and Osberton (radiators).e. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924. as well as competitors. such as Wolseley: in 1925. only major makers could afford high costs. often with four or five seats. F el and p op l ion echnologie See also: Alternative fuel vehicle Most automobiles in use today are propelled by a internal combustion engine. hatchback. corporate powertrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes. According to a research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge. and the forthfluing lower fuel use (i.
transportation provision. like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles. and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. of automobile production and maintenance. and the value of the benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. health care. injury. and insurance. independence and convenience. driving time. C i ici m See also: Automobile emissions Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. Safe Main articles: Car safety and Automobile accident While road traffic injuries represent the leading cause in worldwide injury-related deaths. such as job and wealth creation. which may include those of: maintaining roads. Main article: Effects of the automobile on societies Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use. taxes. land use. Ireland and Henry Bliss one of the United States' first pedestrian automobile casualties in 1899 in New York. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. mobility. maintenance. tire replacement. society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities. plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. According to the American . their popularity undermines this statistic. There are now standard tests for safety in new automobiles.environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. repairs. The Nissan Leaf is an all-electric car launched in December 2010 Co and benefi Result of a serious automobile accident Further information: Automotive industry Main article: Economics of automobile usage The costs of automobile usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation. Mary Ward became one of the first documented automobile fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown. and insurance industry-backed tests by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). are weighed against the cost of the alternatives. public health. fuel. pollution. and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. depreciation. parking fees. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits. which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle.
On average. Residents of low-density. Over the lifetime of the average automobile the "loss of habitat potential" may be over 50. today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable. Light truck standards have changed more frequently. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter.000 square meters (540. 33. Arth. This would also allow for getting the appropriate vehicle for the particular need—a bus could come for a group of people. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E.55 L/100 km. 26. or to not drive.6 L/100 km. The BRIC countries might also kick in.190 kg) of the greenhouse gas. also known as robotic cars.0 mpgimp ) standard set in 1985. This would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers. driverless electric vehicles—in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reality for work. Brussels is considered Europe's most congested city. and are expected to be commercially available around 2020. already exist in prototype. hydrocarbons. Millions of animals are also killed every year on roads by automobiles—so-called Roadkill.g.450 pounds (5. as China briefly was the first automobile market in December 2009. Growth in the popularity of vehicles and commuting has led to traffic congestion. which are not in use and parked 90% of the time. the 1985-2003 oil glut even fuelled the sales of low economy vehicles in OECD countries. car designs (e. along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide. Sprawl is more broadly a factor in inactivity and obesity. would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near constant use. Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by automobiles via habitat destruction and pollution. residential-only sprawling communities are also more likely to die in car collisions which kill 1. or driverless cars. Oil consumption in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been abundantly pushed by automobile growth. and were set at 22. a limousine could come for a special night out. and a Segway could come for a short trip down the street for one person. federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly.2 miles per US gallon (10.2 million people worldwide each year. hence less polluting.7 mpg-imp ) in 2007. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has worsened over the last decade. D i e le ca Main article: Driverless car Fully autonomous vehicles. which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases. Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles.000 sq ft) based on primary production correlations. smaller. and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution. In the United States the average passenger car emits 11. In the United States Congress.Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. carbon dioxide annually. and injure about forty times this number. travel. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. and pleasure— could reduce the world's 800 million vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades. A poster used to promote carpooling as a way to ration gasoline during World War II Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient. and nitrogen. Children could be . passenger car standards have not risen above the 27.5 miles per US gallon (8. more fuel-efficient cars.
Stirling engines. and various alternative fuels.000 lives could be saved each year in the US alone. hydrogen cars. Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular–the US market leader in car-sharing has experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 2007. Similar programs have been experimented with in a number of US Cities. subways. The projects include OScar. trains. Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars. Riversimple (through 40fires. through such schemes as City Car Club in the UK. Additional individual modes of transport. battery electric vehicles. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). cycling.org) and c. Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells. and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen. such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alternative to automobiles if they prove to be socially accepted. Mobility in mainland Europe.mm. Ind . F e ca echnologie Main article: Future car technologies Automobile propulsion technology under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids. and Zipcar in the US. offering a service that enables urban residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods. Open o ce de elopmen There have been several projects aiming to develop a car on the principles of open design. carbon fiber. None of the projects have reached significant success in terms of developing a car as a whole both from hardware and software perspective and no mass production ready open-source based design have been introduced as of late 2009.chauffeured in supervised safety. A robotic Volkswagen Passat shown at Stanford University is a driverless car New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum. and carbon nanotubes. Communication is also evolving due to connected car systems. and walking. tramways light rail. Bike-share systems have been tried in some European cities. Al e na i e o he a omobile Main article: Alternatives to the automobile Established alternatives for some aspects of automobile use include public transit such as buses. Some car hacking through on-board diagnostics (OBD) has been done so far. including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. trolleybuses. on a pay-as-you-go basis. biofuels.n. and 41. DUIs would no longer exist. fiberglass.
 Combined with robust growth in China. China. the United States may see its automotive market become more like the European market with fewer large vehicles on the road and more small cars. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars. as consumers re-evaluate their private vehicle usage.000 jobs lost this decade. With the high fuel prices and the world petroleum crisis.4 million in the Asia-Pacific Region. there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007. The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant.4 million in Africa. a total of 71. while those in South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. with the loss of another 200. In 2008. 4.4 million in the Middle East and 1.6 million. major trends in the automotive market. For luxurious cars.Main article: Automotive industry The automotive industry designs. The European automotive market has always boasted a higher number of smaller cars than the United States. In 2008. Ma ke Main article: Automotive market The a omo i e ma ke is formed by the demand and the industry. develops. with rapidly rising oil prices. Around the world. a significant increase from one million of domestic car sales in 2000. consuming excessive energy. mainly from the demand side.000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. 19. About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable.9 million new automobiles were sold worldwide: 22. are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs and changes in consumer buying habits. but also trendy. with the current volatility in oil prices. markets. the little green cars with luxury trimmings become quite plausible.000 jobs in the sector. And because fashion is of high importance with the upper classes. 21. Roughly half of the US's fifty-one light vehicle plants are projected to permanently close in the coming years. and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide. China 2009 sales had increased to 13. this resulted in China becoming the largest automobile producer and market in the world. See al o Main article: Outline of automobiles Car classification . industries such as the automotive industry. Russia. The numbers are increasing rapidly.000. Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth. 2.4 million in the USA and Canada. The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems. more than 70 million motor vehicles. especially in China and India. they burn over 260 billion US gallons (980. in 2009.4 million in Latin America. on top of the 560. Of the major markets. In the opinion of some. going for smaller cars is not only smart. manufactures. and sells the world's motor vehicles. This article is about the general. In 2007. The industry is also facing increasing external competition from the public transport sector. affecting the health of populations.9 million in Europe.
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