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The Nature and Source of Truth and Knowledge Truth is Gods answer Humans are biological Revelation, selfto how people beings endowed with evident situation and perceive the world rationality which is science are the three and for them to the main characteristic recognized sources of discover its of a substantive mind. truth. The test for truthfulness is to test The appropriate revealed truth is its unity and method of acquiring Gods intercession coherence for the knowledge is in its while the test for reason that it only highest form rational. scientific truth is happens to people. Concept is a byconformity with preKnowledge is the byproduct of the existing natural laws. product of studying imaginative or the ideas and purposes abstract idea about a of the eternal spiritual universal form. reality through real experiences. In order for people to realize values, they should be able to actively relate parts into wholes. Values are real and they take root in the spiritual Cosmos. Humanity has moral A universal moral law law or natural law that has been founded God allows men to follow and people can standards and goals understand a lot of it appropriate or fitting through reason and a for a good life. value system rooted in naturalistic, humanistic ethics is insufficient. Education should help students achieve eternal salvation by striving for God on Earth and in heaven. Students are Realists strongly Education should considered spiritual encourage the develop supernatural beings thus selfdevelopment of persons who judge, actualization and intellectual discipline think, and act reflection are nurtured and moral character accordingly in in schools which by how students conformity with reveal ultimate reality. understand truth for reason explained by their own sake. The the supernatural main goal of guidance to achieve education is selfgrace free from the perfection in terms of mortal sin; the

4. The Source of Human Values

5. The Purpose of Education

6. Nature of the Learning Process

Learning is a process of mental growth from within the person and spreads outwards to the development of self, consciousness and self-direction through contemplation, imitation and reasoning.

the good life; to share the good and true aspects of cultural heritage. The cognition of the real interaction between the mind and the outside world produces a total mental awareness when the mind identifies itself with the universal essence, or the universal form of the object.

propagation of faith salvation of souls.

Learning is basically intellectual and moral which involves peoples minds and hearts. It is accomplished by active minds.

7. The Nature of the Teaching Process

Teachers act as role models or proper examples for students to follow. They act as guides that show the way for students to develop or form their own personalities and characters.

Teachers need to lead discussions and ask questions to elicit responses for students to have a complete understanding of reality. General and vocational subjects are given emphasis.

8. Subject Matter Emphasis

Art, Music, History, Literature, Religion/Theology, the works of great personalities

Liberal subjects are given emphasis over vocational subjects

Teachers help develop the students religious maturity along with other aspects of their personal and social growth, and synchronize the two. Teaching practices focus on the mental discipline to make a person equally effective in all areas. Catechetical drill for the training of the intrinsic mental capacity and to promote the awareness of God. Christian Doctrine and Christian Liberal Education


2. The Nature of Human Motivation

LOGICAL EMPIRICISM Knowledge is confined to observable facts because it has observable properties and anything which cannot be proved by scientific facts is considered meaningless or illogical. Man is considered to be a neutral-passive biological organism whose actions are determined by its unique genetic makeup and the physical environment.

3. The Nature and

Reliable knowledge is

ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY Truth must coincide with natural reality and analysts believe that science deals with the empirical matters and philosophy is an art. Metaphysical concepts are neither empirical nor logical thus they are meaningless. People are thinking beings but not bodymind dualism. Their animal nature is predisposed to scientific observation and measurement while their rationality solves problems and answers questions. There can be no false

EXISTENTIALISM Reality is existence in such a way that man is aware of the fact that he exists first and the essence of ones existence develops as man gains experience. Reality is selfchoosing and consists of live subsistence. At birth, people are void of any experience but as they live, they gain experience to find their essence. People have freedom but it does not come from God anymore. Two ways of

Source of Truth and Knowledge

based on science wherein it includes scientifically verifiable, concrete, testable, and comprehensive facts. It is rooted in the natural laws.

knowledge but knowing is not in tune with mistakes since it needs not only the proper condition of the subjects mind but also the proper state of the world. Statements may either be scientific or nonscientific. Science are statements which are true depending on the best available evidence while nonscientific discourse may either be general definitions, metaphorical descriptions, or educational slogans. Rational morality is a form of moral experience which resulted as a response to the conflict between traditional moral codes. Nonetheless, the contents of moral experience from various traditions may be incorporated under the analytical and rational form of experience. Education is a practical art with a scientific basis since it molds students beliefs to achieve absolutely true knowledge and augments their

knowing: scientific (a consciousness of an external world an objective research in regard to it) and existential (cannot be proven scientifically).truth can only be achieved through individual judgment and knowledge is acquired through appropriation.

4. The Nature and Source of Human Values

Values are normative in the sense that they may be subjective, emotional concerns of desire, or scientifically nonverifiable declarations.

The value theory; Man has to create himself and choose the conditions he wants to live in. Since he was thrown into existence not of his own choosing, his life consists of his acts and his life is a mixture of risk and uncertainties.

5. The Purpose of Education

Behavioral engineering is the means of achieving educational goals by planning ahead the nature of society in the future and its members and change

Education is the process of developing free, self-actualized people who concentrate on their feelings; a studentcentered method wherein students are

observable behaviors of students in the desired direction.

6. Nature of the Learning Process

The focus is on Behaviorism or the stimulus-response conditioning theory wherein there is a presence of a stimulus that elicits a response and in order for a desired outcome to be reached, reinforcement is applied.

considered good and active. They choose and create their natures and personalities. Believing and Learning is a search knowing may only for personal truth. It is differ in degree with a process of using regards to their ones mental faculties meaning, but basically to organize they are cognitive experiences and ideas terms. Using words into a coherent and concepts as structure that help instruments, learning unite ones at its best is thinking. relationship to reality and at the same time make it ones own.

capacity to think rationally.

7. Nature of the Teaching Process

Teaching is a mix of operant and classical conditioning wherein both methods can be utilized to bring a desired behavior among students.

8. Subject Matter Emphasis

Physical science especially physics, chemistry, plus mathematics. It should be paired with humanities because both physical and social sciences have the same methods of validation.

Teaching and learning Education starts with are educational terms. the human self and the Teaching is an active mortal self. Teachers process wherein should awaken the teachers transmit students awareness of knowledge and shape their subjective behaviors while freedom to reach the learning is passive. full intensity and potentiality of selfhood. Subjects must be Personal choice of composed of students basically in knowledge of what is the arts, moral known, what to choices, and religion believe, and what to with minor interest in do along with the basic subjects. understanding of nature and source of well-founded knowledge; subject

matter that focus on the meanings and uses of words.


2.The Nature of Human Motivation

BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTALISM Reality is a non-metaphysical world of experience which is in harmony with nature. Thinking begins with everyday experience and the only source of reliable knowledge is our experiences and the reasons why they happen. Humans are bio-social organisms acting in serial alternating reaction with the physical and social environment. A human evolves into a conscious organism through his participation in the material world. Human nature is primarily changeable.

COGNITIVE-FIELD EXPERIMENTALISM Metaphysical neutrality; emphasizes critical intellectual activity, however, beliefs are not undervalued as long as they are recognized as beliefs. Reality is what we make of ourselves and our surroundings, and their interrelationships. People are treated as neutralinteractive purposive persons in simultaneous mutual interaction (SMI) with their psychological environments including other people.

3.The Nature and Source of Truth and Knowledge

Knowledge and truth are composed of theoretical patterns of facts that work successfully. Truth is subject to confirmation and it is gained through social experience; it is tested by its consequences. Experience is the most dependable source of knowledge. Emphasizes functional values and truths; the earthly consequences of human life is scientific method applied to moral questions; the theories of knowledge and values are joined. Values are man-made principles measured by general consequences in terms of collective tastes; emerge within the stresses and strains, and hopes and aspirations of everyday life. Education is a social endeavor that involves interpreting, perpetuating, and improving the existing social system for the next generation.

4. The Nature and Source of Human Values

Truth or knowledge is a matter of how people interpret the absolute world rather than its literal description. A persons view of the past is often incorrect, but it makes up a vital psychological past in that persons own life space. The test for truth is accurate predictability and knowledge is composed of tested insights. Values are not final. They are instrumental and people are the originator, conservator, and changer of their values. They concentrate on the preservation and enhancement of selves both individually and as a group and there is no necessary conflict between them. Values are composed of what we prize and are willing to settle for.

5. The Purpose of Education

6. The Nature of the Learning Process

7. The Nature of the Teaching Process

Social Behaviorism; emphasis on the social reinforcement of behaviors through the use of serial adaptive responses. Learning is a method of growth by reconstructing the existing behaviors and attitudes. Experimental problem solving performed best in social situations is the highest kind of learning. It is the teachers job to select and direct the students

Education should promote a study of the established aspects of the existing cultures, but always with the aim of helping students gain insights related to amending them. Cognitive-field Psychology. Learning is a process in which through interactive experience, people acquire new insights or understandings, reform old ones regarding themselves and the environment. Changed behaviors are results of learning, not the learning itself. Reflective Teaching that includes purposive

8. Subject Matter Emphasis

experiences by arousing their interest in problems that promote appropriate experiences. Uses class communication and group discussions. Students learn by doing and solving societybased problems. Social Studies is the most important subject concentrating on what is yet to happen, not memories of the past.

involvement and perplexity wherein the atmosphere is of mutual inquiry between the student and the teacher or the student and another student as they develop genuine problems and find solutions to them. No significant difference between liberal and vocational studies therefore learning of a traditional subject matter such as the arts, sciences, and humanities in a non-traditional matter is promoted.

Reference Cited: Bigge, Morris, L. Educational Philosophies for Teachers. Columbus, Ohio. Charles E. Merril Publishing Co. 1982.