ma
boh
V
of
WE
or
UNIVERSITY
UFO
WORKS OF
PROF. MANSFIELD MERRIMAN
PUBLISHED BY
JOHN WILEY & SONS,
53 East Tenth
London:
Street,
New
Limited.
York.
CHAPMAN & HALL,
A
Treatise on Hydraulics.
A
and a Manual for Engineers.
Textbook for Engineering Colleges Octavo, cloth. Price $4.00.
A Textbook on
A Text=book on
The Strength
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the Mechanics of Materials and of Beams, Col= Octavo, cloth. Enlarged edition. Price $4.00.
Octavo, cloth.
the Method of Least Squares.
Price $2.00.
En
larged edition.
of Materials. An Elementary Textbook for Manual Training Schools. Duodecimo, cloth. Price $1.00.
A
Text=book on Roofs and Bridges.
Jacoby.
In Four Parts.
I.
By Professors Merriman and
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Octavo, cloth.
Part
Part
Part
Stresses in Simple Trusses.
II.
Graphic Statics.
Bridge Design.
Price $2.50.
Price $5.00.
III.
Part
IV.
Higher Structures.
{In Press.)
Price $2.50.
A Handbook
for Surveyors. By Professors Merriman and Brooks. Pocketbook form, morocco cover. Price $2.00.
Higher Mathematics.
leges. cloth.
A
Edited by Professors
Price $5.00.
Textbook for Classical and Engineering ColMerriman and Woodward. Octavo,
HIGHER MATHEMATICS.
A TEXTBOOK FOR
CLASSICAL AND ENGINEERING COLLEGES.
EDITED BY
MANSFIELD MERRIMAN,
Professor of Civil Engineering
in
Lehigh University,
AND
ROBERT
S.
WOODWARD,
in
Professor of Mechanics
Columbia University.
SECOND EDITION, REVISED.
FIRST THOUSAND.
NEW YORK:
JOHN WILEY
London:
1898.
& SONS.
Limited.
CHAPMAN & HALL,
Copyright,
1896,
BY
MANSFIELD MERRIMAN
AND
ROBERT
S.
WOODWARD.
ROBERT DRUMMOND, ELECTROTYPER AND PRINTER, NEW YORK.
Y
PREFACE.
In the early part of this century it was possible for an industrious student to acquire a comprehensive if not minute knowledge of the entire realm of mathematical science. The
of that time, like Lagrange, Laplace, and were about equally familiar with all branches of pure Gauss, and applied mathematics. Since that epoch the tendency has been constantly towards specialization and additions to pure
;
more eminent minds
theory along with extensions of applications have been made with increasing rapidity, until now the mere quantity of information available presents a formidable obstacle to the simul
taneous attainment of the breadth and depth of knowledge which characterized the mathematician of a generation ago.
would appear, however, that this obstacle is due to the bewildering mass of details rather than to any considerable Hence the increase in the number of fundamental principles.
It
who seeks to gain a comprehensive view of the mathematics of the present day needs most of all that sort of guidance which fixes his attention on essentials and prevents him
student
from wasting valuable time and energy
essentials.
in the pursuit of
non
During the past twenty years a marked change of opinion has occurred as to the aims and methods of mathematical The old ideas that mathematical studies should instruction.
be pursued to discipline the mind, and that such studies were ended when an elementary course in the calculus had been In our best covered, have for the most part disappeared.
classical
and engineering colleges the elementary course
ill
in
IV
PREFACE.
is
now given in the sophomore year, while lectures and work in pure mathematics are continued during the seminary It is with the hope of meeting the junior and senior years.
calculus
existing
class
demand
for a suitable text to
be used
in
such upper
editors enlisted the cooperation of the authors in the task of bringing together the chapters of this
work that the
book.
and
Each chapter, so far as it goes, is complete in itself, intended primarily to give a clear idea of the leading principles of the subject treated. While the authors have been
is
guided by general instructions issued by the editors, each has been free to follow his own plan of treatment. It will be found
that certain chapters adopt the formal method usual in textbooks, while others employ what may be called the historical
and
method. glance at the table of contents will that the chapters of the work present a considerable variety of subjects, thus affording teachers and students an
intuitive
A
show
opportunity to select such topics as
maybe
suited to their time
and
are given for solution, numerical examples of the application of theory to physical science are freely introduced, and the footnotes set forth much sugtastes.
Numerous problems
gestive matter of a historical and critical nature.
The
Editors.
NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
THIS edition differs from the first only in the correction of those typographic errors which have been detected and in the
alteration of a few paragraphs
which seemed obscure.
Readers
of this edition are requested to bring to the notice of the editors
any remaining
January
i,
errors
which may be discovered.
1898.
The Quartic Equation Quintic Equations Trigonometric Solutions 19 21 24 27 28 31 Real Roots by Series Computation of All Roots 15. Article 1. 3. Conclusion Chapter II. 37 38 39 9. Article I. 5. By Mansfield Merriman. 13. 5. DETERMINANTS. Chapter I. Numerical Algebraic Equations Transcendental Equations Algebraic Solutions The Cubic Equation 10 13 15 9. 8.CONTENTS. 11. 8. 7. 3. 36 36 6. 14. Newton's Approximation Rule Separation of the Roots 6 8 6. THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. Introduction Graphic Solutions Page i 3 5 The Regula Falsi 4. By Laenas Gifford Weld. Permutations Interchange of Two Elements Positive and Negative Permutations The Determinant Array 1 Determinant as Function of n Elements of Determinants Examples Notations 34 35 4. Professor of Civil Engineering in Lehigh University. 2. Introduction 33 2. 17 10. 11. Professor of Mathematics in the State University of Iowa. 10. 12. 7. 12. Second and Third Orders Interchange of Rows and Columns Interchange of Two Parallel Lines 40 42 43 43 Two Identical Parallel Lines v .
Correlation and Duality Polystims and Polygrams 74 77 80 6. 16. 11. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.factors in a Zero Determinant Sylvester's Method of Elimination 56 58 60 60 62 63 The Multiplication Theorem Product of Rectangular Arrays Reciprocal Determinants Two 65 68 69 Chapter III. Multiplying 14. 30.VI CONTENTS. Cofactors. 25. 21. The Elements and Primal Forms Projecting and Cutting 70 72 2. Professor of Mathematics in the University of Texas. 3. By George Bruce Halsted. 4. 26. 15. 17. Associate Professor of Mathematics in Cornell University. 20. Correspondence of Points on Conies Areas of Corresponding Triangles Areas of Corresponding Sectors Characteristic Ratios of Sectorial Measures 107 109 109 no . 7. Raising the Order Solution of Linear Equations Consistence of Linear Systems The Matrix Homogeneous Linear Systems Co. Elements at Infinity 72 74 : 4. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. by a Factor Line of Polynomial Elements Composition of Parallel Lines Binomial Factors Page 44 Article 13. 28. Article 1. Minors 18. 3. 24. By James McMahon. Development in Terms of Cofactors The Zero Formulas Cauchy's Method of Development Differentiation of Determinants 46 47 49 51 52 54 55 22. Curves of the Second Degree Pole and Polar Involution Projective Conic Ranges 82 87 88 91 10. 14. 12. 13. 27. 29. Article 1. 5. A 44 45 15. 23. Center and Diameter Plane and Point Duality Ruled Quadric Surfaces Cross Ratio 94 96 98 104 Chapter IV. 2. 19. 9. Harmonic Elements Projectivity 8. 31.
Article 1. 21. By William Professor of Mathematics in Harvard University. Vll 6. 13. 35. History and Description Homogeneous Linear Differential Equations l6 9 172 4. 32.. 7. The Sine Series The Cosine Series Fourier's Series l88 x92 T 94 8. Graphs of Hyperbolic Functions Elementary Integrals Functions of Complex Numbers Addition Theorems for Complexes Functions of Pure Imaginaries Functions of x f *> in the Form X\. 5. 11. Problem Problem Problem in Trigonometric Series in Zonal Harmonics in Bessel's Functions 174 x 77 l8 3 6. 19. 22. 7. 36. . The Gudermanian Function Circular Functions of Gudermanian Gudermanian Angle Derivatives of Gudermanian and Inverse Series for Gudermanian and its Inverse 127 128 128 129 130 131 23. 37.. 39. Byerly. 25. 3. Article 5. 15. 27. 34. 119 120 122 123 16. 30. Ratios expressed as Trianglemeasures Functional Relations for Ellipse Page 8. 28. 29.  124 125 Expansion of Antifunctions Logarithmic Expression of Antifunctions 20. E. 17. 9. 12. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. 26. 31. 24. . The Catenary The Catenary of Uniform Strength The Elastic Catenary The Tractory The Loxodrome Combined Flexure and Tension Alternating Currents Miscellaneous Applications Explanation of Tables 14? * 148 *49 x 50 151 *53 158 l6 38. Exponential expressions.iY 132 135 138 140 141 143 *45 33. 18. Functional Relations for Hyperbola Relations between Hyperbolic Functions Variations of the Hyperbolic Functions Antihyperbolic Functions no in in 112 10. 114 116 116 118 Functions of Sums and Differences Conversion Formulas Limiting Ratios Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions Derivatives of Antihyperbolic Functions Expansion of Hyperbolic Functions 14.CONTENTS. 2. Chapter V.
15. Applications of Trigonometric Series Properties of Zonal Harmonics 20a 202 205 13. 9. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. 17. 12. Article Extension of Fourier's Series Dirichlet's Conditions Page 196 198 10. 6. Development in terms of Zonal Harmonics Formulas for Development Formulas in Zonal Harmonics Spherical Harmonics. 24. Development in Terms of Bessel's Functions Problems in Bessel's Functions. 12. Bessel's Functions. 23. 22. Professor of Mathematics in Columbia University. 25. Definition of Function 226 227 228 2. Uniform Convergence Onevalued Functions with Residues 274 Critical Points 278 282 26. 18. 3. 209 212 213 213 215 Properties 20. Critical Points 14. Article 1. 10. 4. 19. Reduction of Complex Integrals to Real Cauchy's Theorem Application of Cauchy's Theorem Theorems on Curvilinear Integrals Taylor's Series Laurent's Series Fourier's Series 262 264 267 20. 250 256 257 261 16. 19. 11. Representation of Complex Variable Absolute Convergence Elementary Functions Continuity of Functions Graphical Representation of Functions Derivatives 229 230 232 233 8. 15. Fiske. 5. 25. 21. 246 13. 11.Vlll CONTENTS. 269 271 273 24. 17. 22. 23. Conformal Representation Examples of Conformal Representation Conformal Representation of a Sphere Conjugate Functions Application to Fluid Motion Point at Infinity Integral of a Function 236 238 244 245 . 9. 7. 14. Bessel's Functions of Higher Order Lame's Functions Tables 217 220 221 221 222 Chapter VI. By Thomas S. 18. Problems in Zonal Harmonics Additional Forms 207 208 16. Integral of a Onevalued Function 284 . Applications of Bessel's Functions 21.
19. 8. Hyde. 13. 3. Simultaneous Differential Equations Equations of the Second Order 327 330 333 The Two First Integrals 16. Woolsey Johnson. Systems of Differential Equations 349 First Order and Degree with Three Variables 352 Partial Differential Equations of First Order and Degree.CONTENTS. By W. Explanations and Definitions Sum and Difference of Two Points 374 375 4. any Number of Points Reference Systems Nature of Geometric Multiplication of Sum Sum of Two Weighted Points 378 381 386 390 392 Planimetric Products The Complement 399 . 25. Exact Differential Equations Homogeneous Equation The Linear Equation First Order and Second Degree Singular Solutions Singular Solution from the Complete Integral Solution by Differentiation Geometric Applications.. Linear Equations Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients Homogeneous Linear Equations Solutions in Infinite Series 336 338 342 18. 2. Critical Lines and Regions 30. 12. 3. 22. 17. 14. 5. Article I. 7. 21. Equations of First Order and Degree Geometrical Representation Primitive of a Differential Equation 303 305 307 308 311 4. 355 359 Complete and General Integrals 362 Complete Integral for Special Forms Partial Equations of Second Order 365 Linear Partial Differential Equations 368 Chapter VIII. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.. Article 27. 5 6. Professor of Mathematics in United States Naval Academy. By Edward W. 23. 15. Functions having n Values 300 Chapter VII. 2. 24. IX Theorem * Page 287 292 298 MittagLeffler's Theorem 29. 9. 344 20. Trajectories 312 314 317 320 322 325 10. 7. in Professor of Mathematics the University of Cincinnati. Weierstrass's 28. 8. GRASSMANN'S SPACE ANALYSIS. 11. Article 1. 6.
Addition of Coplanar Vectors Products of Coplanar Vectors Coaxial Quaternions Addition of Vectors in Space Product of Two Vectors Product of Three Vectors Composition of Located Quantities Spherical Trigonometry Composition of Rotations 426 432 439 443 444 449 453 457 463 10. Theorem Inverse Probabilities Probabilities of Future Events 9. 9. By Alexander Macfarlane.X Article 9. 7. By David Eugene Smith. 6. 5. 476 479 482 484 487 Probability of Concurrent Events Bernoulli's 6. 4. 8. 3. 4. Introduction 467 471 2. Normal College.urer in Mathematical Physics in Article 1. Theory of Errors 490 491 10. 7. CONTENTS. The Complement Space Addition of Sects in Solid Space in Solid 416 419 Chapter IX. 12. 3. Equations of Condition and Formulas Stereometric Products Page 405 410 10. 11. Laws of Error 11. 5. Woodward. 13. Theory of Numbers Irrational and Transcendent Numbers Complex Numbers Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre 513 t 515 517 . Chapter X. 8. By Robert S. Article 1. Lehigh University. HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. PROBABILITY and THEORY OF ERRORS. Typical Errors of a System Laws of Resultant Error Errors of Interpolated Values Statistical Test of 493 Theory 494 497 504 Chapter XI. Introduction 425 2. VECTOR ANALYSIS and QUATERNIONS. 12. 3. Permutations Combinations Direct Probabilities 473 4. 5. Lecf. Professor of Mathematics in Michigan State Article 1. 14. Professor of Mechanics in Columbia University. Introduction 508 511 2.
11. Infinite Series J3. XI Theory of Equations Page 519 524 Substitutions and Groups 8. and Least Squares Analytic Geometry Modern Geometry Trigonometry and Elementary Geometry NonEuclidean Geometry Probabilities 550 552 558 563 565 o 19. 9. Bibliography 568 57 1 Index . Article 6. 14. Differential Equations 12. 535 539 543 Theory of Functions 16. 17. 7.CONTENTS. 18. Determinants Quantics Calculus 526 52S 531 10. 15.
.
Art. algebraic equation is one that involves only the operaIt is to be first freed from radicals so as tions of arithmetic. in general. numeric. and quartic equations. third. By Mansfield Merriman. either positive or negative. cubic. and fourth degrees. For the four degrees . all its A numerical equation an algebraic equation having coefficients real numbers. not commonly found in textbooks. THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. An make the exponents of the unknown quantity all integers. only for linear. is second. that is.HIGHER MATHEMATICS Chapter I. The algebraic solution of an to algebraic equation is the expression of its roots in terms of the literal coefficients this is possible. the degree of the equation is then indicated by the highest exponent of the unknown quantity. and algebraic solutions will be given by which the real roots of both algebraic and transcendental equations may be obtained. quadratic. for the solution of an equation containing one unknown quantity. of the first. 1. In this Chapter will be presented a brief outline of methods. Professor of Civil Engineering in Lehigh University. Introduction. Graphic. for equations . together with historical information and theoretic discussions.
The methods to be given are thus.tr > or a 2x of general method for the literal solution \these equations exists but when all known quantities are xb* = o. thus : An x n +ax x nx j a 1x i n ~' f . . the real roots may be located and computed by tentative methods. while Horner's method furnishes a con venient process for obtaining the values of the roots to any required degree of precision. . transcendental equation A is one involving the operations as. theorem gives the number of provided they are un equal. example. I. although for It should algebraic equations they may be somewhat longer. for of trigonometry or of logarithms. No . for brevity. and that the value of a method of solution is to be measured not merely by the rapidity of computation. equation having the exponents of the quantity . Reduce the equation (a + x)* + unknown ( x)l = all 2b to an integers. as will always be supposed to be the case. be remembered. When all the coefficients alt ati . th algebraic equation of the n degree may be written with all its terms transposed to the first member. ^(~ COS. but also by the ease with which it can be kept in mind and applied. Prob. n o. 25 will apply equally well to both algebraic and transcendental forms. that algebraic equations higher than the fourth degree do not often occur in physical problems. in a sense. . as also the number of real roots lying between two assumed values of x. expressed as real numbers. unless they fall under the socalled irreducible case wherein real quantities are expressed in imaginary forms. f an  x x +a is. however. Here also the equation may be designated asf(x) = o.2 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. equation be referred to as f(x) = tion are the values of x which satisfy it. and. the first member will be called f(x) and the The roots of this equao. [CHAP. . 1. that those values of x that reduce f(x) to o. above mentioned the roots of numerical equations may be computed from the formulas for the algebraic solutions. more valuable than Sturm's theorem and Horner's process.aM are real. and the discussions in Arts. Sturm's real roots.
O with the radius coordinates of the center of the hyperbola are found to be OA = \b and AC = \c. while rnn is Om is the positive and pq the negative value of y.* written as the two simultaneous equations y pp.bx = y . 1884. For example. The c\ the first Drawing two rectangular axes scribed from representing a circle and the second a hyperbola. . Art. The intersections of the circle with the hyperbola give the real values of x and y. the circle is de OX a.] GRAPHIC SOLUTIONS. 2.cy. When the radius a is so large that the circle intersects both branches of the hyperbola there are four real values of both x and y. and OY. and c 3. Vl IV. let the given equations be ** Approximate values +y = a\ x* . By a similar method approximate values of the real roots of an algebraic equation containing but one unknown quantity may be graphically found.ax b = o be required to be solved. 2. of the real roots of algebraic equations two simultaneous be found by the methods of may plane analytic geometry when the coefficients are numerically expressed. two real values for since the circle intersects but one branch here of the hyperbola . Op the positive and the negative value of x. = 4. there are but two real values for x y.Art. 4749 = x\ y = ax \b. the while its diameter BD = *J & from which two branches may be described. Graphic Solutions. *See Proceedings of the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia. For instance. let the cubic equation 3 This may be x \. If ^= and I.
then the two equations to be plotted are y the first = x* + x\ may be drawn y=bx + once for all c. \zQ. Bz C o.d Prob. while through the origin. The line joining B b and C is cuts the curve at /. 3. is also applicable to many thus for the equation Ax sin^r sin^r write ax o. [CHAP. Prob.ax \. [ 159 430 . Determine graphically the number and the approximate = values of the real roots of the .ex f. then y transcendental equaBs\i\x o it is best to = = of a table of sines. of which upon crosssection paper. and hence qp real root of x* f the the will ax = o. then OB is laid off equal to b. If cubic equation have three real roots the straight line BC intersect the curve in three points. The curve I should be plotted upon cross section paper by the help of a y = x* \ / J>4? table of cubes . curve represented by y is readily plotted by help ax is a straight line passing In the same way ax x* = o gives the = y= y = x% the parabola represented by the intersections of which determine the real roots of = a* and the given equation.bx*\. it is best to put z A*x. New York. algebraic equations of higher degrees may be graphicFor the quartic equation ally solved in a similar manner. 1882. the abscissas of their points of intersection give the real roots of the cubic. and a^ * For an extension of see Phillips and Beebe's this method to the determination of imaginary roots. and OC equal to a/b. Six real roots. 2. while the straight line represented by the second be drawn for each particular case.) x = o.4 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. as described above. I.* may This method tions . and thus z* Az* Some + + = = reduce it to the form x" + + #* bx c o. Devise a graphic solution for finding approximate 3 o. iphic Algebra. values of the real roots of the equation x*{. (Ans. and the graph of each being plotted. tak ^___nl ing care to observe the signs of a and b. x = equation arc x 456 8 sin . .
A**)A*y another value the process the value of 2 x can be obtained to any required degree of precision. A Let x and x^ be the assumed values OA and OB. and if one of these renders/^) positive and the other renders it negative. Join ad.7 /(>) that a real root lies between let = + = Here it may 2 and 1. 3. One of the oldest is methods an equation ple that if the rule known computing the real root of as " regula falsi. Leipzig.) By a second application x is computed. the method of double position * The point. As an example trial be found by ham ben o." often called It depends upon the princitwo numbers *. OX Let Aa and Bb be the values of J{x) corresponding to these limits. these values being with contrary signs. 1878. Now compute Cc and join ac. Grundzuge der antiken und moder en Algebra der litteralen Gleichungen. was by Abra *This originated in India. and its first publication in Europe Esra. 5. and x% be substituted in the expression/^). 5 Art. Then from the similar triangle AaC and BbC the abscissa OC is x% ~ A*t)A*. in 1130. i~ 7 iT . Let OA and OB be inferior and = OX = trial which are determined either by superior limits of the root or by the method of Art.Art  3] THE REGULA FALSI.X.8. gives a real root of the equation f(x) o.tr2 ) be the corresponding values oi f(x) represented by Aa and Bb. then the intersection still x D gives a value OD which closer to the root OX. x* 5* f. h. See Matthiesen. then at least one real root of the equation Let the figure represent a f(x) = o lies between x and #s x . The Regula for Falsi. and let x i) and/(. then the intersection C of the straight line ab with the axis OB gives an approximate value q a OC is for the root. and by continuing K ^A*>)A**)~~ of the rule to x and x x l *^ % . where the curve crosses the axis of abscissas. part of the real graph of the equation y /{x).
and also that the values of f(x) to be combined in one have opposite signs. and for *. U For = and 2. Again. 85V and for x^ = 86. then by the regula there found x 3 = /) = + 4304.r 2 ) = f. which gives f(x ) = combining the values for x^ and . 1.906. example let f[x) = arc. is = 1. Vol.. OX = /b to the curve.8. . and Aa the corresponding value oif(x). 1. For the quickest the values of f{x) to be selected should be those approximation having the smallest numerical values. for with jTj x z = 1. /(. [CHAP. operation should Prob.* of y =f(x) be the equation a real in the figure represents a o.00009.00342 then 0. Compute by the Also those of x* + sin 2X = o. p.0. combining the values 0. f{x) = falsi 5.01266. where the method is given in a somewhat different form. jr. At a let aB be drawn tangent OB is another approximate value of infinitas. regula falsi the real roots of xb 0. f(x .r shows that there is but one real root.6 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS.90 nearly. 4. Art. for is Another useful method the real root of an equation If approximating to the value of that devised by Newton in 1666. As a second t . sin x 0. and these combined is which correct to the third decimal.90. OX^ I * See Analysis per equationes numero terminorum of Horsely's edition of 269. for x^ and x t there is found x b = 8547 4.25 = 0. Newton's Approximation Rule.r 4 z) f(x^) give = = + 0. Newton's works (London. 3 a which gives /(^ ) = Lastly. Again. fix ) o 00090.r3 there is found x\ = 85 47'.5 = o. 4. then OX. For x. which is as close an 4 / approximation as can be made with fiveplace tables.290. In the application of this method it is to be observed that the signs of the values of x and f(x) are to be carefully regarded. root of the equation f(x) Let OA be an approximate value of curve. by the rule x = 85 44'. Here a graphic solution and that the value of it lies between 85 and 86. 1779).
= x % which As the a second example derivative is let f(x) first f\x) = by = x* + 4 sin = o. value of either trial x found or % corresponds to an angle of In uo / 54f .) as large as possible.934.94.9328. .03304 and /'(*. whence by the rule correct to the third decimal. The first deriv $x* f Here it may be found by trial x that 2 1. and at b then OC is a closer approxima tion to the process may be continued. . and /'(#. and moreover by help of the diagram. and thus x = = = } nate Aa. Let/'(*0 be the first derivative of/(jtr). For example. the curve has a is maximum or The method minimum between a falsi. and b. corresponding to about as 0. which x>= By 1.f\x) x OA in the figure. 7 Let Bb be the value let the tangent bC be drawn corresponding to OB. For . this tangent is also Aa/AB. of f(x) .906. whence by the rule x = 5. the application of Newton's rule it is best that the assumed value of x. An approximate by a graphic solution is . For x 2 is an approximate value of the real root.6599 1.) as small as possible.) /(*. = 60.) a second application x = 1. and the process may be conrule.)//'(*i) and accordingly (9j5 and are found which to is Newton's approximation x % the closer value x A is third application found. and the value of f\x^) is the tangent of the angle aBA . df(x)/dx. will fail if and also /'(*.tr Here 2x + 4 cos x. x b = + 5^ 2 } 7 = o. = 1. the value of f(x ) is the ordiFor x OX. By a tinued to any degree of precision required. It seen that Newton's rule. ative is/'(.94.] newton's approximation rule. (2(7 Hence by AB = /*.*= u^cx/.Art. 4. ox. 1.r) let f(x) 10^.) = a = Now for x^ = 1. should be such as to render /(*. and is f(xj) 29052.92 are found /(#) = 0.) = 53 2 3> whence by the rule /(.*:.92.*. like the regula and algebraic equaapplies equally well to both transcendental that the rule itself is readily kept in mind tions.
roots of an equation are of two kinds. VIII. which lie at the limit between the real and the imaginary. p. two  of the roots of the primitive equation are +2 The problem of determining the number of the real and imaginary roots of an algebraic equation is completely solved by Sturm's theorem. . As Sturm's theorem is known to all who read these pages. 190. braic equation x* +6= f rule the real roots of the alge o. and which moreover applies to transcendental as well as to algebraic equations. two values be assigned to x the number of real roots between those limits is found by the same theorem. let x* gx* \. Equal real roots may be regarded as a special class. Compute by Newton's jx [CHAP. If an equation hasp equal roots of one value and q equal roots of another value. but instead an older method due to Hudde will be presented which has the merit of giving a comprehensive view of the subject.12 = o. in 1690. of which equation. I. and thus by a sufficient number of assumptions limits may be found for each real root. The and thus all common to both primitive the equal roots are contained in a factor and derivative. the derivative equation factor of these is ^x* \%x ~ 4 =o . 5. If. Separation of the Roots. no applications of it will be here given. real roots and imaginary roots. a real graph is obtained intersections with the axis whose OX give the real roots of the See CEuvres * Devised by Hudde in 1659 and published by Rolle de Lagrange. Art. then. Also the real roots of the trans2 cendental equation sin x arc x = 0.8 Prob. as x 2 is a two equations. then its first derivative equation has 1 1 roots of the first value and q roots of the second p value. THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS.^x \.* If abscissas any equation y = fix) be plotted with values of x as and values of y as ordinates. Vol. Equal roots may hence always be readily detected and removed from the given For instance. 5.
69.$x* +6x + 2 = o. Now let the first deriva tive equation dy/dx=f'(x) be formed and be plotted in the same manner on the axis O'X'. The first derivative 6 = o. a real root does not lie between those limits. and : let the given quintic. be plotted on O" X" the intersections give if > which separate the real roots of f\x) o.] SEPARATION OF THE ROOTS. o. In like manner f d*y/dx* = f"{x) limits the second derivative equation. the roots of which are equation is /'(*) = 5x* i$x* + . To illustrate this method let the given equation be the quintic fix) .1. equaf ion fix) Xg've three values = Thus in OX for three real roots. if the signs are the same. limits separating the real roots of fix) real root OX lies between two values = of O'X' these two values are to be substituted infix): if the signs oi fix) are unlike in o lies between the two the two cases. 0.59.Art. that is. a real root of fix) limits . 5. +0. Now let each approximately = x* of these values be substituted for x in the values .59. The condition f'(x)= o gives the abscissas of the points A. the figure the three points marked The curve which represents y = fix) has points of maxima and minima marked A. and thus the real roots O'X' give To ascertain if a o.1. It is also seen that the roots of the second derivative equation are the abscissas of the points of inflection of the curve y = fix).69. and + 00 . as also the corresponding values of fix) be determined as follows . 4.00 . o. and inflection points marked B.
limits may be found In in succession for the the roots of the derivative equations until finally those of primative are ascertained. Prob. nevertheless the method Zx and one in some may fail of great theoretical and practical value. 00 .59. ess many is cases. +2.69 . Show Show x that e + e~ 4 1 = has two real roots. it is true. /(^) is is negative  for = f 00 . I.O.59. and following derivatives may be taken until an equation is found whose roots may be obtained.+ a x + 1 M ~2 u . I. one positive and one negative.6. +2. the second. /(*)= 00. entirely.6. 0. 00 ^= 0. positive 6. the latter corresponding to ^ *** = . one between these limits since f(x) changes sign between x = and x % = o. this procit may prove lengthy and difficult. 7. f[x) is negative. for e* = i. the between these limits. . third.0. therefore.69 since f(x) changes sign real root lies % between x x = .7. +1. . also that two real roots. [CHAP. by working backward.10 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. Then. and 00 . O.r = i and e* = = 00 /(jr) . + O. is negative.69. 1. 1 Prob. x bs _ oo . +a n _x x +a n o . no first When the derivative equation not easily solved. .69.59. since f(x) does = o and x A = 00 a pair of imagisum of which lies between f. e^ e* a second example let f(x) 2elx is fix) e* derivative equation As = = = 4 = 0. I. + +4. The equation ** 4 =o has. real roots.59 and x^ = 0. Art. that x* { x 6 x = o has x+ = o has no real roots. o. Numerical Algebraic Equations. one and one negative. . 1. one real root lies not change sign between x a nary roots is indicated. The first o.x".69. Since f{x) changes sign between x one real root lies between these limits = .4. which has two roots e* For x . thus xn + a. and +00. + 00 . th algebraic equation of the with all its terms transposed to the An degree may be written : first member. 6.
An equation of even degree.* roots. The law deduced by Harriot in 1631 and by Descartes .Art. equation. arid 6. has at least two real roots. deduced in textbooks on algebra. having a n negative. taken two in a set. 2w. they 1. . nor more negative roots than in signs. the equation following principles of the theory of algebraic equations with real coefficients. the products of the roots. is equal tof(x). f terms by means of a quartic equation. . /(*) if is divisible x by x xt . . taken three in a set. then the prodIf x x%% x . The product of all the roots is equal to an and to f. equation lack occur in pairs of the form/ (7) qi where / represents y sign is equation of odd degree has at least one real root whose opposite to that of a n . xn are the roots of the equation. are lacking between two other terms. The by /(V) = o. and is when n The equation /(a. and conversely. (x xn ) the roots is x \ . are here recapitulated for convenience of reference : The (i) If x x is a root of the equation. if an even number of terms. .] numerical algebraic equations. (2) (3) f(x) is divisible by x x lt then x is a root of the An equation of the n th degree has n roots and no more.a n when n is even. so as to the second and third terms by the second fifth and fourth terms by means of a cubic equation. f In an incomplete equation. or the second and in 1639. the coefficients and the absolute term are real is 11 if all numfirst commonly member may for brevity be denoted by f{x) and itself bers. then it has at least 2m say * By substituting y remove 1 \py + q for x. this called a numerical equation.) =o ing second term by substituting y (6) If an equation has imaginary its may be reduced to an ajn for x. a the sum of the prodequal to ucts of the roots. the quantities / and q may be determined means of a quadratic equation.. (8) (9) An A variations in the signs of complete equation cannot have more positive roots than its terms. . one being positive and the other negative.# 2 the sum of x uct (x (4) x )(x x The sum of t) . is equal to so on. If all roots permanences (10) be real. there are as many posi tive roots as variations. (5) a3 . and as many negative roots as permanences. is equal to f. odd.
1859. . is however one of frequent convenient application. (12) If a r is number of real roots lying be the greatest negative coefficient.i. 5. say 2tn f. Leipzig. und transzeridenten Gleichung Braunschweig.2 or 2m imaginary roots. imaginary roots.* (11) Sturm's theorem gives the number of real roots. then ar + + then a r first + 1 is a superior limit of the positive roots. coefficient after x is changed into of the negative roots. as also the tween two assumed values of x. and the regula together falsi of Art. with principles (13) and (14) above. application of these principles and methods will be familiar to all who read these pages. according as the two terms have like or unlike signs. using the substitution x an approximate value of x enables the real root x to be comx . pp. the first all changed and (as \} !j0ui*m&y 5*7 negative and a r the greatest negative co x is 1 into x. If a k be the negative and a s the greatest negative x. let a sphere of diameter and D specific gravity * Established by DuGua. set forth in Art. 3. Horner's method may The be also modified so as to apply to the computation of imaginary roots after their approximate values have been found. see fSheffler. By its use. For example. 435494. I. if an odd number of terms. Memoirs Paris Academy. [ChaP. for such algebraic equations as actually arise in practice. provided that they are unequal. 1741. 1865. x = puted to any required degree of precision. Die Auflosung der algebraischen n. & then a* /v/w + 1 is a numerically superior limit (14) Inferior limits of the positive l found by placing x = z~ and thus obtaining an equation f(z) whose roots are the reciprocals of f(x) = o. and Jelink. are lacking between two other terms. then it has at least either 2tn f. the real roots may be computed without any assumptions whatever regarding their values.12 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. Die Auflosung der hoheren numerischen Gleichungen. t The older method of Hudde and Rolle. and negative roots may be =o is z r where r (15) Horner's method. and coefficient after limits if as is the greatest negative real roots lie between the is (13) If an efficient.
than excludes the first and last root. there less found one negative root.204 f eet which. by Find the value of the root of x. :i X = 21 ^v Art.) = j. to (15) of the last article have no application to trigonometrical or exponential equations. so and 2. then the equation 2. then by the regula falsi #. The first derivative equation 3** 6x is =o whose roots are o and tive root greater than 2.1. Prob.35. one positive root The and one posiof the question physical aspect 2. of such equations will Two examples be presented. the 1.Art.x: to whose length is 200 feet discharge 100 cubic feet per second under a head of a waterpipe real ft> M> given 101 3! = o. Substituting these. many. > = 0. but the general prin 25 may be always used in attempting their solution.5 x that it lies between and for x^ 2. this A be expressed in circular measure sin it is given by the transo. cylinder of specific gravity g floats in water.6 is =o is to be solved.5. is about 0. Transcendental equations may have one.65. mersion. the ' quintic  equation JL " $2. except in the last 8.] transcendental equations. but those arising from probciples and methods of Arts. 7. and it is If required to find the immersed arc of the circumference. decimal. of gives xK the correct depth of immersion of the sphere. The diameter is is and which 10 feet 38. For x = 0. f(xt ) = For x 3 =i.5. or no real roots. By (13) and (14) an inferior limit of this root 0. /(jr.= 1. 2. 13 float in water. Rules (1) Transcendental Equations.) = regula falsi is and the second isto be computed.975. and combining this with x./(^.  7. lems in physical science must have at least one real root.4.35. 1. cedental equation f{x) x x 2ng = . The and let it be required to find the depth of iimsolution of the problem gives for the depth v the cubic equation As a particular case let x* D= 3^ f 2 feet and =0.408.
9014 radians. span 20 feet. further found that this root lies between f n and n. giving /(*. 0. where 6 = I02 1 and the solution may be expedited by the help of tables of See Chapter IV.0012 and = 0. =ss x Now proceeding by the regula falsi (Art. . first [CHAP.486 and f\z ) =0. s the length of the cable. it a particular case let g 0. between o and 2.322. For x 2 .469.) whence z s = 13. or in circular measure ^=2.s^) =0.206.) =+ 27 36 . and hence 166 is an approximate value of the root. tal tension of a a second example let it be required to find the horizoncatenary cable whose length is 22 feet. and that The = this lies is substituting \n. the ends being sus As pended from two points on the same level. 2 sinh 6. 16.* may be written n0 iosinhQ. is The horizontal tension in the given catenary *Since e~ .) = 13. this equation hence 130. Continuing the process. cos x derivative equation is I o. I.r.096. whose root is any even multiple of 2n. 6 e which e is a sufficiently close approximation.237. x shows that one real root than about Assume n =15. or inserting IOV . \it% and n for x. 3) let x 180 and and /(. and for convenience in using the tables let x be expressed in degrees. whence ^=135. Substituting such multiples in f(x) it is found that the equation has but one real root. less x and this substituted in f(z) 20. 7 (10 e is s= I L 2z  1 2z ) \e e f z. 2) x % 166 . whence by Newton's rule (Art. /'(<&. x is found to be i66. f(x 3 ) = o .424.96 pounds.0298 and f'(z 9 ) 1 = 0. Lastly for z 3 f(z 3 ) =0. 4) z = 13 nearly. and z a length of the cable whose weight equals the horizontal tension. If / be the span.3142. /(#. whence z K 13.64.r =58. then /(.14 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS.e~ T )z first is\ = O is the equation to be solved. hyperbolic functions.2958 sin x 152 . Next for 2 z^ = = 13.1. then As fix) =x = 166 57 . and weight 10 pounds per linear foot. the solution of the problem leads to the transcendental equation the numerical values. / The L derivative equation /<(*) 10/ = V e*)+[e>+e L i_\ ') is = Q.
th roots of unity. II. Prob. that the of its second term. and show that the value of one of them is 499574 Art. For n = the equation 00 is of the third degree or a cubic. 1798 and 1808.] algebraic solutions. . reprinted in CEuvres de See also Traite de la resolution Vol.] oo\ + . 1. that the algebraic solution cannot be used to determine numerical values of the roots as the formulas expressing them are in irreducible imaginary form. Nevertheless the algebraic solutions of quadratic. pp. moreover. and solutions of the cubic and quartic equations were effected in the sixteenth century. 9. 1868). x x = and compute its value. in . be deprived o.* This discussion showed. thus giving the equation /(j) first = expression for the root y is given by y= in cos. 539562. Show that the equation 3 sin x 2x 5 = o has but one real root. how The A ever. if by an equation 3 degree. 15 Prob. f{x) =0. 8. It frequently happens. (Paris. suc e n ~\ and Slt sit . 1769 and 1770. are the socalled elements which in soluble cases of the n th I are determined instance. . th if the general equation of the n degree. Algebraic Solutions.3 = e *> Lagrange * Memoirs of Berlin Academy.Art. e. 8. . each the degree of the given equation. cubic. des 6quations numeriques. e\ of the n go is. and the theory of the subject is of the highest importance. having given rise in fact to a large part of modern algebra. + oo n ~^ni > which n is cession. Find the number of real roots of the equation 10 000 = o. gd= i + i/ 11! = go = iiV. and quartic equations are of great practical value. . s M _. . given by Lagrange in 1770. solution of the quadratic has been known from very early times. 2x\. Paris. Algebraic solutions of complete algebraic equations are only possible when the degree n is less than 5. the three values of a?t are e. complete investigation of the fundamental principles of these solutions was.log 10. = l.
s = o. which being a reciprocal equation can be reduced to a quadratic.Vio2Vj)> 6 / 6 2 =. i where is  i 1. e* = l(iV S . = . e 1. in " vectors " drawn from the short. denoted by e 4 . L and the three roots are expressed by y% in = h+s 3 * > y% s2 5 = ^i + e\ .1 and 1 those nary.s t and y % = s%% whence y a s^) and (y f% st ) is f .* Thus the roots of go* 1 o are given above those of go* of go 1 o are The n 1 values of If . real root e 3 . those of the n first center which divide a circle of radius unity into n equal parts. it x be replaced by y thus reducing b) to y_ Now the product of ( a* _ y x = o. the GOi vector = being measured on the axis of real quantities. two are real and n are imaginary 2 are imagi1 o are f. where it will be seen that 5 4 e. The values 1 of a> are. ( o.e = and e . Thus the value * of j is given by an equation of the first degree. fI h !> an d 2 .j(l+ V5 + fC 10+2^ = i(i+ 1 3 <? ^5 3 ^10 + 1. are found to be the roots of a quadratic equation (Art. [CHAP. = *b I. method let it solve a quadratic equation be of the form by this general x and let 9 + 2ax + b = a. since e In order to = 1. 3 = . the two roots of this are = f. =i(l~ V~$ + V_IO2i 5). . See Chapter X.16 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. 2V5). one of these is real and the others if n be even. isv/ i For the equation Go = o the e.e 2 = as should be the case. go are the n roots of the binomial equation n be odd. and the solution of this furnishes the four values. to find and the imaginary roots are these let go" 1 be divided =0 by ( giving 4 1 3 t 2 1 I GO \GO\GO\GO\l= O. . j 3 = iyi + es. which 5. and 9). oo n = o.
which is the algebraic solution of the quadratic. s. s 7 9.t^). = e 3 ^ + e^ 2 which e Forming the products e" are the imaginary cube roots of unity. there are found at* +y. Show that the six 6 th roots of unity are f. this is only the case for .] the cubic equation. are y =zs in +S and e a y. a for y + 3fy+2c=o. ^J. The Cubic Equation. If such a resolvent exists.3v.a + y/d b. and remembering that 1 = I and e a  e f = o. the result cubic be All methods for the solution of the cubic equation lead to commonly known as Cardan's formula. of the I degree upon which the solution of the equation of the n th degree depends is called a resolvent. 7. of and s2 there are hence two equa which 9 results the quadratic resolvent o. the roots of the given equation are *x = . 17 = a* and since x 1 = a \y. (i) the second term be removed by substituting y x.i. cubic. == + eV9 . giving the form. and first . the given equation is algebraically solvable but. n. (3) * Deduced by Ferreo in 1515. %ab + c. published by Cardan in 1545. i(i. = + $b> yj>y* = s? + s?= 2C. (2) the Lagrangian 1 method of Art. Prob. of the roots. The equation quadratic. + 2Cs B = and thus s ={C+V& +')*> % s9 = (CV#+Cy.y.+y>y* For the determination tions from s 6 3 = . and quartic equations. as before remarked. 9. *(i. b.V=^).Art. 8 the values of y . +i(x+ v^3). B and C are b. ~h i(i+ Art. 7 (i') in which the values of B=a + Now by 1 C=a* es. th *9 =a JlF^lt.* Let the x and let 3 f $ax* f Tfix + 2c = o.
4495/. = * + (*. and this the wellknown formula of Cardan. x Finally.5 + 1. 1. . = +4 whence by comparison with (1) are found a = 1. as is well known.18 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. (3).4142 V^~3 /:= ^ = 1.4495/.sj.sj.8284.5 +0. c^+3. + . as then both s and j a are in irreducible imaginary form. These values inserted in (3) give s = +0.0 and ^ thus s 4. ^ = 1. s >) s. is cubic k + the case of three real roots. I. from (4) . and (4) furnish the numerical values of the roots of For example. + + i V'^is.5.). One y therefore is /i = (r c+/FF?') is .0 = +0. * The numerical solution of cosine is this case is possible whenever the angle whose C/ 4/ B z can be geometrically trisected.= When B is 9 * ft*.* When B* x + f s^ C* s7 being a real. and there are two equal roots. s a pure imaginary. xt =x = 3 a f = When B % f C 2 is positive the equation has one real and two imaginary cubic roots.i^/~^r . take the 5 = o. (1). This.5. are equal. t t 2 x 3 which are the three roots of the given cubic. *.5 + 0.9142. a while the other root is xx 2O. sists in finding The B and then by (3) the elements s and s a are determined. C* is negative the numerical solution of the not possible by these formulas.4142 4 ~3 = 2 2. while s is o the elements s and 1 x is s^ **. of the roots of the cubic in [CHAP.5 1. *. and formulas (2). b Then from (2) are computed B = 1. "*)*. algebraic solution of the cubic equation (i) hence conand C by (2) in terms of the given coefficients.9142 ^ = + 2.= *. = 1.5.i(s. *.s = Finally. . x. +H* ^ + / . x % 4.5^ + \2x 1 2 .5 = 2 + 2. c 2. x = 1.) (4) 3 ( Sl which are the algebraic expressions of the three roots.75.125.1. + *.
what part of its radius is immersed in the water ? (Ans. . 2 19 o. .32 = 5= Also the roots o. 0. Prob. its altitude 6 inches and the diameter of placed with vertex downwards and one fifth of its volume is filled with water. Euler in 1732 and Lagrange in 1767 effected solutions by into the product of roots. deduced by the author in 1892. of Euler y + 6B/ + 4Cj> + D = o. . Journal Mathematics. assuming the form of the All these methods lead to first cubic resolvents. 1892.Vs. first and Lagrange. which are closely reduce the quartic to one lacking the second term.x the roots of x* 2x of x 3 f o. Descartes two quadratic factors. pp. in The quartic equation was first solved who separated it into the difference of two in 1637 resolved it 1545 by Ferrari. )* ~ iC* = o. .5459 inches). 10. squares.76. + VJ.VI.6^ 13.. y y 2 % A = . 237245. If a sphere 4 inches in diameter be then put into the cone. Compute 5. Art.Vi = V7 .* Let the complete quartic equation be written in the form x" + 4ax> + 6bx* +4cx + d=o.v7 + Vs. x 3 . will result. (1) * See American Vol. The methods similar. + 4. 10.] THE QUARTIC EQUATION. 2 the values slt s9 st are shown to be the roots of the resolvent. since the resolvent by the process of Art.V7 y. Prob. the roots of which are to be found in order to determine those of the quartic.ART. A cone has It is its base 5 inches. the following formulas. The Quartic Equation. = + V7 y x x t X 3. Whatever method final of solution be followed. 12. and the general form of the roots being taken as 3 . XIV. = + Vs + V7 + V7 . Tschirnhausen in 1683 removed the second and fourth terms. . s 3 + $Bs* + i(9^ 9. is Thus the solvable roots of the quartic are algebraically expressed in f terms of the coefficients of the quartic.
this is a root of tangle the quartic equation x * _ (# __ tf __ 2 m )x i i + ^pqmx (/ + tf n?). and m == 1 foot then . roots. be required to find the length of an inscribed recwhose width is m. and k be determined from s [CHAP. let u. VF+J*)* \2gL (3) Thirdly. and v w be found from (4) u=g+/. Then = 2gJ. x* i 2jx' f 48^ 24 = o. For If % this case the quartic has two real and two imaginary there be either four real roots or four imaginary roots J? f. k.* = o. let / + i c' 2abc + dg. THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. let g. a + Vu *v + Vw. w = 4u* + $k the four roots of the quartic equation are x # x a x x s A = = = = + Vu + ^v + Vw. These formulas not only serve discussion of the quartic tions to be made is for the complete theoretic but they enable numerical solu(1). If x be this length. h=b Secondly.k is negative. although they are correctly represented by the formulas. (2) be obtained by h / = \{li + VW+T>) + \{h v. and thus the problem is numerically solvable by the above formulas if two roots are real and two imaginary. q = 3 feet. k= %acV\d. that is. As a special case let p = 4 feet. a a * (5) Vu Vu \ Vy Vw.20 First. when ever A* \k* positive. Vw. a Vv in which the signs are to be used as written provided that 3 c is a negative number. and the irreducible case arises where convenient numerical values cannot be obtained. As an example and let it let a given rectangle have the sides / and q. whenever (3) can be computed. * 4 On** '* 1 "M . *" 41. L g=a*b. but if this is positive all 2a lab + radicals except Vw are to be reversed in sign.
4 an(j Thus ^* j positive. y* y* y> in which if e. Howe .388.* Prob. Each of evidently the required length. 194 1. b =+ g 4 1 . = 0.20. = o. 0. since c is positive. fifth The complete ally solvable.) Art. e'. and from the value of / 12.945 + 0. v= Then. Then from is ^= is + V3.30/.. 701/. 8. The five roots of this are. ^ (3) = = + 12.945 0. and by substituting /+ S#/+SCf+SDj> + 2E = according to Art. 1.12. 1 = = 0. $* * y a for x let it be reduced to o. Now the several products of these roots be taken there will be e 3 .607 12.975 feet.6067.945 + V12. * * *> are the imaginary fifth roots of unity. Compute the roots of the equation xA + 'jx + 6 = o. u = +0. y. c 41. nor equation of the is it degree is reducible to a solvable form.ART.6067.607 . 14.] QUINTIC EQUATIONS. y. = eV. (4) are and w= + x x x x now found.697 = + 4.607 + 12. these roots closely satisfies the given equation. = + + s + so = &i + \ + e\ + \f = + e% + es + e\. 1.607+ 12. the values of the four roots are. 3 ^=24. e* * This example is known by length of a strut in a panel of the civil engineers as the problem of finding the truss.697 = + 0. the slight discrepancy in each case being due to the rounding off at the third is the second of which decimal. {Ans.30/.945 1/12.0. not algebraicLet the equation be x* + $ax* + $bx* + $cx* + $dx + 2e o. 2 x9 A + V'12.697 = 5. by (5).8933.085 = . 11. (i) 21 By and comparison with are found a (2). 6**i 3 2 3 t. 1.945 V 2. Quintic Equations. 000.697 = + 0. + es + eV + e's = e% + e % + s + S *. 11. From 161.945 feet.
Abhandlungen iiber die algebraische Auflosung der Gleichungen von N.s C + Va> + sfr + s \ + s<\. By substituting y* + py \q for x the values of p and q be determined so as to remove the second and third terms.r for x. I* found. but Hamilton showed later that this leads to y a 2 equations of a degree higher than the fourth. degree for s 1 si s^s 3 s.*iV s*s 3 t *i** + ^W. or s* or of the 24th degree for s\ b * C as the \.22 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. however. (4) of [CHAP.* The reason for the algebraic solvability of the quartic equation may be briefly stated as the fact that there exist rational threevalued functions of four quantities. three terms may be removed. 1889. may by a quadratic equation. or the second and fourth by a quartic equation.s 3 + unknown Another line of attack upon the quintic is in attempting to remove all the terms intermediate between the first and the last. no rational fourvalued functions of five quantities. H* Abel und Galois. There are. or the second and third by a cubic equation. . as was shown by Bring in 1786. V< + *.qy f. as was first shown by Tschirnhausen in 1683. the general quintic equation. a resolvent of the 6th degree is obtained. and accordingly a quartic resolvent cannot be found for * Jordan's Traite des substitutions et des equations algebriques. B = s. In 1826 Abel gave a demonstration that the algebraic soluof the general quintic is impossible. 50. Paris. D = V'd + V*i + V*i + *A . and later Galois tion published a more extended investigation leading to the same conclusion. By substituting y* {py* f. 6.V. Berlin. and all efforts to find a resolvent of the fourth degree have proved unavailing. by taking quantity. namely.s 3 f.qy \ry\f for x it was thought by Jerrard in 1833 tnat f ur terms might be removed. By substituting y*\~Py \. by Art. and s<. + ^ V + ^Vt) 4 > but the solution of these leads to an equation of the 120th However. four equations connecting the four ele ments s lf s 4 s3 . 1870.
By means of elliptic functions the complete quintic can. exists between s st st s4 the quintic is solvable algebraically. y t = e\ + eV 4 . of course. which sx is solved at once by making . however. first shown by Hermite in 1858.* 6 6 By this method ^ x s2 \ s3 \ and ^ 4 are expressed as the roots of . positive. be solved.VW+&)\ other roots the j 2 = 4 es% ." \. solution of the quintic in terms of one of the roots of its resolvent sextic was made by McClintock in 1884. it is. 3 4 . pp. . 23 of the quintic of these is the There are. other than those expressed t . The oldest quintic of De Moivre. and s A are found. 11.\ from which 9 s. Although this has great theoretic interest. and to this form can however.ART. . of little practical value for the determination of ical numer values of the roots. + e ^ B + ^ be negative. Vol. by the four element equations. b 2 this quintic has five real roots.E . .] QUINTIC EQUATIONS. 1886. as was b + also be reduced the degree. VIII. The complete a quartic in terms of a quantity / which is the root of a sextic whose coefficients are rational functions of those of the given quintic. and y x =s are e's 1 = s = o in the element = + s. As an infinite number of such relations may be stated. For this purpose the quintic is reduced by Jerrard's transformation to the form x $dx\2e = o. efficients of the quintic are also related to each other by a certain equation of condition. When any relation. 3 . modular equation of the sixth Other solutions by elliptic functions were made by elliptic * American Journal of Mathematics. equations then  =: s s x 4 and t  s. f + SB/ + $&y + 2E = o. there are one real and four imaginary roots. however. 4983 . 2 . it follows that there are an infinite number of In each case of this kind. the cosolvable quintics.s t or y while 1 =(+ V& + &)* + (. and j 6 = + e^ if If + e\ y = eV. numerous special forms whose algebraic solution is possible.
Now suppose y=2r sin 3 0. See Grunert's Archiv fur Mathematik und Physik. 3$ being computed. Vol.2 sin 30 = o. When a cubic equation has three real roots the most convenient practical method of solution is by the use of a table of If the cubic be stated in the form (1) of sines and cosines. this solution fails. sin 6. of sines. then this equation becomes /? C 0+2i 8 sin 0)68 sin = o. I. B is possible. pp. xxxviii. 3# and then 6 is known. If the relation ^4 b b * s3 s4 s% show that sf + b + + = Vt . and by comparison with the known trigonometric formula 6 sin 6 \. = of exists between the elements 3 Prob. are the real roots of the cubic in y. 339344. 9.* These methods.2 E. 4876.\ * For an outline of these transcendental methods. however. the help of tables. this case. 16. a similar method of solution by means of hyperbolic sines hoheren Mathematik. Trigonometric Solutions. Prob. as then one root is real and two are imaginary. 12. 15. and Art. Compute 3 the roots f h also those of y ioy 2oy + 6 = o. Vol. y + ioy + 2qy + 6 = o. 2 z is negative and numerically less than C' as also when In positive. fV 1 \  . Now sin y 2 found from a table y i = 2r = 2r sin (120 + 6). have not yet been sysby though tematized so as to be of practical advantage in the numerical Kronecker feasible computation of roots. f When B 3 is . let the second term be removed. 8 sin' 6 there are found for r and sin 30 the values r in =V always By sin 30 = C/ V B\ which B is negative for the case of three real roots is (Art. see Hagen's Synopsis der I.24 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. pp. in 1861 [CHAP. Thus. Art. 9). y % = 2r sin (240 + 0). and by Klein in 1884. giving f + $By +2C= o.
x are feet.2027. 49' = + 1. The quartic being given. = 4 feet.6218.3*2 2. the values of feet. . the depth of flotation of a sphere whose diamis 2 feet and specific gravity 0. of v. x and x = + 1. = 2 sin * a 245 = f 0.65. Next the three values and of those selected which give u. /s = r sin (240 + 0).6 = o (Art. Art. but by using this the three roots have the same values in a different order. and k will always be negative for four r k are found as before.825 feet . first evidently. the of these is the required depth. h.8245.3. g. and v ties.Art. 25 For example.6 = 0. Art. and let/ take the case of the inscribed rectangle in 3 feet. 49' = 1. 12. sin 30 = is h/r\ and 30 is taken from a table / are 0. for which B = i and C 37 =+0. It may be noted that the number 0. Placing x = equation x* 1 this y reduces to/ 0. 0). w. 30 = 17 27'. and the value of Then =V k. q = > m= 156 Vi$ feet. 0. the quartic equation has four real roots its cubic reIn this case the formulas of solvent has also three real roots. 10. w are computed. from the physical aspect of the question. thus known. is given by the cubic .3 is also the sine of 162 u'. to each of these. and accordingly 0=5 49'. and Vw all positive quanti As an example. Then (5) gives the required roots of the quartic. Then eter + + + + y y Adding 1 x 2 =2 =2 sin 5 49/ sin 125 J. Thus r = 1 and sin 30 = Next from a table of sines. and the three values of / x = r sin /f = r sin(i2o + of u. real roots. 6).622 x a = 0.3. . then the quartic equation jr is i_5i jr + 48 VT$x = 0. 10 will furnish the solution if When the three values of / be ob tained from (3) by the help of a table of sines.] trigonometric solutions.203 = + 2.
but these . and 3.75. 2. and Prob. and that of . hence from the table 3$ = 4823 and // The three values of / are then computed 40 + 4f. b = 8J. / 0. 1. and d = 156. = x = and *. x Here cos#. 3. the value of r is found to be $ = i607 /. and = The trigonometric / jL Next work / now sin begins.746. =+ 8. and obtained. and cos# may be either circular or hyperbolic cosines. /4 = + 1. + 4. 8. Thus the which roots of x 6 + =0 are 1 cos^ 30 The roots where i sin m 30 in m 5 has the values 6 1. = w= 192. and found to /. Then the four roots of the quartic are *. ^= 3$ to be *f*.4. of x 6 $x*\$x 2 cos = o are 4.550. r and r2 as well as cos d x .319.+2r2 cos at vof a quintic lacking and to render a solution possible. [CHAP. it is Next the values v. and seen that only those corresponding to lx will render all quantities under these quantities are u the radicals positive 1 9.3687. x. 1.7476.499 feet. =+ 2.022). 2. v 575> .262.1187. be. De Moivre. is the same as the function s s t of Art. The x and cos#2 must be found. in : general are roots of 3 equations of the sixth or twelfth degree in fact r. and r* is the same as s^s 3 . depending upon the signs and values of the coefficients 2 of the quintic. w are =. which only the second and third belong to inscribed rectangles. = + 3. while the first and fourth belong to rectangles whose of corners are on the sides of the given rectangle produced. K = + 4. o.734. Compute by a trigonometric solution the four roots of the quartic xA + 4# 3 24^ 76^ 29 = 0. 2 cos (m 72+$) m has the values 17. . .26 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. = + 1.250. by logarithmic tables. Trigonometric solutions of the quintic equation are not b a. (Ans. I. + 0. II. = + 12 ^13. + . and also for any equation which expresses the division of an angle into equal parts.0.564. Here a " = o. 6. Trigonometric solutions are possible for any binomial equation. of ?/. and the quintic of possible except for the binomial x general trigonometric expression for the root its second term isy=2r 1 cos^.
let x to o. = + = b = and x = 0. n. oWI. i97 10 ) Art. l. and then x=a  ba' + (2b' c)a (sb sbc+d)a 2 i a 3 i i {(i4b 2ib'c + 6b^+y' e)^ i (42^ 84 V+28V+28^  >jbe. Vol. and e= Compute 1. 13. be found is equation one root approximate values are known.752798.3952* 0. IX. 1.2 + i then . and by placing 0.20277.2^ form is 0.Art. are found. = + 0.7cd + f)a 6 +. e. etc. in Real Roots by Series. For example.. .2 this reduced to the given \x\ f To are made equal o. . z series.2 3 +i . 3* x hence a = 0.6 there results an about +1.* apply this to a cubic equation the coefficients d. c J. the values of m. x 6 $bx + 5^ x when b Give a trigonometric solution of the quintic equation 2e \ to* the case of five real roots. .6. but the series gives only one of them . The value of x as an infinite series.62 18 is is another root of J. 1882.. . inserting this value of x in the equation and equating the coefficients of like powers of #. whose root by the series is found to be in if their x=y + x % y + and hence + 1. the value of one of the roots correct to the fourth This equation has three real roots. 2? Prob. .2864. . however. 0.7940. and first power by dividing by the coefficient of the term containing the of x let it be placed in the form a = x+ bx + cx + dx' f ex*+fx* + % z .f etc> % 0. which is decimal place. Now By let it be assumed that x can be expressed by the series x = a + mc? + na z K \ pa \ qc? + . In order is an expression of one of the roots of the equation.. 104. 13. the others can. the roots 0.0218. (Ans. p. . B.2 8 + etc. any algebraic equation may be expressed Let the equation be of any degree. 3* +  6 =  *This method given by Mott in The Analyst. that this series may converge rapidly it is necessary that a should be a small fraction. Thus. 0.6 o.] real roots by 1 8.
1/8 1. Art. 14.01235 is y = 2. developed in terms of the Other solutions were published by is 1771).^By \. If r is numerically greater than unity the series is divergent.3.5.28 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. Cardan's expression for the root of a cubic equation can be expressed as a series by developing each of the cube roots by the binomial formula and adding the results. If r is numerically less than unity and sufficiently small to + make a quick convergence. 143150. Petersburg. and the solution fails. 19. Consult Euler's Anleitung zur Algebra (St.3. this series of value for the solution of cubics. however. Let the equation be y* J. Prob.8845(1 is 0.VBr+C>)\ series. 2. = y = (_ C + VJ? + Cy +(C. Euler and Lagrange. One of the oldest is that given by Lambert in 1758. by A comprehensive equations by series . and one root 0. in 1894. These series usually give but one root. which correct to the third decimal. pp.00051 0. particularly for trinomial equations. For example.5.2C o. I. other series for the expression of the roots of equations. 9. 2. the series will serve for the computation of one real root. where 3 hence r = + = B= = . is In comparatively few cases.00032) = 2.4 2. and valuable method for the solution of was developed by McClintock. by Art. 5.4. then this development gives the ^ * in v ' / 2 2 2. and apply his method of series to the solution of a quartic equation. and this only when the values of the coefficients are such as to render convergence rapid. have been devised.846.6 \ /' which r represents the quantity (* O/Sw* If r the equation has two equal roots and the third root is 2( C)$. 8. [Chap. Computation of all Roots. \ 14.8. 11. whose root is. whereby Many the root of xn + ax b =o ascending powers of b/a. take % 2 and C 6 6x the equation x o.
Vol. 1894. 3. n is negative. pp.n)c?/2 \ \oo ^{\ 4k\n)(i 4k\2n)(\ 4^+3^/4 !+. Here #=0. Journal of Mathematics. It then becomes n 2.684 y+i. whether real or imaginary.. in If. and the same series gives the roots I.] COMPUTATION OF ALL ROOTS. 4ax may be . represents in succession each of the roots of unity. which 0.OO39 + O.OOO9 = I. as the case may be. Making = i. if n is roots are given by the l series y = co {co * a + oo 1 l 2k (i 2k\. 1895.2250.ART.* By method all the roots. = By and thus reduce the equation to the form ' = nay + where a = A/B Then B positive. I.2280 O. also Vol. the first root y sss American I J 0. 89110. XVII. p. the Let x n n n~ k n x k i k . and put y 3 and k place and the series is I where a A/B\ lay To = = = = y= co + Go*a $Goa* + iafa* ( which the values to be taken for co are the cube roots of 1 3 2x For example. applied to trinomial equations : Substitute y n = nAx + B be the given trinomial equation. 14. /= in apply this method to the cubic equation x'=z$AxB\ Bx.228. 29 this means of his Calculus of Enlargement. if co be taken in succession as each of the roots of In order that this series n convergent the value of a k~ H thus for the quarmust be numerically less than k~\n k) the value of a must and k where n tic y* 3.. 4 1. or 1. the given equation reduces to B y M = nayn ~ k 1. let x 5 =0. . 3 and as this is less than 4* the series is is convergent. See Bulletin of American Mathematical Society. may be computed from a The following is a statement of the method as single series. = + = = be less than 27*. this reduces toy =0. Placing co y= $*x..1 however.
= .777 J ' and 1. multiplying II3 6 x = . I. go 9 is J J V 3. + 243> T *" 243 . each value of y by 5*. because the series is divergent. 2^ + 5 =0 reduces 2x 5 I. When fails all the roots are real.047 x 3 V^.368 is one of the roots. \ \V 3 the third root making go = y x 2. k roots by one however.3836 V^. to which are very nearly the roots of x* In a similar manner the cubic \3 y = i = o. * in succession. Next making go = and the corresponding +iV root is 3. is found to Lastly.1. y = 0. and go made unity. To make the last term unity place x ss v. thus ^=0.095.684J/ 1. 1 37*'. 0. be transformed so as to obtain n of the general series and k roots by another. k.243'. [CKAP. 330 to be written in the form let x* 243^ f = For the first applica x=z S_ 243 for which n 330 243' = 1 and k = 2. and the equation becomes whence a = 330 /3. For the second application the equation *> is to be written = _33V. for which the series is convergent.388 +i \ f 3> anc the three roots are +4 ~ 3 y= 0. the method as above stated The given equation can. 8 These values of . and a are now inserted in the above general value of y.6125 + O.0. whence x x =1. Here the three values of go are. found to be Again. tion this is o.9983. As application an example. be the conjugate imaginary of the second.SO THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS.
22 are the McClintock has method applicable The equation na . Prob. from which x^ 14. These and a are now inserted in the formula for y. of is the topic of complex or imaginary roots. is also given a similar and more general to other algebraic equations than trinomials. Conclusion. particularly their graphical representation and their numerical computation. reduced to the form y n na (J>y 1. k. their determination commonly given of much theoretic interest. n.] conclusion. It may be mentioned. 31 which n = 2 and k = 3. Placing x 243*7. tms becomes whence # values of = and go is 110/243'. 1 in succession. where = . to the theory of Chapter forms a supplement equations as in college textbooks. The method is one of great importance in the theory of equations.Art. <py Then denotes all the terms except the first and the the values of y are expressed by the series last.^+^ I ~M ^^ n I ~w a (0^) n . Art. ^=(+ (w I "0^. however.j + +{^in ^^. . if ever. for 15. quartic x* Compute by the above method 10 all the roots of the +*+ this = 0. 20. and the series is convergent. as it enables not only the number of real and imaginary roots to be determined. thus 1 and made giving two + values for y. = x s = 16. yet the to it has prevented the discussion and debrief space allotted Chief among these velopment of many interesting branches. but also gives their values gence of the series is secured. While 15. is a matter of problems in physical science.86 and other roots of the given cubic. are required in the solution Although such roots rarely.^i\+ when the conver which the values of go are to be taken as before.
that both the regula falsi and Newton's approximation rule may. Vol.32 THE SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS. and also the answers see Crelle's Journal fur Mathe(For pp. and exemplified by Encke in 1841. may be called a logarithmic process. In the latter case the imaginary roots do not The method of McClintock has the necessarily occur in pairs.* ji o. Prob. 1932480 . the coefficients of the latter then easily furnishing the real roots and the moduluses of the imaginary roots. be adapted to the computation of these imaginary roots. cubic.* It consists from the given equation another equation whose roots are high powers of those of the given one. 162. XXII. is less than three hours. Prob. was published by in deriving Graffe in 1837. by a slight modification. great merit that it nary coefficients. algebraic solutions of the quadratic. although without doubt one of high practical value. [CHAP. as accurately as can be done with sevenplace tables. pp. 21. 1841. but also for The imaginary ones. *See Crelle's Journal fur Mathematik. Encke states that the time required to completely solve an equation of little known. and quartic equations are valid not only for real coefficients. 22. I. x cosh. Solve the equation cos equation x e* = o. tion it is applicable also to equations with imagiconstitutes indeed the only general method by which the roots x 3 in such cases can be computed. approximate values of first them being obtained by trial. The method. 1841. series the roots of the equa Compute by McClintock's 1 ix = o.) = matik. is the seventh degree with six imaginary roots. moreover. as logarithmic tables are used throughout. A which method of solution of numerical algebraic equations.
as presently to be set forth. ranks among the great pioneers in this development. Lagrange. XVIII. DETERMINANTS. early as 1693 Leibnitz arrived at some vague notions regarding the functions which we now know as determinants. 1881. based upon the recognition of the two classes of permutations. 1. and exerted no influence whatever upon subsequent investigations in the same direction. in formulated an intelligible and general definition of the functions. and others. the importance of the functions thus defined. who. with Vandermonde. in the hands of such mathematicians as Cayley and Sylvester. the development of the subject from this time on has been almost continuous and often rapid. 33 Chapter II. Within recent years the theory of determinants has come into very general use. 1. It was over half a century later. both through the study of special forms of the functions themselves and through their applica* tions. resulted simply in the statement of some rather clumsy rules for elimiin As His researches nating the unknowns from systems of linear equations. pp. even to the same extent as Leibnitz. led to results of the greatest interest and importance. that Gabriel Cramer Though Cramer failed to recognize. By Laenas Gifford Weld.] INTRODUCTION. Professor of Mathematics in the State University of Iowa. this subject. first 1750.Art. the first account of which is contained in his correspondence with De L'Hospital. 110149. Introduction. Art. Jacobi. The name " determinant" is due to Gauss. Vol. .* A list of writings on Determinants is given by Muir in Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. Cauchy. and has.
ec.. The be arranged various orders in which the elements of a group in a row are called their permutations. jP4 P = (r+ 1)/^ = 4 X 31=4!. .: . ab. thus a tt a a 3 . into of the elements of a group are divided even or positive permutations. or thus : a'. ae. ac the inversions. the permanences Thus. That the all number of permutations of n elements is n !. the natural order of the elements that in which the indices form a continually increasing series. . eb. an order which are de. b. may Any two orders : elements. Art. is . a'" . da. as in c. whether adjacent or not. n Pn = n{n i+l is. . . if Pt denote the number of permutations of i eleelements. For If integral values of n greater than unity. % hence being any integer. the reverse of the natural. tations. 1 = n ! . 2. standing in their natural order in a permutation constitute a permanence Any two in . in ways general. If : represented by the same letter with different indices. [CHAP. c. dc. cb. Now. the alphabetical order will be considered .1) before any one of them. an in the permutation daecb. . . . a. Hence. in which the number of inversions is even and odd or negative permu The permutations two classes. and. or after all. may be arranged in two may be introduced into each : of these two permutations . Permutations. . . n ! is an even number. in which the number of inversions is odd. II. . i)(n 2) . the elements of any group be represented by the different letters. ab and A third. or after both thus giving 3X2 = 6 permutations of the three manner an additional element may be introduced into each of the permutations of i elements in (i \. as a and ba.. db. .34 DETERMINANTS. three ways before either element. elements. viz. P = 3x2x1=3!. is a". In like : ments. as the natural order of the elements. standing inversion. b. .
Let q and s be the elements all Then. Interchange of that if. .] INTERCHANGE CF TWO ELEMENTS. 35 When number the elements are arranged in the natural order the of inversions is zero an even number. " order of the elements qRs or T. represent ing collectively P those which % fall the elements which precede these two by between them by R. q. now be shown elements of a group.. the ' minus Sign ( bdng USCd in the aS q ^ f { Ser is. s. Of the elements R y supposed to be r of " number. passing from the order PqRsT to the order It is evident that no change in the P PRqsT changes the number this to the order of inversions by {h i) . # a t 3 . Thus. and passing from PsRqT again changes the j number of inversions by (J ( k) I. the even or positive permutations of the elements a a % are a <z 2 a 3f #a a 3 alf a a. a 3 a a2 a a% x . 3. while the odd or negative permutations are a 3 a t a lt a. Art. and those which follow of the by T y any permutation group may in be written PqRsT. in in question. represent h the i number " " " " an order higher than " " " " lower " " " " j k " " lower higher " " s. can affect their relations to the elements of either Then. #. It will 3.ART. let q. two of class of the permutation will any permutation of the the elements be interchanged the be changed. 0rder than S The total change number in of inversions due to the inter change of the two elements question therefore. Two Elements.
bcdea a" a* a' (2) m vi II iv. Of all half are even the permutations of the elements of a group. m)\. prove write out all the permutations. is." .) 4. and r Hence. of permutations of n elements taken Prob. in Now choose each permu) any two of the elements and interchange them be the same set of ( The result will before. 3.36 DETERMINANTS. in odd that .. But each j permutations as even > permutaQ ^ tion of the old set has been converted into an the new. Prob./. m at a time. tations as Prob.. Hence. (7) x x xt x. : elements arranged in n vertical ranks or columns^ and n horizontal ranks or rows. 5. 4. Th. fiKviX. (5) \ (6) (9) knimlj. Derive the formula for the number (4) a" a'".Tu. either set. (i) i. ( y\~y\[ ^ . thus n* . To tation. Classify the following permutations: .x. M. n\/\n m)\. W. natural order n\/tn\(n combinations of m elements arranged in the be selected from a group of n elements? (Ans. IL But since =r h and k == r j\ this may be written A h +J ~ which is r) * an odd number for all admissible values of //. Art. the interchange of any two elements in a permutation ch anges the number of inversions by an odd number. . this. Assume a( a. (3) fteyZafi.'!:_. even ( one in there are as many even permuj one half are even and one half odd. . 52413. 2.) How many may Show Art. Positive and Negative Permutations.x% xt Prob. only differently arranged. thus changing the class of the permutation. a^ a ' a " a (M) . one and one half odd. (8) F. i [CHAP. that o! = ] 1. The Determinant Array. (Ans.
ai aj . 6.* Write down the product diagonal. . . . Paris. taking of the elements on the principal : them in the natural order. thus This product is called the principal term of the determinant.' f . through . a^ a^ a {n) a' is a" ments called as follows : used in analysis to represent a certain function of its n* eleThis function may be defined their determinant . x . See Dostor's Theorie des determinants. the position of any element of the array is shown at once by its indices. . . The : dl a. 6. The . Thus. inclosed between two vertical thus bars.Art. a%". . '\ #. by the element a/ is designated as the leading Art. a"' is in the third column and the fifth row of the above array. tion occupied position. .] determinant as function of n* elements. The posia n \ a n . a n(M) diagonal passing through the elements a/. and those in the same row the same subscript. 37 In this array all the elements in the same column have the same superscript. 1877. . that passing is called the principal diagonal of the array (M) the secondary diagonal. and the rows likewise in order from the top row downward. The columns being arranged in order from left to right. . in this principal Now undisturbed. leaving the superscripts the n\ resulting terms as involve the even permutations of the to those involving the odd subscripts give the positive sign . permute the subscripts term in every This notation was first employed by Cauchy in 1815. array just considered. . Determinant as Function of n* Elements. To such of possible way.
and only one.ajb. follows that every complete determinant is a homogeThe degree of this function. Thus. Examples of Determinants. ~ a t l As an example of a determinant may be written ~ a ft x of nine elements. Art. c3 a% b% c% a. b A c t d dt d d x + a bj d + a bf/l x % K a b% cK d x % b. II. [Chap. a:a m a% a x pansion. a. element from each column and each row of the array. the negative sign.dt f a b t c3 dz x x % afi^d.aj> c z x A + + f ajb % c x d x a%bfxd% a% bj d K x d a bcd aj>j d aJb A c A 9 x % aJb % c % x 9 % x d c d aJ> aJb c d x K \.38 DETERMINANTS. its elements. its elements. permutations. 7. that each term of the expansion of a determinant contains one. afi c% d% x aJ> x c % d K + + f aj> x c k d% % f a 3 b c^di x ab 3 x c 4 d^ \. f <z a a % a x a^a^al"  a 'a. +a % a x a^ (2} from the mode of its formation. Applying the process above explained to the array of four elements gives a.."a9 x '" .".a^a^a.1 c x K A x K % x d d aJ) c d a 6.c d t A 9 (3) % x t x . b. is called the order of the deter (1) and (2) are of the second and third order The article is definition of once more a determinant given in the preceding^ illustrated by the following example of a its determinant of the fourth order with complete development a x : a b x x cx a. It neous function of with respect to minant. The algebraic sum of all the terms thus formed is the determinant represented by the? given array.c. respectively. with its ex ~ a tti x a a2 as x It is evident.
The letters are sometimes omitted.8 2 ' ' 01. . the following very extensively used : U 0*1 0. . using double subscripts.Art. to write only the prinThis is called cipal term and enclose it between vertical bars. nants: 5. 0* 0.  #n 22 >  These last two forms  are sometimes still further abridged to  a ^oectively. It 8. b t * Leibnitz indicated the elements of a determinant in this same manner. Prob. the umbral notation. alphabetically instead of by the numerical values of a series of indices.* Instead of writing out the array in full. and   a hH . 3D the columns are ranked will be noticed that.] NOTATIONS. called the doublesubscript notation the first subscript indicating the rank of the row. is Besides the notations already employed. Notations. the elements being thus represented by the double subscripts alone. in this case. 8. made no use of the array. the determinant of the a: a in) n nth. the second that of the column. Art. a m This is . when the elements are merely symbolic. order written or. . it is customary. Thus the element # is in the second row and the third column. Write out the developments of the following determi w though he a. a . is Thus.
40 .
Prob. i be dispensed with. but it will be shown later that these can always be resolved into determinants of the third or second order. each the product of the three elements lying along one of the six oblique lines parallel to the diagonals of the original square. first 4L in Beneath the square array let the order. 9] SECOND AND THIRD ORDERS.r. No such sim ple methods can be given for developing determinants of higher orders. c iVs ajb^ aj. n. aj>x c% After a little practice the repetition of the first two rows will I I = x + + s 2 .c. the principal diagonal the posisign. Develop the following determinants: o n a h m (i) w h b f c g f (4) (s) *. i (7) i cos a (8) cos a i . Now write down six terms. The above methods are especially useful in expanding determinants whose elements are not marked with indices. or in evaluating those having numerical elements. the required expansion. The result is Ap plying the method to the determinant just written gives a K c% a Atv a b.Art.. to the others. the * f negative sign. as two rows be repeated shown in the figure. Give to those terms whose ele ments tive lie on lines parallel to __.
odd. pqr . It follows same development of the determinant array will Art. a determinant is not altered by changing the columns into cor responding rows and the rows into corresponding columns. Art. in which hij . and vice versa. . II. .. . . Thus: a" aj a n " . hij . 10. am () . 6. / is a certain permutation of the superscripts ". instead of proceeding as indicated in the superscripts of the principal term be permuted. a . Also. . . and the sign of each of the resulting terms written in accordance with the class of the permutations of its superscripts. a. while (M) '. or by the class of the permutation of the superscripts when the order that the of the subscripts is natural. . both are even or both odd. . This permutation is even or odd according as v is even or But u and v are obviously of the same class that is. 3. whether the sign be determined by the class of the permutation of the subscripts when the superscripts stand in the natural order. Hence. [Chap. the be obtained subscripts being left in the natural order. a n{n) I I a a^> . 2. . . . .n+ /. Passing from one of these methods of development to the other amounts to the same thing as changing each column of the array into a row of the same rank.42 DETERMINANTS. let Designate by u the number of inversions in hij v be the number of interchanges of two elements necessary to bring the given term into the form . the natural order. if. . . . '". . . Hence the permutations . . . the development of the determinant a  Any term {H) x j may be written **' a! ./is some permutation of the subscripts . / and the term will have the and pqr / are of the same class same sign. in Interchange of Rows and Columns.() I. a in a (<?) n W in (0 which the subscripts are arranged . .
{s) The element ak may be brought being done the determinant is multiplied by l)*+*. Interchange of Two Parallel Lines.// parallel lines to a new position in the array the new determinant will be equal to the original one multiplied by m ( i) . (_ which changes even. It follows from the above that if any line of a determinant be passed over . + Art. Two in Identical Parallel Lines. its . any two the determinant will be changed only in sign. For the interchange of these two parallel lines.] TWO IDENTICAL PARALLEL therefore.ART. 11. to the leading position over the (k i) preceding rows. and by passing the /th row This the sth column over the (s i) preceding columns. 43 Whatever theorem. demonstrated with reference to the rows of a determinant also true with reference to the The rows and columns called lines. (_ i)~ = ( sign or not according as {k + s) is odd or The when (k + {s) is called a positive position position occupied by a k a negative position when {k s) is odd. and therefore that of the whole determinant. columns. s) is even . If 11. is is LINES. interchanging any two parallel lines of a determinant array amounts to the same thing as interchanging. while it . the indices which correspond to these lines. parallel lines are identical A determinant is which any two equal to zero. For. in every term of the expansion.)* . of a determinant array are alike Art. 12. parallel lines of a determinant be interchanged. it changes the sign of each term of the expansion. Since this changes the class of each permutation of the indices in question from odd to even or from even to odd.
12).ma ni . .. which will then have two identical lines. and therefore the whole deter minant. Multiplying each element of a line of a determinant by a given factor multiplies the determinant by that factor. . if contain a common factor. a m . 13. determinant in A value A therefore zero (Art.. of Let a x {b *. +b bj + b:> {b>> _ b: . . . A determinant the sum of sum having a line of elements each of which is two or more quantities can be expressed as the two or more determinants. no way alter its The value then. the elements of any line of a determinant this factor may be canceled and written .. 7). can only be zero. . Since each term of the development contains one and only one element from the line in question (Art. Cx A (1) .. if finite. Multiplying by a Factor. . 14. then multiplying each element of this line by the given factor multiplies each term of the development. Its outside the array. II. Art. It follows that. A Line of Polynomial Elements. will in [Chap. *. ) ct c3 a3 {Bt b + b ' t .44 DETERMINANTS..) if be such a determinant. .) . determinant having a line of zeros is is equal to zero. i B =b i bi^br. Art. outside the array as a factor of the whole determinant thus : # 31 . Then. changes the sign of the determinant.** which the elements of any line have a common ratio to the corresponding elements of any parallel For this common ratio may be written line is equal to zero. value. ma 2i . by the same factor.. a. m a.
. . . . one of which will be the given deThis will terminant. . a x . a l>n is equivalent to parallel lines. ip . be changed thus: a u a a lt . (a M% . of the determinant 45 is any term of the expansion ah BiCj .\\a 3 x b.. ah . ( 2) the expansion of A are obtained by permuting the subscripts h. . b(' cj .. y which proves the theorem. The terms .] composition of parallel lines. i. 15. .ma * +'") *!* a xn m(a i? + Xa + 15 ) . care are   *n (^11 + . and giving to each term thus obtained its in . of a h B{ But permuting at Cj the same time the subscripts of the terms in the second member of (2). . . . . while the other. . the value of the determinant will not . bined without changing being taken not to modify the value of the determinant. . proper sign.\ 1 = \aAc .. . .\. av a> *n * # On 2 + ***) + ma ni ) . In like manner any number of parallel lines may be com in any way the elements to which added multiples of corresponding elements from other For example.. Art... 0*.. #*. 14).) . . a nn I appear upon resolving the second member into two determinants (Art. #. '! #.\ + \aA' c . . . A cj = ak ah hi c s . . upon removal of the given factor. line of a each element of a determinant be multiplied by ment a given factor and the product added to the corresponding eleof any parallel line. i . bl . Composition of Parallel Lines..Art. If 15.. will vanish because of having two identical lines...j\ . . ... "H2 "M3 . there results J = \a B^.c % .
46 DETERMINANTS. is is A and determinant which b. . vanishes.. : Prove the following without expansion (0 o x o X y o (2) my mnz nz (3) b + b c c a a a b + c a \b a (4 ) *_t a c +a . is This being divisible by (a Prob. . 16. m m tn . Subtracting this from the precedfng gives A = m {a .(a* t F) +.b) + m. let the expansion of any such determinant be written in the form A the coefficients . . II. when b is substituted for a the determinant vanishes. Now Hence. being independent of a. of such that if b a rational integral function of a substituted for a the determinant factor. Binomial Factors. o = m + mjb % \ mj? + .. = m. contains {a ^)asa a* For example. [Chap. iy j m & + wiP? + x . the theorem proven. Art. 13. . b). a\r b Jee p* 1 a q 9pp is divisible bq q +r r by {a b). To prove this.
14. Prove that x 1 x ix 3 1 1 a y a y b x b b a y^ .] cofactors : minors.Art. 47 Prob. 17.
.'./.*S n being determined by the 1.a} Hence. [Chap. any other element than a/ be taken from the first column.43 DETERMINANTS. t f permutation of the n subscripts j\ .a () (2) . II. the one taken from the first row must be zero. Moreover. But since this is of the same class as the permutation of the (n 1} a t (n \ a^al'a" subscripts i. \ (3) .. . the only terms which do not vanish are those which contain the element a/. a 7 #a .. in selecting the elements for any term. If. ax ' a" a/" a2 . row of the array (Art.V/" such terms. Hence. . . I. of the expansion of (1) is sponding term. in the not vanish. . any one of which may be a ^ n) tne s.. . the same as the sign of the corren) of the expansion of (2). a There are written class of the {n 1)! .the sign of any term. a/ is multiplied by (n from each column and each row of terms of the expansion of (1) which do 1) elements chosen one an a . therefore.j\ . . 7).
the symbol itself. included in which The cofactors : of accordingly written as positive.] development in terms of cofactors. 18. i.e.Art. (is 1)*+*. the various elements of \a u a n a are as Si \ follows An = . is intrinsic.. is 49 The cofactor thus obtained represented by the symbol the signfactor of which.
II. there are nX{n is i)! or . I 9)./! dif ferent terms of the determinant. let . A= For example. . I a b% t c3 4 4 be required to develop the determinant 1. these formulas Since. then.  a^ = aiAi + a^'A. By continuing the process any determinant may ultimately be expressed of determinants of the third or second order. io). .  a  == 0VA + **AP + Ai n \ .50 group. A^ s) are themselves determinants. by means of either be re solved into determinants of an order one lower. . Hence. + aj*Ai*\ . K c* Upon a second application of the same formula this becomes . which easily in terms may be expanded by methods already given (Art. DETERMINANTS. letting k it = A = a. . (2) Any determinant may. + aPAt (i) or (2). in A k\ . which the whole number. of them. they may be resolved into determinants of an order still one lower in the same manner. . In all [Chap. . (i) Similarly (Art. ."  + . gives Applying formula (1). or A^. .
Art. Develop the following determinants: to x 1 y . 19. 19. i 51 Prob.] the zero formulas.
Art. aggregate of all the product . (s) {p) In the formula ah {p) are also {n A h [p) gives (n i) ! terms of A. of ah a k (s) i$) . + *ia. every term in the expansion which does not contain ah must contain some other element ah from the /ith. in the required expansion. The cofactor of {s any element a s) of A will be designated by (n 2). = I. II. . .I. . To prove this. h I. . and ^ = I. . in the expansion of ak {s) {f>) ^ {s) p) s) {p) {s) . \ ! = ! expansion.  due to Cauchy mf* 2. . . h f. Method of Development. successively. p and fl. and thus contains the prodelement a p) uct ali ai But this product differs from ah ak only in the order of the superscripts and is. . cofactor of a h(p\ the element at the intersection of the two p) given lines./ i. (i) in which k . n. therefore. {s) {s) There taining (n (n i) I \ ah a k(p) Bk each coni)* such aggregates as terms.52 Similarly.CP = o. n.. which is the complete (n i) {n 2) . B k \ this being a determinant of the order The required expansion may now be : obtained by means of the following formula. .  = mJ*AP.2aPaiBP.. These terms are included in ah A Now. the expansion A which contain {p) . . A. [CHAP. . DETERMINANTS. multiplied by an aggregate of terms differing in sign only Bk is the coefficient from that multiplying a h ip) a k Hence. .^ s being different superscripts. consider terms a p) that of B {s) k is the of . frequently desirable to expand a determinant with reference to the elements of a given row and column. When the expansion is required with reference to the ele . 2. n) and the given row Let the determinant be A a} and column the ht\\ and pth respectively. p \. The formula therefore gives 2) a n terms.I. + aiA + Cauchy's . . It is 20. Then is A h(p) the   ~ . row and also some other from the pth column.
a.. ait a S3 Applying formula (2) to this determinant gives Q = " ^22 ^23 . x first row the formula. \a W column and the becomes tf.afa/'B. Cauchy's formula is particularly useful in expanding determinants which have been bordered such as .an'a "BH" . .aJa^'BJ" . .. ." . . 53 ments of the first explicitly..] cauchy's method of development.ay>B*\ x (2) in which B (s) k has intrinsically the sign ( i)* +s .'B:' .*/*.a^a B m .... 20. written = a/A/...a.a.."B:" ..a.Art.a 'a^B^ % 3 .<x. Q u a \\ a \i a \% i (3) U % a%x a u % a 3l a 3.
54 (4) DETERMINANTS. .
: . .C a^ that the elements on one side of the principal diagonal are zeros the determinant is equal to its principal term.a. .a a' a" a'" un un un in . 22. . . without changing the a/ o a % a. Since. a n () Ta'. () .a a x O O . o t .. .<> % ..o arii u (MI) o u T N..... ^aJ'... w 6A ah W daW 22. O o G*. .*.. if all the elements on the other side of this diagonal may be replaced by any quantities whatever. 55 written Prob. in the expansion of the determinant (1) of Art.. . o o o Qa a' ni <* hi a" u ". .. t 1 o . . R La '"." o *..'*. and is. by any quantities whatever. By what precedes.a Similarly."*. . o () a/ o o . . R... ) Finally. . 17 aj do not appear. o au'aj'aj". .. TNa " .Art. a n(M) u . o an ..'" .. . T and Z. . . .aH ?r <*i n)  ' a. . ' the elements at Raising the Order. as Q.] RAISING THE ORDER. T. . Sa^a^ d*J da^da^ Art. N are any quantities whatever. 25. these may be replaced t . value of the determinant thus .a f n which Q. Show that Cauchy's formula may be J==la. a . . o a. Ta" a" () r . ... x . . . a in.
Prob. Of the many analytical processes giving rise to determinants the simplest and most common is the solution of systems of simultaneous linear equations. 27.x> Thus.>x" = kJ : by the methods of ordinary algebra gives a." * t V . A determinant in which a k Prove that every skewsymmetric detersaid to be skewsymmetric. r = = Art. minant of odd order is equal to zero. what the elements on one side of the secondary diagis the value of the determinant ? Prob. a. solving the equations + a. If all onal are zeros. II." . Develop the determinant a h h b g u o o t f c v o g f U V o {s) w o t w o o s {k) a s and au {k) o is Prob.i) by bordering it above by a row (to the left by a column) of zeros. 26. 28. [Chap. to the left by a column (above by a row) writing I of elements chosen arbitrarily. Hence. Solution of Linear Equations. a .56 DETERMINANTS. By tinuing this process any determinant may be expressed as a determinant of any higher order. and con at the intersection of the lines thus added.a^r " */*. 23. a determinant of the nth order may be expressed as a determinant of the order (n \.
. while those of all the other the coefficient unknowns vanish. The difficulty of solving systems of linear equations by the ordinary processes of elimination increases rapidly as the number of equations is increased. . the coefficients of these thus : a a x () x . 23. The function i A u + a w AJ + (Art. multiplying the given ] equations by of .# of the unknown in order. to zero when p and s are different superscripts (Art.() Kn .} and let A^ be the cofactor of a in this determinant. + aj'x" + D= . + a. 57 numerator of the fraction giving the value of x' is formed from this denominator by replacing each coefficient of x' by the corresponding absolute term. ** Hence. J Now equations form the determinant of . A respectively. s) M a. . . The sum jR* is. .. 19). as will now be shown.}* A ^ n is equal to D when/ = s Af\ Af\ . 4 *w*w = n) *. a () an a. Then. the sum of the in which resulting equations is a linear equation x is equal to Z>. .:. The law of formation of the roots explained above is. . . = K Af* M + *AW + a* . all being equally applicable to complete linear systems. x {n) = "> > (I) . 18) . capable of generalization.  +< . however. . Let such a system be written a> x f a . therefore. +K A is S) ' ( 2) But the second member of this equation what D becomes & by upon replacing the coefficients the absolute terms k k9 a?\ ."x" f <*? a n 'x' + " <' x + + . .Art.] SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS. Similarly for x" . + a^x = () *.
58 .
r the above equations are consistent the values of the obtained by solving any n of them must satisfy the equation. the result reduces to (Art. 18) y . (*) a +i ^+i which is the condition to be fulfilled by the coefficients in order that the given equations may be consistent. x y{z = 2. and clearing of fractions.  i Art. unknowns Solving the preceding article. Thus the equations x{y{z x\y z = o. *v + .. for the reason that I o.tf . This relation will now be investigated for the case of [n i) linear equations involving n unknowns. 59 obviously depend upon some relation among the coefficients. Let the equations be + + . . shall be zero. + If * =/cK . written in the same order as in the given equaThis determinant is called the resultant* tions. a. x" first .b A<6. obtained in the last equation. remaining n equations by the method of the xP* thus substituting the values of x'. linear equa Hence the condition of consistency for a set of tions involving a number of unknowns one less than of equations is the number that the determinant of the coefficients and absolute terms. x\y\z = 6 are consistent. = 4... or eliminant of the equations. . () = o.. E~ a/ an a n+i .] CONSISTENCE OF LINEAR SYSTEMS. 24. + <* ) v() _ K.
Kr the change of rows into columns being purely arbitrary. . The above expression is called a rectangular array.. 1 + .60 DETERMINANTS.. all tions have the unknowns are equal to zero.a: o. + aM*P> = K + . . . Art.. . 26. a r() u . and the equano other solution than this unless E = o.:.. of the given Let the equations system be both linear and homogeneous . . . nt + a^x = K r. . a () x <) * . .. The Matrix. Homogeneous Linear Systems. . r being n. thus : al x> 4.  The minant consistency of these equations requires that every deterof the order (n+ i). ] o.. 25. II. an 'x' ajx' f + af>j* = *. as given by the formula (3) of Art. /C. is x^ That is. Representing the determinant of the coefficients by E. . J au' x' + . as follows : al'x p. Art. the general solution. the elements of the array expressed thus If : fulfill this condition the fact is a/ . [Chap. formed by selecting (n i) rows + from the array whose elements are the coefficients and absolute terms written in order. shall be zero. . K. 23.J. Assume greater than r linear equations involving n unknowns. + a^x^ = = o/E. or a matrix. a**&* = o.
^. equations involving the {n x>_ unknown &> '" x^ *P ' x^ x<*> ' " x '*' . Hence. if x x " Xx \ A being any n such quantities. For. however. When the of E of the coefficients of the given is homo linear equations called the resultant or eliminant of unknowns of equations is greater than the number the conditions of consistency are expressible in number the form of a rectangular array. dividing each {s case the value of each equation through by any one of these. as x \ the system (i) X* JT^ 1 * * jwr t^i xw r a X M {s+ J > 2> r< w > xis) t . . 26.. as in Art. . so also are \x A x quantities having {n) '. The determinant geneous the system. t^ } . As an example. (u . . The ratios of the unbe readily obtained. .] homogeneous linear systems. 25. Thus. . in this 61 But only in the knowns may becomes unknown is obtainable indeterminate form o/o. Any n (.and gives _3 5 . $x Sy +z= Dividing each of the for the two equations by z and solving x y two unknowns . if ii the values of the above {n 1) ratios obtained by solving any of them will satisfy the remaining equation./ 1) = among themselves the ratios thus determined " x are will satisfy the given equations. o the given equations (1) are consistent that is. . 24). I Now the condition (2) E = o establishes the 1) consistency of the ratios (Art. Q y . = o.Art. . factor whatever. consider the five equations 2x 2>y +2= x +y > 4* z y first z ~~ > 7X +W+*~ o.
. as 10.62 DETERMINANTS. [Chap. 4. and any three quantities having these ratios will satisfy the two equations. or x\y\z\\2 :3 : 5. II. and 25.7 3 1 I 1 the equations are consistent the determinant of the coefficients of any three of them must vanish that is. If all . That the third equation is consistent with the first two is shown by the vanishing of the determinant 23 1=0. 15. 2 4 = o.
x*.] SYLVESTER S METHOD OF is EI WINATION. % viz. the result is a system of five equations. Sylvester's Method of Elimination. 28. 24) = . the invention of which is due to Sylvester.Art. these five equations. Let it 28. Multiplying the first of the given equations by x. =a m The eliminant of x. be done by what is called the dialytic method. by fThis will b x x b = o. and the second by x and x* successively. = o. = o. x* is involving the four unknowns x\ and (Art. the cofactors any line are proportional to the cofactors of line. when a determinant of the elements of equal to zero.* be required to eliminate the unknown from the two equations a% x% + ay f ax x + a.: ax % a 3 x* \ ay a x a ay + ay + a x by f b x + b bx b x + by \fx f Q x % % f by + b x" + by x = o. = \ O. = o. 63 Hence. the corresponding elements of any parallel Art.
the vanishing of which shows that the two given equations are Prob. : M M M<n+ : . =0. and X 4 . o. and vice The law of formation of the eliminant is obvious. five twice in succession. 3 X . 2X 2y + . where . IL obtained which involve as unknowns the (m \ n i) powers of x. . 32.n] Prob. The of the order {ni eliminant of these equations is a determinant \. Sx*y + Sx/ y 42 $y z = o. x+y x y 2Z z=o. Test the consistency of each of the following systems of equations: (1) (2) x+y+2Z=g. The same method may be used the variables from a pair of in eliminating one or both homogeneous equations. X X equations involving . versa. from the equations 2x* As let it be required to eliminate the variables $*y 3 9J first =o x and 3^ jxy 6y x ..376 consistent. degree in terms of the coefficients of the equation of the mt\\ degree. In the equations ak'x' f +<**<*>*<"> +a : (n k +W :: 5s o. . 31. which is of the nth. first [Chap. 2xy\z=$. * z 3)'+ 22=1. the second Dividing the by y\ and multiplying by by y*. +1) 2iv +x [i 5V + * = o. there result. Find the ratios of the unknowns in the equations 2z = o.. = o.xf = ix*y 2x {y = o.5/ = o.: x (n) x< n+1) M' .n). 33.. an example. x (3) . : prove that *':. 4W = o. Prob. 3 r. and multiplying by in all.64 DETERMINANTS. Eliminating these four ratios gives E~ o 2 25 09 o 5 9 o o o o 376 o 376 .
Art.. is 66 ( i)' *M the determinant obtained by deleting the *th column from the rectangular array M~ a/ . 29... a n '. 34. From **+*? p + *! = "* + ?+* = Mx+Xy + nz q X .] THE MULTIPLICATION THEOREM.. a a<*> a^ M+1) a*** r Prob.
K + iA. . result of [Chap. Ai + iAtK + faAi + *M*% = + **h)*i + (M + . . KK vanishes. the same degree with respect to . (4) is is. (2) are that is. < 6> vanishing of either of the determinants (5) or It follows therefore. Ai + <*. this condition failing.Ai (*. .At Now o (3) The vanishing of the determinant *A. The such transformation is % > (. case the determinant a%% an vanishes. . Or. Hence. 26). . II.A. in which . causes the determinant (4) to vanish. and since their product and the determinant are of . o (3) will still be consistent if the equations if the determinant = x%y equations (1) the equations so . a x\ a xi . ux =O= (Art. (6). . tf a + ** *n*n + ad> x* . they are the only factors.66 DETERMINANTS. r. the coefficients an blx . (5) The (6) that and are factors of (4) (4) . the condition that the equations (3) may be consistent that the condition that they may have solutions other than the equations (3) may be consistent because of the consistency of the equations (1). and the l thus having no solution other than x =.
Art.] THE MULTIPLICATION THEOREM. 22.. process indicated by this formula * : 67 The follows may be described as the determinant \p ltH \> which is the product of determinants \a 1>n and \& un \. Prob. 42. This is the first row of \pu \.. 22). In this case the result Thus the product of the deis obtained in a different form. 43. (9) the two determinants to be multiplied together are of different orders the one of lower order should be expressed as a determinant of the same order as the other (Art. 29. Prob. terminants (5) and (6) by columns is a iA% Prob. \  \ \ \ each two elements as they touch become products. By forming the product . The product two determinants may be formed by columns. 41. Generalize the last example (see Prob. first connect by plus signs two the elements in the rows of both \a 1>n and b 1<n Then place the first row of \a un upon each row of \b 1>n in turn and let \ To form . etc  Any element of Pks this product is = *Ai + a**K + + **A. (1) + a*A* a iA* + a*&* : Form the following products (3) Art. instead of by rows as above. after When which the above rule of is applicable. Perform the same operation upon \b hn \ with the second row of \a hH to obtain the second row of \p 1>n and again with the third row of tf 1)M to obtain the third row \ \ I fA. 18).
however. . that multiplied to form The plying two such arrays together by columns leads to a result radically different from that obtained when the product is formed by rows. It will appear. may be shown that the product by rows of two rectangular arrays having m rows and n columns. arrays having m rows and ft determinant of the n th order columns. &*A* a. Let the two rectangular arrays be and M.68 DETERMINANTS.Ai + aj^ J>x > + aj> %l aj u ^. the product by columns of two rectangular arbitrarily to the other. m being less than n. m being less than whose value is zero. Art.A.AAs is The product = of these by columns a x *. of [Chap. Ik show that the product squares..A. each the sum of four the sum of four squares. J' = lAl + *lAi + *lA. which may be expressed as the sum of the n \/m {n m) determinants ! ! . is a Multiplying together the above rectangular arrays by the result is rows. is a determinant of the m th order. process explained in the preceding article may be apwhat is conventionally termed the product of two rectangular arrays. 30.3^13 + aj> %l *iAi + *t'Ai A is #iAs + iAi + &*J>*t The determinant uct of of plainly equal to zero. KA bj>. a. being the prod two determinants formed by adding a row of zeros to one the given rectangular arrays and a row of elements chosen In general. . Product of Two Arrays. *xxK + i At + iAi a^a x% In the same + manner it *. is itself two numbers..
o (w) <T. or Hence. . 18). . 31. A Am two determinants is The product 6. . IS AA ** .a av A 21". 31. a. .. . The reciprocal of a determinant is also called the determinant adjugate.\a nn A 2n . A = 6' o oH o . J RECIPROCAL DETERMINANTS. .. (1. . 6. principal diagonal of this product all while the other elements vanish (Art. each multiplied by the determinant formed by deleting the same columns from the other array. * The term reciprocal as here used has reference to the algebraic transformation concerned in the passage from point coordinates to line coordinates. . . . the reciprocal of a determinant of the n ih order th is its (n i) power. formed from one Art. 19).4= of these (tn\Au\. <? That equal to is.22 A nl . . the reciprocal of a. o d . A = So.A..A. dnxdni. a m A n \\ \a nn A nn is Each element on the equal to S (Art. . a. . . Reciprocal Determinants. 69 of the arrays by deleting {it m) columns. . .* Thus. called reciprocation.Art. replacing each element of a The determinant formed by given determinant by its cofactor is called the reciprocal of the given determinant.\~a nn Am a n iA<n\.
and the point are the elements 4. . ' 1.' 2. Art. A straight It points. but only one. On any two join. so does their join.' lie all on one and only one plane. or any straights on it. it is A surface ' determined by three noncostraight points on called a plane. A point A ' is the bearer of any straight on is it or any plane called on it. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. It is 8. their 'junction. i. 5.' points can be put one. It is the 'bearer is the bearer of any planes on it. of any points on it.' on a plane. their 3. Metric relations are not considered. 9. is not to be considered as an aggregate of is a monad. Any three points. The plane. If two points lie 6. The Elements and Primal Forms* determined A ' line by two points on it is called a straight. Professor of Mathematics in the University of Texas. point which on each of two straights is their cross. It the bearer of any points on it. and nothing is borrowed from Analytic Geometry. 10. Ilk Chapter III. By George Bruce Halsted. not costraight. the straight. [CHAP.70 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. a simple positional concept as ' primal as the point. geometry.' * This Chapter treats Projective Geometry entirely by the synthetic method. straight. in projective 7. an atom. Just so the plane is an element coeval with the point.
A plane and a straight not on their ' it have one and only one point in 15. * ' range.] THE ELEMENTS AND PRIMAL FORMS. When there can be no ambiguity of meaning. though consisting only some single elements of so. of which the primal class consists of three forms. ' Any two meet.' intersection.' 20. The aggregate of all coplanar. Planes all 71 all 11.' planes both on one and only one straight.' ' by two its planes.' is 21. a pencil. 24. Like points with the same called costraight. 25. the 17. the of axis. pass. and the point. The common plane ' cross 4 is called the ' pencil The common is called the pencilplane. it is Angles are always pieces of the figure.' it is called their ' on a straight is called a a point be common to two ranges. they can be united into compound figures. or straights ' with the same their cross. is 18. While these elements.' or range. ' A piece of a range bounded by two points called a sect.' the ' flatpencil. may yet itself be called may be called a range. are called copunctal. the plane. namely. join. Just the complete pencil. of. retain their atomic character. on the same point.' bounded by two of the straights.' point.' Their common meet. ' The aggregate of all planes on a straight is called an * axialpencil/ or 'axial. copunctal straights is called a 'flatpencil.ART.' 16.' the ' axialpencil. a figure in a pencil.' The aggregate ' of all points If pointrow. with the same meet are 14. If a moving point its is spoken to be interpreted as the mind of shifting attention. A sides. certain costraight points separate . planes 13.' is their bearer. the straight. is piece of the axial bounded called an axial angle.' Any three planes not costraight are copunctal on one ' and only one point.' 19.' A piece of a flatpencil called an angle. No use is made of motion. common. their apex. as sides. not rotations.' lie 12. 1. as 23. 22.
and called a ' cut of the subject. /*/?. Thus obtained a called an new ' figure composed ' of planes all on the axis m.. (7\) primal figures are called projective when one can be derived from the other by any number of Any two projectings and cuttings.72 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. It is 3. Elements at for every is Infinity. c. ') a figure. etc. ' an eject of an original. mC. straight etc. D. project from a fixed point (the projectionvertex ') a figure. . and ' the passes jub. jud. Thus obtained a new figure ' composed ' of straights planes. and is the ' ' projecting planes Mb.' made up Thus is is planes y. c.. and straights b. C. always an element each of the *Pascal (162562) and Desargues (1 5931662) seem to have been the first to derive properties of conies from the properties of the circle by considering the fact that these curves lie in perspective on the surface of the cone. etc. [CHAP. MC. If of the subject is 28. 29.' composed of points B. 26'. and straights b. ' The ' cut obtained by transfixion a range on ' ' the transversal m. is to construct the meets py. an original composed of points B. to construct the passes is my. and Md. is to is mB. all 27. and called an ' eject ju of the original. construct the projecting planes etc.. the cut the subject an image of the original. md. d.c.. fixed 30.. p. in assumed that element either of the in three primal figures there others. d. Mc. the original. is to construct the projecting ' ' ' ' ' To M straights MB. on M. #. D. etc.* Art. etc. 6. jud. To project from a fixed straight m projectionaxis '). obtained a new figure com posed of straights and points. the subject. 31. of planes y. ' Projecting and Cutting. Art. III.. To cut by a fixed /3. and axialeject of the original. ' ' all on }x. ' To cut ' ' by a fixed plane of (the pictureplane /?. MD. C. mD. m is (to 'transfix ') a subject composed mft. (the Axial projection. 2.
34. ' pencil.' 36. Two planes whose meet is a straight at infinity are called parallel. are the figurative pencilpoints of all these pencils. . From each of the three primal figures generate the other two by projecting and cutting. 40. and so form an axial is whose axis is at Such an called a parallelaxial.] elements at infinity.' or ' figurative' point. Any point going either way (moving in either sense ') ever forward on a straight is at the same time approaching and receding from its point at infinity. On each straight is one and only one point others are * ' at infinity. All points at infinity and all straights at infinity lie on is a plane at infinity or figurative plane. The proper ' points. Its figurative point and a divide a range into two sects to the infinite 35. * This statement should not be interpreted as descriptive of the nature of In the Function Theory it is expedient to consider all points in a plane at infinity as coincident. 39. its The straight is thus a closed line compendent through ' point at infinity. infinity. all parallelaxials. with any proper the point at infinity on the proper cross straight in same plane have all a the straight at infinity on which common. and so form a flatpencil whose penSuch a pencil is called a parallelflatcilpoint is figurative. 33.Art. All points at infinity on a plane Its lie on one straight at infinity or figurative straight. All the planes parallel to each other are on the same axial pencil figurative straight. infinity. Two sect proper points divide a range into a finite sect and a through the it proper point in ('rays'). infinite. 3. 73 ' 32. Parallelflatpencils on the 38.* is straight on the plane straight. This plane at infinity common Prob. to 1. namely. 37. Parallels ' are straights on a in it common point at infinity. All the straights parallel to each other on a plane are on the same point at infinity. since it is on the axis of each.
4. is A ' polystim a system of ').' figures are called Two is correlated ' of each 42. P > Q l . 5. 44. 3. ' Polystims and Polygrams. their concur/ Two points bound two explemental sects. Prob. ' ' Prob. Two coplanar straights determine a flatpencil on their cross. The paired elements are called 'mates. Give the duals of the following: ' 2'. [CHAP. Reye's Geometrie der Lage (Hannover. join with cross. 41. ' principle of duality. to a proper point P . Art. ranges connectors '). f 2. gives also a like theorem with its 43. Two figures correlated to a third are correlated to each just other.74 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.. 4. * Culmann's Graphic Statics (Zurich.. To draw a straight crossing three given straights. Correlation and Duality. 1'. Two coplanar flatpencils determine a straight.* This correlation of points with straights on a plane is termed a Prob. A ' ' polygram is a system (* n coplanar points all (' (' dots with of n coplanar straights sides '). paired Correlation is a onetoone correspondence of elements. III. Art. When two coplanar ranges ///. show that the figurative point of v or Q 9 or of the the one is mated. any theorem of configuration and determination. . a plane.' is Each ' of two 9 figures or theo rems so related called the ' dual of the other. * when every element with one and only one element of the other. other. with its proof. no three sides are copunctal. and m are correlated as 9 cuts of a flatpencil M. 1866) was issued as a consequence of the Graphic Statics of Culmann. 3. the they determine Assume that no the flatpencils they determine ('fans'). f In Analytic of the Geometry the principle of duality consists in the interpretation same equation in different kinds of coordinates point and line or point and plane coordinates. For each element of the third has one mate in each of the others. Assume that all with three dots are costraight. 1864) made extensive use of duality. by simply interchanging point with straight. sect with angle. and these two are thus so paired as to be themselves mates. in general. join the passes of two with a plane on the third. 44'. On proof.
In a polystim of n dots there are n(n intersect in i)/2 These connectors i)/2 i)/2][( . going concur (n 1) connectors. the number of different combinations of n(n two at a time. i) 75 In each dot intersect (n In each side fans. But some of these ones are codots...Art. are (n 1) 1/2 There There are ( 1) \/2 complete sets of connectors. is called a ' complete set * complete 48. 48'.' 46. set of connectors. [n(n 46.e. 47'. 5. and the remaining (n 1) of these connectors meet at is Therefore each dot repeated (n 1) in 2)/2 times..' There are i)(n There are i){n n(n 2){n 3)/8 codots. i. Such a set of connectors is called a * ' selected in several ways so that two and only two contain each one of the 71 sides. ./ fans may be be selected in several ways so that two and only two contain each one of the n dots. is n{n Therefore the number of codots 2 2)/2.] POLYSTIMS AND POLYGRAMS. in dots. sides. through the remain ing (n 1) sides.. 2){n 3)/8 diago Proof of connectors. [n(n (/* i)/8][^ \){n n24(n. n(n nals. i.. Such intersections are called 'codots. ( dot In a polystim of n dots there are through any and hence (0 i){n 2)/2 1) connectors. i)/2 fans. So there are i)/2 connectors. Now intersections are dots. Consider one such pair.. each dot. or the number of times the connectors intersect in i)(n is points not codots.. than the are called 46'. n(n 3. complete sets of fans. n(ti i)(. pairs of connectors. For n greater than 3.  i]/2 = n(n 2 i)(.e. the fans will concur in straights other points other than the dots.n 2)/8 i)/2 points things. Proof of single 48. going through the reSo there i) dots./ n a 2)/8 n{n i)( 2)/2 = = 47. ' Such concurs diagonals.2)] 3)/8. Such a set of fans of fans. 2){n A set of n connectors may A set of . For n greater than will the in connectors intersect 45'. as BC and BE. maining (n are n(n 45.z .
correlated polystims whose paired dots and co51. the first and ' the (/2+i)th are called opposite. sets of connectors ( is _ I)( _ 2)[( _ 3) !]/ 2 _ 49'. gram. since AB AB taking the angle between the planes evanescent.' Their pole and * . tetragram is a system of four straights with their six 50'.' called x . ACA'C\ BCB'C are copunctal.e. [there 2 connectors) C to E is through A. opposite 5o A tetrastim is a system of four dots with their six connectors. when n and ' ' the (/2 + i)th '. 54. These determine the diagonals ' codottristim of the tetra diagonaltrigram of the tetra stim. [CHAP.76 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. If two noncoplanar tristims be copolar. D.. f r . they are coaxal. concur three ' These three the ' codots ' determine pair of opposite fans a diagonal. Each in connectors intersect in a codot. being {n 3) such dots]. Hence the number of permutations of number of complete sets of conthe is nectors having the pair BC and BE [n 3) ! Therefore the whole number of complete (n 49. 56. F. i. If are said to be two coplanar polystims are copolar and coaxal they complete plane perspectives. ' are even. when n is even.' 53. Hence so are their meets AA\ BB\ CO. _ is j) !/2 . is seen that coplanar coaxal tristims are copolar and then by reductio ad absurdum that coplanar copolar tristims are coaxal. dots have their joins copunctal are called 'copolar. A ' ' Each pair of opposite fans. III. G> (n 3) !. By . the first In any complete set of fans. intersects 55. they are copolar. For since AA' crosses BB\ two noncoplanar therefore AB and A' B' intersect on the meet of the planes of the tristims. For The these four points are coplanar. The number from {n of different sets (each of n etc. If tristims be coaxal. In any complete set of connectors. three planes ABA'B'.' 52. 3) things. Two Two and tersect 4 correlated polystims whose paired connectors inhave their intersections costraight are called coaxal.
and five intersections of pairs of correlated connectors are costraight. If two coplanar tristims are copolar or coaxal. fixed For the two pairs of tristims by the If five pairs of intersecting connectors being coaxal are copolar. In a hexagram there are 15 fans and 45 diagonals.. If Fundamental Theorem. Four costraight points are called ' harmonic points. 58. 6. 5. 7. 60.] Prob. the theorem reads : correlated tetrastims five pairs of mated connectors is m are parallel. they are complete plane perspectives. two correlated tetrastims on different planes whose meet is on no one of the eight dots. points are all copunctal (on the pass of the straight V F2 with the picture plane). and the plane of the Frob. make three tetragrams whose other diagonals are copuncby threes four times. If the vertices of three coplanar angles are costraight. Hence the sixth pair of connectors are coplanar. and if five connectors of the one intersect their mates.] ' harmonic elements. center of perspective' and the ' 77 axis of axis are called the perspective. Prob.' 57. then the tetrastims are coaxal. 62. If of If two a figurative straight. their sides tal Art. [Prove and give dual. 61.' or . If two coplanar polystims are images of the same polyfrom different projection vertices Vlt Vif they are comstim For the joins of pairs of correlated plete plane perspectives. and the intersections of paired coni nectors are all costraight (on the meet of the picture plane original). The corresponding sides of any two funiculars of a given system of forces cross on a straight parallel to the join of the poles of the two funiculars. so are the remaining pair. In a hexastim there are 15 connectors and 45 codots. 6. lie 6. this the coplanar case can be depend upon the other by substituting for one 6f the tetrastims its image on a second plane meeting to first made the on the bearer of the the axis five intersections. Harmonic Elements.Art. if the tetrastims be coplanar. 59.
the fourth harmonic 68. a harmonic range. 63.' or a harmonic axialpencil. C. the four harmonic points are projected by four coplanar straights. By three elements of a primal figure. if [Chap. Defining harmonic points by the tetrastim distinguishes . given which is the 66. crossing join AM at N.' 65. from B. Projecting or cutting a second. III.' harmonic primal figure gives always again a harmonic primal figure. draw any two Join third through B to cross these at CK. Then the ABC.' ' the first and third are codots of a tetra stim while the other two are on the connectors through the third codot. By three costraight points and their order the fourth is harmonic point uniquely determined. The four planes projecting harmonic points from an axis not coplanar with them are called 'harmonic planes. 67. In projecting from a point not coplanar with it a tetrastim defining a harmonic range. called harmonic ' straights' or a 'harmonic flatpencil. B.78 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. K and M respectively. For if the three points in order are A. always at the same point D. crossing AK at L. straights through A. is completely determined. and a Join LN crosses the straight CM. the fourth harmonic to A BC separated 64.
8. U. then also is BADC O y third codot draw AO and CO. BCDA. so is also For the first and third remain Second. and has a connector though must pass though D. [or. V. 79 two points made codots from the other two. DABC. S. hence In like for its two codots A and C. These determine on the connectors four NK. First.' as also are ' B and D. T. 69. Yet it may be shown that the two pairs of points play identically the same role. if A BCD is ADCB. 6. one through C. LM.ART. separated points points. MN new points. To accessible cross X of two given straights n and determine the join of a given point n'. Therecodots of a tetrastim STUV with the remain a connector ing connectors. CBAD. conjugate Either two are said to be 'harto the other two.] HARMONIC ELEMENTS. if ABCD (and therefore the joins ADCB. the connector y TS of UV MVOU must of each of the tetrastims fore B and D are The pass through D and LUOT and VNSO through B. the tetrastim remaining connector manner. respec The tetrastim KTOS has B. CBAD. A and C are called ' monic conjugates with respect Prob. KL. and DCBA] Through the : and CDAB). to prove that in a harmonic range the two pairs of separated points may be interchanged without the four points is a harmonic range ceasing to be harmonic [or. and CDAB\ a harmonic range. one through A. M with the in . and tively. arated two from the definition of four harmonic points each sepmay be interchanged without the points ceasing to be harmonic codots.
[Chap. 9. New York. by AB'D' gives a harmonic range. . 11. pencil. T/ d" . 70. BB\ CC\ and cut these joins by a transversal. and Prob. Then Im is the cross re [From range. ' at D and D' Through M draw any two . Through third straight crossing any A and Join ^'Z>" and n at B" ' at Z>". If the bearers of ABC and AB C ' ' be not coplanar. Join the crosses b' d" and 8. and cutting the eject are costraight. primal figures of three elements are always proone be a pencil. Through a given point to draw with the straightedge a straight parallel to two given parallels. y f any third point ing with N A joinin b" in and with quired. Art. straights crossing ndXB and B\ and draw Join Z>Z? and Z/i?'. in * Numerous problems . C".80 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. Prob. Cut four coplanar noncopunctal straights in a har monic 12. X a harmonic as range. is the join required. Projectivity. Then ABC and A'B'C are two cuts of the axial mAA' mBB' mCC ./z. <W by /. take its cut by a transversal.* C". Therefore Prob. Two If jective. join AA\ '. Join any two N points on m with JV and N' giving b and b' on JV d and </' on N*i Join the crosses db and </'' On a take by 0. LM The tetrastim XBMD XB'LD' does makes AB'C'D' AB"C"D". 10. On a given straight determine a point from which the of three given points form with the given straight a harmonic ejects Prob. practice. 1872. Then crossing at Z. by duality.] Prob. To inconstructible join determine the cross of a given straight m with the x of two given points and N'. But projecting AB"C"D" from X. 7. Proof. III. crossing on A. >'". Surveying may be solved by the application of the preceding principles. but such application has not been found advantageous in See Gillespie's Treatise on Land Surveying. .
a range and an axial pencil. If two primal figures are projective. For both ejects and cuts harmonic figures are themselves harmonic.Art. Two primal figures are projective if they are so correlated that to every four harmonic elements of the one are For and cuttings which derive A' B' the same projectings from ABCv\\\ give D from D. 72. Therefore D is D But by hypothesis correlated always four harmonic elements of the other. they are perspective.. 7. if ejects of the same flat pencil. 81 If the bearers are coplanar. 73. If any four harmonic elements are taken in one of two projective figures. 75. take on the join projection vertices at M and . ABC and A' B' C are images of A" B" C" of 71. or a pencil and an axial are perspective if the first is a cut of the second. one on a bearer corresponds the correlated elements of the other on primal figures having three elements For two selfcorrelated elements Two projective selfcorrelated are identical. cannot bound an interval containing no such element. and Join &'\ join at MC and M' C Then M B\ crossing f A A' any two crossing .] projectivity. 76. M\ Join MB . 74. they are perspective. the four elements correlated to these are also harmonic. C 1 x A ' ' ' '. Two ranges are called ' ' perspective if cuts of the same flat pencil. flat pencils are perspective if cuts of the same axial Two axials are perspective or ejects of the same range. is harmonic. flat two coplanar projective pencils not copunctal have If a selfcorrelated straight a. . crossing at C" B" C" AA' A". Two A flat range and a flat pencil. B C D' is harmonic. 76'. If two projective ranges not costraight have a selfcorrelated point A. Therefore A'B'CD. pencil. then to every con secutive order of elements of the a consecutive order of a bearer. since they must harmonically separate one without it from one within.
82 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. join of any other pair BB CC Let the cross of any pair of correlated straights bb' join the cross of any other pair cc' by m. the crosses costraight ranges are projective but not perspective. the coplanar tive but planes ' pencils are projecnot perspective. [Chap. their cuts are identical.. their ejects by m. If two copunctual non 78'. 8o. Curves of the Second Degree. 79.' or range of the second deconic range. correlated points form a pencil of the second class. mbb\ mcc' selfcorrelated. lated. the meets of correlated planes form a conic surface of the second ' of correlated * straights order. the joins of of ' ' correlated ' straights form a gree.' or cone of planes. On the join a of any pair of correlated points A and A 1 of . identical. 77r If two coplanar If two coplanar non copunctal flat pencils are projective but not perspective.' All results obtained for the conic range or the conic pencil are interpretable for the cone or cone of planes. selfcorre 8.' ' 78.. On the cross A of of correlated straights a any pair and a x 80'. VBB\ VCC' Art.' form a pencil of planes of the second class. If two flat copunctal non costraight axial pencils are projective but not perspective. Cutting the two given cils flat Projecting the two given are pen ranges from tive V. non77'. Let the join of any pair of f cross the correlated points at V.' or 'conic pencil. VA. since they are projec since and have the three straights they are projective and have the three points tna. III. since the eject of a conic is a cone and the cut of a cone is a conic.' or 'cone.
gives the conic pencil p K. both be ing ejects of the range on the join of the crosses a . are perspective. at P.Art. since their join crossed by the element correlated to it in either pencil X generating ranges pertain to the conic. The pencilpoints V. Any joined point with D V by of d. 8. bb x and cc x . both x termined. u their x of the of the generating pencils pertain to the conic. since cross uu x is VV is joined to the element correlated to it in either range by its bearer. u. Vx 8i'. are perspective. is then correlated to the join of x with the cross > of u and x V x the join DVV Any d crosses its d so deterx mined. A coincident. The bearers u. is then correlated to the of and V draw two and u x x straights u .. .. a x coincident. Any straight d of ^crossing u at B>. at its pencilpoint. a straight of being cuts of the pencil on the cross of the joins V 2f BB X and cc. cross of u x with the join and the cross du t . d x x V x The cuts ABC and ABC X X X Any D joined to its D so de being projective and having a pair of correlated points A. k. flat 83 of the projective pencils V the projective ranges u and take two points and u x .] CURVES OF THE SECOND DEGREE. V V x The ejects abc and a b x c x x being projective and having a pair of correlated straights a. a point of the conic range 8 1.
. 85. x of u x are costraight with the join VX Therefore* the three with F2 P join with the cross up. . completely determined. D or p. On any any point second element with the join 84.' ' This hexastim has sixty Pascal straights. of a conic by any two are projective. Instead of five straights given the two bearers pairs of correlated given the two penciland three pairs of correpoints may be may be and three If one given the join of the pencilstraight points.. Instead of five points conic 87'.. Thus by four of its straights and a contactpoint on one of f Brianchon. Ill The x lated to VV its correstraight on ' is called the tan V 82'. on of the conic. From the five The cross D of u with the cross straights u. 1806. join of the five given points construct a sixth. 83^ On any on 83'. . complete cuts of the straights 85'. [Chap. since it has sixty complete sets of connectors. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. 1640. its is its join q with V VV X From } VV AMZ P. The ejects of the points of a conic from any two are projective. and the join dx of V with the cross u p are copunctal with w 2 of x x d V . t A of the is conic. then four points and a tangent at one of them are given. Thus by four of its points and the tangent at one of them a * Pascal. struct a sixth DD qy rlt of . as #. a. since it has sixty sets of fans.' codots ' are in a conic concur in three Pascal copunctal diagonals whose bearer is called a Brianchon point. If one given point is the cross of the bearers. K conThe given VP. > 84'. then four straights and a contact point on one of them are given. The By is of its points a By is five of its straights a conic 87. lated straights. is points.. point of the conic. as V. 86'. The is to u u x point on u correlated called the contact on ' ! gent' at V. Every other point on u is its cross with a second straight of u. and the .84 82. five chon This hexagram has sixty Brianpoints. opposite pairs in every complete set of connectors of a hexastim whose dots are sect in in a conic inter opposite pairs in every complete set of fans of a hexagram whose sides f Therefore the three three costraight whose bearer is called a straight. 86. the conic. completely determined... its cross M its any second element the cross u u^ x straight a point. on V is Every other straight join with a second straight.
. two intersections a straight on which is the cross of the fifth connector with the tangent at the opposite dot. Given five straights of a conic. two pairs of nonconsecutive as a whose pairs plete set of fans of a pentagram sides are in a conic. is 88^ By three points By three of straights and the tangents the conic is two of them completely deter and the contactpoints on two of them the conic is completely determined. conic has each pair of diagonals copunctal with a pair of connectors of the tetrastim of contacts on the sides. and called Maclaurin's Configuration. Interpreting a pentagram hexagram with two sides coinciding gives: In every com89'. mined. (See page S6. using the ruler only. using the ruler only. A A tetragram with sides in a a conic has each pair of codots costraight with a pair of fanpoints of the tetragram of tangents at the dots. 1748. 89^ Interpreting a pentastim as a hexastim with two dots coinciding gives: In every complete set of connectors of a pentastim whose dots are in a conic. 9 1 j. completely determined. The 92. and that for 91' are identical. .) 92'.* pair of The hexastim with a The hexagram opposite connectors re of opposite fans replaced with a pair by con placed by tangents gives: intersections of the pairs in The two opposite every complete set of tactpoints gives: The concurs of the two opposite pairs in every complete set of fans of a tetra connectors of a tetrastim with dots in a conic are both costraight with the crosses of the two pairs of tangents at opposite dots. The tangents of a conic * Due range are a conic pencil. 91'.] CURVES OF THE SECOND DEGREE. 88'. of at its 85 completely deits conic is them a conic termined. Thence follows the solution of the problems 90^ Given five points of a 90'. to find contactpoints on the straights. figure for 91. 8. tetrastim with dots in Or: gram with sides in a conic are both copunctal with the joins of the two pairs of contactpoints on opposite Or: sides. to construct tangents at the points. The contactpoints of a conic pencil are a conic range. to Maclaurin. two of nonconsecutive fans connectors determine by their determine by their two concurs a point on which is the join of the fifth fanpoint with the contactpoint on the opposite side.Art. conic.
conic curve. is are their Consedual to quently the conic curve itself. that is they are identical with the conies of analytic geometry. . and so the principle of dual ity on a plane receives an impor94. P'. where R. For the analytic treatment see Clebsch. immediately from all their generation that conies are closed curves.' their bearer. The straights of ' the corresponding conic pencil. Projective ranges P ' are represented by = R XS j o. within ' the curve. projective generation of conies is developed synthetically in Steiner's R S' R' S = o. III. S. a seconddegree point equation. [Chap. the correlated rays corresponding to the same Hence the locus of the intersection of correlated rays is reprevalue of A. vol.. If at infinity. 'parabola. other points on a tan * The generation shows that a straight cuts the curves in two points and Hence the that from any point two tangents to the curves may be drawn. sented by PQ' Q o. a points of a conic range may now be conceived as. The envelope of the joins of correlated points represented by The a seconddegree line equation.XQ' o. Geometrie. R' + AS' = o. 1852.86 93. o. With two is points at infinity the . (7 are linear functions of point coordinates. and in Chasles' Geometrie superieure. Q. tangents of this conic range. may on now this also be conceived as all same conic curve on which contactpoints. 95. though they may be compendent through one or two points 'hyperbola with none. Theorie der Kegelschnitte.' gents to 'without' * point has on it tanthe curve. all The contact point on a tangent is ' on ' the curve . curves are of the second order and of the second class. 1876. all PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. if none. The on a curve. 1866. = = represent two projective pencils.* * ellipse. It follows tant extension. R'. where P. it is called a the curve. 1. S' are linear is functions of line coordinates.' ' curve called with one. Analytically the equations P\XQ P' f.
BXCY). 14. I. join of The is any two codots of a tetrastim with dots on a conic * f \ the polar of the third codot with respect to that Due to Braikenridge. \ Prob. ZBC. to construct the any given point in its plane. Art. 16. 87 gent are without the curve. Prob. From Pascal dual from Brianchon. f Prob. the other at 97. either of the other three crosses describes a conic.' of which the point is the particular straight. 9. Put on the given point two secants crossing the curve. and its on figurative points.Art. Pole and Polar. its ' 'pole. In any tristim with dots on a conic the three crosses the the connectors with tangents at the opposite dots are costraight. since it Varying on either secant. while {n 1) of a complete set of fanpoints glide respectively on (n 1) fixed straights. Prob. one at A and D. Book . 17. If the n sides of a polygram rotate respectively about n fixed points not costraight. . of them. since the straight crosses every tangent. of 15.' polar of Z B reference to any given conic. 96. 9. If two given angles rotate about their fixed vertices so that one cross of their sides is on a straight. and also the point which D and A harmonically separate from Z (given by each of the variable change this polar. Taking every tangent to a conic as the dual to its own contactpoint fixes as dual to any given point in the plane one polar. 13. The join of the other codots X and as Y of ABCD is the polar of Z. Given four points on a conic and the tangent at one draw the tangent at another. then every remaining fanpoint describes a conic* Prob. lemma xxi. Every straight in its plane contains innumerable points without the curve.] pole and polar. does not tetrastims 98. must always be the cross 5 of the tangents at A and D. straights Construct a hyperbola from three given points. 1735. under the name of 'the organic description " of a conic. With and C. Given by Newton in Principia.
Prob. io2j. The are are projective to their conjugates on its bearer. pencil straights of a flat projective to their its conjugates on 103'. throw ') 104.. Any point is harmonically separated from polar by the conic. join it to the crosses of its polar with the 99.88 conic. Involution. To draw conic. 101'. 19. conic. ioij. whose of the polarcurve ' make is a conic range. eject is pro CDAB a DCBA.' points on a second ' the With reference to a given the 'kerncurve. 10. All are All points on a tangent conjugate to its contact tactpoint straights on a conare conjugate to its point. of all tangents on a second conic conic make is bearer a conic pencil. and either codot is the pole of the join of the other its two. 103^ With reference to a given conic. the all ' polars of kerncurve. Prob. 18. III. by Now project ABCD from C. Either diagonal of a circumscribed tetragram is the polar of the cross of the others. [CHAP. whose bearer the polarcurve of the second ' ' the second conic. If in a primal figure of four elements (a first any two be interchanged. The points of a range 102'. Cut this is AB'CD'. with ruler only the tangents to a conic from a point without. A pair of tangents are harmonic on their cross conjugates with respect to any pair of straights respect to the conic. 'conjugate' with reference to a conic if one (and so each) is on the pole of the other. Project The cut from V. tangent.' the poles conic. ioo. Prob. then the other two. the result jective to the original.~] it by a straight (m') on A. 20. bearer. [That is. A pair of tangents from any point on a polar harmonically separate it from its pole. The cut of this latter eject V B is . which are conjugate with Art. ABCD a BADC a Let ABCD be a throw on m. Two points are called 100'. Two straights are called 'conjugate' with reference to a conic if one (and so each) is on the polar of the other. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
they harmonically separate the other two. The cut is B'AD'C. AA'BB' projective to AA'XB'. these are called the involution. which is perspective to BADC. and having three elements selfcorre lated. Two conjective (' figures such that ') the elements are mutually paired ple. and.' When in two conjective primal figures one particular element has the same mate to whichever figure it be regarded as be' longing. were three selfcorrelated. If two lated elements. Two projective primal figures of the same kind of elements and both on the same bearer are called conjective. their conjugates with respect to a conic. all would be selfcorrelated. the point at is infinity its of either one * correlated to a point of the other called vanishing point.Art. When two ranges are projective. a primal figure of four elements is projective with a second made by interchanging two of these elements. for figures forming an involution have selfcorredouble elements of the ' ' An involution has at most two double elements . 106.' ' ' 108. If is AA'BB' is projective to A'AB'X. on the same bearer. Project B'BVH from D and cut the eject hyui. form an involution. Every eject and every cut of an involution is an involution. HO.] involution. then every element has this property. 107. 105. 10.' For exam the points of a range. When two conjective ranges form an involution the two vanishing points coincide in a point called the center of the involution. coupled form an ' Involution. then by 104. If For project the range ABCD from Fand cut the eject by a . 89 B'BVH. they are identical. 109.
90 straight on A. When there are double elements. 1639... so are all corre2. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. then the elements no couple are separated by those of another couple. . Therefore ADCB is perspective to AB'CD'. and there are no double elements. projec which by hypothesis to ADCB.straights. the double elements.* *Due to Desargues. is For the projective correspondence AA'B completely determined by the three given pairs of correlated elements. . when the elements of one couple separate those of of another. So and C B and D are codots are on the connectors through C. 114'. then the elements of every couple are separated those of every other. in. 113. therefore by 1 1 the third codot. The cut AB'CD' tive is projective to is ABCD.. lated elements couples. . III. completely determined by two couples. cross So VCC is on the X of the joins DB' and BD'. If an involution has two double elements these sepaLet A and C be rate harmonically any two coupled elements. The three pairs of opconnectors of a tetrastim posite 114. 7\ A'AB' . An . Then ABCB' is is is projective to AB'CB  r no ABCB' involution harmonic. Inversely. by The three pairs of op posite fanpoints of a tetragram are projected from any projec tionvertex by three couples of an involution of. are cut by any transversal in three couples of a point involution. [Chap. and since among them is one couple. of the tetrastim VD'XB' while A '.
Art. and therefore ( to^'C042?( are i? and 115. Projective Conic Ranges. they are called perspective. bearer of the involution in C '. 22. i?'. and iV on m are harmonically sepaProb. To construct the sixth point given. Prob. C and C\ ' From 5. and with regard to which the couples of points of an involution on a given straight shall be conjugate points. M Art.] PROJECTIVE CONIC ranges. B'Q crossing join Join BT. Find the center RS cuts the O of a point involution of which two couples AA'BB' are given. and element of the one is on the correlated element of the every conic is projected from other. the projectionvertex Q y the ranges ATPR and ACA B r are perspective. so 105) . Four points on a conic are called harmonic if they are projected from any (and so every) fifth point on the conic by four harmonic straights. ST and QR. then so are they by the third pair. five points are which take any two points Q draw through C any straight. on the conic. It. B and '. A every point on it by a flat pencil perspective to it. To construct a conic which shall be on three given points. Inversely the pencilpoint of every flat pencil perspective to a conic is. 21. two conies are called projective when so correlated that every four harmonic elements of the one correspond to four harmonic elements of the 117. A'Q crossing at 5. 118. QT and RS are cut by in any transversal respectively A and A'. If a conic range and a flat pencil are projective. Join AT. . A conic and a primal figure or other. But A TPR and ABA' C is are perspective from Therefore ACA'B' and 6? projective to ABA'C. 116. on and T. 11. Prob. Since thus A and ^4' and C are coupled. 23. C of The an involution of which at R. If two points rated by two pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastim. 9t Let QRST connectors RT and be a tetrastim of which the pairs of opposite QS. 104).
[CHAP. so that B B B corresponds AA x X to u. at P. the corresponds to the common tangent at M. Two conies are projective if them are projective. but this completely pairs all the elements. pencils respectively Therefore any three perspective . since every conic is compendent.S2 119. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. 122. in Two different coplanar conic ranges with a point V common are projective if every two points costraight with correlated. and so In this case the straights VP and VP is on the point correlated to MP are on k. For any flat pencil M perspective in general a and with it determines must have in common with k every point which lies on its correlated straight of V. So if more than three straights of V were on their correlated points of k. say correlated. M correlated to it on k. second conic range which is to k they cross at their cotnmon point M must it cross again. projective conic ranges on the same curve form an involution if a pair of points are doubly correlated. pencil on . They can have at most three selfcorrelated points. therefore the two different conies if projective to F. Again. and its polar A AB r The Project AA B x cross of X from Br . AA X and BB call U. the conies would be identical and V perspective to k. V. and so divides its plane into two severed pieces. For both are then perspective to the flat Every common point other than V is selfcorrelated but V only when they have there a common tangent.elements in one can be correlated to any three elements in the other. least one. P In case they do not cross at their common point M. If a flat pencil V are V and conic range k are coplanar and but not perspective. flat Two two different conic ranges on the same bearer have at most 121. then at most three straights of projective the pencil are on their correlated points of the conic but at . selfcorrelated elements. III. Besides be any other two correlated and the couple V let Two AA X points. and so straight VM to the point 123. to 120.
of CU Therefore the point C correlated to C with the curve. the joins of ' coupled points are copunctal on the involutioncenter. same x . x conic. C A B C their correlated points of X X X be any kv The projective flat pencils A(A B C ) and A {ABC) have X X X AA X to a range on selfcorresponding. the cross of is AA . hence they are perspective of AB and A B with the cross of AC the join u of the cross X . To construct the selfcorrelated points of two pro jective conic ranges on the three points of k. Likewise the cross of x BA X X with BA on u.' 125. the involutioncenter lies without the conic bearer flat pencils. if these ranges form an involution. so do the all costraight pencils. and x .' pencils forming an involution are cut by each Two of their straights in two ranges forming an involution. If forming an involution. the polar of U. is the cross 124. Let A. B. with BB X . it two of an involution. 93 X X Project A AB t l from B. If two conic ranges form an all involution. So two conic conic ranges forming an involution are projected from each of their points in 126. The ejects are projective. X X B {AA B) and B(A AB } BB BB X X ments are therefore correlated straight costraight. 11. so are perspective. x . and the crosses of coupled tangents are on the ' involutionaxis. So C and C are coupled. 127.] projective conic ranges. and having the straight selfcorre) (or The crosses of their correlated elelated. Calling projective the conic pencils dual to projective conic ranges. has two double elements where it is cut by the involutionaxis.Art. X But the cross of BA X with its BA is known to be on u.
the ' center ' of that pole of a straight at infinity with respect to a certain conic is the center of the conic. 129. PBP A PBP A X X a PA P B 7\P B PA X X X . of a point at infinity with is The harmonic conjugate respect to the end points of a finite sect sect. At its is transversal double points the tangent to two of The double of point. Center and Diameter. If the dots of a tetrastim are opposite connectors form an involution. center of a conic the center of all chords on it. and is called a diameter. S. Prob. are projected from the other two dots Q. The crosses of the conic and n are the selfcorrelated points of k and k x . Two diameters are conjugate of the figurative point on the other. For the two flat pencils in which the two crosses of m with the conic. Therefore X X X . and consequently so are the cuts of these flat X pencils X X by X tn\ that is. P. [CHAP. ' ' The polar of any figurative point the conic. T. 24. and A X C. Copunctal tangents conies on which are the sides of a tetragram form an involution. are projective. Conies on which are the dots of a tetrastim are cut by a transversal in points of an involu to 129'. tion.94 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. 12. Art. 131. straights touch at the two those conies pencil those conies. Pi9 and two opposite dots R. The centers of all diameter are chords on straights conjugate to a on the diameter. The pairs of points in which a conic is cut by the straights of a pencil whose pencilpoint is not on the conic form an involution. this join III. ' The is on the centre of 133. on a conic. when each is the polar .' 132.' is The 134. 135. the six points where a straight not on a dot cuts the conic and two pairs of 128. But PA P B A P B PA X X . 130.. If a straight crosses a conic the sect between the crosses is called a ' chord.
137. 12. one pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is always separated by any other pair. The tangents at the crosses of a straight with a conic is cross on the diameter which a conjugate to that straight. 140. 142. 138. the asymptotes are the double straights of the involution. the tanbe constructed with ruler only. for its polar does not meet the curve. one diameter cuts the curve. Any one pair of conjugate diameters of a hyperbola is never separated by any other pair. The joins of any point on the conic to the crosses of a diameter with the conic are parallel to two conjugate diameters. and so there are no tangents from it to the 139. . Hence any two conjugate diamof a hyperbola are harmonically separated by the asympand since the hyperbola lies wholly in one of the two explemental angles made by the asymptotes. since the tangent cuts the harmonic pencil made by the diameter through B the conjugate diameter and the asymptotes. Every flat pencil is an involution of conjugates with Hence the pairs of conjugate diamto a given conic. eters totes . If a y the harmonic range ABCD where D is at infinity. The tancurve. each is on the centers of the chords parallel to the other and if one crosses the conic. in 143. respect eters of a conic form an involution. The centre of a parabola is the contact point of the The centre of a hyperbola lies without the figurative straight. If the conic is a hyperbola. the tangents at its crosses are parallel to the other diameter.] CENTER AND DIAMETER. The gents from the center to the hyperbola are called asymptotes. curve.ART. center of an ellipse is within it. 95 136. Of two conjugate diameters. and so straights conjugate to the diameter. since the figurative straight crosses the curve.' Their contactpoints are the two points at infinity on the ' curve. however many chords on 141. the other does not. If a gents at its crosses can diameter which cuts the curve be given. Just so the . Any and tangent to a hyperbola cuts the asymptotes at A then the contactpoint B is the center of the sect AC.
f . . parallel Prob. 28. is [CHAP. the figurative straight. 13. planes. C. Prob. are just oo there Pointspace is tridimensional. As many structed With ruler points as desired of a conic may be conthe ruler alone. 144. For example Of two projective primal figures (say ranges) on the same bearer. On a point are oo 1 00 2 planes. original ranges in the required selfcorrelated points. find a point two given points A. for its polar 145. 27. by the aid of one fixed conic all problems solvable by and compasses can be solved by ruler alone. The ejects cut the bearer of the Project these from V.. so planes of planespace. 3 there are just oo points. a ' pointfield. 5 On a plane are 00 points. the center of the sect Prob. given three : pairs of correlated elements to find the selfcorresponding ele ments. These Project the two ranges from any point ejects are cut by the conic in Of these determine the selfcorrelated points by 127. Given a conic and its center. A eters Art. In an ellipse let CA. 25. if there be any. V of the given conic. a 1 ' planesheaf. Plane and Point Duality.' 147. 146'. CB with the curve. The oo planes of a sin The gle axial pencil have on them all gle range have on them 3 points of a sinall the so the points of pointspace. Let Then CB' is the diameter conjugate it cut the curve again at B to CB. Find the crosses of a straight with a conic given only by for five points'. Planespace is tridimensional.' 147'. by pure projective geometry. If a point the center of the costraight sect bounded is the center of two chords is it is the center of the conic. B such that AB shall be C. that is. and B be crosses of conjugate diamThrough A' the cross of the diameter conjugate to CA with the curve draw a parallel to the join AB. IIL center of any chord by the asymptotes. projective conic ranges.96 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. two coinitial sects is The join of the other extremities of to the join of their centers. Prob. 26. 146!.
i50j. then the meets <xa' y ftft\ are coplanar. determine a 152'. Three points determine a plane. a' ft'y' are such that the meets fty and ft'y'. on its A range and a point not bearer determine a flat mine a pencil. 29. a straight are 00 3 00 points. y" which are costraight. a a 'straightfield. 155^ Three planes determine a planesheaf. 155'. 149'. their junction. Thus all the pure projective geometry on a plane may be read as geometry on a point. Any figure. A it not on pass. 2 and so 2 straights. 13. ration Prob. pencil. . points determine an axial angle. are coplanar. Two Two points determine a points determine a straight. their apex. plane and a straight determine a point. Prob. ft". their meet.Art. i49j.' 00 1 planes. An flat plane not on pencil and a bearer deter 153'. their axial its A it point and a straight not on determine a plane. yoc and y'a\ aft and a' ft' lie on three yy' planes a". an Two Two axialpencil range on planes 151'. their join. gives a dual figure or proves a dual theorem by simply interchanging point with plane. so there are just straights. straights of a so there are just straights. 156'. Two planes determine on their meet. 154^ Three planes determine a point. If of straights copunctal in pairs not then all are coplanar. 150'. space 2 of four dimen sions. 152. or the proof of any theorem of configuand determination. 156^ Three points determine a pointfield. planes determine a straight. With the straight as element. their join. oo 4 straightsheaf. iVo coplanar straights Two copunctal straights are copunctal. i53j.. 97 is 148. On a given point put a straight to cut two given straights. On a plane are oo straights. 157. If two triplets of planes afty. 15 1 j. Two bounding bounding sect. 30. all are copunctal. 154'.] PLANE AND POINT DUALITY. oo 2 On each of the 00 a plane are the oo 4 points on straights of a 00 On each of the oo 2 planes on a point are the straightfield. 31. Prob. and so 00 3 straights.' On a straight are straightsheaf. 1 On On a point are oo 2 straights.
2 all three.. sponding. m^ cuts every element of the ruled system. ranges of the ruled system (on the bearers straight iv7V2 (or pencils. is coplanar with . .' which is the bearer of both. two each point of this ruled surface are two and only straights lying wholly in the surface (one in each ruled On .n iy // 2 be any three of the elements of a ruled system. and so m and m coplanar. 14. or system cut all indeed the ruled surface. the construction follows that the straights of either ruled the straights of the other in projective ranges. Art. a 'ruled Either of these two systems may be considered as generating Each of the surface.. Describe the figures in space dual to the polystim and the polygram. is two systems completely determined by any three straights From of the other. [Chap. are identical. Prob. 158. Of the straights so obtained no two cross. all cutting straights of the original ruled system and making * on every two projective ranges. Let the straights n. 32. Ruled Quadric Surfaces./ 2 Put a plane on iV2 and the straight n if and let its pass with n be called N./. is. 160. and therefore so is the ruled surface also. ' ' The joins of the correlated points of two projective whose bearers are not coplanar form a ruled system ranges of straights no two coplanar. and iV2 any point on . for that would make two of the first ruled system coplanar. Therefore every pair of correlated points of the ranges on m and . contrary x x to hypothesis./ 2 that x two projective axial mji mjt^ selfcorre. Projecting the generating and ) from the m m Y m Q) as axis produces which having three planes m 2 n. 159. So any two straights of either system may be considered as bearers of projective ranges generating the other system. III. straight NN^ cuts n> n iy n. By varying all the oo 1 the point N^ 00 straights are obtained. then two points on the bearer tn and two on the bearer m would all four be on this plane.98 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. The . For were two coplanar.
completely determine a hyperbolicparaboloid. points Therefore the plane at infinity common cuts the surface in a straight and so has a second straight in with the ruled surface. the ruled surface is called a hyper' bolicparaboloid.' hyperbolicparaboloid completely determined by two nonand an asymptoteplane cutting them. The passes of planes on tnv ///. If in the two generating projective ranges the point at infinity of one is correlated to the point at infinity of the other. A Three noncrossing straights. and join the meets.' The is join of these figurative on the figurative plane. So a plane on one straight of the ruled surface on another straight of this 161. 14. n /. Therefore the figurative straight joining the figurative points of n and 162.] ruled quadric surfaces. to any plane on/. and /the element at infinity. 99 is system). 163. . 161 follows that same ruled system on a hyperbolicparaboloid are the straights pertaining to the parallel to ' same Such planes is are called asymptoteplanes. plane. a parallelaxialpencil. is make wholly on the ruled surface. be the given straights. all From plane. and let Call the bearers of the generating ranges m and lt n be any two elements. also surface. To coplanar straights get an element cut the two given straights by any plane parallel to the asymptoteplane. % m . By 159 the ruled surface may be considered as generated by the x m But all these straights straights on the three elements n. namely. all parallel to the same Let m. That a hyperbolicparaboloid has two straights in common with the plane at infinity may also be proved as follows : n. #.Art. and cut any two of the original elements in projective ranges with the figurative points correlated. must be parallel to the same plane. On /and each one of these straights put a plane these planes x .
the plane at infinity cuts the ruled surface in a pair of If not. If hyperboloid of one nappe.100 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. For the figurative plane cuts the hyperboloid of one nappe in a conic curve. straight not wholly on the surface can cut it in more than two points. If two noncoplanar projective ranges be each axially projected from the bearer of the other. it is a hyperbolicparaboloid. but cuts the hyperbolicparaboloid in two straights and each of the copunctal straights . with those planes correlated on which are If A. and the conic generated by these surface. A be correlated the correlated points of the ranges.. 164. Copunctal straights parthe generating elements of a hyperboloid of one nappe are on a cone. then the straight 1 AA is this will cut these axial pencils in two projective will flat pencils. two projective axial pencils are formed. III. erate a ruled system. points. The surface is therefore of the second degree Hence no (quadric). be the cut of the ruled So every plane cuts it in a conic or a pair of straights. Therefore their points at infinity are correlated and the ruled surface is a hyperbolicparaboloid. Copunctal straights parallel to the generating elements of a hyperbolicparaboloid are on a system of two planes. [CHAP. it is called a straights. l the meet of correlated planes. 1 fig allel to 164J. 165. with m and m l are projective ranges whose joins are a ruled system. Each straight in one ruled system of a hyperboloid of . goes to a point of the figurative cut.' a ure of which is here shown. Thus two projective axial pencils with axes not coplanar genIf the whole figure be cut by a plane. But from the hypothesis one of these planes is parallel to both m and m.
but only to one. By a fourth harmonic is determined lying in a ruled system with they are cut in four the given three and on a fourth harmonic point to any three costraight points of the given three. is 101 one nappe loid parallel to one.ART. Again. be the bearers of the generating ranges R and R. called a 167! guidestraight A of ruled system its is A ruled system is pro any two guidestraights in jected from any two of cils. of one cutting the ruled surface in a straight n of the other ruled system and consequently also in a straight ruled system has in common with the surface no point not on 169. 168.. . the point tnn. 14] RULED QUADRIC SURFACES. one ruled system. straight in the other ruled system. But for the hyperbolicparaboloid 66. m m it % be any three guidestraights of the ruled and in projective ranges the system. If V is the vanishing point of R. its guide projective ranges. is a tangent. then the straight on no two are V parallel 1 to n x is an element of the other ruled system. no two coplanar. the planes on m^ cut joins of whose correlated points are the elements of the ruled be projected axially from t system. Let n and n any two elements of parallel. if the points on and * the meets of the planes so correlated are the ele1 m m m m ments of the ruled system. Any third straight coplanar with m and n on their cross has no second point in common with the surface and so one of these straights. . Of the straights on a hyperbolicparabox . Fis itself a figurative point. cut by 167'. Four if straights of a ruled system are called harmonic harmonic points by one (and so straights three straights. straights in projective axial pen For if m. by every) guidestraight. which is impossible. and the plane of m and n is called tangent at their cross. is Any ' straight of ' one ruled system on a ruled surface of the other ruled system. A plane m For any straight from such a point cutting both these straights would lie wholly on the ruled surface and so therefore would their whole plane.
one. of which in general three points at most lie on the correspond ing planes of the pencil. totecone. All such planes form a cone of planes. the points on its cut with a plane form a cone of planes. or no element of the asympis. IIL The number of planes tangent to the ruled surface and on a given straight equals the number of points the straight has in common with the ruled surface.102 PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. 172. 174. is and so in on the plane. Each element to the asymptotecone is parallel to one element of each ruled system. points of contact of these planes with the ruled surface The planes tangent to a ruled surface at are a conic range. Any it is nappe cuts plane not on an element of the hyperboloid of one it in a hyperbola. The plane of any two correlated straights is on an element of the ruled system. in they generate general a ' twisted cubic curve. or no point. [CHAP. cut of a hyperbolicparaboloid by a plane not on an element has on it the meets of the plane with the two figu171. The figurative plane a tangent plane. copunctal and forming a cone of planes tangent to the asymptotecone of the ' ' hyperboloid. The The rative elements. parabola. one. The eject consists of two copunctal projective flat pencils. or ellipse. is is a hyperbola except when their cross which case it is a parabola.' which any plane cuts in one point at least and three at most. is of the second class. Project the two generating ranges of a ruled system from any projectionvertex Fnot on it. The ruled quadric surface is the only surface doubly . an axial pencil and a ruled system are projective. For a plane cuts the ruled system in a conic range perspective to it. If according as it has in common with the figu on the hyperboloid two points. The planes tangent at the figurative points of a hyperboloid of one nappe are all proper planes. that is two so the ruled . that rative conic 173. according as parallel to two elements. surface 170.
To and consequently projective.t . If now uK in a straight m of the ruled system crosses u A then the two correlated planes of which this straight m is the meet must cut the same point. Prob. Journal de l'Scole polytechnique. S3. Three diagonals of a skew hexagram whose six sides are on a ruled surface are copunctal. 1 x . such (the points common to u t and the ruled surface). 14.* figure of 175. t R .] . Vol. 35. This important problem ' straights. what is common the fourdimensional space of to four straights ? is the analogue in ' ' ' the space of points.Art. 34. u % u t be the given straights. what is common to three planes? of the problem in * fundamental diversity. straights (real or conjugate imaginary) crossing four Their construction is shown to depend on straights. I. . each u. Projecting the range on ux from the axes u 2 and u % gives two axial pencils. u %r and form a ruled system of which u lt u 2 u z are guidestraights. are Prob. 103 of the ruled. It shows not only their ently quadratic character of straightsgeometry. * *See Monge. The meets of perspective to their correlated planes are all the oo straights on u . The two ' two same kind and on the same bearer projective axialpencils cut the fourth straight u K in [Two projective primal figures of the conjective ranges. . so there are two given that for the two selfcorrelated points of two conjective ranges. as the inhercompared to pointsgeometry and planesgeometry.] ruled quadric surfaces. two so united ruled systems is one most noteworthy discovered by the modern geometry. ' are called conjective. but also.u^. then straights a hypercorrelated straights of the pencil form one ruled system of bolicparaboloid.Find the straights cutting two given straights parallel to a third. and Prob. The Let u lt R t find the straights crossing four given straights. which consequently is a selfcorrespondSince there are two ing point of the two conjective ranges. If a flat pencil and a range not on parallel planes on the points of the range parallel to the projective. what is common to three points?' and its dual in the space of planes.
and any ratio is a number. Then is deduced that the number prefour costraight points. Thus analytic geometry and metric geometry may be founded without using ratio in its old sense.104 Prob. without making any use of measurement. III. + or .' so that AC = CA. and thus Beitrage zur Geometrie der Lage. CrossRatio. Relinquishing for brevity this pure projective standpoint and reverting to the old metric usages where an angle is an inclination. and that of Riemann in which the straight has no point at infinity. involving measurement. [CllAP. may be correlated to one point of a straight. f The fundamental property of crossratio lections of Pappus. Lindemann has shown how every one number. tire Euclidean geometry. the called the crossratio of the range ABCD where and B. which distinguishes sharply the projective and metric properties of curves. without any comparison of sects by application of a unit He gets an analytic definition of the crossratio of sect. wherein the straight has one may but only one point at infinity. may points sect divided internally ratio projective definition of number.\ * Von Staudt in A [AC/BC]/[AD/BD] is and is written [ABCB] of the crossratio.D. What is the locus of a point harmonically separated ? from a given point by a ruled surface Art. PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. determines the makes the metric geometry a consestated in the Mathematical Colis quence of projective geometry. a sect is a piece of a straight. Thus also the nonEuclidean geometries. whether or irrational. distinguishing the sect AC from CA as of opposite * sense. 1822. . about is 370 A. 36. 15. that of BolyaiLobachevski in which the straight has two points at infinity. integer. The crossratio the basis of Poncelet's Traite des propriety projectives. viously attached to a point on a straight is the same as the crossratio of that point with three fixed points of the straight. 176.* ' ' Then this expression is applied to four copunctal straights. be treated together with the limiting case of each between them. called conjugate be looked upon as the extremities of a or externally by C and again by D. 185660. fraction.
VC sin (be). VD sin (bd).' and figures are projective. D approaches the point at crossratio infinity. [A BCD] Therefore = [sin (ae)/s'm (&)]/[sin ^/sin (&/)] . then Z\ coincides with Z>. C/B Cn. D figurative A C/BC. but on opposite sides if n be negative. AD/BD is ap proaches equals 180. If un ABCD respectively be the straights abed co punctal on V. BB'. If = [A' B'CD'] =A . of the two figures. AD/BD = A A VD/ABVD = iA V.] crossratio. Join AA'.Art. on C take A' and B' such that CA'/CB' =n. iV^ Let perspective. The For if parallel to A' B' on Fwill cut AB in the required D.or ). A' and straight B' lying on the same side of C if n be positive. then A' B'CD' is a cut of the eject . [OXMM'] = [OXNN']. 15. be complete plane perspectives. [ABCD] 181. flat pencil V[abcd] or axial be taken the crossratio of the cut ABCD Two As 1. M and M' be [OM/XM]/[ON/XN] = [OM>'/XM']/[ON> /XN'\ Therefore [OM/XM]/[OM' /XM'] = [ON/XN]/[ON' /XN']. Given three costraight points to find D so that On any ma)' equal a given number n (. . VD sin (ad)/bV. Then [OXMN] = [OXM'N']. 178. inversely two equicross primal 179. If any pair of correlated points and N' another pair of correlated points lying on the straight OMM' whose cross with the axis of perspective is X. Thus as the crossratio of any on any pencil u(a/3yd) may transversal. four figures costraight points (or copunctal straights) in one are equicross with the correlated four in the other. so .. That is. 105 177. crossing in V. VC sin (ac)/\B V. The [ABCD] when ABC. or the crossratio [OXMM'] ' That is. D' be the point at infinity on A'B\ and ABCD be projected [ABCD] from V. then A C/BC= A A VC/AB VC or A C/BC = iA V. Let O be the center of [ABCD] two = \ABCD^ 182. projective primal figures are 'equicross.
If from any point of the sect between the contactpoints of a pair of tangents to a parabola straights be drawn parallel to these tangents. then the center of perspective is called the 'symcenter. 38.' When the correlation is involutorial and the axis of perspective is figurative. So \dXMM']=\_dYLLJ] constant for It is called all or the crossratio \OXMM'\ pairs of correlated points. is 'involutorial. ruler alone find the center of the sect and draw a parallel Prob. If the sides of a trigram are tangent to a conic. is OYLL'. are coupled.106 is PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. IIL constant for pairs of correlated points M and M' taken Since on a straight OX on OLL the center of perspective. therefore be projected from Z. the join of their proper crosses with the tangents will be a tangent.' and the complete plane perspectives are said to be symcentral. all [CHAP. on the polar of the third Prob. Prob.' ' With the to it. When the is harmonic. and two i. Prob. the cut of the eject by OY .' When is the correlation is involutorial and the center of the figurative point on a perpendicular to the perspective axis of perspective. . Y the cross of LM if and L M' ' OXMM' is cross on some point Z of the axis XY. In a plane are given a parallelogram and any sect. the 'parameter' of the correlation. 40. and the OXMM' correlation 183. ' symmetrical. this is called the 'axis of symmetry/ and the complete plane perspectives are said to be 184. The locus of a point such that its joins to four given points have a given crossratio is a conic on which are the points. the joins of two of its fanpoints to any point are conjugate with respect to the conic. the range parameter equals correlated elements correspond doubly. 37. 39. Next let L and L' be another pair of correlated points and with the axis of perspective.
. the hyperbolic and circular functions will be obvious at every step. x . 175. j/2 ). and O^A 2 O A lt x P P l . etc. By James McMahon. .). HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.] CORRESPONDENCE OF POINTS ON CONICS.. p.. Art. . note cosh u. 1. sin cp. derive their name from the early attempts of mathemati cians at the rectification of the ellipse. Functions." (Greenhill. 1. or the ellipse. To a certain extent this a because we employ the name hyperbolic function to de.' W is * The hyperbolic functions are not so named on account of any analogy " The with what are termed Elliptic Functions. and thence the elliptic functions. by analytic geometry. sinh u. either both ellipses or both hyperbolas. nates referred to the respective pairs of conjugate directions be (x jp. . since the same set of of in and the analogy connection with either the hyperbola convenient to begin with the theory of correspondence of points on two central conics of like species. and let their coordilet 2 1 . i.ART. 9 ~ a.* It is equations can be read To 1 2 B^ conjugate radii of any other central conic of the same species be two points on the curves.' ' b? ai 6. by analogy with which the elliptic functions would be . etc. Correspondence of Points on Conics. then. let radii of a central conic.) . way for a general treatment of the hyperis To prepare the given on the relations between hyperbolic sectors. disadvantage.. B be conjugate obtain a definition of corresponding points. . (x 2 .e. 10? Chapter IV. elliptic integrals. including bolic functions a preliminary discussion the circle. The method adopted is such as to apply at the same time to sectors of the ellipse. Assistant Professor of Mathematics in Cornell University. Elliptic merely the circular functions cos <p. .
then If are called corresponding points in the two systems.' b x b* the equalities referring to sign as well as magnitude. In discussing the relations between corresponding areas it convenient to adopt the following use of the word " measure": The measure of any area connected with a given central conic is the ratio which it bears to the constant area of the triangle is formed by two conjugate diameters of the same x conic. x x For example. IV. 3 P Q x . a be so situated that (2) a x a. then the sector and tri angle O Q are said to correspond respectively with the These definitions will apply also sector and triangle 7 O^Q^. the points x 2 being to any two pairs of conjugate diameters of the same conic. then referred when the conies coincide. if [Chap. % be another pair of correspondents. P Q x . Now the points P P 1 . x x P x P P P .108 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. the measure of the sector A OP is the ratio sector triangle A OP A OB x x x x x x .
P2 have equal measfor the initial points A l9 A.y (x '. 2) but the of these infinitesimal given sectors are the limits of the sums . triangles. O^A.0. x x x ). 2. corresponding sectors then the respective infinitesimal corre. then their terminal points correspond. wi immjSUbww u hii mm H M W mm m i ii i iii n i i i i ii r i i n i the coordinates of x . a i K\ 7\ i^A sm y^ __ */ y^ &i i i a ' i &i l K _ j(xjr 'xM t sin a>. It may be proved if conversely by an obvious reductio ad initial points of two equalmeasured sectors correspond. lt it % x x x . and lines. hence ^ ^ k = k. let the PfiJ2i De T T and let the measuring tritriangles P O Q A O B A O B be K K and their angles aolt g? angles For. x x x w (4) ures In particular. taking account of both direction of angles. to be 109 and x x is x A OP and A OB x x regarded as positive or negative according as are at the same or opposite sides of their x common initial line. divided up into infinitesimal . the sectors A O Pxs A. . then. two t equalmeasured sectors whose terminal radii are OP OP . t t t t . conceive the sectors Sl9 S. Areas of Corresponding Triangles. are corresponding points. 3. 2 t f x x x . = ~\ Art. x x 3 . areas. by magnitude T\ _ \{xy . be the initial lines of x x. absurdum that the Thus if any radii OA x x . sponding triangles have equal measures (Art. Art.Art. ii i P Q be (x . 2 .y )sm f x x gd x _ x. and analytic geometry. Areas of Corresponding Sectors.x.y '\ and let those of their correspondents P g be (xit y ) (x^y/). _ x\ a2 / y/ bt _ x^^ a t b^ (3) \ 3 \<*J>* sin g? 2 Therefore J3. let The < areas of corresponding triangles have equal measures. The For areas of corresponding sectors have equal measures.] areas of corresponding sectors. .
tween the sectorial measure and each of its characteristic ratios. to the median as O P\QV POQ x x x is bisected by the line (Refer the points axis of P Q lt x . Art. IV.. For.) Prob. Ratios Expressed as Trianglemeasures. and OB bx . Prove that the measure of a circular sector its is equal to the radian measure of 3. let the triangle A O P and its complementary triangle P O B be denoted by triangle of a sector x x The x l x 1 T x . re common opposite conjugate directions as axis of y. x the conjugate radius are called the charac.110 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. x. 3). O A =#. 4. then the ratios xja yjb x . O that is..e. angle. x be any sector of a central conic. elliptic Find the measure of an quadrant. are corresponding points referred respectively to the pairs of conjugate directions Ot lt O B and vA v O^B^. are then corresponding points. Characteristic Ratios of Sectorial Measures. [CHAP. 2. parallel x x to the tangent at A x \ X =y. then T K x _ ^^ l l sino? 1 _^ 1 (s) . 7V. *i * y: y* Prob. 5. Art. X let x O x x M = x MP x ordinate to xi OA X i. x x the given sectorial measure S /K These ratios are constant both in magnitude and sign for all sectors teristic ratios of of the same measure and species wherever these may be situ Hence there exists a functional relation beated (Art. and to the two and show that Q P x . Prob. and of the sector included by conjugate radii. and its complementary triangle are measured by the two characteristic ratios. x Prove that the sector to the midpoint of joining spectively. x Let A OP = x x PM X vS. xJ 2 tken P P A x x . draw x . i.
(7) Given x x = \a\\ find the A1O1P1. let the angle Afi^P^ = the latter pair being at 6 in radian measure. . Also find 5. down the relation between an elliptic sector and 5. XI. (See Art.B^. K sin % bn [*. lines and these express that the right. ELLIPSE. = *.ART. a? = elliptic sector 6o. 7. the case of the hyperbola S. Write ratios of an elliptic sector measure Prob. Functional Relations for Ellipse. ratio of the on the left is a certain definite function of the ratio of the two areas on the These functions are called by analogy the hyperbolic . . right angles . 6. 7. b x K. Prob.] FUNCTIONAL RELATIONS FOR 6. Art. P be corresponding points on an ellipse 2 and a circle. Ill Art. then K. are the same in cluding circular. 1/7 ' (6) = cos 1 at hence. 4). Prob. Functional Relations for Hyperbola. 4.) its triangle. in the ellipse. Let/*. cosh J = sinh two . sectors (Art. referred dix 6 to the conjugate rections O A O x B and 2 A0.. ^ cos = sin measure of the 4. is its area when a x = = 3. whose Find the characteristic \n. The functional relations between a sectorial measure and its characteristic ratios in may be written in the form . its The for all functional relations that exist between the sectorial characteristic ratios measure and each of elliptic. by Art.
(11) will readily the value of any when tanh u is given. sech u : csch u cosh u = sinh u . ) Equations serve to express (9)." etc. .112 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. so that when the numerical value of one of the functions Four of is given. Art. : tanh u = = sinh u cosh& 7. and applying (9). the six functions there are five independent relations. cotangent. dividing sinh u.. The < K giving cosh* 11 ' sinh & 2 = 1. Thus. sech u =J 1 tanh u.be obtained. (10} By a combination of 2 some of these equations other subsidi(10) successively ary relations by cosh 2 u. secant. J The names " hsine.  coth u = cosh& sinh i w (9> >. cosine ana the nyperbolic sine. For example. 2 coth u = tanh u . may. thus. give 1 2 tanh u coth u 2 1 = sech = csch 2 u y ) 2 u." M of these functions may be read " hcosine. [CHAP."' htangent. Relations between Hyperbolic Functions. rial measure u and cosecant are then defined as follows . . writing u for V ' S /Kv x the two equations X _ L = cosh u t 7^ = sinh u (8) serve to define the hyperbolic cosine and sine of a given sectoand the hyperbolic tangent. the values of the other five can be found. Among these relations consist of the four defining equations fifth is derived from the equation of the hyperbola (9). 8. function in terms of any other. IV. (10). .
tanh u. which . csch u. csch u. because the primary char: acteristic ratio x /a x the abscissa O M x x x is positive. For draw the tangent /.] relations between hyperbolic functions. = a/ I The ambiguity in the sign of the square root may usually be removed by the following considerations The functions cosh u. . given in magnitude and the value of any of the six ti. coth u.Art. on which ever branch of the hyperbola may be situated. tions sinh u. sech u are always positive. but the functions sinh u. tanh # tanh 2 # tanh u 2 tanh # 2 csch u . i 113 cosh u = V i I . sinh u = y I tanh u .e. as the ratio of The hyperbolic tangent may be expressed two lines. tanh sign. there is ?/. . since the initial line OA x x and x are similarly directed from O x . involve the other characx P is positive or negative according as or opposite signs. 8. i. as the measure y and b x have the same u is positive or negative hence these four functions are either Thus when any one of the funcall positive or all negative.. coth in no ambiguity . there shall be all positive or all negative. line^C= tanh u then =y b . is but when either cosh u or sech u is hyperbolic functions is ambiguity as to whether the other four functions given. teristic ratio x y /b x .
to the upper one. csch u may each be expressed as the ratio of two lines. 10. intercepts OS n\ m. and passes to infinity on the upper branch . (Use tables of cos. n. sech u. sin. u.114 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. let OA = 2 OB=i. then coth u Prob. 1. 6o. Since the functions cosh sinh u tanh u. that is. sech u 10. 9. AOB = . measure u assumes every value from through o. in the elliptic sector. tracing their varito consider only sectors of one convenient. Modify also eqs. Prob. in R. swings from the lower asymptotic posiIt is here assumed. let the tangent at B. Express all the hyperbolic functions in terms of sinh Given cosh u = 2. find the values of the other functions. y = x. Prove from eqs. that cosh&> sinh u. Show that coth u. the sector but as proved in Art. and area of sector A OP = 3. this for the ellipse. as the terminal point P comes in from infinity on the lower branch. 7.) 9. for y any position . cosh#>i. as follows: Let the tangent at make on the conjugate axes OA. In the figure of Art. Variations of the Hyperbolic Functions. sinh. sech u = m/a. [Chap. to the conjugate hyperbola. The measure of segment AMP sinh u cosh u Modify 8. The sectorial 00. tanh u < < 1. 17. = l/a. find the sectorial measure. an d probs. OB. IV. and the two characteristic ratios. to f 00 . Prob. and also in the hyperbolic sector. and find the area of the triangle A OP. 10. u. that A OP becomes infinite P passes to infinity. Prob. in rectangular hyperbola. 8. line of all the sectors. Since the values of the hyperbolic functions depend only on the sectorial measure. Prob. Art. meet = P OT = OP making BR = I. r. as the terminal line OP tion y is = x. csch u is = n/b. cosh. whose and to take the conjugate principal axis OA as the common initial of a radii are equal. n. half it is ations. 1014. u.
25. are represented by the ordinate. 9. page 114. but tanh u approaches unity cosh go = 00 . = A OP. as u changes from zero towards the negative side. (15) and that as u increases towards positive infinity. evident from the figure that t. but sinh u negative and increases numerically from zero to a and tanh u is also negative and increases negative from zero to negative unity hence numerically is infinite. functions can be found from the formulas of Arts. sinh 00 = co . 12.) is infinite. Art. cosh ( 00) = 00 . general idea of their manner of variation can be obtained from the curves in A abscissa. (17) For intermediate values of u the numerical values of these 16. Prob. cosh u is positive and increases from unity to infinity. 0P it is X to the principal radius cosh o=l. (12) to figure. csch u. > J (18) tanh u. same order when u cosh u are of u. cosh infinite.] VARIATIONS OF THE HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. from u. 17 that sinh infinitely higher than the order Prob. as u passes 00 to }. (16) Again. prove tanh tan u. Trace the changes in sech u> coth u. . y. 13. etc. cosh sech () = + ()= + ( cosn u sech > smn csch (~~ u ) = ~~ sm ^ u csch > ?/. //. and in Art. as indicated above. coth = u) coth u. cosh u are infinites of the . 115 of a. are equal to the ratios of x. Applying eq. . tanh u) = ()= ( ) u. tanh 0=0. sinh u. sinh ( 00) = 00. 17. tanh ( 00 ) = 1. (It will infinites of an order appear in Art.. in which the sectorial measure u is represented by the and the values of the functions cosh u.ART. and are tabulated at the end of this chapter. sinh u are positive and as a limit thus . evident from the definitions.00 Show that sinh #. The Thus relations between the functions of u and of u are 8. become sinh = 0. tanh 00 = 1.
may u also be expressed by the inverse notation u t = cosh 1 x . Art. i.. signs of the 1 other csch" . Prove the following relations: cosh" 1 /^ = sinh" 1 Vm* 1. Let OB. . (x. t //.. [CHAP. and let the sectors AOP.. Q' be (x j/. y). with opposite signs. The equations X = cosh u. Functions of Sums and Differences. .." etc. from the tables for cosh. ) cosh v sinh u sinh I ) 09) Let OA AOQ sector be any radius of a hyperbola. Prob. correspond to a given value of cosh u. the equation sech u 1 _1 coth 1 functions sinh //z. find 15. u is a twovalued function of m. OB.OB i. OQ. tanh f. Similarly the will stand for the positive value of u that = ///. Antihyperbolic Functions. are the same as the sign of m.AOB 6o. x to Since there are two values of u. or " u is the antihcosine of x/a./. the upper or lower sign being used according as _1 1 cos" Modify these relations for sin negative.) if the abscissa of (Find cosh Prob. that it follows that if u be determined from the equation cosh u = m. In figure. = The . m is positive. v is the measure of the have the measures u. etc. Art. Q. f . v. sinh 7 = tanh u. The symbol cosh" 1 tn will be used to denote the positive value of u that satisfies 1 symbol sech" satisfies m the equation cosh u m. OQ and let l . sinh" 1 //* = . 14.). and of the segment y 1 is 3. y r = . = sinh _1 y .let OA the area of the hyperbolic sector AOP. IV. u = tanh 1 T.116 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. where m is a given number greater than unity. Hence all of the antihyperbolic functions of real numbers are onevalued. (x' y') with reference to the axes OA. = = = AMP P Art. etc. cosh" 1 Vm* f 1. v\ then u be the radii conjugate to OA. (a) 11. then QOP.. which may be read: "u is the sectorial measure whose hyperbolic cosine is the ratio a" etc. 10. or 2. the coordinates of P. To sinh prove the differenceformulas sinh u cosh v cosh (// v) cosh (u = = cosh u v) // sinh v.
and the same language win apply. that the second equation of (20) will be x'/a y/b except x = x.ART. and the language all. therefore sin (u cos {u (b) = sin u cos v = cos u cos v v) v) cos u sin f v. cosh (u v) = cosh u is cosh ^ sinh u sinh is In the figures u positive and v positive or negative. 1 similar figures be drawn. hence z>. Q' are extremities of conjugate radii . ikr 117 [Art. x \a x b sin a? b ax b ax = sinh & cosh cosh u sinh # cosh (u ^) cosh SeCt r ^P = y b: triangle /W bx [Arfc $> KxyyS) sin Jtf. Other figures in may may be drawn with u negative. (20) but since Q. sinh (  Q = sinh _ sector ^ sin z> = tria "g le ggg K^Ji ^) x < _ ~~ j^i x % yx x . v. 5. 11. the text will apply to In the case of elliptic sectors. sin u sin To prove the sumformulas sinh (u cosh ( + v) sinh u cosh v + cosh u sinh + v) = cosh a cosh v + sm ^ w smh v (19) v.] FUNCTIONS OF SUMS AND DIFFERENCES.^ sin g? &?_ y ^ _#< ^ a x a.  ) (21) S These equations follow from by changing v into v % .
) 2) x u 7). (18)). u = + anh i* sinh t^\~r. 1/ 1 tanh u 3 3 j . 12.2 sinh u 2 cosh u cosh 211 sinh ^ cosh'tt 2 2 1 2 cosh #. = 4 cosh'tf 3 cosh ^. Prob. (22) is ob Prob. . 2. 18. V Writing tanh s>) =s cosh (u )  v. sinh 2U sinh 3# 7. 17 for the same purpose. 9 ). sinh #.~ cosh J(. sinh it. tanh }* . cosh 1 /# sinh _1 cosh _1 sinh 1 >z == cosh~ 1 \_mn _1 y(m 1 9 2 i)(tz i)J.tanh u . 16. writing sinh v. 2. IV. cosh u t j = 2 sinh \{u x x sinh #. 3. 1 cosh u = = + . 12. Conversion Formulas. and show also what it becomes when a 2 2 2 2 sin 7. cosh u tanh u = cosh u 1 = 1 /cosh : i\* . sinh u % = 2 sinh \{u = 2 cosh \{u x + + +& sinh (#. 17.118 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. expanding and dividing z/.)=cosh (& f. 1.. sinh (?/. find cosh (u \. + = + 11. = + z/ = = 1. Prove the following identities: 2 sinh u cosh sinh 27/ 2 2 2 1 f.v) sinh (# jsmn )(cosh v (cosh u=v= 9. (c) V To prove v ( that tann = (uv) = itanhtanhv v ' . Modify the identities of Prob. ' cosh 1 4' = 2 _ cosh 2U tanh u = 3 sinh w 4 sinh cosh ii. To prove that cosh cosh u j+ cosh u 1 % 2 cosh \{u x \ u 9 ) cosh \(u &. 19. 6. Generalize (8). v) numerator and denominator by cosh & cosh tained. What modifications of signs are required in (21). . . = 1 sinh + :  5. 9. and then v) t cosh ( v). (22) . + + + v). # a ). Prob. Art. sinh ^: cos'_v 8. sinh u \cosh u j2 i4. ^ a) . cosh u 2 sinh . Given cosh u = . 4. for sinh ( [CHAP. sinh ^: cosh a: sin v 10. # a). . cosh v (Art.z>). 1 tann # sinh z. in order to pass to circular functions Prob. * t. . eqs. . cosh = 3. eq. w = sinh [w y ? + 2 yi + *?i (22).
approaches zero. u == o u u (24) \V . it 119 From the addition formulas follows that v) z/.Tience Hm. # 2 )> these equations take the form required. 20. (. Limiting Ratios.Art. 24. sech =: i. Jrr ^ L vJCk* 1 ^ < sinh u ^ u < u cosh u . Prob. 2i. 23. tanh ^ u ==. Prove sinh . cosh 2U . show that the only modification to be made in the conversion formulas is in the algebraic sign of the righthand member of the second formula. and v = = 2 cosh & cosh cosh + v "" cosn (&?>) = 2 sinh & sinh v. sinh (& sinh ( ^) 2 cosn w smn ^> sinh (# + z ~~ smn (^ ~ *0 v = u %t u = \{u + then by writing u\v = u iy u cosh (u ( f v) J) cosh (u f f z^) x a )..y 2 = sinh (x \y) sinh (x sinh 2 2 Prob. of tanh u u in form. Simplify cosh cosh 2 ^ * sinh ^. Prob. 2 ji>. and if sinh u and tanh u inequalities. (14). = 2 sinh & cosh v.0 = 1.* 2 . sinh = _ I. it be successively divided by each term of these follows that .. 22.] limiting ratios. 13. r J smn 2 + cosh av r: cosh 2U . In passing to circular functions. cosh u lim. 2 * cos y + sinh * sin Art. Simplify r. sinh u> u> tanh u . r Prob. 13. Simplify cosh Prob. To find the limit. f cosh av : : 2 f sinh av 2 cosh 2 cosh av y).* 2 sinh . t sech u < tanh U <V but when u^zO. as u sinh u u which are then indeterminate By eq.
120 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. Art. 13) dT(sinh u) du = cosh ft. (*) du d(tanh ft) sinh ft. To prove that ^(sinh (a) ft) du d(cosh ft) = = cosh ft. w (/) (<z) du <f(csch ft) csch 5 ft. ft) ' and put lim * lim. \Au 7 A iAu = I (see Art. Let y = sinh + ^ w ~~ smn * jy = sinh = 2 cosh \{2u ^) sinh \Au. w (rf) du <^(sech 2/) = sech = 2 2/. (25) du d(cotri ft) sech u tanh ft. [Chap. dy = Hi = </(sinh ^ cosh + i^) = cosh Ay J (ft ft.sinh JJ Ay ~ = cosh f $. W dftanh u) ~ dfa d ' sinh 2/ ft <& cosh cosh u 2 sinh 8 8 ft I cosh u cosh 3 = ?/ sech* . . = csch u coth ft. Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions. . Take the limit of both sides.. ( ZJft) * . as Au = o. du ft. (ft ) j . sinh lim. IV. 14. () Similar to (a).
121 j(V) . Eliminate the constants from the equation and prove tial =A that d^y/dx' = y down cos mx f B sin mx. value of y could be found from a table of hyperbolic cosines. Prob. 30. cosh u. Prob. 27. 25. Show from their derivatives which of the hyperbolic and circular functions diminish as u increases. differentiations. 29. Similar to (c). however. and prove that the constants by differentiation from the dy/dx 1 = m?y. Find the derivative of tanh u independently of the derivatives of sinh u. 2830. Eliminate equation^ = A cosh mx + B sinh mx. Prob. (d). similarly. 26. same as the known and its relation bolic sector characteristic ratio between the measure of a hyperand that the numerical . u w ~^^ = ^^ii^ = ^ih^ = . It thus appears that the functions sinh u. In this connection it may be noted that the frequent appearance of the hyperbolic (and circular) functions in the solution of physical problems is chiefly due to the fact that they answer the question What function has its second derivative equal to a positive (or negative) constant multiple of the function itself ? (See Probs. Prob. Write the most general solutions of the differen equations d*v d*y d*y 4 . 15.Art.] derivatives of hyperbolic functions. 28. cos u produce their opposites in two . cosh u reproduce themselves in two differentiations and. Show that for circular functions the only modifica tions required are in the algebraic signs of (b).) An answer such as : y = cosh mx is not.sechatanh ^(sech u) i d sinh " (/) Similar to (e). that the circular functions sin u. to be understood as asserting that mx is an actual sectorial measure and y its characteristic ratio but only that the relation between the numbers mx and y is the . Prob. Prob. my.
=sK)=7/&')'%iij(e). Art. 1 then x = sinh dx = cosh </ = {b) Vi + sinh & 2 udu = Vi \ x* du. du = <&:/ VT+1?.r = (i tanh &)afo = (i = tanh u. IV. 2 Similar to (a). 1 ^(sinh (a) x) dx l Vx* x) __ i +i w (A W d(cosh.*_]*<. (" 4f:. (c) Let = tanh" x. I Let ss sinh"" #. (d) Similar to (c). Prove ^(sin" x) _ Vi _ ~ 1 1 r 1 d(cos~ x)_ Vi x dx ^(tan 1 x 1' dx 1  x* x) djcot.~ dx 1 ^(tanh. x*)du. 2 1 then . dx = seen u du du = dx/i x*.x) dx + x* dx 1 +x*' . Derivatives of Antihyperbolic Functions.x) i "1 dx 4coth~ ^) _ dx 1 1 i . 31. ^(csch x Vx* (#) + &. [CHAP. ^(sech *) <r 1 * Vi #) I * 2 . 1 (/) Similar to Prob.' (26) i (d\ 1 ^  i ?3TJ^ i w .122 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. 15.
They are convergent for all values of #. 1 1 x is = imagi Prob. can be computed and tabulated for successive values of the independent variable u. because the ratio of the nth term to the preceding is in the first case 2){2n u /{2n > \){2n 2). 16. f{u) cosh &. y"(o) + j. sinh . s /'"(o) + . (28) By means cosh of these series the numerical values of sinh u y u. /'(o) /() = Ao) + +2 '. ^. . For this purpose take Maclaurin's Theorem. . sinh" 1 ^ cosh 1 x . hence sinh u =u+ 2 u* + j u" 4 : f . 16.] expansion of hyperbolic functions. /'(o) = cosh o = /(o) = sinh 1. Find ^(secli" x) independently of cosh 1 *. 32. nary. . . no matter what value u have. x a = a' adx l ~ . ^cosh x  = dx </tanh . . . except when x 1... 35. When tanh and conversely. and in the second less case u*/(2n 3). cosh u = 1 H & H 214! a + r . Prove tfsinh _.. f"(u) = = 0. Expansion of Hyperbolic Functions. . . and put f(u) then = sinh u. . both of which ratios can be made than unity by taking n large enough.Evaluate _ ...x = dx .. 33. 123 Prob. Art. may . or by differentiation. . x is real.Art. . x 5 _\x <a 1 </coth 1 # = a dt^tr "1 xs a Jx>m 3 Prob. prove that coth* Prob. (27) and similarly. 34. . when x = cc .
. (28) Adding and subtracting 1 give the identities u* + sinh u = + u 4. coth u. sinh u.T AVtf'+ i 3 4 + + . . can be found directly from the previously computed values of cosh u. cosh u uA 1? 2! u* 3!. . and as the functions tanh u. + r^* ^4! u (> .124 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. 17. . 36. Show that these six developments can be adapted to the circular functions by changing the alternate signs. sinh # = e~ u ). . IV. [CHAP.V + J ^ . (3) etc. 29. = eu sech u = 2 e \e' u r u. sech u. hence cosh u tanh u = M J(^ + e~% e u. csch &. as there is no observable law in the coefficients. (29) i I 3 o These four developments are seldom used. fully explained in treating of complex numbers. Exponential Expressions.2! sinh u 1 ri? A T 3! + 4! u* + % . : From these series the following can be obtained by division tanh u sech u u i z \u j T jU 2 b f j^V*' 6 = . Arts. Prob. = e~ u . (27). = e u . 7^ cosh u Art. . sin u = (*** e~ ui \ (i =V 1) where the symbol jc in the stands for the result of substituting ui for exponential development This will be more 28. cos u are cos u = \e +e~ e ui ui ui ).u* + ^u* TVo^ coth & = + i^ y* + gls^ 8U CSCh W = . 1 e \e~ J The analogous exponential expressions for sin u.. .
41. 18. sinh u satisfy the whose general solution may be sinh u. Prob. sinh x x 23' 245 z T"T" 2467 1 > V3 1 /' the integrationconstant being zero. u. Show that the area of any hyperbolic sector when its terminal line is one of the asymptotes. Show how to construct a table of exponential functions from a table of hyperbolic sines and cosines. and vice versa. 2 From the relation 2 cosh u = eu + e~ u prove (n n_1 M (cosh #) =cosh nu+n cosh {n2)u\\n{n\) cosh 4)^4. B in order to derive the expressions for cosh u y y . 37. Show that the properties of the hyperbolic functions could be placed on a purely algebraic basis by starting with equations (30) as their definitions . Prove (cosh u 2 f )*.] expansion of antifunctions. 40. Prob. . by integration.. 42. ) . 24 . sinh (sinh mu) ' =m * sinh mu.. 125 Prob. 43. sinh (u . . verify the identities : sinh ( 2 u) 1. infinite Prob. x) j Since tdTsinh = 1 7tt^ = _Iy + Ii 2 I fw = (i+ " . (cosh u f sinh u). = cosh nu f sinh nu. Assuming from Art._I3I je 246 . Prob. Prove u = log.. is Prob. Find also the corresponding expression for 2* _1 n (sinh u) . 38. cosh u 2 2 sinh u= + v) = sinh ^ 2 u cosh v cosh u sinh v% . and can be used in compu . . 14 that cosh differential written how to = Aeu + Be~ u where A. since sinh" x vanisheswith x. Art. (15). and examine the last term when n is odd or even. equation d y/du* = y. hence. ..Art. for example. cosh ( u) = cosh j u. This series is convergent. [Use eq. B are arbitrary constants show determined. = sinh u.] Prob. respectively. 1 Expansion of AntiFunctions.. 39. + > . 9N . ^ (cosh Tj mii) = tn cosh mu. . 18.
9 and hence x = x+* 3 f \x* 5 I* +7 + 7 . . is con Again.2x 2 ~l 2 4 4** .I^Ii^Ilii. [CHAP.IIL4.3. log 5 I... Prob. for rf(coshx) = ) _t=1 / _iW ir14. . 2 t "I "J' . convergent when obtained by writing the above derivative in the form dx i i 2 X* 4_I3I_I3iI. hence it is always available for computation. . .4. Another series.. (32) y 6..3. 6 . this series vergent. * ^^ tanh" 1 = ^1+^ + ^4 *+. only HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. . sinh" 1 x = C+log x+. 1 order that the function cosh ^ maybe real. . but when x exceeds unity. .II 5 16T 1 4.6. ^sin is when x < I. 2 [Art.+i 2 1 4 6 3. 19 to be equal to loge 2. .*  4 2. X D 9 .II4. 19. (33) In in which (7 is again equal to log.6 1. (34) derived: x = cosh 1 x x x* =C  . . IV. T 2 4^ 2 46/ r. x must not be less than unity. *L T 2^ T 24j4T 246j "J' hence eosh^C+log. (34) From sech 1 are (32). x >!.tr w where C is the integrationconstant.2 2. which will be shown in Art.126 tation. A development of similar form is obtained for cosh 1 x. (33). i.4 \ 2.4. 46]. \ (35) K0DJ .. 5.
.== log x = V" ! . that one or other of the two developments of the is are always available for computation. = cosh u f = sinh u.\ x u. 19 ] LOGARITHMIC EXPRESSION OF ANTIFUNCTIONS. (41) Again.I = I + Show Show L + JL. coth 1 x. 44.1J_I!I_L_i 2 $x* 2 4 $x 246 1 jx . (40) csdi" 1 * = sinh" 1 ! _ I X log + Vl + x X l.og * + __l_ + _ l_l__. 127 csch J * = sinh 1 x = x IJ_lI. let . . log {x T sinh 1 ^ = log (* + Vx ~+ 1). inverse hyperbolic cosecant available. 19.* (36) = tanh.r= cosh" .. u. sinh u = eu I . that the series for tanh 1 x. l j Vx 2 i). Prob. + L + . 45. Logarithmic Expression of AntiFunctions. I then vx 2 x\. and Similarly. seen 1 x.. Art. = cosh" x. : coth.ART. Let therefore x = cosh 1. ( 37) Prob. = C _.. (38) (39) Also 1 sech 1 .
cosh u. exist between sectors of v a on any hyperbola and ellipse. are said to with reference to two pairs of conjugates O A correspond Two 1 . terms its The six hyperbolic functions of u are expressible in of the six circular functions of gudermanian cos v. 7) in which u. = a. and the latter the antigudermanian of the former. l 1 . given in (34). (45) Art. 1 #. sectors of central conies of different Thus corresponding species are of the same sign and have their primary characteristic ratios reciprocal. v = gd u. jj/ 2 have the same The sectors A O Piy x x A % 9 P t are then also said to correspond. Prove the identities: log*=2tanh" log sec log tan 1 x I =tanh _1 1 2 x I =sinh" ^(^ 1 ^ _1)=cosh" l(^+^ _1 ). 14. of sectors of the It is The correspondence cussed in Arts. [CHAP. and u = gd SJK. 47./K. 1 ' x x == 2 tanh tan \x\ log esc x = 2 tanh' 2jc tan*(ar j ix). Prob. x = ajxv sign. 1 B and O^A % % B t . may .128 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. . same now convenient species was disto treat of the different correspondence that species. = sinh 1 cot = cosh 1 esc 2X. 48. respectively. IV. Prob. Hence there is a fixed functional relation between their re The elliptic sectorial measure is called spective measures. . the gudermanian of the corresponding hyperbolic sectorial measure. = tanh 1 cos 2^ 20. 21.. Derive from (42) the series for tanh" 1 . for since = a. Circular Functions of Gudermanian. points P P . 6. when (44) xja and when jj/ x . Art.*. The Gudermanian Function. v are the measures of corresponding hyperbolic and elliptic sectors. This relation is expressed by or = gd S. (see Arts.
(44)] = VsecV = tan v tanh u = tan v/szc v = sin v. gudermanian angle but the gudermanian function v. (6). coth u = esc v. sech u = cosz/. 2). 1 1 gd~ v = cosh (sec v) = sinh (tan v) = sech" (cos v) = tanh _1 (sin v). Prob. as . Prob. 2. and tan _1 (tanh ^) = ^ gd _1 2^.] gudermanian angle. = ^n. e = i%ov/7t (47) . gd. Prob. Art. or ratio and this number is equal to the radian measure of the gudermanian angle 6. the gudermanian of the hyperbolic sectorial measure will be equal to the radian measure of the angle of the corresponding circular This angle will be sector (see eq. Prove that gd u Prob. natural tangents. 2226. gd( 00) gd" 0=0. Gudermanian Angle a circle be used instead of the ellipse of Art. v. Prove tanh" J (tan u) = J gd 2fc. Prove = sec _1 (cosh u) = tan _1 (sinh u) = cos 1 (sech u) =sin~ (tanh u). 51. 49. 3236. is merely a number. and the other circular functions of v will give the remaining hyperbolic functions of u. identity in 4. and Art. tion tanh \u From the first = tan \v.Art. Prove Prob. cosh u sinh u sec * 129 hence v. derive the rela Prob.(l ) = 1 l 1 1 1 7r Prob 52. above defined. v can be found from a table of instance. which is itself usually tabulated in degree measure thus called the . If 22. 54. Prob. gd^iar) =00. 50. 53. 19. Other uses of this function are given in Arts. Show that gd u and gd~ x z' are odd functions of u. for sinh u be given. 20. csch u = cot z\ The gudermanian if (46) is sometimes useful in computation . . gd o = o. gd 00 = Jzr. 1 [eq. 22.
Show that the as follows: gudermanian angle of u may be construct Take the principal radius . 1761). from M. named it the transcendent angle. 3. Hottel (Nouvelles Annales. 3. at passes through the foot of the Art. . 13. Functions. MT is then AOT Prob. Derivatives of Gudermanian and Inverse. sec vdv. 1864) de l'acad. 21). and denoted by lu. who introduced the angle 0. the angle required.) Prob. tan v sec v f gd 1 v. and OP line.) Lambert. = sec v = sec v tan vdv = sec vdv = v _1 gd u. (Hist. draw tangent to the circle whose diameter is the transverse axis. never exceeds 90 Prob. 1876) made the usage uniform by attaching in to the angle the name of the mathematician who had used it extensively tabulation and in the theory of elliptic functions of modulus unity. (49) Prob. 55. 56. vol. and wrote it amh u. 6. 59. and Prob. in analogy with the Cayley (Elliptic amplitude of an elliptic function. The angle P is TM on the tangent A. 58. and the line AP. roy de Berlin. 1830. Art. This bisector is parallel to TP. Prob. (See Prob. Art.130 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. 1. APM half the gudermanian angle. called it the hyperbolic amplitude of u. Let then 23. [Chap. * This angle was called by Gudermann the longitude of u. du. The bisector of angle M bisects the sector (see Prob. 9. His inverse symbol was It. AOT A OP P are in line with the point diametrically opposite to A. as the as the terminal line. (48) therefore ^(gd v) Again. and the points T. 60. 53. Art. y y = = sin v + gd" 1 v. 57. f tanh u sech u gd u.* Show that the angle . of the sector whose measure is u. cosh sinh u du. 62. u. Differentiate: y y = = gd u. vol. as shown in Prob. ed Prob. and intersects Prob. IV. lnus u H(^)' (Crelle's Journal. The tangent at ordinate of T. the foot of the ordinate of P. therefore dv d(gd u) sinh u = = cos v du = sech u du y sech u du. 61. OA initial of an equilateral hyperbola. u = gd _1 v.
am u.Art. u. since gd u vanishes with and gd" ^ with v. from the equation gd u = tan 1 (sinh u). 1). Art.* Art. l tan am u am & gd u sin am = tanh &. cos gd u. and wrote them sg 1). p. 107. and a table of the direct function can be used to furnish the . 62. dn u for sin am cos am u. sech u.] series for gudermanian and its inverse. en u. let gd"V * The relation gd u = u. = show u cos am u. (mod. name the function = am u. being called the modulus. tg u. and to write itamh u (see note. connection Cayley expressed the functions tanh u. . that. (mod. then = ugd'z. 16. eg u. and integrate. tan gd u. = sinh u. Writing the "elliptic integral of the first kind" in the form J k Vi  2 /c sin 2 0' is. Series for Gudermanian and its Inverse. 24. in the special case when K =. and that thus the elliptic functions sin am u. led Hoiiel to gd u. y am u = = gd~ 0. and the amplitude. (48) their expansions. I gd z> = sinh 1 (tan v) = cosh ( sec v )> To obtain a logarithmic expression for gd"V. to correspond tan with the abbreviations sn u. v = gd u. etc. 1. 1 No tation. numerical values of the inverse function or the latter can be 1 obtained from the equation. ' Art. In this the hyperbolic amplitude of u. 22). (mod. u. sinh u in the form sin gd u. 24.j%^u + K + +y^ + % 1 .) . when the modulus unity. 131 Prob. = v + g du + &u .. that /c). sech u. u. etc. ^ (50) (5i) 5 7 constants of integration appear. names on account of the relation existing nor the hyperbol'c functions between them in Sl (See footnote. is degenerate into the hyperbolic functions. These series are seldom used in compuu. well to note that neither the elliptic received their special case. . Substitute for sech sec v in (49). Thus tanh u It is = sg u = sn u. as gd u is best found and tabulated by means of tables of natural tangents and hyperbolic sines.
# is an infinitesimal of the = Prob. preferably on the same scale. IV. Art. Prove the relations \n + \v = tan"VM 25. Evaluate # U u~\ . Prove that gd u when u o. (52) t v) = gd r. . the corresponding values of the locus traced function to be plotted. = cosh u. 65. and whose ordinates represent. 64. sec v + tan v = cosh u = u. Graphs of Hyperbolic Functions. \ tan v = #) sinh u. Drawing two rectangular axes. f sinh u  = eu sin v I *" cos ($7t sin (J f cos v tan (iw + iv). . ^ Prob. . z>~ ( l=o sin V _}v=o fifth order. \n \v tan"V" M .132 therefore sec v HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. Prob. == log. '?. tan (i?r f j?). on any convenient scale. gd 2 63. successive values of the sectorial measure. 5 f gd V . . the out by this series of points will be a graphical representation of the variation of the function as the sectorial meas . and laying down a series of points whose abscissas represent. [Chap.
. tanh?/ are given in the tables at the end of this chapter for values of u between o and 4. dy/dx = cosh x. sinh u. = 00 tanh 00) = 1. is nega The point of inflexion is tive. at the origin. For greater values they may be computed from the developments of Art.. A B C y D Here ^ is = y= y= y= cosh x. = gd u. coth u = tanh u cosh u sinh u cosh u sinh ( sech u > I. written for the sectorial measure u. csch u =  . and y for the numerical value of cosh variables x. etc. cosh ( 00) = 00. and the inflexional tangent bisects the angle between the axes. tanh u cosh ( > u) I. The curves exhibit graphically the relations : sech u = < 1. gd u > \n.] GRAPHS OF THE hyperbolic functions.Art. u. etc. sinh x. etc. (o) =00 .. The = cosh numerical values of cosh//. gd x. The = of curvature is proving that the curve obtained from dy/dx* concave downward when x is = sinh x. = 0. 00) tanh = 0. and that the equation x merely expresses that the relation between the y numbers x and y is taken to be the same as the relation between a sectorial measure and its characteristic ratio. Dotted Lines. It is thus to be noted that the y are numbers. . gd ( u) = cosh u. u) tanh cosh ( = u) = sinh u. The equations : of the curves in the ordinary carte sian notation are Fig. coth . Its direction sinh x is given by the equation slope of the curve y that it is always positive. csch ( etc. 16. and that showing the curve becomes more nearly vertical as x becomes infinite. Full Lines. tanh x. or ratios. and upward when x is positive. : . etc. 133 ure varies. = y = y= y seen csch x x x . 0=1. . . 25. tanh sinh sinh ( u.
134
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
The
direction of curvature of the locus
%
by (Py/dx
=
y
=
sech
x
is
sech x{2 tanh 2
*
i),
and thus the curve
is
given con
cave downwards or
upwards
\ 4M' \^
.
8 according as 2 tanh
negative or positive. flexions occur at the
x i is The inpoints
= tanh" 707, = .881, = .707 and the slopes of y
x
1
.
;
the
inflexional
tangents
are
1/2.
The curve y
=
csch
x
is
asymptotic to both axes, but
approaches the axis of x more rapidly than it approaches the
axis of y, for
when x
not
=
*$,
y
is
C
that
x
is
so small as
.1.
The
only curves
.1,
but
it is
till
cross at the points
x
=
.881, y =
y
I.
= csch x, y = sinh x
y=
10
Art

26.]
ELEMENTARY INTEGRALS.
cosh
*
135
2;
Prob. 69. Solve the equations:
gd x
=
x
x
= x+
sinh
x
= U~
"
'
\n.
Prob. 70. Show which of the graphs represent even functions and which of them represent odd ones.
Art.
26.
Elementary Integrals.
The
14, 15,
following useful indefinite integrals follow from Arts.
23:
Hyperbolic.
Circular.
,
1.
J
sinh u
du
=
cosh
Ain
u du
=
=
cos u
y
2.
y cosh
udu
=
sinh 0,
/"cos u
du
sin #,
3.
Aanh udu =
/ coth u
log cosh
a,
Aan udu
/ cot
^/
log cos
,
4.
du
=
log sinh
,
=
log sin
,
5.
/csch #</#
sa
= logtanh, J csc u du = = sinh^csch a), =
gd
u,
log tan
,
cosh^csc
),
6.
/ sech u du
I sec
udu
=
gd
1
&,
8
,/^
a
osh,f,
.
/

=
=cos1
1
,
9. *
.x P;dx P dx ~1 I / ^ u a x J x<a =tanh~ , * a a / ^j 5 a \x
=tan ,*
1
a
a
,
* Forms 712 are preferable to the respective logarithmic expressions (Art. 19), on account of the close analogy with the circular forms, and also because they involve functions that are directly tabulated. This advantage
appears more clearly
in 1320.
136
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
r dx l
10.
/ *
x*aJ x>a
a
=COth,
i
1 ,
x
r

a
i
, v / a **
.
aa h xr dx
.
=a
cot
1
, a
/
l2

dx
,
=
2
.
seen

x
,
P
/
=
J
i
sec
,
.x r dx r dx i / / J xVa'+x =~csch a' d x Vx* _ a a " Va' +x
,
i
x
CSC
/
s
i
2
' ,
a
From
derived:
these fundamental integrals the following
may be
/dx +
Vax*
v==
=,= sinh~ Va 2dx+c
.
I
,
.
,
= +
ax
dtfT f
b
%
,
Vacb
.
a positive. ac> V
'
.
.
; '
=
I
=cosh~
,
#
,
Va
Vb'ac
1 
^positive,
ac<b;
=
I
V
,
cos
ax \,
b
,
a
1
Vtfac
"
a negative.
b
/dx
v <r
=
#
**"+2t*+<
i
^^
<2^4^
ax
tan
\
yz=y
ac>
\
Vbac
coth1
=
Thus
>
,/Ti^ Vbac
~===, ^ < Vbac
,
a
,
^+
b
>
,
2
/^
_^
;
f~^ZT~Zn\
1
=coth (*
,
2)1
=coth 2
coth^
= tanh (.5)tanh (.3333)=:. 5494. 3466^.2028.*
e
/
P^+
dx
3
=tanh(^2)J r tanhotanhX. 5 )
=
5494
(By interpreting these two integrals as areas, show graphically that the first is positive, and the second negative.)
IK. D
J
I
r
(ax) Vxb
.
=
2
.
Vab
tanh

lxb
\ /
\J
7, ab
y
*For tanh 1 (.5)
interpolate between tanh (.54)
=
.4930, tanh (.56)
=
.5080
(see tables, pp. 162, 163);
and similarly
for
tanh 1
(.3333)
Art.
26.]
elementary integrals.
2
137
or
,
tan
~
I
xb
7
,
2
\l
or
b
,
coth \ /
2
,
,
, 1
lxb
r
;
the real form to be taken.
/c l6
(Put
x
=z
and apply
9, 10.)

J
C
dx
2
(a^Vb^^T^^
2
lbx \/b^'
2
ox
Vba
coth
. .,
.
1
a
lb/ <^ /
*'
,
or
tan
'l
.
\/
/.*:
1
;
the real form to be taken.
17.
yV By means
a cosh
a *? dx
= *(*  a
2
)*
 a
2
cosh" .
is
1
of a reductionformula this integral
easily
made
to depend on 8. It may also be obtained by transforming the expression into hyperbolic functions by the assumption
x
=
#,
when
the integral takes the form
I (cosh 2u
a* I sinh'
udu=
i)du
= a*(sinh 28 211) = J#'(sinh u cosh u u),
#,
which gives 17 on replacing a cosh u by
2
and a sinh
by
{.r
a 9 )*.
The
it
evident, as
geometrical interpretation of the result is expresses that the area of a rectangularhyper
bolic
segment
sector
AMP
is
the difference between a triangle
OMP
and a
,
OAP.
2
g.
/V  *)*</* = *(rt
 x'f + tf
2
sin" .
1
i 9.
20.
yv + ^>^ = =A Aec
3
^
I
+
**)*
+ J* sinh_i J
2
1
0^/0
+ tan2 ^)*^ tan ^ = i tan 0(i + tan 0)* + J sinh" = sec tan + 4 gd" 0.
t
1
(tan 0)
21.
y
sech
3
</=
What
Show
J
sech
tanh u
j
4 gd
?/.
Prob. 71.
Prob. 72.
is
the geometrical interpretation of 18, 19?
9
that / (tf*
+
2 bx
+ <r)fe reduces
to 17, 18, 19,
138
respectively:
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap. IV.
when a
is
and when a
is positive, with ac P. positive, with ac
< b*
;
when a
is
negative
;
>
Prob. 73. Prove
/ sinh u tanh u du
sinh
gd u
y
/
Prob. 74. Integrate
(J?
cosh u coth u du
=
1
cosh
+ log tanh
+
2X
u
+ 2^ + 5)"^,
Prob. 75. In the if be the length of arc measured from the vertex, and the angle which the tangent line makes with the vertical tangent, prove that the intrinsic equation of 3 1 the curve is ds/dcp 2p sec <p, s p sec (p tan f/gd 0.
+2X + sY dx, s parabola y = 4px,
(*
2
(*"
+ $fdx.
=
=
Prob. 76. The polar equation of a parabola being r referred to its focus as pole, express s in terms of 0. Prob. 77. Find the intrinsic equation of the curve y/a
=
a sec*\Q y
cosh x/a%
and of the curve y/a
= log sec x/a.
cosh""
1
Prob. 78. Investigate a formula of reduction
also integrate
f or /
1
cosh n xdx;
by parts
.*
dx, tanh"
1
.*:
dx,
(smh~ xydx; and
/ cos ^sin
show that the ordinary methods
of reduction for
w
w
^^:
can be applied to / cosh w x sinh M x dx.
Art.
27.
Functions of Complex Numbers.
As vector quantities are of frequent occurence in Mathematical Physics and as the numerical measure of a vector in terms of a standard vector is a complex number of the
;
form x\iy,
in
which
x,
y
are real,
and
i
stands for
V
1;
it
becomes necessary
in treating of
any
class of functional oper
ations to consider the
meaning of these operations when performed on such generalized numbers.* The geometrical definitions of cosh//, sinh u, given in Art. 7, being then no longer
it
applicable,
is
necessary to assign to each of the symbols
* The use of vectors in electrical theory is shown in Bedell and Crehore's The advantage Alternating Currents, Chaps, xivxx (first published in 1892).
of introducing the
into the differential equaProc. Elec. Congress, 1893; while the additional convenience of expressing the solution in hyperbolic functions of these complex
complex measures of such vectors
tions
is
shown by Steinmetz,
is
numbers
exemplified by
Engineers, April 1895.
Kennelly, Proc. (See below, Art. 37.)
American
Institute
Electrical
Art.
27.]
functions of complex numbers.
139
cosh (x f iy), sinh (x iy\ a suitable algebraic meaning, which should be consistent with the known algebraic values of cosh x, sinh x, and include these values as a particular case
+
when y
assigned should also, if possible, be such as to permit the additionformulas of Art. u to be made general, with all the consequences that flow from them.
= o.
The meanings
Such definitions are furnished by the algebraic developments in Art. 16, which are convergent for all values of u, real or complex. Thus the definitions of cosh (x J iy), sinh (x f iy)
are to be
cosh (x
+
iy)
= + L(x + iy)' + 2
i
I
fx
4
'
+
iy)'
+
(52)
sinh (x
+
iy)
= (x+ iy) +
+ ^(x
+ ...
+
come
From
sinh (x
tion,
+
these series the numerical values of cosh (x iy\ iy) could be computed to any degree of approximaare given.
when x and y
In general the results will
out in the complex form*
cosh (x
sinh (x
f iy)
\
=a =c iy)
f ib,
f id.
The
other functions are defined as in Art.
7,
eq. (9).
Prob. 79. Prove from these definitions that, whatever u
may
be,
cosh
(
u)
= =
cosh u
y
sinh
(
u) =
sinh
u.
,
du
cosh u
sinh #,
r
du
sinh #
= cosh
7=
cosh
mu
=
m* cosh mu,
rr
sinh
w =
m* sinh
/.+
*It
is
to be
borne
braic operators
in mind that the symbols cosh, sinh, here stand for algewhich convert one number into another; or which, in the lan
guage
of vectoranalysis,
change one vector into another, by stretching and
turning.
themselves in Mathef The generalized hyperbolic functions usually present 2 2 matical Physics as the solution of the differential equation d'^/du <, where <p, m, u are complex numbers, the measures of vector quantities. (See
=w
Art. 37.)
140
hyperbolic functions.
[chap. iv.
Art.
28.
AdditionTheorems for Complexes.
The additiontheorems for cosh ( f v), etc., where u, v are complex numbers, may be derived as follows. First take u, v
as real numbers, then, by Art.
II,
v\
cosh (u \v)
hence
i
+
i,(
+ sinh u sinh + vf +. ..=(i+u' + .)(i + f+.
u cosh v
..
= cosh
.
.)
+ (* +
,
^+
3

)("
+3 V+)
^ are any real numbers. It This equation is true when be an algebraic identity. For, compare the terms must, then, of the rth degree in the letters u, v on each side. Those on the
left
are
r
\(u\ v)
\
and those on the
right,
when
collected,
form an rthdegree function which is numerically equal to the former for more than r values of u when v is constant, and for more than r values of v when u is constant. Hence the terms
of the rth degree on each side are algebraically identical functions of u and v.* Similarly for the terms of any other degree. Thus the equation above written is an algebraic identity, and
is
true for
all
values of
its
u, v,
whether
it
real or
complex.
Then
writing for each side
symbol,
follows that
{
cosh (u
f 7;)
= cosh u cosh v
v,
sinh u sinh v\
(53)
and by changing v
cosh (u
into
v)
=
cosh u cosh v
is
sinh u sinh
v.
(54)
In a similar manner
sinh (u
v)
found
cosh u sinh
v.
=
sinh u cosh v
(55)
In particular, for a
complex argument,
(56)
cosh (x
sinh (x
iy) = cosh x cosh iy + sinh x sinh iy,) = sinh # cosh 27 cosh sinh iy. /y)
;tr
)
* '* If two rthdegree functions of a single variable be equal for more than r values of the variable, then they are equal for all values of the variable, and are
algebraically identical."
Art.
29.]
functions of pure imaginaries.
141
sin u, cos u,
u,
Prob. 79. Show, by a similar process of generalization,* that if exp u \ be denned by their developments in powers of then, whatever u may be,
sin (u
f
v)
cos
(
f v)
exp
(z*
+ v)
3
= sin u cos v + cos = cos cos sin = exp exp v.
z/
z> z*
u sin
z>,
sin v,
Prob. 80. Prove that the following are identities:
cosh u
sinh u
[
2
cosh &
cosh &
sinh
sinh
= = exp ^, & = exp
1,
( (
u) f
u)],
)].
cosh u = J[exp a f exp sinh u = i[exp & exp(
Art.
29.
Functions of Pure Imaginaries.
In the defining identities
cosh u
=
=
I
\
T u*
I
7 u*
4
.
.
. ,
2!
4!

sinh #
&

tU*
3!

u
h
f
.
.
. ,
5*
put for
the pure imaginary
ty,
then
.
cosh iy
sinh z>
=
= =
1
/ + JLy _
.
.
=
.
cosjj/,
(57)
z>
+
~
3
(z
+ ^ +
4
.
.
*\y
and,
jj/
z)/
+ ~j\f tan
j/.
=*
.J
sin j,
(58)
(59)
by
division,
tanh
=
i
* This method of generalization is sometimes called the principle of the " permanence of equivalence of forms." It is not, however, strictly speaking, a
"principle," but a method; for, the validity of the generalization has to be demonstrated, for any particular form, by means of the principle of the algebraic identity of polynomials enunciated in the preceding footnote. (See Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 6, p. 81.)
f
cal
with t*
The symbol exp u stands when u is real.
for "exponential function of
," which
is
identi
142
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[Chap, IV.
These formulas serve
functions.
to interchange hyperbolic
and
circular
cosine of a pure imaginary is real, and the hyperbolic sine and tangent are pure imaginaries. The following table exhibits the variation of sinh u, cosh u,
The hyperbolic
tanh
u
u,
exp
u,
as u takes a succession of pure imaginary values.
Art.
30.]
functions of x
cosh (x
sin (x
/
f
iy in
the form
/.*),
X+
*#),
*
Y.
143
iy)
*
cos (#
= cos (y =F = / sinh = cosh (y qp
(j> =F
*#).
a;
Prob. 84.
From
the productseries
for sin
derive that
for
sinh
x
:
sin^
=
=
4J)(i^)(i^ )...
5
l
sinh
*
*(,
+
J)(,
+ ,) ( + pp)
x
.
.
..
Art.
30.
Functions of *
+ *>
in
the Form X+z'F.
#
*"
By
the additionformulas,
cosh (x
sinh (#
+
iy)
=
cosh
;tr
cosh y/
cosn iy
f
sinh
sinh sinh
iy,
iy>
f~ iy)
smn *
+ cosn
*
= sin y, sinh cosh zj = cos y, but = cosh x cos y \i sinh x sin 7, hence cosh (x iy) sinh (x yO = sinh x cos J + cosh # sin y. c Thus cosh (x + iy) = a + ^, sinh (x iy) # = cosh cos y, # = sinh ^ sin y, = cosh x sin j. = sinh x cos 7,
zj/
f
(60)
f
z
if
\
\ id,
then
^r
(61)
<^
From
these expressions the complex tables at the end of
this chapter
have been computed.
Writing cosh z
on Argand diagrams, in complex numbers the usual way, by the points whose coordinates are (x, y), {X, Y); and let the point z move parallel to the jaxis, on a
given line
tions
= Z, where z x z, Z be represented Z
f iy,
Z = X\ iY;
let
the
x
=
m, then the point
will describe
an ellipse
whose equation, obtained by eliminating y between the equa
X = cosh m cos y, Y= sinh m sin y,
(cosh
is
my
(sinh
my
foci is
and which,
as the
parameter
m
varies, represents a series of
confocal ellipses, the distance between whose
unity.
144
Similarly,
if
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
[CHAP. IV.
the point z move parallel to the ^raxis, on a given will describe an hyperbola whose equaline y n, the point obtained by eliminating the variable x from the equations tion,
=
Z
X= cosh x cos
n,
Y=
sinh
x
sin n, is
X*
(cos
F
(sin
2
nf
nf
and which, as the parameter n varies, represents a series of hyperbolas confocal with the former series of ellipses.
close intervals
;
These two systems of curves, when accurately drawn at on the Z plane, constitute a chart of the hyperand the numerical value of cosh {in f in) can be bolic cosine read off at the intersection of the ellipse whose parameter is with the hyperbola whose parameter is n*
85.
m
P^r^Prob.of curves systems
'
that, in the case of sinh (x J iy) % the above two are each turned through a right angle. Compare the chart of sin (x iy). iy) 9 and also of cos (x i sin ay sinh 2X , , x Prob. 86. Prove the identity tanh (* iy) cos 2 cosh 2jC
Prove
+
+
,
.
.
,
+
,
.
=
+
Prob. 87. If cosh (x
\ iy),
= a + ib
y
be written
in the
+ "
y
modulus
and amplitude" form
r
2
as r(cos
2
+
i sin 6),
=
r exp W, then
2
= c? f P = cosh x sirfy = b/a tanh x tan y. tan
sin (x
cos
j^
sinh x,
2
Prob. 88. Find the modulus and amplitude of sinh (x
+
iy)>
+
iy),
exp (x
+
+
/.
\
Prob. 89.
also sinh
The
is,
functions sinh
sinh (u
period 2in; that
2tn)
=
(u+^irt) =i
(
cosh
/?r)
#,
sinh u, cosh
=
= sinh u, cosh cosh (^ + ^/7r) =
cosh
u.
u,
cosh u have the pure imaginary cosh 2in) (
+
=
;.
/
sinh ^, sinh (u\in)>
Prob. 90. The functions cosh"V/z, sinh~V/ have multiple values at intervals of 2in, but each has a unique value (called the principal n for the value) in which the coefficient of i lies between o and
former, and between
\n and
+ \n for the latter.
t
* Such a chart is given by Kennelly, Proc. A. I. E. E., April 1895, and is used by him to obtain the numerical values of cosh {x\iy) sinh {x\iy), which present themselves as the measures of certain vector quantities in the theory of
alternating currents.
(See Art. 37.)
1.2;
The
chart
is
constructed for values of
x
and of y between o and
but
it is
available for
all
values oiy t on account of
the periodicity of the functions.
Art.
31.]
the catenary.
145
Art.
31.
The Catenary.
is
A flexible
curve in which
inextensible string
points, and takes up a position
of equilibrium
suspended from two fixed under the
action of gravity.
it
It is
required to find the equation of the
hangs.
AP
T
be the weight of unit length, and s the length of arc measured from the lowest point A then ws is the weight of the portion AP. This is balanced by the terminal tensions,
;
Let
w
acting in the tangent line at P, and
H
in the horizontal
tangent.
Resolving horizontally and
vertically gives
T cos
in
=
H,
T sin
ws
s
=
ws,
which
is
the inclination of the tangent at P; hence
tan0=i=ir=,
where
c
is
written for
H/w,
;
constant horizontal tension
the length whose weight therefore
s ~7_ %t
'
is
the
dy
_s
c'
.
ds
I
%
dx _
c
ds
Vs'
dx
dx
,
.
Y
.
c
+
=
c*'
x c
= sinh 1
s
c
.
x
c
, sinh
=
s
c
dy y j, dx v
x
cosh ,
c
which
axis of
is
x drawn
the required equation of the catenary, referred to an at a distance c below A.
The
following trigonometric
:
method
illustrates the use of
s
= c sec d(p hence dx, = = dss'm 0, = <;sec tan (pd<p; thus x=c gd" <f>,y = c sec 0; dy, = sec gd x/c = cosh x/c and whence y/c = sec = tan gd x/c = sinh x/c. s/c
d(t>
;
1
the gudermanian 2 c sec gives ds
The
" intrinsic
equation," ds cos 0,
=
c tan 0,
;
;
Numerical Exercise. A chain whose length is 30 feet is suspended from two points 20 feet apart in the same horizontal find the parameter c, and the depth of the lowest
;
point.
2174. arch in the form of an inverted catenary f is 30 show that the length of the arch can be z obtained from the equations cosh z * See a similar problem Britannica. by the . from the point of contact to the erty axis of x. c = 10/z is = found that /(1.052$ feet.6306. 25 = sinh z. The tension at any point is equal to the weight of a of the string whose length is equal to the ordinate/ of that portion point.3. In the above numerical problem.60) = = 2. [CHAP.6. f For the theory of this form of arch. sinh x/c gives \^/c may be written i. Art. . feet An wide and 10 feet high.4000 2. z = 1.64) 2. is constant. =y c = and required depth of the 10.5. and has the propthat the length of the tangent. nearly. y = of this equation z = 1.0206. tables.622 1 = 2. IV. 94. 7. hence y vertex = 16.622 1. = sinh^. 1. then.$z = root.146 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. (This is the characteristic property of the the locus of N NP MN tractory). which.62) == 2. Prob. /(1. is To find a closer approximation to the in the form f(z) = sinh z i.4276 /[1. T Prob.0244.* Prob. stant c and that Hence show that MN P y y is the involute of the catenary. I. 91. If a perpendicular is equal to the conordinate to the tangent at prove that is equal to the arc AP. write the equation o. in =1. from tables. 93.6221) == and 6. be drawn from the foot of the Prob.4806 it is = = =+ . see " Arch " in the Encyclopaedia . The ordinate of either of the fixed points given by the equation y/c cosh x/c = cosh 10/c = cosh 1.3756 2.1649.4300 2. Chap. by interpolation. find the inclination of the terminal tangent to the horizon. The equation by putting 10/c s/c = = z. 92.4600 /(1. By examthe graphs of/ = siting. o.$z ining the intersection of it appears that the root = sinh lo/c. whence.0024.
and the tendency to break will be the same at all points. consider the equilibrium of an element PP whose length is ds. This balanced by the difference of the vertical components weight of the tensions at Pand P\ hence d(T sin (p) d(T cos 0) therefore = gpoods =o . which. the area of the normal section at any point be made proportional to the tension at that point. 10/V gd 15A. Also dx hence = ds cos = c d(p. go = sin be the section at the lowest point. and Again. = c tan d(p . and p the uniform density. T/H sec 0.] catenary of uniform strength. If Catenary of Uniform Strength. is in which the axis of x is the tangent at the lowest point. sec <pds. y T cos = H. s/c = gd'0> the intrinsic equation of the catenary of uniform strength. 32. ds c sec <pd(p. c<f>. cd c tan = sec stands for the constant H/gpoo^ the length of string is equal to the tension at the {of section oo ) whose weight lowest point hence. f where go is is the section at P. Using the same data as in Art. 95. dy = ds sin x y = c log sec 0. the tension if at the lowest point. and whose weight is gpaods. then by hypothesis go/oo T= //sec 0. 32. and the first equation 0) becomes Hd(sec or = gpoo ds. there will then be a constant tension per unit of area. becomes s. where . by putting 15/V gives = = = . Prob.Art. To find the equation of the curve of equilibrium under gravity. 3 r find the parameter gd s/c (The equation x/c < and the depth of the lowest point. 147 Art. and thus the Cartesian equation y/c log sec x/c.
0447. Prob. go. Art. H= is T GD <z> = cosh . T cos = H = gpooc. = + . Prob.41914 X 2. required depth. From *. hence y = 8. . 1333 1. 33. d(T sin and hence in = gpoods/il + A T). as before.148 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. Again. Show that the curve has two vertical asymptotes. then. =. /( 75) ii79 6 1. in which s is measured from the vertex. Prove that the law of the tension T. = gp coder. . measured from the lowest point along the is curve.1798. ds dcr(i f. by Hooke's law. Find the inclination of the terminal tangent. the extension at the lowest point . the graph it is seen that z is nearly 1.1799 = 67 36' 29". 98. . Find its equation of equilibrium.4755 X . Prove that the radius of curvature is given by cosh s/c. p W= H An =c 99. and 1.1799 radians y/c = log* sec x/c but x/c = 10/c = 1. the /(1.70) I = 1. from the tables of the gudermanian at the end of this chapter. If then. which pi stands for XH. Also that the weight of the arc s is given by sinh s/c. IV. gd z f(z) =f = gd z z.0196. [Chap. The Elastic Catenary. 1. ds. 96. ^(tan 0) = ds/(i + 0) jj.A.85 times the minimum section.80) = . Let the element dcr stretch into ds. 97.) Prob. elastic string of ral state is uniform section and density in its natususpended from two points. Accordingly. hence the weight of the stretched element gpoods/{i {XT). z = 1.T). by interpolation. S .3026 = 8.7698 and c = 8. and of the section at a distance s. whence.7. 1667 = + .2000 = 1804 /(1.4755. sec 0). where X is the elastic constant of the string = . % c and show that in the above numerical example the terminal section 2. 1780  1. Prob.0129.
which gives is * This curve p. in Schiele's antifriction pivot (Minchin's Statics. 1 sin 0). Whence common = = = = + 3 _1 x/c gd + // tan 0.) The gd t/c furnisher a convenient method of plotting the curve. is and OT perpendicular then if evident that PP' = ds. cf)dt y = c gd i 1 0. such let that PT=P'T' = = t\ draw TS to FT'. i. then (to the first order of an angle infinitesimals) x = is / = TS = cd(p = cos c sin 0. Let FT. result of These equations are more convenient than the eliminating 0. The Tractory. 34. the horizontal projection of the joints being a tractory. The coordinates x. which of the is the intrinsic equation of the curve. equation <p and in the = . y catenary when }x may be expressed in terms of the single parameter by put2 ds cos ting dx f." Encyclopaedia Britannica.] THE TRACTORY.jx sec (p)d(p. j/c = sec + yu tan 2 0. 34.* the equation of the curve which possesses the that the length of the tangent from the point of conproperty tact to the axis of x is confind To stant. <r(sec 2 ds sin dy /* sec 0) sin <:(sec ^0. and reduces to that o. ds s/c a 149 therefore ^(sec f M sec3 0)^0.Art. it ST' differs from ds by an infinitesimal of a higher order. the axis of y. = (gd PTd<p used TT' t cos 0. all This a convenient singleparameter form. that is. which is somewhat complicated. Let FT make with OA. = tan f /*(sec tan + gd" 1 0). P'T' be two consecutive tangents c. y = c cos 0. (See "Arch. Vol. 242) . Art. theory of the skew circular arch.
Find the radius of curvature of the tractory in terms and derive the intrinsic equation of the involute.0360*:. [CHAP.. the surface of a sphere a curve starts from the equator in a given direction and cuts all the meridians at the same angle. and x tan a = gd y. .150 values of x. 35. r found from the relation c = ST = dt sin = = tan cpd(fi. sech #. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. obtained by eliminating 0. /=<:. u tanh u. there being^ . s/c log cosh #. show that At what point 0= 75 is t = cl 35'. 102.265SY. o. sec 0.3249^.) (See Prob. The Loxodrome. the point A. of . ^ o. 92. thus the required equation * is y = gd (x tan a). s = 1. 101. be a parallel of lati tude let OM x. is The value of s. 100. IV. PR .. . 185. On To : find its equation in latitudeandlongitude co ordinates Let the loxodrome cross two consecutive meridians AM. y/c =. Trigonometry (Ithaca. = gd u. ^ Cartesian equation. AN in let J/jV the points P % Q. o. and be taken as independent variable. ex pressed ds in the same form. RQ = dy. Given /= 2C t = . jy & be put for //*:. Show that the evolute of the tractory is the catenary.* = 1. all in radian measure and let the angle MN MOP=RPQ = a. s =c log. x/c = = Prob. MP = y = dx. but PR = MN cos MP* hence dx tan a = dy sec y. 1890). /=o. Prob. then tan a = RQ/PR. _I no integrationconstant since y vanishes with x. p. y as increases from o to \n.. Prob. is At = 1 = The = If 1 gd (cos 1 J sin (cos \ = cosh 1 4 /i . Jones. Art.
Combined Flexure and Tension. to Let x.980. 36. which of " meridional part for latitude y " 1 is y and of y' being given in minutes.7152 is =y V2 = 1. 40 E). j/.<X when the initial latitude and the differThe distance sailed is equal to given. and the loxodrome becomes the straight line y' x tan a.] combined flexure and tension.Art. y be any point of the its neutral surface assumed by : ..O tan 1 a =  gd">iJ hence gd~y = 7 gd ^. until her difference of longitude is 45. Thus the latitude tabulated under the the values of name magnified into gd y. 20 E) and (30 S. 36. and that is builtin at one end carries a load P at Q the also subjected to a horizontal tensile force apfind the equation of the curve plied at the same point. whence = y esc a. 151 To find the length of the arc OP: Integrate the equation s ds = dy esc a.0114 The latitude in degrees modified as follows tion the ship set out from latitude y l9 the formula must be Integrating the above differential equa: between the limits (*. Prob. 1 y. If = I. hence the relations between the coordinates of f x corresponding points on the plane and sphere are x Mercator's Chart. andj/ = gd x = gd \n = radii. suppose a ship sails northeast. from a point on the equator. A chart y constructed accurately from the tables can be used to furnish graphical solutions of problems like the one proposed above. In this projection the meridians are parallel straight lines.7854}= .) and (x yt ) gives g d ">2 . latitude can be found ence of longitude are (fi . *i) tan a. (^. Art. is A beam other. Find the distance on a (30 rhumb line between the points N. a radius being 60 X i8o/7r nautical miles. gd (. find her latitude and distance : Here tan a radians: s 40. 103. = ~ = y y' is = gd " . from which the final fi) csc a radii. To illustrate numerically.
267269. Qy ing moment for this point notation of the theory of flexure. . find the ordinate of the fixed end by putting deflection = v /. = mx A cosh nx B sinh nx. hence n ^5(72 = deflection = ^(72 50 tanh 1. Q EI which. referred to the free is end as origin.z sinh . B are to be determined by the terminal conditions. = mx + B sinh nx.= m + nB cosh nx y . zero. [In this case /= 4/3. IV. Mechanics of Materials (New York. Compute the deflection 2X2 inches section. = w^r x . hence A and dx but at the fixed end. and 6 feet span. zxAd %y/dx % =d 2 n/dx becomes whence that is.* Hence. Q = 8000. 1895). At the free end x o y y=o. 7077. f f j The must be arbitrary constants A.44)  1/50.152 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. 4469) = 34* inches. nx ~. E= * 15 X io 6 . m=P . x = I. P = 100 . _f. Q 2 . ' of a castiron beam. and dy/dx = o. with the usual dx* w dx = l ?i*{ v mx). elastic curve.] Merriman. on putting/ mx = u. then the bend Px. builtin at one end and carrying a load of 100 pounds at the other end. giving = mil n tanh/z/). cosh nl To obtain the deflection of the loaded end. hence B= and accordingly y m/n cosh nl. the beam being subjected to a horizontal tension of 8000 pounds. Prob.. pp. u y = A cosh nx B sinh nx. m= 1/80. 104. [Chap.
27. viz. ti Show also how to determine the arbitrary constants. G It is coefficient of leakage. 214.M. circuit The of line will also be considered to feed into a receiver . g. without loss of generality. be supposed to have given values at the terminals of the receiver and the problem then is to determine the E. clude the particular cases in and the general solution will inwhich the receiving end is either grounded or electromotive force may. p. 8. in C= capacity. Bedell and Crehore. /. o7. in henrys per mile. I. Art. 105.M. farads per mile. Art. Natural Philosophy.* In the general problem treated the cable or wire is regarded as having resistance. 153 Prob.F. Alternating Currents. 37. be taken as a simple harmonic function of the time. Vol. circuit . Vol of Sound. in ohms per mile.] alternating currents. any description insulated. and the will which may differ in phase by any angle. cases. in mhos per mile4 that if shown in standard works footnote Art. selfinduction. distant x from the receiving end the four . and he uses C for current. K for ooC.F. Thomson and Tait. coL. Theory p. any simple harmonic Chapter V. and current that must be kept up at the generator terminals and also to express the values of these quantities at any intermediate point. Rayleigh.: R = resistance. p. If the load be uniformly distributed over the beam.mx fa and that the solution isy = A cosh nx B sm\\nx \mx EI ~ci? l *)> \ \ ^. 20. because any periodic function can be expressed in a The Fourier series of simple harmonics. . Steinmetz writes j for * See references \ in \ Kennelly denotes these constants by r.Art. The E. 40. say w per linear unit. and although some of these may be zero in special leakage . . c. distributed capacity. Alternating Currents. L = coefficient of selfinduction. lineconstants being supposed known. I. prove that the differential equation is = @y ~ ^ wx^ or = n *(y . f current. for G.
jooCe\ and thus the relations similarly for de/dx in the second equation .M. and part the conductor impedance. Alternating Currents.F. instead of i. Steinmetz For instance. is The coefficient of usually taken zero. . 1 are 5 = (<?+>cy. whose numerical measures are the complexes 6V. but having different values of the phaseangle 0. ix (cos 0' \ ^de de _. for. and JgoL is in quadrature f G JaoC the dielectric admittance. complexes j sin 0'). principles without using the variable /. *In f = (*+>)* (66)t electrical theory the symbol j is used. G. then two simple harmonics of the same period 27t/gd. 181. Cooe /0 \n . can be combined by adding their representative vectors. are of the form e =e x sin (oot j. and the current at any point of the circuit. The relations between e and l may be obtained from the ordinary equations f di .154 function a sin HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. The sign of dx is is changed. di .F.M. which. the reciprocal of which is the dielectric impedance.#). IV. he regards to i. . but here retained for generality and sym metry. R f joaL as a generalized resistancecoefficient.6) [CHAP.^ .0) = ooe x sin (Got {Goe 1 \ ^n) > then dfe/dfr will be represented by the vector x /0 fl \n . part of which i. distant x from the receiving end. since de/dt = ooe x cos (oot f. is measured from the receiving end. because x leakage. + between the complexes e. (pot \. Now the E.. for / 1. which will be denoted by e. with Kennelly calls R+ phase with i. and di/dx by the sum of the two vectors Ge /0. when in applied gives an E. % These relations derives them from first have the advantage of not involving the time. 0\ These simple harmonics will be represented by the vectors ejd. be represented by a vector of length a and angle Q. Bedell and Crehore. i. ijd' whose numerical measures in which the all maximum <? are functions of x. p. . are the e x (cos 6 \js\n 0)*. i =i x sin (oot j 6'\ (64) values t v and the phaseangles 0.
then puttings Next i.Art.i are written z. F = A' cosh . x the assigned terminal values of e. (68) and the differential equations may the solutions of which are f / =A cosh ?#.  i I cosh f ~E sinh mx. at the receiver.r. I A\. o gives be denoted by E. 155 Differentiating and substituting give (67} and thus ^~. . _ (7o> variable length f * The complex constants m. give .. to be distinguished only by their terminal values. footnote. J. Probs.tr  B sinh . and Steinmetz writes v for m./z. 37. the See Art. x is written Z 2 . and Art. and thus the general solution is E= = E cosh mx + mj sinh = i mx. A. ..tr f~ i?' sinh mx y wherein only two of the four constants are arbitrary stituting in either of cients. whence B = mj e % B' = E/m mx l . for subcoeffi the equations (66). I are similar functions of x.] alternating currents. 27. . It is now convenient to define two constants m ^m i l by the equations* w = R +jgdL)(G +jooC) > ( y m? = (R +JgoL)/(G +J&Q then be written . y by Kennelly.z. and equating (G+jgdC)A = mB\ whence B' let (G+ja>C)B A' = mA\ = A/m v = B/m = . 2830. 14.
Y' would then be expressed as functions of x and the repre 2 2 sentative vectors of e. these expressions could be thrown into the ordinary complex form X\jY. conductor reactance per mile. ohms per mile. 30. dielectric impedance per mile. = X" + Y'\ tan 6 = 7 Y/X. #.001/' mho. footnote. X'.M. then * Art.2001 /88 200 34' = . R \jooL = 2 + 40/ ohms.04 .f of cosh u> sinh u. for complex values of u. 00C = . \ See Table II. the for (70) are the most convenient.2000/. an ab1 . IV.* or a table. by putting for the letters their complex values. conductor impedance per mile. and current that must be kept up at a generator 100 miles away. and applying the additiontheorems quantities X. The data for this example are taken from Kennelly's article. for the hyperbolic sine and cosine. then = 40 ohms. then at any distance x. by (70). tanl =Y'/X.0027. stract coefficient per mile. Y. to be 2000 radians R= L= C= = per second.F. and given go. [Chap. therefore m= l measure of . /= . \ Given the four lineconstants: 20 millihenrys per mile.F. 2 ohms per mile." 8'.156 If desired. of dimensions [length] mm = m/(G + jooC) = Next 5/' let the assigned terminals conditions at the receiver be: 1000 volts. which m ooL l 1 1 \ f is the measure of . 1/2 microfarad per mile. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. when either a chart. G + jooC = . dielectric susceptance per mile.04005 /177.001 mho. dielectric admittance per mile. Suppose it is required to find the E. The x % =X F . 000. however.' ohms. X' \jY'. For purposes mulas of numerical computation. i /#'. where e' . Prob.M. i. % . is available. whose phase may be taken o (line insulated) and as the standard (or zero) phase. {G\jooC)~ = = [R jooL){G \jooC) . E= e = E cosh mx 1 y =  m sinn x mx y in which mx is an abstract complex. 0.0050 + . the angular velocity of E. would be e /0. 106.
994.037)  = 00000 I J .0067. <?.5 + + 1.067).04 1.O287) = 9.5 obtained from Table II.5 + 20/ 67tj) = cosh + 1.0139.2126 + 1. ^ x 47 sin 6'). but in opposite .029997.12530.M. sinh (. l tween sinh (o 07) and sinh (o j) gives + + sinh (o Similarly  .08 4" 06J) e = 1.157) = . 89.99 sec I2 ^ ' 5 1 == 5  01 Again.0020 4. hence cosh (. cosh + 20/). where #'= = 1. 157 (. = x 29.030047'.67) = > 10007 smn C4 + '3j')f Interpolation be by subtracting %7tj\ and applying Prob. (. here 1000 cosh (.5 + = 45 55'. iooo cosh 89.F.(008 = 4046 sec 59'. by Prob. Similarly sinh (.4600 + . 29.1 but cosh (o 4. log tan 0' let it ~2 (4046 + 20607) 6/' 26 #'/i6oi amperes.04 last two gives + 'OS J) = . hence (.2I26 4.F.5 f.17) e 460 + 475/' = ^(cos 6 +j sin = sinh 6).15/) = . a distance of about 16 miles the E.04002 + . 37. = 2.1. by interpolation between cosh and cosh (.5 (. e= but. 6 = 126 51'. ^. then = 1000 cosh (.40. = 460 sec # = 625.] alternating currents.M.067) = .027 Hence/ =7(40.00 10 f.02807V and hence l = (lOO +7)(.1 f ZJ) ooo4 j Interpolation between the sinh (.9 volts.00487. = .029957. *. =^(cos 0\jsin #). and where 6 100144. is = 1001 volts. .. the phase and magnitude of required current.Art.08 4" 3*27) = cosh 1000 cosh (.70684.5 1. the same as at the receiver.. e == let it be required to find e at = 4~ 16.I.5 20/').(cos 0+j sin Thus at = 180 17'. #).08 4. the required E.475/ (. and 207) (.02 +29. = 200(40 /)' sinh + + 20/) = cosh (.9970 4" j\ 6/) = 1.2/).5 1 (.77 Next e be required to find f e at = 8. where log tan 6 = log 475 log 460 = .997')= where log tan 6 volts.87 = <?.
and the receiving end be insulated. e l 6= = the E. at sending end.42. then/ 5o(cos 40 ) +/ sin 40 = 38. 2u +. length of the arc of the logarithmic curve length of arc of the spiral of y ax is i/loga. proportional to cosh (..005 4.e. 94. Archimedes r = aO is s = 3.7. and their phases. the superficial area of the zone . at the distances 7. and suppose the current is to be kept at 50 amperes. 31.F. that is if =0.F. sinh w =y/M. 1 7 cosh mx cosh mx a Prob.4 miles.2u). HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. Prob. find 33'. If the receiving end be grounded. e = E+ (R + jooL)Ix.F. Neglecting leakage and capacity. i. 109. 108. how the sending end. show that the graph of the electromotive force is a catenary. 113 times what was required when the other end was insulated. In an oblate spheroid.005 f. at x = 7. 15. in a phase 40 in advance of the electromotive force. j and e substituting the constants in (70) gives 1000 cosh (. 107.25 miles from the receiver. sinh u y/b. 38.7. the value of . and current to be kept up at the generator. (66) are to be modified.M.85. which the phase is exactly 180 is n/. Since e is [CHAP.158 phase.. and if a current of 10 amperes be caused to flow to ground. Also compute these quantities.85 is 90 There is agreement in phase at any two points whose distance apart is 31. of the sector A OP. 1. for x In conclusion take the more general terminal conditions in which the line feeds into a receiver circuit.2j)x.M. where This is 10730 volts.2 15. and prove that 1 _ _ sinh m IQ sinh mx.y)x + (7821 62367) sinh (. no. the E.2j')x = 460+475/ 4748+9366/= 4288+984iy=^(cos 0+/sin 0). where sinh u 1 = 0. IV. prove that the solution of equations (66) is 1 = /. show equations (65). cosh u = x/a. Similarly the phase of the E. Miscellaneous Applications. in which u is the. In the hyperbola x^/a* y /& 1 the radius of curva2 2 ture is p=(a* sinh u{d>* cosh iCf/ab'. If x be measured from =E = x ~E mx t where E % I refer to the sending end. in which M= 2.M. Prob. = measure 4.14/.30 + 32.005 j . Art. The The tf(sinh y = J/(cosh+logtanhJ). 17 Prob. If selfinduction and capacity be zero.
170: to the torsion of leigh. 16674. V are worked out in Laisant. + 2u). 38. 477. pp. and in Hydrodynamics. fonctions hyperboliques. Essai sur les numerical examples in 1724. The centre of gravity of the arc of a catenary measured is from the lowest point given by 4fy= in its 2 <r ( sin h 2u . = n \ sinh 2u \ sinh 4 \ ^ sinh 6u. 135. fx = c\u sinh u is cosh u + 1). art. arts. 384. n 7r^ 5. 5= y is 2 + 2ii)/2e. Appendix. in which sinh u tan 0. is / i/(sinh 2u\2u). e the and/ parameter of generating ellipse. and JV 8. length of the arc of the parabola 2px. potential in Byerry p. which u = x/c 3 and the moment of inertia of this arc about terminal abscissa / = /^ (tV 9. The = f = nal tangent to the initial one. arts. wherein b the axial radius.ART. its ter* pi The moment is same 3 arc about minal ordinate I= pi\_x/(x 2x) { ^T p N]. Vol. parallel plane at a distance is 159 between the equator and a (sinh 2u eccentricity. Fourier Series. . llx =/ (cosh a 8 u i). Chaps. in fluids in Rayleigh. Theory of Sound. of a paraboloid of revolution of inertia of the 5= 2n yl. 6. 7581 to wave and electricity in Byerly. I. of bars are given in RayApplications to the vibrations Vol. I. sinh 3?/ + sinh u 11 cosh 11). measured from the vertex of the curve. 64/y p* (sinh 411 is and the surface 7. 120.] MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS. The centre of gravity of this arc is given by 411) . Several Gunther. where is the mass of unit length. in the theory of Maxwell. to the flow of heat prisms in Love. Hyperbelfunktionen. to NonEuclidian geometry and many other subjects and and VI. Elasticity. where is the inclination of the termiy/p ey/p. pp. motion Bassett. . to p. Electricity.
342') First find stages. etc. and the values of a. exp in ( iy) = ac i(b which the signs of c and afare to be taken the same as the sign of x.8 and* = . d are tabulated for values of x and of y ranging separately from o to 1. the exponential function given d). in which cosh (x iy) =a ib> sinh (x iy) = c zh id. and. c. I y sinh u cosh u the numerical values of the hyperbolic functions tanh u are tabulated for values of u increasing .82]. as before. for cos (y ix) = a =F x tb.82 + i4*)> x by keeping y = . as u changes u.i30 by keeping at 1.9 . IV. When u exceeds 4. from o to 4 at intervals of may be used. to find cosh (.ic by .82 f.1.3 and interpolating between : jj/ the entries under x = . Art. (.5. cosh (.8 and x cosh (.342). which x is kept The table available for all values of y.31) and cosh at .42) find is cosh( . = cosh x. then by interpolation between + 1. sin (y ix) is = d . When interpolation is necessary it may be performed in three For example.82 f.160 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. however \ great. x is cosh (x\2i7t) greater than 1.4 = and interpolating between the entries under . and of the guderfrom o to I at inter . Table IV Table II gives hyperbolic functions of complex arguments. and the sign of i on the right is to be the product of the signs of x and of i on the left. by means of the formulas sinh (x It 2in ) = sinh^r.1. Explanation of Tables. but this case This table can also be used as a com plex table of circular functions. sel dom does not apply when occurs in practice.5 at intervals of . In Table y 39.1.82 + 1.02. Table III gives the values of v = gd manian angle 0= 180 v/ir.82. next find cosh (. moreover.9. b.82 in at 1. [CHAP.
and increases from o to 100 grades at intervals of . and Hoiiel . as x varies by . log sinh u. to nine figures. From the values of cosh x. Glaisher in Cambridge Phil. log as u increases from 4 to 6 at intervals of . sinh x.01 from o these to 2.5.1.Art. and from 2 to 4 at In Table cosh u. Vassal.01 from o to 4. 1881.001 I from o to . I 161 to 2 at intervals of . in Crelle's Journal.1. 7 at intervals of and from 7 to 9 be at intervals of . Trans. reference more extensive In the tables are neces may made to the tables* of first Gudermann. this angle is so nearly right that interthis polation not reliable. Glaisher. In the following tables a dash over a final digit indicates that the number has been increased. log cosh u> log tanh u. Berlin. To remedy inconvenience Gu dermann's second table gives directly log sinh u. for values of u varying by .tr. 13.1 from o to and by from o to 500. 39] vals of . Geipel and Kilgour's Electrical Handbook.02. vols. by . and in Wheeler's Trigonometry. intervals of explanation of tables. Gronau. and there are fourplace tables in Byerly's Callet. the corre sponding value of u (written Lk) being tabulated. There are also extensive tables by Forti. In the usual case. to seven figures. from . whose would then give the hyperbolic functions of u. from 6 to . by . as and e~ x to nine sig. Fourier Series. sinh x are easily obtained.01. When is u is large. In the rare cases in which sary.2. x varies 10. Geipel and Kilgour's handbook gives the values of cosh..01 from 5 to 12. by . e* Glaisher has tabulated the values of nificant figures. Gudermann title under the . 1833).001 from 2 to 5. it gives circular functions by interpolation the value of the gudermanian angle.05. and by . in which the table is entered with the value of u. the Guderman ian angle (written k) is taken as the independent variable. vol. 18312 (published separately Theorie der hyperbolischen Functionen. IV are given the values of gd u. 69.1. and Geipel and Kilgour.
IV. .162 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. Table I. u. [Chap. Hyperbolic Functions.
Hyperbolic Functions. . 163 Table u.Art.] TABLES. 39. I.
IV.164 Table II. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. (x 4 + iy) and sinh iy). . Values of cosh (x [CHAP.
Table II. 165 Values of cosh (x f iy) and sinh (x f iy).Art. 39.] tables. a .
Table II.16G HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. IV*. [CHAP. (x f iy). Values of cosh (x + iy) and sinh y .
Art. Table II. 39. 167 Values of cosh (x f iy) and sinh (x \iy.) .] tables.
IV u . Table III. [Chap.168 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Art. 1. and Zonal and Spherical Harmonics were introduced by Legendre and Laplace in 1782 in dealing with the attraction of solids of revolution. The use of Trigonometric Series was in first suggested by Daniel Bernouilli 1753 in his researches on the musical vibrations of stretched elastic strings. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. was greatly advanced by Fourier in 18121824 in his remarkable work on the Conduction of Heat. Professor of Mathematics in Harvard University. l. which however all involved the treatment of partial differential equations of the same general form. History and Description. 169 Chapter V.ART. The differential equations treated in the problems which have just been enumerated are ." HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION. although Bessel's Functions had been already (1732) employed by him and by Euler in dealing with the vibrations of a heavy string suspended from one end. Byerly. and important additions have been made by Lame (1839) anc by a The analysis * host of modern investigators. By William E. What is known and development as the Harmonic Analysis owed its origin to the study of concrete problems in various branches of Mathematical Physics.
&* a _ u> which is Laplace's equation and for the conduction of heat in a homogeneous solid. if Lord Kelvin draws for us the lines of flow in a simple vortex. [CHAP. then that the true and only solution. V. for the transverse vibrations of a musical string dt \ ox oxl v 7 for small transverse vibrations of a uniform heavy string sus pended from one end . that answer is at once applicable to analogous problems in all the other departments of physics. if a solution.170 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. Of these Laplace's equation (3). Oliver Heaviside shows his match . currents elastic solids. certain motions of viscous fluid. which the same in problems on heatconduction. As to their interest to engineers and physicists we quote from an article in The " Electrician of Jan. sometimes as to space and time. of a heatconduction problem obtained by any person. are by far the most important. he has drawn for Lord Rayleigh which is us the lines of magnetic force about a circular current: if calculates for us the resistance of the mouth of an organpipe. and (4) of which (3) is a special case. say. is more. The equation has always to be solved subject to certain boundary or limiting conditions. motion of fluids. is by Professor John Perry: is There a wellknown partial differential equation. . 26. certain kinds of strain and stress. 1894. Thus. the establishment of electrostatic or electromagnetic potential. when Mr. and we shall concern ourselves mainly with them in this chapter. vibrations of flexible in a conductor. and we know that is if we obtain any solution of a Further' particular problem. ox* "*" ay . and innumerable other phenomena. vibrations of strings or elastic membranes. he has also determined the end effect of a bar of iron magnetized. sometimes as to space alone.
New 1895. in the theory of the Conduction of Heat in a homogeneous solid f V is the temperature at any point in the solid after the stationary temperatures have been established. * See Peirce's Newtonian Potential Function. London and Brunswick. In the Theory of the Potential Function of in the Attraction Gravitation. and in Electrostatics (3) is Vxn Laplace's equation tion. and in the theory of the irrotational flow of an incompressible fluid % V is the Velocity Potential Function and (3) is known as the equation of continuity. again. Heaviside's almost altogether at heat problems suddenly shows himself acquainted with the most difficult investigations in other departments of physics. y. 171 less skill and familiarity with Bessel's functions in solving electrois solving problems in heatconductivity 01 the strains in prismatic shafts. . or even the heatconduction analogy! " Much has been written about the correlation of the physical sciences. he distribution of strain in a twisted square shaft. sin' 0B<p' J n_ c W .* the value of the Potential Func any external point {x. 1 r?L 3? '"iinT f  ( "49 ^ d 1 1 9 . (3) takes the form 9 si xVZ\rV). we may say that the true correlation of the physical sciences lies in the equation of continuity ~ a .ART. York. 1878 . it is to imagine the electric current density everywhere in a conductor when transmitting alter nating currents viscousfluid analogy. but when we observe how a young man who has worked when we know Mr. or Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen. See Fourier's Analytic Theory of Heat. and yet how easy it is to understand thoroughly when one knows the perfectfluid analogy! How easy. London and New York. If we use spherical coordinates. at and Electrodynamics./diu W^ay + aW* av av\. z\ due to any distribution of matter or of electricity. How difficult it is to express exactly the magnetic problems.] HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION. % See Lamb's Hydrodynamics. 1. for example. ' rrt Boston.
in it.172 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. if [CHAP. y. undeteris A mined) constants or arbitrary functions. (6) In the theory of the Conduction of Heat in a homogeneous solid. the form *V r\^\^Z^Z=o. there must always be given in addition to the differential equation enough outside condidifferential equation all the arbitrary constants or functions that enter into the general solution of the arbitrary tions for the determination of equation tial in dealing with such a problem. Art. 2) of the solid at any time t. if the differencan be readily solved the natural method of proequation . every particular solution can in be obtained from the general solution by substituting the general solution particular values for the arbitrary constants or particular functions for the arbitrary functions but in practice it is often . A particular solution of a differential equation is a relation between the primitive variables which is consistent with the given differential equation.. 1 . although included Theoretically. Homogeneous Linear Differential Equations. V. 2.e. but which is less general than the general solution. and a is a constant deter mined by experiment and depending on the conductivity and the thermal capacity of the solid. general solution of a differential equation is the equation expressing the most general relation between the primitive variables which The consistent with the given differential equation and which does not involve differentials or derivatives. and we use cylindrical coordinates. general solution will always contain arbitrary (i. easy to obtain particular solutions directly from the differential equation when it would be difficult or impossible to obtain the general solution. (a) If a problem requiring is for its solution the solving of a determinate.* u in equation (4) is the temperature of any point {x. and .
each term of the sum in question is substituted found each of which satisfies . (c) If a value of the dependent variable has been found given homogeneous. All the differential equations given in Art.ART. first by the same constant which there may be taken out as a factor of the whole factor being zero.] HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. If it is linear and contains no term which does not involve the dependent variable or one of its derivatives.. of the (d) If several values dependent variable have been the given differential equation. if by any solution of the equation can be found which will also satisfy the given outside conditions. the terms of the given equation are transposed member. linear. it is said to be linear and first equation is linear when the dependent variable and it would be its of the all derivatives homogeneous. for if the sum of the values their sum will satisfy the equation in the equation. however. 175 cedure is to obtain its general solution. the substitution of the firstnamed value to For to the if all first must reduce that member value the fore is zero . if determinate. zero and the satisfied. that the general solution of the differential equation in question cannot be obtained. I are linear and homogeneous. differential equation. and then to determine the constants or functions by the aid of the given conditions. (J?) A differential if degree were regarded as algebraic unknown quantities. will be solved. the product formed by multiplying this value by any constant will also be a value of the dependent variable which will satisfy which satisfies a the equation. equivalent to multiplying each substitution substituting the second term of the result of factor. the product is first The remaining equation is member. it is worth while to try to get particular solutions and so to combine them as to form a It often since the problem. means a result which shall satisfy the given conditicns without ceasing to satisfy the differential equation. and then. . 2. happens.
I.S. will give rise to a set of terms which must be equal to zero. Problem in Trigonometric Series. What will be the tempera ture of a point in the middle of the plate at the end of that time? Given a* =0. [CHAP. These normal forms are frequently sines and cosines. but they are often much more complicated functions known as Legendre's Coefficients. This often requires us to be able to develop any given func which enter into the expression of these conditions in terms of normal forms suited to the problem with which we happen to be dealing. the plate t seconds after the cool suppose the flow of heat to be directly across the plate so that at any given time all points in any plane parallel shall We .174 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. and therefore the sum of these sets must be zero. V.185 in C.Coefficients. or CylinHarmonics. and let u be the in temperature of any point ing begins. its faces are then suddenly cooled to the temperature zero and are kept at that temperature for 5 seconds. and suggested by the form of tion of the variables particular solution that we are able to obtain for the differential equation. Art. or Ellipsoidal Haretc. Laplace's . Take the and the axis origin of coordinates in of X one face of the plate perpendicular to that face. monics. which are consistent with the nature of the problem in question. units. or Zonal Harmonics.G. Bessel's Functions. Lame's Functions. The object of this chapter is to find It is methods any of so combining these particular solutions as to satisfy given conditions. or drical Spherical Harmonics. 3. (e) generally possible to get by some simple device solutions of such differential equations as those we particular have collected in Art. problem : As an illustration let us consider the following A large iron plate n centimeters thick is heated throughout to a uniform temperature of ioo degrees centigrade.
and if this condition is satisfied.ART. reduces to ^=^. o when ^ o when . by substituting f in the equation. = ?r (4) to find a solution of (1) which satisfies the con (2). and (4). . ( 6) and /* is entirely arbitrary. We we tion is shall begin shall use a device linear by getting a particular solution of (1). = o and =0. u = s then a solution of (1) no matter what the value of 11 We can modify the form of Let fi = fxi. (3). Art. (1) n and and we need ditions = u = u = ioo when t o.r = o. The letter will be used to represent 4/ 1. Then it depends upon a single spacecoordinate x (4). and which always succeeds when the equaand homogeneous and has constant coefficients. i and is justified if it leads to a solution.] PROBLEM IN TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES. / = *V Sin ^ It . and Art.\ then u = e^ ^ n e^ = e~ ^^'e~ a "'**' this solution is with advantage. i u = x eP +y* is a solution of (1). 3. as also u = *. 2. substiand divide through by e^ x+yi and we get y = # 2 /f = eP x + . 175 to the faces of the plate will have the same temperature. is xi a solution of (i\ as also K By (d). must be tested * This assumption must be regarded as purely tentative."m* f. u Assume* tute in (1) v'. (2) (3) . Obviously. u is = e+** is 1 = e~ a W cos px 2< (5) a solution. efi*+**fi*t /?. . I. where fi and y are constants.
+ A.r + ^3 sin A^ $x + . then. 2) u = e~ a ^ n sin jjl . and all the equations of condition and (4). we get different particular solutions of (i) let us try to so combine them as to satisfy our conditions while continuing to satisfy equation (i).. If. we have to compute the numerical value of . Hence our solution is u = ^[f^ sin + e~ of u 9aH sin 3* +V 25 " 2 ' sin 5* + . . it px is zero when x = o for all values of n if yu is a whole number. Art.r = o. We shall prove later (see Art. compute the value is when x = and / = 5 As there no object in place tables will more than going beyond tenths of a degree. . foursuffice. in (7) to have (2)> a solution satisfying (1) (3). By giving different values to p. for all values of x between o and x n. . when x = which satisfies (3) and (4). reduces to . [CHAP. . where m is an integer. (8) form series now it is possible (8) we have only to develop unity into a series of the to substitute the coefficients of that each multiplied by 100 for A l% y A 3 . we write is zero u equal to a sum of terms of the form Ae~ aimn sin mx. V. = I. =A x sin + ^s sm 2. Let u this solution ait be 4ait =A e~ 1 sin x . and no term of (9) beyond Since sin 2 71 the first will affect the result.176 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.. (7) A lt A %i A tf When u If t . being undetermined constants. . 6) that I = sin x + " sin ^x ~ f sin %x + .. . we shall have a solution of (i) (see {d).e~ (7) sin 2x + A e~ 3 9an sin 3* + .  (9) To to get the answer of the numerical problem we have only seconds.
10 10 ^ = f" i 9. An iron slab 50 centimeters thick is heated to the temperature 100 degrees Centigrade throughout.o.6040 10 g ^ =1. " field of force" due to potential is any point in the shall use spherical coordinates the charge? We and shall let Fbe the potential required.6021 colog 10 10 n colog e** . Art.8. nx sin + A. 84. Problem in Zonal Harmonics.] problem in zonal harmonics. 4. that . K ?rx . Art. K . \ r from x r = o to x = c. sin h ~ sin 1 . charge of statical electricity is placed upon one hemisphere and the other hemisphere is connected with the ground. a3 10 177 400 7t 7 log a e~ an where = 0.Art.. Then Fmust satisfy equation (5).5982 . . Find the temperature of a point in the middle of the slab.. and of a point 10 centimeters from a face at the end of that time. Ans. 49. A 2nx + A. the first hemisphere is then found to be at poten layer of A tial 1. The faces are then suddenly cooled to zero degrees. 4.2672 = 0. log / log eft log log e & & log log log If 9' = 9.5059 9. Prob.185 and t = 5. sin . r  \7tx . = = 9. 1.9662 Q.6990 = 9.7062 50.sin ttx 1 . = 0. x . sin . %nx + .. 1 = 4/ . . let As a second example us consider the following problem : Two equal thin hemispherical shells of radius unity placed together to form a spherical surface are separated by a thin air. and are kept at that temperature for 10 minutes.4. At what the other hemisphere being of course at potential zero. Assume .4018 u of n centimeters the breadth of the plate had been c centimeters instead it is easy to see that we should have needed the development of unity in a series of the form A .6378 y j/ log 400 = 2.
which is wholly undetermined.1) . (2) = 1 if o < 6 < . m{in \. and a function of 6 but not of Substitute in (1) and reduce. is and our equation reduces to rftrV) dr" 9 . 1 . To which is find particular solutions of (1) is we is shall use a method where generally effective. 4 s '" 6 de) whence r . Assume* 6.178 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. (5) footnote on page 175. each must be equal to a constant. Si ( "^ sin 6 "4) _ dV r (l) Fis given on the surface of our sphere. if we take of the problem is obviously the diameter perpendicular to the  V plane separating the two conductors as our polar axis. . then R^ r d%rR) = w^ro^r. . and 1 rd\rR) dr* 1 d \ sm 6 de) .= m{m+l). But since from the symmetry independent of 0.' m(in \ i)R = o. hence V=/(0) where /(d) when and f(6) = I. V. [CHAP. =O if  <6< ir. constant. (3) R Since the first Q sin 6 dd and the member of (3) does not contain 6 second does not contain r and the two members are identically Let us call this equal. Equation an (2) infinite distance and the implied conditions that V is zero at and is nowhere infinite are our conditions. zero. (4) 1 dJ smedQ\ \ and lel ^Te'^e * See the first + *0*+i)e. = o. that V = RG we get R a function of r but not of r.
k(k \j)a + m(m + i)a = k+t k k o.' 0. Arm + Br~ m \ (6) can be simplified by changing the independ ent variable to x where x ' = cos 0..m(m +1)^ = . which is wholly undetermined. solution is Its complete R Equation (5) =. (k Hence + 2){k + i)a .] PROBLEM (4) IN ZONAL HARMONICS. first a k+i = o. and If a k+ . (8) where the symbol 2 indicates that we are to form all the terms we can by taking successive whole numbers for n. set of coefficients satisfying the relation (9) k 1Ea kx will be a solution of (7). known We tive (7) . . . as for instance of x. to posiand we can then get particular solutions of whole values. that can be expressed as a sum or a series of terms involving whole powers of x multiplied by constant Let 2anxn i)a n x n 'J and substitute n(n f in (7). . 179 Equation can be expanded into d'R rji dR + 2r^. M We get n 2[n(n i)<V + m(m + i)a x = n ] o. be then ak+% = o.//. Since (8) must be true no matter what the value any given power of x. 4. vanish.Art. If = k = m. It becomes 1 ( dx\J r[ L _ ^S] + m{m + )& = 0l is (7) an equation which has been much studied and which as Legendre's Equation. the coefficient of xk must . = m{m+i) k{k\i) * (k+l){k+2 ) fe) now any taken. * See the footnote on page 175. shall restrict by the following device : Assume* coefficients. etc. and can be solved by elementary methods.
(2m even we a. 1 will be shown later that with this value of a m 1.180 Since it HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. . answer our purpose .i)(2^3) *m% $)(m "". mjm ' i)(m . Q 1 when . + . @ than is a function of x and contains no higher powers of x xm It is usual to write it as Pm (x).z .  i)(2m .j jx 2.~~ If is ~ m(m is i)(m 2)(m 2.4. (2. beginning with k 2.z){2m  4)(m 5) 5) "" ' etC ' m am see that the set will end with a .(2m. ^_ _ t n "'J' (2m where a m is entirely arbitrary. _ Mm2.A get from (10)... if m odd. It is (2m and it i)(2w 3) . V.3) \   * m r 1m . {2m I 1) ) \x 1) 9 m.. a solution found convenient to take a m equal to of (7). with 9 _ xm L  mitn 2. Pm (x) from the We formula proceed to write out a few values of P (** ^W. ~ m(in 2\2mi) _ ~ m(m \){m a"" 2)(m 3) ~2..k)(m + k (m =m 1) ( IO> I)' We *"" Um . .3) i)(2m 3) 2. t .r = . we can take a set including a m Let us rewrite (9) in the form . 1) [J (2m if (2m 1) *f(  i)(m2)(ms) i)(2m 3) ^ m _< _ 1 . will [Chap. if we set of coefficients that will obey the condition pick out the simplest: (9).4.2)(m . is.6. 4. then. ** ~ ~ (*+2)(*+ !)*.4.< 2m  l )( 2m .
Pm {x) or Pm (cos 0) a new function.30 cos + 3).(*) = K6 3* = K63 cos 70 cos #+ 15 cos /'. v= Af.3*) or P (cos 60 = i(5 cos 0. is V'= is rm Pm (cos 6) 6) a particular solution of (1). A A . and reduces to V=A P (cos + ^(cos + A. 00 and reduces to (14) when r r 1.P. and r m Pm (cos 6) sometimes called a Solid Zonal Harmonic. j is or as a Surface Zonal Harmonic. get the value of Ffor a t within the sphere.(cos 0) We have obtained Q == /^(.I) or P (cos 6) = J( 3 cos Plx) = (3* P (x) = i($x> . 3 9 3 4 2 I 4 2 4 6> 6 3 61 6). 2 2 2 i)... form we can develop f{6) we have only to put [see eq. 0) 6) 6) 3 when r = s (14) 1. ~ 70x* + 15*) or ^. = then (14). .. is + A rP {cos + A^P^cos + AyP (cos6)+. 0. and in (15) to get the value of Fat a point point without the sphere.. l l 6) 6) 3 (13) not infinite at any point within the sphere.(cos6) r satisfies (1).(cos + A P (cos6)+.] PROBLEM IN ZONAL HARMONICS. have I : 181 We Pjx) x = or P (cos 6) = P {x) = x or P^cos 6) = cos . Q V = A P (cos satisfies (1). known as a Legendre's Coefficient.ar) as a particular solution of (7).. I.. and occurs as a normal form in many important problems. and Q = Pm (cos 6) as a particular solution of (5). is AfXcosd) r* A t PJjcos0) z r H ~* r. (15) is equal to zero If when not infinite at any point without the sphere.. 4. place of the .ART. (2)] into a series of the the coefficients of this series in A. = . in (13) to .3 cos 6\ (12) ^W = K35^ 30^ +3) or P (cos 0) = 4(35 cos # .
and V= ^+4 r \\P 2r = x 7 {cosB). Hence our required l solution is V= .12. = 7t is 4 at potential 0. 16. We o f(0) = 1 for < 6 < 2 and f{6) = o f or 2 < 6 < n. Prob. and the point r = 4 . shall see later (Art. is the radius of the conductor in (17) a instead of unity. If r = 5 and = .(cos ti)\\ r'P (cos s (f) + I?. (18).68. (17) reduces to To two is decimal places F= 0.+ \rP.8 2 r \pU:ose) J 3V +I7^?^C0S *) ?t an external point.68. we have only to replace r by and . at the end of this. give and the point r If = 5. If < l8 > r and = o.182 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. 22) that if [CHAP. V. # = o at potential 0. (18) and Table I.2 at ^ C0S ^ <"> an internal point . chapter.
after the permanent state of temperatures has been set up. . base we use cylindrical coordinates and we shall have to solve equation (6). Problem in Bessel's Functions. 5. 5. 1 in the (1) . of points 2 inches from the center and in the and of points 3 inches from the center in a di ameter inclined at an angle of 45 Ans. If or. take the origin Art. 50 .Art. ameter is One half the surface of a solid sphere 12 inches in dikept at the temperature zero and the other half at 100 de grees centigrade until there at is no longer any change of temperature within the sphere. cold hemispheres axis of .9. 77. IN BESSEL's FUNCTIONS. 22. Required the temperature of the any point center of any point in the diametral plane separating the hot and . Art. Find the temperature of a point in the axis one foot from the base. and of a point 6 inches from the axis and one foot from the base. to the axis of symmetry. 26.i .q.i . : As a last example we shall The base and convex surface of take the following problem a cylinder 2 feet in diameter and 2 feet high are kept at the temperature zero. 18o Prob. symmetry . representing the temperature by u and observing that from the symmetry of the problem u is independent of 0. . 50 73.] PROBLEM 2. and the upper base at 100 degrees centigrade.
(7) x 7 d*R \dR _+__ + x . and k(k or  + ka + a ^ + ^_ = h 2 h . begin with k = o as the lowest subscript. Hence and ^Z x o. a k _^ 0. and becomes . ak _ A 0. We get 2[n(n \)a n x n " a + na x n n  2 J <V M] = o. x. then.184 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. contain r therefore the is first member we can cannot. ( (9) it by letting //r . write (5) Hence each member of (5) a constant. whence we obtain ^_ = 3 k*ak as the only relation that need be satisfied by the coefficients in order that 2akxk shall be a solution of (10). . ' [CHAP. etc. then. (11) o. ~ and 2 . . must. as The coefficient of any given power i)a k a x k ~*. that 7? can be expressed in terms of whole powers of x. = o. Let R = 2a n x n and substitute in (10). vanish. = x. \dR I0N > Assume. no matter what the value of of x. < d*R u + * =sa 25?+52F . an equation which must be true. 4. and R when 7 ~dr* + rR d*Z dz dr~~ Z dz =~ 1 M ' ^ jj is entirely undetermined. as in Art. its Z = ^^* + ite ^ Z = C cosh (/*#) We can reduce (8) slightly or the equivalent form Z> sinh (/*#). We can. . R= If k = o.* = 0L general solution is (8) Equation (7) is easily solved. V.
5.] .Art.
for a fourplace table on hyperbolic func .5190 colog " ^=2. and use a table of Hyperbolic functions* and Tables II the end of this chapter. /i. /^" r T . [CHAP.1567 * See Chapter IV.) J ^ 7> " our required solution. V.(*. 10 colog " /*. 10 7. and (4). (3)./X/iJ'cosh /7.(M.6189 7<X> = 0. since If 7 () = we III.*) L^/.52O 0.3402 9.(Mxr) ITO + B. Hence = is 200 r /.9037 10 10 9. We have /i(/0 = 0. at 1 and sinh (2.2848 /*. v ' J (I5) satisfies (i) and the conditions (2). We shall see later (Art. 163.2530 10 coshyw a = 7. the point r = o.. now we can develop unity into a series of the form = S.) = M cosh /*. N ./ 1 ^ ( 1 I L^/X/O L/ij/.405 = =/X^) yU 2 5. sinh (/u.= 9.z) Linnr(^ B sinh ujz) T / (lv)+ )+iiHhT2^N .0*.(^r) sinh sinh (/i.= 10 /.2581 0.) sinh (2/1J ()"t) sinh 2 /0 "J 'J* cosh " /*.. ( ./. tions. z = sinh (17) reduces to _i_ = 200 r ^ ___iiiih /i. "= \~B. "1  ..0^) At ^ 1 7./. 21) that it /Ax) =  *& ax J (l6) ~ for values of \w/wyiu&i + iUK) + r '' < I.r) + BJj^r) + .(w) sinh (/y ) "*" * ' (2/i.ar) = 2 sinh ^ cosh x.) ^/X^) sinh (2//.6301W 162.4683/* = 9. pp.186 If i HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. the computation of the is value of u easy.
0058 0. (^9 ) I/i f L MxJiiMd cosh /*.) 10 10 10 = .1678 log /.(*/<. reduces to ./. (/*i/(/0 cosh Mi)' 0*i/i(/O cosh = ^y = 1 1 O.1376.Art. z = 7^> I.icef ~ I ^^ /i.] problem in bessel's functions. . 9.(i/O colog A/AM*) cosh /I.8 At the point r = J.9826 /.. 5. cosh 1 J / (/0 = 0.0. (17).1434 0.6698 log/(/0 = 98 2 59 colog MiA(Mi) cosh//. a=i3.1567 8.
The Sine 3. . sin 2x sin $x. sometimes important to be able to express a given function of a variable. . it is Series. an s J[2Ax) =a x sin 2 f{$Ax) =a =a 1 sin 3 Ax f + 2nAx. a sin ^Ax f. . and substitute them x in We get /{Ax) = a x sin Ax + # Ax f.188 harmonic functions. lot . . in terms of sines of multiples of x. x. . Let us endeavor to so develop a given function of x. x sin x +# 2 sin 2x f a s sin $x f~ ./{x).<^ 3 f sin 3z/jtr sin 4 .  an sin nx (1) shall hold O and n any n arbitrarily chosen values of x between good for we have only to substitute those values in turn for in (1) to get n equations of the first degree. 3 Ax. . in terms of t We fix) can of course determine the coefficients a lf # a a % . Art. nAx. v. [chap.. only unknown quantities. an so that the equation =a . to determine the n coefficients a a t a% an Not only can equations (2) be solved in theory. . an M^r. . ^ equations of the first degree. {1822). in which the n co efficients are the For instance.a f % sin sin $Ax nAx. As we have seen in Art.^ sin 2Ax f. + a^ sin 6Ax + a sin gAx + a sin $nAx. <i). 2Ax. . (2) \ n /(nAx) x sin n Ax f a^ sin 2nAx f.a sin an 3 sin 1. The problem in its general form was first solved by Fourier in his " Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur" and its solution plays an important part in most branches of Mathematical Physics. we can take the n equidistant values Ax. . . where Ax = n\1 a . . . that the function and the series shall be equal for all values of x between o and n. . . 6. sin x. etc. . but they can be actually solved in any given case by a very simple and x . . 6 Ax + .
* See Series . the limiting value in easily seen to be am = . or Byerly's Fourier's and Spherical Harmonics. * f sin kx sin mx. add the form of the resulting equation equations. . to represent fix) for all values of x between zero and n. . .sin 2k Ax uk Ax 2mAx Ax \nmAx Ax. a. . (4) This value can be obtained from equations (2) by the lowing device without first solving the equations : fol< Let us multiply each equation in (2) by the product of Ax and the coefficient of a m in the equation in question.dx = i/*[cos (m if k)x cos(^ + *)x]dx = o m and k are not equal. and find the limiting as n increases indefinitely.* and any coefficient be expressed in the form can am = T2E A kAx) 2 K ~n sin (* A*) (3) If now n is indefinitely increased the values of x for which (i) holds good will come nearer and nearer to forming a conand the limiting value approached by a m will tinuous set probably be the corresponding coefficient in the series required .n ingenious method due to Lagrange.Art. 6 ] the sine series.ff{x) sin tnxdx. ar. . Its limiting value. aK in the resulting equation sin sin is kAx sin mAx Ax + sin \. Riemann's Partielle Differcntialgleichungen. Remembering question is that (n + \)Ax = n. since (n + i)Ax = sin . 189 a. The sin coefficient of any . is / but it sin kx mx dx .
[CHAP. . Whence as before. and its limiting value is / / fix) sin mx. . by the final Hence the as n is limiting form approached is equation increased / fix) sin mx dx = . z/^r. 10 for a discussion of this question. tf w = J fix) sin mx. mnAx . elaborate investigation * into the validity of the development.sin imAx \is .dx. by sin w. . provided that between x An = = * See Art.. The first member sin . entirely confirms the results n the o and x formulated above. # wt ./ is /{Ax) J^r . . .sin 2mAx \. Jjr \fi2Ax) sin +/(/zz/. V.190 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.tr) sin 2m Ax Ax + . .r. akr It is and integrating both members from zero to this article are in important to realize that the considerations given in no sense a demonstration. but merely estab lish a probability. The A*(sin coefficient of a m 3 2 is 2 mAx j. Its limiting value 2 ysin o w^ . + sin 2 nmAx).dx = 2 .dx (5) This method equation f{x) is practically the same a as multiplying the =a x sin x f a^ sin 2x f z sin $x + (6) tt. for which we have not space.
= . sin = 4 /sin x ( $x + ^+ sin xx .Art. \ . (a) x . a broken line or a locus consisting of finite parts of several different and disconnected straight lines can be represented perfectly well by y a sine series.. infinite 191 and singlevalued. 1 (*)/W = .. sin 4X ..). /sin mx dx .dx m (1 if cos nnt) = I w ( m [1 l) ] J = o m if is even is = Hence I m . For example. (7) gives at once a sine development for any constant It is. . +^ sin . m odd. . h 3 4 sin J .r Prob. 6 ] the sine is series. 4 Tsin sin ![_ r+1 . fix) = 1. sin 3* s in $* \ . _4f/ sin.. Jx . (?) It is to be noticed that c. +. and has not an ber of discontinuities or of maxima or minima. am = . function finite num It is to be noted that the curve represented by y=fix) need not follow the same mathematical law throughout its length. m sin mx . /[ / sin ir mx ax = T cos mx . 4 Show Tsin 2\ that for values of x between zero and xx sin 7t w . %x sin 5 a: nx f +J . As an example Here of the application of formula (5) let us take the development of unity. x sin 2 jc 2x Li + .. but may be made up of portions of entirely different curves.
tr dx = #w . w /(*) = 2 Tsin jc . sin nx .192 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. cos 2x \b % cos 3^ (1) f . .< x < tt. . 2 and /(#) = 7t o for 2 <x < /r. it Hence if / w = 2 / / f(x) cos mx . J x* = ?7 sin x Z[\t ~ ~ 7 sin 7. 2 sin 2. sin xx . in a series Let us now try to develop a given function of x of cosines. 2 * + ~ \J ?J sin 3 *~ ^ sin 4 *+ J* Art.2: . if f(x) = x f or o < x < . (1) determine any coefficient b m multiply and integrate each term from o to n. Assume j\x) b^\b cos x x \. sinh sinh x tt = sin 2 2 n (e) x 5 sin 2x \ sin xx 17 sin ax 10 + . dx = o.&. if #z is not zero. 2 sin 6jc . IT To by cos mx . and k are not equal. . I b k cos kx cos w^ dx=o. sin s. if fix) (</) = 1 for o <x< 71 . V.dx I b cos w mx . [CHAP. The Cosine Series. if / /7t b m cos 2 #z. . .x . . . and f(x) =n x f or . using the method suggested by the last article.dx> (2) is not zero.
(2) will give b as well as the other coef Prob. 2 and fix) =o 1 . To by dx and integrate from zero Jb. . = O. 7T x <3: for 2 < x X n. cos io# .# 3 + COS s \ )' for if /(*) = 1 for o <x< . 1.. 7. 7t w ..1) n^ (^) sinh x = 21 n (cosh n 2. \. f \ n* /cos # COS 2X 3JC cos 4X \ . and f{x) COS 3^ = . A X COS 7. a: for o <x< 2 . . /COS ..= +^L + * _ ___^_ _+_..j+jH % /COS . 1 b k cos kx dx . IT Hence which if b = l ~Jf{x)dx y (3) is just half the value that would be given zero were substituted for m. (4) and then the formula ficients. if /(*) .n (4) /[*).+ ? _+.Art. = . . by formula (2) To save a separate formula (1) is usually written f(x) = ib + b x cos x + a cos 2x +b 3 cos 3* + . Show 7C that for values of x between o and .2 W /M . 193 to n. 5. . cos6x . * w = x 2 !(7+7 8 /cos 2X l /. . .< x < 2 7T f.dx IT = Z> 7T. .] the cosine get b multiply (i) a series.X L COS KX \ ). \ J..2: 1) (cosh cos x \ (cosh 1) cos (cosh COS n j 1) cos 3* + .
. where easily seen that the series what the value of the function. . + 3 sin 2x ^ 3 sin $x f .# . and is consequently an odd Therefore for J\ x ) h J\ j all values of x between x \b % cos n and n 2x _ _^ = ft t/ o __ ft cos + . . no matter see that In like manner its ft we f{x) is an even function of valid from x development in a cosine series must be x = to x = ft. where . except perhaps for the value is x = o. dx.. where bm J v J L cos 2 mx dx .. if necessarily zero. but Mz* + M^k=Jl ' ' (I) A 1 j s no t changed by reversing the sign of x and is therefore an even function of x\ and when we reverse the sign of x. Art.194 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. . series to which it is equal for all values of x between be the given function of x. and A*) i A  x ) ' =a x sin x f. ' mx .. an odd function of the development in such a series must hold good from is x odd function ft of x x it = is to x = ft. V. its ^  ^ 2 is affected only to the extent of having function of x. [CHAP. Since a sine series of an 8. be developed into a Trigonometric n and n. am = 2 ft / / }f(x)j\^^ 2 X) sin . It can be expressed Let/(^) as the sum of an even function of x and an odd function of x Any function of x can by the following device : jy)= =Q identically. sign reversed. Fourier's Series. 8 cos ix + . .
= 2 sinh 7rf~i 7t cos #4 2 . rJA o x) cos tnx dr .1 17 cos4#+. Show that for 1 all values of n to n . 6 and 7 x from 1 in Fourier's Series. ~] . . dx It j o Ax ) cos mx dxJ . x a^ sin + ^ cos 3^ f 2# ^s sm 3 X + f~ .dx^ JAX * ) Q0S inx. little. tf sin ** w = lfA*) * x between (4) development holds for all values of n The second member The developments development Prob.  J but ir if we replace ^ by we f{ get cos jA x) cos w* dx= w j x) fnx.] Fourier's series. are special cases of of Arts.lr dx way we can reduce it the value of a m to I it Ax + \ir ^ sm mx >dx. 8. > ( 2) where #w = J Ax 7T ) cos w.+ ) &o ^i cos * sin ^a cos 2. Hence Ax = .tr d*> (3) and and and this tc.* \_2 10 cos $x\ . of (2) is known as a Fourier's Series.r.1 5 cos 2. 195 b m and a m can be simplified a bm 71 Jy ' ' U/ It X 2 ^cos mx.Art. . e* 6. fl an d we have In the same = I It Ax ) cos w.. .dx.p  tf.
Ti . HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. . % sin (3a. (1) where bm = J f\zj cos mz <&. +C 2 x COS (X fix) +C + <T % . ~" Show that formula (2). . 2X + A) + /? + 3) .A) A) + 3 where. 3 cos $ z sin 3 + 3# + . . Art. . 1 . Prob. In developing a function of is x into a Trigonometric Series it often inconvenient to be held within the narrow boundaries x = Let n and x it = it. 8.*)* = tan' Art. that formula (2). . can be developed in terms of z by Art. 8. H sin x sin 2JC 4 3 . can be written sin ( f(x) = ~c 2 sin /5 9 +c x sin (* + A) + +c and fim '. S y We have cos * sin f[~z) = 2 b +* \ +^ f 9 cos 2 * sin 2^r ^ #2 +^ +^ . 7. Extension of Fourier's Series. = = Introduce a new variable z = 7t c X. V. Art.196 2 . sinh it [CHAP. (2) . develop a function of x into if a all values. Let us see be required to Trigonometric Series which shall be equal to f(x) for c. c. which is equal to z ) n when x = and to n when x = c. cm = (. + )* and fim = tan" 8. = /( and (4). Show *. where cm {a J + b. . c and x of x between x we cannot widen them. 2 . . Prob. sin 4* \ . can be written COS (2* COS (3* 1 f(x) = COS#. (3). f(x) (2). 9. . . . sin 3^ 4 .
x)da (7) for all values of x. of of Fourier's Integral and for examples use in Mathematical Physics the student is referred to Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen..] extension of Fourier's series.Art.. So that +00 so /(*) = ~f f(X)d\ f cos at{\ . sin +. (1) Replace z by f(x) value in terms of cos c x and f' becomes = 2 o b u. 9. ... if can be shown that 00 this interval c its is increased indefi nitely the series will approach as 00 limiting form the double is integral I f(X)d\ I cos a{X 00 x)da. \ 0^ o 3 cos J C ' + a sm+tf.sm l + a. which known as a Fourier's Integral. 197 and and (1) ' am //( n A n sm m% dz y (3) holds good from z its = to z = n.t f x cos * . In the formulas just obtained c may have as great a value as we please so that we can obtain a Trigonometric Series for f(x) that will an interval as we It be equal to the given function through as great may choose to take. and to Byerly's Fourier's Series and Spherical Harmonics. (4) and (2) and (3) can be transformed into * = = y c /(*) cos jdx> (5) * and (4) holds good from ff( x x = c ) sin ^rdx. to Schlomilch's For the treatment its Hohere Analysis. x (6) c to = c.
and is that when x = c is = n or = it the value of the series $'[/(*) +/( *)]. finite and singlevalued from x n to x = 7t if f(x) is and has not an infinite number minima between x (2).j 3 + . 10. Vol. Art. '1 can be written /(*) = \ c% sin Po + sin (^T + Aj + '1 sin (^ + AJ ^. It is. to the discontinuities of f{x).. and second. V Show that formula (4). x corresponding n and n and . = 9. Dirichlet's Conditions. that and consequently we must regard . and may be found in readable form in Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen and in Picard's Traite d'Analyse. C* = (" + bm y and /?. Show that formula (4). [CHAP.198 Prob. the results obtained as only provisionally established. 9. the value of the series when x iJQ[A* + )+/( x )]. 10. can be written f(x) = ct cos ^ +c x cos ( Ay +A cos 3 ^^/?. is equal to f{x) n and ?r. 9. of (finite) discontinuities. where Prob. possible to prove rigorously that =. the Fourier's Series of Art. Art. however. or of maxima or = n and x n. for all and that Fourier's Series only. tan" 1 . This proof was first given by Dirichlet in 1829. I. In determining the coefficients of the Fourier's Series representing f(x) we have virtually assumed. and the values. that if c is a value of x corresponding to a discontinuity of f{x). first.. where ^= 3 ( w + 2 m )* and /? w = tan 1 Art. . that a series of the required form and equal to f(x) exists it is uniformly convergent . excepting the values of values of x between 8.. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. cos(^/? )+.
deal of light is 199' A good we thrown on the peculiarities of trigo nometric by the attempt to construct approximately the curves corresponding to them. now we construct x y a2 =a sin f those of y = a sin x t f sin ^x and add the ordinates to 2x we shall get the curve y By = x a sin x a9 sin 2x \ a% sin $x.] dirichlet's conditions. 10.Art. continuing this process we get successive approximations to y =a x sin +# a sin 2* + tf 3 sin $x + 4 sin ^x + ' . we shall ob y= If a sin 1 x f % a^ sin 2x. series If construct y=a l sin x and y =a a sin 2x and add the ordinates of the points having the tain points on the curve same abscissas.
for (7). V sinh ^ Cc sin ^ CL satisfies (1). In each figure the curve y the series. (3). tential is Three edges of a rectangular plate of tinfoil are kept and the fourth at potential I. V = ^\ is [sinh ^Lsinh^ a ^~+ ' 2 sinh^ 3 sinh *1 it *L* a 1 A "I sin + T when y J = b. (a) 11. (2). Prob. at potential zero. namely x x\ s x j b  Art. sinh fiy cos fix. y = x t (2) (3) (4) (5) Working as in Art. Construct successive approximations to the Maclaurin's Series for sinh x. since the problem Laplace's Equation (3). At what po any point in the plate solve is ? Here we have to which. Prob. 6. [CHAP. Art. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. reduces to See . ii. lines. V. a^+ subject to the conditions W= " > (I) V= o when x V=o V=o v=i V " = o. (6> the required solution. 3. in question are drawn in continuous and the approximations = and the preceding approximation and the curve corresponding to the term to be added are drawn in dotted lines. twodimensional. 6. y = o. = a. Art. reduces to I. cosh /3y sin fix. and cosh fiy cos fix as particular values of satisfying (1). Construct successive approximations to the series given in the examples at the end of Art.200 tion to this curve. and (4). 1 2. we readily get sinh/?jj> sin fix. Applications of Trigonometric Series.
kept what Two opposite edges of a square sheet of tinfoil are at potential zero.25. ( ^ \p) where am = j Cf{x) sin ^^ . The differential equation for the small transverse vibrations of a stretched elastic string is as stated in Art. am mnx 1 sin cos mnat . we easily get as particular solutions y j = = sin #r /for sin a fit. 201 (b) A initially distorted into a given plane curve and then released find its motion. of Art. " t o. cos sin and y = y = sin /far cos tf/^. . . 0. is the centre of the sheet ? potential at . ^ satisfies (1). = = = (2) (3 ) (4) (5) /. is the centre of the sheet ? . Three edges of a square sheet of tinfoil are kept at potential zero. (3). dx (7) is our required solution 9. Prob. for it reduces to/(*) when/ = o. 14. 11.] APPLICATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES. 0. cos /?* cos a fit. (2). harpstring is .cos .5. and the fourth at potential unity Ans. and the other two at potential unity Ans. y = sin j. and (4). 13. i. Two adjacent edges of a square sheet of tinfoil are . y Using the method of (1) =fx 3. at what potential Prob. tf/?/". Our conditions if we take one end of the string as origin are y y ^ = o when = = q " x * / o. See Art. . 15.ART. Prob.
determining the coefficients. iron slab 10 centimeters thick is placed between and two other iron slabs each 10 centimeters thick. [CHAR V. Art.8 15. f 3. harpstring is At Show that if a point whose distance from the end of a is th the length of the string drawn aside by the player's finger to a distance b from its position of equilibrium and then released. one of which temperature zero and the other at 100 degrees Centigrade throughout. and their outer faces are kept at the temperature zero. The outer faces of the outside slabs are kept at the temperature zero.S. what potential is the centre of the sheet ? Ans. Find the temperature of a point in their common face and of points 10 centimeters from the common face fifteen minutes after the slabs have been put together. Ans. Required the temperature of a point in the middle of the middle slab fifteen minutes after the slabs have been placed in contact.G.* is at the . 0. io. kept at potential zero. as a particular solution of Art.202 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. are placed together face to face. i7. 12. the form of the vibrating string at any instant is given by the equation 2bn (n 1 ^ ) / i .3. The temperature of the middle slab is at first 100 degrees Centigrade throughout. t Properties of Zonal Harmonics. 22. and the other two at potential unity. units.* An in contact with Two iron slabs each 20 centimeters thick. In Art. 4 before beginning this article. z = Pm {x) was obtained then the form a n x n and * See Art. 17. Prob.2.5. nnt . Ans. 16. 4] by the device of assuming Legendre's Equation [(7). Prob.185 m C. that z could be expressed as a sum or a series of terms of 4. Given a % = 0. Prob. mnx sin " n* ^* Km* n sin cos m7iat\ mnat\ > Show from this that all the harmonics of the fundamental note of the string which correspond to forms of vibration having nodes at the point drawn aside by the finger will be wanting in the complex note actually sounded.! . We The student should review Art. 18. . and of the outside slabs zero throughout.
Then V=2pm r I w is a solution of Art. Art. y. as transform (i) If we to spherical coordinates 1 we get V= Vr . potential function for any point (x. and rememSubstituting this value of bering that the result must be identically true. 1 = sin 6 sin d x cos 2rr. x 13) a solution of equation (1). as it must be in order that (2) may be independent of 0. in the equation. x > x the given point (x xt y z ) is taken on the axis of X. and If = ^= is r* V. O. we get after a V slight reduction . 203 can. 12. 1].) is The V= and [(3). /.be this series. 2^1 cos 6 + J can be developed .v +r . obtain a particular solution of Legendre's equation by an entirely different method.)] +r % x (2) as a solution of Laplace's Equation in Spherical Coordinates [(5). 4. (I) this Art. Let 5?/ 6. cos 4. 1 into a convergent power series. Equation (3) can be written ^('"V and if 08 *+)"*' (4) r is less than r. must be a particular solution of Laplace's Equation is easily verified by direct substitution. .] PROPERTIES OF ZONAL HARMONICS. being of course a function of (1). 2rr.[cos cos B x \ (00. z) due to a unit of mass concentrated at a given point (xx .Art.yx% .. Art. 0. i]. . however.
. x= I.(*) )(/.. [CHAP. V. _ 2g+ j?)i = P (l)+P (t). t l 2xz+S)*=P.S+PJLx).=i+s+ J +*>+. 1 . .S+ />(!) *> + but (1 .e+. x = cos 6 reduces this Art.2*+ f)*=(i*). and proves to be precisely the function of x which in Art. (7) which is easily obtained.(*) * + ^.(x). 4 we have represented by Pm (x). (8) . .* + 3/>. We if have. then. the substitution of [(7). as HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. we have seen. hence Pm (l) = Surface Zonal Harmonic I. is and is convenient when the numerical value of x given. power of z in the development of i 2xz\z*)~ iz a function of x that will satisfy Legendre's >(i to Legendre's equation ^equation.(x) + />.{x)+Pl(x).204 but.2*8 + + (s (5) + Z/fc) . (6) Any two of may be obtained from the next lower orders by the aid of the formula (n + l)PnU*) ~ (2* + WU*) + 1 Pu (*) = O. and have called a Surface Zonal Harmonic. (5) the absolute value of z If (I is less than I. z.(*) * +)= ) 0. 4]." x){P.i+PJil). (i 2XZ + Z )"* = 2 [i 2(2X *)] *. Hence we infer that the coefficient of the mth.. (5) reduces to 9 l .. and can be developed by the Binomial Theorem the coefficient m of z is easily picked out. .*+P. Differentiate (5) with respect to ( and we get il z L+* = p>w +2PM ' +3PM'*+ Avhence ^1 2XZ\S y or by (I . .(*) .
let As an example. + a* . and if the value of Fon or as the axis of ^fis known. Art. The from its surface density at a point of the plate at a distance r centre is <T = M 4#7T Va* .ART. The value of the potential function at a point in the axis ot the plate at the distance x from the plate can be obtained without difficulty by a simple integration. Problems in Zonal Harmonics. hence the coefficient of each n Picking out the coefficient of z and writing it equal to zero. and as we have seen these forms reduces to the proper in Art. identically true. tial us suppose a statical charge of units on a conductor in the form of a thin circu M be required to find the value of the PotenFunction at any point in the " field of force" due to the let it and charge. we have formula (7) above. 2 . v ' (1) . 13. 205 Now power of z must vanish. and can be expressed as 2am rm ^ 3+I> we can wr ite out our required solution as V=2am r~Pm (cos8) each of for since Pm(i) = 1 or V^^ ^'^ i value on the axis satisfies . In any problem on Potential if Fis independent of sa that we can use the form of Laplace's Equation employed in Art. and proves to be V = M cos*. Such a table x = cos is given at the end of this chapter. 4.] PROBLEMS (8) is IN ZONAL HARMONICS. 4 each of them the reduced form of Laplace's Equation. and all points of the conductor are at potential ( See Pierce's Newtonian Potential Function 61). 13.x 2a x* . and P {x) = x x. of electricity placed lar disk. By the aid of (7) a table of Zonal Harmonics is easily com puted since we have for P (x) = 1.
and M = is .VP. x* x* . of (i) is easily developed into a power M cos 2a .(cos) + ... [CHAP.a* +a . p.206 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.(cos )+. value on the axis of the ring can be obtained by a simple integration.(cos 6) + 1^ /.. if r < Vm and if y [/'. 2 MYn x .. as is F= jj . (cos +  ? P (cos t 0) lJ/>. (5) The series in (4) and (5) are convergent..]ifr>.(cos > c 1 0). V.(* 60  ]. Hence lJi>. between 1 and article that Prob. 19. The second member series. ring. r . since they may be obtained from the convergent series (2) and (3) by multiplying the terms by a set of quantities no one of which exceeds one in absolute value. x* x* x 7 1 . = if M is the mass and c the radius of the c At any point in space.] 5 is (4) our required solution if r <a <0 and < . Pm (cos The 6) always lies For it will be shown in the next 1. Find the value of the Potential Function due to the attraction of a material circular ring of small crosssection.
Obviously. development of (i (l We P  2XZ + ~ Z*) i = = 01 [I  *(*' + K e~ 1 ') + ^*0 2 (I **')" ]* "* we develop nomial Theorem If (i (i ze ')* and (i ze~ 9i)l by the Bi their product will give a is development for 2xz + z*)~l. 14. by terms m volving lower powers of x than the Hence PJfi = ^^~ I* (*) . The m coefficient of z easily picked out and reduced.] ADDITIONAL FORMS..4. the result will be differ tound to from r I '35 ^^. .ART. Art. 14. 1. and value then has already been shown in Art. which is common to all the other terms. r 3 P (cos 2 6) + 2 ^ r (cos 0) 0> T . all the coefficients in the second 0) member # of (1) are its Pw (cos has its maximum value when = o. 4. 2m i ' i) r L n 2C0sw. . m Since positive. but cos taining in the latter case the term in question will not be multiplied by the factor 2. 4 4V 4 ' . and we get PJcos 6) 1 = I 1..) C08 ^ 2) g 3 (*) I. 12 to be unity. have seen in Art.1 J Additional Forms.f^ (cos 6) C Lr Art.5. then. 2 \x* W m i) ' t.3. I 2 207 T= ..6.#*)* in a power series. 12 that m (x) is the coefficient of (#) m in the z 2xz\. (2m 3. (b) If times in succession with respect to x.g +2 Wl i. with the term containing cos o. its minimum value cannot be less than m we integrate the value of Pm {x) given in (11). ^ {2m)\ ( 2m 0/ 171th. If w ..(2 W .(2Wl)(2W3) V cos( _ 4) g + 17 I 1 J (I) W is odd the parenthesis in (1) ends with the term conif is even.2.
{?) + Aflx) + A fix) + . we have Function given on the surface of a sphere. (4) P. .208' HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. . The problem Assume for 1 1 f(x) 1.(*) = l/ ^j/ # [* . it of becomes necessary to develop a function the form of 6 into a series Aflcos or. 6 and may be solved by in sineseries the same method. Development as in Art. what amounts to the same thing. . are PJ ^~ = ( d m > m \ dx tv + y + / i_ (3 > IT PJx) \f\* + Vx^i . 4. Multiply (1) by Pm (x)dx and 1 integrate from to We 1 get _ ^ P ff{x)Pm(x)dx "s\A. f m (x)P {x)dx\ n (2) . Other forms for [CHAP. to develop a function of x into a series of the form AJ>. the value of the Potential Whenever. . in Terms of Zonal Harmonics. Art. 15. (1) <x < 1.. d) + ^(cos + Aflcos + 6) 0) ... V T I COS 0] m+1 (j) (4) and (5) can be verified without difficulty by expanding and integrating. and this value depends only on the distance from the extremity of a diameter. . . r is entirely analogous to that of development treated at length in Art. = A P (x) + A P {x) + A P (x) + x x % % . (c) Pm {x\ m i) which we give without demon stration. VI. cos <] V0.
x*) ^?] (3) + m(m + i)Pm {x) = o. + A P {x) n n shall hold I. Art. 4 that z = Pm (x) f is a solution of Legendre's Equation j\ (1 x*) m(m + 1)2 = o.] formui as for development.I equidistant values and taking its limiting value as n of is x between 1 indefinitely in creased. in Art. good for n \. 1 and integrate.Art. that (3) important to notice here. Formulas for Development. 16. 1 Hence It is A m = ^t. (2) i[ ^2^]+^ +I ^ W =a Multiply (2) (3 > by PW W and by Pm (x). We have \m{m + I) . 16.ff(x)Pm {x)dx. . in We have seen Art. obtaining so that the equation x in Am amounts essentially to deter Ax) and == A P {x) + A P {x) + A fix) + x . unless m=n 9 and that f[PJx)ydx 1 = ^. shall 209 We show i in the next article that j i i Pm (x)Pn (x)dx = o.n(n + i)]fpm (x)Pn (x)dx 1 . as the method we have used mining Am . transpose. 6. (1) Hence and ^[(l (l . . subtract.
By (2).^'i ].)"f 1 i ^)<. (7) i) and as a special case. * ~i flP4*)7d*^ttf v ' dx~ dx dx ( 9> 1 By successive integrations a by parts. i To f[Pm {x)Jdx is not particularly difficult. V. [CHAP. = o. . If in (4) we integrate from x to I instead of from I to \r we get an important formula. and . 1 Art. noting that dx__(^ _ i) m contains (x* 1)* as a factor if k < m. n(n\ .210 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. (6) m= n. ~. 1 by integration by parts. J Pm (x)P* (x)dX= n "* v ' x . + r=i) I. S /(. since P^*) = unless m= get o. i Hence unless fPm (x)P (x)dx = n i O. =[^K.. 14.
and Prob.J formulas for development. Show that^ [AC*)]V* x.4. 22. K 211 that dx* m = (2m)l we get i 1 v *' 1 f{x* i  i) m dx = f(x i  m i) (x + i) i) m dx = m\i fix J v J l ' i) \ {x+ r m+1dx  ( V {2tn)\ J { +U ~ 2 ( +l (m \y !' I} (2m + 1) Hence i /W)]W* = ^rj. ./(. = o from x = 1 to x = o. Show that i?(0) = ^ Bm Pm (cos 0) where i?w = fF(d)Pm (cos 6) sin dd. = 2m \ ' Note that I [^(tf)]* is an even function of Prob. Show m\ that / Pm (x)dx = o x  if tn is even and is not zero = (.Art. . ' <i I) i Prob. 23.*) == 1 Show that if f(x) from x = o to x = x.6 .. 21. 20.i)"^ / m\m\ \ 357M \) if w is odd 2 . 16. .(m i) Prob.
.212 Prob.(*)]. esc 6 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.5 . Formulas in Zonal Harmonics. Note that t/ fx Pm (x)dx n = 1 2 "V// / ..3. [ Chap  V Show that (cos = y [1 + Show a ! 5 (j)V. that V= c when r =a F= c if r <# . 14.3) 3 " + '* ~ '> ( *> 2JL ~^ i (x) ) />. and F= r if r > dr. Art. V ' /{&) when r = in attracting or repel a. 17.]. Prob. J 1 (3) .7 1 + (" . 24. 25.]. V=2A m P M (cos6)if r<a and V = 2jJ^Pm{a V) if r> a. (?) + 9(^5) A(cos 0) "+ . 27. nt {cos 6) sin Odd.(*) + ._. See (1). The tion following formulas which we give without demonstramay be found useful for reference : ^^= (2ni)P.. .(a +I )[ + l}/> < + (in .1 fx* ^ 1 x dx m \'~ ^"dx. Prob.. Prob. Art. not imbedded ling matter._ (*) . 26.(x)+(2ns)PU')+(2n1 9)PU'}+(i) fp{x)dx = _L_[ P. and use the _i method of integration by parts freely. at Show and if that if V is the value of the Potential Function any point in a field of force./>+. where Am = Show ^Jff{0)P 2 if . that (2 " ** = 1.
and they play nearly the same part in. (. 4 it can be proved that V = rm cos n<b where ju sin M . They are functions of and 6.w = iJ + i^ . and V=r~Ym (fii. 5 that i Properties.* Bessel's Functions. P jM known as a Surface Spherical Harmonic of the #zth degree. 5 + . (1) before reading this article. 19. Art. in Art. Spherical Harmonics. 19. (5). namely. Art.Pm(p) + n m=i l (A n cos +B n sin 0)sin ^* (IfA.ir ? J^ * The student should review Art. or to Byerly's Fourier's Series and Spherical Harmonics. The Tesseral and the Zonal Harmonics are special cases of the Spherical Harmonic. 18. to Ferrer's Spherical Harmonics.] spherical harmonics. YJji.unsymmetrical problems that the Zonal Harmonics play in those independent of 0. . <p) satisfy Laplace's Equation. we have to solve Laplace's Equation in the form (5). Art. 1. Art.Art. We have seen z = J {x) where /. and by a treatment analogous to that given in Art.<p) and V = ^1 1. but is not independent of the angle 0. to Heine's Kugelfunctionen. . In problems in Potential where the value of Fis given on the surface of a sphere. 213 Art. The factors multiplied by r m in these values are <p known as Tesseral Harmonics. as is also a form m (cos y) known as a Laplace's Coefficient or a Laplacian y standing for the angle between r and the radius vector r. and V= rm sin nd> sin M 6 r^~^> = cos 6. I. are particular solutions of (5). of some fixed point. P refer For the properties and uses of Spherical Harmonics we the student to more extended treatises. 0) is = A.
2 .{x)dx = dx fxj. we o. If we write J&x) for z in equation (2).(*)) + (/. ' (6> . table giving values of (x) and /. t . simplifying by inte gration by parts. [CHAP. since J (x) x dx AT (J  + fxj. 4 order. 4 2 . 4^2. (5) If we write J^x) for z in equation then multiply through by xi ji an d integrate from zero to x. simplifying the resulting equation A by integration by parts. get xdj%(x) or.(^) will be found at the end of this chapter.(*))"]. JA) ~ is dx 2L 2. V a solution of the equation ^+^ + *= .6\8^ \ Kl) called a Bessel's Function of the first and is a solution of the equation dx* + x dx ^+(>^=> f (4> which is the result of differentiating (2) with respect to x. 6 2. d*z I dz . we get X or fx(/l*)ydx = f [(/. 0: (2 > and we have called J&x) a Bessel's Function or Cylindrical Harmonic of the zero order. (2). then multiply through by xdx and integrate from zero to x.(x)dx = xJSx).214 is HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.
d)\ K (8) Hence /. Applications of Bessel's Functions. Art.] If applications of bessel's functions. (See (8). If we substitute in turn in ^ x) and / K for z.Art 20. we get JxJl^xK x)J^x)dx ^KaJljA. (:o) J (x) =  I sin 2 cos (x cos <p)d<p.(/**) if /i K and // t = o. o. inte and (3). the The problem temperature at each point of the other base is a given function of the distance of the point from the center of the base re. Art. dz . replace 215 we x by fix dz 2 in (2) 1 it becomes . first. which are sometimes useful ir J (x) = x . (a) 20. . or of or of im/Aim) a \J (iia) = o. 5 is : a special case of the following The convex surface and one base of a cylinder of radius a and length b are kept at the constant temperature zero. (11) They can be confirmed by developing grating. Hence z = J^x) (j)J Q t is a solution of (/* L x) (7). the second by x/ (/uK x) subtract the second from the parts. J xJ^Kx)JX^x)dx = : (9) We give without demonstration the following formulas. are different roots of /(/*#) = o. of Art. 5).a)f^ K a)~}x aJl^ K a)J^}x.fcos(x n cos cp)d(p. simplify by integration by and reduce. mult tiply the first equation by x/ (^ x). and comparing with (1) cos (x cos 0).
(^ir) by ^ J =o when dr that is. Starting with the particular solution of = sinh (/Az)J (Mr).. % z and f(r) = AJ ( Ml r) sinhfos) ^\sinh (/^) y + AJ. and proceeding of as in Art. r ~ a. z = b. h being the coefficient of surface conductivity. will be re () If = = placed by = O when r = a. are roots (3) /.. Here we have to solve Laplace's Equation in the form or (see Art.. . (6). (1). /*. or if u = r sinh (^iz)/ a.216 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS.{ r) + AJ^ + sinhOi^) ^ + "%inh (///) / '^ + r) . r) * ' ' * (5 ' instead of keeping the convex surface of the cylinder at temperature zero we surround it by a jacket impervious to when r heat the equation of condition. . quired the temperature of any point of the cylinder after the permanent temperatures have been established. or If = o. are roots of now If in (4) and (5) /Jt .//. by /xj^a) /:(/"*) = o (6) . (5) will be the solution of our new problem.. 21 a. 5). 5. (4) r. (2) . if /*.(/**) = o../*. . instead of keeping the convex surface of the cylinder at the temperature zero we allow it to cool in air which is at (c) the temperature zero.. . V.. we get. ./*.. the condition u replaced by = o when r = a will be or \hu O when r = a.. r dr oz subject to the conditions u =o u = o when " z u=f(r)" u = o. oV . [CHAP.
. //.Art. (5) will now in (4) and (5) yw. =a y or If H*/i(j<"*) (7) (7). * See Riemann's Partielle Differentialgleichungen. Development now in Terms of Bessel's Functions. of the second member will vanish by (9). .(fi.(*) > (8) (9) and have each an xJ (x) x \Jlx) =o (10) infinite number of real positive roots.(//#) = or To determine any coefficient A k multiply (1) by rj (jii k r)dr and integrate from zero to a. .(w*)]"+[y. JrUAwWr = jjf4.. or Vo(^) = o. = /iW /. 217 If u = sinh (?z)J9 (f*r) this condition becomes r P/Af**) + hj^jxr) = o ahj^d) . ^ ^ . Art. 97.(w*)]') Art.* The earlier roots of these equations can difficulty be obtained without serious from the table for Jix) and /.(#) at the end of this chapter... Art. being roots of / of MaSXM<*) = o. t 9 (1) o. 21. 21. except the term At fr\J. . shall obtain the developments called for in the last Let Ar) fjtt . etc. are roots of be the solution of our present problem.r)Ydr. yw 3 . The first member will become a frf{r)/. Every term 19. 19.{n t r)dr. (/*tf) of /.o. We article. . . j([/./J&J*t= by (6).] development in terms of bessel's functions. = Ajfar) + A /&S) + AJ (Mt r) + . when o. It can be shown that .
(2) reduces to If /i.218 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. If J* t . 6 and 15). reduces to a Ak = 7uh&%J'rJW*Jvyir oi/ (jia) t ' (3) If Mi. are roots o.fxJ (x)dx = ^J ^ d) (6) Q x k by (5). (2) ju 3 . M%> etc > are roots ' o{/ (jua) o = o. a [Chai\ V. Hence A = k The development Arts. reduces to ^ = 4 ^+jJ^UA^)r / rArV 0v)dr '  (5) For the important case where /(r) a a % fi k = a 1 frf{r)Jl^k r)dr= f rjJjA#)dr=l. M*y M*> e tc. and (3) reduces to 2 (4) reduces to . M%y etc > are roots of ^aj {^a) x \J%{j*a) = o. (i) holds good from r = o to r = a (2) (see Mt . Art. 19..
ju a j/t .185 and of cement 0. Find also the temperature of a point on the surface midway between the ends.0 O . . 30. jtf 3 if . and of the points of the axis 20 centimeters from each end after the temperatures have ceased to change. 97.000162 in C.] development ix terms of bessel's functions. and the long con is kept at the temperature o. supposNeglect the curvature of the coating. 219 Prob.. 72 . Given that the conthe other end at the temperature of 100 degrees. Ans. ing the coating absent. 32. 40 .3 1 \ du\ I t (see Art. = tained from (4). .3. Prob. . the temperature at any time must satisfy the equation du ~ 3 a (d*u (.. the surface of the cylinder is kept at the temperature o and Ak is the value zero. and of points of the surface 20 centimeters from each end.7 . 21. supposing the coating a perfect nonconductor. .8 OoO 15 . when the coating is Ans. 31.oi. * . absent. If the cylinder described in problem 29 is very and is initially at the temperature ioo throughout. 15 . If the temperature at any point in an infinitely long cylinder of radius c is initially a function of the distance of the point from the axis. where. One end and the convex in surface of the cylinder thus coated are kept at the temperature zero. M 3 . and again. // 9 . since * it is clearly in 1 1 dependent of z and <p. O Or> . A circular drumhead of radius a is initially slightly . S. and z is the ordinate of any point of the membrane at any time.are roots of pcjjj**) . and second. first when the cylinder is coated. .5 . and if heat escapes at the surface into air at the tem> ^JX^ C ) perature zero /*.. ductivity of iron is 0. o .Art. Show that + Af"*j far) + % . O O .2 o. . Prob. 29.. Find the temperatures of the three points of the axis. find the temperature of a point 5 centimeters from the axis 15 minutes after cooling has begun . 72 .3 . Find to the nearest tenth of a degree the temperature of the middle point of the axis. vex surface distorted into a given form which is a surface of revolution about the axis of the drum. and Ak is obtained from (5). . //. o O O . . \ 1). Prob.. 1 . = . units.0 . are roots of J^pc) if the surface of the given in (3) with c written in place of a cylino and A k is obare roots of JJju) der is adiabatic /* //. and is then allowed to vibrate.85 . Assuming that . G. An iron cylinder one meter long and 20 centimeters diameter has its convex surface covered with a socalled nonconducting cement one centimeter thick.4 40 . . .
. u = o when z = b and u = f{z) when r = a. knz I f(z) sin 7 dz > (2) by Art. J = are concentric circles whose radii are proportional to the roots of /. cos + AjXl*/) cos an(* + . and z = /(r) /i 9 tf when = o. and that the possible nodal lines for such vibrations (x) given in (3). Prob. . and and is real. ^T fc=i . Art. . knz where A k =r 9. and in the corfit. . satisfy the equation [CHAP. must ^3 = c I ^ + / ~j. Art. are roots of jX^a ^* nas tne value that if a drumhead be initially distorted as in not in general give a musical note that it may be problem 32 that in this case the initially distorted so as to give a musical note that the periods of the various vibration will be a steady vibration musical notes that can be given are proportional to the roots of o. If in a 22. subject to the con ditions z / = o when r = a. u = o when problem on the stationary temperatures of a cylinder z = o. 20. y the problem is easily solved. . If in (2). 33. where /*. = o when /^<tf ) = o.. / knri\ b 7 I k Hence = "^ ^ ^ k7TZ^\ sin r r (3) is the required solution. V. . as particular solutions of Art.(*) = o. fi %% f*% . Problems in Bessel's Functions.220 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. 20. show that 2 = A^J^y) . Show will it . . responding solution z can readily obtain = cosh (Mz)/ (Mr) we replace M by we z = sin (/xz)J (/uri) and z = cos (Mz)f (M r i) (1). .
A cylinder two feet long and two feet in diameter has bases kept at the temperature zero and its convex surface at 100 degrees Centigrade until the internal temperatures have ceased its Find the temperature of a point on the axis half way between the bases. which are usually extremely complicated. Prob. half way between the bases. In problems concerning hollow cylinders much J more complicated functions of the second kind. 24. 72. and Spherical Harmonics for a much more complete treatment to Gray and Matthews' admirable treatise on Bessel's Functions. and of a point six inches from the axis.] lame's functions. Lame's Functions or Ellipsoidal Harmonics are used when solutions of Laplace's Equation in Ellipsoidal coordinates are Toroidal Harmonics when solutions of Laplace's required . 23. 8o. enter. They the nth. For a brief introduction to the theory of these functions see Byerly's Fourier's Series and Spherical Harmonics. Lame's Functions. known as Bessel's Functions For a very brief discussion of these functions the reader is . Bessel's Functions of Higher Order. Complicated problems in Potential and in allied subjects are usually handled by the aid of various forms of curvilinear coordinates. For instance. Equation in Toroidal coordinates are needed. If we are dealing with Laplace's Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates and the problem is not symmetrical about an axis. Art. Ans. i. and each form has its appropriate Harmonic Functions. 24. 34.i. . order. functions of the form ** very much f _ ** ' 2r(*+l)L 2'(+l) 2\2\{?l+ 1)0+2) the same part as that played by (x) in the play are known as Bessel's Functions of preceding articles.Art. 221 A table giving the values of J (xi) will be found at the end of this chapter. referred to Byerly's Fourier's Series Art. to change.
V. .HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. [Chap.
TABLES. 223 .
224 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS. Table II. [Chap. Bessel's Functions. V. X .
Roots of Bessel's Functions. 225 Table n III.TABLES. .
in Adjunct Professor of Mathematics Columbia University. It is said to be " ^valued when to every set of values of the independent variables n values of the function correspond. If 1. of them. two or more quantities are such that no one when any values whatsoever are assigned to the others. By Thomas S. are said to be the function. . the derivation of formulas which exhibit the relations of functions to one another or to their independ ent variables. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. Fiske. and the determination whether or not functions exist satisfying assigned conditions. [CHAP. The quantity or quantities upon the values of which the value of the function " " of the independent variables depends. VI. the former is required to take one or another of a system of completely determined values. suffers any restriction in regard to the values which it can assume the quantities are said to be " independent. The "Theory of Functions " has among its objects the study of the properties of functions.226 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. Art. their classification according to their properties. Definition of Function." If one quantity is so related to another quantity or to several independent quantities. Chapter VI. that whenever particular values are assigned to the latter. A function is " onevalued " when to every set of values as signed to the independent variables there corresponds but one " value of the function. the former is said to be a " function " of the latter.
every quantity " " form w V by is is I. quantity is A variable real and imaginary values." A quantity z = x i \ iy is " said to vary " continuously x x when x between every pair of values which it takes. v zero.ib and c * = a *~\~ M% tne value of z varies in such a manner that x and y pass through all real values intermediate to a and #a b and b respectively. By means of it some of the most complicated propositions sion. When z varies continuously the a value of z. capable. 227 Art. Representation of Complex Variable. the point By = 0. The terms " " graphical representation of its varia" tion. " absolute value or " modulus of The quantity z. x . x x give to a variable quantity z iy a graphical representation by drawing in a plane a pair of rectangular axes and constructing a point whose abscissa and ordinate are It is usual to = + To every value of z will correrespectively equal to x and y. of assuming both In fact. y = r sin t where r is a positive real z is = r(cos 6 f. then.Art. It is cus tomary to denote tity thus : V If I i. 2. may be interchanged without confusion. w is a u pure imaginary. w is real . a point and." will be a continuous This graphical representation is line. if u is zero. r is called the (^J. or its path. It will often z.] REPRESENTATION OF COMPLEX VARIABLE.i sin 6) referred to polar coordinates. c = a f. point and value. and to write the preceding quan u + iv. to every point will correspond spond . to be regarded as having the complex u\v u and v being real. in general. given an exceedingly condensed and concrete expres may be r cos putting x quantity. of the highest importance. conversely. 2. unless it be otherwise specified. be written and " 6 will be called the argument" of .
in fact. as m is . and cannot exceed. . Hence. is terms being all positive. . . The same will be true necessarily of any series m formed by selecting terms from R. sum of the first tn terms of W approaches a which was to be proved. . the limit . of real variables. VI. . The sum of the is composed of two parts. f wn \ . function is sometimes considered for only such values of each independent variable as are represented graphically by the In the study of functions points of a certain continuous line. _x cos 9m . Theorem. A the moduli of whose terms form a convergent series. is repthe axis of real quantities. the moduli of the terms of a series form a convergent series. increased. means of infinite series The is representation of functions by one of the most important branches of the theory of funcIn it is tions.) . 3.223 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. and each of these in turn may be divided into parts which have all their terms of the same sign. for example. namely. is said to be " absolutely convergent. it is only by means of series possible to determine functions satisfying the condi many tions assigned and to obtain the required numerical will If results._. + rm + rm _. the corresponding terms of R. wQ \. in absolute value. series. i sin # ). = Art. . . but in such a manner as to approach a limit. . the given series is convergent. x By hypothesis the series Its R= +r + + +r + n i sin #. that problems. . w... r (cos 6 a in which w W= r x = + = x + . Every one of the four parts thus obtained approaches a limit as m is increased for the terms of each part have the same sign.w Let the given series be r (cos 0. the path of each variable A resented by a straight or y o. sin #. [CHAP. Absolute Convergence. .). the sum of its first m convergent. l . line. Frequent use be made of the following theorem." . terms of the series first W x r cos 6o z{r sin 6 + r cos 6 + r sin 6 + X x . terms constantly increases with m.
In the case of the algebraic functions. furnish most convenient general definitions for exp z. 4. Every algebraic function. e* pendent variables no significance in the case where the indeare complex.. Besides the algebraic functions. . z  < Art. . have familiar series. is absolutely convergent. In elementary mathematics the functions are usually considered for only real values of the independent variables.9 ' z J 1 . z* 1 z 6 a 3 I .. z 4 j . theredefined by an equation which may be put in a form wherein the second member is zero and the first member is rational and entire in the function and its independent variables. . The definitions. The theory fore. 2 t follows that a* = ezl s a sa exp(z log a). However.. J elementary functions. Defining the logarithmic function by % e\o% it z ex p (Jog g} . and finite sin every the equation z these series being absolutely convergent for value of z. however. Show ' that the series if  I I... C0S2= J z __+_+. i.Art. there is no difficulty in assuming that the independent variables are complex. Elementary Functions. 4. by which these functions are generally first intro duced. is of elimination shows that every algebraic equation can be freed from radicals. the following z* = expz= i+z+ z* + z* ++. + +V + + zn + . 5 7i which have been established for the case where the variables are real... 229 * . Prob. cos z. the functions most often occurring in elementary mathematics are the trigonometric and exponential functions and the functions inverse to them.
[CHAP. VL. The following equations also are to be regarded as equations. : of definition tan z sin 2 .230 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.
be less than e if \jt\< up l+e\t Hence at a point if c. 231 variables quantities of moduli less than some determinate positive quantity 3. difference. every . and multiplications. it follows that are continuous at a given point. and let it take at that point the value /. A function of one independent variable is said to be con tinuous in a given region of the plane upon which its independent variable is represented. every rational entire function of z two functions sum. different from zero. the modulus of the preceding difference cannot exceed \t\(\t\\At\y and will. therefore. their uct are continuous at that point. From the principles of limits.Art. the value of the function is altered by a by quantity of modulus less than any previously chosen arbitrarily small positive quantity e. their c.] continuity of functions. if it is contiuuous at every point in that region. two functions are both continuous at c. Suppose also that at / \ any other point c\Ac\X\z function takes the value I At. quence. Then At I t + At At  t t{t+ At) /  If it be assumed that  < . subtractions. for Let a function of a single independent variable be continuous at c. a function its if is continuous and different from zero at once that is It follows reciprocal is also continuous at c. 5. and prodAs an immediate conseif is continuous at finite point every such function can be constructed from z and constant quantities by a finite number of additions. ratio continuous at unless the denominator reduces to zero .
Z s gZ Hence if \Az\<\. Graphical Representation of Functions. therefore continuous for all values of z except those for which denominator vanishes. to each point x u ff iy of the iv of the function. Consider the expression u f iv = x" f 1 y 1 f 2ixy. if w =jf[z) be such a function. Show Show and sin z are continuous for all finite values of Prob. 6. In the same way it is independent variconvenient to use a second plane to represent graphically the values of any onevalued function. [CHAP. For example. Consider the function expz. It 6. \A Z \' . in every continuous curve in the ^plane will have an image the wplane. and this image will be also a continuous curve. 2 that a was shown plane suffices for the complete graphical representation of the values of an able. z.232 at that point.iy. 5. then f. VI. member is is zero when all Hence exp z that cos z continuous for finite \Az\ apvalues Prob. of the point x independent variable will correspond a point " This point u f. Here . pZ\b. o^ 2~ Art. but the limit of the third proaches zero. ? Functions in Art. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.iv is called the u image If w is a continuous function of z. But every rational function of z It is may its be expressed as the ratio of two entire functions. of z. that tan z is about the origin as a center with a radius continuous in any circle described less than \n.
= f(z) is.J DERIVATIVES. " derivative" of the function^) at this limit is said to be the the point at z. If z be given a real increment. 7. this expression falls under the general definition of a function oiz. Derivatives." that a variable having zero as its limit. " monogenic is The derivative written f'{z) or A function said to be monogenic in a region of the plane of the independent variable if it is monogenic at every point of that region.iy. 7. while A iv ~Az~ ~ Au Av ' Ax Ax' . Every of it straight line is x = 1 / parallel to the axis of converted by means y into a parabola v \f{u f). *. Find the family of curves into which the straight lines parallel to the axis of y are converted by means of the function u + = x* ~~ ^" + 2txy. and the expression h has a finite determinate limit. = x \. f 233 u = x* y and v = 2xy. remaining the same under all possible suppositions as to the way in which //approaches zero. Consider now the circumstances under which a function w u + iv may have a derivative at the point z is . Let tt> 7. In this case is w f{z) is said to be " dvu 7. x Ax y is unaltered. so that Az = changed and into x f Ax. Since to every value of z correy spond determinate values of x and y and consequently determinate values of u and v. It is evidently continuous. Show that no two curves of this family intersect. be a given function of If // is an " infiniif tesimal.Art. z. = Prob. Art.
Ax and Ay approach and if these limits.dv_ ' _ _ du dv dy dx dx is dy The value thus obtained independent of i dx or. can be shown that these conditions are also sufficient. of the direction of approach to the point The . l9^___ z du dv dy dx^ dx~ dy Hence.1\ l lt dx I+ . no supposition being made as to the relative magni For let tudes of its real and imaginary is.234 If. that that part of the increment of the function which remains after subtracting the terms of order higher than the first. parts.  . du. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. by virtue of the conditions written above. and = given a purely imaginary incre Azv ' _" Au iAy Az If Av Ay ' the second members of these equations approach deterzero. VI. Az iAy. on the other hand. minate limits as are equal. is [CHAP. is the same thing. z ment. du _ dv dv _ du dx~dy' which are necessary conditions It dx~~~dy' for the existence of a derivative. either member of the equation equal ta du . what z. Then the differential of the function. equating real and imaginary parts.dv\ t ^x) dv\dy + (du + %)^ V \dJ .i is 3f i"*f *t which. is W Hence ( dx' \dy dy ' I du + _ dx + idy du idv \Yx + . the increment of the independent variable be entirely arbitrary.
may be constructed from z by u \. they indicate that x and \. both be eliminated from <p(x. The same equations of condition express the fact that w= x and some supposed to be an analytical expression involving and having partial derivatives with respect to each.Art. and functions which are continuous but admit The no derivatives. y) by means of the w= x \. This property. not introducing x or y except in the combination x y may In other words. Functions which are discontinuous for every value of the independent variable. Hence f(z) is the limit of f(z\h) when h approaches point z. therefoie. For a systematic treatment of functions of a real variable. see the treatise German translation of Dini's.51112. Annates de l'cole Normale.ty. see the expression given at the bottom of page 298. only on the existence of partial derivatives r J *. y.iv. Vol. Sur les fonctions discontinues. For. dx ^. . is not sufficient equation z to define a function as monogenic.] derivatives. Series 2.iy. = A is.* monogenic function is necessarily continuous that the existence of a derivative involves continuity. for not every function which possesses it has a derivative with respect to z. by Luroth and Schepp. dx r. 235 existence cf a derivative of the function zv depends. . or f(z) is continuous at the following pages relate almost exclusively to functions which are monogenic except for special isolated values of z. fin this connection see G. that is. Darboux. 1892. however.)* little studied except in the case of * For an interesting illustration of a nonmonogenic function constructed from z by a series of arithmetical operations. have been real variables. series of operations. 7. zero. Leipzig. PP. limit "^ \ ^^ =/(*)> it follows that where rj approaches zero with //. involves z as a whole. if . 4 (1875).r ay dy satisfying the specified equations of condition.
Let z 8. it follows at when z and z % are assumed to approach zQy x limit v^Z^i = H m it ^zJHs.(cos 0. Conformal Representation. ) = r e i6 \ x where r denotes the length of the straight line joining z and z t . In the same way. W 3 W . w = p/f*. there is an equation z% If = r3 (cos + 1 sin 9) = 9 rj* : now w is region of the ^plane considered. the supposition that w is monogenic. [CHAP. Art. and for these points can be formed w From once that. to the points z onevalued monogenic function of z. for the point #a 2 . zx z If the members in the of this equation are not equal to zero.236 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. start from the point z% and trace two different paths a given angle at the point z and let z and z% be arbiforming > x trary points on the first and second paths respectively. and 0. z a. VI. x w = p/* 1 . 3 . 1 . x > spond points the equations w w w . z z. w. denotes the inclination of this line to the axis of reals. in the z gt corre. it may be put form limit limit *!*. fi'sin t Then z x x z = r.
and the corresponding triangles will be mutually equiangular. every angle in the image traced by w will be equal to the corresponding angle in the s'plane. Einfuhring in die Theorieder isogonalen Verwandschaften und der conformen Abbildungen. if z be supposed to trace any configuration whatever in a portion of the . the corresponding portion of the plane will be divided in the same manner. which. Theory or Functions. = limit *V**H ^ a Hence ? limit (0. 231 or limit &**A. * For the literature of the subject. Such a copy upon a plane. of a configuration in another surface a " conformal representation. verbunden mit Anwendungen auf matheniatische Physik. in general. If.Art. or is upon any surface. and the images in the wplane of the two paths traced by z form at w an angle equal to that at z% in the . such a portion of the wplane triangles.* p. and Holzmiiller." called The modulus " of the derivative dw ~dz = Aw limit Az is the Its value. for exambe divided into infinitesimal ple. 2) = limit (0. f) .2plane in which dz is determinate and not equal to zero.] CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION. may be obtained from the relations dw dz +''+' " dx dy dy dx representation has interesting ap The theory of conformal plications to map drawing. see Forsyth. Accordingly. 8." point to point. .2plane. changes from magnification. 500.
v =y J. Case c II. This function is formed from the Putting independent variable for w. See the following diagrams. in the seaplane unaltered in magnitude.b. and is situated with respect to the axes as if it had been moved parallel to the axis of reals through the distance a and parallel to the axis of imaginaries through the distance b.Qrlfl 23S Ajprf/ nnfyr^oCAU ftwtLAsUn**> [CHAP. and rx ^\ the following equations result p= The rt r. Any configuration in the ^plane appears. u ivt x \ iy and a f tb. VI. therefore.c. 0=0. The following diagrams represent the transformation of a network of squares by means of the relation w= z \. Writing w : pe**. by the addition of a constant. z. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. w=z s+c. Case Examples of Conformal Representation. z = re ie . Let w = cz. . f and c. Art. 9. origin transforms into the origin. one ob tains u =x f. respectively. and all straight lines passing through the origin are turned through a constant angle. all distances measured from the origin are multiplied by a constant quantity. Let I. + *.a.
Every straight line jc = tan /9 parallel to the axis of x becomes a straight line v/u The accompanying diagrams* the origin. the function becomes u  V = iy = /. Writing z ^(cosjy =x f iy.] examples of conformal representation. correevery point number of points in the ^rplane. 239 Case III Let zv zv = e*e e*. These spond an infinite points are all situated on a straight line parallel to the axis of To *The treatise. 9. the axis of y becoming the unit circle.Art. any positive or negative in integer. while points right / to the left of this axis fall within. \ t Every straight formed into a line ^ circle = p = parallel to the axis of J* described y is trans about the origin as a center. excluding the origin. + i sin y). passing through exhibit in a simple = manner the (z f periodicity expressed by the equation exp where n is 2nni) exp (z). the wplane. figures of this and the following example are taken from Holzmilller's . Points to the of the axis of y fall without the unit circle.
Hence u = cos x = sin^r sinh/. Writing w= u and employing as equations of definition = x iy> cos {iy) = cosh^. dividing that plane To any curve in the wplane into strips of equal width.splane an infinite line just number of curves. there will correspond in the . z be one is of these points. the general value of the inverse function log VD == if }" 2/ZZ7T. Case IV. the given function takes the form u \ tv = cos^r coshjj/ coshjj. it [Chap. of drawn. If VL and divide into segments. where n If is any positive or negative line integer. beginning at the origin be drawn in the wplane. each of length 27t. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. v i sin x s'mhy.240 y. will correspond in which there will be one in each strip.2plane an infinite number any straight 27T 37T 2 M of straight lines parallel to the axis of x. . sin {iy) Let w= cos 8. which does not meet the the . z \ = i sinhjj/. j tv.
straight line. 9. = cos /. having its foci at the points + + ' I and is i.] EXAMPLES OF CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION. where the condition that dz ^ should be different from zero of the function. 241 is Any x = t v parallel to the axis of y. I. ellipse. sin t x I. Any straight line. parallel to the axis of x< transformed into an = sinh /. having its foci at the line equal in taken once. The periodicity by the equation . y= t% . expressed is not fulfilled. the wplane divided into curvilinear rectangles. trans formed into one branch of a hyperbola.ART. is same points. cosh"/. any segment of the straight length to 2n corresponding to the entire curve By means of these confocal conies. the conformal representation breaking down only at the foci.
Hence the 1/frwtVr* circle 2ar cos 6 + #a = = c* gives the curve pi 2#p* cos  + a* c*. ' + + = kvulIP" By putting / = p(cos the relations p = ra + = ^ sin 0). at which dw dz = o and the conformal representation is not maintained. v follow at once. To each point in the wplane. excluding the origin. the relations Let u w= =x a z 3 . u + y zv.242 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. which enwraps three times the point corresponding to the The accompanying figure represents this transformation. [Chap. the straight line feg giving the curve feg. are obtained. a straight line in the splane. . ( r\ 3#. VI. Case V. If one of the variables y be eliminated from these two equations by means of the equation Ix my n o. . equations are ob^ representing tained representing a unicursal cubic in the wplane. tfplane serving to determine its image in the wplane as an intersection of orthogonal curves. z = x + iy y 3*/. center. Writing w= $xy x. s = r(cos 6 \ i sin #).
a 8. and the upper into the interior of this circle. w taken as a function of w. show that circles in the 2plane having common Prob. 243 there correspond three points in the #plane. its values giving rise to three branches which will remain distinct and continuous except when w becomes equal to zero. In the figure here given are exhibited the three conformal represen tations of a square tv v = If t lt u the wplane by lines u / 2 parallel to the axes. respectively. and z be formed in = = = . . If +* . show that the axis of reals in the 2"plane half of the splane transforms into the circle \w\ = 1. 9.. z i 9. of which one will be situated within each of these regions. three straight lines diverging the origin. having for their arguments 00 3  2n 0+4^ : . three in the ^plane. center at the origin transform into confocal ellipses. If w= w= z \ z . z will be a threevalued function. tlt v the relation between and z be reversed.Art. 3 3 Any straight line from drawn from the images origin in the wplane will have. Prob. Any continuous curve and dividing the plane into three equal regions.2plane by three curves. viz. therefore.] EXAMPLES OF CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION. in the wplane not meeting the line just drawn will be represented in the .
and in plane draw axes O'u. its Let OPO' be a sphere having diameter 00' equal length to unity. To l Hence /_xOz= The /_uO'w. Conformal Representation of a Sphere. z . Join any point z in the plane xOy to Draw 0' z meet the sphere in P.244 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. VL Art.  i . following equation results ' wz = p?v *+ z( fl) = I. 00' Oz _ = _.Ow 00 I. in Conin ^ O and the struct tangent planes at O'. while to an observer standing on the sphere at O such a rotation is negative. [CllAP. and let <9Pand produce it to meet the plane uO'v in w. 10.   w = rp = an observer standing on the sphere at O rotation about 00' from O'u toward O'v is positive. : or 6 = 0. Any configuration in one plane can be formed from its image in the other by an inversion with respect The w. that is. From the similar triangles O Oz and 00' w ' rection. OO Ow  or n nl = 757Pt Oz. Draw O plane rectangular axes tangent at Ox the as and other Oy . ^planes are therefore conformal representations of one another.and . parallel to Ox the 0'ir and measured direction. in same ured and parallel to in Oy but measdi a contrary O' by a straight line.
are called " conjugate functions. one inverse to the transformation ." * Thus the examples of Art." points at a great distance from the origin in one plane are brought near together in the immediate neighborhood of the origin in the other plane. must be jjl \jlmA representation of the sphere upon a tangent plane in uthe manner described above is termed a " stereographic proWhen to this representation is applied a logarithmic jection./. 1. such that p\iq is a monogenic function of x f ty.] CONJUGATE FUNCTIONS. III of ^ Art. combined with a reflection in the axis of reals. P at P is plane xOy. the preceding article. its vertex is it The sphere projected into an equal angle at thus seen to be related conformally to the also so related to the plane uO'v. 1873. Any two real solutions / and q of equation. Such a transformation was termed by Cayley a " quasiinversion." ^ The JU \ transformation.projection" is obtained. 11. tion for this the functions u and v are solutions of Laplace's equatwo dimensions. the socalled described in Case " Mercator's *Jyi 'Am****. therefore. By it Since the line O'Pz makes the same angle with the plane as with the plane xOy. 11. where u and v admit second derivatives./. 245 to the origin as a center. and \. V . 9 furnish the following pairs of conjugate functions : * Maxwell. vol. Electricity and Magnetism. . Conjugate Functions.ART. any spherical tangent to the sphere at angle having z. 9? + cy . have been shown to satisfy the partial differential 9 equations _ dv ~ dy dv__ _du dy partial d* d*~ At any point. The real ivy w= u + and imaginary parts of a monogenic function. p. one obtains dx^~df' that is. . that is. 227.
b . by varying of curves are be taken as orthogonal curvilinear coordinates for the determination of position in the ^plane.a. represent in the It wplane straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes. ii. . If dv = dx dx 4dy dy = and therefore the value of v is du. be given. t* wny ^r 3^y. du. in which it is assumed that every element can move only parallel to the ^plane. Art. is rx r cos (0 l jsin x sinh y in 6).fi and q will be conjugate functions of x and y. Show that if u and v are conjugate functions of X and y\ x andjy are conjugate functions of u and v. The second pair expressed to cartesian coordinates polar coordinates. The = = follows that the curves which these equations define in the . c a two orthogonal systems Consequently. but may be transformed by means of the relations r = Vx*+y\ cos 6 =  _ = sin 6 = y  one of two conjugate functions be given.246 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. dx \ ay. J% dx dy T c lt v c^> obtained by assigning conequations u stant values to two conjugate functions. Prob. x may Prob.2plane intersect at right angles. Application to Fluid Motion. y \. v. Show that if p and q are conjugate functions of u and where u and v are conjugate functions of x andy. VL . x \. 3^rjA y. cos x cosh y. Let u y Then for example. 12. [CHAP. and has a velocity of which the components parallel to the coordi . the other is thereby determined except for an additive constant. r x r sin (dx 3 + 0) . x the quantities c and obtained and c and . e x cosj. Consider an incompressible fluid. io.
Let z be there must be neither a gain nor a loss of matter. liMi * vary. 12. corresponding to the enclosed region. and z be variable." and if 4^y I If now the motion of the fluid be characterized. one obtains called the " streamfunction. 69. Let ip denote the flux across any curve z z. is The flux across any two curves joining the points z and z the same. function is If z moves in such a manner that the value of it tp does not it. provided the curves enclose a region covered with the moving fluid. any curve in the . are all streamlines.. where the path of integration The is the curve joining z and z. If /. is the .splane is ascertained.Art. 247 nate axes are functions of of the fluid is x and y alone.] application to fluid motion. m be the direction cosines of the normal (drawn to the right) at any point of the curve. reckoned from left to right for an observer stationed at z and looking along the curve toward z.e. the value of tp will be tp = / tA z {lp f mq)ds. i. " streamline.2plane is given." ip is will trace a curve such that no fluid crosses tp a The curves = const. and If p and q are continuous. fixed. z be given infinitesimal increments parallel to x and y respectively. a onevalued function of z in any region tp within which every two curves joining z to z enclose a region covered with the moving fluid. For. parallel to the axes of the velocity of any moving element. The whole motion in known as soon as the motion the . as * Lamb's Hydrodynamics (1895). p. and /. by the "flux across the curve"* will be meant the volume of fluid in unit When which time crosses the right cylindrical surface having the curve as base and included between the ^plane and a parallel plane at a unit distance. q be the components.
. toward the which is called a " crosspoint. In the following figure the streamlines are the heavy lines. since at that point the velocity. the motion corresponding to the The equipotential curves are given by the z*.v 'vn = 3*y y % const. but not to rotation. as an example. and At the crosspoint flows out again in three other directions. The curves (.*^ which are orthogonal to the streamlines. The in fluid moves origin. streamlines by the equations . case in the socalled " irrotational" motion.iy. VI. for which the general expression is * In irrotational motion each element strain." from three directions. 3. translated Frances Hardcastle (1893).. Algebraic Functions .V '^ \ a 30 : 90 pis the following equations result _ a^ d ~ a* Hence is "ay a*~ _ 90 a^' = monogenic function of ^r j.. Klein : Riemann's Theory of p. V+' is subject to translation and pure by f F." Consider. a called the "equipotential curves. [Chap. functionf w= / equations <b= u = x the Y'' 3 ^xy=z const. while tential the equipocurves are dotted. so that j by the existence . are const.248 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.* of a velocitypotential 0. the fluid is at a standstill.
> 14 2.] APPLICATION TO FLUID MOTION. since the function tp the equipotential curves and streamlines <p\itp then becomes An example of particular interest is w= Let z a u log a . as if the fluid were confined between walls perpendicular to the ^plane. c*w*<**?r dc 1^ = r/*. fluid in It is of importance to note that i. curves u = const. either of may form two orthogonal sysbe regarded as the stream the other constituting the equipotential curves. 249 equal to zero. be taken as the streamlines. which of circles..Art. then log i. z = /i j = r9 ^>. The tems lines. one If the circles 0. The finite velocities are everywhere. a const. if the function considered be multiplied by f i<p. The streamlines in the figure represent the motion of the each of six different angles. v = const. each of the points const." 0 = . and determinate. are interchanged. except at the points If a. tf = n{6 x a ). the circles rjr% = a is as the streamlines. be taken a " vortexpoint. is 12.
cos z~ has been shown. orthogonal system of ellipses." In the latter case. form a system of confocal hyperbolas. and the fluid should be impelled through the aperture thus formed. 13. VL a "source. Recent Researches Theory of in Electricity and Magnetism (1893). It Let w be any rational function the form can be written in where f(z) and This function <p (z) are entire and without common number root. the curves x const. a very illustration is afforded by attaching the poles of a battery to a conducting plate of indefinite extent at fixed points of the plate." the other a "sink. Either system may be regarded In one case the motion of the fluid would be such as would occur a thin wall were constructed along the axis of reals. + Love. two As another example may be As taken the relation w =. 1. form an = = as streamlines. conjugate functions have important applications in the theory of electricity and magnetism * and in elasticity/) Art. a is [CHAP. Thomson. besides the simple electrical hydrodynamical interpretation. Critical Points.250 of the points FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. Elasticity (1892). except between the foci. of z. p. p. factors. Let a be such a Then the reciprocal of the given function is finite and admits an infinite number of successive derivatives at the point a. Such a point * J. J. of suc is finite and admits an infinite z. while the curves y const. cessive derivatives for every finite value of of the equation (z) except the roots = o. . Besides their application to fluidmotion. vol. In the other case if the fluid would circulate around a barrier placed on the axis of reals and included between the foci. 208. 331.
] critical points. there will in be a continuous curve as the image of the path of z strip of the wplane. . log (z a) has for every finite value of z an infinite number of values. In accordance with the definition of a derivative. beginning at a. expressed otherwise." Any rational function having a pole at a can be put by the method of partial fractions in the form where and A lt .z(Q f. The line of division in the ^plane. or. the derivative is sometimes said infinite at a. A k point the "order" of the pole. therefore be straight lines parallel to the axis of reals. S will but will vary. the function is said to have a branch situated in each strip. and the function is said to have for its value at a infinity of the k\\\ order. is 13. except a. integer k is said to be w does not admit a derivative at From become the character of the derivative in the immediate a. is which serves to separate the branches from one another " called a cut. Ak are constants. . and m zero or any positive or negative remain line. and z varies along it any continuous path." . a. each Each of these images is said to corre spond to a "branch" of the function.. The images in the wplane will fixed. The function w= = w= where log integer. dividing z describes a straight R the plane into horizontal strips of width 2n. being zero or any integer posi The = m tive or negative. log R \.Art. If now the ^plane is supposed to be divided along the straight line just drawn. subject only cannot cross this to the restriction that line of division. at the a. i& ten in the form Re . If z a is writz. neighborhood of to however. has a pole of the first trigonometric function cot order at every point z nnt.2m7t)j is R is If real. 251 called a "pole. ip(z) is finite The being different from zero.
the point z a "logarithmic branchpoint. Upon returning to the point z the value of the function will be log or + z& + 2(m + log R + t@ + 2{m is R \)ni. . . [Chap. When in this it a point is such that a s'path en closing to another value. described in a positive or negative direction. (p{z) has a point of logarithmic discontinuity at every point where either/^) or <p(z) is equal to zero. By repeating the curve a sufficient number of times it is evidently possible to pass from any value of the function at z according as the curve to any it other. part of the function increases without limit. writing . may lead manner from one value of a function is called a " branchpoint.am ) 2qn n log (z b n ). the value of w may $ w log .+ 2p m m .252 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE." = a is called "logarithmic The function w= log ~\ where y f{z) and (p(z) are entire.mfr = B{z btf^z brf* be written log {z .a Yi* . . t For." In the case of the function here considered. . Suppose that z starts from z and describes a closed path around the point a. the values of the function being taken so as to give a continuous variation. VI." or a point of discontinuity. . a. f(z) <j)(z) = A(z . Let z be an arbitrary point. while the imagi At = nary part is entirely indeterminate. the point z a no definite value is attached to the As z approaches that point the modulus of the real function. i)7ti. distinct from log and let R j t@ \ 2mni be any one of the corresponding values of the function.
w= 1 e*.id at points a 4. "? the preceding equation may be . Show that when it is o is an essential regarded as a function of a complex variable. But whatever the value of the integer m. so that ~~ . q 2mit may be substituted for q without altering the value of c f. 13.id. ." is called an " essential sin Prob. and hence both a and + may be made less than any assignable quantity. It for every value of z except z = o. 253 Take now the function proach minate. has a single finite value If z is supposed to apis zero. The function e z* is = singularity. given function e* therefore takes the value c f. and the same is true of each of its successive derivatives. point such that. when z approaches it. a function elsewhere onevalued tends toward The A an indeterminate limiting value gularity. written _i_ h x% r. and write f If now a ib is the reciprocal of p h \.ib indefinitely near to the origin. Show that for the function e^* z a is an essential i_ variable considered as a function of a real continuous for every finite value of z. z Prob. singularity.Art 13 ] critical points.iq.{z an ). 12.aX* a^).. In order to illustrate still another class of special points take the function IV = V(z .. the limit of the value of the function indeter For let / + iq be perfectly arbitrary.
are disregarded and z in a positive direction. . . point their original values. enwrapping it an even number of times. . a^. . This function has at every finite point.254 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. . therefore. . . . . . On the other hand. and suppose the ^plane to be divided. al9 at takes but a single value. . From each of the points such a manner that no one of them intersects any other. Along any continuous path in the S'plane thus divided the values of the function form two distinct branches. a closed curve including an odd number of the points a <? 2 x . . It fol . For. . . . z a2 = i6 r^e *. leads from one value of the function to the other. . . . then an odd number of the quantities 6n are each increased by 27r. . the point. . . X . or a closed path which encloses but one of the points. . let a straight line of indefinite extent be drawn in . . a tli two it distinct values differing in sign. . must resume at the . VI. a simple closed path enclosing an even number of these points. [CHAP. however. or cut. . z an = rn e' en . however. can lead from one value of the function at any point to a new value of the function at the initial same cuts traces If. rn ei closed path in the divided plane will enclose any of the 3 n after points a lt a9 . . leads back to the initial value of the function. . l . and a the value of the function is altered by a factor ^BHU*^ and In the same way any closed path deso changed in sign. along each of these lines. scribed about one of these points. . except a iy . a. an and the quantities continuous variation along such a path. . zero. No such path. . and not intersecting itself. the function takes the form w= No Vr 1 r2 . and enwrapping it an odd number of times. au At these points. . writing z a 1 =re x iQ i. .
#a . poles. therefore.* or about impossible to describe a circle of determinate radius within which the function. 13. consider the function w=z which is i f. and w w and zt\. . essential singularities. except z o and z a. . points of logarithmic discontinuity. and branchpoints. 3 & 6 by a small closed circuit described about z =o.go{z Hf. 3. % . 2(z a)zu* w* t>ziv" + 3<s^ 2 z(z a)w + (* = 3 of =o.V + G? W = Z + V* ^) The branches w. . a function." Continuity and. are called critical points. these six branches can be written V \V w z \(z a)' f ^ f. Putting w for the cube root of unity.] CRITICAL POINTS. Any * point not a critical point is called an " ordinary point. Six branches are thereby formed which six distinct values. function has at every point." As a further illustration. the x . In fact. aH is number of values in the set being finite. The = can be completely separated from one another by making cuts from the points z = o and z = a to infinity. ' 2 ! 1! X 1 / 3 2 I 9 2/ b e ( ) . or a " branch of a function. . All of the special points examined above. 255 . w a) V \V W = ^. .{z a)^.Art. is said to have a " critical point at each point where it fails to have a continuous derivative. closed paths about which lead from one to another of a set of different values of a function. while a small circuit described w w w tf %% a permutes cyclically the branches w A w6 and also the branches about z w . ss s ay. lows that each of the points a a branchpoint. a root of the equation of the sixth degree.a? {z \. Any point in the ^plane. . si/ 8 ' 2 i / 3 j (z a) . * 4 = 1/2 1/3 3 . is called an " algebraic branchpoint. finiteness of the function are implied in the existence of a derivative. or branch. w and w are interchanged w x z 1/2 . is oneit is which as a center valued.
an angle in the 2plane hav Kf show w ing its vertex at h is transformed into an angle in the wplane f times as great and having its vertex at g and that z h is a branchexcept when t is an integer. point of t = w Art. Prob. is usual to introduce a new independent variable z' by the is relation z This o. = . (z When w and that if z are connected by the relation w g= z describes a circle about h as a center.. = = the ^'plane. describes a circle about g as a center. the function in that region. i/z\ and consider the function at the point z' equivalent to passing from the . 14. Nodifficulty is thus introduced since. Oui modulus it In determining the limiting value of a function when the of the independent variable z is increased indefinitely. any configuration in the ^plane obtains a conformal representation upon the sphere. [CHAP. If in a certain region ^hfa ( the only " critical points are poles. to go further and to substitute for the plane the surface of the sphere of unit diameter touching the ^plane at the origin. the function is said to be " syneo points " " tic" or holomorphic in that region.256 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. The point of the sphere diametrically opposite to its point of contact with o. is is said to be " meromorphic Under similar conditions a branch of a function also described as holomorphic ot meromorphic. as explained in the article just cited.s'plane to another plane. z sphere approaches it at the same ^plane recedes indefinitely from the origin. and the advantage is gained that the entire surface upon which the variation of the indeis studied is of finite extent.. is VL An ordinary point at which a function reduces to zero a "zero" of the function. Point at Infinity. since a point on the time that its image in the 00 . 14. If in called a certain region of the ^plane there are no critical for a given function.. however. the plane coincides with the point written above as z' pendent variable = It is called the point at infinity. It is often very convenient. related to the former by the geometrical construction described in Art. 10.
for this function can be deis termined directly. Integral of a Function. x .. = be a small closed curve surrounding the This point must.. When total the point at infinity taken into account.. be regarded as a will y ing as n. . This condition is evi dently satisfied the current coordinates x and^j/ can be expressed in terms of .*VW + If + (*.z n )f{tn ). all the branchpoints a .)A*..'fc . is is odd or even. . the number of branchpoints of this function The point character of the point z = oo always even. 15. Form the sum able t . \/(z (z )(z Let a circle of great radius be described in the ^plane inclosing a n Its con formal representaa7 . . . 15. that the path rectifiable..*. that is accord. it is an ordinary For a rational entire function of the th since e* = f'. point. therefore. it degree is a pole of order n. <p(z) = 00 is an ordinary point for if where and rp(z) are rational ip(z). discussed x ..] integral of a function. Let z. and entire the degree of <p(z) does not exceed that of Art. associated with the portion of is regard to every path of integration that the idea of length it included between any two of its points. assumed the in may be or. may be f either an ordinary or a critical *' For the function e* for example.Art. Let a series of points z z .zn be taken on L. tion on the sphere oo point z branchpoint or not. S * . . by changing z into z' i/z' and considering the (p(z) 777 > = o. is what same if thing. then. .. Show that z Prob. Consider in it for the function the preceding article. and let /. . / be points arbitrarily chosen on the arcs z z lf z z zn Z respectively./..) + (*.. 15. . . according as the function changes value or( not when the curve surrounding it is described. . . the number of finite branchpoints. x a a9) a H ). w =/(z) be a continuous function of a complex variand suppose z to describe a continuous path L from the point z to the point Z. point at infinity 257 The point. . zn be increased indefisuch a manner that the length* of each of the arcs the . now nitely in * It is number of points z lt . .
>I/W Atil + W .].. . p... follow one another on the line L in the order .*. For example. z z 1 .) ^.) .Ml + of the quantities .. I.<)[/(r. .. is increased. For then the integral 4/akr f dy % is finite.. Vol... dx and dy are any parameter / 2 t so that continuous..*. the number of points in each of the series * and */. 1 ..2'JDi fc* 2*)f m\. be less 1 \M) M)\ than the modulus of 7l/[!^ S" 1 S will ^ + <5r H<Vi+..)[/(r.)l+W .. the differences zero. . .. . 2d Edition. Jordan. the sum 5 is finite limit which apinde pendent z of the choice of the points z lt / .. VI. It may be shown that as .. zn and /. tn ..zn Z approaches zero as a proaches a limit.'*. in this connection. \A*. For take any other sum (*. .. M denotes the upper extreme l/W M)\. ..... Suppose the sake of greater definiteness that the points #. formed for in a similar manner. 100.W)+.z za . the difference 5 has the value <?L $H*> If ... Cours d'Analyse.258 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. S" S and S" S r both approach from which it follows that the difference S S" S' has a limit equal to zero. . and */.. See. [Chap. and form a third sum in which both series of points occur.) At.
It is unnecessary to specify the path of integration when the indeit pendent variable is restricted to real values.ART.  . applicable to the case of a real independent variable. and a similar result holds for each of the quantities *.] INTEGRAL OF A FUNCTION. the path of integration in the transformed integral. is /W . is the existence of which has just been demoncalled the integral of f{z) along the path L. The independent variable may be altered by any equait is tion of transformation. but L'. M accordingly decreases indefinitely and the difference S" S approaches The strated.).AU\ since /0. . 15. . . zero. The modulus of the integral cannot exceed the length of the path of integration multiplied by the upper extreme of the modulus of the function along that path.). 2. If 3. must be such that described by the new variable while z describes L. The definition here given is similar to that given for the integral of a function of a real variable. the equation fjWz = F(Z)F(z^ must be true.A*. approach zero. may be readily extended to the general case : 1. When of points of division on the line L is increased. z is \ equal to the chord of the arc z^z^ and must therefore be less than or equal to this arc. ./('. The following wellknown principles. It is written I f(z)dz. continuous.' But \z x '  x \ . the differences .) f(z) .' z *t Hence *. limit.  \S"S\<M/ where the / t number /(n) denotes the length of the path of integration. F(z) is any onevalued function having everywhere f(z) for its derivative. since in that case must be the portion of the axis of reals included between the limits of integration.
) + . t] m has zero for its limit when zm+1 made to approach Hence F(z ) F(Z) or. . . VI. L no function F{z) fulfilling the preceding conditions is known. To form prove the third principle.zm ). the path of integration being point z half of the circumference of a unit circle described the upper = = about the origin as a center. = iedd = i cos Hence +1 J dd + sin 6 dd = id (sin 6) . Consider as an example the integral /  2 taken from the I to the point z I. Writing z = exp (iff). application of the direct and more familiar the same result gives : The method J ~~ z* "~" L z J. The dz z equations . + F(s. write F{Z) F(z ) in the F[Z)F{Zl. follow at once. dz ieiedd.260 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. for the path specified C _1 = i Cd (sin 6) IT Cd (cos V d) = 2. the value of the integral requires further investigation.) If = ff{z)dz.)F(z. = e~ 2iB . F(*m+ l )  F{z m ) = [/(*) + tj m ](zm+1 is . the second term of the righthand member is equal to zero. Since the derivative of F(z) \sf(z).)+F{zu)F(Zn _. [CHAP. since = limit 2f(z m )(zm+1 zm ) f limit 2r}m (z l+1 zm) . z will describe the required path while 6 varies from n to o.)F(z a ).d (cos 6). =I L zj s= _i~ .)+F(z. where zm . F{Z)F{z.
Reduction of Complex Integrals to Real. 3. two real functions of the variables Consider the case where these functions are onevalued. at the point z z tion of such a path . = o. y. + ufy). The integral may be written in the form I {u\. udx vdy. . prevents the considera and that the is result should be negative when the differential at every point of the path positive has no significance. calculation of the integral may be reduced to the calculation of two real curvilinear integrals. of reals 261 limits of For a path along the axis integration this result is between the unintelligible. Hence the The equations du _ dv du _ __ dv 'dx~dy' dy~ dx iv should which express the condition that u\express also that be monogenic. 16. Prob. Art. The Show dz that the integral of along any semicircumis ference described about the origin as a center equal to ni.ART. separating the real and imaginary terms. 16. 16. / (udx vdy) f.i I (vdx f udy). introduction of the complex variable furnishes a perfectly satisfactory explanation of the result.] REDUCTION OF COMPLEX INTEGRALS TO REAL. The discontinuity of dz the differential.iv){dx or. vdx \ udy are the exact differentials of x.
Y) (x . Let A be a portion of the . Y) being the and terminal points spectively of the path of integration. before considerpath to demonstrate the following lemma: ing Cauchy's Theorem. or of several closed curves not intersecting themselves or one every point of the region A. depends simply on the upper It will limit. including its boundary 5. having continuous partial derivatives with respect to x and y. the integrals in the first members being taken along the boundary in the positive direction.J\xyM + iWX. Art. of integration.f.. normal * Denote by A the inclination to the axis of x of the exterior at any point of the boundary.splane. a function Wot the real variables x and y is onevalued and continuous and has continuous partial derivatives another. and those in the second members being taken over the enclosed area. . an integral the value of which. If at f. y) and Q(x. initial Y)  Q{x. [CHAP.y ) . y) respectively. VI. 17. and not on the be more convenient. Lemma.y. the normal drawn It is assumed that the boundary has a determinate tangent at every point. having a boundary 5 which Consists of a closed curve not intersecting itself. Denoting them by P(x. Cauchy's Theorem furnishes the necessary and sufficient conditions that a onevalued function f(z). that is.% re and (X. Cauchy's Theorem. should yield within a region bounded by a continuous closed curve a onevalued integral. when the lower limit is fixed. the relations ^ ^*J?*) (2) fw*f*jfc* exist.* that is.262 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. the gral inte may be written \I\X.
cos A. 17. of the differentials in the first member. t are the corresponding values of taken in the order of increasing values of x. If any straight parallel to the axis of x be traced in the direction of increasing values of x. at each point where it enters A. cos A. and the equation is is obtain equation (2) the same necessary in this case to observe that To method if used. W the second to x.] cauchy's theorem. But performing now in lf W W^ . dx in the integral of the first If the J<3 boundary of a given region is not of this sort.Art. the theorem holds for any is interior curve of which this assumption true. 1V . the member of equation (i) an integration with respect is same result equation (i) become obtained. and taken in the order of increasing values of x have signs which..+ W. point where this straight line passes out of the area A. correspondis ing to a fixed value of y must % therefore be written in the dy{where W. first differ.+ . is member positive.).. of equation Hence of entials in the first member differ equation (i) the Wdy y corresponding to a given value of y. at each point where it passes into the area A. and therefore in the first member of At each negative. of identical. In order now to compare the integral in the first member of equation (i) with the integral in the second member. it The sum form necessary to take dy as essentially positive. then agree. is negative. . .W. compared with the signs of the corresponding values of W. . and there(i) dy = cos \ds is fore dy y in the first (i).03 ft Xtvwl to the right as the boundary line is OAL* K~hu4 described in a positive direction. so that the two members verified. and so on alternately. . It is a line parallel to the axis of y is traced in the direction of increasing values of y.
may Theorem. Art. Application of Cauchy's Theorem. if two different paths Z. a onevalued function ative f\z) is w =/(#) is monogenic. For two such taken together. on the boundary of and within a given region A. member must be negative. this line passes out of taken as positive. one described directly. the integrals of the function taken along these two paths are equal.vdx).264 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. and Z 2 lead from the point z Q to the point Z. Cauchy's Theorem be stated as follows : is This theorem If. and if along these paths and in the region inclosed between them a given function f(z) has no critical points. the onevalued function /(s) has no critical points on is the boundary of or within A. . 18. VI. the other repaths versed. of the preceding lemma. the preceding lemma but since at every point of A the given integral reduces to zero. and the integral taken along * Otherwise expressed.* the integral j f(z)dz taken along the boundary 5 is equal to zero. dx in that integral must be taken as By means easily proved. and at each point where A. it From Cauchy's Theorem follows that. or f(z) holomorphic in A. and its deriv continuous. [CHAP. integral in the For writing the / form wdz = j (iidx gives vdy) + i f\udy j. constitute a closed curve.
. it is 18. from a fixed lower limit in that region to any point contained therein.. is independent of the path of integration. With the ori\at ]at as a center. and is a onevalued function of its upper limit.. Then however z may will be a monovary within any such region. the function A curves w and suppose \/{z a  x )(z <*. . 265 equal to zero. < < < <  S Denote by S the region inclosed within the first circle Clt by that inclosed between C and C and so on. .. the portion Q t t . . am \. .. and consider the branch of w resulting from a continuous variation. the equation is obtained. . it will be onevalued. fulfils does The the required conditions. for example.ART. w . Having genic function.). .. The theorem result just established : may be stated in the following Theorem I. .. region whose boundary is composed of disconnected is not necessarily characterized by the property stated in the theorem.. assign to w one of the two values possible. . the branch not. . this branch of and its derivative will be continuous. but the boundary It may be theorem is applicable only to 5 . observed that in . . and in the regions Thus in the regions 5a St it will be twovalued. a n regard to the branchpoints a lt a t the regions Sof S9 . every other region two paths may be drawn the same two points such that the branch is not onejoining valued in the enclosed portion of the . If a function is holomorphic in any simply connected region bounded by a continuous closed curve. . the integral of the function. that o . Take. Slt Ss . . since reversing the direction of the equivalent to changing the sign of the integral.(*  a n ). of the plane exterior to the last circle Cn being denoted by Sn At an initial point z interior to one of these regions.] APPLICATION OF CAUCHY'S THEOREM. it is evident that in . . construct a system of concentric circles Clf gin C. of integration path is But. .splane. C{ passing through axi C3 through a and so on. . . C.
f*A*V* where r/  \AZ) + nZ.. is point Z a holomorphic function of its. . When the upper limit is to> dZ. taken from a fixed lower limit z in that region to any contained therein. and is holomorphic in 5. Hence Z+ Z nz+dz nz nz+dz  foP. The integral of f(z) taken along C will integrals u* be equal to the sum of its taken in the same direction ^\ the curves (7.266 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. is equal to zero. of which one is exterior to all the others. lif(d) is holomorphic in any simply connected region S bounded by a continuous closed curve. / along the curves Clt Ct > p or t h e integral of f(z) taken in a positive direction completely around the C a . But boundary of are then described in the direction oppo A . upper limit. \A*)AZ)Y> The modulus is S*Z+dZ pZ+dZ z d. L followed by a straight line from can be taken as the path of integration. r Tl/ > Theorem II. . [Chap. Cauchy's Theorem may be stated in the following form : Theorem region curves A C Let a function j\z) be holomorphic in a bounded by a closed curve C and one or more closed III. In the case of a region bounded by several disconnected closed curves. But since f{z) approaches continuous. the integral $> > / I f(z)dz. . where treme f{Z)\ along the line zero.. Let L at the point Z \ dZ be any path from z to Z. the limit of M the upper exdZ^ joining Z to Z M when Z dZ \\ Z is Hence "*A*y* .+J Z =AZ)J The term is first term is equal to f(Z)dZ. C%* * x% interior to C. approaches zero with dZ. VI. of second equal to or less than of \f(z) is M\ dZ\. The integral therefore has /(Z)fora derivative.
a)f{z) c. = J ds v . For let the upper extreme of the modulus of (z on the circle c be denoted by a M.] THEOREMS ON CURVILINEAR INTEGRALS. around a small circle having its center at a. 19. provided only lim (z d)f{z) =o when z = a. Art. I. this integral is equal to 2ni. = The integral / fa r. will approach zero as a limit simultaneously with the radius r of the circle c. except When n = I. C containing the point a. o to 2rc. viz. of For the value the integral will be the same if any circle described integration.ART. Theorems on Curvilinear Integrals. the result may be written c c fjw* =f/w* +f If M dz + there is included between two curves but one interior curve. varies from about a as a center be taken as the path of Let then z a reiB where r is a constant and = e . so that the region A is C and Clf the integral taken along x every closed curve containing C but interior to C has the same value. taken . the common value corresponding to the paths C and C\. If f{z) Theorem be continuous in a given region except at the point a. # The r integral becomes /2ir (nl)iO ~ rni / J dd . and consequently mod^ f(z)dz Theorem closed curve II. = I. 19. is equal to zero.. Then at every point of \ M  M 2tzM. which 26? the curves site to that in C is described. ny taken around any J (z a) when n . Hence if all are described in the same direction. the integral I f{z)dz.
VI. by choosing r sufficiently small. its value whence SA z dz : 27tl. But at every point of where. v J r.%G8 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. Hence may ^cza zero. then III. vc z a ^cz a but by the preceding theorems the first term of the righthand member is equal to 27tif(a). the modulus of be made less than any fixed positive quantity. [CHAP. I. the following important formulas. If n = I. are obtained : . C within S. which reduces to zero except when n == is 27rz. a. For describing about a as a center a small circle c of radius the equation ^c z is a *Jc za c. and a a point situated within C. t] obtained. and the second term is equal to the equation of the theorem just established be differentiated with respect to a. Theorem If f{z) is ^c z &dz a = 27tif{a). expressing the successive derivatives of a holomorphic function If at a given point. a a function holomorphic in a given closed curve the interior of which is wholly region S.
Hence the following: Theorem IV. integrals in the first 269 The finite members of these equations are all and determinate for every position of a within the curve Therefore any function holomorphic in a given region admits an infinite number of successive derivatives at every C. there exists an f(z) which are y If f(z) is holomorphic within a given region.Art. of successive infinite number derivatives of all holomorphic within the same region. 20.] Taylor's series. Each of these derivatives being monogenic must be continuous. at every point of this curve \z a\ > r. Denote by r the shortest distance from the point a to the curve Cm Then M be the upper length of C. and / Let the extreme of the modulus f(z) on C } Then mod /c (z a) n+l dz (n) . interior point.
and r the modulus of Q M be 27t Jc r n +\rp) its < rp\rj when n which. VI. Let R may be the upper extreme of the modulus of f(z) on the circle C. . Taylor's Series takes the form M= /(o) + *f(d) + ^/"(o) + in ._L f l " +1 + 2niJc (ZaY \Zat) AQ r _ By taking n sufficiently great the modulus of made less than any given positive quantity. Then modulus of t. 7 + Tfzf'W + R 1 2i . denoting a variable point on C 2nt Jc Z ~ a f = jl 27iiJ c fm^v 1+ __ Za\_ ^Za^ . since p < r. . This form is expressing/^) terms of powers of z. [CHAP. .. . .270 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.. Writing now z for a\t Taylor's Series becomes is convergent and the equality is maintained for z included within a circle described about a as a every point center with a radius less than the distance from a to the nearest The series critical point of f(z). From the preceding article. 1 +^l_+ T (Ca)^(C)'*(C^J ^ = A") + */'(<*) + 7^r/"<) + I . has zero for f limit = oo . known as Maclaurin's Series. ' 71 where r . p the a or radius of C.. When a is equal to zero. + _!_/<)(o) +.
] Laurent's series.'Ufc ^ =f{a i_r whence yv /(ck + t)> T . Laurent's Series.*) at every point of C t .1) can be expressed in a } E in convergent double f{a series of the tn form + = =2AJ". f(a\. and a j. region be the 21. If then C be the greater of x the two given circles.Art. Theorem._L AC *Y ACW "> ~ tf 1 +l t n+1 27ziJc>t n+ l But / <C * at every (Qat)' point of C and l% />C . m /) oo = oo With a ^ + as a center construct a circle sufficiently small to be contained within the region 5. 271 Art. be situated in the interior of the which a given function f(z) is holomorphic.t a point interior to S. so that R. it follows from Article 18 that 2ni*'c ^ i a Article t 2ni^c% C a t 2ni J' t \ a t But from icj^. If a common center of the two circles. bounded by two Let S. and i? 3 both have zero for a limit . a portion of the ^plane 1 concentric circles C and 72 . 2ni Jc ^ a t 27tiJc*Z. 21.a i written : The two integrals of the righthand member may be ^Cv where AQdZ =2 / 2V^ m^(Zay+\Z at)' p .
a). as resulting from an overlapping of two other .a y+./. [CHAP..1 contained within the region S. If \z\ > all .. Writing z for a f(z) f. point exterior to the circle 7a therefore. The series thus obtained is convergent at every point a 4. The value of f(a + t) can therefore be expressed form f(a + t)=A + A + AS + Af + . If 1 < < 2.272 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. when developed powers of z. ( z a) . and C t and included between them. Laurent's Series takes the form = A + Az . however. and second terms three terms give both give negative powers. * Consider as a special numerical example the fraction Z {Z If \z\ I) (Z 2) (Z all 3) 2(2 I) + 2~ 2(Z 3) < 1.. . that when the positive and negative powers of t are considered separately. series x The while the series of negative powers of / converges at everyThe region 5 can be regarded.. powers of / containing the positive converges over the whole interior of the circle C . but the others give the same in series as before. three terms of the second member.a)"* a^ & 1 where C is any circle concentric with C. the two resulting series have different regions of convergence. If 2 < \z\ < 3. the first 3. 1 t m+1 the function f(z)/(z a) phic for both positive and negative values of written Since in the region 5 is holomor m A m may f be a * m .+ 2 2 . regions in which different parts of Laurent's Series converge. the first term of the second member gives a series\z\ of negative descending powers. VH when n in the = oo . It is important to notice.*)+ Alz 1 + A _. + A_ (z . give only positive powers.L C 2t7zJ c f^ dr .
. .. interior to S.2plane becomes in the 'plane a ring T' bounded by two z concentric circles described about the origin as a center. having a period equal to so that/^ + #<) =/(^) . . . . . . in a region go. inclined to the axis of reals at meet or overlap in an angle equal to the argument of cw. Let 22. . . . .Art. such a manner as to form a continuous strip in which. by Laurent's Theorem.] Fourier's series. . be holomorphic in T\ w= w 2 the quantity a in this m= <x> = < A mz h\ being the preceding equation becomes in the general formula of the preceding article case equal to zero. . any positive or negative integer. Denote by Sn the obtained from 5 by the addition of nco to z and supregion S 5 Sn . and the development of the given fraction can contain no positive powers. . and contained within the The band T included between these parallels will be strip 5. S. 22. which holo Art. w = f(z) is be holomorphic S . Draw two parallel straight lines. and w dw dz' dw dz gd 2iriz ' dw dz' dz dz' 2ni will w regarded as a function of z' Hence. results for every function Laurent's is Series gives analogous morphic except at isolated points of the ^plane. the function w will be holomorphic. Fourier's Series. 1 4 o wholly 2iriz By means of the transformation z' = e w the band T in the . X . . . 273 negative powers. Substituting for z' its value. of course.. z and Since is holomorphic f.hod falling at the same point z\ in a region including T. w = 2 A me w . S_ n 5_ pose that the regions where n . Thus a system of concentric annular regions is obtained in each of which the given fraction is expressed by a convergent powerseries. and let it be periodic.
each which a function of of a given region z.S ^ 2M71Z /^ w cos 2mnQ 2ni7lC sin . . \ W= w 5. e. the value of w becomes M = ^C m=oo I e~ /{Z)dZ 2 w=co /+ w r^sr* /+ w imn 1 i/ /^c+^cs + ^ . is I. Denoting its independent variable by C for the purpose of avoiding confusion. Uniform Convergence.Wn \<e at every point of S. For at any point W may be written in the form . be convergent at every point Denote by n the sum of the first n W terms of W. Uniformly convergent exactly the same of terms. . series can in many respects be treated finite manner as sums containing a series. where rwdz' A = ^iJc^ = vJ/ i i 2 z+w _ 2m " e wd*' In the latter integral the path is rectilinear. Theorem A the terms of a continuous function of z. the series W is said to be uniformly con vergent in in the region 5. /(eye 2 = co sin /+w / b V(CKC =1 G Art. Let the term of series is 23. such that whenever n > v \W. itself number uniformly convergent which are continuous functions of z. ic 2 2//Z7T. tive quantity If it is possible. . + ze/ n + . . [CHAP. . u\ + w^ \ . whatever the value of the posi to determine an integer v. z. VI.274 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. .
e/. . Hence f Wdz = fwjz. continuous \z' W z\ less than a suitable quantity . 6 at every point of Z. +w n f . the integral of the series. z. by Article 15. But by choosing n be made less sufficiently great.W:\ + \R\ + \R!\.] uniform convergence. 23. But. has zero for lim its limit. + o . and. mod / Rdz < which. \R\ may both Having than any given positive quantity chosen n thus. may be. and  IV W'\ = W n . If n be fWd^fwjz + fRdz. Hence WW'=W W '+Rn n R'. d. Theorem series If all the terms of a uniformly convergent W = W + w. JV= W + R. . therefore.. are continuous. \W W n '\ ma y De W<n made less than  But. and \R'\ . and at a neighboring point z W= W ' n + R'. n becomes the sum of a finite number of It is then continuous. continuous at the point II. \R\ however small so chosen. when n = 00 . by making functions. denoting by / the length of the path L. W \Wis. . under these suppositions. n 275 r . for any path L situated in the region of uniform convergence. < possible to choose n so that. . writing W= W + R. W'\<e. is the sum of the integrals of its terms : Sl Wdz = e Sl w ^z +X Widz + n it is + Wnd* + For.Art. .
integrating in S. and if the series ytrr " S y contained in the region dw dz * i i "*" dz "t" * * * T i dw dz T i ' " " is uniformly convergent. +w + n . . f dw \ . however. . VI . If the series series ' JV= w \ w \x . The series is. "" dv>i ~ '"'r n t '" dz ds"r ~dk" is of uniformly convergent in a region S. ^Fwill be holomorphic for its derivative. +w n {z) wn {a) + is . will be the derivative of W. and if further the terms are continuous in S. . convergent. . Theorem is III. writing it in the form = w= + ( L_\+(<~i L. take the series W= At the point z is iI i J *"(i *) each term is continuous.. and the series the value 1/2. are holomorphic in a given region of convergence. [CHAP. ^W{z)W{a\ But the derivative of the first member W. An immediate consequence of the preceding theorems : the following Theorem IV. dw __ dw.\ + . W W For. . +w n \ . . and therefore is W. and will have W in the region To is illustrate by an example that uniformity of convergence essential to the preceding theorems. If the terms of the convergent series W w + w. convergent. . . S.276 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. . and the .{a) to z along a path L contained J W'dz of w (z) + . W from a w. . having i< discontinuous at z For. which must also be the derivative of the second member. .
the series is uniformly con Laurent's Series vergent in the region included between any two given circles concentric with C and Ca both being interior to C and exx . the integral I t~ l dt = 2* Jr. the series converges uniformly. By means of Theorem is II given above it can be shown that For. ence.Art. the remainder after n terms. then. in the determination of the series. less in A for the region exterior to any circle described about the origin as a center with an assigned radius greater than unity. . . first 277 the sum of the n terms " is seen to be i +z n But W is the limit of W n when n \z\ = oo I. 23. can have no point of discontinuity. now. x terior to Cr : Suppose. now this series upon a circle be considered for the points within and described about the origin as a center with an z n assigned radius less than unity. that two such series are possible m f(a . In such a region.] uniform convergence. and is therefore at every unity at point for If every point z for which < and zero which \z\ > I. by Theorem similar result holds I. The integral I t m . except when m= n. Divide by /n + 1 and integrate along any circle described about rtasa center and included in the region of uniform converg. and. by a J suitable choice of n be y made absolute value than any given quantity.tt = _oo 2 A m 'r. or I W= n I  f z n can. assuming the notation used unique. + t)=m =  2 A mr oo = oo = . Hence for such a path.n ~ l dt for such a path is zero.
Onevalued Functions with Critical Points. the function is constant over the entire circle. described about a as a center. For let/(^) and <p(z) be two such functions. function holomorphic in a region 5 and Theorem I. by giving in succession new positions to the point a. distant from a f(a) different amount. cannot all be Unless/^) is . the difference/^) zero at every point of S. /(*) A") = (* **'(<*) + ^=^"/"() + . it will be possible. VL from which identical. follows that An = An '. . given region Two functions which are both holomorphic 5 and are equal to each other for a system of points which are not isolated from one another.278 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. . A For in the neighborhood of any point a interior to S. it [CHAP. 2 v . can take the same value only at isolated points of vS. to show that the value of the function is constant over the whole region 5. within which Taylor's series converges. } v (n \. equal to zero. not equal to a constant. by Taylor's theorem. If. Theorem in a II.i) J If \z a\ modulus of the be given a finite value sufficiently small. must be equal to . /(^) by less than a certain from zero. 2 . then. the derivatives /'(a). J Let f {n \a) be the first which is not equal to Then v ' ^ J } v J [_i . the first term of the series within the brackets will all exceed the sum of the moduli of same result For values finite will hold for every is still the other terms. are equal to each other at every point of 5. . and the two series are Art. and the smaller value of \za\ + of z. zero. . constant over the entire circle of convergence of this series. f'\ci). . 24. on the other hand. n ' 1 . <p(z) By the pre ceding theorem.
The point a a zero of f(z) and f m is its order. + ^'^ . holomorphic in a region 5. lM)/ n 1 .. 24. and x{z) of a. and r may be made indefinitely and f{z)=f(a).. A>)=A*) + ( Let/ is (w) }/+ J 7 (a) be the first of the successive derivatives at a which not equal to zero. the function can be expressed in the form If a Theorem IV./ *(<*) + But by Article 19. Hence f {n \d) o for all values of n. For.ay '(a) + . in which the reciprocal of j\z) is holomorphic.] onevalued functions. is holomorphic in the neighborhood . . f \d) . great. the function can be expressed in Theorem V. is equal to zero at the point a situated within S. III. (w+ is (z 1) a) J + . even at infinity. mod. and different from zero at a.ay<f>(s). 2 . which is the required form. r being the radius of any arbitrary circle being the upper extreme of the having its center at a.2 . f{z) = (z. constant. nM . whatever the value of As) = /(a) + (* .2. g. by Taylor's Theorem. but is interior to a region 5. ^m . J I.Art. . function/^). . <p(z) is a positive integer. L t ' 1. where m is holomorphic in 5 and For in the neighborhood of the point a. If the point a is a critical point of a given function /(s).  the form where m is a positive integer. a being any given point. and modulus of f{z) on the circumference of this circle. < But M is always finite. Then f(z) v = (z m a) \  L 1 . 279 in Theorem A function which is is holomorphic every part of the splane. . (9'^(p*\ M N . . . .
VI. The ing no point a is a pole of f(z) and m is its order. For by the preceding theorem jA where <p{z) is = (*  w tf) 0<. Theorem VI.. Hence /. is a rational entire function of z. and hav points except poles. . Theorem impossible unless f(z) function f(z).+4 +0W where <fiz) is . . The given function therefore can be written in the form A ... ) + . arbitrarily critical For suppose that f(z) is such a function. which.280 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. A For the only critical point of f (  J is a pole at the origin. is in every part of the ^plane. ' = (z dl L .. finite A function.. by a constant. but that it takes no value for which the modulus of f(z) A is less than a given positive quantity e. at z holomorphic and not equal to zero f(z\ J \9 = a. Theorem VII.+A z + A z> 1 . having no critical point except a pole at infinity.. including the is consequently equal to a constant (f)(z) point at infinity.q) m ^ n h ^z a ^ +(g\ Adauzi _L a being an ordinary point for tp(z). holomorphic over the entire plane. [Chap. Then the function i /(*) will A is be holomorphic III.#+. not constant in value.. since a region of finite extent including the point a X(*) f(z) JK J =A A x (z . Hence in I l ' ^_ a yn f  0(^ ^ _ ay *& Further. f(z) = A m + . . must take values near to every assignable value.
The number of poles cannot increase indefinitely as \z\ is increased. poles must be at determinate distances from one anotherwise the reciprocal of f{z) would be equal to zero for points not isolated from one another. total number fore finite. = gion of the s'plane. 24. The . b. This term is a rational entire function.Art. for then the reciprocal of / ( ) would have an infinite number of zeros indefi nitely near to the origin. denote them. 281 Theorem VIII. since in every finite region of the ^rplane f(z) and f'{z) are holomorHence.] ONEVALUED FUNCTIONS. Let a. only critical points a rational function of The other . the integral / is holomorphic in every finite region. . in of poles is thereIn the neighborhood of a the function can be expressed m (z 4X ' the form ' a) x a In the neighborhood of b> being an ordinary point for cf>(z).. the function f{z) has no zeros and no critical points for finite values of z it can be expressed in the e^ z \ where g(z) is holomorphic in every finite reform f{z) If t Theorem IX. a and this b being both ordinary points for Proceeding in way the given function will be expressed as the sum of a finite number of rational fractions and a term which can have no critical point except a pole at infinity. . are poles is A function f{) whose z. For f(z) ~~ can have no critical points except at infinity. trary lower limit z . sequently must take the form The function /[z) con . in the form <p(z) can be expressed u * ' ' ' ' (z b) z b *p(z). choosing an arbiphic and f{z) is different from zero.
it by Laurent's series in the region comprised between any two concentric circles described about a with radii expressible less than the distance from a to the nearest in critical point* Hence the neighborhood of a /(s) = A... and their zeros are also identical in position order. VI. . + A (sa) + A (*ay + .2plane these poles are identical in position and in functions. If a is 25. there must exist a relation of the form f{z) except poles.+ B&a)> + . If in onevalued function a region 5 the only critical points of the f . Art..^82 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. critical onevalued function has an isolated point a. if two functions/^) and <p(z) have no criti cal points in the finite portion of the . i 1 The If coefficient of (2 1 a)' in a...s) are the interior points a.. and f{z) be integrated along C in a positive direction. the result will be J (fz)dz = 2niB The theorem following : . this expansion is called the "residue" oi f(z) at the point any closed curve C including the point a be drawn in the region of convergence of this series. where g(z) If = k(z) + log f(z ). x may be regarded as an extension of Cauchy's Theorem I. a . l t + B (za). [CHAP.splane. . and order for the two and = <p(z)^\ finite where g(z) is holomorphic ratio of the in every region of the ^plane^ no> For the critical two functions has no zeros and points in the finite portion of the . the /(. Residues. Theorem X.
0Xf) <P(zY . Since f(z) has no poles in the . Hence /'{*) = m z . B\ For the integral taken along C is equal to the sum of the integrals whose paths are mutually exterior small circles de. . . each such point being taken a equal to its For the neighborhood of the point a /( Z ) = (* )0(*)jj^yiv a. taken positively for a zero. . .. The following theorems are immediate consequences of the : preceding only Theorem critical II. M in cA J}. + = ..).] residues. The Theorem roots. therefore. a negative integer a pole. Every algebraic equation of degree n has n For zn let f{z) ~ l + a zH x + . an equation dz exists. z) denoting the number order. p^^l 2iit(MN) of zeros and N the number of number of times poles within C. represent the first member of the equation an o. if where <p(z) is finite if and different from zero at is and a is m is a positive integer a a zero.Art. scribed about the points a. are the residues of f(z) at the critical points. has a pole at every zero and pole of f(z). .. and negatively for a pole. III. 25. a! > . If in a region having a given boundary C the points of the onevalued function f(z) are poles interior to C. 283 integral j f(z)dz is taken around its boundary C in a positive direction equal to fA*)d* = 2*i(B + + > c . . and its residue is the order. f(z) a** J fj^ \ 2L* integrand. where B.
increased. If F{z) is a function which z and is onevalued takes a determinate value F(z ) at z while z remains within S. is. integral If of f(z) from z F(z) F(z F (z) x is another function equal to these confulfilling to is z .. its valued function of z within 5. the integral o(/(z) around an infinitely is = great circle cient is equal to 2iti into the coefficient of . 4. as Prob.. including the residue at infinity. = the )... It 26. if was shown a function/^) is holo integral taken from a fixed morphic in a given region lower limit contained in 5 to a variable upper limit z is a oneS. 17. Prob. Cndz Hence the v 2nl Jc z limit vj where when is \z\ = of the preceding integral. of the is preceding problem.+ * + a i? +* Vc e has zero for a limit sr . is u. the [CHAP. * Art. This coeffi called the residue for z = 00 .. this integral j_ 27Z k' + (y. dg = J_ oo .284 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. 18.# of the denominator are of the first order. show that = A > o.. that /(s) is expressible for very great value of z by a series containing only negative powers of z. finite part of the . Show that the sum of all the residues of f{z). having at every point f(z) for its derivative. VI. Integral of a Onevalued Function. and if the zeros . number of roots contained within any closed curve C will be given by the integral ' ni **?* /(*) Jc A is But taking for C a circle described about the origin as a center with a very great radius. Prob. equal to f^l io.2plane. S degree lower by 2 than the denominator. if 00 is an Show that if z ordinary point of f(z). zero. in Article 18 that. is If tt\ is a rational function of which the numerator of .
.#.. B B . can be written also in 285 ditions. each including X . for the integral curve. where the exponent is indicates that the corresponding path reversed .) + f A*YL has been assumed in the preceding that neither of the paths L lt L intersects itself. But L L~ l is a closed gral along at a K . ...Art. from z to z include between y them utive several critical points a K a ky a^ . f^Mds = It 27ti(BK + B. . . or" loop. . the two paths Z. But L L~\ L m L~ are all closed paths or loops. assuming that each is described in a positive direction and that denote the resiK Ky B^. .. The integral paths contains only one critical point. If now . x integral along the composite path i L^L^L.. + B. since the integrals corresponding to x X x . assuming that it is described in a positive direction about a KJ the intex along L' l L is equal to zero..$) . L L '\ a i t . paths . it #. paths from z to z. L will be equal to the integral along the composite path along L L~ L^ Lm ~*L m L~ L. ." including the critical point a K . . . . X Z _1 Z. dues of f{z) at the critical points.. + .] integral of a onevalued function. so that. for .. ~1 X x a single critical point. will give integrals identitaining none of the points a lf a 2 . the functions F(z) and a constant term for 3. draw intermediate Z3 Lmy so that the region between any two consec.*\ x l F F (z) x differ only by . but that interior to 5. . . Any two Let the two paths L lf L include between them and consider the integrals along a single critical point aK these two paths. . The integral along L will be equal to the cal in value.^< ^o) . . In the case where a path. K \ ff{z)dz. .. which inclose between them a region con. so that the integral of f(z) the form (z) F^z^). . Suppose now that f(z) has isolated critical points is still onevalued in S. and. L m L m L~ L are all equal to zero.. . .. 26. it is equal to 27tiBKi where B K is the residue of f(z) Hence ff{z)dz = 2niB L ..
Select that branch.' may be altered arbitrarily without altering the value of the integral. provided no critical point be introduced In fact all the loops may be into or removed from the loop. . and if along its prolongation from a to infinity the . and is The value of the integral described in either a positive or negais therefore of the form f where L f{z)dz . preceded by a loop containing a and described a certain number of times in a positive or negative direction. as attached to L* at z regarded . . the general value of the If now a straight line be drawn integral will be w f. so far as the value of the integral Z is concerned. [Chap. .I. As an example critical consider the integral / The onlv is point is z = a. the integral in the #plane thus divided stricted. But. a rectilinear path. x x m m^ lt are any integers positive or negative. + zni{m B + m^ + .2nni. If w denote the integral for a selected path. VI.). is onevalued. . together with a series of loops attached to Z/ at Each of these loops encloses a single the points clt c v critical point a K and.srplane be cut or divided. It takes a determinate value for z = . It eral path that can can be proved by similar reasoning that the most genbe drawn from z% to z will be equivalent. for example. Any path whatsoever from z to z equivalent to a determinate path. which reduces to zero when z and its 2=za\. joining zQ to a. example L lt intersects itself in several points c%% c%t . . if described in a positive direction.. . as made up of a path Z/ not intersect ing itself. with the variation of z thus re any branch of the function log (z a) is onevalued. it is possible to consider Z.. to any given path preceded by a series of loops. adds . dent that the form of each loop and the point at which it is attached to Z. . Each such loop described in a to the integral a term 27tiB K 2niBK It is evinegative direction adds a term of the form . for example. each of which includes a sin gle critical point tive direction. ..286 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.
. is of the form where g{z) is holomorphic in every finite region.Art. any finite portion of the ^plane and has the points a lt . number of zeros is by means of the following of isolated points theorem : Theorem. Art. in the having form its zeros at the A{z. The without extension of this result to the case where a function finite critical points has an infinite It is effected <Jue to Weierstrass. J j^T = Log izd).. 28 derivative for every value of z is . 18. its zeros.)" . a Log z is 2nni = . (See Prob. a my can be put *. a m y>. show that ft8*=2P& fc. 27. .Log a For a path not restricted in (z .(# .. . (z a). 25. of the inte any way.. z.. .] weierstrass's theorem. function which has no critical point in the generally. .a) = Log ^~^. and if the zeros # of the denominator be of the first order. a m as A is a constant and More . Any rational entire function of . 20. points a lf a . denoting it ct> by Log . degree lower by 2 than the denominator. If Sv tp(z) a rational function of 2 of which the numer a lt <z a . the value / ator is of dz z _ z a a . z a log Prob. where 2<p{a v )/tp\a v ) log = o. z Hence. Given an infinite number a lf . .a^(z where . n m are positive integers. .) Art. . Weierstrass's Theorem.. 27.
. ..<?. VI.z)' will In any given finite region of the ^plane to be possible indefinitely assume that n. Consider the f infinite product 4w = $(i where fjt <f.* For the given points can be taken so that I a n increasing indefinitely with  n. . since \a\ increases with Divide the product into two parts..288 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. II.L)* dz an z *s( i i) +F ^ But since g (l z \ \ ~"aj~ r ~*A . aa . * " " ~ ~an " z* r */> z * dz no} a*(a n zf the path of integration being arbitrary except that it avoids as the points a lt a ..... Pn {z) denotes the rational entire function Any factor may be written in the form (i . e * The following proof Vol.  z\ ~ p < am . in which ij) n (z) = r z zn dz J a nn (a n it . The second part is equal to tn . Cours d'Analyse.. . a function can be constructed holomorphic except at infinity and equal to zero at each of the given points only. the product may be expressed ZZ** W . [CHAP. is taken from Jordan. 2d edition.
denotes the length of the path of integration. j weierstrass's theorem. converges M uniformly. this region fulfils may be extended arbitrarily. which are . 27. By Theorem IV. . In the given region .Art. . In the preceding demonstration none of the given points ati a .'(*) i < ij Kiipy . was tacitly assumed that was situated at the origin. ink a. since \U*)\= mod where / fj'W*< W^Z\p)> jo.lW> of factors is containing only a finite number morphic. it is The most general function without finite critical points . The oo series 24>'(*)i therefore. a lf But everywhere holoav . p CX v* i *. 00 Each term of ^tp n (z) r is m accordingly less in absolute value than the corresponding term of a convergent geometrical progres00 sion independent of g. 00 289 00 Consider the series 2ip n (z) and 2ip(z). tn The exponential e also must be holomorphic. the series 2ip(z) represents tn in the given region a holomorphic function. vanishing at all of the points situated within the given finite region. . 27 (1 The other part of the product . of Article 23. The product it therefore the re quired conditions. each term of the secm tn ond being the derivative of the corresponding term of the first.. necessary merely to mul To introduce a zero at the origin tiply the result by a power of z. The series ^tp n (z) also converges.
tp(z) The product F(z) tp(z) The given function can. . of course. were employed in the demonstration It is quite sufficient. VI. be written Ft A  #*) which is the required form. make form / x \ aj such a manner. F(z). As an 7t. [CHAP. n7r. For. infinite construct a function . to choose these the product converge polynomials in any way which will Factors of the for finite values of z to a holomorphic function. .. <p(z) will have therefore.. = having the poles of F{z) as its zeros..\ f[z) aJ i fj.." application of Weierstrass's Theorem take the resoThe zeros of sin z are o. means of Weierstrass's theorem it is possible to express By any function. . whose only finite critical points are poles as the ratio of two functions holomorphic except at infinity. . so that PJz) contains only one term and W) = I nninn z) . will rarely be found necessary to include in the polynomials as PJz) so many terms given above. 27t. for the ratio of any two functions satisfying the required conditions is neither nor zero at any finite point. lution of sin z into primary factors. .. are called " primary where Pn(z) is chosen in factors. . no finite critical point. . it In applying Weierstrass's theorem to particular examples..*) ^ where g(z) is holomorphic except at infinity. I \ Consider factors of the form z Z \ nit' . can yw = <*un[i . having its only zeros at the given points a lf a%} be expressed in the form an . .290 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.
absolutely convergent p> Hence show Z Itil that the product =*43 where go 2 8 e = moo x \ nco 7 . . treme of \tpn(z)\ multiplied by the length of the path of z. for. is 7 . for \tp n {z)\ 21>4s) cannot exceed the upper ex/. 27. Prob.ART. Hence the expression required sin g is = se*'>n( 1 00 \ nnj )e the value n = o being excluded next article that gd 1 from the product.4*).J 00 WEIERSTRASS'S THEOREM. 21. 291 The series 2$M'(g) m will converge uniformly in any region at every point of which = \z\ p < mn . defines a holomorphic function in any finite region of the splane. are also convergent. It will be shown in the e^ = I. A series similar result holds for the m m The two $4. and is the basis of his lystem of elliptic functions. integration from the origin to the point These series accordingly represent holomorphic functions in the region for which = \z\ p. If the doubly is and gd 3 be two quantities not having a real ratio. since nn{n7t s) \ \nn\l \ mnl each term term is less in absolute value than the corresponding of the series \ war/ series J2tp n '{z). rr infinite series of if which the general term 2. This function is Weierstrass's sigma function.
.... further.. [CHAP..(g .. : + M =A.. VI.( ~in a region ).{g  O + A.. and suppose that kl \an \ <l*il < A*\ < is > increasing without limit when n increased indefinitely. can be represented in the neighborhood of one of these points by Laurent's series viz. it Gn l J contains a finite infinite series. The extension of this result to the case where the is number Let a xi of critical points infinite is due to MittagLefrler.. fore be written in the form 1* >*] can be expressed as a analogous to the expression of a rational function by means of partial fractions. holomorphic J containing the point a n T and GH \ . be the critical points tion /(#)..#. . + is A.) + . 28. is holomorphic over the whole plane excluding is the point a n If an .. of the onevalued func. by subtracting the sum of these is functions from/^) a remainder will be obtained which has no formed critical point in the finite part of the plane. ) be the series of negative powers of . Let. series of This remainder ascending powers G{z) convergThe function f(z) can thereing for every finite value of z. a pole oif{z)..292 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE.)" + Hence where 0(#) /(*) = <&*) + G. )' + Biz 1 a.4 ? A >ju *^ ^ <*>i " ^ j TAk . and the function Gn [ J each such point. ani . Any onevalued function f{z) with isolated critical points *?. Art. GM ( .. MittagLeffler's Theorem.(z. If number of terms otherwise is an the number of critical points at is finite.
. also in connection with each of the points alf att . E x +E t \ . Hence. converges uniformly. . . for any point within the circle Fn (z) GJ \2 representing the first v + i terms of the development of aj ] by Maclaurin's theorem. . Choose aMI . . . an integer v such that ft \ z \ <A < *h anc*> m ] general. . Fn \z) its derivative. + En + .. applied fin < \an \.w <Em ] ' . . % > . . in 293 a n contained the expansion oif(z) according to Laurent's . and the to Gn '\ \2 aj ]. function GJ \ having no critical point except at a n may be developed by Maclaurin's series in the form h^YO series will converge uniformly within a circle described about the origin as a center with any determinate radius Within the same circle Maclaurin's series.Art. . Series in the neighborhood of an The . is convergent. + EU9 . . the derivative with respect to z of GJ \2 a nj A. may be made so that Choose the positive quantities the series Elf E . 1x10(1 t^ty " fjw <e*> mod [^t^y " a. 38. and R y less in R! remainders which by a suitable choice of v absolute value than any given quantity.] MITTAGLEFFLER'S THEOREM. .
Consider now the series [CHAP. . further. . function. . ant . to assume that in any . M . . . . by Theorem IV of these series defines a holomorphic . will less in less . excluded.. . therefore. and must be expressible as a series G{z) containing only positive powers of z and converging uniformly in any finite region of the . than each of the quantities p my pm + Ac\z\ w*>*Oiw~ ft* k*. be \ am\* Separate from each of these two series its first I terms. .. VI* finite region of the plane. + m an is . ordinary point for the function . . . . . These terms will have in each case a finite The remaining terms of either series taken in order absolute value than mt B m + h respectively. therefore. .. The point a n is an ordinary point for the difference &> since in [>by its '*#>] = [a*)  sfcdbeG may be . . lf S is a ny absolutely convergent for every value of z except a lt a 2 . . from which the points a lt a . are excluded. . can have no critical point except at infinity. an . Hence the function f(z) may be put in the form . .2plane. that in any given finite region. in any finite region of the #plane. . an This function.294 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. neighborhood this difference developed as a convergent series containing only positive powers of z In the same way each of the points a lt a aHi . . it is being possible. Since \a M increases indefinitely with n. being . . is In such a region any term of either series holomorphic first Article 23. \ * <P< m sum. r It is evident. . the and. . the points ax% a 3 . the two of series converge uniformly. . aVma each of the series "/'"^s^^ cordingly.
is zr. W _ V 1*1 v(iW). even when \z\ < m. . . of z = is cot z z holomorphic and tztt. less than the corresponding term in the series z\ *\ \ n win) A similar result holds for the series \_z f. As an application of MittagLeffler's theorem consider cot Its critical points are z = o. 295 M= in G{z) +2 [_G{izrj) /)]. 27r. ^7T> 7Z7Z7 and. In the neighin the neigh borhood of borhood cot z z = o. is not convergent values of z. therefore.Art. z. absolutely convergent at every point for which For the modulus of any term is equal to \z\ <m. 28..^r is.. The series is m . rnt holomorphic.. The j series ^ in + 00 z nn' which for finite an arbitrary positive integer.] mittagleffler's theorem.rnt nnA easy to see now that the reasoning employed in the demonstration of MittagLeffler's theorem may be applied to It is show that the series . !+] = ^ z =^= \ nnl however. being any positive or negative integer. is which the character of each critical point exhibited.
f In regard to the series 2 i can be proved that. sin z It follows. therefore._i_^r_!_ + _LV^ J nn nn J z x \_z can have no point except at infinity. It is to be observed zero. being the derivative of G(z\ value of *. if finite It can. the value of G'{z) may be expressed as * ^ ' _ ~ I j_4r (x \. being excluded. G'{z) passes point again and again through the same range of values. VI. [CHAP. the points 2?r. . . But G\z). value must be not a constant.iy)* ^ I ( 2 ^y ( cosx + * sm x V lyi (x\ty first nnf and \(cos 2x\i sin last 2x)e When member }> jy = the erms it of the second vanish. z into z TZ \ {z nny by changing z n. z ^ oo \_z nn ' nnS where the summation does not include n tion holomorphic O. defines a func in any finite region of the ^plane.ty. that G\z + Hence G\z) n) = G'(z). if step is to determine its (*). therefore. since G(z) a constant. . become at all. ^C*g \ <f t 1 ^ iU . is periodic.296 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. 7t> = o. only ) when the imaginary part of z is infinite.+ j> oo p 1 I h i "1 The next that. w I 2 i . if . differentiation z) ( of the preceding expression for cot z gives cot cot If G{z) is i = . Hence cot * = is (*) + . The difference cot ~ . If z be written in the form x f. z. It must. be expressible as a series G(z) of positive powers of z> critical having an infinite circle of I convergence.. having a period equal to n and as the z traces a line parallel to the axis of reals. is holomorphic for every infinite.
G'(z). of those terms for which > v is less in absolute value than any previously assigned quantity e. 24. 23.M.nnf exclude n = o. &(z) is equal to zero. by Theorem III.) Prob. and is equal to zero. Prob. This function Weierstrass's ^function. Hence. 22. Prove that JM =~ J ^ s log <r(*). I4v is 297 which y is finite and different from any given region an integer r can be found such that the sum of the moduli zero. The modulus 00. value is seen to be unity. it is constant. ^ %u [i$lM} i^CP I . is zero. From the expression for cot z deduce the equation + cosec z 8 ec = 3> *Z where the summation does not Prob. defines a function is whose only finite critical go. 7 . vj^ where 00 = mao f points are z = l noo^ . = o. It follows that Article 24. As \y\ is increased the modulus of each of these terms is diminished. never becomes infinite. cot * is = #'(*) + ?+'*[ ^. for 28. cannot exceed e when y = But the sum of any finite number of terms of the series when^= Hence the limit of the whole series is zero. *. therefore. .*> (z Show that the doubly infinite series jb. (Com pare Problem 21. therefore. expression for cot z is The accordingly J+SfcJ nn The strass's nnj logarithmic derivative of the product expression for sin st given in the preceding article as an example of Weier theorem.\2 v z 00 nn h nn J T Making z Hence g{z) its in that expression is a constant.Art.] mittagleffler's theorem. of their sum.
be grouped together in the neighborhood of a single finite point is evident. 29. point z = easy to illustrate by an example the occurrence of lines and regions of discontinuity. In the former an infinite number neighborhood of the origin. VL '(z) = 2^7 r. from the consideration of such ex amples as ^H/^y) "fr* w = cot . Take the series * It is The sum of its first n terms * z' is 1 . the unit circle.. however. Hence the series. Art. The expression <P(z)V(z) + tp(z)[i0(z)] See Weierstrass. Prob. and to zero if \z\> I. Critical Lines and Regions. p. The functions whose properties have been considered in the preceding articles have been assumed to have only isolated That an infinite number of critical points may critical points. Tannery. Prove that {CHAP.298 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. Abhandlungen aus der * This series is due to J. 25. the former situated within. 3 where the summa tion does not exclude go = o.  #7/ y / f'Vu^ osec /' ^r3 =^ jr^. Let <p(z) and ip(z) be two arbitrary functions both completely defined in these regions.1 > I which converges to unity if \z\< I. 102. Functionenlehre (1886). circle *=I is a line of discontinuity for this C Consider now any two regions 5 and S t 9 . of poles are grouped in the In the latter an infinite num ber of essential singularities are situated in the vicinity of the a. the latter without. .
+ }'~ 2 I . as before. viz. the given function is expressible as a power : f{z) = /(a) f (* ..a)/' (a) + . ac cordingly.. a critical series. representing the f(z) within a circle described about b as a In general. including points not contained in either of the preceding circles.] critical lines and regions.. At any new point c within the circle whose center is b. in general. + JfLZi2L/W(. all its successive derivatives at any point This series calculation of f(z) and b interior to this circle. the character of the function in one part determines its character in every other Let 5 be such a region. ft J^m + .Art. in the interior of which exist only isolated critical points. will 29. to obtain an expression of By the same character at any other point k which can be connected with a by a. Ab) + t'~ *)/'(*) + . not point. may thus represent entirely independent functions. the value of the function and all its successive derivatives can be calculated series . a power can be obtained convergent in a circle described about c as a center and. 6y. the point b can be so chosen that a portion of this new circle will lie without the circle of convergence of the former power series. and assume that its boundary is a part. From the preceding power series. pletely separated from one another by a literal critical line. For a single continuous region. continuing in this manner it will be possible. however.) + . . critical line. . and so. <p(z) in 29D In regions comthe same be equal to expression S and 1 ip(z) in S 2 . will converge uniformly over a circle described a as a center with any determinate radius less than the about It serves for the distance from a to the nearest critical point. It follows that the character of . starting from a given point a with the expression of f(z) in ascending powers.. In the neighborhood of any interior point a. continuous line everywhere at a finite distance from the nearest critical point. can be obtained another M= center. .
the function everywhere within S can be determined completely from its hood expression in ascending power series in the neighborof a single interior point. difto return to the point z so as to obtain there a value of If it is w w \ w is onevalued in the region S. it impossible to obtain from it an expression converging when = \z\ i. w =/(z) interior of S and . Harkness and .. 119 XIV. On the other Morley. beginning remain in the take at the point z of a given re/ Suppose that along any continuous path. further. 30. w is not pass through certain continuous and has a contin uous derivative. Functions Having n Values. VI. representing a function which has no existence in Functions in connection with the interior of the unity circle. [CHAP. when z traces such a path. Let the function gion 5 a value at z . furthermore. Theory of Functions (1893). a%t ." * Art. . exists only in the region interior to the unit circle. circle the series is divergent and. It will be impossible by the process just explained to derive in any information S. ?i +%^ is 01+' which represents a function without critical points in the For points on or without this interior of the circle \z\ = I. X. shows that a complete definition of f(z) within 5 may carry with it the definition of an entirely independent function without 5. p. . and subject only to the conditions that it shall 0) . shall isolated points a t . ferent from * {Q impossible. + 22 + 2Z* + 2Z* . American Journal of Mathematics. The example As an example of a function having a series f critical region con. which such regions arise are called " lacunary functions. The function thus defined. Vol. regard to the function at points exterior to given above. sider the function defined I by the .300 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. By changing z into \/z a series is obtained. consequently. PoincarS.
a y*+A_ (z . . 30. . . about the origin of the ^plane correspond / revolutions of z about a k Considering then the branch wa as a function of z' r the origin cannot be a branch point. for whenever z' describes is reproduced. . . . wnT In a k any one of the points a x . Introduce wa now a new independent z' variable k )'K z' such that = (z .atf + + A_ (z . . 301 hand.(z . z' gin makes only one /th part of a revolution about the oriof the ^plane. substituting for z' its value.(z . 1 2 .Art. point. starting from any point of it with the value corresponding to a certain branch. 1 k 2 k . a small circle about it. the value The a branch 7va must accordingly be expressible by Laurent's w series in the form + 00 hn y or. w w w . . certain paths may lead back to z with new values x .a + A. the several values of each of which the is give rise to n branches % x characterized by a continuous derivative. . are obtained by successive revolutions about ak . . a% . neighborhood these branches are said to be distinct or not. . . of w. and that to a complete revolution of z . This expression makes plain the relation between the different . as a center describe a small cir and suppose that. according a? small closed curves described about this point lead from each value of of w back to the same value again. . . About any branch point a k cle . . except a <z a n different values. and that starting from such a point 89 and a i9 f tracing any continuous curve not passing through a . Wa = A + A.. t .a It can be shown that when z makes one revolution about f ak . .] FUNCTIONS HAVING n VALUES.a j"*+ k) .. Wp^Wy the original value being reproduced after p revolutions. . the values . or cause some of the branches In the latter case the point is a branch to interchange values. w has Suppose that at each point of 5. .
. Pm = Each of these functions WSiVa is . . When of its the development of a branch in the neighborhood of one branch points gives rise to only a finite number of terms is containing negative powers. and %i xt sequently a onevalued function of z within S. . and those branch at which points polar branch points. . branches of a function neighborhood of a branch point. w w w con w must satisfy an equation of the th degree. +P = n o.302 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE. in unchanged . w. . the only other critical points being poles for one or more branches. % w n + Pjf* + p of' + . In this case is an algebraic function of z. . . in the [CHAP... .. the branches do not all remain finite are P P w .w + + wn _ wn x % . the branch point called a " polar branch point. . x . VI. ." Consider the functions P =z Wy + W + + Wu P = w w + w. When the entire ^plane can be taken as the region 5.P are rational functions of z. value when several or all is of the quantities n are interchanged. Hence . . the coefficients of which are onevalued functions of z having only isolated critical points within 5. a l % 3 . the functions u H tt .
may be Mdx + Ndy = o. such reduction it is the object of the Integral Calculus to reduce the expression in the second member of equation (2) to the form of a known function of x. By W. 1. Equations of First Order and Degree. Art. and it is In other %=A*\ of which the general solution r dy = Ax)dx. (3) in which M and N . Naval Academy. S. to it write the equation in a form analogous to equation (1). or. (i) is written in the form (2) y = /A*)**. EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER AND DEGREE.]. the derivative of y with respect to x is required to find the value of y as a function of x. supposing y to denote an unknown function of the independent variable x. the equation serves to define a new function of x. Professor of Mathematics in the U. When is not possible.Art. Woolsey Johnson. In the Integral Calculus. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. are functions of x and y. This equation is in fact the general form of the differential equation of the first order and degree either variable being taken as the independent variable. given an equation of the form given in the form of a function of x. In the extension of the processes of integration of which the following pages give a sketch the given expression for the derivative may involve not only x. 303 Chapter VII. but the unknown function y . 1. words. it gives the first derivative of the other variable .
So also the solution is not necessarily an is. (1 y only. solution here presents itself in a transcendental form. taking the exponential of each member. For example. to " separate the variables. VII. is is (4) (5) xy = C.304 in DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. When a particular value = In general. T Thus . (7> where C is put for the constant ^. y which makes either an. when practicable. (1 log +x) = c. given the equa xdy \ydx the solution = o. we find ' The =e = C. but it is readily reduced to an algebraic form. obtained by " direct inte gration. For example.Ndy is not an exless and it is necessary to find some direct method of the of solution.y)dx + (1 + x)dy = o. given the equation (6) (1 \ . while the more general relation expressed by" complete integral. Mdx \." attributed to C. dx : ' h 1 dy =l_ o. [CHAP. whence 1 L x = C(i y). x)(i the variables are separated by dividing by y). order and degree is. When we recognize the left member of equation (3) as an " exact differential. I \x y and hence y) log (1 Each term is now directly integrable. but generally a relation between x and implicit function of the other. terms of x and y. the differential of some function o x and y tion s the solution is obvious. the given expression act differential. For." so that the coefficient of dx shall contain x first The most obvious method only.. the result " x' 1 is a particular integral thus jj/ a " particular integral of equation (4). where is C is an arbitrary constant. and that of dy. . expression of either variable as a function of the other." equation (5) is known as the ." that is. of solving a differential equation.
of a differential equation The meaning illustrated by supposing simultaneous the rectangular coordinates of a variable point. we were given one pair of simultaneous values of x and y that is. Geometrical Representation.r dr / y=C cos x.] GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION. by ( Ans. and substituting in equation (6) we find which is C{i y)+i+x = o. by equation Prob. R. 2. we have p * The between p.ART. dethe constant of integration by the condition that its initial termining value shall be zero. (7). : may be graphically values of x and y to be It is conven Then P being its the moving point (x. 3. Helmholtz's equation for the strength of an electric current C at the time / is r L are given constants. Solve $dx + py = a\ J = ^}. x +1 ~ C. Solve fdx y y = 1 ex ^) j 4. in addition to the differential equation. ient to put/ for the value of the ratio dy dx. Find the value of C. b Prob. Solve the equation dy \y tan x dx = o. y Now let P start from this fixed initial point in either direction along the straight line and begin to move whose inclination . y) and <p denoting the inclination of path to the axis of x. Prob. and Art. given differential equation of the first order is a relation y. x and y = dy = tan fdx 0. one position of the point P. where .) Ans> l+A _ ^ax\ (Ans. being of the first degree with respect determines in general a single value of p for any assumed to/. Suppose in the first place that. 2. true 1. 2. \ \ a j Prob. values of x and y. and. verify the result in this form 305 To tion we notice that differentia gives dx = Cdy.
let us may take equation (4) of Art. The point may return to its initial thus describing a closed curve. there no reason either of these cases should exist. and different values of it determine different members of the system of curves. and we must suppose the direction of We P its motion to vary in such a way that the simultaneous values In of x. initial determined by the value of p corresponding to the thus have a moving point satisfying values of x andjj/. and p continue to satisfy the differential equation." It is of course the constant of integration. As an illustration.* P The ordinary cartesian equation of the path If of Pis a particular integral of the differential equation.306 is DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. y. moves the the given differential equation. the equation equivalent to tan = tan 0. [Chap. y> and an arbitrary parameter. . but * on the other is When why the form of the functions M and AT is unrestricted. the path of the moving point satisfy the differential equation. These form a "system is of curves. ity in each direction from the initial point describing an infinite branch of a curve. is said to that case. or different particular integrals. As the point values of x and y vary. but they commonly occur among such differential equations as admit of solution. Pmay be assumed to start from any initial point. which dy ~ y x' dx the axis of Denoting by 6 the inclination to x of the line joining P is with the origin. be written 1. VII. so that there is an unlimited number of curves representing particular integrals of the equation. and therefore expresses that moves in a direction inclined equally with P OP to either axis. constant for any one curve of the system." " and the complete integral form of a relation between This parameter is the equation of the system in the usual x. no pair of associated values of x and y be known. or it may pass to infinposition.
show geometrically that the system described find the differential equation. 3. Prob. Primitive of a Differential Equation. which does not contain m. be regarded as an arbitrary parameter. 2xydx = y*)dy. to move Write the differential equation which requires and thence derive the P Prob. Let us now suppose an ordinary relation between x and y. 5. Starting from any position in the plane. 7. 6. = x*/=Q (x* the comple 26. consists of circles.] PRIMITIVE OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION. equation (1) the equation of a system of parabolas having a common w axis and vertex. is ment of 6 Prob. to be given. in a direction always perpendicular to OP. from we of y = m(x obtain directly a) t (1) 2ydy = mdx dx (2) (2) which equation we have (1) is an integral. By differentiation we may obtain an equation of which the given equation is of course a solution or particular integral. this with the given equation But by combining be found. P integral xy =C is the equation of the system consisting of these hyperbolas. ? What If is the system described when (Ans. again. the point thus moving must describe a branch of an hyperbola having the two axes as its asymptotes accordingly. 307 side. the complete .ART. 3. is satisfied by every member of this system of curves. equation of the system of curves described. and (Ans. ential equations of any number of differwhich the given equation is a solution may For example. which may be represented by a curve. . dividing by (1) 2dy = is y and of this equation also (1) If in it is JZT^ (3) an integral.) Art. The differential equation (3).
b) and (o. which we may denote by C. 9. Art. Exact Differential Equations." that the differential of a function of x andjy. integral equation (1) is said to be (1) its "primitive. which is found by differentiation. it is if in equation a be regarded as the arbitrary con a is common the equation of a system of equal parabolas having Now equation (2) which does not contain a axis. (1) . a primitive is an equation containing as well as x and an arbitrary constant. (i) [CHAP. it is satisfied by every member of this system of curves. the variables are already separated. the complete integral of as will be found by solving the equation in which thus regarded is Now it equation of (3) is obviously the only differential equation (1) independent is m which could be derived from and (2). is y Thus. VIL Hence equation equation (3). " and in this point of view the ential equation of the system . hence the differential equation of the system. 7.Ndy. I 4." Again. I we obtain by differIf we use this to eliminate C from equaentiation 1 Cp. yr and p. is equation (6). in which Mdx f Ndy is an " exact differential. ential equation of the system. (7). In Art.308 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Prob. Let u denote this function. and its primitive equation (1) with a regarded as the arbitrary constant. 8. in plete integral of a given differential equation. 2. and Write the equation of the system of circles in Prob. and the is corresponding differential equation a relation between x. Art. This is therefore also a method of verifying the comFor example. and elimination of C if necessary. verifying the complete integral (7) in Art. whereas the process before tion (7) the result = employed was equivalent to eliminating p from equation thereby reproducing equation Prob. since " differIt is therefore the the result of eliminating m. derive the differential equation from it as a primitive. and derive from it the differthrough the points (o. Write the equation of the system of circles passing b). stant. then du Mdx \. (6). is the case mentioned is.
ART. = 2x To . dY y^dy. in whatever way it . 4. The complete integral of any equation. . /)dy (3) For example." and its complete integral is u = C. these are containing . which should be identical with the given equation therefore.x*dy. the notation of partial derivatives 309 and in d M= d* A N^P. thus. and M x{x \ 2y). given the equation x(x \ 2y)dx + (** y\ = o. since by a theorem of partial derivatives ' dy d* fulfilled This condition must therefore be by M and N in order that equation (i) may be possible. we may integrate Mdx. the condition function (2) is fulfilled.] EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. find the u. integrating and multiplying by 3. the complete integral may be is The result more readily obtained if we notice that all terms containing x and dx only. The x*dx + zxy dx + written  x*dy = dY. or y and dy only. and the equation is exact. which obviously form the differential of x*y whence.Ndy = o is said to be an " exact differential equation. treating^/ as a constant. are exact hence it is only necessary to examine the terms differentials both x and y. and substituting. whence Y = \y % C. dy dydx dxdy y J Then. 2xy dx f. In the present case. we obtain the result . When it is fulfilled Mdx \. above. N = x* = 2#. in which the constant of integration result of differentiating this is Y may be a function of y.
x* + 6xY +/ = c. Show from the integral equation in Prob. It to be noticed that the factor by which we separated the a (1 y)~ variables.* Such a factor is sometimes suggested by the form of the equation. x~* is +^ = x C. result of differentiating equation (7). VII. must therefore be of the form o. Hence an exact differential equation du which must be equivalent to the given equation =o Mdx + Ndy = here supposed not to be exact. * Since we have fl juM and #iVin the exact equation (5) must satisfy the condition (2) r a partial differential equation for ju. Art. that Prob. It follows that if Thus.310 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. the given differential equation can at once be solved. are not exbut become so when divided by either x* or y*. was found. ii. (1 y)~\i x)~\ is also an integrating an integrating factor can be discovered. xdy. y~* is an integrating The resulting integral is factor of the whole expression. 10. the I. Solve the equation x(x + $y*)dx \yiy + 3^)dy = (Ans. . an integrating factor of the differential equation. where and y. (y x)dy\ydx = o. namely.) o. For example. (4) The exact equation du =o (5) ju(Mdx + Ndy) = o. 1 3. can be put the form u C. but as a general method of finding this simply comes back to the solution of the original equation. which contain both x and y. }x is Such a a factor containing at least one of the variables x " factor is called an integrating factor" of the given equation. can be obtained. and be cause the remaining term contains y only. ^ogy Prob. Art. when put (1 in the form u = C. by solving for C. factor. given the terms ydx act. in [CHAP. 9. is (1 y)dx\{\ + x)dy _ 3 ' J) so that is is an integrating factor of equation (6).
and restoring^/. Prob. = C. the equation 2y)dx ydy =o indicated homogeneous dividing by x. Prob. 12.] homogeneous equation.) = ex. y If in such an equation v. 2x*y y* Prob. x* = ^. Mdx + iVi/y = is said to be . 5. Show that the expression x a yP(mydx nxdy) has the km ~ ~ a kn ~ ~P. log x+ log (v ^ C. is . the variables are changed from x and y and to x and where vdx.) y* Art. 13. = o. (Ans. show that m/( u ) is tne general =c expression for the integrating factors. The differential equation and homogeneous when x and j of the same degree M N are or. making the substitutions 2v)dx f and (1 v(xdv 7 f vdx) o. whence dx h x s vdv ~ {v \f 1) Integrating. Homogeneous Equation.) x is a form of the complete integral and /* the corresponding integrating factor. If u ^t^ + tan" 2 ^*. homogeneous what is the same functions of thing. 14. 15. Solve (x* \ y'*)dx 2xydy = o. Solve the equation ydy\xdx\ \ (Am.  For example. (Ans. 5. 1 311 Prob. & Ky log (y x) ' Afa^/ y x = The equation Mdx f = o can always be solved when . 5. and by means of such a factor integrating factor x y 1 1 + solve the equation 3 y(y f 2x )dx 4 + *(** 2y)</y = o. v =y .Art. when dy t is expressible as a function of . whence y = xv dy = xdv \ the variables x and v (x will be separable.
that is. by properly determining h and {ax' becomes + by')dx' + (a'x' + b b'y')dy'. is when (one of the variables. the origin being the center of similitude.) Prob. The linear equation of the first order A differential equation " said to be " linear may therefore be written in the form . 6. = Cye*y. a homogeneous equation. (Ans. being regarded as independent. r which.) bx . 3^ f. the first [CHAP. Show that a homogeneous differential equation represents a system of similar and similarly situated curves.^. but in this case if we put z = ax f.) Prob. M and N are functions of of the form degree. abx+&y\a\bc=Ce Art. 20. it will Prob. Solve xdy y dx >jx f ^(x* f y*)dx = o. when the equation takes the form {ax { by + )*&" + [w(^^ + ^) + </]d^/ =o . The Linear Equation. y = y becomes f (ax'+ b'y'+ ah + bk+c)dx'+{a'x'+ b'y'+a h+b' k+c')dy' =o k. jj>. a.3)^ =. say x. Solve ($y i)dx j.(jy * (Ans. it o. 17.) y* f. (7 Prob. and its derivatives. Prob. that when it is (ax For.(a! x r + b'y + c')dy = \.) = new variable 2 = xy.k. 19. 18. VII. is. 21. =x r \ h.) it is of the first degree with respect to y.+ 2xy dy = o. assuming + by + c)dx x \. Solve (Ans. and hence that the complete integral may be written in a form homogeneous in x. (Ans. 16.i) 5 i)\y + + xy)ydx + (1 (Ans. y. o. Solve (1 the 2 \ y*)dx . j=ax + by+c. and eliminate be found that the variables x and z can be separated. Solve (x Prob.r o by introducing xy)xdy = = ex. and c. x* =c 2 2 2cy. This method fails when a: = a' : b'.312 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. . * .
. we solve the equation it contains x only. Using this ef pdx y =f/ Qdx + C. efPdx = is whence the exact equation dy v(i xy dx (i mdx ' + **) + o'~(i+*') j . the general solution of equation (i) is factor. Is a linear equation for reduced to the form (i). (3) this in the form u = c. . (4) In a given example the integrating factor should of course be simplified in form (i if possible. = Pdx . therefore. / The . integrating factor is. thus. 313 where P and is Q are functions of x only. whence log^ =c / Pdx or y Putting equation exact equation is Pd = Cef**. will member member +/>which is done by separating the variables dy . whence r * is the integrating factor required. .xy)dx y . Since the second a function of x. Thus + x*)dy = {m\. the corresponding e* *(dy + Pydx) = Pdx o.] THE LINEAR EQUATION. 6. an integrating factor of the first be an integrating factor of the equation provided To find such a factor.Art. it is dy x dx from which i+x^ n x dx \y = m i+x*' i .
or re a quadratic for p. but some function of y.f not forj. First Order and Second Degree. in the solution is usually to solve for p. the first step x. y = x*(i + ***). (Ans. lation is between and p. y takes a form linear for sin the integrating factor and the complete integral sin y =x dy j. In particular. Solve x a dy + (i 2x)y = x\ sin (Ans. found y or _ * . Solve cos x~ \y 1  x ^ = o.* + ce~h>\\ v ' f Art. so that an equation expressing such a value of p. Prob.f i \ ce ~x . VII.) * Prob. 23. Solve = x*y* dx xy. r y = mx + CV(l + x*). like some of those solved in the preceding pages. Solve cos </# ^ f y sin x = 1.. the equation Py = n Qy which . 25. 24.. there DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. (Ans. (Ans. when multiplied by cos is e*. 22. y c cos #.) 1 Prob. first the given differential equation of the order. is known as " the extension of the linear equation. For example. 26.) Prob. jy(sec + tan x) = x + = sin x = x* + 2 \ . = x .) i ^ = xy + y . (Ans. An for equation is sometimes obviously dy y." linear for is readily put in a form j I_n . is [Chap. 5 +^*. The resulting value of / will generally involve an irrational function of x and y. linear. the equation tan y = x sec ^ y . If 7.314 Integrating. y. is not properly to be re . Solve Prob.
first 315 garded as an equation of the case when the expression whose In the exceptional degree. trary namely. in this case.y)(2py . in general. a The equation was. at a selected point in the plane. then supposed single value of p. the equation when solved = 2A*'+f) x y for p gives 2p = . let us take the equation (I) */'=/. that is. The separate equa tions given in the form (2) are merely branches of the same parabola. *y(i+4/) x it y may therefore be written in the form ( 2px . and this equation rationalized (2) becomes {* .Art. either and is satisfied by putting dy y 2x l dy x 2y dx dx x* The integrals of these equations are y* = ex and 2y = C. Recurring tion of the now ential equation.x) = o. a system of parabolas touching each axis is There at the same distance c from the origin. of course. or %= ' Separating the variables and integrating. For example. the equation is decomposable into two equations properly of the first degree.yf  2c(x + y) + = c* o. and these form two entirely equation. x and . first to the geometrical interpretation of a differit was stated that an equa degree determines. (3) thus a single complete integral containing one arbiconstant and representing a single system of curves. as given in Art.] FIRST ORDER and second degree. or 2p = . 7. distinct solutions of the given As an illustration of the general case. 2. for assumed values of y. \/xVy=V~c. root is to be extracted is a perfect square.
b) and (o. {4." f the other hand. [CHAP. p On Thus from equation = J. tion is indeterminate at these points. in the case of an equation of the second degree. the equation being Mdx \.Vy = 3. 1) may move while satisThe curves thus described fying the differential equation. P<* * In fact x + Qc + R = o. however. which passes through it. connection be regarded as an equation of the first to be f In Prob. p was supposed not in this P =s\vr degree. 3. the reI. x and y* The only exceptions occur at points for which the value of p takes the indeterminate form that is. a quadratic for complete integral (3). forming a " pencil of curves. Vx j.316 rational in DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. M. the complete integral should generally give two real values of its c. integral. at points (if any exist) = o and = o. there will in general be two values of p for any given point. repreintersect in real values. . except at such for which no two curves of the system representing the complete points. xy some cases. as the standard form of equation. b)\ accordingly/ in the differential equais In merely a node of one particular integral. and point for % + Mp + N = two o. VII. J> is indeterminate at the origin. a node of the only particular = . while through such points an unlimited num ber of the curves may pass. Lp where L. x would a one. is sents a system of curves of which which p found to have two any given For these points. of x and sult is y be substituted c.valued function of x and y\ thus. (i) above we find for the point there are therefore two directions in which a point starting from the position (4. Art. 1). is 2. N are onevalued functions of x and y. and this point o. and Vx Vy = 1. It follows that. 6. If the same values represent two of the particular integrals.Ndy = o. therefore. and these giving c = 9 and c in the = determine the two particular integral curves. In like manner the general equation which may be written in the form of the second degree. the integral equation represents the pencil of circles pass ing through the points (o. M N integral intersect. Accordingly we may assume. such a point Thus in the illustration given in Art.
y. 28. they will also make p imaginary make c imaginary in in the integral.] SINGULAR SOLUTIONS. let us take the is system of straight lines whose equation y where = cx + ". and If R are also onevalued functions of x and there are points which equation. (S) . . The equation passing through of the envelope is A therefore a solution of the equation. <rV v %cx0 = i. (l> differential equation c is the arbitrary parameter. sometimes is A differential admits of what is equation not of the first degree " " called a singular solution that . (Ans. the differential where P> Q. the lines represented by equation values of c% are the tangents to the parabola Now for different / = 4**. 29.ART. 8. has the same values of x.) Art. For that the system of curves representing the complete suppose Every point A of this envelope with a particular curve of the complete inis a point of contact therefore a point moving in the envelope when tegral system integral has an envelope. i)p* = i. and / as if it were moving through A in the particular integral curve. As an illustration. (i). (y 2 +y = i and reduce the inte j cos x)c* 2c sin x f y cos x = o. (Ans. Hence such a point satisfies the differential equation and will continue to satisfy it as long as it moves in the envelope. Prob. 27. to say. P of (2> which therefore (i) is the complete integral. derived from this primitive is The *=/*+. Singular Solutions. and show that the intersect2xp y ing curves at any given point cut at right angles. 317 y.) Prob. Solve yp o. Prob. Solve the equation p* gral to the standard form. Solve (x* + + 8. a solution which is not included in the complete integral.
(5) which is the " discrimi" of equation (4). (3) will and accordingly equation be found to satisfy the be noticed that for differential equation (2). equal to zero. does not follow that every such equation represents a soluIt can only be inferred that tion of the differential equation. An discriminant." but does not satisfy the differential equation. relation between x and In general. become equal. as will be regarded seen on solving that equation. It will any point on the convex side of the parabola there are two real values of p for a point on the other side the values of p are . its equation will be found by putting the discriminant of The first member of this equation. the condition of equal roots 1 (4) is M \LN = o. [Chap. usually distinct. a locus of points for which the two values of / become Now suppose that two distinct particular integral equal. imaginary. The locus of such " Its equation plainly satisfies the points is called a taclocus. illustration is afforded by the equation . the two it is values of/. frequently admits of separation into nant factors rational in x and y. the differential equation. curves touch each other. Thus its equation (3) expresses the y which must exist in order that (2) as a quadratic for p may have equal roots. and for a point on the curve they are equal.318 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. or one of It its factors. At the point of contact. if there be a singular solution. VII. writing the differential equation in the form Lf + Mp + N = o. Hence. A point moving in this parabola has the same value of/ as if it were moving in one of the tangents.
* Prob.ART. but not to the In that case. boundary. . and it changes sign as we cross the But the envelope. while a constitute the envelope. N= to should be identical. while y = o does not. y = and y The complete integral represents a with center on the axis of x. is 319 of which the complete integral discriminant. To what ? curve is the line y = mx f* a /(i w 3 a always tangent Prob. and therefore its equation does not satisfy the differential equation. # 2 s= o. 30. in this case all circles of radius Two of these circles touch at every point of the axis of x. Accordingly the factor which indicates a taclocus appears with an even exponent (as y in the example above). its discriminant representing a cusplocus except when a certain condition is fulfilled. * Since there (Ans. whereas the factor indicating the singular solution appears as a simple factor. or one with an odd ex ponent. / remain real as we cross the taclocus. jp x* =a ) . gives in fact always the boundary between a region of the plane in which/ is real and one in which/ is imaginary For the two nevertheless it may not give a singular solution. 31. A simple factor of the discriminant.] SINGULAR SOLUTIONS. become tangent to each other. they become branches of the same particular gral forming a cusp. as the point is brought up to the boundary. and the y*(y a. so that the 1 discriminant cannot change sign. since they cannot cross the boundary curve. This is satisfied by y = a.) Show is that the discriminant of a decomposable differ no reason why the values of/ referred we o has not in general a singular conclude that the equation Lp* f. " called a " cusplocus is of inteis . or with an odd exponent. the first two of which satisfy the differential equation. y a and y = = The discriminant is the quantity which appears under the radical sign therefore values of when the general equation (4) is solved for/. 8. arcs of particular integral curves which intersect in a point on the real side of the boundary may. boundary curve of this character the value of p for a point moving in A it course different from the equal values of/ at the cusp. is y* t f (x cf ) = a*. = o. see equation (5). .Mp fsolution. which is thus a taclocus.
32. At any point of it there . must not be For ex ample. Every point on the entherefore satisfies the condition of equal roots for equavelope point is tion (1). Q. y 4 ax which 1 y equated to zero straight lines. Art. 9. the two curves which usually intersect become identical when the given moved up to the envelope. x2 2cy\. Singular Solution from Complete Integral. 8. Art. If there is a singular solution. Show that the equation/* + 2Xp y=o has no sin gular solution. and that the tangent at every cusp passes through the origin. 7.ac* =o 2yp . 33. it ential equation cannot be negative. the substitution of special values of x and y in the functions P. if the system of curves has an envelope. The locus on which this factor vanishes is not a curve in crossing which c and / become imaginary.320 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS." namely. singular solution y* = ax"*.. (2> and. Thus " the discriminant of equation (1). Prob. the complete integral of a differential equation of the second degree has been found in the standard form When PS+Qc + R = o R (!) (see the end of Art. Solve the equation xp* (Ans. VII. which is ff. it inferred that every factor gives a singular solution." is the same as the "/discriminant. suppose a squared factor appears in the ^discriminant. 8.} Prob. that is. but has a cusplocus. Show that the singular solutions of a homogeneous differential equation represent straight lines passing through the origin. Interpret the result of equating to zero in the illustrative example at the beginning of Art. + ax o. or ^discriminant. and gives a quadratic for c whose roots determine the two particular curves of the system which pass through a given point. 7). reasoning exactly as in Art.. is the equation of the envelope of the system of But. Prob. 34. as in the case of the /discriminant.4 P = o. we infer that the equation of the singular solution will be found by equating to zero the discriminant of the equation in c or one of its factors. [CHAP.
VI. . or " locus of the ultimate intersections envelope of curves in which c is the arbitrary parameter. first the point (which mine f. 10. 1. p. since there is but one value of c. senting Again. as shown at the end of Art. just as that representing a taclocus does not appear in the ^discriminant. the derived equation. The locus it is therefore called a " nodelocus. . and that ultimately they coincide with the node. 33^ Sec also a paper by Dr.Art. when the coefficients of the /equation Cwhich of the nth degreed vanish. ticular integral. so* conclusions established above obviously apply also ta equations of a degree higher than the second.. p. that a cusplocus also makes the ^discriminant vanish. but. the th degree. 529). which accounts for the nodelocus appearing twice in the dis criminant or locus of ultimate intersections. suppose the system of curves to have for all values of c* a double point. will 9. In the case of The the ^equation the general method of obtaining the condition for equal roots. (Collected Mathematical Works. 32f be two distinct values of p.] singular solution from complete integral. New Series. the two branches of particular integrals become arcs of the same particular integral the values of c become equal. XII. 7 that for an equation of the degree p takes the indeterminate form. and there* fore there are n j." The factor repre does not appear in the /discriminant.1 distinct values of p at the point. It is noticed in the second footnote to Art. which is to eliminate c between the original and is the same as the process of finding the " of a system. p. that is to say. p. corresponding to arcs of par ticular integral curves passing through that point . it is obvious that among the intersections of Now two neighboring curves there are two in the neighborhood of the nodes. Glaisher.. Vol. if there is a node for a particular value of c. VIII. not only at a point through which all curves of the system pass (where the value of c would also be found indeterSo also when the equation is of minate). The present its tions was established by Cayley in this paper and continuation. Vol. Vol. is which can only happen all : when p takes the indeterminate form. See Cayley on Singular Sotneory of Singular Solu lutions in the "Messenger of Mathematics.1 is not on a nodelocus where two values of c are equal) deterarcs of particular integrals passing through the point. at any point of a cusplocus. 8. * In like manner. Vol. hence the point these arcs belong to the same paris a double point or node. but at a node of a particular integral. the n values of c at. II.
therefore a cusplocus 'will appear as a cubed factor in the discriminant. 2 2 an imaginary singular solution. and show that there is a singular solution and a tacfocus.^V = o has not in general a singular solution.2cx{$y* o. Messenger of Mathematics. 37.* Prob. For example. p. it may be regarded as an equation of the first order for the variables x and/. y and c which constitutes the complete integral. New in general VI. 39. Solution by Differentiation.Series. Show equation must be straight Prob. Compare the footnote to Art. and R are onevalued functions of x and y. * The discriminant of Pc* (1) + Qc f R=o represents in general an envelope. Vol. f f.valued functions of x fore. an equation of the second order. an integral of the above form in which P. but. o examine and interpret both Prob. Prob. is TChap. 3/V j 2xjp + 4/ y x" = o. Solve is that the singular solutions of a homogeneous lines passing through the origin. VII* a cusp for all values of c. Cayley. although Ip* j. M. Show that the equation (1 a system of conies touching the four sides of a square.) x )p' 1 Prob.) . 36. Q. and is N and y) has not . = = Art. . Therefore where an integral of this form there is generally a singular solution. Solve yp* 2Xp = o.322 if DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. no further condition requiring to be fulfilled as in the case of the discriminant f of Lp*1 there Mp f N= o. that The the first result of differentiating a given differential equation of order is is. = y 2 represents discriminants. 23. 35. that this equation (in which Z. y 1 = 2cx f c 2 . 38. and show that there (Ans. 8. Solve yp* \xp \y 3 2 8* ) $x y* \y* (Ans. We conclude. it contains the derivative d %y *? .Mp J. 10. and a constant of integration c. If the integral of such an equation can be obtained it will be a relation between x. if it does not contain y ex plicitly. there are three intersections of neighboring curves (all of which may be real) which ultithere mately coincide with the cusp. thus giving the relation between x. thereare one. by means of which p can be eliminated from f the original equation. p. the equation j+ **=*+/.
may be impracticable. so that an expression for x in terms of p can be found. In particular. becomes y whence by = x + ltf. a homogeneous equation which cannot be solved for p may be soluble for the ratio y x.e" Substituting in equation (2). c we . although the elimination of p terms of p. 10. so as to assume : the form y = x<p(p). the result of differentiation will be a linear equation for x as a function of p. the complete integral of equation This method sometimes succeeds with equations of a higher degree when the solution with respect to p is impossible or differential leads to a form which cannot be integrated. 323 when solved forjy.C . Another special case is of the form (1) y = P*+AP). is vp. equation between p and one of the two variables will be ob A tained by direct integration when only one of the variables is explicitly present in the equation.] SOLUTION BY DIFFERENTIATION. find y which is x ~\ 6+> _ w q e (1). any number of simultaneous values of x and y can be found. I (2) differentiation +^Iand  (3) its inte The gral variables can be separated in this equation. in this case. The result of differentiation is p=<t>{p)+x<p\pf> in which the variables x and p can be separated. . and then by substitution in the given equation an expression for y in Hence. and also when the equation In the latter is of the first degree with respect to x and y. case after dividing by the coefficient of y.Art.
for The second is is a. is [Chaf. A differential equation is sometimes reducible to Clairaut's less form by means variables. Prob. 41. 8. condition of equal roots. 40.all tangent. It of a more or obvious transformation of the that an equation of may be noticed in particular the form y is = . nxp + 00. Solve 2V (Ans. find a singular (x\c)*. 9. 3 \2acxy f 8ry \2x1y l + i6ax* = o. (x\y = i)* Prob. the singular solution representing the curve to which they are An example has already been given in Art. and V P find a cusplocus. which known is as Clairaut's equation. by transformation to the new dependent variable v of A the form indicated when the last term is a function of both 7>V may x and jj/as well succeed as of p.VII. /) sometimes so reducible by transformation to the independent n and an equation of the form variable z. where x = z y double transformation = nxp+<t>{y>P)y = yn . . = xp a \ . p its integral p = c. Solve the equation solution and a cusplocus. trary constant. The first elimination of / from equation (i) by means of the of these equations * gives a solution containing no arbiis.324 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. The result of differ entiation which implies either * +f'(p) =o. equation (i) equation gives the complete integral . that differential a singular solution.) * The equation is in fact the same that arises in the general method for the See Art. or dp =0.) (Ans. which in y = c*+A<) (2) This complete integral represents a system of straight lines. = % *P + j 2 3/ c . .
The +/ = #y \ = o. which. 2jy = 4X* andjy = o are singulai (Ans. the mem The eral solution of a question of this nature will thus in gen be a system of curves. its # a .AKT. f ex 1 + c\) Art. that angle. the complete integral of a differential equation.y = (Ans. ^ = o. 45. Solve x\y px) =yp\ (Ans.] GEOMETRIC APPLICATIONS a*)/? 2xyp 1 circle x . and the curve required is the singular solution. the expression of the property in polar coordinates is = tan nd. Geometric Applications of a curve . if we express the property that the sum of the intercepts on the axes made by the tangent to a curve is equal to the constant a. y = o f is Prob. 43. the straight lines making such intercepts will themselves consti tute the complete integral system. and 1 + ^x*y = o.) Prob. dr Separating integral is the variables and rn in integrating. let it be required to determine the curve in which the angle between the radius vector and the tangent is n times* the vectorial Using the expression for the trigonometric tangent of angle. TRAJECTORIES. Solve (x* (Ans. Solve . y* a* 325 Prob. The solution of such an equation therefore determines the curve having the given property. Thus. in accordance with Art. 11.) solutions. s xp <: V + x*p* J . 42. the complete = cn sin nd. but it may be a singular solution. 7 also a particular integral. Trajectories. 44. is The mode which the constant of integration enters here shared by all shows that the property in question bers of a system of similar curves. is the . Every property its which involves the direction of tangents admits of statement in the form of a differential equation. 11. Solve / 8y* = o. and tangents. 4#>p = c(x c)*. Thus. 8.) Prob.
envelope of these to be the parabola The result in this case will be found Vx + Vy = Va. Prob. 49. Prob. lines. let it be required to determine the orthogonal trajectories of the system of parabolas having a common axis and vertex. will constitute a cusp locus of the other. Examine the cases n = 1. but will be identical it differential equation of a system discriminant and that of its trajectory if it represents a singular solution in one system. Putting in place of ~. system of the second degree. integrating. the differential equation of dy the system of trajectories is dx 2xdx \ydy whence. = o. and n J. application is the determination of the "orthogonal trajectories" of a given system of curves. is Show that when the its .) equal to a. Prob. Show that the orthogonal trajectories of a system of . fore only to substitute p~ for / to obtain the differential its l We equation of the trajectory. 48.326 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. VII. Determine the curve whose subtangent is constant and (Ans. n = 2. the curves which cut at right angles everyvcurve of the An important given system. = c\ system of similar ellipses 2x*+y* The trajectories are therefore a with axes coinciding with the coordinate axes. r M Show that the orthogonal trajectories of the curves =c n sinnB are the same system turned through the angle about the pole. Prob. The is differential equation of the system found by eliminating a 2 xdy = y dx. 47. 46. ce*=y. For example. The differential equation of the trajectory is for at every readily derived from that of the gfven system of the trajectory the value of pis the negative reciprocal point . [CHAP. that is to say. of have therevalue in the given differential equation.
and its integral is bles^/ z = a. Determine the curve such that the area inclosed by any two ordinates. the curve and the axis of x.] simultaneous differential equations. y> z> etc. so that. onal. F. giving a reordinary differential equation . may enable us by elimina tion to obtain another equation containing and so on integral two variables only. Simultaneous Differential Equations. 50. the others vary in a determinate manner.Art. taking any one of the variables as independent. the system may be written in the symmetrical form dx where X. If any one tials X~Y~~Z~ Z . having a common Prob. 12. . it is an and its integral. 12. y* (2) 1 dx and dy Employing this to eliminate z from the it becomes dx _ dy relation between . The catenary^ c= \a{e a is Show that a system of confocal conies selforthog Art. Interpret the singular solution.1 variables and their differentials is a "determinate" differential system. is 3*2? circles passing another system of circles. z y >'* relation between dy and dz above contains the variaand z only.) (Ans. _dy dz _ ' . . 51.. of n equations A system between n f.  e a ). through two given points radical axis. and may be regarded as functions of the single independent variable. because it serves to determine the'/z ratios of the differentials. lation between these two until n variables. for example. the system dx x The " _dy ' dz ' . is equal to the product of the arc and the constant line a. _ ~~ Given. may be any functions of the variables. Denoting the variables by x. of the several equations involving two differencontains only the two corresponding variables. equations have been obtained. Prob.
328 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.(/ The + a) = bx. and (3) (3). it will describe in general a curve of double curvature which will represent a particular solution. determines the direction in space in which moves. constitute the complete solution.* Each . 2 presents itself. y.y.surfaces of the relations between x. and the system is a nonintersecting system of lines. in contradistinction to an " integral equa *lt S)l x. y and z. Let x. and if we suppose as to continue to satisfy the differential P equations. the given system of equations. and z be rectangular coordinates of starts from any given Preferred to three planes. ot which the yY V . and Zare onevalued functions and There then but one direction in which P can move when ^passing a given point. This system is a " doubly infinite " one for the two relations . an the geometrical interpretation given in Art. and there would be a theory of singular solutions. V. As moves. integral is [CHAP. is called an integral of the An ^differential system. the lines may form an intersecting sys tem. It is in like manner obvious that the complete solution of a system of n equations should contain n arbitrary constants. if P position A. the intersection of the two being a particular line of the doubly infinite system. into which we do not Jiere enter. or integral equa tions. Then. is assumed z.. VII. y. determining the ratios dx: dy\ dz. integral equations (2) of integration. But [if this "is not the case. represents by itself a surface. . between x. the ratios of the differentials (as deter P P mined by the given equations) to move in such a way will vary. The complete solution is represented by the system of lines which may be thus obtained by varying the position of the initial point A. and z which define it analytically must contain two arbitrary parameters. equation like (2) in the example above. by properly determining which we can make the line pass through any assumed initial point. in the explanation that is X. as for example when one of the equations giving the ratio of the differentials is of higher degree. involving two constants Confining ourselves extension of now to the case of three variables. which contains only one of the constants of integration.
passes through an lines.ART. this case the doubly infinite system of lines consists of hyperbolas. _dy ~~ _ _dz ' ' dy ' ' z y + dz +z y z is _du u 9 in which a new variable u =y \ introduced. tion 12.jxdy vdz_ 3T~~ Y~~~Z~~ XX+pY+vZ' if + we take multipliers A. first If the expression in the member is an exact differential. together with is the required integral of the system the integral (2). It might also be derived directly from equation (1) . namely. The thus we may write dx x tion between its integral. The rela dx and du now contains but two variables. A system tain of equations of symmetry may Since which the members possess a cersometimes be solved in the following manner. . v such that we shall have XX+ M Y+vZ = o. the sections of the system of hyperbolic cylinders represented by (2) made by the system of planes represented by (4). dx _ dy _dz _ \dx f. while b which may have any value whatever in other words. and (4) y+z = bx. 329 integral " like (3). which contains both constants. lie all . infinite number of the particular solution integral of the system which corresponds to the conb might be found by eliminating a between equations (2) stant and (3). //. a surface which infinite system. and this. .] SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. presents the solution of equations (1) in its The form of the two integrals shows that in standard form. An represents a surface which contains a singly infinite system of lines representing particular solutions selected from the doubly Thus equation (2) above gives a surface on those lines for which a has a given value. hdx + pdy + vdz = o.
let the given equations be dx dy dz Iz mz /. and so also do x. = dz 7 rr . The doubly infinite system constitute the complete solution. y and also + mdy + ndz = o. r . x*\y* \z' =bz. . and interpret the result geometrically. VII. the highest derivative that occurs. \y (Ans. 54. +y + z)== dy r A. dx  y +z dx = z dy \ f x tf(x = dz x . Hence we have Idx m set of multipliers.330 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. ny nx ly mx ' and n form such a and z. x' (b \c +/ + z* = A. m . n. dx x = dy = dz y z 2xy 2xz i .) _ _ Prob.) _ Prob. and their integrals Ix f my \ nz a and *+/+**= namely. 52. [CHAP. Each of these is ar\ sxact equation. Solve the equations 5 ~ . y and . direct integration gives an integral of the given system. ~ . ax* f bf + cz* = a)zx (a b)xy . A relation tives of between two variables and the successive deriva one of them with respect to the other as independent variable is called a differential equation of the order indicated For example. y=az. For example. c)yz (Ans.) Art. xdx + y dy z dz = f o. (Ans. this case of circles which have a common of lines consists in axis. Solve D^ . r = . Solve . in which x is the independent . the line passing through the origin and whose /. by is an equation of the second order. direction cosines are proportional to Prob. Equations of the Second Order. 13. 53.
we have introduced two constants of integration. whose the "equation of energy" for JV = / f(s)ds f.c. + */+w* = and this. the first of the pair of equations involves only the two variables x and/ . It upon the may be written dv at = f[s). The general equation of rectilinear motion dynamics affords an illustration.ART. tain as in this example. it is a linear equation for/.) derivative by/. in Eliminat connection with dt = v.mx + c in log [x + y(i + x')l is (4) which.] EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND ORDER. this (I+ * i. Integrating equation (i) as such. The substitution of the value found for v in the . in ' (I> connection with which defines /. Thus any equation of the second order is equivalent to a pair of simultaneous equations of the first order. An equation of the first order readily obtained also in when the independent variable is not explicitly contained the equation. When. we find p = >* and then using this value \ v{1 in \^ (2). forms a pair of equations of the first order. integral is we have vdv=f(s)ds. where force s denotes the distance measured from a fixed center of line of motion. in This equation d*s is =/(j). and it is further to be noticed that. Denoting as heretofore the equation may be written . and /. the given equation does not con y explicitly. first 331 variable. first when the derivatives occur only in the degree. which defines the velocity. the unit mass. ing dt from these equations. connecting the variables x. as in every case of two simultaneous equations of the first order. y. its (3> of/ x equation integral is y = c. 13.
Now subtract from the given expression the complete derivax*)p. we find the complete integral y Prob. t is [CHAP. " is also the " com plete integral of the given equation. y and/. For example. is an exact differ and {i*^ + *y = c is l (6) the first integral of the given equation. integration. Solving this linear equation for y. a "first integral" of the given equation of the second it contains one constant of integration. let it be required to ascertain whether <>. ax \. is all its is when. tive of (1 which is ' 2 (ix*)^2x dy (I X) dx> *dx> the remainder that of xy. in such an exact differential. second equation gives an equation from which terms of s by direct integration. Hence the given expression is xf which is an exact derivative. which contains a second constant. y = (sin f c x sin" 1 x f cv ) . arise question are (1 x*) ax 2 . (7) = Solve(i^)g^ 2. It is obvious that the terms containing the second derivative. arise solely from the differentiation of the terms containing/ in the function of x. = Cl X + C^(l X^). namely. " exact " order.55. terms being transposed to the first member. A differential equation of the second order a function of x. that member the derivative with respect to x of an expression of the first is.y. that y and p. found in The order is called . 1 x)* (Ans.4+'= The terms in is an exact equation. and its complete result of the first integral. which can only from the differentiation of (1 x )p. VII. such as equation (3) above. ential.332 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
3. x . first obtaining. p and q {q denoting the second derivative). We tween tion have seen integral of x. a y = \ +^ 3 .Art. 14.p and c and then in like manner eliminating . of which the original equation is the complete primitive. arbitrary. infinite Geometrically the complete integral represents a doubly system of curves. 57. the constant of integration. the first integral containing c x is the differential equa tion of this system. to a given form of first the primitive or complete integral there corresponds two integrals. is a relation between the coordinates of a moving point and the direction of its motion common to all the curves of the system. Thus. 58. 333 Prob. Solve Prob. y. tive a relation between p and which will also be a first integral of the differential equation. in like x. / = * + ** + <V> Art. It obtain from the primimanner. a relation between x. Solve y? + (g)" =1. we regard cx as fixed and <r3 as select from that system a certain singly infinite If we system . as in Art. at (Ans. The result f is the equa tion of the second order or relation between x y. y. (Ans. as explained in Art.) =a 2 * 2 j. The Two First Integrals. say c^ that is. * Py =A sin bx {2 B cos Ar.] THE TWO FIRST INTEGRALS. the equation of the first order being the is first integral in which ct is obvious that we can. any relax . which. a differential equation of the first order independent of one of the constants. cq . 56. obtained by varying the values of c t and of 3 independently. y in the preceding article that the complete an equation of the second order is a relation beand two constants c and c % Conversely. 2. c t from the derivative of this equation. Solve g=& ~ . y and two arbitrary constants may as a primitive. But .) Prob. from which a differential equation free be regarded from both The process consists in arbitrary constants can be obtained. 14. (aus. between x.
1. provided its has the proper curvature as determined by the value of q path derived from the equation. it represents a system of singular solutions. which may be found to satisfy the given equation. when the selected values of x> y have any position and move and/ have been substituted therein.. [Chap. and this property being independent of cx is common to all is. for first it integral is not generally a solution of the given differential equarepresents a curve which simply touches but does not osculate a set of curves belonging to the doubly infinite system. the systems corre sponding infinite to different values of cv that to the entire this doubly system. at each of its points. the equation of the second order. y and/.* (7) For example. cutting the axis of y in and touching the lines points x= The corresponding differential equation will be found to be (y. satisfying equation. center at the origin and touching as in the diagram c x is the ordinate of the . may in any direction. manner. VII.334 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. if c^ is fixed and c 1 arbitrary. not only touches but osculates It is to be remembered that a singular soluwith a particular integral curve. 1. equation sents an ellipse having its of the preceding article repre the lines x = 1. the equation of the second order expresses a property involving curvature as well as direction of path. f Including hyperbolas corresponding to imaginary values of c%. the equation represents the system of ellipses (6) is touching the two lines at fixed points. the condition for equal roots a relation between x. and touching the fixed lines x [(5) of the preceding article] is = * If the equation is is of the second or higher degree in q. and c 2 that of the point in point of contact with x If we regard c as fixed the ellipse cuts the axis of y. A moving point. Finally. y = which and <r 2 as arbitrary. independent of c x and the equation of the 2 doubly infinite system of conies f with center at the origin. . If it does. equation (7) represents a system of ellipses fixed 1. each of the curves of this system.Xp)V{lX*)=C. and equation differential equation like the In of this system. tion of a tion.
first integral . by an integrating factor. in which c s is a new constant first of integration. 10 to the * The principle of this method has already been applied solution of certain equations of the first order. giving the first integral (1 *v +/ = integrals '. p) <J>(x. then finding another and deriving the complete integral by elimination of p. that y. put in the constant will disappear on differentiation. the elimination of p between them gives the complete integral without further integration.c*. in general. as illustrated in Prob. 13] / which is is xy + f. the form is. and the result will be the given equation of second order multiplied. so that of ellipse inscribed the differential equation of the system in the rectangle drawn in the diagram. For instance. A comparison a of the two forms of the complete integral shows is that the relation between the constants If first ct % = c* \. and these may suggest the integrating factors of more general equations. equation and the is first inte gral containing [equation 2c x Art.V = c? c* t obvious from the therefore another form of the complete integral.* Thus the result of eliminating / between cx this last (6). in Art. It first integral above that c 2 is the maximum it is value of y. can integral be solved for the constant. starting from the differential equation of second order. 14.Art. if equation (5) be multiplied by/. = c. 335 we But. the process consisted of forming the equation of the second order of which the given equation is a first integral {but with a particular value of the constant). We thus find any number of integrating factors of an equation already solved. may find other first integrals than those above which correto c 1 spond and c^. Whenever two have thus been found inde pendently.] THE TWO FIRST INTEGRALS. it becomes which is also an exact equation.*. 59 below.
(An. . Xdx). + (y](. that is. Solve the equation 5 + <?y = o in the form B sin ax. . (Ans. an equation of the form the A linear differential equation where the coefficients P . 6. ay = sin ax I cos ax . of any order is an equation of first degree with respect to the dependent variable y and each of its derivatives. 59. Find the rectangular and also the polar differential equation of all circles passing through the origin. For orders higher than the first The the general expression for the integrals cannot be effected integral by means of the ordinary functional symbols and the sign. + ) Linear Equations.336 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.(^ +/ )g= Art. it is customary to speak of the function yl% rather than of the equation y y as an "integral" of the linear equaK . The solution of equation (1) depends upon that of dnv dn ~^v . also inte y =A cos ax f and show that the corresponding integrating factors are grating factors of the equation where X is any function of x. as was done for the first order in Art. Prob. l equation. general solution of the linear equation of the first order has been given in Art. 60. ji [CHAP.. . Xdx cos ax I sin ax . and thence derive the integral of this equation. Prob.f(x) and if y is a function which satisfies the . 6. The in the form solution of a linear equation is always supposed to be y z=. tion. VII.4 an d . Pn and the second member X are functions of the independent variable only. 2 I [ 15.
" and u is The particular integral called "the complementary function. of these results will be X." contains no arbitrary constant. if y is an integral. a particular integral of of equation (3).Art. .] linear equations. For let y be the known term then. y%i . if y = y v x . sult of putting y = cj x in equation times the result of l 1 2 a . the re y = y that is. and denote by u the second member the complete integral which is when X= If y=Y+u be substituted in (4) equation (1). j/ is an integral and obviously also c y + j/ is an integral. and cx an arbitrary constant (2) is c x . So too. if n distinct integrals y n can be found. With reference to Y is called " the particular integral. If one term of the complementary function of a linear equation of the second order be known. as it does. and v being absent. 337 integral of this equation will contain n arbiconstants. now equation (1). . Under .y + + cn y n y=cy + (3) putting x \ . the result will be a linear equa: tion of the first order for v'. because Fis an integral of equation (1). the coefficient of v in the result will be the same as if v were a constant it will therefore be zero. Consider it. the first derivative c*f v. containing. let Fbe o. . and the second will be zero because u is an integral of equation (2). it since is Hence equation (4) expresses an integral of (1). x x w % . Thus. x x 3 x . will be the complete integral. . it this equation the complete integral of equation (1). and. the result will be the of putting sum the of the first results of putting y= Fand y=u . will satisfy the equation. 15. the proper number of constants. it is zero therefore c y is an integral. x be substituted in the first member. The complete For let y x be an integral. the complete solution can be found. and any two particular integrals may differ by any multiple of a term belonging to the comple mentary function. and the mode in which these enter the exprestrary sion for y is readily inferred from the form of the equation. and contains the n arbitrary constants of equation (3).
Solve (* 5 (Ans. and indicating derivatives by accents.) x)jr$ + 2(2* i)~ f = o. x Prob. The second term of the integral must (P is exact. 72 a y cj? + c (x f f \. form . y = e~ sin 6 \cfi + c% )d0 + ~ c% e \\ Art.. z noticing that e* $x* f 6x 2y 3 is an integral. the operator is 3. Solve dy + x)j f 3V = 2 7 o. (x i) y = c.P" = o ' t the criterion for the exactness of the result obviously given equation. for example.. etc. . the equation of the second order. Prob.) Prob. AJPy + AJXr y + in +A y = n o. The linear equation with member zero may be written x constant coefficients and second in the . it is evident that if . wV". (1) which n D stands for = . [CHAP. 61. Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients. (Pt P/ \ P ")y. Taking. Then. the first t + therefore be {P x P ')y is . 16. D* for r%. VII. subtracting the derivative of this ex pression. very simple relation exists between the coefficients of an exact linear equation. etc.S + PJ+P y = x t term of the integral will be P y' Subtracting the derivative of this from the first member.6. the remainder. 62. if A P. Solve^3 ( Ans. 63. + cos fe sin 2 #^ y ~ cos sin9 = Sm sin 26. A similar x d^y (3 extends to equa tions of higher orders. the remainder is P ')y' Pt y. must vanish.(x* 6x* f 2X 2 sin $ B^ 4X log x) cjc*. 9 Hence P % P f.338 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. the same circumstances the order of any linear equation can in like manner be reduced by unity. so that D indicates that the operator 2 mx e memx since Demx D = to be applied n times. f (Ans.
say to of the equations (6) number of integrals become we must mlt two and to obtain the full identical. mx e an integral of equation (2).+ equation . 1 ..m".(> m n )y = o. {m and. . . . + cn e mn *.] LINEAR EQUATIONS. (7) words. . . (2) Hence. if the given equation is (Py dy the equation to determine m x is m? of which the roots are is m m = 3JC 2 2. the result after rejecting A (1) w" + A. mn are n distinct roots of equation the complete integral of equation (1) will be 3= c x W+ cj** + .ART. by the separate terms of the complete integral. (6) to say. (D m )y = o n . If two of the roots of equation (2) are equal. . CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS. m = 9 a **. . the complete integral of this equation of which is y x := em x i known. 16.m Yy = o integral. ) (4) so the symbolic equation f{D) . and . m n = o. to be one For this purpose we . = c^ f J general equation (1) in form f(D) . therefore the in tegral y The tion. (3) For example. +A = n is o. .. . (B m^)y =o . .y = o. equation is which may be written in the symbolic denotes a rational integral funcf{m) Then equation (m (2) is = o. in 339 y be substituted the factor emx will be e mx equation 1 (i). . This form of the equation shows that it is satisfied by each of the quantities which satisfy the separate equations (D that is m^)y = 0. the equation (D in other .y = o m. = o. find two terms corresponding to x . w y 3 .) may be written (5) (D m )(D t . if m if satisfies (2). just as this last equivalent to m^(m m t) .
we have ^X=e'fe**Xdx as the value of the inverse symbol whose meaning is (13) "that .c x that of equation (7) %). The pair of terms corresponding to a pair of imaginaryroots. or (D . in a similar manner. the particular integral can also to depend upon the solution of linear equations of the second is In accordance with the symbolic notation introduced above. t and imaginary parts of e# x and Separating changing the constants. dy j^ is ay X. evident that. take the imaginary form s f Ci gi*+iP)x _j_ c ^mx t**(c/t* + c e#*).Dv) therefore tiation. (8) we find {D m m^fe ^v = e m xD v. of which the is complete integral v = c.ifi. solving equation (12). so that.x \c hence y = e^x {c x\. = a\.a)y = X (12) denoted by y = (D a)~*X. (D In like manner tn x )e**v = e m *Dv. VII. the three terms corresponding to a case of three equal roots can be shown to It is be ^(c^x + cjc j. and cos fix\B sin fix). [CHAP.340 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. (10) These are therefore the two terms corresponding to the squared factor (D mY x 1 in f(D)y = o. v. y Dem xv e m x {m x v f. D'v = o.c ) and so on. When be made the first coefficients member of the equation with constant a function of X. say **. t put. l ^ (9) Thus equation (7) is is transformed to 2 . as explained in the preceding article. Dy = ^ = =y By differen ^ . mt ~ a ifi. the expression becomes the real e ax (A ***. (11) B For a multiple pair of imaginary roots the constants A and must be replaced by polynomials as above shown in the case of real roots. the solution of the equation order.
In like manner. a When X is power of x the particular integral may be found as follows. with the notation employed above. First Series. II. 16. the pardenoted by the inverse symbol TfpfX..+(Dm M is ) if are commutative. This general solution was published by Boole in It had. hence the process of verification the same as the equation were an algebraic identity. Journal. it gives function of x which X D the particular integral of equation ticular integral of f{D)y = X is (12). 1837. vol. p.. 341 is converted to by the direct operation a" Taking the most convenient the symbol expressed by special value of the indefinite integral in equation (13). if x* the integrals in the general solution. CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS. 114. more expeditiously than by the evaluation of For example. thus : X _ _ ~ y ~ D*D2 X a__I 2 I I a i+KZJJT) * The validity of this equation depends upon the fact that the operations in the second member of expressed f{D) = (D  mi )(D m. been previously published by Lobatto. however. Amster dam. the particular integral in this example may be evaluated by development of the inverse symbol. the symbolic may be decomposed into partial fractions with constant : numerators thus in f(D) which each term regarded TTF^X = D n 1 N ' n m X+ D ' l N X + m^ a ' . .) + . .\e~*fXdx. the Cambridge Math.ART. the complete solution of the equation 3* y is thus found to be = \#*fe**Xdx . and may be ary (by virtue of the constant involved in the indefinite integral) as containing function. one term of the complementFor example. . N + ft^X* (14) ^' D m ' x n is to be evaluated by equation (13).] LINEAR EQUATIONS. Theorie des Characteristiques. fraction Now.
Art. or The Hence is i)(m f. VII.342 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. the factor x y=zx out from the result.+ etc.3. and the n roots of this equation will in general determine the For example. 14. (Ans. Prob. y =A 17. this equation y = cx+ x V are m = x a I /# 3 2. Homogeneous Linear Equations.) Prob." It bears the same relation to x that mx the equation with constant coefficients does to e Thus.. are constants. if in the n terms of the complete integral. m ous linear equation. 2y =o 1) f we put y (m = xm y the result is m(m 2m and 2 = = 0. 59. y = e*x (Ax + JB) + ce~x . A ^"& ++^y = is o. Solve dy 3 dy 4^3 3^+J=o. [CHAP. Equation (1) might in fact have been reduced to the form with constant coefficients by changing the independent vari . in this case. (1) in which A A x% . giving an equation for determining . if m will divide m be substituted in this equation./. that. (Compare Prob. it is only necessary to carry the development as far as the term contain The form of the operand shows ing D\ X For other symbolic methods applicable to special forms of we must refer to the standard treatises on this subject. sin (ax + 2x f ft). Solve 2 (Z> + )y = e* + sin 1 f y^ sin (ax + ft) = jA^. called the "homogene. sin x. \x cos #.2) roots of = o. x + B cos x i<^ \ sin 2. equation u d*y x*4 ax dy + 2Xfdx . the complete integral. D Show that 7n^e AD) ax = ^\** /(a) and that Prob.64.) Art.. 65. 66. The linear differential equation AX  "S.) sin (Ans.
343 able to where x =e e . are (J3 xa [A log x) \ B sin [ft log x)\ (3) the two classes of linear equations considered in this and the preceding article is more clearly The analogy between when a . " commu tative. or  i)(S + 2)y = m. or 6 = log x.a)y = X. 2)7 which is (x D*\2x>2]/ o = 0. We have. on the contrary. solving the equation xdy dx ay = X. in We may therefore at the preceding article that the terms corresponding to a pair of equal roots are of the once infer from the results established form (cx + c% log x)x m y (2) and also that the terms corresponding to a pair of imaginary cos roots.] homogeneous linear equations. as in the preceding article (see eq. 17. iXdx ' (5) we find W^~' X = xafx ~a~ ( 6> The more expeditious method which may be employed . because the operations of taking the seen = = derivative and multiplying by a variable are not is." that 7 their order is . be separated into parts each of which depends upon the solution of a linear equation of the first order. xD is used for the operation of single symbol the derivative and then multiplying by x. ($ becomes [${& 1) + 2# = o. o. (14)). not indifferent. so that taking xm mx m It is to be noticed that the operation x*D 2 is not a the same as # or xDxD. 0.Art. or ($ . Thus. x D* = $(# 2 1) then the equation given above. a i/3. the function of $ produced being the same as the function of m which is equated to in finding the values of linear equation of which the first member is homogeneous and the second member a function of x may be reduced A to the form A*)y The =& (4) particular integral may.
* The A failure occurs because x' . VII. 18. * lo g * + ix y 9 lo g * Prob.x) + J(log *) 3 . which gives We therefore _ x % =z x jx'dx 3 =x 3 log x.) Art.3 I I 9 #  ' 3* now with respect to the factor # 3. may For be developed this whose purpose let us take the equation is a term of the complementary function having an indeterminate coefficient. hence 8 is c x f. ($ _ 3^ = *.344 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. [CHAP.) 8 2 Prob.* back upon equation (6). we infer that in operating upon ^ we general J\$)x =f(r)x may put # = 3. Solve 2^ ^~4 2 d"*y + Zx dy ~j 3J (Ans. this article to illustrate the We proceed method by series which the integrals of a linear equation whose coefficients are in algebraic functions of x terms are powers of x. The complete integral therefore 3 is y = ti* + + c c. 3 and the double root % x zero.= ^ dx dx geneous when multiplied by x. ? cx x + ^" + +*'. roots of f{&) r The =0 are r . 68. Solve (* Z> + 3 *Z> + JD)y = . and the reduced equation is 2 . (Ans. but of course with a determinate coefficient. 67. in Solutions in Infinite Series. ^ = c + * log x + (log 2 3 2 x a <r 3 . : when A* is a power of x is illustrated in the following example d v dv Given x* 4 The first member becomes homo27.c^ f.c Since in log *:. This gives for the particular integral the complementary function % I I S but fails fall 3^ . accordingly the new term is of the same form as the second term necessary when 3 is a double root.
a term containing x m+2 thus y A satisfies . and for other values of r =~ (m + 2r + n){m + 2r .A x x the value of . y the new term will give rise.x m+ar = A x + A xm+2 + A. (4) The coefficient of each . power of x in this arately vanish hence.x + x 4 + . it which determines gives 'x ' the values of m. satisfied by the assumed value of/. 18. which = xm we add to mJr2 \. . For. For the first value of m. this relation becomes A A . and so We therefore at once assume m m y = 2 A.] SOLUTIONS IN INFINITE SERIES. In like A l manner the proper determination coefficient of x M+4 in the result of on. 345 which is known the first as " Bessel's Equation. to terms containing ^m+2 ancj x m+4 respectively. and it will be possible so to take that the entire coefficient of xm+2 shall vanish. by Ax n or these are the first terms of two series each of if the equation." of this equation m the result is the single term Ax m ri Ax m+\ A{n? )x If in member we substitute for_^  l + (2) the first term coming from the homogeneous terms of the equation and the second from the term x*y which is of higher If this last term did not exist the equation would be degree. (3) in which r has all integral values from o to 00 . Substituting in equation (1) 2[{ (in + 2r) 3 }A rx m+2r + A xm+2 r ^ r + I) ] = o. that is. taking the coefficient of equation must sepxm+2r we have o. in this case. Ar this reduces to m* n2 = o. namely n. of a third term makes the substitution vanish.^RT. term vanish. in the result of substitution. [(m + 2ryn*]A + A _ = r r t (5) When r = o. first if w were determined so as make the Bx~ n Now to . . . ." and serves to define the "Besselian Functions.n) Ar l ^ the relation between any two successive coefficients.
346 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. + ( +l)(w is + 3) ^5771 . This we have a repetition of the always occur when the same powers of the case in which x occur in the two series. of these functions see The Besselian J of y\ above. Lame's and Bessel's Functions. in [CHAP." See also American Journal of Mathematics.. proceeding by powers function of the nth order usually denoted by n is the value n if n is a positive integer. whence. unless we take B = o. Leipzig. series will contain infinite coefficients. the logarithmic solution is the "Besselian Function of the oecond kind. Lommel's Studien iiber die Treatise on Laplace's. if = 2.f of obtaining a It will m mode be noticed that the simplicity of the relation between consecutive coefficients in this example is due to the fact that equation (1) contained but two groups of terms producing of when Axm is substituted for as in exdifferent powers x. n This example illustrates a special case which may arise in If n is a positive integer. The group containing the second derivative necessarily gives rise to a coefficient of the second degree in m..} (7) In like manner. including. integral of the equation is Ay. Bs\i + ^^ + {n _ is . or B is infinite. + ]. 1868. y pression (2). determining the successive coefficients the first equation (3). = = AX[i j^pj ~." . 37. VII. Vol.)(_ l 2) ^. of course. Todhunter's 1875. regular solution and log x. the third coefficient. the other integral found to be Bj. new integral has equal roots. p. be cause the other group was of a degree higher by two units. and solution of the kind referred to contains as one term the product of the is sometimes called a "logarithmic solution. In the case of Bessel's equation. Moreover. the second this form of solution. and from it we obtained two values of m. in which case solution B 2 is indeterminate and will y x . or generally by i T{n\1). etc. (8) and the complete integral y =Ay t f Bjv * For example.. divided by i n n\ For a complete discussion Bessel'schen fA Functionen. London. For the in such cases the complete treatises must be referred to. the assumed of x\ * series was an ascending one. XI..
therefore the second inte the finite expression ^. *B 3 (16) would take the indeterminate form.yt = As[i  \ax + Taking the second value ^V . We The assume therefore at once y= result of substitution is 2A m+r. gives + \){m . {m\r\.i)(m which. the relation (14) becomes whence the first integral is A. we suppose it to have a finite reproducing the first integral. + (m r 2)A r + a{m + r i)A r _ 1 = o. (io) %[{(m+r)(m+ri)2}A rx Equating + a(m+r)A xm+ r rI ~\= o. 347 In the following example. and is if value. o. 18.~ m= i f 6 '*'+ ] (V) equation (14) gives r 2 whence gral is B = x 2? . m\r 1 (13) and when r > Ar The roots of \m+r+i){m+r.2)A = o.2 r xm ^.] solutions in infinite series. and their difference of degree shows that the series must ascend by simple powers. and i?3 o *. d*y dy y there are also two such groups of terms. . the rest of the series equivalent to B 3 yi. (12) when r = o.Art. taking m = 2. (u> to zero the coefficient of x m+r~ 2 .=^[i^>4if].2) Ar'T equation (13) are m = 2 and m = " (I4) 1.
such as equation (u). m= 2\ and % hence.5 <*V . A = m=f in equation we find for y = J\ _ 7 L lllax 9. After rejecting the factor e~ ax the in equation (9) above. [CHAP. when for y we put ax e~ v be substituted an example of the latter. let y vf{x). the integrals are expressible of Gauss's " Hypergeometric Series. 346.3 2''* 7 + 9H3. In m occurring only in the . When the coefficient of the term of highest degree in the it result of substitution. putting the particular integral f . making the substitution as before. the particular integral will ample. we have the same relation between consecumanner. remains linear for two important classes first." f If the in terms second member if it is a term of the complementary function (for ex any integral power of x). tive coefficients.1 . and they will be convergent for values of x greater than unity. take the logarithmic form referred to in the footnote on p. while the ascending series will converge for values less than unity. Then. is . powers of x. contains m. but when r o. but one such would be identical with the finite first In the general case there will be two such soluintegral (16). . when the independent variable is x. and second. suppose the second member of equation (9) to have been x*. instead of equation (13) 2 we have {m + i){m m 2)A x = x* This gives (14). in this case. is possible to obtain a solution in descending this case.* When the second member of the equation in is a power of x. solution can be found it degree. I A linear equation of transformations .348 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. VII. the particular integral can be determined in a similar the form of a series For example. Since this differs from the given equation only in the sign *When there are two groups of terms. changed to any function of As = > result is (Pv dv 2V = 0. tions. to determine the initial term of the series.
( 1 quantities f. sayjj/. leaving a single equation of the second order between x and t. + x ~ l f (x 2)y = o. 12 that a shown its ential equations of the first determinate system of n differorder connecting n 1 variables + complete solution as many integral equations conthe variables and also involving n constants of intenecting 1 variables would be a The result of eliminating n gration. Integrate in series x*. except that the order of the result will be correspondingly higher. 69. ax (2 f. . if there were the complete integral. 70 the integral and find its relation to those found above. j 3 = e" x {x~ + 1 + ix).). there would be equations from which to eliminate n * n derivatives of each. single relation in general the has for between the remaining two variables containing* n constants. by differentiating each we should nave four equations from which to eliminate one variable. Prob.) Prob. the result being in general an equation of the /zth order of which the equation just men tioned is two equations For example.ART. l 71. that is. of the first order connecting the variables x and y with the independent variable /. 349 we  from equation (16) that it has the finite integral v = Hence the complete in integral of equation (9) can be written the form xy *= c x {2 ax) + c e~ 7 . . in Art. and its two derivatives* with respect to /. 19. . .1) i)( variables and = leaving a single equation of the th order. (Ans. Prob.3 y+^_ > )+Il{xff +'~j*x>t . Integrate in series the equation d*y ~ j xy = o.ax). It is easy to see that the same conclusions hold if some of the given equations are of higher order. It is 19. But the elimination may also be effected in the differential system.] SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. its index being in 2 * In r general. Derive for the equation of Prob. of a. 70. Systems of Differential Equations. J= ^(x. infer . Art.
since we have a the given equato linear equa of solution for the final result. dy dt ~df"~~dt written symbolically. the system dy when dx 2t. in terms of A. = (6B . *dt^ 2J9y 3* = o. * The index of the degree it is D of determinant that of the order of not necessarily the sum of the indices of the orders cf the given equations. general method the symbolic notation. and equating to zero in the resulting identity the coefficients of the several terms of the complementary function. (2D' 4)y 2 Dx = x y 2/. + (4Z>3)* = o. .f function. 2t whence. The value of x found in like manner is x = (A' + B'ty + C'e~* .350 general the tions. and therefore the whole elimination is of exactly the same form as if the equations were algebraic. For ex ample. 2 V the particular integral being found as explained at the end of Art. by symbolic development. depending solely upon the determembers. is dx .* is necessarily of the same form The complementary minant of the first as that for y.2A in 2Bty this \Ce* is J. tions sum of the indices of the orders of The method is particularly applicable with constant coefficients. The re lations betv/een the constants found by substituting the values of x and y in one of the given equations. eliminating 2D 4 2D which reduces to D 4^3 O (Di)\2D\3)y = Integrating. [Chap. Using the differentiations are performed simply by multiplying by the symbol D. 16. but cannot exceed this sum. In the present example we should thus find the value of x. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. but involves a new is set of constants. VII. B> and C to be y x the final equation .
x = A cos mt+B sin mt.y) a first integral independent of the function 0. dx . . ' .[()" is +"+>*+* which is M as the that first integral of the system (1) known equation of energy for the unit mass.y). Y. ' The that first member is is an exact differential. Solve the system r. so the system (i)in connection with the equation defining the resolved velocities forms a system of six equations of the first order. 72. Just as in Art. are functions of x. . = dy = at as a system iinmx (Ans. 12. . of " which system equation (2) is an " integral in the sense explained in Art.nAenx + nBe " nx n f _ . 74. y. dx my J 1 f _j_ (Ans. 351 In general. 19. Find for the system ^ = x<p(x. ^ Prob. field of force the second and we know that for member is also exact. ' dt* Y ' dt'^' and z. Solve the equations ear in /. .dx . it the differential of a function U of x. Z . 13 an equation of the second order was regarded as equivalent to two equations of the first order.ART. Az dz ' ' . a conservative is.Zdz. VJ Xdx + Ydy 4.] SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.) ' 1 Prob. y.) n y = e * JL z = 73. y = A s'mmtB cosmt. For example. but not of we form the equation dx . /a dy ^~ = y<P(x. and z. The integral . the solution of a system of differential equations depends upon our ability to combine them in such a way as to form exact equations. Prob.dz dt dt dt dt . nx y = Ae + Be'"* +n . from the dynamical system W~ X where X. dy dr + 4d dt + dtd. z = .. w /.
20. Q and R z . say 2. o. and R. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. and R) will satisfy all three It is easily shown that for this of the conditions (2). of a pendulum. (1) where P. the equation is not exact integrating factors always exist. y and z. so = *When there are more than three variables such a condition of integra bility exists for independent. variables x. as d dP = dQ dy d*' sG^atf ~ dz dy' = &P dz dx M ^ for the conditions of exactness. Q. but these conditions are not all Thus with four variables there are but three independent con . and supposing the constant Thus. The equation of the first order and degree between three y and z may be written Pdx + Qdy + Rdz = o.* therefore the " condition of integrability is> When grated by this condition is fulfilled equation (1) may be inte first supposing one variable. are the partial derivatives of some function y and and we derive. each group of three variables. First Order and Degree with Three Variables. the earth's rotation is taken into account. 4. this exact. This " of equation (1). u.Qdy of integration C to be a function of z. [CHAP. are gx are of the x d*y . we obtain the integral. integrating Pdx j. to be constant. ditions. n (dR 8A. (dP dQ\ n (3)' exist between the given values of P. 75. there is not always a factor u such that piPy when juQ and /jR (put in place of P. When in Art. Q. The approximate when dy . VIE. dx gy show that both x andy \ form % A Art. of x. d?x equations for the horizontal motion. equation Q is and R are functions of x. but in this case. purpose the relation p (dQ must dR\.352 Prob. cos n x t B sin n t + C cos n t + D sin nj. P. In the case of two variables..
can be completely separated from the other two (so that in equation (i) R becomes a function of z only and Pand Q functions of x and y. zydx is zxdy y*dz = o.Qdy must be thus rendered exact if the equation is integrable. the point (x.* For example. in it is not integrable. three variables. 20. puts it in the exact form dz ydx xdy ~ y of which the integral is i z = o. dividing by y*z. the remaining terms must It follows that if one of the variables. Accordingly. denoting them by and n. and thence by integration the exact value of C. the direction of motion of the point satisfying /. y. Regarding x. say z also be exact. which ex . y and z as coordinates of a moving point. we an integrable equation. which notice separates the variable z from x and y. by the system simultaneous equations convenient to consider in this dx _dy _dz ~p~~Q~~R' * In fact for this case the condition presses the exactness of Pdx }. an integrable equation restricts the point to motion upon one of the surfaces belonging to the system of surfaces represented by the other words. Finally. (3) (5) its reduces to last term. as explained in Art. in what way equation (i) restricts the motion of a point when integral . z) moves in an Let us now consider arbitrary curve drawn on such a surface.Qdy. dy and dz\ hence.Art. The direction cosines of a y moving point are proportional to dx. but not of z) the terms Pdx f. It is (4) connection an auxiliary of lines represented. m equation (i) must satisfy the condition P/+ Qm + Rn = o.] first order and degree. x =y log cz. by comparing the total differential of this result with the given equation we de termine dC in terms of z and ds. 353 far as it depends upon x and y. It may be noticed that when certain terms of an equation forms an exact differential. 12.
pin f (4) gives XI for the relation vn =o (6) between the directions of two moving points. therefore equation (1) simply restricts a point to move in a path which cuts orthogonally the lines of the auxilito equations (5). + + *It follows (5). subject respectively to equation (1) and question therefore intersect at right angles. the orthogonal surfaces being the equipotential surfaces. the be expressed by two equations involving an arbitrary function. This is the case in which equation (1) is integrable.* restriction can only when the equation is not integrable. that. but this enters only into one of the two equations necessary to define the path. equation (3) is the with respect to the system of lines represented by equations condition that the system shall admit of surfaces cutting them orthogonally.354 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. equation ). A. ju. . desystem are proportional to P. and the arbitrary character of the function makes the solution sufficiently general to include all lines which satisfy the equation/) Prob. The paths in ary system. f So too there is an arbitrary element about the path of a point when the single equation to which it is subject is integrable. The lines of force in any field of conservative forces form such a system. [Chap. the line being otherwise entirely arbitrary. if there be a system of surfaces which cut the auxiliary lines orthogonally. 12 that the given equation (1) the other hand. For any particular value of that function we have a system of lines satisfying equation (1). whose paths intersect. noting them by v. Show that the equation is (nx (mz ny)dx lz)dy (ly mx)dz = o and infer from the integral the character of the auxilintegrable. The of this direction cosines of a point moving in one of the lines Hence. Now. Thus if we assume in advance one such relation. On together with the first derivative of the assumed relation forms a system admitting of solution in the form of two integrals* Both of these integrals will involve the assumed function. VII. Q and R. 76. we know from Art. the restriction just mentioned is completely expressed by the requirement that the line shall lie on one of these surfaces.
Partial Differential Equations of First Order and Degree. For \i y is becomes the ordinary derivative of a constant.bdy. example (Ans. C(ny 1 = 2.) e dz o.") Art. is a particular integral. nx at the Iz end of Art. forms the solution of dz aydx J." The most general equation of this kind If is called the " general integral.) mz). FIRST ORDER* (Compare the illustrative 355 iary lines. or a relation between x. p . we shall have a relation which includes particular integrals It will sible generality.] PARTIAL EQUATIONS. in and has the greatest poslike manner. the equation differential equation. say/. occurs.) x x e (i\cz). be found that." only one of the derivatives. 79. 77. when arbi both p and q are present. y and z which makes z implicitly such a " function. = = Prob.Art 21. We proceed to give Lagrange's solution of the equation of . yz Find the equation which in connection with^ . Solve yz*dx z*dy (Ans. an example of " Monge's Solution. if in the complete integral of the equation thus regarded we replace the constant of integration by an arbitrary function all of y. and let dz dz partial derivatives denote its : a relation between one or both is of these derivatives " ferential equation and the variables of the first " called a partial dif order! A Value of z in terms of x and y which with its derivatives satisfies the equation. jy = (* *)0'(*). variables Let x denote an unknown function of the two independent x and y.f(x) Prob. Prob. 21. may be solved as an ordinary considered as z with respect to x therefore. 78. the general integral involves an trary function. Show that a general solution of ydx is = (x z)(dy dz) given by the equations y (This is * = <?K*).
12. and since by equations (3) dx. Now v is let v = b be another integral of equations satisfies (2). and y respectively. y and z. ' It identical with equation follows that every system (3) satisfies equation (1). z." which written in the form the may be (I) Pp+Qq = R. ~P~Q~~R =a be one of the integrals (see Art. du dx 4' a dy dy J ~ du dz = o : \ dx dz . Q and R. VIL order and degree. equation each of the equations u a. so that the general expression for the integrals of (3) will be integral of the the general integral of equation (1). a constant. P. y and and a. Q and R is denoting functions of x. 12) of its _dz (3) this sys Taking total differential. x + du = ^ du ^ ' &+&t = . infinite is What we require system represented by equathe general expression for any . and conversely. (3). Let u = a.356 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. dy and dz are proportional to P. Taking derivatives with respect we have . or " linear equation. 3* du ' and substitution of the values of / and q in equation (i) gives the symmetrical relation Consider now the system of simultaneous ordinary differ ential equations dx __dy Let u tem. v which As is = = b explained the equation of a surface passing through a singly infinite system of lines belonging to the doubly tions (3). first [Chap. so that also a function in Art. to in which u a function of x. be an integral of equation (i). we obtain by substitution di P+ dy which is Q + d^ R (2).
b) C. For. v) =f(a. to find two independent integrals u a. Owing to their analogy to the derivatives of a single function they : are sometimes denoted thus . and eliminating cf) (v) from these equations. z\ z. 357 none surface passing through lines of the system (and intersecting C is such of them). It is evident that f(u.] PARTIAL EQUATIONS. ) [. (sometimes called Lagrange's (4) equations. will be found to satisfy equation (2). giving the result du 9 (5) which is of the form Pp is f Qq = R. where / function. y re. we v b of the auxiliary system is an arbitrary Therefore.jwhose * Each line of the system characterized by special values of a and b which we may call its coordinates. an equation which Conversely. (4). = = (3).+ / J. FIRST ORDER. v) = o. v with respect to the pairs of variables y. 21. it is evidently equally general with/(z^. may be shown that any equation of the form rise regarded as a primitive. Q and R are known as the " Jacobians " of the pair f of functions u.Art. x and x. the term containing/^ vanishes. v). b) = an equation. we have +r / > = (. and the surface passes through those lines coordinates are connected by the perfectly arbitrary relation J\a. solve equation (1). taking partial derivatives with respect to the independent variables x and y.) and then put u = <p(v). = spectively.* and accordingly/^. gives of to a definite partial differential equation Lagrange's linear form. These values of P.
Thus the equation being P^Lmp^L+ the auxiliary equations are 4p*Lr _ dxn dz dx x dx^   = o is the condition that <p (a function of x.y* f. Art. which V= .z* = fr. its integral.). [CHAP. if u a and v b are integrals of C. 20).358 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. represents a singly infinite system of surfaces which the Lagrangean lines cut orthogonally therefore. that is. v and z) is expressible d(x. V= = dx I / dx = dy 'I hv I dz  I dz . may be put in the form C. = ly dz mx.(fix which Lagrange's Equations are dx dy . (q) The Ix general integral of equation (6) is then 2 0(V \. let the given partial differential equa (mz lz)q ny)p \. . When the equation Pdx f. \. u =f(v) is the general equation of the orthogonal surfaces. starting with a given system V'= C. see Prob. As an tion be for illustration.nz = (io) which represents any surface passing through the circles just mentioned. that <p =o shall be an in tegral of * Pp f. integrals there found being Ix f mz = 1 (j\ w J 12. in this case. the general integral may be de76. fined as the general equation of the surfaces which cut orthogonally the system Conversely. that is to say.my f. y.Qdy f Rdz = is integrable (as it is in the above example. (6) nx Iz mx' ly ny These equations were solved at the end of Art.* Lagrange's solution extends to the linear equation containing n independent variables. the two my + nz = a and system x* \ y* \. VII. (8) Hence sists of in this case the of " Lagrangean lines" con the entire system of circles having the straight line ==for axis.Qq R. Z) identically as a function of u and v. any surface of revolution of which (9) is the axis.
] complete and general integrals. 22. Solve (y Prob. x y \ z = f(xyz). It therefore becomes necessary to consider an integral having as much generality as can be given by the presence of arbiSuch an equation is called a " complete intrary constants. t 359 and if u = c 1} ?/ 2 =c /( . log^ z(x j Prob. Complete and General Integrals. 83. still be found to depend = upon a single arbitrary function. " it contains two arbitrary constants {n arbitrary contegral stants in the general case of n independent variables). We have seen when the equation is not linear in/ and q. 7/) o. 82. it will. Solve (x f yZ f = (z Xy % z* = /(]. y. . a and if (x. this is the number which can be eliminated from such an equaand its tion. the derived equations are x a + zp = of y 1) b j zq = O. (^+j) (Ans. (Ans. b being regarded as arbitrary. . in the preceding article that an equation between three variables containing an arbitrary function gives rise to a partial differential equation of the linear form. Prob.ay + (ydy + = k\ O. Solve xzProb. u n s= cn are independent integrals. and the elimination a and b gives the differential equation . because . be taken as the primitive. z)p \y(z z)p + x)q = x 5.] + y)(p . It follows that.Art. xy \ where /is an arbitrary function. however. the most general solution is u . 80. considered as a primitive. two derived equations. . the general integral cannot be expressed by a single equation of the form 0(?/. . *V + f + = of which therefore the given equation is a complete integral. 81.q) = (Ans. z* For example. Solve ^(^ x)q = x=f(x+y).) Art.) y). 22. uu ) = o. .
b) In equation (1) suppose x. as the given integral.y. system whose tangent planes at A have values of p and q which also satisfy the relation. a given " integral surface " passing through A. Geometrically. are said to constitute an "element " plete of surface. Now consider any sur A . the plane of xy.* velope of a singly infinite integral system.p y q) = o. and z. Thus there at is one of the complete integral surfaces which touches A the given follows that every integral surface (not included in the complete integral) must at every one of its points integral surface. determining a point. VII. y and z to have special values. It touch a surface included It is in the complete integral. . z. and therefore also finite the same value of q. z. determining the direction of a surface at that point. = o. In general. a right cylinder whose radius is k and whose axis lies in the plane of xy is an integral. There is obviously among them one which has the same value of p. The tangent plane to this surface at A determines values of p and q which must satisfy the relation just menConsider also those of the complete integral surfaces [equation (2)] which pass through A. the complete integral represents a doubly inin this case they are spherical surfinite system of surfaces . a. (i) and a complete integral is of the form (2) f(x. The method is of grouping the "consecutive" elements to form an integral surface to a certain extent arbitrary. [Chap. y.360 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. the coordinates of a special point becomes a relation between p and q. in the example at the beginning of this article." The theorem shows all in the sense of including complete integral is the surface elements which satisfy the that the ' com differ ential equation. y. the equation namely. face passing through (1). or. hence evident that every integral surface is the ensystem selected from the complete Thus. as A of which the equation is an integral of we may call it. a partial differential equation of the first order with two independent variables is of the form faces having a given radius in and centers F(x. together with values of p and q. They form a singly in tioned. because it is the envelope * Values of x.
the envelope of the singly infinite system of surfaces thus defined will represent the general integral. be established. cylinder. illustrative example above they are equal circles with centers in the plane of " in fact lines any particular form along which all the xy and planes perpendicular to it. Thus.* The example lution also furnishes an instance of a " singular so analogous to those of ordinary differential equations. lected curve . in the illustration. and it is the only one form an integral surface passing through which passes through it unless it be a characteristic.] complete and general integrals. (3) *' These two equations together determine a line. namely. and may If its is. we arbitrarily select a curve in space there will in general be at each of points but one characteristic through which the selected curve passes. but they are differently grouped in different integral surfaces. a ^r Ax > y> *> a <Ka) > ) = o. being integral In the surfaces which pass through them touch one another." Such " lines are called the tion." since they determine at each of their points the direction of the surfaces passing through them. or as elements of a right be likened to narrow hoops. *. a. " *The characteristics are to be regarded not merely as lines. the equation of the envelope is the result of eliminating a between the two equations f(x. but as linear elements of surface. In general. that whose tangent plane contains the tangent to the selected curve. is Integral surfaces of a special kind result when the se reduced to a point. 361 of those tegral among the spheres represented by the complete inwhose centers are on the axis of the cylinder. such as b = equation (2) an arbitrary relation between <p(a). 22. If we center of the sphere describe an arbitrary curve in we shall have the general integral in this ex make the the plane of xy ample. all. they are circles regarded as greatcircle elements of a sphere. They constitute in all cases a The surfaces of a complete integral system contain them triply infinite system. In the illustration these are the results of rotating the circle about a line parallel to the axis of z.Art. characteristics " of the differential equaof They are independent of complete integral. These char acteristics (for all points of the curve) the selected curve itself . By the usual process. y. if in a and b. the ultimate intersection of two consecutive surfaces. <p(a) ) = o.
a and b as an arbitrary parameter. from /=' df df d^=> Zb= . finite system of surfaces. the integral which results from taking in the 2 2 2 6 (a constant) for the arbitrary = Art. n are connected by the relation my f. [CHAP. z. that the characteristics consist of all general integral therefore represents touch the sphere. this result clude relations which are not solutions. Prob. Complete Integral for Special Forms. may be put in the form dz pdx qdy. q) If =o (1) a be regarded as fixed and is the equation of a singly in which one can be found passing through any given point. (4> but. in an integral of equation (1) . integral of the partial differential equation A complete F(x. (2) = + in which the coefficients/ and q are functions of the variables and the constant a. and indeed all the surrepresented by tion exists When a singular solufaces included in the general integral. which will be independent of b. Show that the singular solution of the equation found in Prob. m. 85. VII. Now the form of equation (2) shows that these quantities are the partial derivatives of z. the straight lines which touch this sphere. of it b.p. as in the case of ordinary equations. where /. 23. contains two constants. The ordinary differential equation of this system. and that the all developable surfaces which Prob. it is included in the result of eliminating a and b from equation (2) and its derivatives with respect to a and b.362 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. may in Ix f Prob. 84. 84 represents a sphere. that is. For the planes z = k envelop the whole system of spheres the complete integral. 86.nz f + m* + n 2 = = 1.y. Find cos general integral above I \m relation between the parameters. therefore they are values of p and q which . Derive a differential equation from the primitive a.
There are certain forms of equations for which such values p and q are easily found. which of is analogous to Clairaut's form. f (4) thus becomes dz = adx bdy. b\ (7) this equation is and is itself the complete integral. we can obtain by gral. q) = O. In particular there are forms in which p and q admit of constant values. provided b) F(a. can find values of p and q containing a constant a (1) which satisfy equation and make dz = pdx f qdy inte grate. In the next place. and expresses in itself the relaProblem 84 of the preced ing article is an example of this form. For of the form z = ax + by + tions between the three constants.q). and these obviously of make equation (2) integrable. *=P* + qy+f(p. if words. we of a sys(2) the differential equation In other these surfaces will be integrals. 23. In the third place. Thus. (5) (4) so that a. suppose the equation to be of the form F(z. which a and b are connected by the relation and c are equivalent 'to two arbitrary constants.] COMPLETE INTEGRAL FOR SPECIAL FORMS. being of the form F(P.p. if 363 in satisfy equation (i). Art. (2) = o. if the equation contains / and q only. direct integration a complete inte the integration introducing a second constant. (8) .ART. if b the equation is of the form (6) 10. whence we have the complete z = ax in integral + by + c.q) = o. (3) we may put/ Equation = a and q = b. values of/ and q terms of the variables and a constant a which satisfy equation (i) are such as to make equation tem of surfaces. Conversely. q are again admissible z if constant values p and this they satisfy 9 = az + by+f(a c.
See Boole. See Jordan's Cours ^'Analyse ential Equations (Paris.364 in which neither ~qz= ap. x nor y we assume p will = o. in the in fact the equations of the characteristics regarded concluding note to the preceding article. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. q = {y. p. If be a function of z determined from F(z. f (9) Then dz pdx  qdy = o becomes dz = <p(z)(dx #^). by means of the condition of integrability./) =/. we may determine/ and q in the forms and dz / = (pix. say p = <p(z). p. p. These equations are z. = />^r + ^y takes an integrable form giving 8 = f^** a dx + f^y* a dy + b (p t ^ ^  (12) (*3) frequently possible to reduce a given equation by transformation of the variables to one of the four forms considered It is in this article. p. of *The which we need only a particular integral. vol. 1889). a). a). in. the equation 2 x^p* \ y* q = z* may be written \* dx) ^ \z dy' general method. giving the complete integral that in which. involving both p and as q. Y.(*. y. tions are deduced in a more general and symmetrical form. 1887). Q. q) by X. in which the auxiliary equa. ap) [CHAP. 300. appears explicitly. 316. of finding a proper value oip consists of establishing. thus putting the equation in the form A '+*=/&+* fourth case is (I0) /. p. they are dx ~P = = dz ~Q Pp+Qq = dp dq ~XTZp Any ~~YTz~q . dy Z.(?.* For example. Differential Equations (London 1885). If 9) (") to a con we assume each member of this equation equal stant a. Denoting the partial deriva tives of F(x. p. which is integrable. 336 also Forsyth. a linear partial differential equation for/. will furnish proper values of . Differential Equations (London 1865). due to Charpit. This may be any value of / taken from the auxiliary equations employed in Lagrange's process. P. q. it is possible to separate x and p from y and ^. relation involving Johnson's Differone or both j> he quantities p and combined with F= o. VII. 318 (New York. while z does not explicitly occur.
87. complete integrals of pq (Ans.] PARTIAL EQUATIONS. o. y' =s log y. putting x' i. Find a complete integral for/ (Ans. in the footnote two =( + ^) +A and 5 = a? +j> ^(* + 5 <*) + &) Art. 88. (Ans. if and q. a* f. Show + (^ + a + ^.b* = I? = .) 2^'.#y. q) a. 2* Deduce by the method quoted = px + qy. z' log z it becomes. 24. consider the equations derivable from a primitive conarbitrary functions. For example. Solve z(p' Prob. 90.y Prob. account can be given of the nature of a solution.ART.p. i i q ) x (Ans. = = Hence the it may integral is given therefore be written z' by equation or (5) when c. 24. there is no correspondence between taining their number and the order of the equation.r' cos +y sin a\a i/Sin a^ and restoring . 91. *l = (* + y.) = = Prob.) \ qy + pq. in We have seen solution of a partial differential equation of the . z Prob. )l that the solution given for the form F(z. Partial Equations of Second Order. ^ = = ## 4 y+ )i b. SECOND ORDER. and z. which p' \q'* % = is = log x. for the equation zpq we thus obtain the two complete integrals z = (y + a)(x + and 4* =fe+ ay + /?Y. 365 } whence. when we Sometimes several such relations are readily found . 89. j. jy tan or { . d) . Find the singular 0* = = # sec a + solution of z = px 1. o) solution. s Prob. o is a singular represents cylindrical surfaces. that of the given equation ^j^cos is Z 2 Prob. and that F(z. equation (3). for example. 92. the preceding articles that the general first order de pends upon an arbitrary function although it is only when the equation is linear in / and q that it is expressible by a But in the case of higher orders no general single equation. Moreover.r. (Ans. of the form F(p\ q') o. Solve by transformation ^ = .
if the equation contains derivatives with respect to one only of the variables. 5. . follows that an inter mediate equation cannot exist unless the equation is of the form (i). T. and q. T> U. it is not generally possible to eliminate them and their derivatives first equations of the let us from the primitive and its two derived and three of the second order. and q. [CHAP. it may be treated as an ordinary differential equation of the second order. y. and U. Instead of a primitive containing take an equation of the first two arbitrary functions. reference to the differential equation of the second order " the equation ti intermediate equation of (p(v) is called an With = : the first order " it is analogous to the It first integral of an ordi nary equation of the second order. p. Given. VII. A second integration (and change in the form of the arbitrary function) gives the general integral z = \yx* log x + x*<p(y) + ip(y). the primitive with two independent variables contains two arbitrary functions. 21. x when divided by x*. there are two other conditions which must exist between the functions R. for example. arbitrary function. z. S. the result is found to be of the form Rr + Ss+ Tt+U(rts*)= in (i) which R. This may order containing a single be put in the form u (p{v) = t u and v now denoting known functions of x. and V are functions of x. Thus. This becomes exact with reference to and gives the intermediate equation p=yx\ogx + x<p(y). y. = which may be written xdp pdx = xy dx. In tained some simple cases an intermediate equation can be obby direct integration. the constants being replaced by arbitrary functions of the other variable. moreover.36*6 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. z. the equation xr p xy. p. eliminated from the two derived equations <p'(v) may now be as in Art. Denoting the second derivatives of z by r ~s* _ a^ a ' s _ _av_ a*f ~d*d/ ay V.
p and q determined from them and give the general integral at once. p. 24.  Sdy dx + Tdx* = o. Show that Monge's equations (see footnote) give for Prob. and *+/+? = * + 0C?) The auxiliary equations* are . Solve ps = x. the equation p \. second. Prob. 97. v = />. between the five But if it is possible to obtain two integrals of the variables x. dx of which the first = dy = = . 96. make dz =p>dx{qdy . second order.r \. form an incomplete system of ordinary differential equations. and an intermediate integral can be found. integral Hence. and eliminating y gives x the form integral is of x from the z a\. z. the values of jntegrable. 94. its a.) (Ans.e x + (p(x) + e y tp(x).Art.) ) Prob. u = <p(v) will be the intermediate integral. system The first of the auxiliary equations If is a quadratic giving two values for the ratio will dy. y.) Prob.s gives the intermediate equation ' = i is already exact. = (x +y) logy + <p(x) + ij>(x +y). 367 Again. Solve r +/ (Ans. = pdx Rdp dy + Tdq dx f These. 95.) qr = o. we have for the final z = x + 0O) + e ''i>(x ..] partial equations. in connection with dz qdy. these are distinct.dx.<p(y) \i~*b. .y). and q. Solve y\s t) (Ans. z =y(e y . ^ = (p(y) + ^(2). for ach.tp(y). z Prob. z = \og[e xy ip(y) e' xy ]\. which is of Lagrange's form. is in which a further change made in the form of the arbitrary function 0. . in the form u = a. putting b = tpia). 93. = Prob. (Ans. Solve t q = e* + ey = y\ . * In Monge's method (for which the reader must be referred to the complete treatises) of finding an intermediate integral of Rr+ Ss+ when one exists. 96 the intermediate integral p <p{z) and hence derive the solution. the auxiliary Tt = V = Vdx dy equations Rdy* are established.
(2) an equally general solution of equation It however. Derive by Monge's method for fr o 2pqs \.p*t q <p(z). constants. variable and Equations which are linear with respect to the dependent its partial derivatives may be treated by a method in the case of analogous to that employed equations. VIL the intermediate integral/ Prob. .y). or polynomial. y x(p(z) ip(z). (3) (4} that such a solution constitutes the general integral of an equation of the th order. Suppose then the equation to be of the form A and * let It is B +A us assume assumed ^ + . order. ent variables ordinary differential We shall consider only the case of two independ x and y.* which solution is also the D mentary function " for equation (1). that the sum of a particular integral and the general equation. of which the degree corresponds to the order of the differential which f Understanding by an "integral" of this equation an explicit value of z in terms of x and y.. [CHAP. '. 15. s % D' etc. Supposing further that the coefficients are .368 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. for a primitive containing more than n independent of the arbitrary functions cannot give rise by their elimination to an equation nib. only when f{D. D') is a homogeneous function of and D' that we can obtain a solution of equation (2) containing " 11 complearbitrary functions. (Ans. denotes an algebraic function. =o (1).+A "B=' z = <p(y + mx). Linear Partial Differential Equations. as inArt. it is obvious. and thence the general integral. integral of /(>. and put d* dy DD % so that the higher derivatives are denoted by the symbols .D')z in = F(x.) = = + = Art. D')z will constitute is. the equation may be written in the form (1) f{D. 25. 98. D D .
etc.b. Any expression . _a For example. 369 where mis constant to be determined. (3) may now be {D written sym bolically in the (D in m D'\D . (9) in the form p m q= x <p(y + mx\ dz \ Lagrange's equations are dy _ m giving the integrals^ z x 0( y m^x)' j.m DJz = o x (8) + m^x).] linear partial equations. 25. The homogeneous equation form x . z = x(p(a) Hence the (10) integral of equation (9) is x x = x<p(y + m x) + tp(y + m x). Substituting in equation (3) Dz \ and rejecting the factor D' nz or {n \y . + mx = x a. say. so that Dz = mD z. D' upon both members Writing equation of this equation.Z> is expressible as the a particular integral accordingly is sum of certain functions of x + y and x y respectively. . m nD')z = o. x This will in fact be the solution of (9) (Dm D')z= for. . If m m xi . the general integral of found to be z cp(y \ =o is thus x) ~\ ip(y x). for the determination of m. to m lt the corresponding terms in equation (6) are equivalent to a single arbitrary function. we have o (5) Ajn f A m n A n~ l + . ^ is = 0i( y + = . of the form it Axy + Bx f. we obtain equation (8). \ mx). mn are distinct roots of this equation. .mJT) . if we operate with D m x rty + ms). a. If two of the roots of equation (5) are equal.Cy f. (7) which the several factors correspond to the several terms of the general integral.*) +0 (7 + ^r^) + a + 0O + ***)  (6) the general integral of equation (3).Art. \ From equation (4). ' = mcp\y mx) and D'z = <p\ y mx). DD'z = mD'^y. IPz = m*D'*z. integral To form the general we need an integral of {D in addition to 4>{y . . f A n = i} .
the particular integral of equation (1) may be made to depend upon the solution of linear equations of the first order.y + mx) + (p(y f mx). 3 a * of which the general integral * is = 0( y + ix + *P(y .ix ) ) . y). the equation a^ . 16.&. b x (11) this equation Lagrange's auxiliary equations give z y + wix = a. these are the two independ ent terms corresponding to the pair of equal roots. 2 real functions X or Fwill be an Given. each of which is an (j){t) = integral (see Chap. may thereinte fore be found by subtracting mx from y in F(x. form X\iY. The in the As inverse symbol j: jyF(*> y) m the equation p corresponding to equation (14). corresponding case of ordinary equations. If and tp we restrict functions contain imaginary ourselves to real integrals we cannot are real now say that there are two radically distinct classes of intebut if any real function of y j. is The first term. a is mx)dx \ = F (x. which the particular integral. VI. . to obtain a real integral take either the real or the coefficient of the imaginary part of any real form of cp{y \. = j F{x. <fi [CHAP. (12) and the general z integral x = F {x.jax f. y) or mq = F[x.370 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. for example. Thus.ix). Art. 245).x ivx). either of the integral of the equation. and regarding If also as arbitrary.ivx be put in the grals . a) f. VII. y). p. which when terms. if # we find ey cos^r and ey sin^r. has a pair of imaginary roots the corresponding terms of the integral take the form equation (5) m = /z iv* <p(y \pix \ivx) j ip{y \ ^. denotes the value of z in (D For mD')z F(x.
] linear partial equations. 25.by) = and D'F(ax f by) == is wheny~(Z>. sin y). y)dx ev*xD' corresponding to equation (13).ay^ . . D')F{ax That is. equation (10). or (D a^+a^Jy. /ah) F{ax + by) =xh)ffWhen ax f. given d*z in Given.* x and f then adding mx to y in the For certain forms of F(x y y) there exist more expeditious methods. the final result being f(a t b) D ) on F(t) is and taking the nth.x) \. equivalent to multiplication by rivative. the equation d*z d*z . r (13) if ax f. Art.by). det.by equation (5). <p(y \. it is readily inferred that. addition of The symbol here indicates the mx to y in the operand.by) aF\ax f. 16. of which we shall here only notice that which applies to the form F{ax \. the operation of the inverse symbol upon a function of / is equivalent to dividing by /(a. by). the symbolic expression of Taylor's Theorem. + by) =f(a.by). D') t = a bF\ax f. b) and integrating n times.by. That * The symbolic form of D m>' F(x  ' = emxD 'f e mxD '^(x. using the expanded form of the symbol. is / this /sin tdf theorem y) is =  .y) + (x + (x . .sin (> y). b)F*\ax + the operation of f(D. conversely. f{D. a root of this method is ing symbolic of which the solution factor.D') (D + 2D')z = sin function is 2 Sm{x ^ +Sm ^+^ . is /** is (I4) a multiple of y fails f mx t t where w. in The which aris a = i~b = 1. 371 grating with respect to result. homogeneous function of the nth degree. for ex ample.Art. Accordingly. y). still a function of It follows that. Thus. ***D>FKy) = (i+mx^ + ^~ f . .tp(y part of the particular integral arising from sin (x The complementary 2x).) F(y) = F(y + mx). Since DF{ax f. giving rise to with respect to the correspondan equation of the form (9). . .
the first degree is found by Lagrange's process mD a)z o {D . (16) But in the general case it is not possible to express the Let us. derived from equation and c and h admit of an infinite variety of arbitrary values. D') though the equation f{D.lx + F^y f (19) (18). is [Chap. howsolution in a form involving arbitrary functions. is ) Hence the general {* the given equation * = <P(y + *) + $(y . fhx + FWy Again.2x +i sin = is still y) i * cos t (* + fi o the symbol f(D. and in like manner the second and higher derivatives are integrals. and k are constants. write the more general solution It is we may also z= where k F{Ji) is 2ce. if the equation is d*z dz l?~d~y^' . and D'ehx ^ ky =kehx lrky substitution xJrky = o. k)^ = h^x + Since Z)e in f(D. (17) where c. thus that of (15) = is z = e ax (p(y j mx). sum The of those corresponding integral of a factor of . D')z = o gives hx + ky ky (17) whenever // and k satisfy the relation AK c k) = o. can be separated with respect to not homogeneous ll in D into factors. we is infer that the derivative of this expression with respect to // also an integral. For example. assume z=cehx+ky y .372 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Hence we have a solution of the form cf(h. obvious that (18) being altogether arbitrary. since the difference of any two terms of the form w t h different values of h is included in expression j (19). VII. ever. D')z and >'. h. the integral the to the several symbolic factors. ing from sin \x \y) which of the form of a term ^ in the com plementary function tion (10) is is n_ n f COS ^ x +^' w licl1 b y equaintegral of \x cos ix\y).
Prob.] LINEAR PARTIAL equations.Art.) (Ans. Solve ci Prob. tion to the independent variables x* andjv Prob. I . 10 6.(x t = owe obtain the algebraic integrals 2 + 2y). 103. etc. dy d 5 z JM (jy d*z Prob.^)+ X(y+^i x)' tfz tfz 2 2 Prob. +2 + =? = 0(*) + ip(x + j) + #(* +jf) log*. z 1 2^^ dx 9^ d*z ^ 2 2 3^^ dxdy d'* = o. 100. 1 d*z 1 3 dz 1 d*z 3 . 104.by transposiy* dy 1 . Prob. e Solve . Solve ^g + 2 ^+/g. putting cxx c. Show that for an equation of the form (15) the solution given by equation (19) is equivalent to equation (16). dy Prob. c 3 (x z + 6xy). The variable coefficients solution of a linear partial differential equation with may sometimes be effected by a change of the independent variables as illustrated in some of the examples below.= o. .) (Ans. . 101. z n 102. Solve Prob. 105. 99. 25. r~i * 3^ a ^ r 9# 5^3 / dy dz :r. we have ** + h \(x + 2hyf + 2y)\ // f* + *"'[(* + 2/^) + 6>(^r + 2hy)\ 3 In particular. Show that if m terms of the integral are x*<p(y 1 is a triple root the x corresponding + m x) ~V *^(jH.2x)"\ = <p(y 2x) + tp(y 3*) + x log 2*). Solve (Z> + 5_>Z>' + 6D )z = {y . Solve d'z dz f dx 5^dxdy 5 2=0. is 373 classes of in for which equation (18) tegrals of the forms I? k = o.
1. " a " straight line definite length will * The algebra of be always intended. Art. position. Explanations and Definitions. magnitude. two.. ein neuer Zweig der Mathematik. etc. the straight line. ric and direction. while a point has only one. thus a straight line of given length has three.374 GRASSxMANN's space analysis. the plane. The Such questions as How much? How far? long by an algebraic operation or series of operations. Hyde. and published by him in 1844 under the title " Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre. A geomet quantity may possess one. such as lines. algebra with which the student is already familiar deals directly with only one quality of the various geometric and mechanical entities. forces. GRASSMANN'S SPACE ANALYSIS. portion of a given straight line of " be called a " sect though when the length . the vector. When will " the word " line is used by itself. How ? are answered In this chapter an algebra* will be developed which deals directly with the three qualities of geometric and mechanical quantities. By Edward W. Professor of Mathematics in the University of Cincinnati. viz. all The geometric quantities with which we are to be concerned are the point. with their magnitude. A this chapter is a particular case of the very general and comprehensive theory developed by Hermann Grassmann.. VIII* Chapter VIII. namely. or all three of these properties simultaneously. Questions of direction and position are dealt with indirectly by means of systems of coordinates of various kinds. . [Chap." He published also a second treatise on the subject in 1862. and the planevector.
etc. planethe area of P. . letters T and U.* Hence we have TL Art. because the sign has been appropriated by Grassmann to another use. is 375 line will fre of the sect a matter of indifference. UL =s L.] explanations and definitions. and they may evidently be in trinsically either positive or negative. it has no longer any significance as regards position. theory rests on certain fundamental assumptions.  The notation \ L \ for absolute magnitude not used. a line wholly at infinity fixes infinity. but still indicates a direction. as above. in the development of the subject. and portion of a geometric quantity be called its " unit. Thus.e. and TL is the factor that stretches is UL into L.. 2. a definite area of a given " plane will be called a planesect. The letter will T prefixed to a letter denoting its some geometric be used to designate quantity magnitude. In geometric addition and subtraction . A logz. and also through this point at are parallel. always positive. Similarly. Such are the ordinary subjects of algebraic analysis. shall use the or =. appear Every mathematical. Sum and Difference of Two we Points. that is. x. whose magnitude is unity will be indicated by prefixing the U \ thus UL = . unit of L = sect one unit long on line Z. but with modified significance. 2.. That sect. a. stretcher." a point recede to infinity. then TL is the length of Z. since all lines If finite points." and will letter absolute or numerical L be a TP is and Pa. and also through this line at infinity. as will dinary symbols {. sin 0.Art. or other. are parallel. the word quently be used instead. all planes passing through finite passing through points. quantity possessing magnitude only will be termed a " scalar " quantity. Similarly. were T stands for tensor. the justification for these assumptions * The word "scalar" and the use of the introduced by Hamilton in his Quaternions. if sect. i. a plane direction. Thus a point and line at infinity are respectively equivalent to a line direction and a plane direction.
" * that is. Our first commutative laws hold tion. is an operator that changes/. (2) and it /. full . namely. and also this length in this direc tion. to it the name Strecke. Write it./> 2 be two points. a certain distance in a certain direction. because it carries/. 227. Again.376 lying in grassmann's space analysis. a operator . and some writers now Grassmann gives use the word " stroke " in the same x sense. Writing^ /. will be that the associative and for geometric addition and subtrac whatever A. B. . ) C may represent. take place along the straight line through p and /> 2 then the operation is that of moving a point through a definite length or distance in a definite direction. and the only between them is that of position. and accordance with the ascertained facts of nature. then. to/> 2 This has been called by Hamilton " a vector. we have A + B + C= (A + + C^zA +(B + C) = A + C+B = (A + C) + B. assumption.e. = e. into this ^> 2 by being added to Conceive change oi p into/ 2 to Y x . p^ p is difference that can exist the difference of two points. carrier. VIII. and that the same quantity may be added to or subtracted from both sides of an equation without affecting the equality. the its [Chap. Now let/. as Hence we may regard / /. rectilinearly to p^. harmony and reasonableness of the resulting theory. that is. > the form A A +A = (A A) +A = A appears that/. i. and consider the equation A +A A =A + (A A) = AIn this form (0 in we have an identity. however. equation (2) becomes (3) A + e=A* See the first of Hamilton's discussion of equation (2) will be found. We shall also assume that we always have A A = o. from/. it. as a the operator which moves p over 2 x directed length. Art. Lectures on Quaternions. where a very Also Grassmann (1862).
] SUM AND DIFFERENCE OF TWO POINTS. that A> A> A> A are the order. what is the value of the expression A A+A? it We will assume that is some point A> so that we have (4) AA+A=A. whatever meaning points. effect the operator should have on any other point A> that is. if (5) may be assigned to the sum of two we are to be consistent with assumptions already of either pair of opposite cornerof a parallelogram equal to the sum of the other pair. Equation (4) may also be written A+A=A+A. we must have the sum apart of the points forming the pairs. four corners of a parallelogram taken in Thus equal vectors have the same 1 length and direction. points The sum cannot therefore depend on the actual distances made. ^ AA=AAamount and This implies that the transference from direction as that from A to A 1S the same in A to A> that is. for their directions may be opposite. for the ratio of these two distances may be made as large or as small as we please. Note that parallel vectors of equal length are not neces sarily equal. conversely. If is bea scalar quantity.ART. vectors having the same length and direction are equal. is. 2. that the point will be moved n times the length of e . ne will denote that the operation to be performed n times on a point to which ne is added. ~~' Since A A is > ~" (A A)> ** of a vector direction. if any. so that. The A A question arises as to what. hence . of a point 377 Thus the sum the first by the length of and a vector is a point distant from the vector and in its direction. and. If a vector of the same length appears that the negative in the opposite A A is or A = A> A must coincide with A because there now no difference between the two points.
that we shall have .* Again. of three vectors represented is by the sides of a triangle taken around in order Similarly. Consider the sum that is.p n be any points whatever taken as corners of a closed polygon. zero. . Art. is [Chap. the sum being that diagonal which passes through the origin of the two vectors. (5) since. and * Grassmann (1844). let AA = . hence the A p sum if x +/.378 grassmann's space analysis. Grassmann (1844). the operators that will move a point from the starting position along the successive sides back to this position again. (A. then the two diagonals of this parallelogram will represent respectively the sum and difference of the two vectors. e4 . 95.)+(AA)= o By is is the sum of vectors represented is order about the polygon zero. but formed. and Hence. opposite direction according to the sign of In the figure above. 4.Then e. 227. so that the final distance from the startingpoint will be nothing. Points. positive or negative. Art. +(A . Sum of Two Weighted **.A)+ is. t) . . by the sides taken in "taken in order" is not must be observed meant that any in particular order of the points forming the polygon. Also. ea =/. in which m and m^ are x numbers. f p p it t are points.! scalars. (6) two vectors are drawn outwards from a point. and the difference that which passes through their extremities. 3. VIIL ne a vector n times as long as e.A)+(A. A = A T Ae.A)+(A. the parallelogram of which these are two adjacent sides is completed.e e. which simply that. + + (. the vectors will be . . . if *. and (1862).A+ wtA> 15. i AA = p = % e 3> A A=e 4 . when the polygon evidently unnecessary./ =o= e. 2 e i> A A=e /. p p9f it . p +A t /. and having the same or the n.A. + e = A A + A A =A A +A ~A = A~ A = by Eq.
say m^. (8) . Denoting sumpoint by/. the reader may initially as like or unlike parallel forces acting at the points. m x Hence. be consistent with those already made./ 2 whose distances from/. its direction from each point is the same.A Transposing. assigned to the points p and/ When any weight is of unit value the figure I will be omitted. to p and from/ . two weighted shows that/ must negative. / and / / a are vectors whose to lengths are respectively the distances from/. and/ 3 one. / must be the point whose weight is greatest. so that p means I/. we (7> write *i A+ m (p l l . a / _/a Both members of (8) are vectors. however. first. 2 . or . let points.. nearest. a point. consider the weights To assist his thinking. that of the its that the sum is weight is the this sum of the weights two given points. they must r by Art. 8V and. which will prove to viz. . 379 The scalars m x and w 2 will i be regarded as values or weights 2 . being equal. and / is on the same side of each point. a letter may be used to denote a point whose weight is not unity. since /. lie be tween /. be parallel. and is called a unit point. and / 2 are inversely proportional to the weights of these points. and / Also. we have = m + **t)A / p) = m (p ( i 2 a ). Also. / is a point on the line /. 4. that is. and second. Occasionally. 3.] sum of two weighted points. This requires that/ shall be collinear with /.Art. / 2 it follows that these distances are in the ratio of m^ to . We shall call If m and m^ x / the mean point but if of the are both positive. since its distances from the two points are inversely as their weights. is m i =m^ (9> Thus *i(A 7) = **/(A /). we shall In order to arrive at a meaning for the above expression make two reasonable assumptions.
/ form a harmonic range. and yet is equidistant from them. m *P% = m ~ m ^)P = o.A = * i(/i and /A =// = oA (10) (") Thus/ the same direction from each point. since nence since / cannot be zero. vector. us consider the equality of weighted points in Hence. that is. p and/a being i = Thus different points. [Chap. as stated in Art. that/> shall be at an infinite distance. hence the points . if two points are equal. Compare the case of the resultant of unlike parallel forces of equal magnitude. /. (10) shows that a zero point Art. =p r m^o. find the : sum and two weighted points and pt 3A 2 p" 1 + A = 4A 3 _ ~~*j 3A . p say * x A =A s tne condition that p and m l l =m l m iPi m l ~~ . the sum is in this case a point of zero weight at infinity/)Eq. or directed quantity. or else. This reis in which evidently p iy quires either that the two points shall coincide. The reciprocals of the 2p> viz. Exercise *Grassmann I 2. as and the mean points are *f B Pi shown in T ip the figure. positions identical. . by (7). m 1  dition equations (7) m^ = o.. p p = 0. that is. or. their weights is. 222. any /. p % satisfies (10) and (11). To 3/. Art. . VIII. It has been shown in . that they are the must be the same and same point. . l 1 u) x % is. not between them. p. coincide general. that ( i > a % . or m = m and therefore m (p p = o. Given a circular disk with a circular disk of (1862). there is found i p^.A = 2/. from p 9 distances of p. difference of the their Exercise 1. or m % = and (8) become f m A) * x With this con 0*iA+*. J. 2 that let at infinity is equivalent to a 1.380 Case when grassmann's space analysis. p v and are in arithmetical progression. Therefore.
4. Prob. 4. Sum of any Number of Points. 2. An inscribed rightangled triangle is cut from a circular is show that the centroid of the remainder of the disk (37T 2 sin at the point 2a) p x A sin 2a of the triangle. there were a weight 4 at A> and a weight * at / s . its p % the opposite vertex and a one of angles. As points in the last article is whose weight .A) A A . 1 (13) an equation which gives a simple construction for If A 2m = o. and 2mp = m.i(A + A)] + 3 = (7A . Then it is as 1 P = [4A . and subtract . at the point of contact and The areas of the two cirf.A ~~ w aA are four points forming a harmonic range. 2mp = p2m. n then m = 1 2m. as in the figure to find the centroid of the remaining portion.p.A) + 6. then at of small circle. t$ cles are as if 4 .] sum of two weighted points. Art. call them 1 and 4. . equal to the n we assume the sum to be a point sum of the weights of the given n ( 1 thus. Take/. e2m 1 from both sides of (12) thus we have e) 2m(p 1 = (/ n e)2m. hence Show that A> A> m iP\ + w aA> anc ^. disk . Prob. 1. + 2mp = m\ A~ 2mp 2m J> (i4> . $(7t if sin 20L) A is the center of the circle. A = (A I : at center center of large circle. 381 half its radius removed. n 2) Let e be some fixed point.' Art.
[Chap.(A s ')> Now.. put e=p then p ) f. by making e=p P A = 4(A A) + 5(A A) . m = 3 5..A) = A . and J p = 2{p% /.')+ mlP~ + *(P ')=(**i+* +in )(pe). 3 a s t 3 t k As another example take/ = 4/. **iA f*]}p. VIII. then 2 + W *A + m%P% = Oi + ^ + (15) *i(A .2(A .). may be any point whatever.A . plt any point of the system is the mean of all the Let n = 3 in (12) and (13). p p since e 3 = (A in the figure. since any one of the points may be taken as others.e. then p will have passed outside the triangle z have crossed p^p s and p p v through p e must evidently always be in the plane p p^p v i. it will The point x As a numerical example let m = 3. and. (16) and/ on the line joining the point m p + m p with/. e) t % t is x x t t If m z be negative and numerically less than m x \ w 3 . so that (16) becomes pe = f (p e)+ 2(A . equation (14) shows that/j is the mean of all the other points of the system. Since all designated as p if it follows that the line joining any point of the system to the mean of any point of the system may be all the others is parallel to any other such line. x .2(p p ). and whose times the distance between these points. or a vector whose direction is parallel to the line joining p with x the mean of length is m x the other points of the system.e) . and therefore inside the triangle AAA ^ tne ms are a ^ positive. a .A+A A +/ ./z 3 = 4. s. will x less than % m . f" 5A ~ 2A ^A> or.382 grassmann's space analysis.). then/ have passed across the line p^p 2 to the outside of the triIf m and m^ are negative and their sum numerically angle. so that the sum becomes the difference of two unit points. If 2mp = i n o. and the construction is shown p p = (p /. (13).
Similarly four noncoplanar points cannot be connected by an equation like (19) unless each coefficient is separately zero. **iA + be . The trated. (17) That three points shall collinear. o. (20) . If no such relation can exist between the / / / * quantities. A+ A+ That four points f*xPx It (18) shall be coplanar.] sum of any number of points.A = 0= o./. 383 When any number of geometric quantities can be connected with each other by an equation of the form 2m/> = o.Art. they are independent. then they arc said to be mutually dependent. 9 a *ii +*e = o. *. significance of these statements will be presently illus The vectors : following are corresponding equations of condition for shall That two vectors be parallel. We obtain from what has preceded the following conditions: That two points shall concide. that is. any one can be expressed in terms of the others. 4. in which the m's are finite and different from zero. + **%Px + / + tn p = K h (19) follows that three noncollinear points cannot be connected by an equation like (18) unless each coefficient is separately zero.
>.) % % x . cuts ^ a <? in /. es which by It (18) requires el9 e^.+V. *ii + +ne = 3 z o. p x oJ x . [Chap.) be four points so taken that then (21) becomes . Let/^v. x x /. or by (22) n ex + n^ + n = o.e. . + +n = n.*.. . = yi.*. .>.. will ex be collinear e9 =3 e. ez to be collinear.n.^/2 . in p a to show that x : p . e% *.  + x  + "Ae* 3 '.. (2i> or These conditions follow from the results of Art.+V. o. Hence. let e . + n .yof y x because x on the line joining t% x are scalars. the extremities of the three vectors. 2. .p and/. e .*. may be shown similarly that i 4 =o i i (23) are the conditions that four vectors radiating from a point shall have their extremities coplanar.{y +y )e = o. x . x A = *<A + *'. ^3 coincide respectively with n e f. and yet are connected by a . : for.('. y ^'s x n )e + [x x +y {n e + . are collinear. Vim That three vectors shall be parallel to one plane.. and q q cuts * *. 3 . and ^ + n. e% = '.('. . e% =e '.n e + x x hence (*.) I t Now the are not collinear. .384 GRASSMANN S SPACE ANALYSIS.. . . Exercise 3. Given a triangle e^e x e^ and a point p plane.e if with q etc.) t . pe cuts e e% x x in its pe cuts e% e9 in in qot q >pe% cuts x Vi ^ ^ft&cuts^in/. e3 e% *.) = O. if (22) radiating from a point. then ^ lies ^. equations (17) and (18) by regarding the e's as points If in addition to (21) we have n t from at infinity. n.
)/. substituting value of/. hence. 385 of the form of equation (18). therefore. + . ~P) = i(e + O + j(^ Q a /). = 2ne . by (18).)*. 2 . + e + x{e . .) + *('. therefore. Adding.2ne+2n) = i(e + e )+jie 2ne+2n). .  . %) '. each coefficient zero.Sfi* + n& . whence we hence fa = *xyj*x = y> + ?x = find x x =n nv = n e n e and similarly (n . + (. 3. It must be of and substituting we find p' as above. + or.Vu (*.*)> = O + [(* x t x x .ART. each coefficient must be zero accordingly relation . hence i)2n 4.yj + 2^. as was there shown.)A + (. as in the previous exercise. 1 1 . * ysh > : x : . x 2 conditions the vector from the middle point of e e^ a multiple of the vector e p hence / = #'. Exercise 4. + (. and ej> y */ show that eu e^ and . Show that e = $2$ is 2 collinear with p and p' of Exer .)a = vrVf *)/.y. lines through the middle e e x of the triangle parallel meet in a point /= By the to p' is [(. = /. + (*.n (y [{x x)]e + n (y x)e . .] SUM OF ANY NUMBER OF POINTS. p of p lt / 2 are collinear. follows also that the distances of p' from the middle points the sides are the halves of the distances of p from the oppoJ. + *. Prob. Let / e^e x e% : i ^w be any point in the plane of the triangle points of the sides to e p. 4. a / = 4('. whence x =y = site vertices. e p. + . we have (*.)A =o .}?.
e e e 2 an equilateral triangle: show that the cencircles centers at * . 175*3 + 239(^1 + '. xext yex . point/ may occupy any is position whatever in the plane e Q e e 9 on the line joining we. x. with p% and px Radii of circles 4 and 1. have a off tetrahedron of plane parallel to e a e t e 2 volume cut and one of ^ by a of x its . will be at / = tV(iK ~ A Prob. by properly choosing/. e e xt e^ Let p be any unit point. after the small areas are removed. GRASSMANN S SPACE ANALYSIS. 5. as in the figure.)+ J "'Je ne e i e 3 1 If a tetrahedron of its . 4. . p may be moved along . three fixed unit points. 2/1 )=BV(S9^ ~ 4*i  3'. and w. small circle and ellipse touching large circle at e 9 and e respectively. on the opposite and the common point of the perpendiculars to the sides at their middle points. The x . writing p we must have also. w x remaining constant. V I1I. If I of a sheet of tin in the shape of an isosceles triangle be folded over as in the figure. then. (24) because/ is a unit point. it follows that e is colcommon point of the perpendiculars from the vertices sides. Prob. Given two and an ellipse.y scalars . show that its centroid is given by 3^ = *[35('t Prob.). linear with the Also that. x l troid of the remainder of the large circle. . and for p it is the mean of the weighted points we e %i . 6. show by a plane parallel to e e % e % that the centroid of the remaining solid is at off volume cut /= dn>(227*o + Art. + xe + ye x % . axes of ellipse 2 and 4. . + xe with x and by varying y and w + x. + *.386 cise 4. (25) w + x+yi. 5.) ) Reference Systems. = we. t [Chap.
we have (28) P=? from which it + *('. e may also be easily seen that in the plane e% ex ev Writing/ p = xe t = p. and the For reasons that will aptriangle e e^ 2 is a reference triangle.Art. from (26) and (27) find . + xe x +ye % + ze w\x\y\z~\\ as (27) and p may be shown above to be capable of occupying any position whatever in space by properly assigning the values of w. 2 . Eliminating w between (24) and (25). in any vector whatever being equations (29) and expressible terms of these (30). 9 and 6 three. e t e = p may be any point e. e 2 form a plane reference system for vectors. e 3 are a reference for vectors in solid space..oo . et form a reference system for points in threedimensional space. and / may thus be given any position whatever in the plane. taking a fourth point e a .. e l} e = e2 .] REFERENCE SYSTEMS. ~ O.. we write (26) p which implies also we. 5. the reference vectors are of . . + points to which the positions of other points may be referred is called a reference system.y.. from x 387 this line oo to f. of unit A system pear the double area of this triangle will be taken as the unit of measurement of area for a point system in twodimenlater. If. Similarly. in = **x +?e + *. The tetrahedron e^ete % is called the reference tetrahedron. while by varying the ratio x the oo to along e e lf point we j.z\ so that <?.O +jK<. sional space. <28) becomes + ye we t (29) and e.xe may be moved from and thus the first line will be rotated through 1 80 degrees. in solid space. Similarly. x. system (30) ea . and six times its volume will be taken as the unit of volume for a point system in threedimensional space.
VIII.. e^ = K 2ne. we have at once . 3 instead of e. and mutually perpendicular. e9 5. as given. e ex ' e^ may are given in terms of the old be found by elimination. et ' % et \ The new reference points must be connected with the old ones by equations such as e = /. x .x e will be expressed terms of the new reference points by substituting the values x x t in of e . If points.x e f. reference system to an other. e. e9 . et ' ' = = 2me.. z 2 z will generally be used .388 unit length grassmann's space analysis. t Then any point/ = x e {. Thus.. say from e lt e^ to e '. etc. we have unit. normal reference systems. if e 2le y e \ e x .'. .' + J/' + lf{% ei = .' + *// + *V'. [Chap. Exercise To change from one e . and in this case z..'.
/o .
2 f See Art. two sects determine a point. This is the any fundamental difference between this algebra and the linear factors more new quantity different from associative special case. The fundamental Thus. and also a length. that a product of two or more factors is that which is determined by those factors.Z. 3 == p. products Products of the kind here considered are termed " combinatory. It appears. in plane space. Chap. and also an area. that a product in may have different interpretations in spaces will consider separately of different dimensions. we will give a table which will serve as a sort of bird'seye view of the subject. will appear later. Art. but confined to the line through these two points. in which p is not in edges. the shortest distance between them . in but two sects. 6. The sect has position in addi p x . VIII." because two or combine to form a one of them. as general In solid space. or generated by a point moving from p l to p^. Again. The student should note p^p^ and/> 2 the sect p^p t carefully the difference between they have the same length and direction. so that Z. or stereometric products. [Chap. hence /./. algebras of Peirce. two lines do not. Before discussing (1862). .390 grassmann's space analysis. in detail * Grassmann (1844). =L is the sectf drawn from rectilinearly p to/ x 2 . and those in plane space. determine a tetrahedron of which they are opposite a unit point. p is not. 2. in general. viz. however. Chap. of which quaternions are a the various products that may arise. . is x tion to the direction and length possessed by the vector. while the vector/. meet.. I. the intersection of the lines in which they lie. or planimetric solid space. therefore.. and hence cannot fix a point this case. Nature of Geometric Multiplication* idea of geometric multiplication is. . two points determine a line passing through them. Hence we products.
6. etc. L x . 391 In this table and generally throughout the chapter we shall use/. or lines.. as used in this and P. Tj lf e. lf planevectors etc. ?/. Also/. L.. The products are arranged in two columns./... for sects. for points.Art. so as to bring out the geometric principle of duality. etc. for planesects. for etc. .. A>A> etc. for vectors. or planes. P table will not generally be unit points.] NATURE OF GEOMETRIC MULTIPLICATION. . etc.. Planimetric Products.. AA = L. e e3 .
392
grassmann's space analysis.
[Chap. VIII.
Laws
of
products are
Combinatory Multiplication. assumed to be subject to the
All
combinatory
distributive law ex
pressed by the equation
A(B+C)=AB + AC.
The planimetric product of three points or of three lines, and the stereometric product of three points or planes, or of four points or planes, are subject to the associative law. That is,
In Plane Space
:
AAA =AA A = A AA
AAA = A A A = A A A
I
L L%L = L,L .L = L L,L
x
t
2
3
.
t
3
.
In Solid Space
;
:
ftV. = P.
;
tt = Pf,
ft
AAAA = A AAA =AA A/*
The commutative law
hold.
PPPPP PPPPP
may
pp
of scalar algebra does not, in general,
Instead of
this, in the products just given as being asso
ciative, a
law prevails which
be expressed by the equation
AB=
from which
it
 BA,
two
single
follows that the interchange of any
factors of those products changes the sign of the product.*
Since vectors are equivalent to points at law holds for e^e^ and rjjjjjf
oo
,
the associative
Art.
Product of
Art.
6,
7.
Planimetric Products.
Points.f
Two
This has been
its
fully defined in
and
it is
evident from
nature as there given that
(32)
A A = A AIf
p
p
x ,
this
becomes p p
x
x
=
o,
which must evidently be
true, since the sect
is
now
of
no length.
(33)
Also,
* Grassmann
A(A A) =AA AA = AA(1862),
Chap.
3.
+
Grassmann
(1862), Arts. 245, 246, 247.
ART.
7.]
PLANIMETRIC PRODUCTS.
2
393
But/
p
x
is
a vector, say, e
e
;
hence
\
A = AA
vector by a point fixes the point.
its
(34)
or the product of a point and a vector rection and magnitude of the vector
;
a sect having the dior, again, multiplying a
is
it
position
by making
pass through
To
find
under what conditions pp'
3
Take any other
and write /
=
will be equal to /,/ 2 the plane space under consideration, point / xj> % +xj> p' =y,p y,p, x,p yj> with
.
in
x
+
x
the conditions for unit points
2x = 2y = o.
x x
n
+
+
Then
If this
jf 3 jj/ 3
pp'
is
y
l
y,
AA +
xy
x
y* y
PJ*
+
AAy* y>
to reduce to
x
s a y* x*y unless the coefficient of /,/,
x
/,/, we must have the third condition = o, which requires that x = y = o,
a %
is
to vanish also.
If,
.
Thus //' must
in
be
x
in
the same straight line with/,/,.
x
moreover,
addition
x y^
to p'
is
AA
is equal 1, x^y /,/2 when, and only when, the four points are collinear, and distant from/ by the same amount and in the same direc
=
we
shall
have pp'
Hence pp'
tion that/,
is
from/,.
Art. 6 the product is what In solid space they would is determined by the three points. fix a plane, but, as we are now confined to plane space, this is
Product of Three Points.
By
not the case.
points evidently fix either a triangle or a will be parallelogram of twice its area, and the product taken as the area of this, or an equivalent, parallelogram.
The
AAA
This area
it
is
is
taken rather than that of the triangle, because
it
what
is
generated by/,/, as
till it
is
3
.
moved
parallel to its
initial
position
passes through
x
/
We have pjtj> ./ / /, .p p, = AAA. so that we go around the triangle in the opposite sense the sign is changed. As this product possesses only the properties of magt a 3 3
=p
=
if
nitude and sign
it is
scalar.
Write /
=
3
2xp, p'
=
3
^yp p"
y
=
3
*2zp
;
then
394
grassmann's space analysis.
[Chap. VIIL
x x x
\ x
2
z
PP'P"
=
y
x
y, y*P,P.P*\
(35)
Art.
7.]
PLANIMETRIC PRODUCTS.
395
determined by
L
1
and Z 2
//,/,.
is
then the same that
we have
given as the value of
We
is
write therefore
4A = AA AA = AAA
The
third
A
(38)
member
of (38)
not to be regarded as derived
from the second by ordinary transposition and reassociation of the points, for the associative law does not hold for the four
points taken together, since //,/ A simply results from the definition of L
as a
=
X

Tne
It
tnird
member
be taken
L^
may
model form which
to
will
be found to apply to several other
cases, for instance
(38)
when
points and lines are intert
changed throughout. Thus, if/, = L L and /, = Z Z we have (39) AA = L L Z Z = L L L Z For take //and //so that/,// = Z, and/ //= L p p is
2
. l
2
X
2
.
.
2
%
\
x
%
evidently
some multiple
of
Z
,
say
nL
;
hence
AA = *. = ^( A A A A') (AA
=
AA')
by
(38),
= ^AA'A)(AAA'A)>
2
AAA' AAA' AA> because /,/,// and
AAA' are
scalar,
=
l
~
(AA AA' AAO
2
.
4,,
by
(38),
= Z Z,Z Z
cated, but
,
which was to be proved.
Product of Three Sects.
The method has
:
just
been indi
we may
,
Z
,
Z,,
Z
,
a
and
l
let
Let the lines be proceed thus be their common points. Take /,/,,/,
also
scalars n Q
n
n% so that
,*>*, ./,/,
Z
=
}
n9 p
x
p
etc.,
then
Z Z,Z =
2
AA AA =
.p ip
n * n Jh
A A A A AA
2

=  n n^ .p,p p
uct of this kind, the
p
1
= ^^(AAA)
(40)
" " " * Grassmann to a prodregressiv applies the terms "eingevvandt and first term being used in the Ausdehnungslehre of 1844,
in that of 1862.
and the second
See Chapter 3 of the
first,
and Chapter
3^
Art. 94, of the second.
396
grassmann's space analysis.
[Chap. VIII.
Product of a Point and
let Z,
Two
then
Sects.
Let/ be any point and
(40
and
Z
9
be as
in (38)
;
pL,L
It
%
= p.p p, Pop, = A AAA A = AAA ./ApL
.
has been here assumed that
uct
is
not associative, for
x ,
x
pL L Z is
x
2
p L
.
X
L^.
The prod2
2
the line
Z
times the
a different meaning from that assigned in (41). As a rule, to avoid ambiguity, the grouping of such products will
scalar pL
be indicated by dots. Product of
Two
Parallel Sects.
Let them
be^e and
.
np 3 e;
then, as in (38),
A*
that
is,
np % e
= n .p e .p e =
x
t
n.ep
1
.
ep t
=
n
00
ep
%
.
e,
(42)
a scalar times the
common
point, and
point at
.
Addition and Subtraction of Sects.
sects,
Let Z, and
Z
2
be two
that
A = AA A = PoP, then A + A =AA +AA = A(A +A) = zp p,
;
p
their
common
p
x
and
p
t
so taken
(43)
p
being the mean of/,
and/
2;
hence the sum
is
that diagonal
of the parallelogram which passes through
p
.
Also
(44)
AA=A(AA),
by
Z, and Z 2 If the two sects are parallel let
.
so that the difference of the two passes also through p and is parallel to the other diagonal of the parallelogram determined
them be n p
x
x
e
and # 2/ 2 e;
(45)
then
*iAe
+ n,P^ =
is
(Mi
+ M.) = (, +
,)/
so that the sum
a sect parallel to each of them, having a length equal to the sum of their lengths, and at distances from
inversely proportional to their lengths.
them
If
n the two sects are oppositely directed and of equal length, and the sum is w2
x
=
(A >.e)
Avhich, being the product of
=
,(A
A).
is
(46)
two
vectors,
a scalar area.
Art/7.]
planimetric products.
j
397
,
Consider next n sects p e ,p 3 e 2 arbitrarily chosen point; then
1
,
.
.
.
pn en and
let e
be some
= e 2e + !(/  *,)e. (47) /e The second term of the third member of this equation, being a sum of double vector products, that is, a sum of areas, is itself
i/ =
e.Se
 e 2e +
equal to the product of any two nonparallel vectors of suitable lengths. Therefore, a and /3 being such vecis
an area, and
tors, write
2e
=
= a/3. 2pe = e a + aft = (e a and 2(p
e )e
Hence
fl)
(47)
become
(48)
a
.
Let q be some point on the
%
line
2pe
;
then
q2pe =0 = qe a + qa/3 = qe a + a/3, by (37) hence qe a = a/3 = /3a.
Q
The
figure presents the geometrical
mean
ing of the equation, and hence it appears that qa{ 2pe) is at a perpendicular distance from
e
of
afl
Ta
_ ~
2{p

e )e
'
T2e
(49)
It is easily seen that a sect possesses the
exact geometrical
properties of a force, namely, magnitude, direction,
and position, and the discussion of the summation of sects which has just
been given corresponds completely to the discussion of the
sultant of a system of forces in a plane.
re
In this algebra, then,
the resultant of any system of forces is simply their sum, and this will be found hereafter to be equally true in threedimensional space.
The
expression
e )e of
in (46)
corresponds to a couple,
this equation proves
is
,
as does also the
2(p
(47);
and
the proposition that any system of forces in a plane
equiva
lent to a single force acting at an arbitrary point, e
and a
couple.
Equation (49) gives the distance of the resultant from
this arbitrary point.
Exercise
7.
To
find x, y, z
from the scalar equations
398
grassmann's space analysis.
[Chap. VIII.
Multiply the equations by add hence
;
pvi p%%
3
and
p
t
respectively,
and
3
3
x^ap
i
f
y~2bp
i
+ z~2cp = 2dp.
:
ii3
. .
Now
2ap, ^bp
y
etc., are points
multiply the equation just
written by
2ap.2bp; thus
z2ap ^bp^cp
.
=
2ap 2bp 2dp,
because
z
2ap 2ap
.
= o,
etc.;
therefore
= 2ap.2bp.2dp+2ap. 2bpcp = [>,,
<K>
t
,
2
,
<rj,
x and y
points.
a very simple proof of the determinant solution. Of course will be found by multiplying by the other pairs of
e2
f
Exercise
8.
Forces are represented
of the sides of a par
by given multiples
;
allelogram Let the parallelogram be double the triangle e e ev and the forces
tt
determine their resultant.
l
k,e n e,
+ke
x
x
(e%

e
)
+
=
k,e,(e
k
e)
(k Q
+
ex x )e
+ k = 2pe + (k + k + (k + k )e e
a
e2 e
s
t
)e e t
x
%
t
t 9.
Multiply by e then
e x to find
where the resultant cuts
this line
;
or */, cuts the resultant at the point
[X^
+
x
A,),,
_(*,
+ *,>,]
t
5
(6,i,).
triangle at [(,
at
9 x
+ kfc  {k + k )e (, +  k k and  {k + *,>,]  (k  k [(k + k )e then each of the three points Suppose k = k = ^ =
x]
Similarly the resultant cuts the other sides of the reference
43
x
)
%
u
a ).
x
,;
;
just found recedes to
infinity
but
in this
**)>
case
2pe reduces
s y stem
to
is
2^(y,'+^+ V.)equivalent to a couple.
2 &fa'*X'*
and the
= 2, k.~ 3, & = 4; when ^ = 3,^ = ^=2,^=
k
1
Prob. ii. Construct the resultant of Exercise 8 2, k 2 1, k 3, k a a
when k
=
=
=
=
i,
x
;
and when k
x
= k^ =
1,
ka
=
3
=
4;
when
2.
ART.
8.]
THE COMPLEMENT.
.
.
.
399
Prob. 12. There are given n points /, .p n to find a point e such that forces represented by the sects ep ep^ etc., shall be in
\ x ,
,
equilibrium.
(The
equation of equilibrium
is
2ep = e2zp =
ep
=
o.
e coincides with the mean point of the/'s.) Prob. 13. If a harmonic range *,,/, e^ p' be given, together with some point e not collinear with these points, show that
Hence
<V,
P
(Let p
Art. 3.)
=me
x
x
f
m^e^
<V/ =  *o P*% '.Am e as and p' = w/,
% %
,
in
Exercise
2 of
Prob. 14.
Show
that the relation of Prob. 13 holds for any four
e e tf
points whatever taken respectively on the four lines e e lt e p, If the four points are all at the same distance from e Q Q p'.
,
show
that the areas e e p, etc.,
x
become proportional
to the sines of the
angles between
e ex
and
e
p, etc.
Art.
8.
The Complement*
Taking point reference systems, or unit normal vector reference systems, as in Art. 5, the product of the reference units taken in order being in any case unity, the complement of any
reference unit
is
the product of
all
the others so taken that
the unit times
its
complement
is
unity.
To
find the
complements
of quantities other than reference
:
units the following properties are assumed (a) The complement of a product is equal to the product of the complements of its factors.
(b)
The complement
of a
sum
is
equal to the
is
sum
of the
complements of the terms added together. (c) The complement of a scalar quantity
the scalar
itself.
Considering now the point system in plane space ew e lt e% with the constant condition e eA e^= 1, the sides of the refer
ence triangle taken in order are the complements of the opposite vertices, and vice versa.
The complement
line, as
\p,
of a quantity
is
indicated
by a
vertical
read,
complement
of p.
* See Ausdehnungslehre of 1862, Art. 89.
400
grassmann's space analysis.
lA
[Chap. VIII*
Thus
= '/t k = <Vo>
k.= v,i
li
kA=l(W=s ^i k.^=kk) =
'i*
ko^
= l(k =
a)
^;
For
I
^ ^
= W, =
I
which agrees with the definition
'A = k
e%
=
?%'%
V, =
V
=
o
Vi =  VA
(
eo
=
*o>
by
(a)
and
I
W=
(38)
;
ko
ki
(*:)
;
k = *A
eQ [e t
'A Vi = V/J' =
1
= VA
which
agrees with
=
e e2 e
=
e \ea
= e^e^
have, by
(b),
Next take any point/,
=
^7^, and
we
\A=2t\?=W>+W.+^=W,(l
Thus
j")g
J)
= A
(50)
the complement of a point is a line,* which may be easily constructed by the fourth member of (50), which expresses this line as the product of the points in which it cuts
the sides
this
e e1
and
e e^
of the reference triangle.
4, it
Comparing
\/> 1
equation with Ex. 3 in Art.
appears that
above
is
related to the point
2
3
e
.
as the line/
/
2
of Ex. 3
is
to the point
2ne.
Hence
\p
1
x
may
e
>
be found by constructing this line corin
responding to
2
as
shown
the figure of Ex.
3,
Art. 4.
Again, the line \p may be shown to be the antipolar of p with respect to an ellipse of such dimensions, and so placed upon e e e 9 that, with reference to it, each side of the reference
x
x
triangle
it
the antipolar of the opposite vertex.* From this appears that complementary relations are polar reciprocal
is
relations.
Take any
point
p = 2me, and we have
2
= 2/m =
*See Hyde's Directional
2me.2l\e=zpt \pit
Calculus, Arts. 4143 and 121123.
(51)
Art.
8.]
THE COMPLEMENT.
is
401
so that this product
sign,
commutative about the complement
true of all such products when the on each side of the complement sign are of the same quantities
and
scalar.
This
is
order in the reference units.
Take
for instance
is
the product
AAlAAhave/,/),
This
is scalar
is
because \p ap A
a point, so that the
;
whole quantity
equivalent to a triplepoint product
I
and we
aa
= IAA AA = AA lAA)
(

==
AA AA> by (a) and
i
such a quantity be taken as/^, \p 9 it is neither (c). If, however, scalar nor commutative about the sign for, \p % being a line, the product is that of two lines, that is, a point, and
.
;
AA A =  A AA = .
I
.
1
I
(A
I
AA).
(52)
Such products as we have just been considering are called Grassmann " inner products," * and he regards the sign by as a multiplication sign for this sort of product. Inasmuch, as these products do not differ in nature from those however, heretofore considered, it appears to the author to conduce to

simplicity not to introduce a nomenclature which implies a new For instance, p\q will be treated as. species of multiplication.
the combinatory product of / into the complement of not as a different kind of product of p into q.
q,
and
The term coproduct may be
applied to such expressions,,
regarded as an abbreviation merely, after the analogy of cosine for complement of the sine.
Consider next a unit normal vector system, tion we have
By the
defini
k==
..
1*.=
i
J
1(10= *i*
because
\i 1
=
z,t 3
=
I,
Also,
2,
z
1
a
Mi==
i
z3
z
l
i
Next
iet
e
m
t
i l
+ m^i,
and
e2
=
n
i
1
1
f n t i 2
;
* Grassmann (1862), Chapter
4.
402
then,
grassmann's space analysis.
[Chap. VIII.
by
(b)
and
I
(c),
ex
=m
it is
x

ix
+ m, = m  m
z

2
x
t,
ttx.
(53)
By
the figure
x
evident that

e, is
a vector of the
same
length as e
and perpendicular to
.
it,
or, in
other words, taking
it
the complement of a vector in plane space rotates
positively
through 90
The
of
e
1
coproduct
sides are
,
e,

e2
is
I
whose
is
e,
and
the area of the parallelogram, two e 2 drawn outwards from a point if
;
parallel to ea
this area vanishes, or e e 9
x ,
= o;
but, since
e2 is
to e 2
;
perpendicular to e 3 hence the equation
e,
must
in this case
be perpendicular
(54)
e1
is
\e,
=
e,
the condition that two vectors
and
e 2 shall
be perpendicu
lar to
each other.
e,

The coproduct
called
e,
,
which
,
will usually
be written
e,,
and
the cosquare of e, is the area of a square each of whose sides has the length Te hence
x ;
r6l
x
=^K=7^
x
(55)
e
x
z,
Let a and a a be the angles between i and and e 2 respectively, as in the figure. Then
e
x
and between
e,
= mn x
%
m.i n
l
=
Te 7e2
x
sin
(or,
a
x ),
(56)
the third
member
being the ordinary expression for the area of
.
the parallelogram e,e 2
6,
.6,
x
Also
i
%
= {m + m i^(n  n = m n + mjt = Te
ix %
x
%
i
x)
x
x
%
x
7e2 cos
(a,
a
x ),
(57)
the last
sin (90
member being found as a) cos ( a ). f or,
x a
before,
remembering that
x
.
^ ^
(57)
we
let e2
=
e,,
whence n
x
tnx
and nt
=m
t
,
we
have
Te
If
2
x
7^ =
ar 2
,
7e
2
=
1,
= sin
= V5 = *; + <. then w, = cos a tn = sin a
x ,
(58)
x
%
,n
x
= cos ^
2,
and equations
(56)
and
x
nometrical formulas sinfo
 a) =
(57) give the ordinary trigosin a2 cos ax cos a, sin ^,
Art.
8.]
THE COMPLEMENT.
{a,
<x t
403
sin
.
and cos
)
== cos
a
x
cos
or,
+ sin a
2 )'
l
or,
Squaring and
2
.
adding (56) and (57), there results
Te
Attention
is
x
.T*e
2
=
e;ie*
= (e,e + fe

e2 )
(59)
which the student may have = AC, in which already noticed, that such an equation as AB AB and AC are combinatory products, does not, in general,
called to the fact,
imply that B = C, for the reason that the equation can usually be satisfied without either factor being itself zero. Thus pL = pL 2 means simply that the two quantities which
x
A(BC)0
are equated have the
Z
2
to have an infinity
same magnitude and sign, which permits of lengths and positions, when p and L
x x
are given.
The equation p
p,
=p
x
p
% ,
or
A (A
~~
A)
/, being unit points, implies, however, at 00 that is, a vector.
,
that/ 2
=A
un ^ ess
A A
anc*
ls
Exercise
9.
A
triangle
its
whose
sides are of constant length
moves
Let
so that two of
vertices remain
on two fixed
lines
:
find the locus of the other vertex.
e e
x
and
e Q e,
be the two fixed
lines,
Let pe be pertriangle. e = xe and pendicular to p'p", p'  = ye,  xe  e9 je2 then /' /"
and pp'p" the
x
=
;
7( je 2
ditions.
constant, by the con.are, ) constant = Also, Tp'e
=c=
/
x
,
say,
e
and Tep
constant
U{e
e
= nc,
mc
9
say.
Hence
~~~
p'
=
Tp'e
.
 p') =
VG
.
Xe
^^
xe
x
__
J
=
m{ye,

#,),
and
similarly
p
= n\(ye
l
).
Therefore
x
pe = p = xe + m(ye,  xe + n
)
\
(ye,
an equation which, with the condition T( ye,
 xe xe =
x
x
),
)
c,
or
j
2
e2 
2xye
x

e2
+x
2
e x
= c\
determines the locus to be a seconddegree curve, which must in fact be an ellipse, since it can have no points at infinity.
Let us rearrange the equation
in
p thus
i
:
p = #[(1
m)e
x
n\
ej
+y[me
+ n\ ej = xe + ye\ say,
. which are Let/ then p e = p. using the .  e9 + 2e+2 + 2 n I l (*o + 2e + x . e' [Chap. . .p' := J e = xe . complement in a vector system. Exercise sides : 10.= x and p\e 2 = y. . then multiye'e and the equa ply successively into pe' e and e'\ therefore pe = in xee\ Substituting these values of x and y tion of condition. and. and let 2 v 2e 2 Then the midrepresent its sides in magnitude and direction. VIII. and the fixed point at e f.. 2e + 2e. + 2e _ n 1 \en n \ 2 2.e 3 the moving line cuts the fixed lines in p' and p n '.: xe 1 {x'\e ^e 2 fj/ 1 e2 . + 2e. 2e n be a vertex of the polygon. . and directed all outbe in equilibrium. pe pe' .. + 2e_ 1 + + OK . Te. l and e Q e2 . Let the fixed lines be e e . 2 we have  el (pe) . = 7e 2 =i. Exercise II.. section perpendiculars to the fixed lines are erected . dle points will be e {e lf en \2ex ~\. . I I we have e2 +(^o+2e 1 2/e = OvK) *+('+*<+*) +2e +e ) 2 3 . A line two passes through a fixed point and cuts fixed lines at the points of inter.e 2 etc. whence p\e. . 2e + . find the locus of the inter section of these perpendiculars. points perpendiculars erected meeting in/. . + e^pej = c\ee')\ a scalar equation of the second degree in p. = (i m)e 1 n e and \ 1 = me 2 +n  ea . proportional to them in ward or Let else all inward. these forces will e magnitude.ef 12 ej= o. which was to be proved. . There if show that given an irregular polygon of n forces act at the middle points of these is sides..404 so that e GRASSMANN S SPACE ANALYSIS... .p"e = ye 1 Q 2 .
. = O. since (. the formula a* 2 1 =b +c % 1 b. me* f. If a. Prob.6. go being angle between the axes. = (63) .ne . = O. 7 and 8. and formulas.  e *)(y e *  p" ) are collinear points. (be* (be^ ae ae. . . ) > ) n x L x + 3 n 2 L.e.. or n e l l + n. e Q \~ e % . ..e. e. o. cos 00)^.). prove 1 2bc cos A.Art. J (60) the two points coincide the two lines coincide. pet 6. + * 9 )> ( me * + ne o)> etc  Art. If three points. Equations of Condition. (me lel to the corresponding sides of the triangle formed by the assumed Prob. will be respectively paralcomplementary triangle. show that the vec# e i)(^ tor perpendicular from e on the line (e ^*) is + + abe. x  + + points (me. ^ and p e 2 e 3 e 3 P< . ss O. 9.ne*. equal to the respective sides.. and Formulas. and hence representing a conic. abee 7= r. . 405 Also. e 9 and . c are the lengths of the sides of a triangle. + *w" or. r AA = o iA + n *P* = / 44 = or . Several equations of condition are placed here together for convenient reference some have been already given others follow from the results of Arts. o. = o.. be 17. me +. the three lines are confluent. e = o = *y*fy+y*A jj/. by taking vectors e. e 3 e. If e e and e e* are two unit lines. o.. . 1 2nL = 1 (61) the three points are collinear e. an equation of the second degree in + + p p. When we have : . p' . . 16. of x _ which the length . me *. [. substituting values of . 15. . then the sides of the ne^). 00 2 from the ab sin f (a + 1 b' 2<zb. 2np = o. (62) the two vectors are parallel (points *i at infinity coincide). AAA = o1 or 444 = or . is x ) T(be* ae From x ) origin this derive the Cartesian expression for the perpendicular upon a straight line in oblique coordinates..] equations of condition. Prob.e* : . 9. taken on the sides of the reference triangle. etc..
e 2 . Chapter 46 and 47. 129. Art. . therefore e.Z. and transpose . (64) either line passes through the plementary line of the other. +e z e.p\i \i. Similarly. = between any three directions in plane 7e 2 = 7e = 1. . e. .. is (1862). either point lies on the com = o. e2 = o. and . Arts. 5 when e\. say. e 2 parallel to e a Multiply both sides of the equation into e 2 therefore pe 2 = x x ex e or x x x = pe a ~ e.pe. parallel to e a and on Let e. a sin /?. Let 7e.pe 2 e 2 .e 2 . pon e.p\i+ip. 5 e 2 e. and multiply (68) into e 3 3. whence e. (69) which equivalent to sin (a /3) = sin a /3 cos the upper or lower sign corresponding to the case * Grassmann (1844). .\i.r2 e a is the projection of p on . VIII. if i x = pi= i. P= VPK + Again. clear of fractions. and e2 be unit normal vectors. +e cos 3 e. (68) a symmetrical relation space. the two vectors are perpendicular Z. e. = e e lt or 2 2 x % = pe. If we write the equation P = *\ e i ei + x ev * x e1 1 is the projection of p on parallel to e 2 . Hyde's Directional Calcu lus. The two terms the projections of respectively. i.  e. 1 and \i\ then (65) (66) becomes p or. [Chap.406 grassmann's space analysis. e2 e 3 1 = o. thus e^ + is e2 e 3 . complementary point of the other. .. e3 + e2 e 3 . of (65) are therefore e 2 parallel to e. multiplying into e we have pe. 1 and z a be used instead of and  z.* of the second member . Z 2 Plv (67) in (65) let p= e3 . .
but ^'s. (72) (73) J 4 AAA.AA and = /AA and by p p v we A A A The substitu . x I z^ZAATUAA^iA+IAA. (70) These formulas being for any which gives the cos (a /?). 9. Write p=xp then \ xp 1 i \x% pv and multiply or 2 equation by pp l i \ AA/ = *oAAA> pp ^ * = /A A ^ AAAfind 5 Multiplying similarly by *.Art. Writing ea instead of e 2 we have eje 2 e 2 e 3 .e 3 e 1 +ee 3 1 . '.A A = . e2 . e1 407 in (69) i between and .e 2 e 3 = 0.A AAA + A AAA = A A A A A AAA. the derivation of them following after.L 4 .A 444 + 4 444 . are independent of the magnitude of the angles involved. AW. Al?. .ZJ /^(AAArClAAAA + IAA/IA + AAA /IAU 1 (70 .^IA+IAz. . = /AA */. and all placed together for arranged convenient reference. AA.L + A ZZ. . in /=(AAA)" [A /A A + A /A A + A /AAL Z=( AAA)'[4 LL L + L LL. A 4W Jf. ^ AW _ ?i ' AW Al AW Al I A ft a I?. There is given below a set of formulas for points and lines. complementary pairs. three directions in plane space. X % . The complementary formula Derivation of Equations (71) to (77) is may be obtained by putting Z's and M's for /'s and (77). respectively.] EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 44 44 = . r. or outside. Equation this (71). AND FORMULAS. not given.L Lt Lt t 1 AA *3= A 4 if.
2mq.=[/ J[A ju fj. Sub'1*1 ft *!*. ? () A *** etc. but write p Q = 2lq. .p x = 2mq.408 GRASSMANN S SPACE ANALYSIS.p p 2 s ~ x xp y by PA* therefore pp% . stituting solution may also be obtained directly without the use of (77). first [Chap. proceed in a similar way. also I w o* + 2 + A Let the q's be as above. .?.?. for/. first Equation (74). of (71). In the of (73) put p pK % = \q x .p = 2 2nq. and multiply AAA ftftft = ftft AA I ft IA+ ftft lAA Alft A'ftl ft A+ ftft AA Alft ft lA =A by Alft ft Alft Alft Alft is +Alft Alft A'ftl + Alft Alft Afft A'ft (76). (38). [ft = /o A o + + l*K> A ^== 2 [A . * Grassmann (1862). p = 2me. VIII.p*p. A= ft Multiply (75) by/. and the second may be found by simply putting Z's or Equation values of (72). Art. these values in (77). + ypv and multiply AAA x > =~ 9 x . = *PP*Pi = *P%PP or * PiPtPv MultiplyA/A we find _y =AAA> anc * on substituting obtain the ing by pp For the second put p 'p % p p A = *p s \ypv and first of (73).=2fq. 173. q=2fxe.p. . // vj . Equation Equation In the fourth of (73) put kit AA =A A = (76). = Xpp% p or.p^.=2re. Equation (77). In the first of (72) put byAAAftft then . (73). Then p p p.27tq=[/ o x . x = x \p p + x p. is tion of these values gives the similarly obtained or p's in the first.q = 2\e. p = 2ne.p + x = %*P*P\Pv Find in the x % x \ % \ p p and o iy same way Equation Write p p . Write/ . = [/ m x1 J. q. 2 To show the product of two determinants as a determinant of the same order.]?. Let p then = 2le. . (75). which equivalent to the third order determinant of equation (77)* Exercise 12. we have the required result. by Eq. multiply into \p o x thus// x and x% and substitute.. x 9 pp x p.
the equation of the locus. p 2 p) . It may be shown in way that the lines joining corresponding vertices are Exercise 14. AND FORMULAS. x . Prob. Use equation Prob. % 2 " . Show (73). If the sides of a triangle pass through three fixed points. however.L^ and p" with pp^.ART. find the locus of /\ the other vertex. 9. Z 2 hence substituting o. then the locus of the three fixed points of the last exercise p breaks up into two straight lines. is that of a conic. . . symmetrical. 18. using (74). collinear. and easily remembered t and/ a .] EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. p' figure.* which on being substituted in Equation (77)./ " p/ \ * \ \ L 7>^r >'p\ _. AAlA=AAlA+AAlA. /. p'p zp" cides with pp^. f tne tr * angle p p^p % cut the corresponding sides \p 3 \p plementary triangle in three collinear points. Show that the sides AA AA> P%P% . AA !A = AAlA+AAlA> of which the sum is zero. Then = \ coin x = of the second degree in/. /" the s .AAlA = AAlA+A. Exercise x 13. being {pp L^)p z (L^.""/ M \ vertices of the triangle. 409 Also /.AiA. exhibits the a very compact. 19. in product form. showing that the points are the same confluent. and two of the sides pass through fixed points. = l^\e + l 2fie + l^ve t with similar values (or p AAA g lvQ tne resu lt. as in the o. which. (This statement is. that * These methods lines and points are replaced by points and may be applied to determinants of any order by using a space of corresponding order. is reciprocally related to that of Exercise 14. \p 2 of the com The three points of intersection are. find the envelope of the other side. If the vertices of a triangle slide on three fixed lines. that if are collinear. and two of the vertices slide on fixed lines. / p iy Let the fixed points and lines be p p L iy L and /.
Stereometric Products. hence such products = o. . generated by the product AAA the parallelogram A>A when Pi it moves e. and of two points 7. grassmann's space analysis. say J ' 7s^ 4 \ ume S* \/ x AAAA. 10.f from which appears that AAAA f tetrahedron vanishes.e. Grassmann (1862). or both. then m AAAA = 2&e2le2me2ne = [k v/A 333 000 it parallel to its initial position " e then e'. that is. because this is the volume of the parallelepiped i. then the envelope of L reduces to two points and the line joining them.anc of f  s* x times the value of volis this r tetrahedron ta ^ en the the product. space is the same as in See Art. A = <27* A = 2me. VIIK and the resulting equation will be an equation of the second order in Z. in solid The product plane space. Of course AAA of Product Four Points. so that the four points are coplanar. 263. they differ only in magnitude..p = 2ne. Art. * Grassmann (1862). in Art. or sign. to p v Let (78) 3 t ot /. an area hence three points determine a is a planesect AAA or a portion of the plane fixed by the three points whose area is double that of the triangle AAAIt may be shown. Art. from/. in the manner used in this plane.) Prob. A A= A A= AAAA = AAA*" = AA*V = A<*V'. [Chap. as in Any .] . that no planesect. a variable line. Art. c2^. A= If/. Product of Three Points. S (79) any two quadruple products of points differ from each other only by a scalar factor. Art. also. the volume of the If are themselves scalar. 7 for the sect. 255. Show that if the three fixed lines of Problem 19 are confluent. plane. . 7.410 lines respectively. 20. not can be equal to AAA* and that any planesect in this plane having the same area and sign will be equal to AAA**' is not now scalar. 5 x Any 2^ * _ \ y ^p\ x _\/ \ \ four noncoplanar points determine a tetrahedron.
then . e =x e +^ e +xe = 1 1 2 2 % % 2xe. Two 7. *. namely. 10. direction. and is not scalar Also.ART.. e" = 2ze 3 . 411 Product of area as in Art. and ee' e" is therefore the volume of this parallelepiped. Vectors. and write l . Three vectors determine a parallelepiped as in the figure above.] STEREOMETRIC PRODUCTS. 33 e f For = 2 ye. while p x e x e^ is fixed in position by passing through/. that is. Product of Three Vectors. so that the but they also determine now a plane direcproduct e^e. is a planevector.. toward a certain e^ differs from p e^ has a definite x x <G % now just as e area and plane line at infinity. The two vectors determine an tion. Equation (37) there fore does not hold in solid space. differs from pe . Any other triple vector let e l product can differ from this only in magnitude and sign. e i be such a product. as in plane space.
P x n x ep.412 grassmann's space analysis. . . substituting in (84).1 p % . = 023 031 012 = 023 0123 2 . and let Let them be L and A be their common and point. and is equivalent hence. the three planes are parallel to a single line. .(AAAA)' * Grassmann (1862). to a planevector. 01 = (AAAA) A 3 . . (85) and P a are parallel. 230. P. [Chap. If be at infinity. n% common may be so * points of the planes taken taken that # P = AAA> then PPPP = l i t nji x n % n % 9 123. t] . and etc.012 (88) = *. . . (87) the suffixes being used instead of the corresponding points. so that the product should be Hence we write these two factors. A and may be written above. (85) must be the square of a volume times the common point of the three planes or.* Let the planes be P . 300. Art. say to at infinity. replacing by e.. ] it < 8 3> L is parallel to P. A*> Pop! = AAAA is A = LP. and then treated as Product of Four PlaneSects. and one face made up LP = AA AAA = PP J J* PL =P.L^Pf. three by three. while and are such points that Lp and P. ?A = ?AA = By ^and (83) this (86) Product of Three PlaneSects. if p A> be taken in such manner that A = AAA. {83) becomes PL = Two LP= eA eAA = eA AA ' e ' Product of let x PlaneSects.. ^3 = AAA P. Lp2 then P and P9 determine the line L x = A A \ x also a parallelepiped of which they are two adjacent Pf^Lp^.* . L P = and and be their intersection. If . If P.PJ. A A then . etc. and./^. VIII. is '/ L PA = >ZA . 301 . p at infinity. Let them be P x and P ^ and faces. Product of a Sect and a PlaneSect. .Lp^Lp^. . let A A be the four n . . ^ =AAA. A* A so tnat Z=AA point an<^ PPaPtPr L is P evidently determine the A' an d also the parallelepiped of which one edge is L of P. take A. P a .
e 3 so that =* . P. so that l P = Lp l lf then />+/>= Z(A p being the + A) = *M Also (96) mean of A and p 9 . Vectors parallel. . AAAA = AAAA = L.. ?/. . . sect in their common P. e 2 e3 . ee i 6e 2 = = be parallel to each of them. 2 Product of Two PlaneVectors. respectively. 413 ?.ART. (89) and of 7/ a determine a common direction and a paral lelepiped e. . o. Let tf l and be two plane vectors or lines at infinity and e. e. two = o.. AAA = Three points collinear.). and a plane through L parallel to the diagonal plane which is itself parallel to L. 10. e = ViV* because 7. . = w(e e e 2 . Three vectors one plane. Product of Three PlaneVectors. e 3 are common to the planevectors e. and e2 so taken that let 17. = o.P.. P. . Several conditions are given here together which follow directions . of the parallelepiped determined by P x . (97) whence the sum and difference are the diagonal plane through Z. 3 = ee 2 then . parallel to Sum of Two Planes. line.] STEREOMETRIC PRODUCTS. = o.\ and take p and/. ee lf ?. taken two by two. Two points coincide. 2 Four points coplanar lines intersect. AA = o. (90) The 77.L = o.e 2 .. rf^VtVt Take e lt e 2 2 3) 1 . . = L( A J>. = Lp.P. 636. which three conterminous edges are equal to e e 2 . . 6^6. 6 as ^ffc. e. from the results of this article.
e /* '/. The twelve bisecting angles of a tetrahedron fix eight points.)?> (100) the product of a vector into a planevector and therefore a scalar. VIII. will evidently be the two bisecting planes of the angle between them. P ~ n pjj.TP.P.n^ 1 and / 2 be points 2 in 2 the respective planes. [Chap. /. that their common and let/. = 0123. If TP = TP P l 9i x P. planes of the diedral centers of the inscribed and escribed spheres. 16.' Two *t *i e% of the intersecting lines of faces are eje^'cj and *{*%*%* an(^' .' e^e x e^ = .TPV let tf (98) the two planes are parallel. Two planevectors may be added similarly. be a planevector line at infinity. The given conditions are **'*'  equivalent to e e ' . since they will vector parallel If two tetrahedra e e e^e s and e^e^e^e^ are so 15. that the right lines through the pairs of corresponding situated vertices all meet in one point. then will the corresponding faces Exercise 1 cut each other in four coplanar lines. this becomes f. . is. by (80). may write If n x P = n^ptf. the last factor of which is of intersections Exercise may be treated. = (/>. . have a common direction. and P a . + ^. . . we must accordingly have. Similarly all the other pairs . ^ these intersect. that of the to both of them. equivalent to the fourth condition above.414 grassmann's space analysis. e e/ t = o = by ****' V/ = V' 012 Vt' = **i = Vi'V. parallel to each of them. o'V^i' (93). i2i 2 / / . since quadruplepoint products in solid space are associative. then we (99) ^. whence P* + P* = KA + A)* = (a + n S~Pv= o. planes may also be written The bisecting ^YpIf or P. the six. namely. 0V2' 123 1V3' = o = 012 123 o'i'2' 1V3' . through which they pass six by The sum and difference of two unit planes are their two .
22. no positive point could have three because the sum of any three faces of the tetra 2( Ae) with any one of the above arrangements of sign. Te e 2 e 3 etc. Prob. . Prob. which gives zero when multiplied into 2Ae.] STEREOMETRIC PRODUCTS. The e e A^^). and we infer by symmetry that it 3 must be the point 2Ae.. each of which passes through six of them. 415 Let the tetrahedron be e9 ex e% e%i and bisecting planes. e % en (A e l l Another internal bisecting plane is f A % e 9 ). 10. To obtain that all signs. hedron must be greater than the fourth face. It will be found on trial that six of the bisecting planes will pass through Moreover. namely. Prob. The centroid of the faces of a tetrahedron coincides with the center of the sphere inscribed within the tetrahedron whose vertices are the centroids of the respective faces of the first tetrahedron. pair through the opposite edge will be e 3 9 (A Q which the six internal bisecting If there be a point through planes pass. then a let the double areas of its faces be A = x . 23. pair of bisecting planes will be 3 " ^ or e%e x {A %e% A s e % ). If any plane be passed through the middle points of two opposite edges of a tetrahedron. so the points we have only to use the double Ae A e^ A^e^ A 3 er This they are x gives eight cases.ART. 21. by (97). +++ + + + The ++++  ++ + +++ + eight apparent cases that would arise by changing all the signs are included in these because the points must be essentially positive. negative signs. it will divide the volume of the tetrahedron into two equal parts. The twelve points in which the edges of a tetrahedron are cut by the bisecting planes of the opposite diedral angles fix eight planes. it must be on the intersection of these two planes taken with the upper signs. as do also the other three.
. j&h . I Mi f i. hence Te = V'lJTVTV. since (e)= e. The Complement in Solid Space. ..0 = /.*. dicular to e for the first is . / /. VIII* Art.. 11.*. + hh\ = e is a planevector. . z 3 h Let e = 3 J/z .= re =6. 1(10= lv. then 6 1 = AVs + /. /3 .. i.  e..W(4 . Hence e is a planevector perpendicular to e and.t. /. shows that the two vectors /jZ 2 lj / z.4A which is ( I02 > so that  The *^& hh drawn in isometric projection. + /.'. + + )(/. therefore e\e = (/. eupon e. = . + Wi + '.+/. z z x ft . [Chap..= 1(10= v. 3 (103) Multiply equation (102) by e. are both perpen.e. (104) so that the cosquare of a vector is equal to the square of its The product ee is that of a vector e into a planetensor. l.2 z a perpendicular which is the orthogonal pro to jection of z 3 . 8 the complementary normal vector system are as follows : = k= k= l*i *.M. as has just been shown it is there. /s .= 1(10 = Im. relations in a unit According to the definitions of Art.  + planevector is a linevector normal to it.416 grassmann's space analysis. x x 3 ^U uct is /. . the converse is also true.and to and therefore is also per S^A'l second is 1 1 pendicular to while the * h l * anc* to h> anc therefore perpendicular to / i to e. the complement of a . The figure shows that e is equal to the vector diagonal of the rectangular parallelepiped whose edges have the lengths /. whose prodand l i s figure. *. vector perpendicular to it.
/t . or numerical measure of magniis 3 Let a second vector be e e' I e' =2mi .e' = e' e = e\e' = TeTe f cos f = 71? 7Y cos J... of a vector in solid space and having the same tude. 11. ?/z 3 are di rection cosines. Hence. then 3 3 = l m + /. e]e= Te T\ e = T*e> or Te = T\e. 417 fore a volume which is equivalent to Te T\e. e\rf (no) Also ( either or 1/ e  = O. . hence. /. and (105) gives a proof of the formula for the cosine of the angle between two ee lines in terms of the direction cosines of the case x lines.ART. then I7V= and is e. x x (105) e'.] THE COMPLEMENT IN SOLID SPACE. for the first means that e is parallel to a vector which is is * Grassmann (1862). being the product of the volume of the parallelepiped in the figw is. the condition of perpendicularity of two planevectors. + l m = e'\e.. We and.l m x % ) i \ %t taking the cosquare.  ljn ) z  3 f (Jt m .. by (104). . the complement . (109) ^l^^o = O./m t a 2) i  x + (/. i 2 z 3 (106) If 7e = Te' = I. (107) (108) e is is parallel to the planevector perpendicular to perpendicular to e'.. Now ure. *. as is also shown by (106). that TeTe' f. have also in this = (/. c Let rj = I e. rf =  e' . sin (angle between e and e') = TeTe' cos i Hence 1 e\e' = e'\e=f m +l m +I m =TeTe' cos f. II]t ) the condition that a vector shall be perpendicular to a planevector. . {eeJ= If (sin f^= (/. W+feW+W^W.". e'. is e into the planevector ee'. that is. ee'=o..* a planevector perpendicular to it tensor.. Art. 335. . .
_ sin sin (7 ' Take three unit vectors e s parallel to the radii to the vertices of the spherical triangle. 1 (. result by dividing by sin a sin b sin c. e e. (112) put e. for e/e. and e^). VIII. For instance.. e.sin b sin c cos ^2. . and the second vector which is perpendicular to e. In eq. 2.6.'.6. s ... is and + Ue^] Ue e x 2 ). A (angle bet. (76) gives the vector formulas etc. are taken as three edges of a tetrahedron. e 2 . = = 'r^ f^. v. x .. 3 = hence 6. sin ^4 B ea . To prove the formulas of spherical trigoExercise 17. etc.  e3 = cos # . cos b cos Again.) x sin = 2^6. 6. 1 e x  e3 .. Show cos that in a spherical triangle taken as Exercise 17. Prob. rf is parallel to a plane stereometric vector Equations (71) (77) of Art. and i^.k' ViV*\Vx'v t ' = vAVx V*\Vi Vx\V% .C/6.1 #6. be substituted iov p p^ etc..6.eJ E/e. #) <: y sin sin Expanding.. e ? e2 e 8 .6.6. then # (angle bet. etc. show that the six planes perpen.6. If 6. i 6 8 e a ).)= T(e e sin B = sin # sin b sin b sin c sin ^4 = sin a sin x ) x 3 3 3 .kk' = For lack ik' *. //. Also there is obtained = f 1 ^' ^. whence we have the second Exercise in 18. x .6.6. cos a == cos b cos c f. whence derive Ue e 3 ) 7\(/ e 9 1 + x the ordinary value /sin 5 sin (5 .. The remainder left to the stu 76. 24.6.  efy = sin sin c cos ^ = <:. 7. that perpendicular to 7'. [Chap. e 3 drawn outward from a point. . 9 become formulae if e lt et etc. for L Z.. e = Te e.k' vM (112) in of space no treatment of the complement a point system in solid space is given.6.k' ... the numerator becomes the denominator 4/2(1 E/e. and nometry sin a _ sin sin e. T{e or x ^ . e 2 and e ).e = r(e e e.e.76. dent.418 grassmann's space analysis.
A 2 A 2 A. + xe + ye + ze )e = A (*. sum cannot be A = A + xe hence i a single sect unless the two are coplanar for let * et* e s being a vector not parallel to e^. Art. (e. X . \f * . un p x ex and/ 2 e 2 are coplanar. = o. space will not in general intersect.) + ^e e x x x 2 9 3 3 ) 2) 3 2 3 2 . 27. that is is. the sum of the two in the equation. also Angle between e e q and e^g.) .).) Prob. e 2 e 3 be taken as in Prob. + + (p . For let p e and/ 2 e 2 be any two sects: then 1 l Two lines in solid A e + P& = p. 1. this becomes the spaceanalog of the proposition regarding the hypotenuse and sides of a rightangled '= A?+A?+A*.) .e +/>. (43).] ADDITION OF SECTS IN SOLID SPACE.(e. cos 2 A 3 A cos 6 t %A X % cos 6 V 6 3 are right angles. f e + *e e = (A + *0 (. e.e (e + e. + e + *6. and less this cannot reduce to a single sect unless z = o. (Sug We must have (p ie 6. 15. their distances from e being constant. Show that pendicular vectors. 26. There are given three noncoplanar lines e i e e e^ .'. that and a sect passing through an arbitrary point e a planevector.Art. e 3 ? ). = ~ 2e fc i a fc r( s  e2 e 3 . no matter what the directions of e and e'  may be. Show that the locus of the triangle. as in eq. . Art. 1 ej +  ex t . all 419 dicular to the edges at their middle points pass through the end 1 of the vector p gestion. Since a planevector a line at . 12. ee' and ee'. x x . + . X = x that of Prob. = common if Te x = point of these three planes is Te% = re 3 = (p\ e a 1 ) +(/o e 2 ) f (p e 3 ) =<r 3 8 3 . The is. 2A. p ex x + p % e% = p e + (/.* )e i x x x e. a definite line. and 2A = Te a e x etc.. + e. the sum is . 6  X A If 6 X . + e (e + 6. analogous to Prob. Let . so that their sum will not be.) x x 2 . . e are three mutually pere. Addition of Sects in Solid Space. .e )e + (/. planes cut these lines at the sum of the squares of right angles. 25. 24 let A Q be the xt area of the face of the tetrahedron formed by joining the ends of these vectors.) Prob. etc. 6*+ x) 1  e3 e .  with two other similar expressions. e )(e a Z(e 2 (Suggestion. *r e 8 .. 12.: then show that we have the relation. 8.
Of the two parts composthe sect will be unchanged in magnitude and direction if 5" be moved to a new position. + (*. (u 3 > and a planevector as before. of a sect sum ^e e = o. e a. In no other case does 5 reduce to a single sect. when the sum becomes S = e^e f. and x u% +y vt = xt u if x x +y v = o). that is. then squaring we have L X L^ =LL 3 4 . that is. and and e any point. etc.. since L. + (x u + y v )p e + (xji +y.2e . the twoFor let pairs will determine tetrahedra of equal volumes.. % t Since there are eight arbitrary quantities with only four equations of condition.e )2e + 2<J> e = 2e = brevity.2e + 2{p . putting q />. be substituted for dicular to ^e.2e + 2pe = e.e is. always be presented as the sum. )e. a sect.)e.* +.z\)p. e )e is parallel to 2e it may be written as the prodIf 2(p uct of some vector e into ^e.e (*iA % %) t t 1 t l t x l . because e f. the [Chap./ a e 2 p n en be n sects. Let p e .e'^Ee = (e \.e. e'^e. ing S. +y^p. If a point. (114) . i . of a finite line If line at oo is equal to the sum of any other two. their products will also be equal.<0 0\A +J'*A)(*\e + v e = te.e. while the planevector will in It is proposed to show that a point q may general be altered. grassmann's space analysis. then . VIIL sum of two and a of lines may .e')^e. .L the let o. . An infinite number is of pairs of sects can be found such that sum of each pair a given pair be p 1 e 1 +A equal to the sum of any given pair. This will be equal to the given pair x ^x+^Vi = *.e. 5= the 2j>e 1 = e. 1 let 5 be their sum. e such that the planevector will be perpen Writing and. +jw}?. becomes a planevector. the desired result can evidently be ac~ complished in an infinite number of ways. 2(p e )e = \/3 r S = ga pa + \fi. for so that S = q2e(q.420 oo . the sum any two sects L x ft Lt =s L % + L\ . for and take a new pair t ti + *A)(*A + *.JW we have =i.
We have only to substitute the words force and couple for sect and planevector.Art. called The resultant action by Ball in his Theory is of any system of forces is 5. II. suppose p and p % to be taken at the ends of the common per *Grassmann (1862). (74) p for p and a for /> 3 and q in accordance with the statement at the end of Art. that has been shown applies immediately to a system of forces in solid space. ^e = o since otherwise we must e )e. ( ft  421 we must have or XI 5) pa .= \fta.a a a .* + <*** . e x Exercise 19.. 346. but what has been given adaptability of this in this article will indicate 2(p . 1 = \aft^a =q e i . substituting in (114). x pa) a=O=   by (in). (lift may be called the normal form of S* The sects of this article represent completely hence all the geometric properties of forces. Art.  =a  ft a \ft. a. a) Reduce p (p x ^ = e. the required (75).\a=a. then. 2 say p Since found. . (116) a and ft are known.(e l +e + x  t e )e." The con dition for equilibrium 5 = o. This 2 + 4g.  a. . of Screws " a wrench. S=. using 2 2 ap a = pa a . 12. ft a pa . point has been Multiply (115) by a. iy \ p will be the vector from e to q taken perpendicularly to a. which and gives at once . which is an impossibility.\a = . The line q^e is the central axis of the system of forces 5.e )e = o have e^e = ^{p (118) method the perfect to the requirements of mechanics.p\a p. Lack of space forbids a further development of the subject. For convenience + {p 2 its t e )e. for perpendicularity. ( The second member is obtained from the first by substituting in eq.\2<. If in (1 1 5) we make p a = o.] addition of sects in solid space. whence. + A e = 5 to normal form.   ft.
^+^y By (i5) * . . etc. e.) = g(e +e.<* 6 (e.+ .6. \ normal form. tetrahedron e e lf e9e% Forces are represented by the six edges of a find the S. 50 pounds in the direction e p when r e is at the bottom of ..( e . reduce to e Q e 3 **?. e.. 5= e (e. = = bi^ .)( 6i J + ej* 5 is ^' e. i(A +/) Accordingly . e t e lt ex e% . + e + O + e e + t t t * 2 3 e )= ^(e +e +e 3 3) + e e + e e + e e+ + (e e e t t % t x 2 1 )(e 3 x 1 ) e3 e 1 + e.) z  e.. = ai x . . + e.) +<e. VIIU pendicular on/. = re.e.*e. Then we find + ^qiy Exercise 21. z 3 being unit normal vectors.. and moreover then t let ^ (p. i t . /.)+ fei+&gSLpS> . =e * . in which e.e. s . [Chap.)" Hence the normal form of Exercise 20. . z. = o. is i g l( gg + ^ + g 0 A pole 50 feet high stands on the ground and held erect by three guyropes symmetrically arranged about attached to its top and to pegs in the ground 50 feet from the pole. J lfc . (6. <? = = t and/ s e2 . and consider the special case when three diedral angles are right angles. . l 5= t e (e l t + + ea 1 et ) = ^( +e + )+(e eXe = e M. The wind blows against the pole with a pressure of it. .422 grassmann's space analysis. Hence For the rectangular tetrahedron e3 let e. = = 1^ = .Dy + > .
equation of equilibrium and e.e. and x w the upward pressure. 423' the pole. Hence the v/# + x \w _ w y z r2 V2 Multiply successively by et e lf e etJ and ^.)+n{e. and . T(p  = t{^^> e) if = 7\ J m{e.] addition of sects in solid space.+')(' /) 2l\e. )\ _ 50 j Time .. rVl = . a pulley at the ground at a point p ^le.e = cos 120 becomes 3 = \. e s are at the feet of the poles. w ftl the weight of the pole. 12.Art. t and the equation ^ 5' (*. = I. and are mutually perpendicular. and 2/ = i . and in the ratio p : divides the distance between two of the pegs find the tension on the guys and the pressure on the ground. and thence down under e . = 1 c.p)*' Tej )  9 e% ye % e. 28. if the rope is pulled . in which j . Te % e t = J 5 o l/i. e =[/(e 1 1 e it ) and ea then T(/ eQ ) = j Vm* \ n* mn. .) Tes% = 50. x . of equilibrium is Then p l  tl *. Prob. ze.p) ^  2 St(P ~~ e (x+w)e IX'. because e. x . \neJ. and 25 we obtain m y and j w 4^2 n V2 Vm* f \ n* mn z being the tensions. Evidently only two of the guys will be in tension let their pegs be at e and e 3 and let e% be at the top of the pole.e = U(e% e ). Three equal poles are set up so as to form a tripod.e a % % +Tes+Te ert. a weight w hangs upon a rope which passes over a pulley at the top of the tripod.
Six equal forces act along six successive edges of a cube which do not meet a given diagonal.424 so as to raise w. force. perpendicular and proportional to the faces on which they act. 31.+ 3'. . Prob. or else outwards. show that the normal form of 6* is ('.+". [Chai III. 30.+tf.. + all + directed inwards. 29. grassmann's space analysis. 2.)Prob. Three forces whose magnitudes are 1. F to z.A.)+*l('. . show that the pressures on the poles. and all S= + i. show that they are in equilibrium. S= + + z 2 1 + + z s . Forces act at the centroids of the faces of a tetrahedron. . 3. and 3 act along three successive noncoplanar edges of a cube. supposir the pulleys frictionless. z 2 z 3 and z z if the diagonal taken be 3 ). show that if the edges of be the magnitude of each the cube be parallel to z. are Prob. then a parallel 2F\ (i .)(.
whether they are vector in nature. in the same manner as algebra is a universal arithmetic. Hence in the following articles the ascent to the straight line. j introduction. By Alexander Macfarlane. of space is made through the intermediate algebra of algebra the plane. 189T1893. and developed so as to harmonize with one another and with the Cartesian idea. and in this chapter they will be treated as such. They are in truth complementary parts of subject to be treated is the analysis of quantities in space. 24 treat of the more restricted analysis. it ing an explicit notation for directed quantities. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. or polar. or quaternion in nature. Introduction. Every proposition about quantities in space ought to remain true when restricted to a plane just as propositions about quantities in a plane remain true when restricted to a . Lecturer in Electrical Engineering in Lehigh University. Nature. Art. . by Quaternions" is meant a spaceanalysis in which the quaternion is the fundamental By " " one whole. 425 Chapter IX.* The they can be adequately represented by space quantities. Vector Analysis is meant a space analysis in which " the vector is the fundamental idea. to be investigated independently of system of coordinates. or are of such a kind that Analysis. cylinadvantage that it can express se *For a discussion of the relation of Vector Analysis to Quaternions. It also has this any whether rectangular. By providenables their general properties particular drical. Arts. This space analysis is a universal Cartesian analysis. 1. while Arts. 510 treat of the general analysis. or of a still different nature.Art.
Elements of Vector Analysis. Macfarlane. The Directional Calculus. Essai sur une maniere de representer les quantites imaginaires dans les constructions geometriques. Philosophical Transactions. IX. Hyde. 1806. De Morgan. Hankel. 1872. instead of in a roundabout way by means of a quadratic function. is By and a "vector" direction. Vorlesungen iiber die complexen Zahlen und ihre Functionen. 2. Calcolo delle Equipollenze. Vector Analysis. 1891. Houel. and Elements of Elementary Treatise on Quaternions. 18913. 1851. Theorie des quantites complexes. Der barycentrische Calcul. Papers on Space Analysis. Warren. Symbolic Forms derived from the conception of the translation of a directed magnitude. O'Brien.4^0 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. 1835. System der Raumlehre.'" 188592. Die Ausdehnungslehre. Quaternions. 1828. Treatise on the geometrical representation of the square roots of negative quantities. 1874. 1849. Principles of the Algebra of Physics. Bellavitis. It is a quantity which has magnitude graphically represented by a line whose meant . An of his excellent synopsis " is given by Hagen in the second volume der hoheren Mathematik. Trigonometry and Double Hamilton. 1844. The different views of this extension of analysis which have been held by independent writers are titles of their works : briefly indicated by the Argand. [CHAP. 1867. 1827. Schlegel. Gibbs. Lectures on Quaternions. in " 1890. Reprint of Electrical Papers. the directed quantity by a linear function of the coordinates. Heaviside. Tait." Synopsis Art. 1888. lineale Grassmann. 1866. 18814. Peano. 1867. Addition of Coplanar Vectors. Algebra. Calcolo geometrico. Moebius. 1853.
analysis of a vector here supposed is that into magniAccording to Hamilton and Tait and other writers on Quaternions. and whose direction coincides with or represents the direction of Though a vector is represented by a line. and an example of the latter *This notation is found convenient by electrical writers in order to harmo nize with the Hospitalier system of symbols and abbreviations. while the unitvector is the physical magnitude. for this purpose in the author's Note on Plane Algebra. and bfi. the difference is sufficiently indicated by the difference of type. an axis which is of no dimensions in length. For example. direction rp. A system of three mutually rectangular axes will be indicated. its Exphysical dimensions may be different from that of a line. tude and direction But it will is be found that the analysis into magnimuch more in accord with physical ideas. 2.. common point of application or it may be such that its components are applied in succession. are a linear velocity which is of one dimension in amples length. as b. \ The dot was used 1883. its components have a and are applied simultaneously. difficult to and explains readily many things which are explain by the other analysis. by the letters i. as usual. as be denoted by a capital italic letter. k. Kennelly has since used Z for the same purpose in his electrical papers .ART. B= R= by Sometimes a small it is necessary to introduce a dot or a mark / to separate the specification of the direction from the expression for the magnitude . italic lejter. the vector.. the vector is analyzed into tensor jUldjnyfcyectfir. 42? length represents the magnitude on some convenient scale.] ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS. as its B* its a small /3. The tude and direction. A vector quantity may be such that An example of the former is found in two forces applied simulin taneously at the same point. each component starting from the end of its predecessor. which means that the tensor is a mere ratio destitute of dimensions.f but in such simple expressions as the above. a directed area which is of two dimensions in length.j.. A vector will magnitude by Greek letter.
OB by 2 //V ure it follows that be sufficiently denoted by the direction has to be turned in Thus OA may be denoted by fig / OC byf/J./. cos (.) When l ^XXt/Xi the components are equal. the di any other vector will initial it././0. /*=/.*. From the geometry of the . Draw BC OC. OA. OA for the initial direction . cos . same kind simultaneously applied c parallel to join at the point O. IX. 3/60 . and AC parallel to OB. +/. 2/2 .428 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS./. ^ 3 = 4. two made in succession to one an other. Example. rectilinear displacements [CHAP. Let the forces applied at a point be 2/0 and 1 Then the 3Q' ^4 + 9+ X J /tan . but it applies to any vector quantity coming under the above conditions. This principle the resultant of OA was discovered with reference Take the rection of direction of to force. Composition of Components having a common Point of Let OA and OB represent two vectors of the Application. and The diagonal OC represents in mag o A nitude and direction and point of application and OB. cos resultant is /tan ^ ^"^ 12 .' +/' + and hence tan 6 /.3 6/36 If the first component is given as/j/0 lf then we have the more symmetrical formula OC = ^+/. COS d. angle round which the order to coincide with /. twice the projection of either compoThe above formula reduces to OC = 2/ cos & /?. the direction of the resultant bisects the angle formed by the vectors. .< + 2/. OC = // + / + 2/. and the mag nitude of the resultant is nent on the bisecting line.
and OA the component. it with the given resultant to find the required component. OB is identical with the by OC and OA reversed diagonal of the Let f/f) be the vector and is fjo one component . e9*l .e \ / cos (0.cos (0. and draw parallel to The line OB OB it equal and represents is the only gives B c the component required. Given a vector and one component. Join AC AC. a . X (0. to find the other component. a given resultant hence they are the only pair of having the given directions. to find the magnitude of the components. Let OC represent the resultant." . From C draw CA parallel to OY./ A ' OA OC o ~^ A The line hence the rule parallelogram formed " Reverse the direction of the then compound is.6 +/ =/cos (0. 2.6) cos 6 (0. component. = */+/. is represented by OC.] addition of coplanar vectors. .e =/cos {o . Let//0 be the vector and /6 and /0 the given 9 Then / +/. . the lines OA OB and OB cut It represent the required components. evident that and when com OA pounded produce the given resultant OC.Art. . and the directions by OX and OY. for line which combined with as resultant. and there is only one set of two components which produces . . X ) \ ) . cos (0.0). x ) x X ) 2 from which ft it follows that {cos " (0 ~f X ) I  cos . 429= Example./+/ 9 CM Given the resultant and the directions of the two compoThe resultant nents. 2//. The resultant of two equal alternating electromotive forces which differ 120 in phase is equal in magnitude to either and has a phase of 6o. l components directions. then the other component fj. and CB parallel to off is OX .
C.cos 6./#. . . if A \B + C 0. C. fJJK n =/ cos 2 /o +/ 2 sin 6./*. IX. For example. . /30 1 . and f /J> = fn cos 2\f/J\ n /o 6\ +fn sin 6 /n Hence = j^/cos /o + {^/sin 6\ /. and A * This does not hold true of a sion. and B + C = . the area enclosed has no physical meaning. then /. B.430 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. the ordinary rule about the transposition of a term in sum For example. . From the end of A draw B' equal and parallel to B. +f n /ln. = V(2f cos In the case of a Off + (^/sin BY tan 1 ^^" g mon of simultaneous vectors applied at a compoint./q +/ l sin ^l\ /^. It is sum of vectors having a real order of succes a mistake to attempt to found spaceanalysis upon arbitrary formal . and from the end of B' draw : C and }B equal parallel to C\ the vector from the beginning of A to the end of is the C resultant of the given vectors. and /90 be given . +// +/Jl + % . The resultant obtained is ever the order. and as the order the same. ~2 This follows parallelo 1 by continued application of the is gram construction. Now Similarly /. let 100/60 . The result may be obtained analytically as follows : Given /. The resultant may be found by the following graphic construction Take the vectors in any order.cos 6o' Composition of any Number of Vectors applied at a common Point.* A +B= an equation holds good. This is permissible because there is no real order of succession among the given components.A< etc. ("CHAP.= IOO cos 30 4. as A. whatarbitrary. =/.then + C = B.
What is attempted is . and as they go oppositely around. and depends The has a physical meaning. But A f B and B determine different paths. and one component Prob. vectors. 3. resultant vector 123/45 . find the other component. is i. %h/nt. Three alternating magnetomotive forces are of equal find the revalue. 6. u ^ w( . (Ans. 4. Prob. the curve OPQ The The is and the vector OQ is area between on the path.) laws. 2/20 . and one component 200 /75 100/0 Prob. Find the components of the vector 100/70 in the direc rV^ . Zero.] ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS. . 431 of Composition of Successive Vectors.7 Prob. Draw the third side OP. find the other component.ART. the fundamental rules must be made to express universal properties of the is made to apply formal laws to an analysis of these quantities. the areas they determine with OP have different signs. Compound i2o)/i2o the following magnetic fluxes: h sin nt f h sin (nt + h sin (nt 24o)/24o. if f it would A. and B a vector starting from the end of A. The diagonal OP represents A ered independent of path. 2.) . ^ tions 20 and ioo. (Ans. virtual 100 /25 . 3/30 . In this chapter no attempt directed quantities. Calculate the resultant vector of 1/10 . Abe vector start ing from the point O. 4 /40  Prob. and from its / {^''' A extremity a vector equal to A. Prob. 5. the also be \A complete equivalent of A \ the complete equivalent of B B . This also true as to when the successive vectors become so small form a continuous curve. successive vectors partakes Let tion than of addition. and from O draw a vector equal to B. velocity of a body in agiven plane is . 2. the is f B only so far as as is it is consid For any number so far it of successive sum independent of point of the is path first the vector from the initial to the final point of the last. thing denoted. it OP is not. The were line so. but each pair differs in phase by 120 sultant. The composition A more of the nature of multiplicaa.
Products of Coplanar Vectors. l Hence AB = (a i + aJ)(b i\. IX. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. but unfortunately it = does not explain ii + ./an explanation which is given of ij operand. then the above reduces to AB = a b + A + OA tf l l aj>^k. 3. When all the vectors considered are confined to a common plane.bj) = afiji + x aj>jj+ aJ)jj\aJ?JL algebra. namely. ' Art. Product of two Vectors. Prove that a uniform circular motion is obtained by compounding two equal simple harmonic motions which have the spacephase of their angular positions equal to the supplement of the 4*m' f**"ftimephase of their motions. it is supposed not to be an axis. aj)^)k i 1 + 1 direction. a cos ?it /o and a 8. The kind of operator which i is supposed to denote is a quadrant of turning round the axis i . not necessarily of the same kind physically. but a quadrant of rotation round an axis. . (Ans. but rather signs of direction. 9. a /nt. B = b i + bj x y R=xi\j/j.432 Prob. Let A = aj>\aJ and B = b[\b%f be any two vectors.a J. directions in the plane at x one another then A = a i \. for it would give ii = i. a b which has the axis of the plane for and (a b i tion. 7. each may be expressed asthe i sum of two rectangular components. alternating magnetic fluxes at a point.* * A common k is that i is an operator. Compound two sin nt ' . Thus the complete product breaks up into two partial a 3 b 9 which is independent of direcproducts. that the If we assume. [CHAP. but we do not assume that the order of the factors is indifferent. as suggested by ordinary square of a sign of direction is j. Here i and j are not unitvectors. We assume that their product is obtained by applying the distributive law.) Prob tive forces Find the resultant of two simple alternating electromo100/20 and 50 /75 ' Prob. and k the result. right angles to Let and/ denote two . and further that the product of two directions at right angles to one another is the direction normal to both. This explains the result ij'= k.
3L let A denote a Corollary I. the direction is . l l t t . 3. The result is the = a b +a b SBA = SAB. Example velocity 64 A feet down per second energy then s stone of 10 pounds mass is moving with a 100 feet horizontal per + second. . o^_^. hence the 2. 433 Scalar Product of two Vectors. not a vector.Art. For instance. It is denoted by SAB where the symbol S. Its kinetic is (64 + ioo a ) footpoundals. 2X4+3X5= 23 footpounds per second. Example I. The square of any vector A = a? + a* Corollary 2. per + . By a scalar quantity is meant a quantity which has magnitude and may be positive or negative but is destitute of direction. of the other^ must be the same. A force of 2 pounds East f._^n Then (OP)(OM) = (OP)(OL) + (OP)(LM). 9 a*. but a function of the A and B. of application the velocity of its point force and then denotes the rate of working of the force. . denotes. SAB same whether the velocity on the force is projected on the velocity or the force. being in Roman type. H#**.] PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR vectors. independent of direction it is an essentially positive or signless quantity for whatever the direction of A. The former partial product is so called because it is of such a nature.3 pounds North is moved with a velocity of 4 feet East per second 5 feet North second find the rate at which work is done. The geometrical meanSAB is the product of A and the orthogonal projection of B upon A. draw QM and NL perpendicular to OP. B . scalar product cannot be negative. Let OP and OQ represent the vectors A and B vectors ing of .
then SAB where aft denotes the angle between the directions a and /3. It ajb^k denotes the magnitude of the paralleloA and B and also the axis of the plane in follows that VBA = VAB. and is denoted by VAB. The other partial product from its nature is called the vector product. both a and ft. [CHAP. not X lOO the whole kinetic energy addition. 800 cos 45 volts. that is. the area of the parallelogram formed upon A and B. Let A = (ioz f. Vector Product of two Vectors.. It is to be observed that the coordinates of whereas A and Example. then A and B are mere component vectors. IX. but by simple when the com ponents are rectangular. 65 square inches in the plane which has the direction k for axis. and /45 /90 means of the angle between the direction of 45 and the direction 90 . the direction SAB = X 100 Here /45 indicates a and /90 the direction ft. . that is. s The kinetic energy due to k the downward velocity ' is is 10 2 . product is Its of A geometrical meaning is the and the projection of B which perpendicular to A. Thus (a x b9 gram formed by which it lies. The effective electromotive force of is 100 volts 8 per inch /90 along a conductor 8 inch /45 cos /45 /90 volts. VAB = ab cos . a b% x of the triangle s= H^A . a quantity which has no direction. that is. B themselves are taken in a real order.)  OPQ = \a x a^ \b x b% (#. X 64 2 and that due to thehoriis zontal velocity tained. If A is Example. aft. their pole.iff) inches and B = (5*+ l2 J) (120 55)^ square inches. Also which is VAB= ab sin normal to aft . where that aft denotes the direction is. 1 Let OP and OQ represent the vectors A and By and draw the lines indicated by the It is then evident that the area figure.a/3. expressed as aa and B as bft.434 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. ob by vector. inches. b )(b 2 x #a ).
Product of the reciprocal of a vector and another vector. aj3). reciprocal 2/3 and opposite vector then is its is A~\ and In the figure /? is its OP = and be the given vector ( OR = OQ = R < recipro%. I 1 /3) reciprocal Q > opposite.(cos aj3 * Writers f sin aft .sin ap . ^ By The meant the vector which combined with the duces the product f1. A~ l B = \AB. who identify a vector with a quadrantal versor are logically led to define the reciprocal of a vector as being opposite in direction as well as reciprocal in magnitude. feet A = ' 10 feet East feet + 5 feet North.ART.* If Q P l > Example. we 10 X 100 sin =2 1000 sin /30 /6o poundfeet 90 / /90 30 poundfeet 90 / /90 Here 90 / specifies the plane of the angle and /90 the The two together written as above specify the normal k. At . 3. AB = ab (cos #/?[. a distance of 10 feet /30 there a force of IOO pounds /6o The moment is NAB . a = ~A a A + *A + {*& aA)<*J0}> = . a/3).\aJ ai # 1 + The let cal. . b must equal must be identical with a in order that the product may be It follows that I <2 _ ^ . the reciprocal of a vector is original vector proreciprocal of A is denoted by A' a~ and . __ aj. angle. Reciprocal of a Vector.] PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS. l 1 Since /3 I. x A~ s=s East 125 + North and A~ = :^ r feet 125 125 East 125 feet North. 435 is Example.
. ExampleLet A = i/o + 2/90 . ' r a B= Product of three Coplanar Vectors. x c%  bj )k x ~~*iJ) =zSBC. and more point separates.* + </>(Vi + V. 4/90 .bj. where a/3y denotes the direction which is perpendicular to the perpendicular to a and If /?.and y.. C= 5/0 + 6/90 .) + = (Vi + + a*J) + WW aj is W +(fo aj)(b WW 3/0 ^4.c*j denote any three vectors in a = common plane. IX. Then (AB)C = = {(*A {<* + a A) + (*A  aJ>M(c i x + cj) A + <*A)ki* + latter cJ) + (*A . analytically by {abc cos aryfj/^ The former product The latter product is also expressed by (VAB)C.A +VA(VBC).436 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. C cj f. [CHAP. It is also expressed by abc sin a/3. Let A = aj f a*Jy bj f. where the the vectors to which the S refers. afly. The fourth proportional to C is \^> . is the product formed after the other mode of association we have A(BC) = (*. The former partial product means the vector C .ati. B= + B."A)(. which is is equivalent to V(VAB)C. and OQ) unite to form a represented by OR.v + c x j). by the scalar product of partial A and B multiplied while the product means the comple mentary vector of C multiplied by the magnitude of the vector product of A and B^ If these partial products (represented by OP total product. the total product will be the resultant of OP and OQ. because NAB at right angles to C. is also expressed by SAB C. The vector x aj a 9 j\ the opposite of the complementary latter partial vector of a i + Hence the product differs with the mode of association. Hence SA~*B = a cos a '6 and NA~ B = X sin afi.
# 2 +& + 2a b cos <*# is But when A \. scalar. be formed so as to preserve the order nomial that is. but of the terms in _thebinomial this causes both product terms to be AB.] PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS. + 2AB + B +B* + 2SAB + 2VAB.ART. 7 scalar part gives the square of the length of the third while the vector part gives four times the area included side. of a Binomial of Vectors. = A' + B + 2SAB. the square must be formed after the rules for the products of rect angular components (p. = A* + AB + BA + B\ {T/th .V& A= A* + B* + SAB + SBA + NAB + VBA. The product terms must of the vectors in the triC. 432). . not of the factors. 1 { 5/o! + 6/90 j I X 1 42X3 _ 6 ^ + "T 2 If 5 /go_o j = Square 13. of nonsuccessive vectors. hence the square of A \.. A is prior to B and and B is prior to C. of successive vectors. 437 (A*E)C = lX 3 l X4 +. there no third vector C which is the complete equivalent and consequently we need not expect the square to be a scalar quantity. Hence (A+By = (A+B)(A+B).. is Since A and B are in reality components of one vector. it A \ B denotes a sum entirely equivalent to the the square of any vector is a positive But resultant vector C. 1 This may also be written in the form L ^ ^ .B denotes a sum of successive vectors. . Let A \ B { C denote a sum .4/0^+11. giving (A + B) = 2 A' 2 =A The side. We observe that there is a real order. between the path and the third Square of a Trinomial of Coplanar Vectors.B must be a positive scalar. 3.2/90.
the sine + and cosine of the angle between the 0. + Prob.8625 N. of 1000 dynes At a distance of 25 centimeters /20 there /8o. Find directions 0. (Ans. 11. A conductor in an armature has a velocity of 240 inches per second /300 and the magnetic flux is 50. and 0. C= 7 /4$ . a ft The scalar part gives the square of the vector from the bec ginning of A to the end of C and is all that exists when ' the vectors are nonsuccessive. find the vector product. 0. 13. = A* + B* + C' + 2(SAB + SAC + SBC). find the moment. iV(AB+ AC + BC). 12. 10.5807 N. When what a force of is 200 pounds /270 is ? displaced by the the work done (scalar product) of the negative sign in the scalar product ? meaning What is .000 lines per square inch /o.53 = 157. Let A 3/0* B= S /30 . Prob.8141 E. sin /30 /45 }. = i{ 15 sin [o /30 + 21 sin /o /45 + 35 = 375 + 742 + 4. is a force Prob.) Prob.438 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. Hence {A + B + Cf = A' + B* + C + 2AB + 2AC + 2BC. Example. Also that the prod uct terms are not formed in cyclical order. it is here assumed that V(A + B)C = VAC + VBC. IX. S(A+B+Cy = (i) <*/* 2 (1) (2) Hence = c? + &* + f + 2 ^ cos + 2 ^ cos ^r + 2 b cos /^y and V(^+Z?+0 = (2) = \2ab sin a/? + 2ac sin a.04 X io T lines per inch per second. 1.5060 E. 10 feet /30 . [CHAP. but in accordance with the order of the vectors in the trinomial. + 2(VAB + VA C + VBC)../ + 2^ sin /3y\. The vector B part A is four times the area included between the successive sides and the resultant side of the Note that polygon. find the area of the polygon. which is the theorem of moments.
16. that is to say. 4. . It is composed of a magnitude and By a turning factor.* Let A A and R be two coinitial vectors . Etymologi"quaternion" means defined by four elements. it is not conical.03/0 the Prob. Prob. a quantity destitute of physical dimensions the two vectors may or may not be of the same physical kind. .] coaxial quaternions. + Prob. the present all hence all the quaternions considered have a the vectors considered lie in common plane common axis. the direction normal to the plane may be denoted by fi. . 17.  proportional to 10/0 + 2/90 + . " is meant the operator which a " quaternion changes one vector into another. per second. #/ ^^ par rocally 7 A= e /3~ R. The magnitude may or may not be a mere for ratio. find the curvature. per A mass of 100 pounds is moving with a velocity of 30 second feet SE. The radius of curvature of a curve is 2/0 J + 5/90 . a For . . feet 15. . Art.Art. feet E. A force of 10 pounds /45 is acting at the end of 8 /200 find the torque. 14. (Ans. 4. Its importance maybe judged from the fact that it has made solid trigonometrical analysis possible. 439 Prob. The turning is in a plane. Prob. 18. Find fourth 8/o 3 /9o_. other an angle of a quadrant. The operator which changes into R consists of a scalar multiplier and a turning round the axis /3. which is true in space in plane analysis it is defined by two. /5 + sin 6 . find its kinetic 5 energy. that is. Find the area of the polygon whose successive sides are 10 /30 9/1 00 8/180 7/2 2 5 . Coaxial Quaternions. . Let the former be denoted by r and the latter by fi e where denotes Thus R = r/3 eA and recipthe angle in radians. r may be expressed as the sum of two one of which has a zero angle and the component operators. .) .17/90 . and 6/o_ 5 /9o_. Thus The turning factor ft e j3 = cos B . r Also 9 Lr = r/3 A e and R A = /3~ . p*/\ * The idea of the "quaternion" is due to Hamilton. or vector product. It is the cally most important key to the extension of analysis to space.
and expresses nothing but the equivalence of a When . and the inductance is the vector part. IX. is. p"' { . fi"/*I. the operator which changes the current into the electromotive force is a quaternion.p"*)(pq.p*) R _p q. The relations between r and 6.2nnl J'E = r{. are given by r= Let Vp* + q\ = tan ^. then A= p + q./F/* (P R + q. fi*/% (3 where r is the resistance.^/*)A. p R .440 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. (3 n/2 a. n the alternations per unit of time. and denotes the axis of the plane of repre' It follows that E rl \. method of complex numbers (3*/z is expressed by i. l Given R=(p + q. the angle is naught. which stands it The advantages of using the above notation are that is capable of being applied to space. and / the alternating current in E magitude and phase. / the selfinduction. [CHAP.% pg.F* r/3A = pA \q/3"/A = pa a qa rfi . omitted given quaternion to two component quaternions. force in magnitude and phase. and that it also serves to specify the general turning factor /3 e as well as the quadrantal turning factor ft*/*. then E= (r + 2nnl. and / and 1 q. sentation.* Hence and = r cos 6 + r sin ^p + q. q denote a sine alternating electromotive Example.p/* * In for / the i. . The resistance is the scalar part of the quaternion. also that /?*/*. . 2 .2nnl . the turningfactor may be but the above form shows that the equation is homogeneous. that Components of the Reciprocal of a Quaternion.
/3 /*)I w+ their resultant to the (27tn/y r % + (27tniyIf Addition of Coaxial Quaternions. 2. p. the ratio of is A is same constant vector Thus. \(2 7tnyi ) ~\ a 2nn2rT1 E > reciprocally ^  s( i . . . 441 Example. the quaternion which y changes A to R' is obtained by taking the product of the given quaternions. then = (A + Qn /3"*)A. ' therefore. Philosophical Magazine. By the above we deduce (r + n 2tt. &n { . In the case of + (2gy *" a compound " r% circuit composed of a number of simple circuits in parallel 3 . 4 ] coaxial quaternions.p*l* i I * p . 1 886. that from portant to obtain E= Take the same application as above. If the quaternions which change A to R.Art./= 2 \ [ i a . It is im/ in terms of E. See also Bedell & Crehore's Alternating Currents. and reciprocally A ~ (2py Example. 2 R = 2p + (2?) /**/} 4.//. p"* t ' ' __ (2^)V r2 + (2)V.r innl ^_ r x x . several vectors to a constant vector the ratio of each of given. 238. and R to R' are given.2nnl a % . . / WJ + 2 >r^( / / ) . *This theorem was discovered by Lord Rayleigh. if obtained by tak ing the sum of the ratios. ^= \ E r wji'P''* r \(27tnyi* i j = and * 2[ a \r . May. /W* 2 r^ \ t y y + (***? \2 r> + (2xnyr) 7 + {2 rnyH 21* Product of Coaxial Quaternions.
and there are 60 alternations per second current. the resistance of the circuit is 10 ohms. Given [CHAP." and Stringham in " Uniplanar Algebra. + qq') + {pq'P'q) P* P f+ q> . and If the given quato R' then that y A which changes Given R to R' is obtained by taking the quotient of the latter by the former.7 amperes / If in the 20 42'. A /2 find the impressed etc. above circuit the current is 10 amperes. + A = {(// + (pq' +/q) r/PA (p n/2 R = e' = q' . find the impressed voltage. qq') . and reciprocally. and then R = r/FA = (p + g. alternating electromotive force is 200 volts. the selfinduction is required the 3J0 henry. . . tion. 20..* Quotient of two Coaxial Quaternions. . Prob. _ (// Prob. 18. If the electromotive force is no volts /B and the cur rent is 10 amperes /0 \n. fi"/*)A = r'fi*A = (/ + q' F'*)A R' = . such as Hayward in "Vector Algebra and Trigonometry. common base /?. and then R' = rr>'/3 e + q.) r= fo< Prob. and Prob. ^%p axei R. P )A R' = r''R = (/ + p*/*)R. 21.." treat this product of coaxial quaternions as if it were the product of vectors. number of coils having resistances r v rti etc.p '*R R! . *Many writers.442 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. 22. This is the fundamental error in the Argand method. are placed in series electromotive force in terms of the current. 19. and likewise the product of the turning facThe angles are summed because they are indices of the tors. find the resistance and the selfinducthere being 120 alternations per second. IX. selfinductions lx . t e t r = (P' + t. The impressed (Ans. ft*) A? Note that the product is formed by taking the product of the magnitudes. ternions are those which change A to R.
*. Or it may be by this notation. are given : R in the form r<p//0.j tan ^f + xi l z* z> For example. aa io cos 45. + yj'+ zk./ f io sin 45 + 10 sin 45 // // sin 30 Again.L for the direction involves symbol p two ele ments.5i.r sin If R is given in the form . i?M represent the n .] addition of vectors in space. we deduce R= Vx* +/ + tan. Addition of Vectors in Space. It may be specified as P= s + y + ir where the three squares are subject to the condition that their xi + yj + zk specified sum is unity. The additional angle 0/ we is introduced to specify the plane in which the angle from the If initial line lies. 5. . and when these form a rectangular set the directions of resolution are expressed by i. B i io 30//45_ cos 30 . from .4/ / 49 find the resultant of any number of component vectors common' point. 5. and B may be expressed as l>/3 B= In space the = bj + bj\b. V41 L = To applied at a vectors or. C 32 + 4/+ $k we deduce 1 ## V9 + 16 + 25 tan" . <p//0. 6 7. Any variable vector A vector in R may any constant vector be expressed as R ~ rp = xi\yj \zk. 44$ Art. a generalization of the notation for a plane. 6 cos <p. . let R R lt .07 . k.j\r sin 6 sin . space can be expressed in terms of three independent components. then we deduce the other form thus R = r cos 6 i f.j\ k. 5 ~ // bn" tan 1 .Art.
) Prob. 4/ 5/ f 6k and B= 5/ f 6/ 7k in the form r$]/J. 26. Express ^ = 100 n n // and // .444 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. 7 = +.5. ik = The square combinations give results which are indepen .8 1307/63 and 10. 6. k. 2s = v and . in the form xi \yj + *& 207/30. from the symmetry of space we assume that the following rules are true for the product of two vectors in space : * = +. j. V ji =z =h kj = +. [CHAP. but these add by vector addition into a resultant directed area. Express in the 123 57 7/142 and Z> = 456 657 /200 form #* + + zk. 20 Prob. andyV = containing two partial products^ ^ch of which has = the highest importance in mathematical and physical analysis. ij two vectors 2 Rules of Signs for Vectors in Space.30 307/40.5 3117/61^. 4// ^ F= 7T 1000 3 6 // //?^4 // 7t . Accordingly. IX. Prob. Express in the form r(f>/6 the resultant vector of If + 2/ $k 4* 5/ + 6. k. Art. then and Rn = xj+yn/ + snk. Express A= C= t^ . the several elements of the area enclosed will in different planes. 24. Product of two Vectors. 2R = {2x)i + (2y)f + (2s)k r = V(Z*y + (i" + (^) tan0 2 . 8. r = +1 Jk &= ki *. and 4o7/5^ __ y Prob. j. and 71 + 8/' + gk. By the rules i* +> k we obtained (p. 27. tan n = V{2y)* v + {2*y L Successive Addition. 25. (Ans. 23. 432) a product of k. jiy Prob. lie When the successive vectors do not lie in one plane. Find the resultant of 10 .
Art. The area vector determined by i and j can be represented in direction by k y because k which is tridimensional space the axis also complementary to i and/. likewise ik the three rules ji = kj = rules are made The figure shows that these j. and consequently are summed by simple addition. velocity flux = electromotiveforce. and the vector of electromotive force. suppose that in a motor the direction of the current . Again. flux electromotiveforce for the electric The corresponding formula current flux motor is = mechanicalforce. = rotation in the righthanded screw. and force current = flux. that its velocity is towards the bottom.] PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS. muclv handier than any thumbandfinger rule for it compares the three directions directly with the righthanded screw. given two of these : directions to determine the third. In the dynamo three principal vectors have to be considered the velocity of the conductor at any instant. of the velocity is z. 6. 445 dent of direction. normal to the plane of the paper. to represent the relation of the advance to the i. from which we derive by cyclical permutation flux force = current. is in We observe that the three rules ki =zj are derived lical = k. the intensity of magnetic flux. w o / g^ from which we deduce ^ and = velocity. jk =. Suppose that the direction ij and that is of the flux/. Suppose that the conductor is . from one another by cyc. and that the magnetic flux is towards the left corresponding to the rotation from the velocity to the flux in the righthanded screw we have advance into the paper that then is the direc Example. The physical meaning of these rules is made clearer by an application to the dynamo and the electric motor. the electromotive force The formula =k becomes . Frequently all that is demanded is. : tion of the electromotive force. if i. then the direction of k. permutation &. is The formula velocity flux = electromotiveforce . electromotiveforce velocity = flux.
and . the conductor. s we be heterogeneous. and let OL. bj. and the latter the vector product. OQ represent B. rules (p. which is independent of direction. OP spectively. is [CHAP. namely.ajb^jj a.<*AY+(*A . + ajbjk + ajbjy + a b ki + a b ik + a bjj + aj)ji = a b + a. is % x Their product. b % k re. In a The former called the scalar product.<*A)j+ (A *A) s x x f % x x % x x x z = *A+"A + *A + bn i Ik j k Thus the product breaks up into two partial products.446 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. Complete Product of two Vectors. of vectors. 444). By deduce the results already obtained may for a plane. Let OP rep meaning is resent A. Let A = a i\aJ \a k x % and B= bx i\b% j \ b t k be any two vectors. The scalar product Its is de noted as before by SAB. Scalar Product of two Vectors. the vectors are necessarily homogene ous.bjzk. = a b ii\. not necessarily of the same kind physically. geometrical the product of ^ and the orthogonal projection of B upon A. and upon MN be the orthogonal projections of the coordinates bj. and K i A K K j k sum in % which has the direction normal to the plane of is and B. and that the magnetic flux is to the left corresponding to current flux we have advance towards the bottom of the page. IX. according to the AB = (aj + aj+ a k){b i + bj + b k). + a b + (*A . but a product the vectors making a = b = O. up from the paper. and LM. A"f" a #2 a 3 x #A+^A . Then ON is the orthogonal pro jection of OQ.b. which therefore must be the direction of the mechanical force which is applied to along the conductor .
Given two A = ji 10/+ = + : . Corollary 2. then the triangle OPQ is the projection of half of the parallelogram formed by A and B. ik and B 6k.b Corollary I. For = a J> + a b.a.bJ\.] product of two vectors. Hence A . and ij represent the respective components of the product. The vector product as before is denoted by VAB. ki. and the area be is S = sj \. i. For. 6. 447 OP X ON = OP X (OL + LM \ + MN). the magnitude and direction of the parallelogram formed by x the projections of A and B on the plane of i and/ Similarly a s b 7)i denotes in magnitude and direction the projec(ajb t tion on the plane of j and 1% and (a z b a. orthogonal projections of this area upon the planes of jk. The product is positive when the vector and the pro The product B jection have the same direction. Hence SB A x bx a + of b. Hence NBA = lines VAB. +ba t z = SAB. % = a*\a*\a* = The square of must be positive for the two factors have the same direction. + a b % t .Art.s^j {. is it and the orthogonal projection on it of A to the product of A and the orthogonal projection on equal of B. k. SAB.b^j that on the l plane of k and Corollary 1. Let z the intensity let of a magnetic b2 s2 be s . flux a 1 a aj) % \ ay aj? % =ab l \ = B= bj\. opposite directions.b a ajj^)k denotes the triangle OPQ is \{a b 2 ajb^). It means the product of A and the component of B which is perpendicular to A.s k 1 l then the flux through the area SSB x 2 b s \  bzsa . Example. But it is there shown that the area of Thus (a. to find the rectangular projections of the par9^ 4/ allelogram which they define Example. Vector Product of two Vectors. let OP and (see second figure of Art. and is represented by the area of the parallelogram formed by A and B. 3) be the or A The OQ thogonal projections of A and B on the plane of i and/. and negative when they have a"*.
a k.B. Hence In the same consists of (A + B)C= AC+BC. B be let Sums of nonsuccessive Vectors. + b. IX. it way then may be shown that y if the second factor two components.^ >* + b c b c )i + { I t t t ( % % 3 3 . where normal to both a and # sin a/3 aft de/3.aJ f. . + b )e % % = SAC + SBC. Let A+B A = aj.9o)k 62i\ 57 is A expressed as aa and .27 + 42)/+ (28 . + 6 )i + (a. Let A and two component vectors.(*. = (a c . and C denote any other vector having the same point of application. + ifc + (*. Given cos A T] r^//B_ and /J[_ B r'07/0'. Example.)k. Similarly V(i* + B)C = (a. + *. + bfc + (a. C and D which are nonsuccessive in their nature.)j A +B= (a. Then SAB = rr' /] 0' = rr' {cos Product of two 6 cos f sin 6 sin 0' cos (0' <p)). f. . + *>. and the sense given by the righthanded screw. Since A and B are independent of order* . consequently by the principle already established S(A + B)C = (a. . then* SAB = drawn in # cos #/? and V^i? is = notes the direction which a/?. (A+B)(C+D)=AC+AD + BC + BD. i? as /?. . % l C= i+cJ+ Cl cjz. giving the resultant A f.K ' + etc.448 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. B = b i+bj+bJ. If 12)1 1 + (. VAB = (60 = 482 + Corollary 2. [CHAP. + x + (a.
36. Prob. conductor is S. find Prob. Show that if a system of areavectors can be represented by the faces of a polyhedron. find the difference of potential at the ends. f 449 When A B is a sum of component vectors { (A Prob. 326 volts. 34. Let us take A = a i f a % k r = cj cJ\. 197 of 1000 pounds mass has linear velocities of an d 60 feet per second + 50 second 3o//45 6o//22. their resultant vanishes.. ieei per its A body 25k pounds weight. 5/+ 9/ 6/+. find the direction of the mechanical force on the conductor. Hence ) ABC = (A + aj> + ffAX'j*' + CJ+ c k +K*A . 31. 7. x a Complete Product. what magnetic force in the conductor ? Prob. Prob. Show is that the moment of the velocity of a body with equal to the sum of the moments of its component velocities with respect to the same point. 30.cjs.] product of three vectors. and the force applied respect to a point at either end is 17* f Prob. A conductor 8/+ an electromotive force of 111f "+ IO & inches long is subject to 12/+ 13^ volts per inch. according to the rules % p. 29. Show that work done by the resultant velocity is equal to the sum of the works done by its components. 33.*A>"+ Wi . Prob.11/+ 13^ feet. A body to which a force of 2$ \ y f 4k pounds is applied moves with a velocity of the rate at which work is done.5. and the the direction of the electromotive is The direction of the current vertically downward. flux + BY = A* B* + AB + BA The is relative velocity of a is N. 28. x + + J B with C. 35. B. Find the rectangular projections of the area of the 12/ 34^ and 23/* parallelogram defined by the vectors A= B  45/ 56/ f 67^. By the product and C % of A. 32.W.) Prob. Art. (Ans. find the torque..7& feet per second. Product of Three Vectors. find kinetic energy.Art. Prob. 444). 37. that of the magnetic flux is West. 7.a A)J+ (A . The arm is gt {. Prob.a b )k}(c i+cj+ c k) = A + A + *A)(cj + cj + ^) (1) i l l z ( .W. and C is meant the product of the product of A and B = b i + bj + b k.
450 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. IX. [CHAP. + \at at .
S{VBA)C = . means S(VAB)(VCD). Hence any of the three former may be expressed by SABC SABC. The line in ume of the formed by the vectors A. 7. Example.Art.SBC A . B. + 16 + = 7$i + 6/ The determinant also be written in the form 27X4* 66k.SCA get the other two components similarly and adding the results we By adding of these .S(VCB)A = . B. and by treating i\. but it is positive or negative according to the cyclical order of the vectors. C is the projection the measure of the <P/ . C VAB vab magnitude and direction represents formed by A and B. {b l c l a l c x a x b^i we SBC a . Third Partial Product.S(VAC)B. to the first 451 components the null term b i. x x obtain V{VAB)C = . 455). + 5/ + 6) may expression for this partial product K K j k + + bv a% a x J determinant expression + a% a x It follows that the frequently occurring M. we know that S(VAB)C=S(VBC)A = S(VCA)B = . and any of the three latter by t The third product S(VAB)C is represented by the vol parallelepiped taken in that order. Hence the volume formed by the three vectors has no direction in space. Take the same three vectors Then as in the preced V{VAB)C= (2& + 40+ S4)(li + 2/+$k) + (. + SCA . and the the area product of of VAB with it upon volume in magnitude and sign.] PRODUCT OF THREE VECTORS. ing example. d*d % dA From the determinant expression for the third product. The principle here proved is of great use in solving equa tions (see p.
50/+ 10/ 8o. + a. . . I 2 ya 2 cos a/3 cos /3y cos ya.n z k *' + + m J 4" w 4^ the vectors ioo/f5o/ Prob. ft. In the expression abc sin a/3 cos a/3y it is evident that sin afi corresponds to sin 0. B. Find the cosine of the angle between the plane of n x k and /a /. per second where cos0 = sin 45 sin 6o. 11 45/ /45  Also the third partial product. Find the second partial product of 2o//30.452 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. /j/+/. [CHAP. Prob. square of each cos afi 2 for the ] is 2 \ cos fiy f cos that is. let the intensity 6000 /90 lines per square cenof the magnetic flux be B be V= timeter.cos a/3 cos fiy a cos ya /? cos a/3 y cos /3y . /3. C . Find the volume of the parallelepiped determined by 25>. . 40. 38. By decomposing the Sum second product we obtain V(ABC) By removing the = = = SAB. we get cos a/3 y cos /3y a \. common V(a/3y) Similarly V(fiya) and V(ya/3) = multiplier abc. Example. . y of the given triangle. By adding the first second partial products we obtain the total vector product and of ABC.SBC A . These three vectors have the same magnitude. 10 30 / /40 .y+ and /4 / Prob. itself Let the velocity of a straight wire parallel to 1000/30 centimeters per second.cos ya cos ya /3 f. . Then V VB = 6000000 sin 6o 90 / /90 lines per centimeter per Hence S{VVB)L = 15 X 6000000 sin 6o cos0 lines second. and cos a/3y to cos cp. . IX. y . and let the straight wire L = 15 centimeters 60 / /45 . kV which are the corners of the triangle sides whose are bisected V 9 by the corners a. of the Partial Vector Products./+ a ^ an d the plane of is i\m t j \. . which is denoted by V(ABC). and 75/+ 407 80/k + + . \ ja fi'> {S(a/3y)\\ They have the directions respectively of a'. in the usual for mula for the volume of a parallelepiped. 39. + SCA .
) is Prob. the intensity of the magnetic flux is 7000 lines per square centimeter. 453 Prob. 42. y = 4^7/35 Find Vafiy.Let a = 2^7/10. 43. .91 volts. mechanical principle. m x at the extremity of A lt m 7 at the extremity of A^ etc. and denotes the radiusvector from the extremity of R to the extremity of A. the angle between the first and second and that between the plane of the first two and the direcbeing 30 tion of the third 6o. its Prob. (Ans. 41. The product m(A R) is what Clerk Maxwell called a massvector. Composition of Quantities. 8. located at different points it is compound them. so ni) R \ that mA = = m R + mA m R + m(A mA mR A 5 ). Addition of a Located Scalar Quantity. Find the voltage at the terminals of a conductor when velocity is 1500 centimeters per second. mass Let mA denote a m situated at the extremity of the radius vector A.Art. together with the said massvector applied The equation expresses a physical or at the extremity of R. fi = J07/25 . Find the volume of the tetrahedron determined by the ' extremities of the following vectors 3/ 77 : 31 2j f ik t 4/ f 5/ 7^. quantities are simultaneously required to find how to add or A number of homogeneous . with respect to the exat the tremity of R. at the A mass m m may any {in be introduced extremity of radiusvector R. 2mA = 2m R + 2{M(AR)\. Here A R is a simultaneous sum. 8. . and the length of the conductor . Hence for any number of masses. 8/ + 4/' 3/^. The equation states that the mass of the vector A is equivalent to the equal mass at extremity of and means the directed moment m m the extremity of R.] composition of quantities. 20 centimeters. and deduce Vfiya and Vya/3.. *. Art.
^. Corollary.^. latter [CHAP IX.sin 6o sin 75vfc) > f .y4./z 2 Composition of a Located Vector Quantity. and A a x i + bj + c k x . then the above condition ** may be written as 1 ' 2m _ 2 (ma) 2m . .sin 45 6o). . .R)F.454 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS.. 1 2 \. s 75//6o. treated as simultaneous vectors applied at a common point.j. 5 sm 3 sm sin 45^')>  f. i (2mb) . F This equation asserts that a force A R applied equivalent to an equal force applied together with a couple whose magnitude is . pounds Given pounds I at 45//30 and 8 at 7 feet 6o//45 find the moment when both masses. f )i?. m^A^ (w. As a force ma\\ introduced at the ex F F tremity of any radiusvector 7?. we have ==T* at the extremity of at the extremity of + V(A . where the term denotes the sum of the massvectors. f >j = 5o(cos 30* + sin 30 cos 45 y w i4 = $6(cos 45? sin 45 cos 6oy {m + #z )i? = i56(cos 6oz + sin 6o cos j$ j moment = w. 2m ' therefore x = 2(ma) ^ 5 = 2(mb) z= 2mc ^ 10 feet (yW' Example. Since 2{m(A moment R)} = 2mA = 2mA if 2mR R2m f ir^JJ^A YMrwuir the resultant will vanish or R2m = 2mA R = 2m c Let R = xi + yj + zk. 2m y . are transferred to 12 feet .vector A. 2(mc) k . Let FA de note a force applied at the extremity of the radius.
Hence such as for a at system of forces applied at different points.2VRF = 2VAF. the principle previously established the left member is R \ SR^p. 455 and direction are given by the vector product of the radiusto the extremity of A and the vector from the extremity of R force. ) we obtain Since = 2(FS + 2V(A . member equivalent to the complete product on account of the two factors being normal to one another hence . 2F. 2{VAF)^. + 5/+6 \oi \ and a force of ji at I2j^ 2VAF= giTorque VA F = &1jf+& VA F. t t t iSj + gk. to 2VAF. F^ at F l A lt A etc. 2F= 8z + u/ + 14/fr." AR. . = 6i i2j + 6k. VR2F=tfi~4j. 8. . so that the *** effect may be the same as before.$/jfc 3&. find the torque which must be supplied when both are transferred to 2t \.R + SR~ 2F = . = .iSk..VR2F ^^kJ\C^\J^ 2(FA ) : the condition for no resultant couple is VR2F= which requires 2F to be normal ZVAF. \ and the right .oj ^nk pounds weight 14k feet. ^ VfA3< WnIJQ By taking the vector product of the above equal vectors we obtain with the reciprocal of 2F Vj By resolves into <yR2F) p\ V j (2VAF)^.R)F = (2F) R + 2V(AR)F 2V(A .T..] COMPOSITION OF QUANTITIES.147 + 27k.2j \ $k pounds weight at a 41 \. Given a force feet. ut f^ ^ H^ Vv s \ Example.R)F = 2VAF . li \.28* .
idk and 31 perpendicular to the line Prob. By expanding the left member according to the same ciple as above. only no relation is and 2VAF. Find the central axis Since for the system of forces J the previous example. that is.456 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. [CHAP.iSj + gk. IX.VR2F\ ZF = o V(VR^F)2F=V(^F)2F. 2F= R= V{2jAF)2F. that is. the Since 2j? = 8/41 1/ 4.11/+ 4A the 8/+ 117+ V64 1 14^ + is 121 + 196' 2VAF = gi . (2) means the projection of R upon that The condition for the central axis force is that the and the resultant couple should have the same direction hence it is given by resultant .ZF 2F This always is is now imposed on Example. therefore ^VSJ^SAF) + ~^. hence there the directions of a central axis. 2F = v{ir)(VZAF) + SR^. direction of the line is 2 F= 8zf.(2F)*R + SR2F. V \ . 44. R = ^p2{VAF) + SK^F SR  (>) (2) The extremity dicular of of is on a straight line whose perpenthe vector (i) and whose direction is that lies R the resultant force. V 2VAF . in the same straight line as before. The term line. we obtain ^_____^ prin . 10 //20 Find the moment at qo~VA7o c of 10 pounds at 4 feet and 20 pounds at 5 feet 30 //i2o .
and 2/ when transferred to 1/ 3* impounds weight + at 3/ + 4/'+ 5^ feet Prob. __ f/tf/% _ k*^*k 9^* &/%f f% f/t i*f*k ^ = 1*^* The meaning ing application. it is equivalent to the quadrant from /to i. it of two ^k i quadrantal versions round is equivi\ alent to a semicircular version round hence w/ *t* /% = i* = . 45. yoAf f m/t t^t means the product of two quadrantal versions . 457 Prob. let i 9 n/ denote .] spherical trigonometry. 47. the same origin to all the particles of the system. Hence we obtain the following Rules /.% t% round/. 9. The s directions of positive version are indicated j) by the arrows. Art. equivalent to the quadrant from to that is. then . ir/ a for Versors. of these rules will be seen from the follow Lei li f mj + nk denote any axis. Spherical Trigonometry.Art. Similarly ff . feo t / is meant a quadrant round is i followed by a quad rant round/. Similarly kw/ *k v/ = & = . 2/ the central axis in the above case. 46.j\ 9.% = . Find the torque for qi\y\2k pounds weight at 21 y \~ik feet. Let z. Similarly for the other two pairs of products. to k w/t . =f * By is. % By ^*C' is meant the product 1. k denote three mutually perpendicular axes. Prove that the massvector drawn from any origin to a mass equal to that of the whole system placed at the center of mass of the system is equal to the sum of the massvectors drawn from 4^ feet.j". that i kn/\ Butj n/ H n/i /. Find Prob. In order to distinguish clearly between an axis and a quadrantal version round it.j k respectively. k * quadrantal versions in the positive sense about the axes i.
then the versor expressed by y Now and therefore b /3 y c = cos b + sin b = cose sine \ff/a .^) 7r /a n/ n/ % and these components rectangular components /i *. and b the ratio of the spherical versor itself is PA. denotes a quadrant of angle round that axis. sin .(/*' . nJF* Simare not successive versions. namely. py = + sin b /^'X*** ^ + sin r r = cos # cos + cos b sine y cos c sin ^ + sin ( cos ' ) n W /3 . f Jy"/* ^^ = c . we (It obtain + mj + nk) \n + m'j + n'k) = (/r + mfu + nk + m'f'* + rfk K/ w/ ' /a w/t f )(I t r/i 9/% ) =  ' (II \ mm' ' f nn') l% . But from the preceding paragraph ^r/y/. Let fi denote the axis. c . (2) term gives the cosine of the product versor it is to the fundamental theorem of spherical trigonomequivalent . cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A./ _ m ny+(nl' . resolved into /V'*.n'l)f . cos /?/ ir/ . The etry. but the parts of one version. [CHAP.n'l)j+(lm' . ilarly ' f . .l'm)kvU = (//' + mm + o _ ( w. fT y U lt. This quadrantal version can be decomposed into the three mj f./ /3y } *. therefore f\ =_ cos cos py _ sin py sin # sin /? .458 {it f VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. \ . denote the axis and spherical versor is c Similarly let y the ratio of the itself AQ. . . wj n/i n'J i By applying the above rules.l'm)k\ v'\ {mri /% ' Product of Two Spherical Versors. any other quadrantal version (l'i\tnj\n'ky* can be t. then the versor b expressed by J3 . (i) cos 3 sin c first y  cos sin # sin ^ sin /?. .(/' . IX. mj *. F'\ y n/ * . \. .m*ny . cos c sin # .
a: + cos a sin * sin c .* j '? . y~ y~ h is the cos c c = c reciprocal of 9 sin c .] SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. fi b the versor QR. c f. fiy ff/a [ s Product of Three Spherical Versors. = 607/30. + + \f sin . . y w' % cos a cos cos .sin 30 sin 6o k therefore Vfiy sin 45 cos 30 sin 30 sin 6o sin 45 sin 30 sin 30 cos6o cos 45 sin sin Sz" { I sin 45 sin sin 30 cos 30 30 sin6ojy + given versor c j cos 45 30cos6o 45 cos 30cos 30!^. 45$ in where A denotes the external angle instead of the angle is cluded by the sides. Quotient of is Two Spherical Versors. (2) is Example. The reciprocal of a derived by changing the sign of the index . /f )(cos sin /a + sin n/* fi a c . y n/ >) (1) 4. p. cosb sin c y \ sin b sin c sin fiy . fi *. As b fi = cos b f sin b n/ . and its dinormal to the plane of the product angle. fi y~ = cos b cos c sin b . &. y c . cos fiy Let fi = 307/45 and y cos 30 . sin Then = cos 45 + sin 45 .ART.sin b sin c fi cos fiy . then a a fib y c denotes Now a a h fi y c p" c = = sin a o^'Xcos b (cos a cos # cos b cos . Let denote the versor PQ. c sin n/ n/* *fi (3) Principles of Elliptic and Hyperbolic Analysis. and but fi sin fiy fiy and y = cos 45 i + sin 45 = cos 30 i + sin 30 = j = Vfiy cos 30/+ sin 45 sin 30 k. The second term square of rection is the directed sine of the angle for the equal to 1 minus the square of (1). 2.cos a cos sin c. cos ^ sin . ^y (2) w/ w/t 71 + cos b sin sin a y a smb. . and y *. 30 cos 30. a + cos <r. + jcos aa PS. cos 6oj\. and y c the versor RS .
/ cos b sin tf sin c sin ory a/? a. ' sin <: . (4) versors in (3) are expanded by the cos rule already ob 0*/y/s =_ py _ sin is fly . IX. /% . + sin a sin b sin c The tained. a (p. . the factors are then quaternions in the most general sense. ./ cos c sin # sin b sin . hence the a last term of the product. pp*\ The versor of the fourth term a"/*jf/y/* =. Now L = & 1 2! r h r 4! 6! ^t & + etc. It has been shown (p. and. Now sin ar/? sin a/3y ar/?. But when the axes are independent . a *fi y . . letting Sin denote the directed sine. (cos a/3 + sin a/3 ay o./ . afiT )y w/t = cos a/3 sin . namely./ = cos /3 cos /?. sin a a . sin r sin /3y /?. = j cos a cos b sin r cos cos <. a U + cos~o~/3y f . * In the above case the three axes of the successive angles are not independent. */ cos /?>/ . /? . when expanded. cos a/? . Extension of the Exponential Theorem nometry. is sin b sin c { y 9/* + cos r . y w/ *{sin a/3 cos a/3y\sin a/3 sin ajjSy a/3y n/ *./ cos or. for the third angle must begin where the second leaves the theorem remains true perfectlyoff.460 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. ./ f cos # cos r sin b cos a sin ./ . 458) that cos b to Spherical Trigo /3 y c = cos b cos c sin b sin c cos /3y and b (sin /3 y) c v/' = cos c cos sin b . . .* . /ty^ . . [CHAP. 45 1). \ Hence cos a a/3 b y c = cos # cos b cos cos b sin a: cos a sin ^ sin c cos cos sin /ty' sin ay ar/? cos c sin a sin cos a/3 + Sin a a /3 b y c sin # sin b sin cos afiy. y n/l 8 sin sin c sin /?/ . . y^ 7' + cos *" . /?  cos /3y o'J. afi sin # sin $ sin^lcosa/?.
Fc\ sin /2 /?./ . 6^V + 15^V + 2oV cos fiy + 5^V + 6bc* cos J3y + +./ c<\ . y*f* .] spherical trigonometry. J/' ) + ? 2 \ + \\b* + 4^V(cos /?. . coefficients are those of the binomial theorem.be sin /3y y " /2 n/2 . ff/2 4 /2 . 9. j Substitute these series for cos b. 461 and sin b = b 7r +  etc. It will be found that cos b homogeneous /3 y c = 2 I \b x + 2bc cos fiy + ytf. cos 1 /?./ + \\b + 4^V cos _ L{ where the 8 + 6V + 4bc< cos 2 /? r + t*J _L. the only difference being that cos fly occurs in all the odd terms as a factor.^ \c. sin b. . we obtain b c (Sin /3 y n/2 ) =b o w/* . /r + 5^ /* + io*v /f + 10JV r + 5^ ^ + / /2 ./ + sin /3y 2 .\b> 1 . and group the terms together. fy + . + zbc\l? + c\y" n/2 _Lj^  _l. c* /2 1 . y n/2 ^i\b*+ 2bc(cos Py + sin fiy . and sin c in the above equations. /2 py =1 jr b. Similarly. By adding pansion for h these two expansions together we get the ex fi y\ namely. fi +c /2 . Jy' ) + 6V . multiply out.. ffy /i /2 \ {b\F + __ lb*c.Art. cos c. by expanding the terms of the sine.
The above demonstration was first given in my It paper on "The Fundamental Theorems of Analysis generalized for Space. that is. IX.> t fit + 3j v I ." He was led to this view by not dis tinguishing between vectors and quadrantal quaternions and between simultaneous and successive addition./^^/yf etc. Hence the expansion given by for a power n/2 of a successive binomial is j./V i ! +^x . pr + ^ t* 3 u p/y + f r s(n/2 )f that * is. We have proved * /s above that e* w/*sy w/ = *** + <W* provided that the powers of the binomial are expanded as due to a successive sum. /3 + a** f^y** n~ V V. T  * At page 386 of his Elements of Quaternions. By second restoring the minus. the order of the terms in the binomial must be preserved. T\\P 3! + C Y Hence Extension of the Binomial Theorem. p* + c . Hamilton says: "In the present theory of diplanar quaternions we cannot expect to find that the sum of the logarithms of any two proposed factors shall be generally equal to the but for the simpler and earlier case of coplanar logarithm of the product . i and this is equal to 2 rld." forms the key to the higher development of space analysis.f+2&. . line In a similar manner the terms on the third can be restored to <. with due modification for multiplicity of value. quaternions. [CHAP.462 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS.^ + cy'^'. that algebraic property may be considered to exist. of a where we have the square 3 m sum of successive terms. +. we find that line can be thrown into the form I the terms on the 2T ! i'. y w/ *\* =b n .
] composition of rotations. 10. In the above example calculate the cosine and the directed sine up to and inclusive of the fourth power of the bino. Composition of Rotations. Prove that if a a ft y denote the three versors of a . Effect of a Finite Rotation on a Line. and that R is the radiusvector from O to some particle. b c Prob. ft = o/fa Y = ^o7/>!. Prob. 50. and and OL. 51. 52. 49. 53. Prob.+ ^ + 2 fc cos /?. of rotations is a different matter from the tion composition of versions. 463 Example. change of direction of a B line. In the diagram OB represents the axis ft.. OK ftR = (cos 6 + sin 6 w/ . cos 9735) terms of the series when = = h. the rectangular compoOP the vector R. . Draw nents of R.c = ifor. Prob. (& Let b ff ** . = = Prob. 10. Sup pose that a rigid body rotates d radians round the axis ft passing through the point O. of From the fundamental theorem spherical trigo nometry deduce the polar theorem with respect to both the cosine and the directed sine. In the example on p.Art. K /2 y . +* . 244 mial. Calculate *> the first four (Ans. 459 let b 25 and c 50 culate out the cosine and the directed sine of the product angle./ + 2Msin /a^)**} = . 48. Find the equivalent of a quadrantal version round V~i z" 1 1 2 2 V2 7=j ~\ 2 7=& followed by a quadrantal version round r2 calProb. spherical triangle. A version refers to the but a The composirotation refers to a rigid body.^(sin #k)* J = TV and c=^ ft = W//^> V = 6o7/3<A io Substitute the calculated values of cos fty and sin fty (page 459). then sin fty sin a _ sin ya _ sin aft sin c sin b Art. fi *)rp .(ilo + h + cos fiy) .
general result may . Let j3 It is. + sin 6 =o./?cos cos /?p sin ftp + sin /3p sin /3p. 2 2 /?^ = S/3R /?+ o. f = i and Hence . /3 . and = + mj \nk. IX./3p\. where + w i? = then Sy&tf = lx + wj/ + nz \yj\. + Note that (VflR)/3 is equal for it involves two coincident Example. f? )(cos /2 /3p . fipfi + sin . be written cos 0(V/3R)ft sin 0V/1. /3p/3) this reduces to pR = cos 03? + sin 0V(/3R).464 r(cos 6 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. = When The r{cos/?p. [Chap. .zk = V^)/J /* . to V(V/SR)fi because S/3R/3 directions.
evident from PR . c In the figure b c b fi is represented by PQ. and as the result is a line.] COMPOSITION OF ROTATIONS. then fp XY = ^ 2 tf + 2./z# . is 465 fi**/*ff1*pn f**f* +*&**$&* t which may be expanded according to the exponential theorem.y J \zos c/2 sin b/2 (3 sin b/2 sin c/2 sin (3y . Hence. b expression (fi /*y /*y is not. the order of the factors being preserved. cos b/2 sin c/2. It has been shown in the preceding paragraph that which is succession . which is twice ST. Composition of Finite Rotations round Axes which Inter Let /3 and y denote the two axes in space round which sect. and (f3 /y /2 Y by SU. as might be with fi b y c The former reduces to the latsupposed. 4fc> [ c cos b/2 cos c/2 and n. fil*yl* by b ST. namely. and let /3 b denote the first and y c the second. Let ft b X y c denote the single rotation equivalent to the two given rotations applied in the sign X is introduced to distinguish from the product of versors. opposite. v their directed sine./*)p/\/3*/*y b c/2 ) . The cosine of SU differs from the It is cosine of by the term (sin b/2 sin c/2 sin fiyf. reasoning backwards. sin b/2 sin c/2. because the factors in a product of versors can be associated in any manner. . the successive rotations take place. namely. 10. /3y.Art. the successive powers of the trinomial being formed according to the multinomial theorem. The e . v. the figure that their axes are also different. y by QR. b /3 x y = c {/&*y*)\ Let m denote the cosine of /3 b ^2 y ^. identical ter only when fi and y are the same or Observation. j5 y by PR. the same principle applies to the subsequent rotation. Hence b y c (/3 p) = y</\fi*/*p/*0"/*)y</ = (y</*fi.
[CHAP. IX. . 59. 55. Prove that the cosine of (yffVy/2) cosine of b 9 = \/3 p} w /'. Prob. Prob. fi R. cos is /3 and Sin b /3 X y = Xy c i. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS. Prob.466 Corollary. Prove that successive rotations about radii to two corners of a spherical triangle and through angles double *of those of the triangle are equivalent to a single rotation about the radius to the third corner. Find the single rotation equivalent to *>/ Xj n/2 X >&*/*. 57. ./+ 2/ . i? b 3 .c y. Prove by multiplying out that fi" h/*pF/*fibf* Prob. theorem that differs from the fi y by c (sin . Prove by means of the exponential b c c y~ fi y has an angle b. b . 56. b When c b and . 62. and through an angle double of the external angle of the triangle. ft \. c are infinitesimals. Find the value of ft X y when /3 ="o V/ 9 o and y ="^7/90. fi = 3^7/45. 54. 60. Let calculate ff R. Prob. # = fr/3> and R = 2/. Prob. calculate e Let /? = 907/90.3/+ 4^ = . Prob. Prob. 58.sin sin fiy) . 61. Prob. # = tt/4 . and that its axis is y*fi. which the parallelogram rule for the composition of infinitesimal rotations. Compare the axes of 9 (yff*/y*/*) b and b /3 y e .
* in the by the fact that much of the terminology of the science and drawn directly from the and the paraphernalia of the gambler and the trickvocabulary many ster. Pascal was led to consider the subject during the of games in year 1654 through a problem proposed to him by the Chevalier de Mere. PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. 1. curious circumstance that a science so profoundly mathematical as the theory of probability should have origi nated and games of chance which occupy the thoughtless That such is the case is sufficiently attested profligate. f " . a reputed gambler. * The historical facts referred to in this article are These drawn mostly from Tod hunter's History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability from the time of Pascal to that of Laplace (Cambridge and London. Poisson. Art. considering the antiquity chance. It is a 1. passed between them contained the earliest distinct formulation of principles falling within the theory of probability. 1837). Un probleme relatif aux jeux de hasard. By Robert S. propose aun austere janseniste " par un homme du monde. a ete l'origine du calcul des probability. .f The problem in question is known as the problem of points and may be stated as follows two players need each a given number of points to win at a : certain stage of their game if they stop at this stage.ART. Professor of Mechanics in Columbia University. of its familiar illustrations are It is somewhat of surprising. Woodward. how should the stakes be divided ? Pascal corresponded with his friend Fermat on this question and it appears that the letters which . also. Introduction. 1865). 46' Chapter X.] INTRODUCTION. that formal reasoning on the simpler questions probability did not begin before the time of Pascal and Fermat. Recherches surla Probability des Jugements (Paris.
) Their names. and great credit energy and ability displayed in developing a science which seemed at the time to have no higher aim than intellectual diversion. d'Alembert. Ars Conjectandi. subject which had attracted the attention of such distinguished mathematicians could not fail to excite the interest of their contemporaries A and successors. I work on Chances. but it the most noted. Pascal soon renounced with the approbation of the other. and Laplace are the principal names which figure in the history of the subject during the hundred years *De f Ratiociniis in Ludo Alese. He gave the best account of the theory down to the beginning of the eighteenth century.J and De Moivre. 1708. however." Todhunter says of Montmort. Amongst the former has the honor of publishing Huygens is the first treatise* on the subject. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century almost every mathematician of note has been a contributor to or an expositor of the theory of probability. Daniel. They attacked. when it was superseded by the more elaborate works of Through James Bernoulli. JEssai d'Analyse sur les Jeux de Hazards. and both died soon after the epoch in question. and John Bernoulli. Euler. "In 1708 he published his the courage of Columbus he revealed a new world . 1657. acute thinkers. and Fermat in 1665. accomplished little more than a correct Each seemed to rest content at the time start in the science. [Chap. quite successfully in the main. for example. Condorcet. Nicolas. Bayes. It contains only fourteen propositions and is devoted entirely to games of chance.468 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. the most difficult problems. such mundane studies altogether Fermat had only the scant leisure of a life busy with affairs to devote to mathematics. with one exception. Simpson. 1662. f Montmort. the labors of the latter authors the mathematical theory of probability was greatly extended. X. 1718. 1713. Pascal in . The Doctrine of Chances. where with to Mathematicians. is due them for the undoubtedly. Lambert. are the most important in the history of probability. Lagrange. that of Laplace.
as tains in every science which at precision knowledge of the theory of errors in measuring. : is the applications of the doctrine of probability none In astronomy.] INTRODUCTION. VII bears the date 1886. and chemistry. physics. as in the adjustment of observations. ou je fus appele comme professeur de Mathematiques avec Lagrange. the theory are. now accessible in the best textbooks on algebra and there are many excellent treatises on the pure theory and its various applications. Of the contributions from this brilliant array of mathematical talent. the facts that the nonmathematical introductionf covers about one hundred and An and that.Art. par un decret de la Convention nationale. pages. a indispensable. Amongst the most important of the pioneers in these fields should be mentioned Poisson. the pure theory and its accessories and applications require about six hundred and fifty fifty . canique Celeste in dynamical astronomy. que je donnai en 1795. and of Vol. " Cette Introduction. and De Morgan. and in problems of insurance. have done much to simplify one or another branch of the subject and thus bring it within the range The fundamental principles of of elementary presentation. Bessel. 469 ending with the first quarter of the present century. the Theorie Analytique des Probabilites of Laplace is by far the most profound and comprehensive. Gauss. From the epoch of Laplace down to the present time the extensions of the science have been most noteworthy in the fields of practical applications. and is computing. By the aid of this theory the exact sciences have made great progress dur *The form of the third edition published in 1820. weighing. etc. This Vol. like his Me the most elabo idea of the grand scale of the work in its present form* maybe gained by. statistics. rate treatise on the subject. Numerous authors. also. of greater utility than the theory of errors. in spite of the extraordinary quarto pages brevity of mathematical language. Of all geodesy. "est le developpement d'une Lecon f sur les Probabilites. VII of the complete works of Laplace recently republished Hinder the auspices of the Academie des Sciences by GauthierVillars. aux Ecoles Normales. It still is. 1." ." writes Laplace. indeed.
therefore. Obviously. in accordance with the general plan of the volume. but also in the fixation of clear ideas as to the possibilities of future conquests in the rection. in fact. the theory of its more important applications now constitute an extensive body of mathematical principles and precepts. which confine attention almost exclusively to the This chapter stops short of that method. also. and also to those who. and seeks to supply those phases of the theory which are either notably lacking or notably erroneous in works of least squares. that the elements here presented are essential to an adequate understanding of the wellworked domain of least squares. It is believed. . have not acquired a working knowledge of the subject. however.* *The author has given a brief but comprehensive statement of the method of least squares in the volume of Geographical Tables published by the Smith sonion Institution. method hitherto published. Effort has been made especially to clear up the difficulties of the theory of errors by presenting a somewhat broader view of the elements of the subject than is found in the standard treatises. not only in the actual determination of the constants of nature. [CHAP. while somewhat familiar with the difficulties to be overtome.470 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. X. is more satisfactory same and diin structive in the history of science than the success with which the unique method of least squares has been applied to the problems presented by the earth and the other members of the great. Nothing. 1894. and is sometimes regarded as embodying the major part of the doctrine of probability itself. So and it is frequently mistaken for the whole theory of errors. it will be impossible within the limits of a single chapter of this volume to do more than give an outline of the salient features of the subject. It is hoped. As may be probability and inferred from this brief sketch. for example. are the practical value theoretical importance of the method of least squares. ing the present century. that solar system. that such outline will prove suggestive and helpful to those who may come to the science for the first time.
Permutations. b. the number of ways the four letters a.9. 5 = 151200. the formula gives for ft ss 2. are ab t bay ac. ( . ca.Art. 2. The formulas and found in most works on algebra. The number is of permutations of ft things taken r in a group expressed by the formula (n) r = n {n  \){n  2) . 2. = = = = =6. and it will therefore suffice here to state the principal formulas and illustrate their meaning by a few numerical examples. =210. d can be arranged in groups of two is 4 3 12. 471 Art. .2 (3). and the groups . cb.6. cd y dc Similarly. (i) c y Thus. .r+ = i). to illustrate.5 7 (7) 3 n 10 " r 6y 10. 3.7. 3 and r " n 7. which follow from equation (1) when n and r do not exceed 10 each are embodied in the following table The results : Values of Permutations. .6.8. (io) 6 = = r=3. results of the theory of permutations combinations are often needed for the statement and soand This theory is now to be lution of problems in probabilities. bd> db.] PERMUTATIONS. ad f da } be.
For example. X. 2. which gives for the number of permutations of n things groups of n the same value as for n things in groups of i). its is fifteen. and. These numbers are 3 . 10 are given under the But when n is above table. 132. (1) To get this. both which appear in the to give all terms as for r righthand for r member 1) is of (2). 2. if not Hence a more convenient formula is desirable. in the column under 7.472 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. in mula.. This suffices between 1 and {n 1).. Hence it appears that ^ = *! + T + 7^ + . 231. 23.3. that headed with noticed that the last two numbers in each column (excepting This accords with the fori) are the same. observe that may be written if r is restricted to integer values inclusive. of the number n at the head of the column. nl. 13. corresponding columns large the direct of the . etc. S> to fix the ideas. that the number 3 15 of numbers (all different) which can be formed from those dig = + + = 1.2. Calling this total or sum SPi it will be given by (2) To illustrate. is groups of two. . three. [CHAP.7 = 7!.6.. let the three things be the three digits 1. 12. 21. 123. the last number is 5040 == 1. 213. 321. Then from the above 6 6 table it is seen that Sp or.5. summation indicated by (2) is tedious.. (n It will also be remarked that the last The in total number of permutations of n things taken singly.4. 312. 2. 31. The values of Sp for n = 1. since the = (n the same = number of permutations n. given by equation (1) for all values of r found by summing the numbers from I to n. 32.. = 2(n) suppose n = 3. 3.^ ryr . impracticable. number in each column of the table is the factorial.
the series by which n is here multiplied approximates rapidly towards the base of natural logarithms that is. 3. Tabulate a list of the numbers of three figures each which can be formed from the first five digits 1. Shortrede's Tables (Vol. In combinations no regard is Thus.\ . and to I. the permutations of paid to the order of arrangement. Is Sp always an odd number for n odd ? Observe . 1. (3) Hence for large values of n SP = n\ e.* To get an idea of the degree of approximation of (3). .Art. log e = 0. Sp = The about onemillionth of 986409 by equation is error in this case thus seen to be only one unit. 6 for a formula for computing n\ when n is a large number. 3. or Sp . Prob. De Morgan's treatise on Probability in five places in Encyclopaedia Metropolitana. . When large numbers are to be dealt with. Art.4342945. c. towards ^ = 271828184. the letters a. 1849). b. 2. pose n = the above table) : 9! e = = log 362880 55597 6 3 0. numbers can be formed from the nine digits ? Prob. ! 473 But as n increases. approximately. Combinations.] COMBINATIONS. . supThen the computation runs thus (see values in 9. How many 5. d in groups of three are (abc) (add) bac bad dac dbc acb bca (acd) (bed) cab cba cad cbd deb adb bda adc bde dab dba cda cdb dca * See Art. values of Sp in the table above. equations (1)' and (3) are easily f managed by logarithms. Such tables are given the especially if to six places in a table of values of log (!) is available.4342945 9!* 986410 59940575 (2). In permutations attention is given to the order of arrangement of the things considered.
. seven is 10! 3 . 2 (n) r = n(n \)(n 2) . formula for computing the number of combinations of n things taken in groups of r things is easily derived. in the case of the four letters a. as considered above. c. the order of arrangement is ignored all of these are seen to be repetitions of the groups enclosed in parentheses. b.. . The following table gives the values C(n) r for 1 all values of n and r from to 10. A general For the number of permutations of n things in groups of r is by (i) of Art. (acd). the of (n) r eral of r things gives 2. if [CHAP. i) .j in groups of three or . for example. X.7* f = 120. Hence in this case out of But twentyfour permutations there are only four combinations. For example.('+ (I) This formula gives._r = r! per by r\. r + .. 3 . (bed). (abc)> (add). b. tions of the first ten letters a. J and since each group mutations. The mode of using this table is evident. number by Then the gen formula C(n) r = ()(" *) . the number of combinations of eight things in sets of five each is found on the fifth line of the column headed 8 to be 56. namely. is number Denote of combinations this must be the quotient C(ii) r . d taken in groups of three.( 1 .474 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. c . Multiply both numerator and denominator of the righthand member of (1) by (n r)\ The result is flW** r\(nr) ' ! ^ which shows that the number of combinations of n things in groups of r is the same as the number of combinations of n Thus. the number of combinathings in groups of (n r).
Art. 3. 475 . Values of Combinations.] COMBINATIONS.
of thirteen cards each. is 635 013 559 600. X. to illustrate. + to be mutually exclusive. 3. Examine this statement " : In dealing a pack of cards the number of hands. Denote their probabilities by p and q respectively. would require twentyeight figures to express it. Jevons. . all of then the probability that the pen. The second member Hence * (i + Y l c equation is evidently equal to S =2C(n) r The values of = 2i. find how many different substances could be produced by combining the seventythree chemical elements. Art. = = a 5 white and b * =8 black balls. Principles of Science. two events must occur in any can occur in a ways and the which ways are equally likely to hapfirst known that one of or instance.476 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. under the corresponding columns of the above Prob. How many different squads of ten men each can be formed from a company of 100 men ? Prob. . while the probability Such events are said that the second will happen is b/(a b). New . 4 How many triangles are formed by six straight lines each of which intersects the other five? Prob. p. If it is trial 4. first will happen is expressed mathematically by the fraction a/(a\b). and r from I (3) S c for values of n to 10 are given table. which can be produced But in whist four hands are simultaneously held. in tossing a coin it must give head or " tail" a b I. of this [CHAP."* Prob. if an urn contain . 5. " " Thus. the probability of drawing York. 6. 1874. Direct Probabilities. and the number of distinct deals . Then there result the last equation following from the first two and being the mathematical expression for the certainty that one of the two events must happen. Assuming combination always possible. and that the second in b ways. and p q = 1/2. 217. and disregarding the question of proportions. Again.
b = 5 black. and red = red balls. .Art. and 6/15. all Evidently the all drawn may be all white. As a (1) and (2) may first illustration. . * and the probability required is the reciprocal of this number. _6 350I3 JD D is. partly black and red. black. triad of balls Thirdly. and is / = 210/13699 + . very nearly The probability against this event unity. that is. therefore. red. their probabil are given ' . ^=5/15.. ways b respectively. and 6 red balls. p = 5/13 and that of drawing a if 8/13. DDy 559600. . there are several mutually exclusive events in a. by P = a a +6+c+. ' . ' . this 1 seven digits. partly white and red. . the probability in ques tion about 1/65. .. Formulas cases. the probabilities of drawing a white. 40 !L_ 2 i ? I 2 3 . consider the probability of drawing at list a number of three figures from the entire first of random numbers which glance at the can be formed from the table of Art. from which at a single trial three balls are to be drawn. black. 13 . c. A case shows that the symbols of formula (1) have in the values #=2io. Secondly. what is the probability of holding in a hand of whist all the cards of one suit ? Formula (1) of Art. T ~ c a +b+c\. or . 4. and r <: if an urn contain =6 a=4 = white. . ball at a single trial are ^ 4/15. partly white and black. (2) For example. which can occur ities/.. trial is 477 a white ball in one black one q = Similarly. but it be applied to a wide variety of must suffice here to give only a few such. and # Hence =13699..] direct probabilities. 50.. 51. r . q. consider the probabilities presented by the case of 5 black. 3 shows that the number of different hands of thirteen cards each which is may be formed from a pack of fiftytwo cards 52. an urn containing 4 white. b. q ~~ a+b+c+. respectively. b = 13489.
Art. and red triads .3.2 I . black. one each of the white. Black triads Red triads White and black triads White and red triads Black and red triads White. X. of combinations shows (see equation (i). black. There are thus seven The theory different probabilities to be taken into account. [Chap.478 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. 3) that the total number White of triads 4. and red.
if/. = ^ /(^ + &. A P independent events.. The will probability that the alternatives of a series of events is concur evidently given by (1 Q= M& .ART. suppose there are two urns which contains a white and b black x x balls.. x x x x 9 2 )> x x x 2 &. two dice are thrown simultaneously the probathat the sum of the numbers shown will be 1 1 is 2/36.). will is and the probability that this sum 11 sive throws of the same pair of dice appear in two succes 4/36.ajb )/{a + b )(a + ^ = b bj{a + b )(a f x x f x % A.). To p=(i/6y= Similarly. is unity. Of these x + t in simulpairs a a % are favorable to the concurrence of white taneous or successive drawings from the two urns. (2) Thus..36. bility 1/2 if 16.A) = (1 . and concurrence. x p the probabilities of two independent events are p and in any respectively. If Probability of Concurrent Events. . 479 Art. the is show something other than an ace .) a The total number of different pairs of balls which can be formed from the entire number of balls is (a b^(a% + b ). /& an d illustrate this formula. Then the aj(a 2 x probability of drawing a white ball from while that of drawing a white ball from U U 9 x is p x =s \ b x )> is/.] PROBABILITY OF CONCURRENT EVENTS. and the second a % white and b t black balls. as required by equations (2) of In general.A)d . 5. in the case of the three dice probability that each will mentioned above. and the sum of these Article 4. Hence the x probability of a concurrence of white with white white with black black with black = a aj(a b \a + = {a b^\. 5. the probability of their concurrence is single instance pfx of U x and U the first Thus. p 2 . denote the probabilities of several denote the probability of theii (1) P = AAP*=A =A = suppose there is required the three aces with three dice thrown simulprobability of getting l In this case/.A)(i A). taneously.
p and against which the probability \s The that the event will occur every time l p n The probability probability that in succession and then fail is the event will occur (n 1) times n ~ But if the order of occurrence is disregarded this last p q. it may be shown that the maximum term in the expansion n \ of (p q) is that in the whole number of which the exponent lying between (n^ \)q . say. all When most probable result in n trials is the the event {n m) times and its failure m n is large this means that the most probable of is that in which the event occurs n nq times and fails nq times.i)q. the probability that it will occur at least once in n n * trials is I q Calling this probability r . t r= If r in this i2= of j (1 /)*. what for which the probability is q. may happen is in n trials of an event Consider. so that the probfail ability that the event will occur (n ~ 1 times and once is np ( q. . combination n may arrive in n different ways 1) .. of q is 1 and (n f. cessive trials of the this Q same event. [CHAP.480 q qi =zq i is PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS./. x = 5/6. i)p~ q*. and the probability that they will concur in 125/216. the occurrence times. 2) Similarly. Thus. by 3 By the same reasoning used to get equations (2) of Art. 1/2. the probability that the event will happen n2 times and fail twice is \n(ii That is. the probabilities of the several possible occurrences are given the corresponding terms in the development of (/ j. the (3) equation be replaced by the corresponding value of n is number trials essential to render the * See Poisson's Probability des Jugements.q) n . Since q n is the probability that the event will fail every time in n trials. etc. if the event n(i q) np be that of throwing an ace with a single die the most probable possible results = = of the possible results in 600 throws is that of 100 aces and 500 failures. for example. cases of interest occur for the application of (1) and Many One of the most important of these is furnished by suc(2). 41. 40. In other words. . pp. X.
3' is approximately. definitely near to unity it that is. expressed by the latter being' Prob.\ 3 y + .865. (r = = 24.2 1.Art. value of r ~ n >. n(n K i 1) 2 V . = = e~ I np np \ 1. Thus an approximate r 1 = e \oge = 0. five 9.614 by the formula) it is finite. This probat must be carefully distinguished from the probability that trials. it Prob. if the event be the throwing of double sixes with two dice. for the probability of drawing: the ace of spades from a pack of fiftytwo cards at least once in 2 e~ 0. in the same number of hands. n may be so large as to render practically certain that the event will occur at least once.867. n(n v i)(n 2) lt . while the exact formula (3) 104 trials r = 1 = gives 0. for example. in this case. the probability of the occurrence of the event at least t times in n trials will n Of rom P f of (/ bility f U P to tnat be given by the sum of the terms m Pt^ n ~ inclusive. When (1 n i is large py = nP + . so long as n may be taken so large as to make r approach in.. Similarly. Compare the hands of whist with the probability cf folding probability of holding exactly four aces in* at least four aces.2. 5. . the value of n is given by log 2 log(i' This shows. Equation (3) shows that however small/ may be. that the chances are even 1/2) that in 25 throws (n double sixes will appear at least once. for example. for which / = 1/36.] probability of concurrent events. the event will occur t times only in the n the single term in /^n ~'. even that What is the probability of an event if the chances are occurs at least once in a million trials? See equation (4). Thus. (4) This formula gives. . 481 chances even that the event whose probability is/ will occur at least once. 10.4342495.
and denote this term by Then n(n r=  i)0 2) r . whence q 5/6. and in this approximate form is known as Stirling's theorem. O + >y = . small values of Although a rude approximation to n for n this theorem suffices in nearly all cases ! wherein such probabilities as the theorem in (1) it becomes T are l .W^(i+^ + = 0. 600604. X. and the most probable result in 12 / = = throws fails is to appear ten times.7981799. of times The probability that the event will occur a is number * This expression due to Laplace. of T.. that in which the particular face appears twice and The probability of this result com puted from while the exact formula (1) gives 0.). is direct calculation of T by (1) is impracticable when n To overcome . pp.x )^ so tnat wnen ^ is ar g e M l > to np and nq respectively.4342495.296. (2) log e = 0. (3) is 0. desired. Theorie Analytique des Probabilities. M in this formula is the greatest whole number in (n f. See also De Morgan's Calculus.! this difficulty the following expression used:* = . log 2?t ^+.309. . The probability that any particular face will appear in one throw is 1/6.482 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.i)A and m the greatest whole number in an<^ ^ are sensibly equal (n f./v* ( i ) As shown in Art. Bernoulli's Theorem. . Denote the exponents of/ and q in the maximum term n (p f. The is large. . This expression approaches n n e~ n ^2nn as a limit with the increase of n. Art.q) by yu and in respectively. 6.. Making use of T^m That n is . [CHAP. (3) this is formula affords a fair approximation even when small seen from the case of a die thrown 12 times. 5.n i) ! .
(/* 483 is comprised between a) and (ju j a) in n trials evidently n expressed by the sum of the terms in (p j.] Bernoulli's theorem. 6. for an extended discussion of the questions considered in this Article. putting ja = up f. . l Thus + a/ \/%npq a/ Vzitpq This equation expresses the theorem of James Bernoulli. and m= nq u. and approaches the latter limit rap Thus. 1889. between o and idly as z increases. u logarithm of the product of the two binomial factors in this = =+ equation is approximately if/2npq. Paris. x npi \ nq/ very nearly and the summation is with respect to u from But expansion shows that the natural a to u a. writing for brevity ?/'" * See Bertrand.Art. since n is p^Mi V27tnpq supposed large. Calcul des Probability. R= 2 and. putting dz = i/Y2npq. is and using number). published in 171 3. ' Hence . member of (4) varies. and = u /2npq. this may be z i replaced by a definite integral. Calling this probability R. as it should. given in his Ars Conjectandi.q) for which the exponent of p has the specified range of values. The value of the righthand 1.u.* Stirling's theorem (which implies that n a large ^27tnpq .
484 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. the following table shows the march of the integral z . : [CHAP. X.
= *A*i + + s> x  *m) = AAA +A + . m causes. Since the fact that a white ball was drawn excludes consideration of the black balls. . namely./ = qmTm Let bers in D be the common (1). . = 1/3 and r = 1/2 4. . of separate existence by A>A> A(0 A= ?i r i> A = qs s . Hence. . q x t . P. constant. .. . 1/2. and the second whence the above probabilities may be . . and the sum of these is should be. as it it came from cT. s m ) equally possible cases. . is seen that there are in + . = 3/16.8) cases favorable to the production of a white ball. is 8/17 . \ on the supposition That is. each of which has the same antecedent probability. q m their antecedent and their resultant probabilities . Then A = sJD. and that of these st are favorable to C lf s^ to C 9i . Cm by qv q^. Clt Cv . = 1/2. To generalize this result. p = 1/6. ^=8/17. . A = */A and it . suppose it is known that a white . x % l 7/tf> J 1 As a second illustration. 7. (2) meaning of these formulas by the above concrete case of the urns for for observe that U U lt it whence and = 3/8 and r. It is now seen that there written 1/2 x 9/24 and 1/2 X 8/24. A + A = p P =9/i7./ all {s x = sJD s% f.. 485 diminished so long as the ratio of white to black balls is kept Make these numbers the same for the two urns. Pm denote the probabilities of the several causes on the supposition of their coexistence. .Art. . .. ... if P P lt . the probability that the white ball came from U x is 9/17 and that unity.. . rm . sm . A) Thus in general P = A/^A To illustrate the P> = it PJ2P. . let there be their direct probabilities Denote probabilities by r r .Pm suffices to = pm/2p. .] INVERSE PROBABILITIES. Thus let the first 8 white and 16 black contain 9 white and 15 black.. are (9 f. denominator of the righthand memand denote the corresponding numerators of the several fractions by sz .
the the chances are 15 to they agree in asserting that it did. x. . or. falsehood. X. p% = xx * (I .. p = 2/m.. . 0(i . . x . supposing them to testify independently. the probability that they will concur in the truth concerning while the probability that they will conthe event is x x^ . 2p= (l/2)(#*+l). PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. . is (1 ^(1 . + (ix + (1 )(i *. . [CHAP. been drawn from an urn which originally contained of in is some them being black. ./= ).x$\ l . . 3/4. 1 2 . . I. .=A/S>= W(W+I > it This shows. Hence by equations x. that there were I white and m (tn i) black balls. q 2 = . as probable number for this number is to I evidently should. . =xx x % . 5 if truth and to 1 that the chances are 3 to X^ tells the truth. 1838). . x^ that an event occurred = and * For some interesting applications of equations to the Ninth Bridgewater Treatise (3) see note E of Appendix by Charles Babbage (London. as it ought. 5/6. m The is the most Pm = 2/{m + 1). lt Formulas X X . M tells ^ P 1 x x^ x . Denote the x xv x . probability which reduces.. Hence in (1).)' x%) . {in 2) black balls. 1 To Px if illustrate (3). What the probability that the urn contained exactly n white balls? different and equally probable The facts are consistent with hypotheses (or causes).) . The two (1) alternatives are equally possible. x p Thus and = =g = \/m.. .' being the probability for and P Q that against the event. namely. white and . 2n / . cur in the only other alternative. for m I. . ..486 ball has balls. that n of white balls in the urn. 1 that X.. m/m. . and (2) /. to the problem of (1) and (2) may also be applied the probability of the occurrence of an event from estimating the concurrent testimony of several witnesses. if all are not white.ra ) . . . . probabilities that the witnesses tell the truth by Then. etc. . and % pn = n/m.* 15/16. p * 1 xx 1 % .
. 7 . Let x denote the probability of any particular cause. cxm {\ x) where Since x . which it is possible to form from the each. Now suppose it has been observed that in against (in + n) cases the event in question has The n y occurred m is times and is.. y Then signed possible limits a = cx m {\ n X) . . P P t. Equations (2) may be ' written in the following . manner: 8. . 9 are printed on cards and placed severally in Prob. evidently the probability that x will fall within any as and b a is expressed by the fraction 1 Jydx J J ydx\ . by unknown. 14. pm lt are found by observation.. of Art. Pm will ex press the probabilities of the corresponding causes or their effects. When. 8. the value of any / or P in (1) becomes indefinitely small. probability of such a concurrence c is a constant. 13. .. failed n times. the num ber of causes and events is indefinitely great.Art. m are each greater than 1/2. Probabilities of Future Events. etc. or of the event to which it gives rise. of witnesses is P approaches unity as the number indefinitely increased. supposing this and all the other causes mutually exclusive. nine digits 1. How many make are essential to P witnesses whose credibilities are each 3/4 == x 0.] probabilities of future events. Art. ti . . (1 x) will be the probability the event.999 m equation (3) ? Art.. p If x A * * pm 2p' { > p /. two figures three figures each. and the value of 2p must be expressed by means of a definite integral. Then. as in the case of most physical facts. Put 5. . it may be assumed to have any value within the limits o and 1 and all such values are a priori equally possible. The groups of numbers of one figure each. What is the probability that the number 777 will be drawn in a single trial by a person unaware of the contents of the urns ? Prob.. 487 if It is of theoretical interest to (3) observe that x xlt x . nine similar urns. 2.
s) trials the event will occur r times and fail s times. 1795. is cause or event the probability that in the next {r f. Thus. he Theory of Probability. if * It is values of m. treatises there results * of the higher treatises on the rules derived in such Applying y If regard is (r + s)l(m + r)l{n + s)\(m + n+i)\ r\s\m\n\(tn\. the answer What would be by Arts. a remarkable fact that formula (5) is true without restriction as to The formula may be established by elementary considerar. X. and (3) calling the required probability Q. They are discussed in the Integral Calculus.n \ r * \. [CHAP. so that the probability of any particular x is given by fxM (i This u x) dx may be then regarded as the antecedent probability of the in question. 1 Q = ^V. ing is. x is restricted only by the condition the required (2) probability will be found by taking the product of and integrating throughout the range of x. that the probability required is that of the event happenr times in succession and then failing s times in succession. (r+s)l r\s\ fx t I m+r (i x) n n+s dx ' (4) xm {i x) dx The definite integrals which appear here are known as all Gamma functions.s +1)! of the event ' had to the order of occurrence . 453457 See Todhunter's History of .488 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. s. tions. n. pp. as was done by Prevost and Lhuilier. if no regard is had of the order of occurrence? If x were known. 2 and 5 *$*** But since (3) (2).
the the number of times m .r \. \/r \s ! in (3). r ^ 1 *0 = = + #+l s 3. probability that I will rise tomorrow is ( + i)( I+ 1. or This if will follow if the balls are replaced is the number of balls in the urn sup posed infinite. ll. What is the probtrial ? will occur at the next In this case (4) gives m Q = fxm+1 dx/ Cx dx = (m \ \)/{m + 2). = 2. ^ m \. are drawn. = 16. after each drawing.s ~\Thus by (5) . + = 5. = m{r = g. y'= I+  + which is practically an unknown Secondly. suppose an urn contains white and black balls in If in ten trials 7 white and 3 black balls ratio. (r f. . = 6.] probabilities of future events. The data n n \. 8. (4). has happened ability that it m times and failed suppose first that the event no times.Art.s give 3. m= 7. Thus. what is the probability that in the next five trials 2 white and 3 black balls will be drawn ? The application of {5) supposes the ratio of the white and black balls in the urn to remain constant. When m sun has is large this probability is risen without failure a great it nearly unity. the first of which has happened m times and the second n times in *n\n trials.s) 489 the factor unity. G= 2!S\g\6lii\ = 3o/91 3 !7! 3 !i6!  Suppose there are two mutually exclusive events. What is the probability that the chance of the occurrence of the first exceeds 1/2 ? The answer to this question is given directly by equation (2) by integrating the numerator between the specified limits of x. (5) must be replaced by To illustrate these formulas. That is.n {.
490
PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.
i
[CHAP X.
fx
m
{\
xfdx
(6)
P~~,
fx
o
m
(i
xfdx
;
I and k Thus, if o, P 3/4 or the odds are three to one that the event is more likely to happen than not. Similarly, if the event has occurred m times in succession,
m=
=
=
P=
Art.
9.
1
(i/2)
w+1
,
which approaches unity rapidly with increase of
n.
Theory of Errors.
The theory of errors may be defined as that branch of mathematics which is concerned, first, with the expression of the remore sources of error to which comand observed quantities are subject and, secondly, with puted the determination of the relation between the magnitude of an error and the probability of its occurrence. In the case of computed quantities which depend on numerical data, such as
sultant effect of one or
;
tables of logarithms, trigonometric functions, etc., it is usually possible to ascertain the actual values of the resultant errors.
In the case of observed quantities, on the other hand, it is not generally possible to evaluate the resultant actual error, since
the actual errors of observation are usually unknown.
In either
however, it expression which
Case,
always possible to write down a symbolical will show how different sources of error enter
is
;
and
affect the
is
expression
of
aggregate error and the statement of such an fundamental importance in the theory of errors.
To
fix
the ideas, suppose a quantity
.
Q
to be a function of
several independent quantities x, y, z
.
.;
that
is,
Q=f{*>y,
and
in
let it
*)
. .
x,
be required to determine the error in Q due to errors Denote such errors by A Q, Ax, Ay, Az y, z
.
.
.
.
Then, supposing the errors so small that their squares, products,
and higher powers may be neglected, Taylor's
series gives
Art.
10.]
LAWS OF ERROR.
491
This equation
may
in
of the function
be said to express the resultant actual error terms of the component actual errors, since
the actual value of
x, y, z
.
. .
AQ
It
is
known when
the actual errors of
are known.
. .
quantities x, y, z independent of one another.
.
should be carefully noted that the are supposed subject to errors which are
The discovery
of the
sources of error
is
sometimes a matter
of difficulty,
independent and in general
if
requires close attention on the part of the student
he would
avoid blunders and misconceptions. Every investigator in work of precision should have a clear notion of the errorequation of
the type (i) appertaining to his work for it is thus only that he can distinguish between the important and unimportant
;
sources of error.
Prob. 15. Write out the errorequation in accordance with (1) % Q xyz \ x log (y/z).
16.
for the function
Prob.
in a
In a plane triangle a/b
b,
=
sin ^4/sin
B.
Find the error
due
to errors in
A, and B.
^ = ^,+1(180^ B Q, B = B, + i(i8o  AB  C ), where A B C are observed values. What then is Aa Prob. 18. If w denote the weight of a body and r the radius of the earth, show that for small changes in altitude, Aw/w= 2Ar/r\
x
Prob. 17. Suppose in place of the data of problem 16 that the angles used in computation are given by the following equations
:
t
it
t
,
x
?
whence, if a precision of one part in 500000000 is attainable in comparing two nearly equal masses, the effect of a difference in altitude of one centimeter in the scalepans of a balance will be noticeable.*
Art.
10.
Laws of Error.
which expresses the relative terms of their magnitudes.
let e
A law
of error
is
a function
frequency of occurrence of errors in
Thus, using the customary notation,
denote the magni
* This problem arose with the International Bureau of Weights and Measures^
whose work
of intercomparison of the
Prototype Kilogrammes attained a pre
cision indicated by a probable error of 1/500 000 oooth part of a
kilogramme.
492
PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.
o.
[Chap. X.
tude
any error
in a
of such system
may
system of possible errors. Then the law be expressed by an equation of the form
y
= K4
(0
Representing e as abscissa and y as ordinate, this equation gives a curve called the curve of frequency, the nature of which, This as is evident, depends on the form of the function 0.
equation gives the relative frequency of occurrence of errors in the system so that if e is continuous the probability of the
;
occurrence of any particular error
expressed by yde cp(e)de; which is infinitesimal, as it plainly should be, since in any continuous system the number of different values of e is infinite.
is
=
Consider the simplest form of 0(e), namely, that in which This form of 0(e) obtains in the case of c a constant. 0(e)
=
}
the errors of tabular logarithms, natural trigonometric funcIn this case all errors between minus a halfunit tions, etc.
and plus a
to occur.
halfunit of the last tabular place are equally likely
just cited belongs, all errors
Suppose, to cover the class of cases to which that a and \ a between the limits
probability of any individual cde, and the sum of all such prob4,
are equally likely to occur. error will then be cf>(e)de
abilities,
The
by equation
(2),
Art.
must be
H*
unity.
That
is,
+*
/ <p(e)de
a
= c jde = a
I.
(2)
This gives
Q
c
=
.d
1/20, or
by (1) y = i/2a. The curve of frequency in this case is shown in the figure,
It
is
a
AB
being the axis of e and OQ that of y. evident from this diagram that if the
errors of the system be considered with
respect to magnitude only, half of
them
A
O
B
should be greater and half less than a/2. This is easily found to be so in the case of
tabular logarithms, etc. As a second illustration of
(1),
suppose
is
y and
e
connected
circle,
by the relation^ = c Va
2
e
2
,
where a
the radius of a
ART.
c
11.]
TYPICAL ERRORS OF A SYSTEM.
493
a constant, and e
may have any
+a
value between
a and
f a.
Then
the condition
cjde Va'e*
a
=
I
In this, as in the preceding case, <p(\ e) 2/(0*71). the meaning of which is that positive and negative 0( e), errors of the same magnitude are equally likely to occur. It
gives c
will be noticed, however, that in the latter case small errors have a much higher probability than those near the limit a while in the former case all errors have the same probability.
=
r
In general,
tion
/ (p(e)de
when
e
is
continuous 0(e) must satisfy the condi
=
I,
the limits being such as to cover the entire
range of values of e. The cases most commonly met with are those in which 0(e) is an even function, or those in which In such cases, if a denote the limiting 0( e). 0( e)
=
value of
e,
+
a
a.
f<P{e)de
= 2f<p(e)de =
I.
(3)
Art.
11.
Typical Errors of a System.
Certain typical errors of a system have received special designations and are of constant use in the literature of the
theory of errors.
These special errors are the probable error, the mean error, and the average error. The first is that error of the system of errors which is as likely to be exceeded as
;
not
the second
is
;
of all the errors
and the third
the square root of the mean of the squares is the mean of all the errors
Confining attention to systems in which positive and negative errors of the same magnitude are equally probable, these typical errors are defined matheLet matically as follows.
regardless of their signs.
ep
= the probable error, = the mean error, ea = the average error.
em
494
PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.
(2),
[CHAP. X.
Then, observing
ep
of Art. 10,
+p
e
\a
f(p(e)de =J<t>{e)de
a
*p
=
j* $(e)de =J^(e)de
+e^
= J,
(I)
em
*
=y*0(e)eVe,
ea
=
2
fcj>(e)ede.
student should seek to avoid the very common misapprehension of the meaning of the probable error. It is not
The
" the
most probable
" the error," nor
most probable value of
the actual error"; but it is that error which, disregarding signs, would occupy the middle place if all the errors of the system
were arranged
suffice to fix
few illustrations will order of magnitude. the ideas as to the typical errors. Thus, take the
in
A
simple case wherein 0(e)
logarithms, etc.
eP
=c=
=
i/2a,
Equations
a,
em
(1) give at
which applies to tabular once
ea
=
 Vj,
=
a.
For the case
tabular place.
ep
of tabular values, a
= 0.5
in units of
the last
Hence
for such values
ew
=0.2$,
e
=o.29,
0(e)
.=0.25.
<f>(e)=c cos (?re/ 2 a);
2
Prob. 19. Find the typical errors for the cases in which the law
of error
is
0(e) == cVc?
2
,
= c(a^e),
in
x being a constant to be determined a. a and value between
each case and e having any
+
Art.
12.
Laws of Resultant Error.
When
duce
there
is
several independent sources of error conspire to proa resultant error, as specified by equation (1) of Art. 9,
resultant error
presented the problem of determining the law of the by means of the laws of the component errors.
is
algebraic statement of this problem for the case of continuous errors
:
The
obtained as follows
In the equation
(1),
Art. 9, write for brevity
ART.
12.]
LAWS OF RESULTANT ERROR.
the laws of error of
2(
495
0(e),
and
let
e,
e xi e a
,
.
.
.
be denoted by
given by
<&(,),
e a)
Then
the value of e
is
=,+*. +..
The
of ext e a
probabilities of the occurrence of
,
(i)
.
.
.
are given
by
I
(e,)dfe 1
is
,
any particular values e e2 and the 3(
K
,
.
.
.
;
probability of their concurrence
responding value of
infinite
e.
the probability of the corBut since this value may arise in an
of e lf e a
, . .
number
of
ways through the variations
e,
.
.
over their ranges, the
expressed by the restriction
x
probability of the integral of (e )^e l
1 1
or <p(e)de, will be subject to a (e a )afe a
.
.
(i).
This latter gives
e,
=
e
e2
e,
.
.
.,
and
.
.
de = de for the multiple Hence there results
<P(e)de
integration with respect to e
e
.
=
dej*4>
x
{e
 e,
.
.
e8

.
.
.)<f>9 (et
)d*t
.
.
.
,
or
0(e)
=
f^ee,

ea
O&W^v/V.W*.
formula
(2)
It is readily seen that this
will increase rapidly in
complexity with the number of independent sources of error.* For some of the most important practical applications, howequation (2) to the case of two indesources of error, each of constant probability within pendent assigned limits. Thus, to consider this case, let e vary over
ever,
it
suffices to limit
x
the range
a to
\a,
(2),
and e2 vary over the range
Art.
1
b to
f b.
Then by
equation
10,
0^) =
Hence equation
(2)
/(2d),
0,(6.)
=
1/(20).
becomes
In
evaluating
this
integral
ea
e e3 must not surpass <?, of the integral for any value (a f b) and (a b) are
=
must not surpass b and Assuming # > b, the limits of e = e e a tying between b and This fact is #). (e
a.
+ + +
x
* The reader desirous of pursuing this phase of the subject should consult
Bessel's Untersuchungen ueber die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Beobachtungsfehler;
Abhandlungen von Bessel
(Leipzig, 1876), Vol. II.
496
PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.
plain
[CHAP.
Xw
by a numerical example. For instance, suppose. = 3^. Then 8 and (a j b) = 5 (a b) Take e = 8 and Then 6, a number intermediate to 3. the following are the possible integer values of e and e a which
a
made
=
and
b
= 3.
e
x
will
produce
=
e
6
:
6=  5 ls= + (e+^ =  4  2, = 33,  3 =  *1,
e,
e,
limits of ea
Similarly, the
(#
b)
limits of
b) are
e a for values of e lying
between
limits of
and
+ (0
and
)
+ &\
and the
e a for values of e
between
f (#
and
\{a\b) are
+ (e
a)
and
j
&
Hence
"^
v
'
4#
/
a
4^
for
(a+b)
< e< 
(a J),
2
4<zb
/
b
4ab
(3)
^=43/^=^^
Thus
it
for
+(*><+<+*>.
law of error
appears that in this case the graph of the resultant is represented by the upper base and the two sides
of
lion
1110111 IIIIOII
a trapezoid, the lower base being the
.
.
axis of e and the line joining the middle
union
IIIIIIOII
points of the bases being the axis of 0(e). (See the first figure in Art. 13.) The properties of (3), including the
c
,
,
..,.,
.
,
V
determination
numerals arranged IIIIIIIIOII 11111 * to represent the case wherein a = 0.5 and The vertical scale, or that for 0(e), does not, howb 0.3.
adjacent trapezoid of
1
minion
=
nil
of the limits, are also illustrated
.
by the J
.
f
ever,
conform exactly to that
for
e.
ART.
13.]
ERRORS OF INTERPOLATED VALUES.
497
Prob. 20. Prove that the values of 0(e) as given by equation (3) satisfy the condition specified in equation (3), Art. 10.
b = o;
and (3) for the cases wherein a and interpret for the latter case the first and last of (3). Prob. 22. Find from (3), and (r) of Art. 11, the probable error of
Prob. 21.
Examine equations
=
the
sum
of
two tabular logarithms.
13.
Art.
Case
I.
Errors of Interpolated Values.
of the
One
most instructive cases to which formulas
is
(3) of Art. 12 are applicable
that of interpolated logarithms,
trigonometric functions, etc., dependent on first differences. Thus, suppose that v and z>2 are two tabular logarithms, and
1
that
it is
required to get a value v lying
.
t
tenths of the interval
from v towards v2
x
Evidently
v
= v + (,
e,
*0 1 =
(1
 t)v + tv
x
9
;
and hence
spectively,
if
e l9
e^
denote the actual errors of
r
v,
vlf
v^
,
re
"/)'. (0 It is to be carefully noted here that e as given by (1) requires the retention in v of at least one decimal place beyond the last tabular place. For example, let v = log (24373) Then ^ = 4.38686, v% from a 5place table. 4.38763,
= (1
+
=
i7
a
v
x
= +0.00017, t = 0.3,
table, e
x
and v =4.38691.1.
Likewise, as
units of
is,
found from a 7place
the
fifth place; actual error of v
=
is
0.45,
e.t
=
+0.37 in
That
is
and hence by
= 4.3869 1.1
0.20. (1) e= = 0.20, and this
the
verified
by
reference to a 7place table. The reader is also cautioned against mistaking the species of interpolated values here considered for the species commonly used
value
is
by computers, namely, that rounded to the nearest unit
is
in
which the interpolated
of the last tabular place.
The
latter species
discussed under Case II below.
Confining attention now to the class of errors specified by equation (1), there result in the notation of the preceding
article
,
= (1
ei
t)e v
e^
e^
te^
and
e
=e=e +e
x
2
1
and since
and
each vary continuously between the limits
498
PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.
[Chap. X.
in
0.5 of a unit of the last tabular place,
(3) of that article
a and b
equations
have the values
a
=
0.5(1
/),
b =0.5/.
is
Hence
the law of error of the interpolated values
:
ex
pressed as follows
0(e)
=
O.S
+e
t
for values of e betw.
0.5
and
{it)t
I
(0.5/),

for values of e betw.
(0.5/) and +(0.5/),
\
(2)
0.5
(I


for values of e betw.
t)t
+(0.5/) and +0.5.
shown by the trapezoid
Evidently the equa
The graph of 0(e) for / = 1/3 AB, BC CD in the figure on page
f
is
$00.
tions (2) are in general represented by a trapezoid, erates to an isosceles triangle when / 1/2.
which degen
=
The probable, mean, and average errors of an interpolated value of the kind in question are readily found from (2), and from equations (1) of Art. 11, to be
e,
=(i/4)(i/)
for
o
= =
" __
1/2
1/4/
f
(1/2)^2/(1

for 1/3
for 2/3
</< </ < <t <
1/3,
2/3,
1.
iftaQ' )*
96(1
(1
/)/ /)/)'
\
y
for
(3)
2ty
/)/
3
o
<t<
<
t
1/2,
24(1
l(2t24(1
It
is
I)
ty
for 1/2
<
1.
thus seen that the probable error of the interpolated value here considered decreases from 0.25 to 0.15 of a unit of
the last tabular place as values are
/
increases from o to 0.5.
;
Hence such
who
precise than tabular values and the computer desires to secure the highest attainable precision with a
more
given table of logarithms should retain one additional figure beyond the last tabular place in interpolated values.
Art.
13.J
errors of interpolated values.
II.
490
v x \ t(v.x v ) for an Recurring to the equation v value v in terms of two consecutive tabular values interpolated v x and v a it will be observed that if the quantity t{v% v ) is Case
x
,
x
rounded to the nearest unit of the last tabular place, a new error is introduced. For example, if v = log 1633 = 3.21299, and v* = lg J ^34 = 32 1 325 from a 5place table, v^ v = \ 26
x
x
v ) = 8f so that by the method of interpolation in question there results v Now the actual errors of z\ and 3.21308. 3.21299
units of the last tabular place
;
and
if /
=
1/3, t(v%
x
;
=
+9 =
3 8
v%
are, as
found from a 7place table,
of the
(0> f
fifth place.
Hence the
0.38 and )o.2i in units actual error of v is by equation
X
+i
is
X
+
in

21
i
=
5 2 >
as
is
shown
di
rectly by a 7place table. It appears, then, that
this case the errorequation cor
responding to
(1)
*
= (1 />, + /*, +e
same
t{y^
% ,
(4)
therein
ex
and
e^
are the
as in (1)
and
e3
is
the actual error
that comes from rounding last tabular place.
%
,
v
x
)
to the nearest unit of the
The error e however, differs radically in kind from e and The two latter are continuous, that is, they may each have while e is dis0.5 and +0.5 any value, between the limits continuous, being limited to a finite number of values dependx
t
.
;
3
ent on the interpolating factor /. Thus, for t 1/2 the only likewise for t 1/2 1/2, and possible values of e 3 are o
=
+
;
=
It 1/3, and 1/3. 1/3, the only possible values of e s are o, is also clear that the maximum value of e, which is constant and
+
equal to 1/2 for
(1), is
variable for (4) in a
manner dependent
/
on
/.
For example,
in (4),
The maximum
of e
= 1/2 + 1/2 = for = 1/2, = 1/2 + 1/3 = 5/6, " = 1/3, e " * = "*= 1/2 + 1/2 = i/4, " " e= = 9/10 / = 1/5. 1/2 + 2/5
1,
/
1,
The determination some novelty, since it
errors
(1
of the law of error for this case presents
is
essential to
combine the continuous
.
t)e x
and
te^
with the discontinuous error e3
The
500
simplest
PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.
[Chap. X.
fol
mode
of attacking the
problem seems to be the
e
e3 )
te^
lowing quasigeometrical one.
13,
In the notation of Arts. 12 and
put
in (4) e
=
e, (1
t)e^
=
=
e3
.
e2 ,
and
e%
=
e3
.
Then
(5)
e
=>* +
2
+
value of
The law of error for (e. f e ) is given by equation (2) for any Hence for a given value of t there will be as many /. The expressions of 0(e) as there are different values of e
3
.
graphs of 0(e) will
all
be of the same form but
will
be differently
if t
placed with reference to the axis of 0(e). Thus, values of e 3 are
=
1/3 the
1/3, o,
and
these are equally f 1/3, and to occur. For e = o the likely
3
graph is given directly by (2), and is the trapezoid ABCD
symmetrical with respect to OQ.
For e
abQd,
3
=
of
1/3 the graph is the same form as
left
ABCD
<i
but shifted to the
of
by the amount
d
t.
e3
=
1/3.
Similarly, the graph for the case
is
of e3
=+
1/3
is
a Qb'd', and
'
produced by shifting
ABCD to
the right by an
amount equal
to
+
J
/3*
Now,
since the three systems of errors for this case are
equally likely to occur, they may be combined into one system by simple addition of the corresponding element areas of the
several graphs.
Inspection of the diagram shows* that
is
the
resultant law of error
0(e)
expressed by
for for for
= (1/4X5 + 6e) = = (l/4)(5  6e)
1

5/6
1/6

+
1/6
< < <
e
< < <
L
1/6, ^
}
e e
+ 1/6,
(6>
5/6. J
is
This
represented by a trapezoid whose lower base base 2/6, and altitude 1. upper
is
10/6,
*
Sum
the three areas and
(3),
divide
by
3 to
make
resultant area
=
i,
as
required by equation
Art. 10.
Art.
13.]
ERRORS OF INTERPOLATED VALUES.
501
As
/
=
a second illustration, consider equation (5) for the case In this case e 3 must be either o or 1/2, the sign of 1/2.
latter
is
which
arbitrary.
For
e3
= o,
o
equations
(2)
give
(7)
0(e) = 2 f 4e
46
for
for
1/2
<
e
<
O
<
e < 1/2.
This function
whose
altitude
represented by the isosceles triangle OQ is twice the base AE.
is
AQE
Similarly 0(e) for e 3
=
\
1/2
would
be represented by the triangle
AQE dis;
and placed to the right a distance 1/2 o and e 3 if the two systems for e3
=
=
j
1/2
be combined into one system,
is
their resultant law of error
evidently
\
<p(e)= i\2e
= =
1
i/2<e<o, foro< e< + i/2,
f1
;
for
(.
(8)
2
2e for
the graph of which the other hand, if the errors in this combined system be considered with respect to magnitude only, the law of error is
0(e)
1/2 < e< is ABCD. On
)
=
2(1

e)
for
O
< e<
I,
(9)
the graph of which is OQD. The student should observe that
the condition
/ cp(e)de
e.
(6), (7), (8),
and
(9) satisfy
=
I
if
the integration embraces the
whole range
of
The determination of the general form of 0(e) in terms of the interpolating factor / for the present case presents some difficulties, and there does not appear to be any published solution of this problem.*
The
results arising
from one phase of
the problem have been given, however, by the author in the Annals of Mathematics,! and may be here stated without:
The phase in question is that wherein / is of the form proof. n being any positive integer less than twice the greatest l/n,
* The author explained a general method of summer meeting of the American Mathematical
f Vol. II, pp. 5459.
solution in a paper read at the
Society, August, 1895.
tabular difference of the table to which the formulas are apFor this restricted form of / the possible maximum plied. [CHAP. The possible values of e 3 of equation (5) are I o. in units of the last tabular place. . X.502 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. value of e as given by equation (5) is. {2n i)/n for n odd and 1 for n even.
ART. 13] ERRORS OF INTERPOLATED VALUES. . Typical Errors of Interpolated Logarithms. 503 Interpolating Factor. etc.
2. PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS.5 and o = 2 4e for e between o and + 0. that in any large number of actual errors of this system.. or equation (3) of Art. The used were the following numbers 2 arguments 20005. the student. the is J probable error in this system of errors (J) V2 = 0.251. will go far also towards fixing clear notions as to the meaning of the critical errors.1.2 should be + 03 +02 0. 13. the acthundred interpolated values from a 5place table have been computed by means of a 7place table. Statistical Test of Theory.0 and 0. 14. respectively. and suppose this interpolated value retains two additional figures beyond the Then by equations last tabular place.64 .261. error of this interpolated value is 0(e) (2). ual errors of five : To more are shown in the tabular form following : .15. (1) of Hence by equation Art. Similarly. therefore. Show / for the case of = that the probable. 2/5 cited above (p. Art. Consider first the case in which an interpolated value falls midway between two consecutive values. 503) are and 0. 0.290.15. in the same order to 36635. 20135. 1 1. 35> 20065.504 Prob. that less is. statistical test of the theory developed in Art. Art. X..2 J cp(e)de = 2J (2 4e)de = 0. [CHAP. if carried out fully by factor. and average errors 0.2. sixtyfour per cent of the errors in question should be afford a numerically than 0. etc. 13 may be readily drawn from any considerable number of actual errors of interpolated values dependent on the same interpolating A The application of such a test. 20105.1 and 0. mean. It follows. etc.0 and 0. 24. half should be less and half greater than 0. 12.5. The actual and theoretical percentages of the whole number of errors falling between the limits 0. detailed comparison in this case. of the whole number of such errors the percentage falling between the values 0. the law oi = 2 + 46 for e between 0. 0.
6 and 0.8 0. but rounding them to the nearest unit of the table. 14.oando.2 5.29. D Actual 505 Theoretical Limits of Errors. of the errors. the whole number of errors which for example.8 18.8 and 1.4 0. 13.0 and 0. and computing their actual errors by means of a 7place comparison is afforded : 4 i?* Errors. consider the case of interpolated midvalues of the The law of error for species treated under Case II of Art.0 13.8 .2 35. and 0.4 and 0.8 .0 4 50 0.2 0.0 and 0.3 0. namely.29 49.4 4 50 The agreement shown percentages is here between the actual and theoretical quite close. o.5 per cent.2 36 28 20 12 4.8 and the average Secondly. 2f(ie)de whence ep =h may be expected to is = 1 i V2 0. last tabu Using the same lar place five hundred interpolated values cited above.2 30.0 = 0. the percentage of lie. maximum discrepancy being 2.4 and 0.2 in this system 2 / (1 e)de = 0.1 5 33.] STATISTICAL TEST OF THEORY. no regard being paid to the signs The probable error is then found from <p(e) = 2(1 e). 13.i 0. Percentage. Percentage. between and 9 0.36.4 51.5 0.ART.2 19. the 1. Similarly.0 and 0. the following Limits of t . Theoretical Percentage.6 12.3 and 0.6 36 28 20 12 0.2 and 0.4 0.2 27. MM Actual Percentage.1 and 0.6 0. 0. this case is given by the single equation (9) of Art.
Art. columns below: Actual Theoretical Average Error.4 0.289 O. acquainted with the elements of the method of Howe least squares will find instructive to apply that of e.268 O.8 O. The agreement shown here between percentages is the actual and theoretical somewhat closer than in the preceding case.9 O.276 O. X. [CHAP. See Annals of Mathematics.303 07 O. Ill. Average Error.. The reader who it is by the author.. smaller than should be expected.338 0. 0.6 .1.304 O. 74. method to equation (1). . . discrepancy being only 1. . and derive the probable error This is frequently done without reserve by . which agrees to the same number of decimals with the average of the theoretical errors.3 0.017. 0. Vol.324 O.6 Finally.5 O. The f theoretical averages were furnished to Prof. since the computation of the actual errors to three places of decimals is hardly warranted values shown here is It by the assumption of dependence on first differences only. in The average of the whole number of actual errors this case is 0.9.304 O.308. 13. The errors of one hundred inter polated values rounded to the nearest unit of the last tabular * for each of the place were computed interpolating factors The averages of these several groups of act0. Howe. H. ual errors are given along with the corresponding theoretical errors in the parallel Interpolating Factor.347 O. f * By Prof.303 O.2 O.32I 0. the maximum per cent.506 PROBABILITY AND THEORY OF ERRORS. perhaps.320 O.2.1 0. 0.288 O. O. p. the following data derived from one thousand act ual errors may be cited. A.32O The average discrepancy between ical the actual and theoret is.29O O.29O O.333 O.6 and the average only 0.32I O. somewhat 0.
one accustomed to the to apply it to equation (4). fails o. and average errors.is . 0.5 In t'. Art. to is . =\ . or axis of 0(e). t This varies between 0. But this The formula near 0.25 for t then to give even approximate results except for values of t it = .25 for the probable error.25 to 0. The consider e u 2 and e% independent. and e% like method <? .25. the probable error of d or <? a being found to be 0.25 V2 instead of 0. since gives 0. indeed.25 Vi 2/ + 2**. 13. mean. 12 to the case of the sum two tabular logarithms and derive the correspondThe graph values of the probable.5.0 and 0. or difference of those familiar with least squares. 14. and whose altitude.to natural blunder in this case ei of least squares would be inclined determine the probable error of e. varies from 0.18 for (3). 507 Apply formulas (3) of Art.Art. the probable error of e is Thus. Art.] statistical test of theory. 13. manner the value 0. and to assign a probable error of 0. as for the /= It o and 0. and ex continuous betweer the limits 0. which admits infinite values for the actual errors e x and e i} should give so close an approximate formula as the above for the probable error of e. or axis of e> is 2. Prob. is absurd.15 of least same values of is.25 to each. .25^2(1 / + / 8 ) is derived. is 1. ing of 0(e) is in this case an isosceles triangle whose base.25. remarkable that the method squares. Similarly. while the true value of shown by equations /.
1893). Professor of Mathematics in the Michigan State Normal College. [CHAP. while subjects which seem the product of late generations have root in other centuries than the present.508 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. the necessary condensation of these extracts making any other form acknowledgment impossible. or from a consideration of the twentysix volumes of the Jahrbuch. the labors of Lobachevsky and Bolyai during the second quarter of the century threw a new light upon the whole subject. Thus the history of modern mathematics must also be the modern history of ancient branches. a term by no Modern Mathematics means well defined. Algebra cannot be called modern. and more recently the study of the triangle has added another chapter to the theory. while the theory of forms is a recent creation. * The footnotes give only a few of the authorities which might easily be They are thought to include those from which considerable extracts of have been made. Similarly with elementary geometry. tiber die Fortschritte der gress of the science. XI Chapter XL HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. and yet the theory of equations has received some of its most important additions during the nineteenth century. By David Eugene Smith. Art. How unsatisfactory must be so brief a sketch may be in ferred from a glance at the Index du Repertoire Bibliographique des Sciences Mathmatiques (Paris. 1. . whose seventyone pages contain the mere enumeration of subjects in large part modern. is Introduction. which now devotes over a thousand pages a year to a record of the pro The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries laid the founda cited.* Mathematik.
Accompanying this activity. the mid dle of the century these schools began to exert a still a greater influence through the custom of calling to them mathemati cians of high repute. In 1796 appeared the first number of the Journal de l'Ecole fiir die reine und angewandte and ten years later Liouville began the publication of the Journal de Mathematiques pures et appliquees. to algebra by Harriot. The eighteenth century was naturally one of great activity. and other cities well known as mathematical centers. Dresden. About. the contributions to the of numbers by Fermat. Especially influential has been the establishment of The schools and journals and university chairs. of the recognition of necessary limitations of various branches.Art. 50$ today. which has been continued by Resal and Jordan. Karlsruhe. thus making Zurich. The Cambridge Mathematical Journal was and merged into the established in 1839. 1. and the simiscientific lar schools in Prague (1806). Vienna (181 5). and numerous other cities.] INTRODUCTION. in Euler and the Bernoulli family Switzerland. to theory geometry and to mathematical physics by Pascal. popularized Newton's great discovery. contributed to make the seventeenth century memorable. Polytechnique. Karlsruhe (1825). and of the opening of extensive fields for applied mathematics. which left the foundations insecure and necessitated their strengthening by the succeed ing generation. and the of the analytic all discovery of the differential calculus by Newton and Leibniz. and Lambert in Germany. was a too implicit faith in the calculus and in the inherited principles of mathematics. The nineteenth century has been a period of intense study of first principles. and extended both its theory and its applications. d'Alembert. tions of much of the subject as known The discovery geometry by Descartes. and Laplace in Paris. Munich. Crelle's Journal in Mathematik appeared 1826. Berlin (1820). Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical . Lagrange. renaissance of geometry is not a little due to the foundagreat tion of the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris (17945). however. of a great spread of mathematical knowledge.
Teaching and History of .. 44. D. p. the American Journal of Mathematics (1878). Of the other periodicals which have contributed to the spread of mathematical knowledge. [Chai\ XI. namely. 94. Transactions of Royal Society of London. 843 given sur le journalisme mathematique en Angleterre. the Quarterly Journal of tin Mathematics (1857).. p.510 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.. History of American Mathematical Periodicals. 303 Cajori. The Analyst. F. is Mackay. in * For a schritte der list the fundamental principles of number. Battaglini's Giornale di Mate matiche (1863). Tortolini's Annali di Scienze Matematiche e Fisiche (1. S. Schlomilch's Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik (1856). 131. in Carr's Synopsis of Pure Mathematics. J. rational. This development is seen in theorems relating to infinite series. . The study culus of first principles. the Mathematische Annalen (1869). the Bulledes Sciences Mathematiques (1870). Hart. II. Vol. only a few can be mentioned : the Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques (1842). 1893. L'lnter mediaire des Mathematiciens (1894). Notice p. Association francaise pour l'Avancement des Sciences. was a natcal ural consequence of the reckless application of the new and the Cartesian geometry during the eighteenth century. II. Grunert's Archiv der Mathematik (1843). and To this list should be added a recent venture. Einleitung zu dem fur den mathematischen Teil der deutschen Universitatsausstellung ausgegebenen Specialkatalog. the Acta the Annals of Mathematics (1884) * Mathematica (1882). pp. and the Jahresbericht der deutschen MathematikerVereinitions of great value. Journal in 1846. together with the increasing liberality of such societies in the preparation of complete works of a monumental character. W. 277.. A small but convenient list of standard periodicals .850). of current mathematical journals see the Jahrbuch iiber die Fort Mathematik. To added that the influence of the schools and the journals must be of the various learned societies f whose published proceedings are widely known. the Jahrbuch already gung (1892). unique in its aims. f For a list of such societies consult any recent number of the Philosophical Mathematics in the United States. Dyck. 1896). S. and two annual publica mentioned (1868). Mathematical Papers Chicago Congress (New York. already mentioned.
and astronomical sciences. and Weierstrass.. It has created irrational. Smith. F. 2. 1896). Leipzig. But the advent of the new generation. p. Art. Monge and Carnot. This theory separates into two branches.. and at its close the subLagrange ject began to take scientific form through the great labors of pecially Fermat. M.* .Art. followed by the descriptive and projective geometries. new and extensive branches of an importance which promises much for pure and applied mathematics. O. the scure. Laplace. 133. and concerning * Klein.. . contiBut the the infinite. and 511 in the concepts of limit. H. I. Abel. unifying tendency again becoming prominent through the theories of functions and groups. of forms. and Gauss. and of determinants. Poncelet and Steiner. 94. tended to split mathematics into branches between which the relations were long to remain obIn this respect recent years have seen a reaction. as did Lagrange. had its of Numbers. and the infinitesimal. The nineteenth century has naturally been one of specialization. Bachet de Meziriac. Vol. nineteenth century has done more than this.. and the theories of groups. S. Foremost among these branches stands the theory of functions founded by Cauchy. Theory of Numbers. At its opening one might have hoped to fairly compass the mathematical. and Gauss (1801). With the latter's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801) may be said to begin the modern theory of numbers. Grossen und Zahlen. . and es In the eighteenth century Euler and contributed to the theory. Legendre (1798). with Galois. Report on the theory of numbers. f Cantor. itself especially of The Present State of Mathematics. physical. and Jacobi. Chicago Congress (New York. Vol. J. and complex. Riemann. 2. Geschichte der Mathematik. f a favorite study among the renaissance in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the labors of Viete. 1891.] theory of numbers. the one dealing with integers. unity. function. Collected Papers. The Theory Greeks. p. Stolz. Mathematical Papers Ill.
name. and of residues. of congruences. NouCorrespondence de Mathematiques. and adding contributions. who introduced the generalized symbol which bears his name . who first proved the velle * Brocard. but the results have been deduring tailed rather than general.612 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Eisenstein. and Kronecker. perhaps the most versatile of French mathematicians of the century. and in France Serret has done much to make the theory known. of primes number The Theory of Congruences may be said to start with introduced the symbolism a = b (mod c). XL with and in the study of primes. whose Vorlesungen contributed liber Zahlentheorie. H. Zeller. The Liouville. gives recent history to 1&79. by Jacobi. Dirichlet. to many original and noteworthy Legendre may be assigned the fundamental his theorem which bears ratic Residues. and (2) the theory of forms. and by Kummer. Independently of Euler and Legendre. Riemann (1859) also gave a wellknown formula for the limit of the number of primes not exceeding a given number. Tchebichef (1850) was the first to reach any valuable conclusions in the way of ascertaining the The Theory between two given limits. and explored most of the field. the Law of Reciprocity of Quad This law. and the other dealing with complex numbers. Gauss's Disquisitiones. Kummer. extended to include cubic and biquadratic theory has been reciprocity.. Gauss discovered the law about 1795. law of cubic reciprocity. is a classic . . and was the first to give a general proof. Vand VI. particular with the law of reciprocity. discovered by induction by Euler. He Besides summarizing the labors of his predecessors in the theory of numbers. was enunciated by Legendre and first proved in his Theorie des Nombres (1798) for special cases. edited by Dedekind. Vols. of Primes* has attracted many investigators the nineteenth century. Jacobi. Sur la frequence et la totality des nombres premiers. (i) [CHAP. notably by Gauss. To the subject have also Cauchy. Tchebichef published in 1847 a work in Russian upon the subject.
Genocchi. the leading contributors in Germany are Kronecker. L. and to him and H. Poinsot (1845). 4. and Dedekind. In the theory of ternary forms Eisenstein has been a leader. Dirichlet was one of the most zealous workers in the theory of numbers. S.ART. 3. Glaisher have also added to the theory. The saw decimal fractions with the modern notation quite generally used by mathematicians. and notably Hermite have added to the subject. Lebesques (1859. 3. . In Austria Stolz's Vorlesungen iiber allgemeine Arithmetik and in (188586). Irrational and Transcendent Numbers. 7. and was the first to lecture upon the subject in a German university. Smith is also due a noteworthy adbinary quadratic forms. sixteenth century saw the final acceptance of negative The seventeenth century numbers. mained to complete the theory of complex numbers. 6. J. 513 To Gauss is also due the representation of numbers by Cauchy. 1868). integral and fractional. 1892) are among the most scholarly of general works. and Legendre had proved for n = x \~y^ az\ and Stieltjes. Poincare. 8 squares were advanced by Eisenstein and the theory was completed by Smith. The investigations concerning the representation of numbers by the sum of 4. vance in the theory of forms in general. Schering. whose memoirs are numerous and valuable Tannery. Among his contributions is the extension of Fermat's theorem on x n \y n zn which Euler = .] IRRATIONAL AND TRANSCENDENT NUMBERS. The next hundred years saw the imaginary become a powerful tool in the hands of De Moivre. Smith gave a complete classification of ternary quadratic forms. and extended Gauss's researches concerning real quadratic forms to complex forms. and to make a scientific study . Art. W. to separate irrationals into algebraic and transcendent. and J. b Among Among the later 3. England Mathews' Theory of Numbers (Part I. Sylvester. Kummer. Bachmann. Dirichlet showing that French writers are Borel . to prove the existence of transcendent numbers. In Germany. For the nineteenth century it reand especially of Euler. 5.
Vortrage iiber ausgewahlte 1895. Dirichlet also in Kettenbruchdeterminanten. Other noteworthy contributions have been made by Druckenmuller (1837). the theory of resulting. Transcendent Numbers f were braic irrationals it first by Kronecker. closely related to irrational numbers (and due to Cataldi. 5). Bachmann. hands of Weierstrass. Notizie storiche sulle frazioni continue dal secolo deci moterzo 533 al decimosettimo. Kunze (1857). The year 1872 saw the publication of the theories of Weierstrass (by his pupil Kossak). and Dedekind's has received additional prominence through the author's later work (1888) and the recent indorsement by Tanories nery (1894). and that irrational. f Klein. * But see Favaro. Continued Fractions. Heine Meray had (Crelle. . 451. P. separating all rational numbers into two groups having certain characteristic properties. G. and Gunther (1872). Natur der Irrationalzahlen. A. but the theory is generally referred to the year 1872. 1613). and Dedekind. Lemke (1870).514 of a subject HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Weierstrass. however. which being a rational number) is left much to be desired. Mobius. VII. pp. p. Cantor (Annalen. Cantor.. taken in 1869 the same point of departure as Heine. Boncompagni's Bulletino. XI. which had remained almost dormant since Euclid. The subject has received later contributions at the (Crelle. 1892. Kronecker and Meray. e n Lambert proved (n distinguished from alge(1761) that cannot be rational. and Gunther. F. 38. with the subsequent contributions of Heine. the theory of irrationals. Vol. have numerous contributors to the applications of the subject. Vorlesungen iiber die Fragen der Elementargeometrie. 1874. Ramus (1855) first connected the subject with determinants. 101). Weierstrass's method has been completely set forth by Pincherle (1880). [CHAP. 74). as added to the general theory. while Dedekind founds his on the idea of a cut (Schnitt) in the system of real numbers... and Heine base their theon infinite series. and at brought into the opening of the nineteenth century were prominence through the writings of Lagrange.* received attention at the hands of Euler. a proof.
the proof being subse quently displaced by G. Hermite (1873) first proved e transcendent. ings of the Copenhagen Academy for 1799. and the eighteenth saw the labors of De Moivre and Euler. Complex Numbers. 1882. sible of Complex Numbers* may be attracted attention as by early as the sixteenth century in the the Italian algebraists. p. 1886.. R. Crelle. Macfarlane. Proceedings of American Association 1892. of Algebra. Theil. The idea of the graphic representation of complex numbers had appeared. In the seventeenth century Descartes distin guished between real and imaginary roots. showed the same for n. p. In the eighteenth century Kuhn (1750) and Wessel (about 1795) made decided advances towards the Wessel's memoir appeared in the Proceedpresent theory. and Lindemann (1882). 2. Theorie .Art.. 1867 Holzmiiller. 1851). starting from Hermite's conclusions. as early as 1685. 21. Stolz. To De Moivre is due (1730) the wellknown formula which bears h is name. and has finally been made elementary by Hurwitz and Gordan. said to have The Theory recognition. Leipzig... Theorie der komplexen Zahlensysteme. Leipzig. Liouville (1840) showed that neither e nor e* can be a root of an integral quadratic equation. of imaginary or impos roots. Vorlesungen iiber Einflihrung der komplexen Zahlen. G.. and to Euler (1748) the (cos <p\t sin 0) = cos ncfy formula cos + z sin = + ***. M i sin #0. allgemeine Arithmetik. 161 Hankel. Lindemann's proof was much simplified by Weierstrass (1885). Art. and as a result the theory of complex numbers received a notable expansion. F. still further by Hilbert (1893). and is exceedingly *Riecke. Die Rechnung mit Richtungszahlen. . Cantor's (1873). p. . But the existence of transcendent numbers was first established by Liouville (1844. The geometric notion of complex quantity now arose. 1856. in Wallis's De Algebra tractatus. H. derisogonalen Verwandtschaften. 4.. and showed that it is not the square root of a rational number. O. 4] COMPLEX NUMBERS. however. 1882 .. 33 Baltzer. 515 Legendre (1794) completed Lambert's proof. The Imaginary . A.
and r /sin + " the " modulus Cauchy ( 828) 1 called cos + i " reduced form"(l'expression reduite). " introduced the term " complex number for " b* the and called c? norm/' The expression V + " direction coefficient ". and De mentioned for his num erous memoirs on the geometric applications of complex numbers. Nevertheless.516 clear HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Bellavitis (1835. who was the first to boldly use complex numbers with a success that is well known. often used for cos f. and gives a quaternion theory from which he develops a complete spherical trigonometry. 1880). Kummer (1844).i sin . Following Cauchy and Gauss have come a number of contributors of high rank. Morgan (1849). is for the theory of di numbers The general accept due to the labors of Cauchy and Abel. Scheffler (1845. perpendicular to the real axis. in Argand Vc? the 1." for "modulus. even in He also considers the sphere.z sin 0. thus bringing it prominently before the mathematical world. Mention should also be made of an excellent little treatise by Mourey rectional (1828). called cos b* the theory are chiefly due to the "direction f. It is to Argand's essay that the scientific foundation for the graphic representation of complex numbers is now generally referred. of whom the following maybe especially mentioned: 185 1. and "absolute value. and Dirichlet for the expansion of the theory to in . Mobius must also be Peacock (1845). in which year Argand also issued a pamphlet on the same subject. in 183 1 Gauss found the theory quite unknown. XL and complete. and its came upon the same /_ should reprej negative." due to Weierstrass. In 1804 the Abbe Buee independently idea WTiich Wallis had suggested. factor". in which the foundations are scientifically laid. and in 1832 published his chief memoir on the subject.bi. Buee's paper was not published until 1806. Gauss used a for f. ance of the theory not a little The common terms used the founders. comparison with modern works. and especially the latter. Kronecker(i845). 1852). [Chap. that sent a unit line. is due is to Hankel (1867).
p. a prime). Dedekind. Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre. Vol. bers. Art. % Tait. Poincare. MatheI. Berloty. that the brief sketch of their development is introduced at this Caspar Wessel's contributions to the theory of complex quantity and quaternions remained unnoticed in the point. to also due the theory of Ideal Numbers... reciprocity.. (1813). Holder. real numbers. congruences. besides the familiar a in \bi.. trespassed on the quaternion however. P. Bulletin C. 381. two dimensions failed. Study.f which has k = o. 1=0 ^(^=0 recently been simplified by Klein (1893) from the point of view further complex theory is due to Galois. 5. VIII. the of geometry.. Evanston Lectures. 367. p. V. f Klein. Lect. Schlegel. p. * Chapman.] QUATERNIONS AND AUSDEHNUNGSLEHRE. Weierstrass and Dedekind on General 150. 5. 517 elude primes. basis being the imaginary roots of an irreducible congruence. Schldmilch's Zeitschrift. Thus Eisenstein has % studied the type a Similarly. Schwarz. E. whom is complex types have been derived from x This generalization is largely due to Kummer. as in the case of Other types* have been studied. (mod/. Vol. bibliography. etc. XLI. Aeltere und neuere Untersuchungen liber Systeme complexer Zahlen. G.ART. and Macfarlane. Study. Hamilton dis covered the principle of quaternions in 1843. which i is the root of x* f I = o. and the next year extending This step necesComplex Num his first contribution to the theory appeared. The late writers (from 1884) on A the general theory include Weierstrass. . to extend his of method of Argand's attempts complex numbers beyond the space Servois field. Die Grassmann'sche Ausdehnungslehre.. H. thus the Argand idea to threedimensional space. Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre^: are so closely related to complex quantity. and the latter to complex number. F. Encyclopaedia Britannica. + bj\J being a complex root of x I {k prime). almost Nevertheless there were fewer traces of the theory anterior to the labors of Hamilton than is usual in the case of great discoveries. proceedings of the Copenhagen Academy. in New York Mathematical Society. matical Papers Chicago Congress. on Quaternions.
On the Continent Sylvester. complex numbers. Hamilton's Quaternions several essential principles held in discovered independently of the other.. i.. and Hathaway (1896) have contributed to the subject. there are common which each writer Following Hamilton. followed (1866) by his Elements of Quaternions. Kelland and Tait (1873). The difficulties have been largely in In America. XLIV. For bibliography see Schlegel.518 sitated HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Schlomilch's Zeitschrift. Vol. 1881) have (1867). V. the notation. Hoiiel (1874). [CHAP. in attention. Die Grassmann'sche Ausdehnungs lehre. j> number and 2 k* = I. that while r should be a real an expansion of the idea of r(cos <p +/sin cp) suck a real angle. and has considered the general principles of vector and versor analysis. Gibbs. . XLI. or hyperbolic. the versor being circular.* many features. or k should be any directed unit line such that i =j 2 It also necessitated a withdrawal of the commutative law of multiplication. and McAulay (1893). there have appeared in Great Britain numerous papers and works by Tait (1867). Quarternions appeared. although in he seems to have Differing in possession of the theory as early as 1840. trigonometry. Die been from lineale Ausdehnungslehre. 79. Grassmann gave to the world his famous work. XL. elliptic logarithmic. Nature. Other recent contributors to the algebra of vectors are Gibbs (from 1 881) and Heaviside (from 1885). p. Grassmann's method. Vol. * These are set forth in a paper by f W. The followers of Grassmann f have not been much more J. the adherence to which obstructed earlier disIt was not until 1853 that Hamilton's Lectures on covery. written on the theory. lane has aimed at showing In attempting to improve this symbolism Macfarhow a space analysis can be de veloped embracing algebra. and especially prominent Hardy (1881) Macfarlane. In the same year in which Hamilton published his discovery (1844). but it has attracted relatively little Hankel Benjamin Peirce (1870) has been developing the quaternion theory. and quaternions. and Laisant (1877.
once they are located. Notizie storicocritiche sulla costruzione delle equazioni. along similar lines is the theory of matrices (1858). Boole. but appeared posthumously All processes were. M. Hyde (Directional Calculus. Modena. contribution to the Neither problem former Fourier's is in new. G. an investigation to which Grassmann Cayley. Cantor. and Peano in Italy.. This sacrifice of fundamental laws has led to an investigation of the field in which these (1872). In has made a plea America. Numerical Equations f concerns itself first with the location of the roots. p.j THEORY OF EQUATIONS. 375. but the first noteworthy the nineteenth century was at Budan's (1807). Equations. Algebra. exceedingly cumbersome until Sturm (1829) communicated to the French Academy the famous theorem which bears his name and which constitutes one of the most brilliant discoveries of algebraic analysis. tannica. f Cayley. A. Geschichte der Mathematik. 1890) for the Grassmann theory. The Approximation of the Roots. Schlegel has been one of the chief contributors in Germany. gave a method which Fourier perfected. 1891. a process which Vincent (1836) elaborated. Ellis. Schroder (189091). 1880) sacrificed the distributive. laws are valid. and Kraft (1893) Another great contribution of Cayley \s have contributed. work was undertaken in 1831.. P. Theory of Equations. and then with their approxiof The Theory mation.Art. .. can be made by several processes. 6. A.. Art. Scheffler (1846.. see Proceedings American Association for Advancement of Science. Newton (171 1). for example. and Lagrange (1767) discovered an ingenious way of expressing the root as a conIt tinued fraction. in Encyclopaedia BriFavaro. have been the contributions While the two former sacrificed the commutative law. Vol. 519 numerous than those of Hamilton. 1878. and Kelland. * For Macfarlane's Digest of views of English and American writers. 1851. about the same time.* lines Along analogous to those of Hamilton and Grassmann' of Scheffler. Ill. however.
this branch practically closes. however. Serret. was. The was somewhat simplified by Cockle and and by Cayley (1861). On Mathematica. and other The Quintic Equation has special study. Bibliotheca on p. but Kronecker (1858) Harley (185859) was the first to establish a resolvent by which a real simplifiThe transformation of the general quintic cation was effected. as did Lagrange (1772). the one now commonly used. bibliography the RuffiniAbelian theorem. Pierpont. II. 99. 200. Proofs are also due to Gauss. special case of Cauchy's proposition (183 1) as to the number of roots within a given contour. Gauss (1799) and Argand The general theorem that every algebraic equation of (1806). is The an calculation of the imaginary roots by approximation still The Fundamental Theorem* that every numerical equation has a root was generally assumed until the latter part of the D'Alembert (1746) gave a demonstration.. Clifford (1876). p. 107. p. and many others. . J. was * Loria. resolvent sextic into the trinomial form x b \ ax f b =o square and cube roots only. 1891." and Malfatti and Vandermonde investigated the construction of resolvents. Laplace (1795). Impossibility of Expressing the Roots of an equation as algebraic functions of the coefficients when the degree ex The ceeds 4 was anticipated by Gauss and announced by Ruffini. [CHAP. Gino. Vol. whose early death cut short his labors in fields. reserved for Horner ( 1 8 1 9) to suggest the most practical method yet known. With Horner and Sturm open field. Malet (1878). XI.520 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. But the first strict due to Abel. Bulletin of American Mathematical Society. and the is belief in the fact became strengthened by the failure of Lagrange's proof this methods for these cases. naturally its been an object of solution depends on Lagrange showed that that of a sextic. first by the extraction of shown to be possible by Esame di alcune ricerche concernenti l'esistenza di radici nelle equazioni algebriche. " Lagrange's resolvent sextic. the th degree has exactly 11 roots and no more follows as a eighteenth century.
Jordan.). F. Just prior to Galois's researches Abel (1824). % Klein. From the point of view of the group the solution by radicals. and has shown that the method can be generalized so as to embrace the whole theory of higher equations. not published until 1846. 1884. reduction. Vorlesungen iiber das Ikosaeder. to date from the subject. Vol. by means Hermite (1858) actually effected this hausen's theorem. and Kronecker were also among the earlier ones to add to the theory. Klein (1884) has handled the whole subject of the quintic equation in a simple manner by introducing the icosahedron equation as the normal form. ..Art. of the general equation degree.. He and Gordan (from 1879) nave attacked those equations of * of the f Harley.. Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. fifth A contribution of the history . a gap which Betti (1852) has filled.] theory of equations. showed that the roots of a general quintic equation its coefficients cannot be of radicals. Sylves and Brioschi have applied the invariant theory of binary forms to the same subject. formerly the goal of the algebraist. 521 * Bring (1786) and independently by Jerrard (1834). Hermite. To him is due the discovery that to each equation corresponds a group of substitutions " (the tial group of the equation ") in which are reflected its essen characteristics^ Galois's untimely death left without suffi several important propositions.. R. number which admit of solution by of roots. See Art. Hermite. in connection with his solution by elliptic functions. now appears as a single link in a long chain of questions relative to the transfor mation of irrationals and to their classification. 38. VI. 7. of Tschirn Abel and The Modern Theory of Equations may be said The latter's special memoir on Galois. fifteen years after his death. 6.. proceeding from the cient fact that a rational function of five letters demonstration having less than five values cannot have more than two. placed the theory on a definite base. by means finite expressed in terms of He then investigated special forms of quintic equations the extraction of a ter. p.
Jacobi (1837). Gordan performing the reduction of the equation of the seventh degree to the ternary problem. the quaternary groups involved having been discussed by Maschke (from 1887). the possibility of the solution. and hence called (by Kronecker) Abelian Equations. Gordan. . by the same results. XL the sixth and seventh degrees which have a Galois group of 168 substitutions. [CHAP. but it was reserved is . the equa to radicals if the degree is prime and otherwise on the solution of lower equations. have contributed to the same subject. and his method has since been simplified by Brioschi. The binomial equation has been treated notably by Richelot (1832). Abel. is one of this class considered by Abel. Klein (1888) has shown that the equation of the twentyseventh degree occurring in the theory of cubic surfaces can be reduced to a normal problem in four variables. of any Bring quintic.522 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. admit of ready solution by the familiar trigonometric formula x to = 2kn cos that + zsm . reducible to the form x n 1 =0. and hence of any equation of the fifth degree. Eisenstein (1844. More recently Kronecker. Thus the attempt to solve the quintic equation by means of radicals has given place to their treatment Hermite (1858) has shown use of elliptic functions. has reached the by transcendents. and Klein. and Burkhardt (1893) has performed the reduction. Kronecker (1858). . The binomial depends ni equation. and its application to geometry is one of the leading additions of the century. of hyperelliptic Binomial Equations. 2kn . and the sextic equation has been attacked by Maschke and Brioschi through the medium functions. working from a different standpoint. Kiepert. for Gauss (1801) /ox show an algebraic solution possible. Lagrange (1808) extended the theory. generaliz ing Gauss's results. Cay . contributed the important theorem that if two roots of an irreducible equation are so connected that the one can be expressed rationally tion yields in terms of the other. 1850). or rather the equation 2 xm o.
1857). however. The first formulas for the computation of the symmetric functions of the roots of an equation seem to have been worked out roots. Such are equations of the ninth degree determining the points of inflection of a curve of the third degree. based on symmetric functions. Certain special equations of importance in geometry have been the subject of study by Hesse. The leading or eliminant steps in the development are represented by Lagrange (177071). Clebsch^ Salmon. (1848. he and Brioschi have simplified the computation of Methods (Bezout) of Elimination and of finding the resultant (De Morgan) occupied a number of eighteenthcentury algebraists. and Kronecker (1872). are subjects of great importance in by Newton. in and of the twentyseventh degree determining the points which a curve of the third degree can have contact of the order with a conic. prominent among them being Euler (1748). Bruno (1859). Sylvester (1840). was improved by Cramer (1750) and Bezout (1764). and tables. but the in first tables. Jacobi. and those which remain unchanged through some or all of the permutations of the the present theory. Cayley 1859). Sylvester's dialytic method appeared in 1841. since the discoveries by Galois that the subject has be come one of great importance. (1854). appeared in 1809 In Cauchy's celethe Meyer.Art. and Kummer. Hesse (1843. In the eighteenth century Lagrange (1768) and Waring (1770. and treatise by Bachmann Among is the subject of a the most recent writers on Abelian equations Pellet (1891). 6. brated memoir on determinants (18 12) the subject began to assume new prominence. Cayley. and Katter (1876). is 523 ley (1851). 1782) contributed to the theory. and both he and Gauss (1816) made numerous and valuable contributions to the theory.Hirsch Aufgabensammlung. without proof. fifth Symmetric Functions of the coefficients. whose method. ple rules for the degree Cayley (1857) has given simand weight of symmetric functions. It is. although Girard (1629) had given.] theory of equations. a formula for the power sum. reaching to the tenth degree. Steiner. and to him is also due (185 1) the .
Lagrangef ory first undertook a scientific treatment of the the of substitutions. 196. In his investigation he discovered the important fact that the roots of all resolvents (resolvantes. the study of groups and the search for invariants now occupying the attention of portance of the recognition of the imoccurs in the problem of combinatory analysis of the roots forming an wthdegree equation having for roots of a given wthdegree equation {in < n). and Le Sceur (1748) and Waring (1762 to 1782) still further elaborated the idea. I. 1878.i)2 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Bulletin of American Mathematical Society. 7. f Pierpont.. James. this was built the and to show a but otherwise priori failed.].. He theory of substituundertook to examine the methods then known.. Through the great power of analysis possessed by Lagrange (1770. Prior to his time the various methods of solving lower equations had existed rather as isolated artifices than as a unified theory. Cayley. gth edition. A. Saunderson (1740) noted that the determination of the quadratic factors of a biquadratic expression necessarily leads to a sextic equation.." the first * Netto. Among recent writers on the general theory may be mentioned Burnside and Pellet (from 1887). 1 771) a common foundation was discovered. Grundziige der antiken und modernen Algebra der littera len Gleichungen. Leipzig. To study the properties of these " functions he invented a Calcul des Combinaisons. The Theories of Substitutions and Groups* are among the most important in the whole mathematical field. reduites) which he examined are rational functions of the roots of the respective equations. E. Art. Equations. Theory of Substitutions. Substitutions and Groups. Vol. p. [CHAP. } Matthiessen. XI. and on tions. . translated by Cole. Lagrange's Place in the Theory of Substitutions. L. Encyclopaedia Britannica. The first m the problem goes back to Hudde (1659). name and a portion of the theory of the discriminant. why these succeeded below the quintic. For simple cases many mathematicians.
To . . honor of establishing the theory of awarded. While the attempt failed. transitive Ruffini distinguishes what are now and imprimitive. 119." called intransitive. . and determinable function of the (2). The popularizing of the subhis largely due to Serret." He also publishes a letter from Abbati to himself. and transitive and primitive groups. 1894. in which the group idea is prominent. he attempted the proof of the impossibility of solving the quintic and higher equations. H. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik.] substitutions and groups. reciprocally. Brioschi's Annali di Matematica. every rationally the substitutions of the group. able by the substitutions of the group is rationally known. Mention should also be made of the contemporary labors of Vander monde (1770) as foreshadowing the coming theory.Art. and to the latter especially are due a number ject is of important theorems." or simply a systeme conjugueY' and Galois calls a " group of substitutions. Galois roots is invariable by also contributed to the theory of modular equations and to that of elliptic functions. 1892. VI. Vol. Cayley and Cauchy were among the first to appreciate the importance of the theory. Die Anfange der Gruppentheorie und Paolo Ruffini. who has devoted section IV of Burkhardt.. He found that if rxt r 3 rn are groups generally the n roots of an equation. 7. was made attracted at publication on the group theory the age of eighteen (1829). XI). however. the is . Beginlike Lagrange with a discussion of the methods of ning solving lower equations. it is noteworthy in that it opens with the classification of the various The next "permutations" of the coefficients. 525 important step towards a theory of substitutions. Pascal. p. using the word to mean what Cauchy calls a "systeme des substitutions " conjuguees. . and (1801) freely uses the group of an " equation under the name Tassieme della permutazioni. great step was taken by Ruffini* (1799). but his contributions His first little papers in attention until the publication of his collected 1846 (Liouville. Italian by E. there is always a group of permutations of the rs such that (1) every function of the roots invariGalois.
8. one of which. Besides these discontinuous groups there are other classes. . although Vandermonde had already given a special case. for valuable assistance in compiling this article. and Mathieu have added to the The general problem to determine the number of theory. XI. Study's application of the group theory to complex numbers. Frobenius. been translated into English by Cole (1892). It is this class which Lie (from 1884) has studied. R. But it was Vandermonde pendent tion (1771) functions. Art. who first recognized determinants as indeTo him is due the first connected exposiand he may be called its formal founder. and Picard. T. current law was first announced by Bezout (1764). whose work has ... following whom Cramer (1750) added slightly to the theory.526 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. groups of n given letters still awaits solution. Part I. Hermite. whose Traite des Substitutions is a classic and to Netto (1882). Of value. Theory of Determinants in the Historical Order of its Development. Baltzer. 1881. Poincare. Theorie und Anwendung der Determinanten. 1890. and the work of Schur and Maurer. treating the subject. But overshadowing all others in recent years in carrying on the labors of Galois and his followers in the study of discontinuous groups stand Klein. lowing. Lie. who contributes Chap. algebra to the theory. the theory of transformation groups. wholly in relation to sets of equations. is especially important in the theory of differential equations. as did his of The Theory The repredecessor. Immediately fol of the theory. The writer is under obligations to Professor Weld. creating the most important of the recent departments of mathematics. Determinants. too. II. Bertrand. Lagrange (1773) treated determinants of the second * Muir. Kronecker. Determinants* may be said to take its origin with Leibniz (1693). to Camille Jordan. that of finite continuous groups. have been the labors of Killing on the structure of groups. [Chap. Laplace (1772) gave the general method of expanding a determinant in terms of its complementary minors.
Cauchy also presented one on the subject. 1 The next of 81 2). improved the notation. with him begins their theory in its generality. With him the word " determinant The next its received final acceptance. and the greatest save Cauchy. He early used the functional " determinant which Sylvester has called the Jacobian. but Gauss (1801) made the next advance. as well as that class of alternating functions which Sylvester has called "Alternants. " was Jacobi (from 1827). 8. and to him are due many little special identities under wellknown theorems. On the same day (Nov. 537 and third order. b. c) imprimis pendcre in sequentibus docebimus. determinantem huius uocabimus. summahe used the word " determinant rized and simplified what was then known on the subject." But about the time of Jacobi's closing memoirs. who contributor of importance is Binet (181 1.Art. Sylvester (1839) anc* Cayley began Numerum bbac. possibly stopping here because the idea of in hyperspace was not then vogue. nants." and in his famous memoirs in Crelle for 1 841 he specially treats this subject. He introduced the word "determinants" (Laplace had in the present signification. he made much use of dein terminants the theory of numbers. stated the theorem relating to the product formally of two matrices m columns and n rows. cuius indole proprietates formae (. great contributor. reciprocal determinants." * " . Although contributing nothing to the general theory. century of importance which have since been brought During the next quarter of a was done. which for the special case of m= n reduces to the multiplication theorem. Lagrange was the first to apply determinants to questions foreign to eliminations.* used " resultant "). but rather as applied to the disGauss also arrived at the notion of and came very near the multiplication theorem. though not criminant of a quantic. 1 8 12) that Binet presented his paper to the Academy. He was the first to grasp the subject as a whole before him there were determi. and gave the multiplication theorem with a proof more satisfactory than Binet's.] determinants. In this M in its present sense. Like Lagrange. Hindenburg (1784) and Rothe (1800) kept the subject open. 30.
\y is put for x. and Cayley. a subject Smith. 189091. Spottiswoode. Art. XL their great work. proved the invariance of the discriminants of binary and ternary quadratic forms. but which represents the development of the theory to the present time. by Cayley . Bericht liber den gegenwartigen Stand theorie. Eisenstein. and elaborated der Invarianten Meyer. f See Art. W. Glaisher. in connection with the . Collected . Papers. . the subject Spottiswoode's was (1886) and Weld (1893) have published treatises. ix. . York Mathematical Society. Vol. The Theory of Quantics or of Forms * appeared 1775). 97. Galois also entered the * field. and Proceedings of Royal Society. Hanus the first. F. I. 1895. In America.. a work which it is impossible to briefly sum marize. and Picquet Jacobians and Hessians by Sylvester and symOf the textbooks on metric gauche determinants by Trudi. and systematized the theory of binary quadratic forms. The study of special forms of determinants has been the natural result of the completion of the general theory. Gauss f (1801) next took up the subject. [CHAP. See also the review by Franklin in Bulletin New Berlin 1892. Wronskians (so called . 2. p. and introduced the ideas of trans formation and equivalence. 1 in embryo in the Berlin memoirs Lagrange (1773. persymmetric determinants by Sylvester and Hankel circulants by Catalan. jahresbericht der deutschen MathematikerVereinigung. p. Lipschitz. who 2 . Axisymmetric determinants have been studied by Lebesgue. Reiss. continuants by Sylvester by Muir) by Christoffel and Frobenius compound determinants by Sylvester.bxy lished the invariance of the discriminant of that type when x {. Ill. and Scott. p. VIII. theory of orthogonal transformation. S. theory of groups (1829). He classified forms of that type accord + ing to the sign of & ^ac.528 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Poincare. 187 Biography of Cayley. skew determinants and Pfaffians. Vol. Quantics. Dirichlet. 9. and Sylvester. considered cy and estabbinary quadratic forms of the type ax f. . in his by H. . Hesse. J.
To him are due (185154) the foundations of the general theory. and. studied those differential equations which are satisfied by invariants and covariants of binary/ His symbolic method has been carried on by quantics. Meanwhile in Germany Eisenstein (1843) na d become aware and covariants of a cubic and biquadratic form. discovered the invariants of a ternary cubic and their relations to the discriminant. 521> the is first step towards the establishment of the distinct theory sometimes attributed to Hesse in his investigations of the plane curve of the third order. which was followed (1846) by investigations concerning covariants and by the discovery of the symbolic method of find By reason of these discoveries concerning ing invariants. of the simplest invariants . as. and more recently by Study (1889) and Stroh (1890).] quantics. upon which later writers have largely built. and rank among the greatest which have ever been produced upon a single theory. and his originality and vigor in discovery soon made both himself and the subject prominent. 1). 9. Inspired by Boole's discovery Cayley took up the study in a memoir " On the Theory of Linear Transformations " (1845). It is. Theory of Forms. with Cayley and Sylvester. however. He first showed the generality of the invariant property of the discriminant. Sylvester soon joined Cayley in this work. to Boole (1841) that the real foundation of the theory of invariants is generally ascribed. on the subject began in 1854. in lines quite different from those of the English school. But it was Aronhold (1849) who> He devised the symbolic first made the new theory known. which Lagrange and Gauss had found for special forms.Art. In France Hermite early took up the work (185 He .. His ten memoirs. Clebsch. invariants and covariants (which at first he called " hyperdeterminants called ") he is regarded as the founder of what is variously Modern Algebra.. method now common in Germany. and Hesse and Grassmann had both (1844) touched upon the subject. Gordan. well as most of the terminology of the subject. Theory of Quantics r and the Theory of Invariants and Covariants.
has set forth a is fertile method of geometric interpretation and hinds together binary and certain ternary forms. who wrote in the latter part of Burnside and Panton's Theory transformation which of Equations. Gordan entered the added greatly field. or discovered (1854) the law of reciprocity that to every covariant invariant of degree p and order r of a form of the mXXi order corresponds also a covariant or invariant of degree 111 and of order r of a form of the pth order. and many On binary forms Faa di Bruno's work is well known. Clebsch* did more than any other to introduce into Germany the work of Cayley and Sylvester. Michael and Ralph Roberts. At the same time (1854) Brioschi joined the movement. Salmon's Higher Plane Curves (1852) and Higher Algebra (1859) should also be mentioned as marking an epoch in the theory. and Mertens (1886). De Toledo (1889) and Elliott (1895) have published treatises on the subject. Hilbert (1884). He to the theory. Kronecker. of contributors. Mansion. * Klein's Evanston Lectures. [CHAP. . interpreting the projective it geometry by their theory of invariants. mentioned. especially by his theorem on the Endlichkeit des Formensystems. Hilbert. as a critic of Cayley. Salmon. a proof which Story has of invariants simplified. others. I. Dublin University has also furnished a considerable corps among whom MacCullagh. XI. the proof for which has since been simplified. is as Study's (1889) on ternary forms. Lie. Klein. This theory of the finiteness of the number and covariants of a binary form has since been Peano (1882).530 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. extended by Hilbert (1890) succeeded in showing the finiteness of the complete systems for forms in n variables. and his contributions have been among the most valuable. in 1868. Beltrami. Noether. and Burnside may be especially Burnside. Especially since the publication of his work on forms (1871) the subject has attracted such scholars as Weierstrass. and correlating with Riemann's theory of functions. Hamilton. Lect. Burkhardt.
of nonquadratic forms has been studied equivalence problem 108). The (1889). p. Esquisse de l'histoire du calcul infinitesimal. (1873). and Scheffers (1891). G. Calculus. petit. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hammond. Dirichlet (1850). Infinitesimal Calculus. 10. and Halphen have contributed. gth edi tion. Gundelfinger (1883). Canonical forms have been studied by Sylvester (185 1). l'histoire de l'infiniment Bibliotheca Mathematica. Brill (1882). and Hil The Geometric Theory Poncelet and his followers. Forsyth. which Cayley has termed the Schwarzian Differential invariants derivative. Cayley (especially from have worked out the methods of generating functions.. On the method of nets (reseaux). Werner by ChristofTel. to which MacMahon. Le . Starting from the by Sylvester. Leudesdorf. Ill. M. Note sur Mansion. 1877). to the theory of forms with linear transformations into selves. and Maschke (1887) have contributed (1872).* dating from Newv ton and Leibniz. Vol. Killing (1890). and Poincare (1880) have written. Christoffel. Cantor.Art. Ghent. Sylvester (1885) has founded the theory of reciprocants. 10. Frobenius. The names of Klein and Hurwitz are prominent in this connection. Cayley. of Binary Forms may be traced to But the modern treatment has its tions. and more recently by Rosanes bert (1886). Art. Klein (1877. another geometric treatment of binary quadratic forms Gauss (1831). Elliott. 1887. and Hermite (to whom the term " canonical form " is due).] CALCULUS.. and Integral Calculus. differential invariant. Brioschi (1877). P. themand Sylvester (1877) 1870) denumeration by means of have been studied and Hammond. 1 . MacMahon. 150316.. was quite complete in its general range a" The Differential * Williamson.. and more recently of Rosenow (Crelle. Fuchs (187576). Schwarz 1884). Kronecker. pp. B. origin in connection with the theory of elliptic modular funcand dates from Dedekind's letter to Borchardt (Crelle. Geschichte der Mathematik. Vivanti. Lie. 1894. 531 The equivalence problem of quadratic and bilinear forms has attracted the attention of Weierstrass.
an Cauchy early undertook investigation extended by Liouville. the theory of definite integrals. Elliott. 163. Duhamel (1856). / x n ~\i ~ n~ x x) dx. differentiel Mathesis. as follows : treatise (1871). and the has been prominent during the century. have contributed. Newtonian calculus (183947). and those whose names are mentioned in connection with the theory of functions. and the numerous applications of the to physical problems. Jordan. [CHAP. Dirichlet's lectures (1858) in em bodied Meyer's Legendre. first Aside from the study of which Gauss. Sohncke. there must be menprinciples. Bertrand Serret (1868). p. the calculus of variations. the theory of differential equations. Poisson. XL the close of the eighteenth century. it it follows that = n it !. Meray. I e~ x xn ~ 1 dx. by whom they were classed as Eulerian integrals of the first and second species. Raabe. Sturm (185759). the general theory of determining definite integrals. n / e~*x dx x n is integral. Frullani's theorem (1821). 1893). but if n is fractional is a transcendent function. Picard. IV. to tioned the development of symbolic methods. . To Legendre assigned the symbol calcul P t and . Schlomilch. Among those who have prepared noteworthy general treatises are Cauchy (1821). it is deux centieme anniversaire de ^invention du Vol. Bierens de Haan's work on the theory (1862) subject and his elaborate tables (1867). although these were not the If exact forms of Euler's study.532 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Plana. and Picard (189193). Leudesdorf. (1864).. and Kronecker are among the noteworthy conEulerian Integrals were first studied by Euler and afterwards investigated by Legendre. Cauchy. Jordan (2d ed. and numerous memoirs of tributions. Abel seems to have been the first to consider in a general way the question as to what differential expressions can be integrated in a finite form by the aid of ordinary functions. recent contribution to analysis which promises to be valu Raabe A able is Oltramare's Calcul de Generalization (1893).
I. Chap. TodHistory of the Progress of the Calculus of Variations. his His contri butions began to the theory. Symbolic Methods may be traced back to Taylor. not entirely satisfactory. Poisson (1831). Legendre's great table appeared in 18 16. for the discrimination of max ima and minima. Tubingen. and Jacobi An important gen(1837) have been among the contributors. V. . B. to separate the symbol of operation from that of quantity in a differential equation. on the subject. Clebsch (1858). Ostrogradsky (1834). a d Gudermann (1845) have written. mann and Hankel made bers. and Carll (1885). and others. eral work is that of Sarrus (1842) which was condensed and improved by Cauchy (1844). Jellett (1850). Hesse (1857).. in 1733. 1885. great use of the theory. Catalan.. Gauss (1829). which has been elaborated by Liouville. and Elementa Calculi Variationum gave to the science its name. Other valuable treatises and memoirs have been written by Strauch (1849). but perhaps the most * Carll. 1839). wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen. 10. and the analogy between successive differentiation and ordinary exponentials had been observed by numerous writers before the nineteenth century.. Lagrange contributed extensively and Legendre (1786) laid down a method.Art. New York. R. It immediately occupied the attention of Jakob Bernoulli and the Marquis de l'Hopital. memoir on difGrass and Boole freely employed them. however. London. Bauer (1859). but Euler first elaborated the subject. the latter in his theory of complex num The Calculus of Variations* may be said to begin with a problem of Johann Bernoulli's (1696). hunter. Calculus of Variations. Francois (18 12) and Servois (18 14) seem to have been the first to give correct rules Hargreave (1848) applied these methods in his ferential equations. Leslie Ellis. 1887. To the subject Dirichlet has contributed an important theorem (Liouville. To this discrimination Brunacci (1810). 533 now called the gamma function. Die AnfSnge der Variationsrechnung. 90. 1 861 : L. the former in studying equations. Mathematischnaturp. Arbogast (1800) was the first. On the evaluation of Fx and \ogTx Raabe (184344). Reiff.] calculus.
contains an extensive bibliography. Bjerknes. elasticity of threedimensional bod Fourier on heat diffusion.. Lord Kelvin. Helm holtz. and the contributions of Dirichlet. and it may be asserted that he was the first to place it on a firm and unquestionable foundation. although and the fundamental memoir potential function of the subject are due to Green (1827. M. and many of the leading physicists of the century. Christoffel. and Fuhrmann to physics in general. them are the investigations of Euler on vibrating chords Sophie Germain on elastic membranes Poisson. Kirchhoff. Neumann. With development are connected the names of Dirichlet. the To Lagrange " tion of the theory of the (1773) we owe the introducpotential* into dynamics. electricity. Venant. Fresnel on light. It is impossible in this place to enter into the great variety of other applications of analysis to physical problems. Heine. MacCullagh. This Bacharach. Weber.534 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. until at close Laplace realm of analysis. 1883. Kirchhoff. His celebrated course on the theory is epochmaking. and Gylden on Maxwell on spherical harmonics. Rie mann. All through the eighteenth century these appliits and Lagrange had brought the whole range of the study of forces into the cations were multiplied. acoustics. F. The labors of Helm and Hertz on holtz should be especially mentioned. XI. Saint.. printed in 1828). important work of the century is that of Weierstrass. and brought his great analytical chanics as well as * powers to bear on the fundamental axioms of meon those of pure mathematics. Maxwell. and Clebsch on the ies. The name ''potential" is due to Gauss (1840). Lipschitz. Among . since he contributed to the theories of dynamics. Hill. Beltrami. and the distinction its name " between potential and potential function to Clausius. etc. electricity. Kronecker. Lame. Hansen. [CHAP. Abriss der Geschichte der Potentialtheorie. Lord Rayleigh on astronomy. Neumann. . Clausius. The Application of the Infinitesimal Calculus to problems in physics and astronomy was contemporary with the origin of the science.
11. Ger. 1891. Theorie der partiellen Differentialgleichungen ier Ordnung. Some of the De velopments Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. Ill. Berichte liber . I. j l . Geschichte der Mathematik. and Heffier. . Paris.ART..\A n \. A n y O. M.. 429 . II. n fw1 first y . S.. .. ist " In der ganzen modernerj Mathematik " die Theorie der Differential gleichungen die wichtigste Discipiin . has been very marked. Vol. 1895.. 119 Goursat. L.and especially on the theory of linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients. . LI I. Vol. and further manifested through the Bernoullis. The influLief ence of geometry. . 535 Art. p. Mansion. Schlesinger. Vol. This equation F(z) the "char acteristic " equation considered later by Monge and Cauchy. Lie." the curve represented o. man by letin Maser. dethe solution of his type. H. + is* + = o. . p. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. p. 1895. who made equations ' dny A dn y A . . Handbuch derTheorie der linearen Differentialgleichungen. by F(z) said to begin with (1779 to 1785). * has been called by Equations the most important of modern mathematics. excellent on history in the Craig.. 96.. and Clairaut. Mathematical Society. 1892. Riccati. starting with New The Theory of Differential ton and Leibniz. uniting the theory to geometry. which has recently been investigated by Darboux.. and astronomy. cellent historical view Zur allgemeinen Theorie der partiellen Differentialgleichungen. T. 18781893. but chiefly through d'Alembert and Euler. = dy k y k (k = i. Bul. and introducing the notion of the "characteristic. 313. 13 \ New York and p. physics. Leipzig. L. in Mathematical Papers of Chicago Congress. Differential Equations. Legonssur des equations aux derivees partielles du premier ordre. .] DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Vol. is = pend on that l of ~ l n n F{z) = z \A z th degree. 11. die Verhandlungen der P. n). E. 2. The theory of linear partial differential equations may be Lagrange Monge (1809) treated ordinary and partial differential equations of the first and second order. the algebraic equation of the k in which z takes the place of o. The method of integrating linear ordinary differential with constant coefficients is due to Euler. p. l'integration Burkhardt. an exreview by Mathews in Nature. = * Cantor.
536
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
Pfaff (1814, 18 15)
[CllAl\ XI.
general method of integrating partial differential equations of the first order, a method of which Gauss (181 5) at once recognized the value
Levy, and Lie.
gave the
first
and
ical
is
which he gave an analysis. Soon after, Cauchy (18 19) gave a simpler method, attacking the subject from the analytof also
To him standpoint, but using the Monge characteristic. due the theorem, corresponding to the fundamental
theorem of algebra, that every differential equation defines a function expressible by means of a convergent series, a proposition more simply proved by Briot and Bouquet, and also by
Picard (1891). Jacobi (1827) also gave an analysis of Pfaff's method, besides developing an original one (1836) which
Clebsch published (1862). Clebsch's own method appeared in 1866, and others are due to Boole (1859), Korkine (1869), and
A. Mayer
(1872).
Pfaff's
ject of investigation,
problem has been a prominent suband with it are connected the names of
Natani (1859), Clebsch (1861, 1862), DuBoisReymond (1869),
Cayley, Baltzer, Frobenius, Morera, Darboux, and Lie. The next great improvement in the theory of partial differential equations of the first order is due to Lie (1872), by whom the
whole subject has been placed on a rigid foundation. Since about 1870, Darboux, Kovalevsky, Meray, Mansion, Graindorge, and Imschenetsky have been prominent in tin's line.
The
theory of partial differential equations of the second and higher orders, beginning with Laplace and Monge, was notably advanced by Ampere (1840). Imschenetsky* has summarized
the contributions to
imperfect
state.
1873,
but the theory remains
in
an
The
integration of partial differential equations with three
or more variables was the object of elaborate investigations by Lagrange, and his name is still connected with certain subsid
To him and to Charpit, who did much to iary equations. the theory, is due one of the methods for integrating develop
the general equation with two variables, a method which bears Charpit's name.
* Grunert's Archiv fur Mathematik, Vol. LIV.
now
ART.
11.]
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
537
of singular solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations has been a subject of research from the
The theory
time of Leibniz, but only since the middle of the present cenvaluable but littletury has it received especial attention.
A
Jcnown work on the subject is that of Houtain (1854). ;boux (from 1873) has been a leader in the theory, and
geometric interpretation of these solutions
Darin
the
he has opened a field which has been worked by various writers, notably CasoTo the latter is due (1872) the theory of rati and Cayley.
singular solutions of differential equations of the at present accepted.
first
order as
The
of
liad in view a reduction to quadratures.
primitive attempt in dealing with differential equations As it had been the hope
eighteenthcentury algebraists to find a method for solving the general equation of the nth degree, so it was fhe hope of
tial
analysts to find a general
method for integrating any differenGauss (1799) showed, however, that the difequation. ferential equation meets its limitations very soon unless
Hence analysts began to are introduced. substitute the study of functions, thus opening a new and fertile field. Cauchy was the first to appreciate the importance
complex numbers
of this view, and the modern theory may be said to begin with him. Thereafter the real question was to be, not whether a
solution
tegrals, differential equation suffices for the definition of a function of the independent variable or variables, and if so, what are the characteristic properties of
by means but whether a given
is
possible
of
known
functions or their
in
this function.
Within a halfcentury the theory of ordinary differential equations has come to be one of the most important branches
of analysis, the theory of partial differential equations remaining as one still to be perfected. The difficulties of the general problem of integration are so manifest that all classes of investigators have confined themselves to the properties of the inThe new tegrals in the neighborhood of certain given points.
departure took
its
greatest inspiration from two
memoirs by
538
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
(Crelle, 1866, 1868), a
[ChAP. XI.
Fuchs
work elaborated by Thome and
contributor since
Frobenius.
Collet has been a prominent
1869, although his
method
for integrating a nonlinear
in
system
Clebsch * (1873) attacked the theory along lines parallel to those followed in his theory of Abelian integrals. As the latter can be classified according to the properties of the fundamental curve which,
was communicated to Bertrand
1868.
remains unchanged under a rational transformation, so Clebsch proposed to classify the transcendent functions defined by the
differential equations according to the invariant properties of
the corresponding surfaces
transformations.
f=o
under rational onetoone
Since 1870 Lie's f labors have put the entire theory of difHe has ferential equations on a more satisfactory foundation.
shown
ticians,
that the integration
theories of
the
older
mathemaby the
which had been looked upon
as isolated, can
introduction of the concept of continuous groups of transformations be referred to a common source, and that ordinary
differential equations
which admit the same infinitesimal trans
He has also formations present like difficulties of integration. the subject of transformations of contact (Beruhemphasized rungstransformationen) which underlies so much of the recent
The modern school has also turned its attention to theory. the theory of differential invariants, one of fundamental importance and one which Lie has
made prominent.
of
With
this
theory are associated the
names Cayley, Cockle, Sylvester, Forsyth, Laguerre, and Halphen. Recent writers have shown the same tendency noticeable in the work of Monge and
Cauchy, the tendency to separate into two schools, the one inclining to use the geometric diagram, and represented by
Schwarz, Klein, and Goursat, the other adhering to pure analysis, of which Weierstrass, Fuchs, and Frobenius are types.
Fuchs and the theory of elementary divisors have formed the basis of a late work by Sauvage (1895). Poincare's
of
* Klein's Evanston Lectures, Lect. f Klein's Evanston Lectures, Lect.
I.
The work
II, III.
Art.
12.]
infinite series.
539
His theory of Fuchsian equations (also investigated by Klein) is connected He has also brought the whole subwith the general theory. Appell ject into close relations with the theory of functions. has recently contributed to the theory of linear differential
recent contributions are also very notable.
equations transformable into themselves by change of the function and the variable. Helge von Koch has written on infinite
determinants and linear differential equations. Picard has undertaken the generalization of the work of Fuchs and Poincar6
in the case of differential
Fabry equations of the second order. the normal integrals of Thome, integrals (i885)has generalized which Poincare has called " integrates anormales," and which
Picard has recently studied.
Riquier has treated the question
of the existence of integrals in
any
differential
system and
given a brief summary of the history to 1895.* The number of contributors in recent times is very great, and includes, besides
those already mentioned, the names of Brioschi, Konigsberger,
Peano, Graf, Hamburger, Graindorge,
Schlafli, Glaisher,
Lom
mel, Gilbert, Fabry, Craig, and Autonne.
Art.
12.
Infinite Series.
The Theory
of Infinite Series f in its historical develop
ment has been divided by Reiff into three periods: (1) the period of Newton and Leibniz, that of its introduction;
that of Euler, the formal period (3) the modern, that of the scientific investigation of the validity of infinite series, a
(2)
;
period beginning with Gauss. This critical period begins with the publication of Gauss's celebrated memoir on the series
'
jj
*
xA
Riquier,
~
,
I
x
+
in
l8l2
Euler
C, Memoire
ferentiel quelconque, etc.
f Cantor,
Memoires des Savants
Reihen,
sur l'existence des integrates dans un systeme difetrangers, Vol. XXXII, No. 3.
Ill, pp. 53, 71
; ;
M., Geschichte der Mathematik, Vol.
Society, Vol.
p.
Reift, R.,
Geschichte der unendlichen
Tubingen, 1889
I, p.
Cajori,
F.,
Bulletin
New
York Mathematical
in
184; History of Teaching of
Mathe
matics
United States,
361.
540
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
this series, "
[CHAP.
first
XL
to
had already considered
master
it,
but Gauss was the
and under the name
hypergeometric
series
"
(due
to PfafT)
it
has since occupied the attention of Jacobi,
Schwarz, Cayley, Goursat, and numerous others. ular series is not so important as is the standard of criticism
Kummer, The partic
which Gauss set up, embodying the simpler criteria of convergence and the questions of remainders and the range of
convergence. Gauss's contributions were not at once appreciated, and the next to call attention to the subject was Cauchy (1821),
who may be
considered the founder of the theory of convergence and divergence of series. He was one of the first to he showed that if two insist on strict tests of convergence
;
series are
convergent their product
is
not necessarily so
;
and
with him begins the discovery of effective criteria of convergIt should be mentioned, however, that ence and divergence. these terms had been introduced long before by Gregory (1668), that Euler and Gauss had given various criteria, and that Maclaurin had anticipated a few of Cauchy's discoveries.
Cauchy advanced the theory of power series by his expansion His test for convergence of a complex function in such a form. is still one of the most satisfactory when the integration involved
is
possible.
Abel was the next important contributor.
(1826) on the series
1
In his
. .
.
memoir
+
ivyi
x 
'Jfliffl
j
I
)

x
*
__
he corrected
certain of Cauchy's conclusions,
tific
He
and gave a completely sciensummation of the series for complex values of m and x. was emphatic against the reckless use of series, and showed
the necessity of considering the subject of continuity in questions of convergence.
Cauchy's methods led to special rather than general criteria, and the same may be said of Raabe (1832), who made the first elaborate investigation of the subject, of De Morgan (from 1842), whose logarithmic test DuBoisReymond (1873) and Pringsheim (1889) have shown to fail within a certain region
;
Art,
12.]
INFINITE SERIES.
&41
(1846, 1847, th ^
of Bertrand (1842),
latter
Bonnet
(1843),
Malmsten
without integration); Stokes (1847), Paucker (1852),. Tchebichef (1852), and Arndt 1853). General criteria began with Kummer (1835), and have been studied by Eisenstein
to the theory (1847), Weierstrass in his various contributions of functions, Dini (1867), DuBoisReymond (1873), and many
others.
Pringsheim's (from 1889) memoirs present the most
complete general theory.
The Theory
Cauchy
the
first
of
Uniform Convergence was
it
treated
by
(1821), his limitations
to
attack
being pointed out by Abel, but successfully were Stokes and Seidel
Cauchy took up the problem again (1853), acknowl(184748). edging Abel's criticism, and reaching the same conclusions
which Stokes had already found. Thome used the doctrine (1866), but there was great delay in recognizing the importance of distinguishing between uniform and nonuniform convergence, in spite of the
demands
of the theory of functions.
SemiConvergent Series were studied by Poisson (1823), who also gave a general form for the remainder of the Maclaurin formula.
is
The most important
solution of the problem
due, however, to Jacobi (1834), who attacked the question of the remainder from a different standpoint and reached a differ
This expression was also worked out, and ent formula. another one given, by Malmsten (1 847). Schlomilch (Zeitschrif t,
Vol. I, p. 192, 1856) also improved Jacobi'sremainder,and showed the relation between the remainder and Bernoulli's function
(* i_ 2* +... F{x) contributed to the theory.
=
+
i)\
Genocchi (1852) has further
Wronski, whose
"
*'
Among the early writers was
loi
supreme
until Cayley (1873) brought it (181 5) was hardly recognized Transon (1874), Ch. Lagrange (1884), into prominence.
* Echols, and Dickstein have published of late various memoirs
on the subject.
Interpolation Formulas have been given
* Bibliotheca Mathematica, 189294;
by various
writers
historical.
542
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
[CHAP. XI.
from Newton to the present time. Lagrange's theorem is well known, although Euler had already given an analogous form, as are also Olivier's formula (1827), and those of Minding {1830), Cauchy (1837), Jacobi (1845), Grunert (1850, 1853),
Christoffel (1858),
and Mehler (1864).
Fourier's Series* were being investigated as the result of physical considerations at the same time that Gauss, Abel,
and Cauchy were working out the theory of infinite series. Series for the expansion of sines and cosines, of multiple arcs in powers of the sine and cosine of the arc had been treated by Jakob Bernoulli (1702) and his brother Johann (1701) and Euler and Lagrange had simplified the still earlier by Viete.
subject, as have,
more
recently, Poinsot, Schroter, Glaisher,
and Kummer.
Fourier (1807) set for himself a different probto expand a given function of x in terms of the sines or lem, cosines of multiples of x, a problem which he embodied in his
Theorie analytique de la Chaleur (1822). Euler had already given the formulas for determining the coefficients in the
series;
and Lagrange had passed over them without recognizing their value, but Fourier was the first to assert and at
tempt to prove the general theorem. Poisson (182023) also attacked the problem from a different standpoint. Fourier
did not, however, settle the question of convergence of his series, a matter left for Cauchy (1826) to attempt and for
Dirichlet (1829) to handle in a thoroughly scientific manner. Dirichlet's treatment (Crelle, 1829), while bringing the theory of trigonometric series to a temporary conclusion, has been
the subject of criticism and improvement by
Riemann
(1854),
Heine, Lipschitz, Schlafli, Among other prominent contributors to the theory of trigonometric and Fourier series have been Dini, Hermite, Halphen, Krause,
and DuBoisReymond.
Byerly and Appell.
Summary by Bocher, Chap. IX of Byerlv's Fourier's Series and Spherical Harmonics, Boston, 1893 Sachse, A., Essai historique sur la Bulletin representation d'une fonction .... par une serie trigonometrique.
;
* Historical
des Sciences mathematiques, Part
I,
1880, pp. 43, 83.
.Art. 13.]
theory of functions.
543
Art.
13.
Theory of Functions.
may
be said to have
its
The Theory
development
of Functions *
first
in Newton's works, although algebraists had already become familiar with irrational functions in considering cubic and quartic equations. Newton seems first to have
grasped the idea of such expressions in his consideration of symmetric functions of the roots of an equation. The word
was employed by Leibniz
(1694), but
in
connection with the
In its modern sense it seems to have Cartesian geometry. been first used by Johann Bernoulli, who distinguished between algebraic and transcendent functions. He also used (1718) the
function symbol <p. Clairaut (1734) used IIx, $x, Ax, for various functions of x> a symbolism substantially followed by
Lagrange (1772, 1797, 1806) laid the foundations for the general theory, giving to the symbol a broader meaning, and to the symbols f,0,F,...
v
d'Alembert (1747) and Euler (1753).
f,
to
0', F',
.
.
.
their
modern
signification.
Gauss contributed
the theory, especially in his proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra, and discussed and gave name to the theory
" " of "conforme Abbildung," the orthomorphosis of Cayley.
a point of departure, Cauchy so the theory that he is justly considered one greatly developed His memoirs extend over the period 1814of its founders.
Making Lagrange's work
and cover subjects like those of integrals with imaginary limits, infinite series and questions of convergence, the applica185
1,
tion of the infinitesimal calculus to the theory of
*
Brill, A.,
complex
schen Functionen
and Noether, M., Die Entwickelung der Theorie der algebraiin alterer und neuerer Zeit, Bericht erstattet der Deutschen
MathematikerVereinigung, Jahresbericht, Vol. II, 'pp. 107566, Berlin, 1894; KOnigsberger, L., Zur Geschichte der Theorie der elliptischen Transcendenten
in
den Jahren 182629, Leipzig, 1879; Williamson, B
,
Infinitesimal Calculus,
Encyclopaedia Britannica; Schlesinger, L., Differentialgleichungen, Vol. I, 1895; Casorati, F., Teorica delle funzioni di variabili complesse, Vol. I, 1868; Klein's
For bibliography and historical notes, see Harkness and Morley's Theory of Functions, 1893, and Forsyth's Theory of Functions, 1893; Bibliotheca Mathematica, Enestrom, G., Note historique sur les symboles.
Evanston Lectures.
.
.
.
1891, p
89.
544:
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
[CHAP. XL.
numbers, the investigation of the fundamental laws of mathematics, and numerous other lines which appear in the general
Originally opposed theory of functions as considered today. to the movement started by Gauss, the free use of complex
numbers, he finally became, like Abel, its advocate. To him is largely due the present orientation of mathematical research,
making prominent the theory of functions, distinguishing between classes of functions, and placing the whole subject upon The historical development of the gena rigid foundation. eral theory now becomes so interwoven with that of special classes of functions, and notably the elliptic and Abelian, that economy of space requires their treatment together, and hence
a digression at this point.
The Theory
of Elliptic
Functions*
is
usually referred for
its
origin to Landen's (1775) substitution of
single hyperbolic arc.
two
elliptic arcs for a
But Jakob Bernoulli (1691) had sug
curve, and
gested the idea of comparing noncongruent arcs of the same Johann had followed up the investigation. Fagnano
(1716) had made similar studies, and both Maclaurin (1742) and d'Alembert (1746) had come upon the borderland of elliptic Euler (from 1761) had summarized and extended functions.
the rudimentary theory, showing the necessity for a convenient notation for elliptic arcs, and prophesying (1766) that "such
signs will afford a
new
sort of calculus of
which
I
have here atEuler's inves
tempted the exposition
tigations continued
of the
first
elements."
until about the time of his death (1783), and to him Legendre attributes the foundation of the theory. Euler was probably never aware of Landen's discovery.
It is to
tions
is
Legendre, however, that the theory of elliptic funclargely due, and on it his fame to a considerable degree
His earlier treatment (1786) almost entirely suba strict analytic for the geometric method. stitutes For forty
depends.
years he had the theory in hand, his labor culminating in his
*
1890;
Enneper, A., Elliptische
Funktionen, Theorie
und Geschichte, Halle,
der elliptischen Tran
Konigsberger, L., Zur Geschichte der Theorie scendenten in den Jahren 182629, Leipzig, 1879.
Art.
13.]
theory of functions.
545
Traite des Fonctions elliptiques et des Integrates Euleriennes surprise now awaiting him is best told in his (182528).
A
own words: "Hardly had my work seen the light its name could scarcely have become known to scientific foreigners, when I learned with equal surprise and satisfaction that two
young mathematicians,
of Christiania,
MM.
Jacobi of Konigsberg and Abel
their
had succeeded by
own
studies in perfect
ing considerably the theory of elliptic functions in its highest Abel began his contributions to the theory in 1825, parts."
and even then was in possession of his fundamental theorem which he communicated to the Paris Academy in 1826. This communication being so poorly transcribed was not published in full until 1841, although the theorem was sent to Crelle Abel discovered the (1829) just before Abel's early death. double periodicity of elliptic functions, and with him began
the treatment of the
elliptic
integral
as a function of the
amplitude.
Jacobi, as also
praise of the delayed
it
a
Legendre and Gauss, was especially cordial in theorem of the youthful Abel. He calls "monumentum sere perennius," and his name "das
Abel'sche
of
Theorem
"
has since attached to
it.
The
functions
multiple periodicity to
which
it
refers
have been called
Abelian Functions.
Abel's work was early proved and elucidated by Liouville and Hermite. Serret and Chasles in the Comptes Rendus, Weierstrass (1853), Clebsch and Gordan in
their Theorie der Abel'schen
Bouquet
theory.
in
Functionen (1866), and Briot and their two treatises have greatly elaborated the
Riemann's * (1857) celebrated memoir in Crelle presented the subject in such a novel form that his treatment was
slow of acceptance. He based the theory of Abelian integrals and their inverse, the Abelian functions, on the idea of the sur
now so well known by his name, and on the correspondfundamental existence theorems. Clebsch, starting from ing
face
Riemann and Modern Mathematics, Klein, Evanston Lectures, p. 3 transited by Ziwet, Bulletin of American Mathematical Society, Vol. I, p. 165; Burkhardt, H., Vortrag iiber Riemann, Gottingen, 1892.
;
*
546
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
its
[CHAP. XI.
equation, made the subject more accessible, and generalized the theory of Abelian integrals to a theory of algebraic functions with several variables, thus
an algebraic curve defined by
creating
a
branch which has been developed by Noether,
Picard, and Poincare\
The
introduction of the theory of
in
variants and projective geometry into the domain of hyperelliptic and Abelian functions is an extension of Clebsch's
scheme.
In this extension, as in the general theory of Abelian With the development of functions, Klein has been a leader.
the theory of Abelian functions is connected a long list of names, including those of Schottky, Humbert, C. Neumann,
Fricke,
Konigsberger,
Prym,
Schwarz,
Painlev,
Hurwitz,
Bfioschi, Borchardt, Cayley, Forsyth,
and Rosenhain, besides
others already mentioned. Returning to the theory of elliptic functions, Jacobi (1827) began by adding greatly to Legendre's work. He created a
new
notation and gave
use.
name
which he made
Among
modular equations of those who have written treatises
.
to the "
"
upon the
ellipticfunction
theory are Briot and Bouquet,
The
Laurent, Halphen, Konigsberger, Hermite, Durege, and Cayley. introduction of the subject into the Cambridge Tripos
it,
and the fact that Cayley 's only book was devoted to have tended to popularize the theory in England.
(1873),
Theta Functions was the simultaneous and of Jacobi and Abel (1828). Gauss's independent notes show that he was aware of the properties of the theta
of
The Theory
creation
functions twenty years earlier, but he never published his investigations. Among the leading contributors to the theory
are
Rosenhain (1846, published in 185 1) and Gopel(i847), who connected the double theta functions with the theory of Abelian
functions of two variables and established the theory of hyperelliptic functions in a manner corresponding to the Jacobian
theory of elliptic functions. Weierstrass has also developed the theory of theta functions independently of the form of their
space boundaries, researches elaborated by Konigsberger (1865) to give the addition theorem. Riemann has completed the
ART.
13.]
THEORY OF FUNCTIONS.
547
investigation of the relation between the theory of the theta and the Abelian functions, and has raised theta functions to
their present position
by making them an
H.
J.
essential part of his
theory of Abelian integrals.
S.
Smith has included
among
Prym
his contributions to this subject the theory of
omega
functions.
Among
the
recent contributors are Krazer and
(1895).
(1892),
and Wirtinger
Cayley was a prominent contributor to the theory of His memoir (1845) on doubly periodic periodic functions. functions extended Abel's investigations on doubly infinite Euler had given singly infinite products for sin x products. cos x, and Abel had generalized these, obtaining for the
y
elementary doubly periodic functions expressions for sn x> en x, dn x. Starting from these expressions of Abel's Cayley
laid a
complete foundation
for his
theory of
elliptic functions.
Eisenstein (1847) followed, giving a discussion from the standpoint of pure analysis, of a general doubly infinite product,
and
his labors, as
supplemented by Weierstrass, are
classic.
The General Theory of Functions has received its present form largely from the works of Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass.
tion
Endeavoring to subject all natural laws to interpretamathematical formulas, Riemann borrowed his methods by from the theory of the potential, and found his inspiration in
the contemplation of mathematics from the standpoint of the concrete. Weierstrass, on the other hand, proceeded from the
purely analytic point of view.
of
To Riemann*
making
certain partial differential
due the idea equations, which express
is
the fundamental properties of all functions, the foundation of a general analytical theory, and of seeking criteria for the determination of an analytic function by its discontinuities
and boundary conditions. His theory has been elaborated by Klein (1882, and frequent memoirs) who has materially extended the theory of Riemann's surfaces. Clebsch, Liiroth,
and
later writers
F..
have based on
this
theory their researches on
translated
* Klein,
Bulletin of
Riemann and Modern Mathematics,
I,
by
Ziwet,
American Mathematical Society, Vol.
p.
165.
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. His contributions to the theory of elliptic functions. a subject further investigated by Schwarz. and these have been fortified in connection with the theory of the potential by C. In both the theory of general and of elliptic and other He introduced the systemfunctions.. Cantor have contributed to the same result. and MittagLenrer and G. in particular (1872) on the general form of a function with essential singularities. Clebsch was prominent. and from the analytic standpoint by Schwarz. Laguerre (from 1882) was the first to M " of transcendent class discuss the functions. and many theorems. Following Riemann came the equally fundamental and original and more rigorously worked out theory of Weierstrass. [CHAP. bringing to bear on the theory of elliptic functions the ideas of consideration of modern alized projective geometry. He developed the theory of functions of complex its variables from foundations. He first announced (1866) the existence of natural limits for analytic and Fricke. Klein. functions. XL Riemann's speculations were not without weak points. atic algebraic curves of deficiency I. On functions with an infinite number of essential singularities MittagLenrer (from 1882) has written and contributed a fundamental theorem. a subject to . including the introduction His conof the function f{u\ are also of great importance. and has extended the method to the theory of hyperelliptic and Abelian functions.548 loops. His early lectures on functions are justly considered a landin modern mathematical development. In particular. and his contributions to the less theory of functions of real variables were no marked. transcendents are perhaps the most his researches on Abelian mark important since those of Abel and Jacobi. Neumann. his in This theory Klein has generTheorie der elliptischen Modulfunctionen. Fuchs has been a prominent contributor. tributions to the general function theory include much of the symbolism and nomenclature. On the classification of singularities of functions Guichard (1883) has summarized and extended the researches.
Weber. Burk hardt. functions were to improve this method Bessel's prominently used. as named by Klein. Cayley. Bulletin of New York matical Society. Gray and Mathe Bocher.] THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. Picard. Lom mel (from * Neumann. and Hurwitz. and 1868). Klein (1878). 549 also con which Poincare. including among others Jordan. Heine. (189092). Vivanti. p. Graf 107. and later Klein. had been regarded as the best series (1770). mathematical history. Automorphic functions. Dyck. BrillNoether Bericht. however. have worked out the theory which Klein and Fricke have embodied in the recent Vorlesungen uber die Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunctionen In this theory the memoirs of Dedekind (1877).ART. Bessel's funcof Daniel Ber tions * of the zero order are found in noulli (1732) memoirs (1764).. and Euler functions in their is due. Darboux. influence of the Klein school. Vol. and Burnside. 13. and before the end of the eighteenth century all the Bessel functions of the first kind and Their prominence as special integral order had been used.that bearing Bessel's name. Pellet. Cesaro. reference must be had to the Of the various special algebraic functions space allows men tion of but one class. to Bessel (181617). have been investigated chiefly by Poincare^ who has established their contributors to the theory include Schwarz. general classification. proceeding from Eisenstein's memoir (1847) and the lectures of Weierstrass on elliptic functions. Hankel (1869). and Humbert. and Poincare" (from 1881) have been among the most prominent. Fuchs. Biermann. present form method time or of solving Kepler's quantities in problem (to express the variable undisturbed planetary motion in terms of the first mean anomaly). For the names of the leading contributors to the general and special theories. (1893). Gierster. Hermite. who put them with Lagrange's Laplace's extension (1777). . and Hermite have tributed. A bit of II. F. Reichardt. Schlesinger. The The Theory of Elliptic Modular Functions. M. Holder. Krause. has of late assumed prominence through the Schlafli (1870). in 1824.
and others have contributed to the Lord Rayleigh (1878) has shown the relation between theory. 1896. M. Laplace (1774) made the first attempt to deduce a rule for the combination of observations from the principles of the theory of probabilities. limits within which all . doctrine of probabilities dates.. Bessel's and Laplace's functions. Bibliotheca Mathematica. XI. Art. 182 TransAcademy. and Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi (posthumous. actions of Connecticut 1865.550 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.. Geschichte der Mathematik. History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability. by Hansen (1843). . being certain that an error exists. with complete bibliography. p. 316.. p. 1884. as applied to The observations. 171 3) and De Moivre's Doctrine of Chances (1654). G. Todhunter. an d by Meissel (1888). IV. 14. [CHAP. Review of Cantor. tions were prepared by Bessel (1824). I. its : probaIt is (1) symmetric as to the it (2) the ^raxis is an asymptote. Vol. but they are nevertheless looked upon Tables of Bessel's funcas a distinct system of transcendents. traced back to Cotes's Opera 1722). of Probabilities is. p. Vol. as far back as Fermat The Theory and Errors* (1657) gave the first scientific treatment of the subject. He deduced a formula * . JEnestrOm. largely a nineteenthcentury development. however. He represented the law of probability of errors bility. The reprint (1757) of this memoir lays down the axioms that positive and negative errors and that there are certain assignable errors may be supposed to fall continuous errors are discussed and a probability curve is given. The theory Simpson in of errors may be Miscellanea (posthumous. M. by a curve y = (p(x). Mathews (1895). are equally probable. Ill. 20. Cantor. Merriman. p. but a memoir prepared by 1755 (printed 1756) first applied the theory to the discussion of errors of observation. x being any error and y and laid down three properties of this curve jj/axis. the probability of the error 00 being o. 1877. and Pascal Huygens ( 171 8)fraised the subject to the plane of a branch of mathematics. Method of Least Squares.. 151. Probabilities and Least Squares. (3) the area enclosed is 1. New York.
Watson. well known. Wolstenholme. Glaisher (1872). Bernoulli (1778) introduced the principle of the maximum product of the probabilities of a system of concurrent errors. Dedekind (i860). 551 for the mean of three observations. both as to the theory and its applications. Laurent (1873). and Artemas Martin. He being constants depending on pregave two proofs. been Ellis (1844). Littrow (1833). who Nouvelles methodes pour la determiIn ignorance of Legendre's nation des orbites des coinetes.] probabilities and least squares. Czuber has done much both in his own contributions (1884. De Morgan (1864). 1856). 57. Didion. Bessel (1838). Peters's (1856) formula for is r> the probable error of a single observation. Other contributors have (1844. * Bulletin of New York Mathematical Society. Among ities in De Morgan and Boole improved the theory. aparelli (1875). Adrain.* the contributors to the general theory of probabilthe nineteenth century have been Laplace. but one which led to unmanageable equations. known is To him Further proofs were given by Laplace (1810. <p(x) first deduced the law of facility of error. . and Schi(1823). He also gave (1781) a formula for the law of facility of error (a term due to Lagrange. Gauss gave the first proof which seems to have been after Adrain's) in 1809. On The Educational Times has been marked. and in his translation (1879) of Meyer. in Europe (the third due much of the honor of placing the subject before the mathematical world. Helmert (1872). editor of introduced it in his Analyst" (1808). 1 891). Daniel 1774). the second being essentially the same as Herschcl's (1850). 1812). Donkin and Crofton (1870). an IrishAmerican writer. Liagre. 14. II. The Method of Least Squares is due to Legendre (1805).Art. " The contribution. Gauss Hagen (1837). = ce'^^. Quetelet (1853). but added little that was fundamentally new. c and h cision of observation. Lacroix (1816). McColl. the geometric side the influence of Miller and as also that of such contributors to this journal as Crofton. Vol. p. and Pearson. 1826). Ivory (1825.
p. Art. [CHAP. Rapport sur Geometrie. the non(4) Euclidean hypothesis of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. the modern synthetic of Poncelet. Transactions of London Mathematical Society. G. sargues. Curves... To the theory Newton contributed three celebrated theorems on the Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis f (1704). Analytic Geometry. with Archimedes (2) The birth of analytic . It is quite impossible to draw the line between the analytic and the synthetic geometry of the nineteenth century. each an analyst rather than a ge ometer.. and including the names of Newton. Cayley. . which the synthetic geometry of Guldin. XI. les Progres de la zeugung ebener Curven. Paris. Mac. W. 1870. Dyck's Katalog mathematischer Modelle.552 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. von Staudt. Evanston Lectures on Mathematics. Klein. the Bernoullis. Clairaut. laurin. 15 and 16 should be read together. I M. Braunmuhl. 1772. Leibnitz. V. 1894 . passato e il Memorie Accademia Torino. The Analytic Geometry which Descartes gave in to the world 163/was confined to plane curves.. Chasles. 1892. Leipzig. 1888. Euler. The History the four periods: of practically closing in Geometry* may be roughly divided into (i) The synthetic geometry of the Greeks. 15. and Arts. and Roberval merged into the coordinate geometry of Descartes and Fermat (3) 1650 to 1800. 1887. The nineteenth century. the renaissance of pure characterized by the descriptive geometry of Monge. presente delle principali teorie geometriche. and the various important properties common to all algebraic curves were soon discovered. Maclaurin. NewA. characterized by the application of the calculus to geometry. 1891. the modern analytic founded by Plticker. Kepler. Schutte under the title Die hauptsachlichsten Theorien der Geometrie in ihrer iriiheren und heutigen Entwickelung. in their historical development. M. Historische Studie iiber die organische ErYork. Apercu historique sur l'origine et le developpement des methodes en Geometrie. + Ball. R. F. and Lagrange. 104. and Cremona. Encyclopaedia Britannica. A. translated into German by F. * Loria. W. and the more elementary geometry of the triangle founded by Lemoine. while others are due to Cotes (1722). geometry. 1889 Chasles. On Newton's classification of cubic curves. Steiner. Degeometry.. II and Waring (1762..
attempting the classification of those of the second degree as the ancients had classified curves of the second order. and Parent (1700) had referred a surface to three coordinate planes. in a memoir of Clairaut's 73 1). The geometry of three dimensions began to (1 assume definite shape. he solved with rare elegance of the problems relating to curves of double curvature.* Mobius began his contributions to geometry in 1823. Wren (1669) had discovered the two systems of generating lines on the hyperboloid of one sheet. and four years later published his Barycentrische Calcul. and attempted known for the which a classification of the former. in which. and dis covered the relation between the theory of surfaces and the integration of partial differential equations. an obstacle removed from the theory. etc. etc. " Cramer is well " paradox which bears his name.IC GEOMETRY. to Euler (1748) and Cramer (1750). Euler (1760) laid the foundations for the analytic theory of curvature of surfaces.). 15. 553 The scientific foundations of the theory of plane curves be ascribed. The theory of surfaces has attracted a long list of contributors in the nineteenth century. II passato e il presente. however. Descartes had suggested that his geometry could be extended to threedimensional space. including most of the geometers whose names are mentioned in the present article.. may Euler distinguished between algebraic and transcendent curves. Monge.1 ANALYT. Meanwhile the study of surfaces was becoming prominent. and other members of that school entered into the study of surfaces with great zeal. at the many age of sixteen. although in a modern geometric sense the theory was first treated by Lame is (1818) finally Cramer also Poncelet. Hachette. In this great work he introduced homogeneous coordinates with the * For details see Loria. enabling each to be advantageously viewed from the standpoint of the other.Art. To due an attempt to put the theory of singularities of algebraic curves on a scientific foundation. . however. Monge introduced the notion of families of surfaces.
XL attendant symmetry of geometric formulas. " attempted. congruences. the modern abridged notation. and number of inflections) are known when any three are given. Hesse and Dersch (1874). and ruled surfaces. To him is due (1833) the general treatment of foci and the complete classification of plane cubic curves (1835) whick had been so frequently tried before him. and which marks the beginning of a new era for analytic geometry. of signs in the scientific geometry. number of double tific dual definition of a curve. In the second volume in (1831) he sets forth the present analytic form of the principle of duality. Salmon (1858). by Cayley (1847.554 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. [CHAP. opened by Monge. number of cusps. Possibly the greatest service rendered by Pliicker was the introduction of the straight line as a space element. and the exposition of the principle establishment of the principle of geometric correspondence He also (1852) summed up the classifisimple and multiple. In 1828 he published the volume of his which appeared Analytischgeometrische Entwickelungen. a question further elaborated (1847). Pliicker first stands foremost. his first contribution (1865) being followed by his wellknown treatise work he treats certain general properties of complexes. number of tangents. He also gave (1839) an enumeration of plane curves of the fourth order. In 1842 he gave his celebrated six equations"" by which he showed that the characteristics of a curve (order. and an investigation of the question of double tangents. Of all modern contributors to analytic geometry. Gercontributions to analytic geometry were extensive. cation of cubic curves. by Zeuthen (1874) the period of Mobius also belong Bobillier used trilinear coordinates. In this . 1858). as well as special properties of linear complexes and congruenon the subject (186869). which Bragelogne and Euler had for curves of higher degree. was extended by him. and Bellavitis. To who first gonne's labors are mentioned in the next article. whose (1827). double points. a service rendered for quartics. The theory of also ruled surfaces. a system of tangential coordinates. To him is also due the first scienclass.
the consideration (1836) of from the intersection of Rudel. became the subject of later research. sulla Geometria numerativa. He also contributed to the theory of curves of the third order.and hence ^dimensional space. Lipschitz. Among algebraic Jacobi's contributions is curves and groups of points resulting To by Reye (1869). ancl to which Clebsch. The general theory of correspondence starts with Geometry. Veronese. and Stringham. and many others have elaborated the theory. subjects also Kummer is others of the modern not a little and by Klein and due to Plucker that the concept of 4. 67 1889. Notizie storiche . gave the complete theory of inflections of a curve. 535 ces. 39. and Chasles (1864) undertook * Loria. an <l Schubert (1876. and Hurwitz have also contributed. 23. . already suggested by Lagrange and Gauss. Tt . and introduced the socalled Hessian instance of a covariant of a ternary form. Riemann. Halphen (1875). 15. Cayley. Hoppe. d'Ovidio. G. In the method first of characteristics out may be found the trace of the which he worked Abzahlende Geometrie* which has been developed by Jonquieres. and generalized the Pascal and Brianchon theorems on a curve as the first Hesse's methods have recently been elabospherical surface. Helmholtz.. Kronecker r Klein. 1879). Lindemann. p. a subject carried forward also The number of examples (1872). Chasles added to the theory of curves of the third and fourth degrees. The regular hypersolids in 4dimensional space have been the subject of special study by Scheffler.] analytic geometry.Art. Mathematica. due the conformal representation of the Jacobi ellipsoid on a plane. a treatment completed by Schering (1858). considered by school. Bibliotheca. is surfaces. pp. rated by Gundelfinger (1894). 1888. Lie. of conformal representation of sur faces on planes or on spheres has been increased by Schwarz (1869) and Amstein In 1844 Hesse. Schlegel. Besides contributing extensively to synthetic geometry. whose contributions to geometry in general are both numerous and valuable.
and was the to reach (1845) any very general results in the theory of curves of double curvature. Cayley (1866) carried this theory to curves of higher deficiency. his discussion of the osculating conies of curves and of His investigations on the bitangents of particular on the twentyeight bitangents of the sextactic points on a plane curve. He also con tributed to the theory of scrolls (skewruled surfaces). a subject already discussed by Schlafli. the wave surface. XL curves. the geometric theory of the invariants and covariants of plane curves. Cayley added much to the theories of rational transformation and correspondence.. and treated (1869) the classification of cubic which surfaces. and H. Vol. to curves of defi ciency zero. however. Smith. VIII. Halphen. etc. orthogonal systems of surfaces. his developments of Pliicker's conception of foci. He early Cayley's carried on Pliicker's consideration of singularities of a curve. lines He was lie the first to announce (1849) tne twentyseven on a cubic surface. are all noteworthy. plane curves. S. he extended Salmon's theory of reciprocal surfaces. showing the distinction between the theory of transformation of spaces and that of correspondence of loci. and Brill (from 1873) completed the theory. Among Cayley's other contributions to geometry is his theory of the Absolute. Cayley's theorems on the intersection of curves (1843) an d the deter mination of selfcorresponding points for algebraic correspondences of a simple kind are fundamental in the present theory. a theory in which the next great first advance was made (1882) by Halphen and Noether. limiting his on the correspondence of algebraic investigations. * influence on geometry was very great. Biographical Notice in Cayley's Collected papers. Brill. special researches [CHAP. Zeuthen. and in a nonsingular quartic. subjects to which Bacharach. Noether. a figure in connection with which all metrical properties of a figure are considered. 1866) that and showed sidered as every singularity may be con compounded of ordinary singularities so that the " "six equations apply to a curve with any singularities whatHe thus opened a field for the later investigations of soever. J. . and Noether have also contributed extensively.556 the first HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. (1864.
and established the fact that by the principle of continuity all forms of real surfaces of the third order can be derived from Zeuthen the particular surface having four real conical points. in 557 Clebsch* was also prominent surfaces. Lie's theory of contact transformations. Quartic surfaces have been studied by Rohn (1887) but without a complete enumeration. Lect. Klein. His sphere geometry treats the subject from the higher standpoint of six homogeneous coordinates. a notion theory of elliptic and Abelian functions to geometry. 15. and in Of great help others. Katalog mathematischer und Miinchen. He first applied the algebra of linear transformation to He emphasized the idea of deficiency (Geschlecht) which dates back to Abel. Henrici. the study of curves and geometry.f The Theory * f of Minimum Surfaces has been developed along I. W. 1892 . but no genfourth order. Deutsche p. with its application to differential equations. Brill. Attempts have been made to extend the subject to curves of the nth order. O. the study of curves and surfaces and of the theory of functions are the models prepared by Dyck. Klein attacked for the study of curves. Schonflies. . Universitatsausstellung. mathematischphysikalischer Mathematical Papers of Chicago Congress. Following him. Klein. Kummer surfaces.] analytic geometry.. Evanston Lectures. and the same writer has contributed (1881) to the theory of eral classification has been made. Dyck. Kummer. his line and sphere complexes. using Clebsch (1872) investigated the shapes of surfaces of the third order. Lie has adopted Plucker's generalized space element and extended the theory. as distinguished but from the elementary sphere geometry with and characterized by the conformal group. Schwarz. and applied the it of a curve. has discussed the various forms of plane curves of the (1874) showing the relation between his results and those of Klein on cubic surfaces. 49. a geometry studied by Darboux. Modelle. and his work on minimum surfaces are all five prominent. the problem of determining all possible forms of such surfaces.Art.
Monge (1784) and Legendre (1787) connected the study of surfaces with that of differential equais but this did not immediately affect this question. Bonnet (from 1853) has set forth a new system of formulas relative. . It is true that certain of its features can be traced it back to Desargues. and first applied the labors of Monge and Legendre to the theory. minimum Art. and Weierstrass. but was Monge who worked * it out in detail as a science. and Meusnier (1776. although Wiener. Modern Geometry. Bonnet. and completely solved the problem surface through any curve and admitting in each point of this curve a given tangent plane. published in 1785) also studied the question. with the analytic geometry in general. and Frezier. and Dini (1865) have added to the But the most prominent contributors have been subject. has shown surfaces. a delay due to the jealous desire of the military authorities to keep the valuable secret. Lehrbuch der darstellenden Geometrie. Weierstrass (1866) has contributed several fundamental theoof determining the minimum rems. (1842). But from this time on for half a century little that noteworthy was done. Bjorling (1844). Geschichte der darstellenden Geometrie. Chr. Monge had been in of his theory for over thirty years before the publipossession cation of his Geometrie Descriptive (1800). Catalan tions. Leipzig. Taylor. Darboux.558 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. 16. 188487.* Projective. XI. Scherk (1835) added a number of important results. and Modern Synthetic Geometry are so interwoven in their historic development that it is even more difficult to separate them from one another than from the analytic geometry just mentioned.. Lambert. Schwarz. [CHAP. Descriptive. Lagrange (176061) gave the equation of the minimum surface through a given: contour. to the general theory of surfaces. save by Poisson (18 13) as to certain imaginary surfaces. how to find all of the real algebraic minimum of and has shown the connection between the theory functions of an imaginary variable and the theory of surfaces. 1884.
and especially Fiedler (3d edn.] MODERN GEOMETRY. 1821) added its symmetry. p. 58. in 559 the Lacroix (1795). though not in modern language.* concerned themselves especially with the relations of form. Olivier (from 1845).. geometry that he has been called the father of the modern He also set forth the fundamental theorem of reciptheory. de Fourcy. Modern Graphical Developupon ments. But although Carnot's work was important and many details are now commonplace. see Eddy. Carnot treated chiefly the metrical relations of figures. de ^ a Gournerie (from In Germany i860). published the materially to first Ecole After work on the subject. and particularly with those of surfaces his school Monge and in a space of three dimensions. and which. a theory whose fundamental property of a fourrayed pencil goes back to for the Pappos. leading contributors have been Ziegler (1843). nitudes. and numerous other generalizations of value to the elementary geometry of today. T. Vallee. At this period Monge by no means confined himself to the deSo marked were his labors in the analytic scriptive geometry. neither the theory nor the method employed have endured. Mathematical Papers of Chicago Congress (New York. Geometry of Position (Geometrie der Lage) has mon with Carnot's G6omtrie de Position. 188388) and Wiener (188487). rocal polars. but following rather the steps of Desargues and Pascal. this . gave some treat ment of ruled surfaces. H. though revived by Desargues. the general quadrilateral and quadrangle. Adhemar.ART. was set forth first time in its general form in Carnot's Geometrie de Position (1803). subsequent French contributors being Leroy (1842). and supplemented in his Thorie des TransIn these works he introduced negative magversales (1806). 1896). Anger (1858). 16. Monge's work appeared. Inspired by the general activity of the period. 1818. Hachette (1812. and extended the theory of polars to quadrics. and others. and curves In particular he investigated these relations as connected with the theory of transversals. * name of the The present little in com On recent development of graphic methods and the influence of Monge branch of mathematics. inspired by Monge's lectures Polytechnique.
and von due the theory of " figures homologiques. In this work was first made prominent the power of central projection in demonstration and the power of the His leading idea was the of projective properties." " function " (rapport anharmonique. the through principle of continuity." as he says. but under " " (ratio bisectionalis). surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les its origin is A miens propres. fact the theory attracted so little attention for over a century that prisoner generally ascribed to Poncelet. or fonction anharmonique) The name " is due to Chasles. "prive. and as a foundation principle he study introduced the anharmonic ratio. de secours. his application of Desargues's theory of polars. however. . confined at SaratofT on the Volga " de toute espece de livres et (181214). discovered what Salmon has called " the circular points at infinity. " To Poncelet is also " of Carnot's theory of transversals. Steiner.560 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. and the " cordes idales He also conies which Pliicker applied to curves of all orders. which principle of continuity in research. a DoppelschnittVerhaltniss in common use under Steiner's abbreviated form " anharmonic ratio or Doppelverhaltniss." he still had the vigor of spirit and the leisure to conceive the great work which he published (1822) eight years later. Newton had discovered that all curves of the third order can be derived by central But ill spite of this. and " crossratio was coined by Clifford. a concept. XL Projective Geometry had its origin somewhat later thart the period of Monge and Carnot. The anharmonic point and line properties of conies have been further elaborated by Brianchon." the perspective axis and perspective center (called by Chasles the axis and center of homology). [CHAP. an extension of Staudt. Brianchon (1806). made much use of the an harmonic the " name term now ratio in his Barycentrische Calciil (1827). in the Russian campaign. following Poncelet." thus completing and establishing the first great principle of modern geometry. projection from five fundamental types. Chasles. dates back to Pappos and which Desargues (1639) had alsoused. Mobius.
for 561 completed the foundation which Monge had begun let's Ponce (1829) theory of reciprocal polars. Chasles. pencils. in modern geometry. and Cayley. modern geometric and Viete had noticed principle he stated and to it a fundamental principle. but Steiner (1848) showed that this theory can serve as the foundation for the study of plane curves independently of the use of coordinates. has been greatly elaborated and has found its way of continuity. Gergonne was the first to use the word "class" in describing a curve.] MODERN GEOMETRY. and has recently been extended to mechanics by Genese. the most prominent geometers contemporary with Poncelet was Gergonne. explicitly defining class and between the two. This he gave the name which it now is bears. who with more propriety might be Among ranked as an analytic geometer. " in its He first (1813) used the term sense.. although Servois (1811) polar" " had used the expression pole. of polars of a point in regard to a curve had been theory studied by Bobillier and by Grassmann. the Principle of Duality. His treatment of duality and his application of the theory of projective The pencils to the generation of conies are masterpieces. and introduced those noteworthy curves covariant to a given curve which now bear the names of himself. into modern algebra and elementary geometry." He was also the first (1825 26) to grasp the idea that the parallelism which Maurolycus. etc. and hence with him opens the period of special study of curves and surfaces of higher order. 16. He practically closed the theory of conic sections. of the corre sponding figures in threedimensional space and of surfaces of the second order. after that This principle of geometthe discovery of which was also claimed by ric reciprocation. . Snell. complete discussion of the proand laid the foun dation for the subsequent development of pure geometry.ART. This whole subject has been extended by Grassmann. Hesse. Poncelet. He degree (order) and showing the duality and Chasles were among the first to study scientifically surfaces of higher order. Steiner (1832) gave the jective relations first between rows. the most important.
Vol. [CHAP. Steiner was the first to make prominent (1832) an example of correspondence of a more complicated nature than that of Poncelet. p. Largely through his* influence pure geometry again became a fruitful field.562 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. New York Mathematical Society. 185660) a complete. His Apercu Historique (1837) * s a classic. Projective properties foreign to became the modern times. and Jonquieres. Mobius. number of measurements are established independently of relations. to the Chasles. . Chasles was closing the geometric era opened in France by Monge. and Steiner were at work in Germany. projective geometry based on the group containing all the real projective and dualistic transformations. F. in graphic" and the complete exposition of the principle as applied to plane and solid figures. Steiner. Smith. Plucker. S. imaginary transformations A being also introduced. and those of Gudermann. Erlangen Programme of 1872. and His contributions. and Chasles had made their greatest contributions. Steiner school. While Mobius. as opposed to that of Plucker. pure geometric system in which metrical geometry finds no place. and H. Staudt began his labors after Plucker. and imaginary elements being systematically introduced from the geometric side. Magnus. Haskell's translation. number being drawn from geometry instead conversely. is developed. Townsend. geometry of the sphere were also noteworthy.. popularizing the researches of earlier geometry writers and contributing both to the theory and the nomenTo him is due the name " homoclature of the subject. a subject which has received attention in England at the hands of Salmon. but in spite of this Von seeming disadvantage he surpassed them all. Since his time the distinction between the metrical and projective theories has been to a great extent obliterated * the metrical properties * of Klein. and did for France what Salmon's works did for algebra and England. 215. J. Bulletin II. he Joining the greatest exponent of pure synthetic geometry of He set forth (1847. XL Cremona.
and Laisant and projective formulas and generalized figures have I. Art. but especially Hirst.] ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY. the circle at infinity common for all spheres. p.f already {1833). The definition of the sine and cosine and the systematic development of the theory on this basis. of certain formulas of spherical trigonometry.. In trigonometry the general substitution of ratios for lines in the definitions of functions has simplified the treatment. Halle. and others. the introduction of the Fourier series. 1881. 17. Lobachevsky The hyperbolic trigonometry. His elementary Leudesdorf's translation His'contributions to the theory of geometric transformations are valuable.ART. Die Lehre von den gewohnlichen und verallgemeinerten Hyperbelfunktionen. have been set forth by Cauchy (1821).* of trigonometric series. Philosophical Magazine. a pupil of Steiner's. further developed {1871). G. Houel. 17. 288. 563 being considered as projective relations to a fundamental conUnfiguration. etc. Vol. History. by Gudermann (1830). has been popularized and by series. and certain The convergence formulas have been improved and others added. . * Tod hunter. Townsend (1863). S. Chrystal. affected Trigonometry and Elementary Geometry have also been by the general mathematical spirit of the century. Algebra. and geometry. opened the subject of Clifford did much to make known the modern German theories. as also his works on familiar to English readers. 1873. f Gunther. besides himself contributing to the study of polars and the general theory of curves. and to Reye is due much of the popularity which now attends the subject. Elementary Geometry. fortunately von Staudt wrote in an unattractive style. II. In England Mulcahy. and the free use of the imaginary have already been mentioned. founded by Mayer and Lambert... surfaces. plane curves. Cremona began his publications work on projective geometry (1875) is in in 1862.
Mobius. J. Carnot. but none of these followed up the investigation. Mobius. the contributions of De Morgan to the logic of the subject the theory of transversals as worked out by Monge. Feuerbach (1822) soon after discovered the properties of the NinePoint Circle. D. and Macfarlane has generalized the fundamental theorem threedimensional space. these must be added the recent Geometry of the Tri now a prominent chapter in elementary mathematics. the theory of the radical axis. Mackay. adding the 17. so that a whole series of bodies have been . of trigonometry for Elementary Geometry has been even more affected. and Steiner came across some of the properties of the triangle. added to the four KeplerPoinsot regular solids and the researches of Muir on stellar polygons. and others. the theory of stellar polyhedra as worked out by Cauchy. of spherical trigonometry from the standpoint of the modern theory of functions and theory of groups. E\. Recently Study has investigated the formulas. various articles on modern geometry in Proceed ings Edinburgh Mathematical Society. angles. Cayley. and Steiner. Vigarie. p.and 257gon to the list below the . Bertrand. Smith.. Lemoine * (1873) was the first to take up the subject in a sys* Vol. . Biography of Lemoine. E. These and many other improvements now find more or less place in the textbooks of the day.. 1000gon . Hersel. Ill. various years. To angle. and others covered by . Brianchon. 29. notably by Gudermann. triangle. a property disthe Arabs. Poncelet. XL been introduced. [CHAP. Mathesis> and Proceedings of the Association francaise pour Tavancement des . Among the many contributions to the theory may be men tioned the following: That of Mobius on the opposite senses of lines. American Mathematical Monthly. Crelle (18 16) made some also investigations in this line. Servois. surfaces. Geometrie du Articles in recent numbers of Journal de Mathematiques speciales. but introduced as a definite concept by Gaultier (1813) and used by Steiner under the name of " line " of equal power the researches of Gauss concerning inscriptible polygons.564 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Hess. Chasles. S. as given by Gergonne and Poncelet . Wiener. and solids the principle of duality . Jacobi.
Loria. Das Problem Zirkels. New York Mathematical Society. Naturforschende Gesellschaft Vierteljahr f Stackel Archimedes. The American Mathematical Monthly. McClintock. Taylor. 565 tematic way. 144. The Emmerich.Euclidean Geometry. On Gegenwart. In recent years the ancient problems of trisecting an angle. subject. 1893. who gave the first theoretically exact method for drawing a Kempe and Sylvester have elaborated the straight line. doubling the cube. I. G. II. futile The NonEuclidean Geometry f is a natural result of the attempts which had been made from the time of Proklos the opening of the nineteenth century to prove the fifth postulate (also called the twelfth axiom. Non. Bolyai's work and his life. M.. and to Hoffmann's Zeitschrift. is also greatly indebted to Miller's work in The Educatheory tional Times. Longchamps. Brocard's con1877. 92. Articles on Parallels and Measurement in Encyclopaedia Britaneica. E. p. 1895. Nature. Vol. Bulletin of Geometrie vom Alterthum bis zur 9th edition.. M'Cay. NonEuclidean and Hyperspaces. Neuberg. p. tributions the geometry of the triangle began in Other prominent writers have been Tucker.. Vasiliev's address (German by Engel) also appears in the Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik... Rudio. Berlin. and sometimes the to * Klein. and he has contributed extensively to its de" velopment. Vol.. the early history of NonEuclidean Geometry. 1895. VortrEge iiber ausgew&hlten Fragen. His theory of transformation continue" and his *' " geometrographie to should also be mentioned. Vasiliev's address on Lobachevsky. American Journal of Mathematics. Vols. Halsted. F. II. various contributions: Bibliography of Hyperspace and NonEuclidean Geometry. . 18. 1892). A.Art. GeomeMathe matical Papers of Chicago Congress. F. Die hauptsachlichsten Theorien der Geometrie. p. Lambert. G. 45:404. 106 Karagiannides. Vigarie. Huygens. NonEuclidean Geom. Leipzig. 18.. B. von der Quadratur des schrift. Saccheri's try. and squaring the circle have all been settled by the proof of their insolubility through the use of compasses and straight edge. translations of Lobachevsky's Geometry.] noneuclidean geometry. I. 1890. Die Theorie der Parallellinien von Euklid bis auf Gauss. The study of linkages was opened by Peaucellier (1864). and H. Die Nichteuklidische . and Engel. Poincar6. Legendre (Leipzig.* Art.
were the object of much scrutiny and At the same time Gauss was giving attention to the attack.. a work which was not looked upon as a precursor of Lobachevsky. It was at postulate. coplanar and he contributed to the subject. however. in his Theorie der Parallellinien of many treatises on 1786). [CHAP. went to Kasan 1807. and Lobachevsky was his The latter's lecture notes show that Bartels never mentioned the subject of the fifth postulate to him. were made on his own motion and his results were wholly original. * Fink. in a general way. Legendre also worked in field. who was a fellow student of But it is now certain that Gauss can lay no claim to Gauss's. investigations. Early in 1826 he sent forth the principles of his famous doctrine of parallels. The first scientific investU gation of this part of the foundation of geometry was made by Saccheri (1733). until his death.566 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Leipzig. Kant als Mathematiker. validity of Euclid's postulate. his influence being exerted on Loba chevsky through his friend Bartels. and his assertion of the necessary postulates of geometry. so that his. Bartels pupil. . until Beltrami (1889) called Lambert was the next to question the attention to the fact. priority of discovery. The theory was published in full in 182930. E. although the influence of himself of Kant. one time surmised that Gauss was the real founder of the nonfifth Euclidean geometry. the During the closing years of the eighteenth century Kant's* doctrine of absolute space. the subject between the publication of Saccheri's work and those of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. 1889. the most important (posthumous. though on the side of proving it. and must have had in its effect. begun even before 1823. but failed to bring himself to view the matter outside the Euclidean limitations. and on Johann Bolyai through the father Wolfgang. based on the assumption that through a given point more than can be drawn which shall never meet a given line with it. as well as to other branches one line of mathematics. XL eleventh or thirteenth) of Euclid.
Frischauf (1872). see an by McClintock. de Tilly (1879) m Belgium. and Halsted (1878) in America. The world. Beltrami (1872) in Italy. as his recently recovered letters show. * For article an excellent summary II. Marie (1871) in France. Since 1880 the theory may be said to have become generally understood and accepted as legitimate. showing no trace of the LobachevskyBolyai idea. and suggested a surface of negative curvature. to writing in 1825 and published Gauss asserts in his correspondence with Schumacher (183132) that he had brought out a theory along the same lines as Lobachevsky and Bolyai. at When only twentyone he discovered. which Beltrami calls " pseudospherical. like that of his nephew nonEuclidean Taurinus (1825).] NONEUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY. . Houel and Flye St. They were committed 1832. of the results of the hypothesis. The NonEuclidian Geometry. Vol. in ber. the principles of nonEuclidean geometry.ART." thus leaving Euclid's schrift (1854) geometry on a surface of zero curvature midway between his He thus set forth three kinds of own and Lobachevsky 's. p. have been among the most active in making the subject popular. 18. 567 Johann Bolyai received through of the inspiration to original research which the latter Wolfgang. Bulletin of 1. Clifford in England. New York Mathematical Society. his father. and Baltzer (1877) in GerIndeed it many. Schweikart was also an independent discoverer of the geometry. some had received from Gauss. about the same time as Lobachevsky.* Of all scientific these contributions the most noteworthy from the In his Habilitationsstandpoint is that of Riemann. Riemann (1868). hypothesis was slowly accepted by the mathematical was about forty years after its publication that it began to attract any considerable attention. and refers to them in a letter of Novem1823. (1866) Helmholtz (1868). he applied the methods of analytic geometry to the theory. but he never published anything on the subject. his work on the theory of parallels (1807). but the publication of their works seems to have put an end to his investigations.
S. Lie. For a complete bibliography of recent schritte der works the reader should consult the Jahrbuch liber die FortMathematik.. 1895). Primer of the history of mathematics (London. A short account of the history of mathematics (London. 19. or the Revue Semestrielle. parabolic (Euclid's). Ball. Peirce. Killing. Newcomb. not already mentioned in the footnotes. W. including. imaginary. Lect. W. besides those already named. Bibliography.. it when question raised by Cayley's memoir as to how far projective geometry can be defined in terms of space without The the introduction of distance had already been discussed by von Staudt (1857) and has since been treated by Klein (1873) and by Lindemann (1876). tion of his " metrical and McClintock. real. and hyperbolic (Lobachevsky's). (1871) has called the elliptic (Riemann's). Mansion. Cayley. [CHAP. with the elliptic the limiting case between the two gives the parabolic (Euclidean) geometry. Evanston Lectures. geometry It remained identical with that of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. Ball. R. the Bibliotheca Mathematica. mentioned below. XI. Starting from this broader point of view* there have con tributed to the subject many of the leading mathematicians of the last quarter of a century. Art. History of the study of mathematics at Cam bridge (London. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik (Leipzig). 1889). These Klein geometry. Fiedler. W. when the geome Absolute try . thus simplifying Cayley's treatment and adding one of the most important results of the entire Cayley 's contribuwas not at once seen to be theory.. C. Ball. for Klein (1871) to show this. The following are a few of the general works on the history of mathematics in the nineteenth century. R. Klein. is Cayley's metrical formulas are. Bolyai having noted only two.568 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. identical with those of the hyperbolic is . 1893). W. " Pasch. * . W. R. IX. W. Klein.
Hermite. 1883. Vol... 183035. 1884). Grundziige der antiken und modernen Algebra der litteralen Gleichungen (Leipzig. Dupin. Isely.J bibliography. F. Inaugural address before the British Association. 491. BibFink. X. D'Ovidio. S. G. liography on p. C. 1876). Graf. Gunther. J.. Die Entwickelung der Mathematik in dem letzten Jahrhundert (Tubingen. Dictionary of National Biography. Hankel. S. A. 1877).. Geschichte der Mathematik in Deutschland (Munich. XXVIII. Vol. K. Geschichte der Mathematik und der NaturwissenAlso numerous bioschaften in bernischen Landen (Bern. Valuable on biographies of British mathematicians. 1868 to date). annually. 1894).Art... and others. Bulletin des Sciences mathematiques. Vermischte Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften (Leipzig. 19. Valuable biographical articles by Encyclopaedia Britannica.. Ch. 1890 (History of nineteenthcentury mathematics in France. Quarterly. d'ceil sur quelques progres des Sciences mathe matiques. H Nature. idme Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques (Paris. Hoefer. J. L. XI. 1835. Gerhardt. Coup 1889). Discours prononce devant le president de la republique le 5 aout 1889 a l'inauguration de la nouvelle Sorbonne.. Marie. F. Should be consulted for bibliography of current articles and works on history of mathematics. 1884). 1878). 597. Geschichte der Mathematik (Tubingen. .. Vols. graphical articles. Hagen. H. L. London. 1890). Ziele und Resultate der neueren mathematischhistorischen Forschung (Erlangen. Histoire des sciences mathematiques et physiques. Clerke. of Mathematics (New York. Ch. Enestrom. Comptes Rendus. Essai sur l'histoire des mathematiques dans la Suisse franchise (Neuchatel. Cayley. Matthiessen.. also Nature. J. p. . 1879). en France. Enrico. Two volumes (Berlin. not completed. Jahrbuch iiber die Fortschritte der Mathematik (Berlin..) p. 1876). Stockholm. 1890). XLI. Synopsis der hoheren Mathematik... Histoire des mathematiques (Paris. Uno sguardo alle origini ed alio sviluppo della Matematica Pura (Torino. 189193). Gunther.. History Cayley. 188788). Cajori. . M. Chrystal. Partie). 255. XII (Paris. H. G. 569 Bibliotheca Mathematica..
Vol.. Bulletin New Newcomb. Two volumes (Zurich.325 Poggendorff. p. S. Nature.. 1863). Nature. S. J. 1866).570 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Modern mathematics. J. XV. J. Proceedings of London Mathematical Society... Sciences mathematiques et physiques chez les Beiges au commencement du les XIX e siecle (Brussels. Modern mathematical thought. Revue semestrielle des publications mathematiques redigee sous auspices de la Societe mathematique d'Amsterdam. Mathematik und Physik. Biographischliterarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften. Smith. R. p. Quetelet.. Wolf. A. J. C. 1893 to date. York Mathematical Society. 1876. pp.. 1888. Vol. Address before the British Association. A. Mathematik The Leipzig. On the present state and prospects of some branches of pure mathematics. I. 1872). Two volumes (Leipzig. 261. Proceedings of the Irish (Current periodical literature. Handbuch der Mathematik. Academy.) Roberts. Vol. 79. 95. XI. 237. R. H. are supplements. Sylvester. 240. Vol. [CHAP. Ill. XLIX> P. p. Nature. Historischliterarische Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der For a biographical table of mathematicians see Fink's GeFor the names and positions schichte der Mathematik. Zeitschrift fur Abtheilung. of living mathematicians see the Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt> published at Strassburg! ..
72. 473. 46. 571 INDEX. Centroids. 549of a function. 443. 264. 399. factors. Array of determinant. 345. 36. 107. 392. Complex hyperbolic numbers. 262. 508. Abelian functions. 386. Analytic geometry. Alternating current. Conformal representation. roots. 31. of uniform strength. Cofactors in determinants. 251. integral. Composition of quantities. 439. 140. Addition of vectors. 327. 392. Conduction of heat. 456. functions. roots. 440. Bibliography. 22. Center and diameter. Binomial equations. 309. 213. Complete 362. 560. Associative law. page 545. 515. integrals. 16. Cauchy's expansion. 91. Combinatory multiplication. Binary forms. variable. no. 399. of rotations. 416. 14. 333. 552. 428. Approximation of Arched catenary. 3. Coaxial quaternions. Branch point. 252. Anharmonic ratio. Central axis. Conic ranges. 261. Bernoulli's theorem. 453. the. 463. Abel's quintic demonstration. 220. Commutative law. 236. 145. Conies. Combinations. 215. 359. 462. 138. 522. Automorphic functions. 53 r . Chance. 62.INDEX. Characteristic ratios in conies. 94. Complement. electromotiveforce. 153. Alternants. 147^ ' Adjustment of observations. 392. 479. 183. points on. 482. 224. 169. 228. 221. 493. 467. 52. the.. 512. 527. Absolute convergence. Calculus. 12. theorem. Axial projection. 568. Antihyperbolic functions. 442. 183. 549. 146. 324. of vectors. 226302. 219. Canonical forms. theorem. 531. 238. 517. Congruences. Algebraic equations. 416. 374424. 469. Clairaut's equation. Complementary function. 47. 520. Concurrent events. games of. 531. 556. Bessel's functions. Absolute. Catenary. 244. 513. 533. Ausdehnungslehre. 132. 426. Average error. of variations. 381. 5IQ. 116.
229. equations. 125. quintic. 554. 172. 452. no. 549. 148. 308. uniform. Equations. 267. 130. 535. Elementary functions. 107. 445. 278. 540. 526. theorem. 432. of roots. 322. Correlation. Differentiation. hyperbolic functions. Derivatives of complex functions. currents. Cooling of iron plate.57^ HIGHER MATHEMATICS. 331. 253. 34. 532. 298. 52. 303373. theory of. Convergence. equation of. Curvilinear integrals. 251. Continued fractions. Errors. Dirichlet's conditions. 531. Equilibrium of forces. 104. surfaces. Cross ratio. sectors of. Electric charges. . 476. 523. Doubly ruled surfaces. 172. 233 theory of. . of a group. 548. 107. Elliptic functions. 72. 123. Eliminant. 319. 82. floating. Exact differential equations. 58. geometry. Development of determinants. 445. 526. Continuity of functions. Conversion hyperbolic formulas. 17. 515. Eulerian integrals. 36. 392. Discriminant. 102. 230. 535solution of. in. 245. Discontinuous groups. Elements at infinity. 319. Conjugate functions. 177. Equation of energy. 291. 122. 426. De Moivre's formula. 408. projective generation of 86. Cosine series. 303373. 169. Essential singularity. 467507. 333. 192. 229. 515. motor. 198. Cut. Distributive law. Duality of plane and point. Cusp locus. 174. Elimination. Cylinder. Coplanar vectors. 298. Derivative equation. 3369. Energy. 544. Equipotential curves. 124. 519. Cosine series. 556. Envelopes. Cutting. 492. points. Conies. 250. 59. Differential calculus. Cubic equations. Determinant array. functional relations. Critical lines. 561. 564. 13. 440. Covariants. 74. 118. 9. Error function. 23. differential. 15. 529. 23. Flexure and tension. 54. 332. 13. 153. 317. 151. modular functions. Curves of second degree. 404. Descriptive geometry. regions. 49. Expansion of hyperbolic functions. no. Determinants. 120. Correspondence in conies. triangles of. gudermanians. principle of. 460. Direct probabilities. First integrals. 61. Consistence of equations. 72. 522. Dynamo. 96. 550. 274. 74. Exponential expressions. Ellipse. 132. 305. 120. Elastic catenary. functions. 332. 248. 192. Flotation of bodies. Deficiency curves. of series.
complex. Inversions in permutations. Groups. Jacobians. Howe truss strut problem. 525. 558. of equations. resultant of. 541. 359. Involution. 484. 35. 305. probability. 539. Icosahedron equation. 540. Harmonic analysis. Graphic representations. 267. 534. function. 60. 445. 565. Infinite series. Geometric applications. Grassmann's space analysis. in. Journals. 452. Galois's group theory. 227. 183. 509. Functions. Integral calculus. 248. 533. modern. mathematical. Games of chance. 404. 76106. functional relations. Heat conduction. 544. of hyperbolic functions. 430. 257. 169. tables of. Fourier's series. 325. 3. 531. Inner products. 366. 525. 128. descriptive. Forces. 357. 500. Integral. Fractions. representation. theory of. Hyperelliptic functions. point at. General integrals. 563. projective. 552. 522. 88. Gamma Imaginaries.INDEX. 524129. 348. 73. Hyperboloid of one nappe. Kern curve. 516. 573 174. 99. 168. functions. Homogeneous differential equations. 546. Irrational numbers. harmonic. 300. 247. elements at. 215. 227. 3 3~373 nonEuclidean. 107168. 34. 104. 12. hyperbolic. 37. paraboloid. 261. 521. continued. 77. Integrals. . determinantal. 311. Interpolated values. 100. 2. multiplication. 226302. Holomorphic function. 169220. 246. Gudermanian angle. 492. equilibrium of. 519. 342. Hypergeometric series. 194. linear equations. elliptic. 496. 530. Horner's method. 70. 21. 549. elements. Bessel's. Infinitesimal calculus. hyperbolic. 398. 107168. 256. 232. modern mathematics. Hessian curve. Intermediate differential equation. Hyperbolic functions. 135. 531. 374424. Fluid motion. Forms. with n values. Hyperdeterminants. functions. 169225. 488. 543. Irrotational motion. Infinity. symbols for. Hyperbola. analytic. of laws of errors. 483. Flux across a curve. 508570. 542. 132. 560. 503. 9. 284. curvilinear. 219. 273. 169225. 256. 558. 196. 390. 107. Inverse probabilities. 141. 88. elementary. 172. Graphs solution of equations. 401. Invariants. of a complex variable. onevalued function. elements. 497. Geometry. Interpolation formulas. 513. 543. 467. History of 555. magnetic. 514.
Logarithmic branch point. 449. 39. 29. history. 568. 151. 390. periodicals. Planes. 566. 170. 355. Primal forms. of. Mereomorphic function. theorem. 256. for vectors. 235. Minimum surfaces. 319. Magnification. Limiting values. Potential. 179. 34. 74. 535 Maclaurin's configuration. Loxodrome. Permutations. 564. Mathematicians. 317. 237. 547. 177. 503570. McClintock's method for equations. 87. Onevalued functions.3. 471. 32. discontinuity. 549. 35. 470. Metrical geometry. Plane perspective. Orders of determinants. 564. 172. Laws of error. 358. 233. functions. Pole and polar. Map drawing. 237. Point analysis. solution of equations. 271. . Periodicals. 150. 557. Matrix. series. Mathematical bibliography. 356. Lam 's series. Modern geometry. Literature. Mean error. expressions. Numerical equations. 427. errors 252. Periodic functions. 245. geometric. 76. 436. 43. Pliicker's equations. 509. 15. Laplace's equation. resolvent. 271. 413. tables. 559. 547. 104. 321. 550. 47. 508570. 413. 127. 548. 534. 169225. 499. Orthogonal trajectories. 337. 412. differential 326. Pencils. 10. 305. 278. 312. 561. 245. 227. Polystims. lines. Minor determinants. 569. equations. Magnetic flux. Monogenic function. 368. NonEuclidean geometry. Plane and point duality. 519. MittagLeffler's theorem. 229. Least squares. Notations for determinants. Locus. 221. 491. Polygons. for functions. 119. 543. 292. Mercator's projection. Polygrams. 374424. 71. 511. 375. 256. Points. 252. 104. 259. 203. Particular integral. Physics. functions. 226. Models. Newton's approximation rule. 56. 565. Polyhedra.574 Lagrange's equation. 390. 503. 336. Laurent's series. Modulus of integral. 65. sects. Planimetric products. of. sum of. at infinity. 74. 96. 513. Monge's equations. Omega functions. Multiplication. Modulus of 558. 338. 497. differential equations. Legendre's equation. 457. Numbers. vectors. 70. 556. 557. 321. Node locus. 550. Parallel lines. Linear algebraic equations. 60. 445. Observations. 392. 4^. 6. 509. 534. complex variable. 368. 104. 554. living. 568. Partial derivatives. HIGHER MATHEMATICS. sum of. 520. 367. mathematics. projective theory definition. 570. 40.
30. Surfaces. Projectivity. . 411. 15. of versors. Surveying problems. 174. 560. of vectors. 304. Primitive of differential. Quantics. 298. 271. 69. 22.238. 391. Taylor's. Seconddegree curves. 12. 169. 449. Products. 519. 520. Quadric surfaces. Resolvent equations. critical. 509. 236. geometry. of equations. Sextic resolvent. 274. Product of arrays. 232. quantities. Residues. 418. 132. Prime numbers. of forces. 520. trigonometric. Sphere. Simultaneous 327 differential equations. 317. 542. 493. 394. 72. Projective conic ranges. Spherical harmonics. 515. Reciprocal of vectors. 8. 467507. Quadrantal versors. 25. 392. 374424. 433. 457. 98. 520. 512. 282. 67. 98. Semiconvergent series. Substitutions. Rules for versors. of points. Resultant of equations v 59. 524. determinants. Fourier's. ruled. 410. 457. 23. 537. 512. Regula falsi. Space analysis. 435. Solution of equations. conformal representation. 19. 188. Laurent's. Singular solutions. 392. Scalar products. 61. 40. Sturm's theorem. 519. 213. 228. 429. 520. 410. 523. 17. 482. 528. for roots. of points. Sarrus's rule. Singularity. Separation of roots. Quadratic equations. Quaternions. Stirling's theorem. 273. essential. 244. 425. 27. 271' Maclaurin's. 432. Rotations. 390. 375. 446. 15. Roots of Bessel's functions. of vectors. 91. 517. 307. 16. versors. 520. 537. trigonometry. sextic. stereometric. 398. Projecting. 459. Quintic equations. 2. 550. Removal of terms. Raising the order. Reference systems. 17. conformal. 305. 342. 444. 394. Stereometric products. Probabilities. 320. 425466. 458. graphic. 386. 494. 542. geometric. Resultant error. Reciprocity. in rectangle. 463. 247. 269. 13. 42. 80. 512. 21. 68. Regions. Sum and difference formulas. Sine series. planimetric. of variables. n. 82. Rows and columns. 56. of sects. Representation. Schools of mathematics. Ruled quadric surfaces. 575 225. of determinants. 116. 8. complex. 80. of unity. 457. depth of immersion. 5. Quantity. Series. 244. convergence of. 55. 410. 132. 253. 70106. Probable error. 375. 534. Stream function. 433.INDEX. Quartic equations. Rectangle inscribed 20. infinite. 390. linear equations. 98.
Symmetric functions. 447. 318. 20$ Theta functions. Uniform strength. 412. 552. 494. Water 151. Ternary forms. 533. 222.57o* HIGHER MATHEMATICS. 457. 541. of functions. 484. quantities. 269. of values of Jo{xi) 225. 511. 493. of gudermanians. 467507. products. 548. 306. Theory of errors. 564. series. points. 325. Tac locus. 160168. 325. of combinations. 147. 177. of surface zonal harmonics. 13. Taylor's series. 174. 533. Transcendent equations. pipe. of roots of Bessel's functions. Zonal harmonics. formulas. theorem. Tractory. y Versors. Zero determinants. in catenary. 477. Variations. 374466. 24. . 378. 208. of hyperbolic functions. Symbolic methods. 297. 62. Tension and flexure. 503. Tabular values. of probability integral. 509. 14. 146. game Tetrahedra. Uniform convergence. geometry of. Synectic function. Weierstrass's ^function. Synthetic geometry. IIS functions. Triangle. 149. calculus of. 455. 224. of differential 349 numbers. 422. of permutations. 226. Trajectories. 425466. solution of equations. 543. Typical errors. Trigonometry. 168. Tables of Bessel's functions. 138. 475. 471. Systems of curves. 51. method of Sylvester's '63. 523. 225. 559. 333. 256. 518. 538. of numbers. 434. 287. 274. catenary of. Torque. Vector analysis. Trigonometric 513. 212. elimination. of. 169. 546. 202. equations. 222. 200. Weighted Whist.
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17Jun'54TFU REC'D LD MAYg JUN111954LU lQNov'5Q ntnl f ^ 'B46PMJ 3Jaa'65P8 REC'D LD JUN 4 '65 9 AM LD 21100m9. DUE on 50C5 Ktt U DEC 10 iJ 2^V 1962 I Apf*64WF REC'D LD Mar'SOHl APR 2l '64 10 AM 22Nlay'64DW i0 s tfW >*. the last date stamped below.UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY BERKELEY Return This book is to desk from which borrowed.'47(A5702sl6)476 OCT 2 1 200B .
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