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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLEMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF B.Tech.

IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING FROM N.C.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KURUSHETRA UNIVERSITY SESSION- 2004-2007 SUBMITTED TO N.C.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ISRANA , PANIPAT PREPARED BY: MANNU BAWEJA ROLL NO. 1504521
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Submitted by: VINITA BHATIA (1103116) DEPT. OF COMPUTER SCIENCE MMEC, MULLANA KU (KURUKSHETRA)
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CAN WORDS EXPRESS THE HEART FELT FEELING AND GRATITUTES. BUT WORDS ARE TOO WEAK TO MOULD THE EXPRESSION OF ONES FEELINGS AS THE INTENSITY OF MY SENTIMENTS DEPENDS, I FIND NO WORDS AND FALL NO EXPRESS THEN BETTER WORDS THAN THANKS. AN ESPECIALLY VALUABLE ASSET TO ME WAS MY ASSOCIATION WITH MR. SANJAY JOSHI SDO AT BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LTD., PANIPAT FOR THEIR ENDLESS HELP DURING THIS TRAINING PERIOD.

SANJAY JOSHI SDO Panipat.

SUBMITTED BY:
VINITA BHATIA

CONTENTS
1. ACKNOWLEGEMENT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME 4. POWER SUPPLY UNIT 5. E 10-B EXCHANGE 6. 7. 8. ORGAN CONTROLLED BINARY EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION MEDIA WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP 9. CONCLUSION
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In every step of achieving any success & goal there is a need of guidance, inspiration and help. For the inspiration part of my work, I express my deep & sincere gratitude to those who made it possible to see the light of the day. I am gratified to admit my heartedly thanks to Mr. Ramesh Chandar (H.O.D) & staff members of their grandness to have kindly given me the golden opportunity of availing the Electronics facilities at H.P.G.C.L. Panipat. I am also thankful to all my friends for their co-operation. The whole & report is the result of encouragement, inspection, moral spot & co-operation of my parents, our H.O.D., principle & teaching staff.

BSNL is one of the most leading companies engaged in providing Telephone services to various subscribers in many cities all over the country. One of the exchanges working under BSNL is situated at Panipat with its secondary switching area (SSA) at Karnal. The exchange is well equipped with the two types of Elect. Exchanges E10B, OCB & WLL. The lines of the whole Panipat City are distributed among main exchange Remote Logic Unit & Remote Switch Unit. The total capacity of all the three is approx. 63000 lines. The various functional units of main exchange are

Main Distribution Frame Switching Unit Power Plant Media


All the units are functioning regularly & properly to satisfy all the needs of the subscriber.

BLOCK DIAGRAM for General Exchange connectivity: -

Caller Subscriber

P I L L E R

MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME

MEDIA
Destination Subscriber

EXCHANGE

The block Diagram representing whole working of Telecom system.

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MDF serves the following purposes: It is a place where both external & internal cables terminate. The external individual cable conductor carry conductors from the subscriber who are necessarily from the same location & as such there number cant be in the proper numerical order. On the other hand, the internal cable conductor from apparatus in the numerical order. The cross connection between the two cable connectors is done on the MDF & this is done by the means of jumper wires. It carries all the protectors used in exchange. The different protectors used in exchange are: a) Fuses b) Heat Coils c) Lightening Protectors The fuses prevent heavy current flowing into the apparatus & save from being damaged. This heavy current may be due to connection of telephone line with power line or some other causes. These fuses are generally rated for 1A or 3A. If due to some fault in the circuit, an appreciable amount of current flows through the exchange, that may not blow out the fuse: but much heat will be produced & there is a risk of firing taking inside the exchange. In order to save the exchange from such risk, heat coils are used. These are generally rated for 3A for 3 minutes. Lightening protectors are used to save the exchange equipment from high voltage that is induced in the lines due to lightening discharge. MDF is the most suitable place for the testing purposes. Both the internal & external cables are available at this frame & therefore both external & internal wiring or equipments can be tested for this purpose. Drop wire originated from subscriber location terminates at the pillar & through the distribution point (DP), it reaches the MDF where it is being connected to the main line through jumper wires.

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Protectors are inserted in such a way that when a testing plug is inserted, the external & internal lines are disconnected & separated out this point & so both can be tested separately from same point. Locating A line In MDF In an exchange each line is assigned: 1. Equipment No. NE 2. Main Distribution Frame Number

MDF No.

All the faults external or internal in a line are tested & corrected by knowing its NE & MDF no. Locating Ne for A Particular Line: NE is assigned to each line specifying the location of that particular line in the exchange. RACKS: Racks are generally made up of angle iron & a number of horizontal are fixed on racks Of 86 or 106 height. & Switches in different rows & shelves are fixed on them. Racks in an exchange are numbered as 1,2,3 or A, B, C. SHELVES: Each rack is divided into no of shelves. In an OCB exchange each rack is divided into 28 shelves. These shelves are numbered from 0 to 127. Therefore, each has the capacity of 128 circuits. The counting of these is done horizontally on the shelf. Each point specifies the location of a particular line where the conductor of line coming from exchange terminates. The above fig. Shows 9 shelves for rack no. 1 & each shelf contain 128 points. NE is represented as a rack no. -shelf no. On that rack point on the particular rack and shelf. Example-1-14-128 specifies no. 128 on shelf 14 of rack no. 1.
128 (0-127) 128 (0-127)
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128 (0-127)

1-2
128 (0-127)

1-1
128 (0-127)

1-0
128 (0-127)

1-5
128 (0-127)

1-4
128 (0-127)

1-3
128 (0-127)

1-8

1-7

1-6

LOCATING A PARTICULAR MDF NO. MDF no. Gives the location of particular line on the MDF. All the external cables laid under the earth terminate at the MDF. Thus all the external faults are tested on MDF.MDF is divided into racks which is further divided into blocks each tag lock has the capacity of 100 lines, it means the 100 conductors of different external line side can be connected at the tag block. Each rack in the MDF contains 15 tag blocks each having the capacity of 100 lines. MDF no. is represented as rack no. Tag block no. Point no. On that block & rack. E.g. 641/75 represents 64-rack no., tag block no. 1 & point no. 75. The internal & external cables are connected through jumper wires or in the same way NE & MDF are connected through jumper wires.

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All the switches and relay require electric current for their operations & the switches of the automatic exchange consume large amt. of power This power can be easily supplied from electric mains supply. But in case of failure of main there will be complete breakdown of telephone services. Telephony however is a very important service &
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its importance increases at the time of emergencies like failure of main supply. The OCB Exchange requires 52v-uninterrupted DC & is operated at negative potential. Thus the high potential wire acts as ground & the low potential wire is connected to the equipment. The fuses are also connected to the negative terminal for the protection purposes.To provide uninterrupted power supply, the power supply consists of: Battery Unit Float Unit Generator Unit

BATTERY UNIT: The Battery unit consists of two sets of batteries: I. Main battery Set II. Standby Battery Set The batteries used are maintenance free batteries and each set generates the power of 5000AH. i. E. 500A of current can be drawn from each set of batteries for 10 hours. The current capacity is made 5000AH by connecting two 2500AH batteries in parallel. 24 Cells of same current capacity are connected in series & each cell has terminal potential difference of 2.2V.Thus a total of 24X2.2=52V dc can be obtained at the output terminals of one battery set. The Total load current is drawn from the batteries in case of failure both mains & generator.

Charging Of Batteries:

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Float rectifiers are constantly charging the two sets of batteries. During charging of batteries, following precautions is necessarily o be taken: 1. Supply from each battery to be charged must be D.C. If it is AC It must be converted to D.C. by rectifiers for charging purpose. 2. Supply D.C. voltage must be higher than the total voltage of batteries to be charged up: otherwise batteries will get discharge instead of being charged up. 3. +Ve terminal of batteries must be connected to the +ve terminal of mains. Otherwise the large amt. of discharging current may flow into mains supply. 4. Charging current has to be adjusted to the rate value by means to rheostat or otherwise. 5. Overcharging & undercharging must be avoided. The total load current is supplied by the generator or the rectifier supply & the battery which always remain charged, supplies load current in case of failure of both mains & generator. Float Unit: The float unit consists of two numbers of float rectifiers (FR), one switching cubicle & one float cum battery charger (FCBC). These are the DC power resources supplying power to various telephony equipment. Float Rectifiers: These are used to convert AC input to DC output. As the constant voltage is required for the working of the exchange equipments, therefore the presence of the float rectifiers are must. It basically, consists of a step down t/f & a rectifier. The three-phase I/p voltage (440V) is stepped down & then converted into 52V DC by means of rectifier. There are two float connected in parallel & the load current is equally among the two. Each rectifier converts 440V AC to 52V D.C. By connecting two float rectifiers in parallel, each giving the O/P of 52V, The current capacity can be increased at the constant voltage of 52V. The o/p of float Rectifier is supplied to the load through cubicle.

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Similarly, both the batteries & load are connected to the switching cubicle. FCBC derive power from the mains & deliver filtered DC to the load. It also charges the battery, depending upon the position of function selector switch. In one position, it charges the battery shown by BC & in other position is supplies uninterrupted Dc to the load. GENERATOR UNIT: In case of the failure of the mains, the generator unit is supplying the load current. It supplies 440V to the floats the time during which mains are failed & the generator set is kept off, the batteries supply the load current.

BATTERY GENERATOR FLOAT RECTIFIER LOAD

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INTRODUCTION : Now days, digital switching is no more a matter to doubt about, as the best answer to modern telecommunication damned. ITI LTD. Mankapur started a set up to manufacture a large switching system E10B in collaboration with CIT ALCATEL in 1983-84. The production started in year 1985. This exchange is based on the philosophy of telephone networks, adopting digital time division techniques, with an integrated approach to principle components of telecommunications networks switching, transmission and operation and maintenance. Although significant progress has been made as regards performance, capacity and technology, the ground philosophy of E-10B system remains unchanged as obtained from CIT-ALCATEL. Stored program control. Digital code modulation. Pulse code modulation. Segregation between switching and monitoring functions. Distributed switching control using microprocessors. Centralized management and supervision function. The E-10B system has been developed in terms of an integrated telephone network, rather than in terms of individual telephone exchanges. It shares two fundamental principles with the original platon exchange: Use of digital PCM techniques. Separation of the switching functions. An E-10B switching center can be divided into three main blocks: Block 1: Subscriber and circuit connections. Block 2:Time-division switch network. Block 3: Control unit. The operation and maintenance center constitutes a fourth block, which is shared by a number of switching controls. CONTROL UNITS The control units are partly based on dedicatedmicro-computers, and are used to carry out all the switching operations required to set up and release connections between subscriber and/or trunk circuits.
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These dedicated units comprsies:The multiregister(MR) Translators (TR) Charging units(TX) Markers (MQ) Monitoring unit(OC) Standby charge recording unit(DSF) The control units of an E-10B exchange are built up from standard items of equipment, as shown in the following:Standard logic equipment (ELS). Microprogrammed computation unit. MULTIREGISTER(MR) The multiregister receives the new call & allots a free register to handle the call. the multiregister must know whether calling party is connected to the CSE or URM & whether dialing is permitted on it. TRANSLATOR(TR) The TR retrieves this info. from its files & sends the same to MR on LM links. It has two unit, out of which one remains standby. MONITORING UNIT(OC) The monitoring unit is one of the control units of an E-10B exchange , and provides an interface between the operation and maintainance center (OMC) and the units of each E-10B exchange connected to the OMC , using themessage transmission equipment(ETM). The monitoring unit handles the transfer of message between the operation and maintance center (OMC) and the units ineach exchange .it has the acess to all the units of exchange. FUNCTIONS Operating messages (subscriber line creation , circuit creation etc). Unit positioning messages. Maintance messages Control messages addressedto test modules. Messages from exchange units to OMC.
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Detailed billing and traffic observation messages . Answer messages. Fault messages. Messages specifying the number of calls in progess for each type of traffic. Constant or temporary observation messages . Routine test messages. An auxillary memory. STANDBY CHARGE RECORDING UNIT The standby charge recording unit is connected to the control unit communication bus. It communicates with all other control units and with the monitoring unit. Each exchange comprsies a single stand by charge recording unit. MAIN FUNCTIONS In the normal operation , charginf and traffic observation messages are sent from the charging units to the OMC , via the monitoring unit . in theevent of faliure of the OMC or interruption of the links between the OMC and monitoring unit , the standby charge recording unit (dsf) in the exchange provides the following functions:On its own initiative, it records traffic observations and charging messages on to magnectic tape. CHARGING UNIT (TX) The charging unit handles subscribers line accounts, computes the number of basic metered units, chargeable for a given telephone call and outputs detailed billing data for subscriber entitled to this service. Charging unit are initiated by the multiregisters. At start of each call on receiving instruction from MR, the charging unit seeks and assign a charging meter. The charging unit is a control unit which is connected to the switching network, the multiplex connection units, the multiregisters, the stand by charge recording unit, and the OMC via the monitoring unit. Each E-10B exchange includes two charging units operating on a load-sharing basis generates the data required for the invoicing subscribers. Each charging unit occupies one standard rack. MAIN FUNCTIONS It receives charge-metering pulses from trunk circuits.
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It orders signals transmission where required. It sends detailed billing messages and observation messages to stand by charge recording unit DSF when the OMC is down or unavailable. It sends subscribers meter reading (periodically demanded by OMC), detailed messages and traffic observation messages to OMC. It stores traffic observation data. Each charging unit can be configured as follows: 1000 charging registers of 512 bits or 2000 charging registers of 256 bits or a combination of 256 and 512 bits charging registers. Each register unit can, therefore, handle upto 2000 calls. MARKER (MQ) The marker is one of the control units of an E-10B exchange connected to the other units, the switching network and the subscriber and multiplex connection units. The marker is responsible for routing the principal switching messages between the various units of an exchange. Each E-10B exchange includes two markers operating on a load-sharing basis. Two markers handle the routing between the various units within exchange. MAIN FUNCTIONS: Receives new call, subscriber and trunk circuit on-hook indication from the connection unit. Sends to the connection unit requests for: I. Subscriber and auxiliary equipment tests. II. Controlled stop and start surveillance of subscriber calls and trunk circuits. III. Interrogation of subscriber, trunk circuit or auxiliary equipment. Receives from the multiregisters, for sending to the switching network, commands for setting up connections, releasing connections and sending out tones. Interrogates the switching network to obtain addresses of the calling parties. Send messages to and receives messages from OMC.

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The switching network control unit (UGCX) which is connected to the exchanger and provides the interface between the marker and the access links to the switching network. CONNECTING UNITS These units play the most important role while combining with one part of the exchange to the other. Connecting units consists of following racks: Announcement & Tone Generation(ETA) Distant End Connection(URM) Announcement Rack(BDA) Announcement & Tone Generation (ETA): It provides fast dialing & tone generation. Among the number of subscribers only a limited subscriber get this facility. It checks that RF is free & informs to MQ the number of available party. In push button telephone, the ETA converts different codes into Binary Coded Decimal signals & sends them to MR. Distant End Connection (URM): It checks the availability of free ckt. In the wanted direction & it informs the MQ, the availability of free ckt. On LU link. This rack uses two logics-logic1 & logic 0. At a time only one unit works. It has 32 PCM where each PCM connects 30 subscriber at a time. Corresponding to each PCM there is a single connectivity rack, which is used for testing through inner or outer looping. Announcement Rack (BDA): In BDA there are 16 channels are provided for the messages. Out of which 14 are permanent & two are temporary. The are used for day to day different messages. Such as vande matram on 15the August & 26 Jan. It requires +5V & 12V-power supply. It provides facility for recording messages either from tape or from mic. Switching Network The time division switching network is a 3-stage system .it provides 4-wire switching between time slot allocated to the calling party and time slot allocated to called party. When the ultimate capacity is reached, the e-10b switching network can handle 384 pcmsystem, 16

1) 2) 3)

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of Which can be allocated to ETA .the remaining 368 PCM provides 368*30=11,040 time slots catering for 5,520 simultaneous calls. OPERATION AND MAINTANCE CENTER(OMC) The management functions in an E-10B exchange are carried out at the operation and maintance center using a non dedicated generakl purpose MITRA. Computer. This computeris connectedto E-10B exchange through PCM links . a number of exchanges can be managed by a single OMC . The OMC can either in the same building or in a separate distant building. This feature provides flexibilty of managing a number of exchanges by common staff posted in OMC. The management functions in an exchanges are further divided into two main categories. OPERATIONS Creation of a new subscriber. Delection of existing subscriber. Modification of subscribers line e.g STD barring , STD restoring pushbutton telephone set and other additional facilities. Creation or deletion of routes , codesetc. Traffic observation. Calender management , charging management Preparing memory back up tapes. Software madifications for expansion activities. BASIC CONFIGURATION OF OMC OMC conprsies of following main components: CPU. MAIN MEMORY. DISKS UD-50 OR UD-80. MAGNETIC TAPE UNITS.(MAX. FOUR) MAE, TTYs, HIGH SPEED PRINTER AND VDU. PRINCIPAL FEATURES CAPACITY MAX. NUMBER OF PCM LINKS PROCESSING CAPACITY TRAFFIC HANDLING CAPACITY
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1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

: : :

384 190,000 BHCA 4,000 ERALANGS

TRANSIT EXCHANGE LOCAL SUB EXCHANGE SUBSCRIBER

: : :

11,040 CIRCUITS 45,000 5000 CCTS

SYSTEM Time division switching-using 30 chls PCM technique. Stored program control(SPC)-with distributed logic i.e each unit has its own processor (INTEL-8085) Segregation of switching &maintance functions-Mangagement functions are carried out by a general purpose MITRA-225 computer from OMC. Subscriber connection units can be placed at a remote place also. Equipmaent placed on raised floor and cool air blown from below racks. SUBSCRIBER LINE Maximum loop resistance including telephone set 2500 ohms. Accepts both rotary dial&MF push button dialling. Ringing current 75V,25or 50 HZ. ENVIORNMENTAL CONDITIONS EXCHANGE Ambient temperature of air blon into racks-18 to 20 degree celcius. Relative humidity-30 to 70% RLU Ambient temperature-15 to 28 degree celcius. Relative himidity-40 to 70% OMC Ambient temperature-15 to 28 degree celcius. Relative humidity-40 to 70% FLOOR AREA 45000 lines exchange-154 meter square 11,040 circuit exchange-90 meter square MECHANICAL DATA

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Rack dimension 2m*0.75m*0.5m Distributed floor loading (less than 500 kg/meter square) POWER SUPPLY Exchange & RLU works on 48V d.c supply OMC works on 220V,50HZ AC supply obtained from two 6 KVA inverters.

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(OCB-283) DIGITAL TIME DIVISION SWITCHING EXCHANGE


GENERAL : OCB-283 is a digital switching system designed by Alcatel CIT at France, the company that earlier designed E-10B switching system. This system has vast improvement over E-10B and has many additional features. OCB-283 along with subscriber connection unit (CSN) is known as Alcatel 1000 E-10B system. Like E-10B, OCB-283 is also entering Indian Telecom network in big way. SALIENT FEATURES 1) It is a digital switching system with single time stage, T, which enables up to 2048 PCMs to be connected. 2) Both analog and digital subscriber can be connected to the system. 3) The system has double remoting feature. A subscriber access unit can be placed at a remote location from the main exchange. From this remote subscriber access unit a concentration can be connected which can be placed at further remote location. 4) The system has automatic recovery feature; when a control unit goes faulty; the OM unit automatically loads the s/w of this control unit in a back up station and brings it to service. Automatic locavar is run on the faulty unit and diagnostic is printed on a terminal. 5) The system can handle circuits with all types of signaling viz. decadic, MF (R2), CCS7 etc. 6) It can provide telephony, ISDN, data; cellular radio and other value added services. 7) The system can handle 8,00,000 BHCA & 25,000 erlangs traffic, a maximum of 2,00,000 subscriber or 60,000 circuits can be connected. 8) The environmental requirements of the system are very flexible. It can operate virtually in any climate. The normal operating temperature is 22 C but it can also operate at any temperature from 5 to 45C. 9) It has modular structure units can be loaded on the same station depending on requirement. 10) The system has only 35 types of cards (excluding CSN). This feature greatly reduces the no. Of spare cards to be kept for
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11)

maintenance. The disk has a huge capacity of 1.2-G bytes. The detail billing and traffic observation data are stored on the disk and then they are transferred on to magnetic tape for processing. The charge account of the subscriber is automatically saved on the disk by the system. This avoids loss of charge information in the event of total failure.

SERVICES PROVIDED The telephone calls from or to the national and international public switched telephone network. It also transfers the data between its ISDN subscribers as well as to and from the packet switched network. These calls include: Local calls (private, public) Regional calls: outgoing, incoming, transit. National calls: outgoing, incoming, transit. International calls: outgoing or incoming. Manual calls (operator assisted): outgoing, incoming. Outgoing calls to special services. Test calls. Facilitates provided by OCB-283 OCB-283 provides all the facilities provided by E-10B like hot line, call waiting, short code dialing, and conferencing, wake up call, detail billing etc. In addition, it provides following facilities for the digital subscriber: Analog subscriber facilities Denied origination or denied termination lines (I/C only or O/G only) Hot lines Charge free lines Immediate routing lines Call waiting indication Last number repetition Three way conference Short code dialing Call forwarding
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Diversion or absent subscriber service Wake up-call Outgoing access restriction (permanent or request) Terminal portability during call One to four figure sub address Direct dialing in with destination number Calling parity identification

Operation/Maintenance functions:
Management/Supervision of incidents: Monitoring following complaint, automatic testing of lines and of circuits, display of alarms, precise location of faults, calls statistics, intelligent terminal operation. Supervision of operation: Subscriber file, groups, additional services, subscriber equipment, exchange command, translation, routing, charging No. 7 signaling. Management of charges and of deductions: LAMA/CAMA, domestic meters, detailed billing, centralized of accounts, coins box, time zones, etc. Monitoring of exchange performance: Result of metering (traffic, subscriber lines, metering pulse, translation, call timers and event meters), consistency of charging data. Security mechanism: Passwords for workstations and for the operator, non-authorized entry detection. LAMA: Local Automatic Message Accounting. CAMA: Centralized Automatic Message Accounting. General Performance Data Performance of any switching system is highly dependent on its environment (call mix, conditions of operation). The capacities given below are given for information purposes, based on an average reference environment. The connection capacity of the switching matrix ranges up to 2048 PCM. Which permits: 1) Up to 25,000 Erlangs to be handled (on CCITT B load (Q 543)). 2) Up to 200,000 subscriber to be connected. 3) Up to 60,000 circuits to be connected.
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In addition, the system possesses sophisticated regulation mechanisms, which makes it possible to avoid saturation in the event of an exceptional overload. These mechanisms, which are distributed at the level of each system resources, are based on metering of the number of calls presented and accepted, and also on observations of processors load (occupancy rate, number of items in queue).

OCB-283 Functional architecture


a) Time base (BT) The BT ensures time distribution for LR and PCM to provide the synchronization, and also for working out the exchange clock. Time generation can be either autonomous or slaved to an external rhythm with a view to synchronies the system with the network. b) PCM controller (URM) The URM provides the interface between external PCMs and the OCB-283.These PCM come from either: 1) A remote subscriber digital access unit (CSN) or from a remote electronic satellite concentrator CSE. 2) Another switching center, on channel-associated signaling or CCITT No. 7 3) The digital recorded announcement equipment. c) Auxiliary equipment manager (ETA) The ETA supports: 1) The tone generators (GT). 2) The frequency receiving and generation (RGF) devices, 3) Conference circuits (CCF), 4) The exchange clock. d) Call handler (MR) The MR is the responsible for the establishment and breaking off of communications. The call handler takes the decisions for processing of communications in terms of the signaling received, after consultation of the subscriber and analyzing data base manager (TR) if necessary. The call handler processing new calls and hanging-up operators, release equipment, commands switching on and switching off etc. In addition, the call handler is responsible for different management tasks (control of tests of circuits, sundry observations).

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e) Subscriber and analysis database manager (TR) (TRANSLATOR) The TR function carries out management of the analysis, subscriber and circuit groups database. The TR supplies the call handler on request from it, with subscriber and circuits characteristics necessary for establishment and breaking off communications. The TR also ensures match between dialing received and the addresses of circuit groups or subscribers (pre-analysis, analysis, translation function). f) Call charging and traffic measurement (TX) The TX function carries out charging for communications. TX is responsible for: 1) Calculating the amount to be charged for each communication 2) Keeping the charge account of each subscriber served by the switching center 3) Supplying the necessary information for drawing up detailed billing, on line to the OM. On addition, TX carries out tasks of observation of circuits and subscribers. g) Matrix handler system (GX) 1) The GX function is responsible for processing and for defence of connection on receipts of: 2) Requests for connection or disconnection coming from call handler (MR) or message distribution functions (MQ). 3) Connection faults signaled by the matrix switch controller function (COM). In addition, the GX caries out monitoring of certain links of the connection central subsystem, periodically or on request from certain links. h) Message distributor (MQ) The MQ function is responsible for all distribution and formatting of certain internal messages but, above all, it carries out: 1) Supervision of semi-permanent connection (data links) 2) Transmission of messages between the communication multiplexes (gateway function).

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i) Communication multiplex One to five communication multiplexes are used to transmit messages from one station to another. This transfer of messages is carried by only one type of medium, the TOKEN RING, with a unique protocol, which is processed in accordance with IEEE 802.5 standard. From 1 to 4 station Access Multiplexes (MAS) for interchanges between the connections functions (URM, COM, ETA, and PUPE) and the command functions.

j) Operation and maintenance function (OM)


The function of the operation and maintenance subsystem is carried out by Operation and maintenance software (OM). The operating authority accesses all hardware and software equipment of the Alcatel 1000 E 10 system via computers terminals belonging to the operation and maintenance subsystem: consoles, magnetic media, intelligent terminal. These functions can be grouped into 2 categories: Operation of the telephone application, Operation and maintenance of the system. In addition, the operation and maintenance subsystem carries out: 1) Loading of data and software and data for connection and command and for the subscriber digital access units, 2) Temporary backup of detailed billing information, 3) Centralization of alarm data coming from connection and control stations, via alarms rings, Finally, the operation and maintenance subsystem permits the two-way communication with operation and maintenance networks, at regional or national level (TMN). HARDWARE ARCHETECTURE Control units are built in a round multiprocessor multi-coupler hardware structure known as control station. These control stations has there own operating software, which manages the multiprocessor environment. Depending upon the requirement and application, software of any one or more than one functional units can be loaded on this station. For example, a station can function as only MR for a large exchange or as MR, TR, TX, MQ, & PC for small configurations. This eliminates the need of different types of hardware for different units. The SMM or the OMC is also implemented on one such control station,
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1) 2)

which eliminates the need of separate computer for OMC. As can be seen from the figure, the CSNL, SMT & SMA are connected SMX through PCM links known as LR links. The interaction between SMT, SMA and SMC takes place through token rings known as MAS. The number of MAS ring varies as per exchange configuration. The interchanges of messages between CSNL and other units take place through local version CCS 7 on signaling links through SMX, which are set up at the time of commissioning. The messages from CSNL (or CSND through SMT) are first send to PU/PE (in SMA rack) and from there to MR etc. on MAS token ring.
CSNL
SMT
1 to 28 x

SMX

STS 1x3

SMA 2 to 37

1 to 4 MAS
SMC MAIN CONTROL STATION SMA AUXILLARY EQUIPMENT CONTROL STATION SMT TRUNK CONTROL STATION SMX MATRIX CONTROL STATION SMM MAINTENANCE STATION STA SYNCHRONIZATION AND TIME BASE STATION
SMC
2 to 14

1 MIS

SMM 1x 2

AL

TMN

All SMCs and SMM are connected on token ring MIS, which supports interchanges of messages between SMCs and SMM and other units. Time base is by STS and connected to MCX from where it is further distributed to other units as required.

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1. MAIN CONTROL STATION (SMC) a) Role of Main Control Station The role of main control station (SMC) supports the following functions: MR (Call handler): call processing, TR (Translator): database, TX (Charging): charging for communications, MQ (Message distributor): message distribution, GX (matrix system handler): management of connections, PC (CCS 7 controller): signaling networks management. According to the configuration and the traffic to be handled, one or more of this function may be the same Main Control Station. b) Location of main control station The main control station is linked to the following communication media: The interstation multiplex (MIS): it carries out interchanges of information with the other main control station (SMC) and with the SMM station, The main control station access multiplexes (MAS) to 4:they carry out interchanges of information with the auxiliary equipment control (SMA), trunk control station (SMT), and matrix control station (SMX) connected on those multiplexes, The alarm multiplexes (MAL): this transmits power alarm from the station to the SMM station.
2.

AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT STATION (SMA)


a) Role of Auxiliary Equipment Station (SMA)

The auxiliary equipment control station supports the following functions: ETA: Auxiliary Equipment Manager: management of tones and auxiliaries, According to the configuration and the traffic to be handled, one SMA can support an auxiliary equipment manager software machine (ETA), a CCS 7 protocol handler software machine (PUPE), or both. The auxiliary equipment control station contains auxiliaries from the OCB-283 exchange. These are: 34


a)

Frequency receiver/generators, Conference circuits, Tone generators, Clock management, Location of Auxiliary Equipment Control Station (SMA) The Auxiliary Equipment Control Station is linked to: The connection network by a set of matrix links, which carry signaling generated, or to be analyzed. It is via the connection system that the auxiliary equipment control station receives basic time distributions from the STS, The main control station accesses multiplex (MAS). It carries out interchanges of information between the auxiliary equipment control station and the command components of the OCB-283, Alarms multiplex (MAL). 3. Trunk Control Station (SMT)

a) Role of Trunk Control Station:

The Trunk Control Station ensures functional interface between the PCM and the switching center. The PCM comes from: Another Switching Center, A remote electronic satellite concentrator (CSED), A remote subscriber digital access unit (CSND), A digital recorded announcement equipment. The trunk control station (SMT) permits implementation of the PCM controller URM (multiplex connection unit) function that mainly consists of: In PCM to switching center direction: Extraction of channel associated signaling, Cross connection of channel between PCM and matrix link (LR), In switching center to PCM direction: Transmission of channel associated signaling, Cross connection of channel between matrix link and PCM.
b) Location of Trunk Control Station (SMT)

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The Trunk Control Station is connected to: External components (remote subscriber digital access unit, remote electronic satellite concentrator, circuits) by PCM (maximum of 32). The connection matrix by a set of 32 network lines (matrix links), or 4 groups of matrix links, for carrying the content of CCITT No.7 speech channels, Main control access station multiplex (MAS) serial communication between medium which carries out interchanges of information between the trunk control station and command stations, The alarm multiplex (MAL). 4. Synchronization and Time Base Station The Synchronization and Time Base Station incorporates three function: External Synchronization interface clocks, Tripled time base, Alarms. 5. Matrix control station (SMX) Each SMX includes: A Main Multiplex Coupler (CMP), which permits two ways communication on the Main Controls Station Access Multiplex (MAS) and performs the processor function for Matrix Switch Controller Software machine (ML). A coupler to time domain matrix, Matrix links interfaces (ILRs) for a maximum of 256 incoming matrix links and 256 outgoing matrix links, A time domain matrix of maximum capacity of 2048 incoming matrix links and 256 outgoing matrix links. 6. The Token Ring General Features of Token Ring Standardized, Maximum of 250 stations on one ring, Rates: 4 Mbit/s, Directional asynchronous transmission between stations, Facility for broadcasting from station to several, or all,
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Excellent transmission quality (coding, CRC), Ring management,

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This is the new system used by BSNL to provide better, cheap & faster (in sense of providing connection) service. The requirement for WLL is diverse, in some highly dense areas, several thousands telephones per square km. is required, on the other hand in sparse rural areas, less then one telephone for 10 sq. Km., may be required. However in all cases, home or office telephone require that the quality is no way inferior to that of a wired telephone. Very good voice quality is required for these telephones, and as the investment made today on installing a telephone is expected to provide service for the next fifteen years. The data communication at a reasonable rate is must. These telephones must be upgradable to 64 Kbps in the next year or two. Further, the wireless in local loop, is cost effective, costing less then wired telephone. In resource limited countries this is absolutely comparative. These are the requirements that CorDECT wireless intends to fulfill. The system provides coast effective voice and data comm. serving subscriber density as low as one sub. Every 2 sq. KM. To as high as several thousands subscriber/sq. KM. Technically WLL is known as Cor DECT i.e. Cordless Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications specified by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standard Institute).

Frequency Band for Cor DECT Operation:


Band I: 1880 MHz. To 1900 MHz. (For Indian Network). Band II: 1900 MHz. To 1920 MHz. (Optional).
Band III: 1910 MHz. To 1930 MHz. (Optional)

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CBS TELECOM.

WS

D
N/W . . .

I U
MW S

CBS

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WLL CONNECTIVITY


DIU (DECT Interface Unit) HS (Hand Set) CBS (Compact base station) NMS (Network Management System) MWS (Multi Wall Set) WS (Wall Set)

DECT Interface Unit (DIU)


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The DIU is the heart of the system and acts as the interface to PSTN. It supports upto 1000 subscribers through 20 CBS. It means there are 50 subs./CBS. There are 6 EI interface lines to PSTN from DIU (each convertible to 30 two - wire sub. line using MUX). The DIU acts as a controller for the WLL. It interfaces with PSTN on the one side & with CSB on other. The system is designed such that all controls for cards are duplicated and work in hot stand by mode. System Control & Console: Two PC Pentium working at 120 MHz. (with 16 MB RAM, 2GB HDD &1.44 FD, color monitor, one printer port, two serial port) are used as system controllers and operation & maintenance console (OMC) unit. Only one of the two units is required and other is in stand by mode (one active & other is passive). POWER SUPPLY FOR DIU: DIU required 48V DC (-40 to 60 V DC) @16A.The ground resistance for DIU is 1 ohm. CARDS USED IN DIU: Depending upon whether the DIU is a single copy or double copy, 1 or 2 respectively of following cards/subsystems are required. 1) Clock card (CLK): To provide different clocks for synchronization purposes. There are two clocks cards for 1K DIU. 2) Switch Card (SWCH): This card is used for switching to OMC & other DIU modules. There are 7 bi- color LED to show the status of clock, interrupt etc. 3) Tone & Conference card (ToCon):This card is used for tone & conference facilities. Three parties can be connected at any instant for conferencing. 4) PSTN Interface Module- CEPT (PIMC): This is used to provide synchronization with PSTN, EI and MUX. Blinking LED shows the status of echo-canceller, encoder, decoder, packets received or transmitted. 5) Base Station U Interface Card (BUIC): 40

It is also known as subscriber card. The LED on this card shows the status of BUIC-CBS pair whether it is OK or not. There is one card for 50 subscribers. 6) Power Supply Card (PWRF): This card provides +5VDC for different cards of DIU. 7) DIU Interface Module (DIM): This card provides message transfer from DIU to CBS. 8) Air Interface Module-CBS (AIM): Provide air interface with antenna port. Miscellaneous about DIU: The base unit of DIU is of 1K subscriber. There are 20 BUIC cards in base unit i.e. 50 sub/BUIC. But at an instant of time only 12 subscribers are activated out of 50.There are three cables connected from DIU to CBS. There are 4 channels/cable. It means total 12 channels are provided.The operating system used in Cor_DECT is LINUX &MS-DOS. COMPACT BASE STATION (CBS) As the name suggests this is a compact station to receive and transmit the signals. One and of the CBS is connected to the DIU or BSD through three twisted copper pair link which carry data at 144 Kbps. On the other side, the CBS antenna is connected. At the air interface the radio transceiver in the CBS is capable of operating in any of the three DECT frequencies on any of the 12 slot pairs. At a given instant of time each CBS can support 12 duplex call. To optimize coverage, the transceiver is equipped with space diverting antennas. The CBS can be fitted integral Whip Antennas or provided with two shorts, flexible cables for external high gain antennas. The max. Distance of CBS from DIU is 4KMs with 0.4-mm dia. wire. The power supply required for CBS is +30V to +60V DC @100mA max. Per link. INSTALLATION: One CBS serves for a cell, the cell radius dependent upon propagation environment &antennas gains. The CBS has two antennas for diversity & for omnidirectional coverage. One antenna is directional &other is omnidirectional.

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The location should be chosen so that max. Coverage can be had. For coverage within a building a central location is preferable. For coverage of a small area e.g. a residential area upto 200 meter radius the base station should be located at a height of aprox. 5 meter (15 to 18 feet) perhaps to an existing telegraph pole with adequate clearance from power lines. WALL SET (WS) The wall set is a terminal adapter for the Cor-DECT network to which a standard telephone/fax can be connected. It can be mounted on the inside wall of subscriber premises or placed on a table. Where the signal strength is sufficient small whip antenna is directly screwed onto the wall set itself. In order to receive a stronger signal, a directive antenna can be mounted separately inside or outside the premises and connected to WS via cable. A complete WS has following components: 1. A WS circuit box(WCB) 2. A directive/omnidirectional antenna & a cable connecting the antenna to WCB. 3. A mains line adapter. 4. A telephone instrument/fax/modem. The WCB has all the electronics circuit, power supply ckt. charging unit and a maintenance free Lead Acid battery. The power adapter, which converts the mains into 12VDC, is used to power the WCB. Power Rating: - 12VDC @300mA Talk Time: -3 Hours Stand By - 6 Hours. INSTALLATION: - The installation of WS is dependent upon accessories required There are four types of installations possible, as follows: Whip Antenna directly connected to WS: - If WS is very closed to CBS, then this type of installation is used. The typical distance is 50 meter or less. Directional Antenna with LMR 200 Cable: - If the cable between antenna & WS can be limited to 5meter, then this type of installation is used. If the distance is more than this, the attenuation on the cable will reduce the received signal strength.

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Directional Antenna with LMR 400 Cable: - If longer distance is required between the WS & antenna, this type of installation is used. With Lightning Protector: - Same as type three but with lightning protector. For protection there should be a good connection between protector & earth. THERE ARE SOME SYSTEMS FOR WLL WHICH ARE UNDER DEVELOPENT: 1. Hand set (HS): portable telephone provides voice service to user. Multi Wall Set (MWS): Wireless communication providing four independent (Telephone, Fax, Modem) connected to the building. Base Station Distributor (BSD): This system connects four remotely located CBS s to the DIU using EI link on radio or fiber. 4. Kms. Network Management System (NMS): This system manages multiple DIUs and their associated CBS, WS, MWS, BSDs and RBS. ADVANTAGES OF WLL 1. The first and the biggest advantage is that no need of cable N/W. Due to this installation cost & maintenance cost is very less. 2. The system is more effective in rural areas, where is one subscriber in 8 or 10 sq. KM. (on an average). So if we used wired N/W then we have to spread cables for these 8 or 10KM. But in case of WLL cables are spread upped a determined level & then using CBS and antennas connection can be provided. In this way the time required to provide a new connection is very much reduced. Infect connection can be provide with in a day (or hours) after all official formalities are completed. 3. At the time, this system is under development. As it developed, then it is most suitable for countries like India where resources are limited.
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2.

3.

Relay Base Station (RBS): A Relay base device to extend the CBS wireless coverage to 25

5.

LIMITIATIONS & DISADVANTAGES: 1. At the time, WLL are only for local subscribers so, for STD & ISD facilities, it is dependent upon OCB &E10B (or any other exchange providing these facilities).

2. The biggest limitation is that WS of WLL required 6VDC for operation.


The stand by time for battery is 6 hours. But what would be after 6 hours, in case of power failure (and subscriber has no inverter, generator etc. for power). Then the system will off until power is not on.

3. For better transmission & reception of signals, there should be line of


sight in between CBS antenna & WS antenna. In rural areas normally there are no large buildings, so it would create no problem. But in urban areas, there are new buildings constructed every year. So, the line of sight for antenna which is proper at the time of installing could be improper if any large building occur between CBS & WS antennas. For this we have to insure the height of antenna time by time.

4. The capacity of base unit of DIU is 1K(1000 subscribers). So in case,


if the no. Of subscribers increases, then we have to install a new DIU for exceeding subscribers.

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Media Used In Telecommunication


To connect exchange to the outer world, we require a media or a way with the help of which we can transmit or receive the signals. For telecommunication purpose, the media should have following features:
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The loses should be minimum. The speed of signal processing should be high. The installation & maintenance cost should be minimum. The media should be highly reliable. The accuracy should be maximum.

There are two types o media used in Telecommunication network, which fulfil above requirements: a) Microwave communication b) Optical Fiber Communication: Microwave Communication: It is characterized by the following factors: The useful range of frequencies lies between 150MHZ to 150GHZ. It is may be line of sight as well as satellite communication. Frequency & phase modulation or spread spectrum & time sharing techniques are used. Microwave communication can be divided into two parts: 1) Terrestrial communication 2) Satellite Communication Terrestrial Communication: It is a line of sight communication & mostly used in telephone exchange. The useful frequency range of terrestrial communication is divided into a number of bands designated by letters. For commercial terrestrial communication, Frequencies are largely allocated from S, C, & Lower end K Band (1.55 to 3.90 GHZ for S, 3.90 to 6.20GHZ for C & 10.90GHZ for K band). The height of microwave tower should be such that objects like buildings, trees, mountains etc do not obstruct the radio beam. In BSNL Panipat, the height of tower is 315feet. Normally, parabolic antennas (horn, simple parabolic) are used for terrestrial communication. Microwave communication is still most popular way of communication but Optical Fiber Communication is replacing it very rapidly. Satellite Communication: -

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A satellite communication is like a big microwave repeater in sky. It is placed in a circular orbit, which lies in the plane earth equator, at an altitude of about 36000KM above the equator. The satellite communication is connecting the subscriber, who are far from exchange and OFC is not possible to reach. Optical Fiber Communication Fiber optic Transmission is fast emerging as an alternative and strong competitor to co-axial cable. This is the fastest media used for communication. In OFC communication instead of electric current, light waves travel through reflection & refraction process. Today OFC is becoming more popular bcoz of following features: 1. Highly reliable 2. Less wear & tear 3. High speed transmissions. 4. Better accuracy Telecommunication application of OFC OFC transmission systems are currently being favored for a variety of applications in telephones & data network throughout the world. Some of the current applications are as followed: 1. Under sea cables 2. Inter-city long haul cables 3. interoffice trunking in metropolitan areas 4. local subscriber loop 5. low and high speed data transmission 6. local area network

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General block diagram of OFC: -

. . LINE

O L . T . E

TERMINATOR

MUX/DEMUX .

DIGITAL DISTRIBUTION FRAME

Optical capacity box for Loop each exchange Testing each 2Mb=1PCM Equipment channel Main Exchange

Conclusion:
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The working of the Exchange depends on its basic functional units. Each unit has got its own importance. The contribution of each unit is equal. Although each unit functions independently. But their collective working is responsible for the execution of particular operation. Thus the successful working of exchange depends on the successful working of the each unit. A single unit constitutes the whole working of the exchange.

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