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India is blessed with rich biodiversity with a variety of fascinating wild fauna and flora. It possesses more than 75000 species of wild animals and many of them are endangered species. It is important for us to protect these endangered species which face varied problems for their survival. For the last two decades there is increased concern regarding dwindling population of wild animals. Varied reasons have been assigned for decreasing population of wild animals including loss/degradation of habitat, hunting and poaching of mega species, intensive agriculture and industrialization, increasing human pressure, poisoning, deaths in rail/road accidents and of course, wildlife diseases especially infectious diseases. In India, we do not have exact information regarding status of wildlife diseases due to lack of systematic surveillance of diseases in free ranging/captive wild animals. Establishment of Indian Wildlife Health Co-operative which is a collaborative project supported by Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Services with five regional centers located in 5 Veterinary Colleges- Guwahati, Hisar, Anand, Jabalpur and Chennai is a right step in this direction. Here, I have attempted to compile the available information on status of infectious diseases in wild ruminants and discussed about their pathology.

List of wild ruminants in India

Order: Artiodactyla Suborder: Ruminantia 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Family: Cervidae (deer) Sambar (Cervus unicolor) Hog deer (Axis porcinus) Chital or spotted deer (Axis axis) Barking deer or muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) Musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) Sangai or Thamin or brown-antlered deer (Cervus eldi eldi) Swamp deer or Barasingha (Cervus duvaucelli) Kashmir stag or Hangul (Cervus elaphus hunglu) The last four species are endangered ones. Family: Tragulidae 1. Indian chevrotain or mouse deer (Tragulus meminna)

Family: Bovidae 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Antelopes Chiru or Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) Black bucks or Indian antelope (Antelope cervicapra) Four horned antelope or chowsingha (Tetracerus quadricornis) Nilgai or blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) Wild oxen Gaur/ Indian bisons (Bos gaurus) Yak (Bos grunniens) Mithun (Bos frontalis) Banteng or tsaine (Bos banteng)

Gazelles 10. Chinkara or Indian gazelles (Gazella gazella) 11. Tibetan gazelles (Procapra picticaudata) Exotic wild ruminants Giraffe Japanese sika deer Fallow deer Eland Waterbuck

Infectious diseases
The most important bacterial diseases of wild ruminants include Tuberculosis Johnes disease (paratuberculosis) Pasteurellosis Anthrax Colibacillosis Clostridial diseases ( tetanus, blackleg, malignant oedema and pulpy kidney)

The relative importance of these diseases will vary throughout the world according to timing and circumstance, but bovine tuberculosis and Johnes disease are likely to present the most significant problems with respect to diagnosis, control, trade in live animals and the establishment of wildlife reservoirs of infection. The most important viral diseases of wild ruminants include Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

Bluetongue(BT) and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease(EHD) Foot and mouth disease (FMD)

Bacterial diseases
Anthrax Distribution of disease in different states of India

Incidence of disease in different states of India

Animal affected Gaur Chital (mostly affected) Barking deer Sambar Gaur Sambar Chital Barking deer Sikka deer Nilgiri Tahr Chital Sambar Nilgai Mithun Nilgai Blackbuck Sambar Nilgai

Age/no. affected Adult

Name of zoo/park Kamrup district,Assam (free living) (1957-58) Kamrup district,Assam (free living) (1968) Zoological Park, Vishakhapatnam (AP) Zoological Park, Kohima (Nagaland) National Zoological Park, New Delhi Zoological Garden, Trivendrum (Kerala)


Basis of diagnosis/source of infection Clinical signs (peracute)(wild animals migrated from forest areas of North Bengal) Clinical signs (Milder form) -doClinical signs Clinical signs Clinical signs Clinical signs (Source Kangaroo)

Reference Sinha, 1976

Adult (2) Adult Adult Adult 9 1 1 Adult Adult (4) Adult (1)

Cited by Arora, 2003 Cited by Arora, 2003 Zoo Ann. Rep, 1978 Swengle, 1989

Zoological Park, Clinical signs Sepahijala (Tripura) Zoological Garden, Guwahati (Assam) Banpukhuria Deer Park (West Bengal)

Mitra and Debnath, 1992 Cited by Arora, 2003

Clinical signs

30 25 20 15 10 5 0


Adult (5)

Clinical signs

Srivastava, 2002


Occurrence of disease 9.1different states of India in 9.1 9.1









As - Assam AP - Andra Pradesh Nd - Nagaland ND - New Delhi Kl - Kerala Tr - Tripura WB - West Bengal

Pathology Pathology of disease in wild ruminants is similar as that of domestic animals. Countrywide survey based on PM reports collected from different zoos of India showed death reports mostly from 2 species Barking deer and Spotted deer (Rathore and Khera, 1981). Species susceptibility According to Edelstein et al. (1990) any mammal in a zoo can be infected if it consumes food and water contaminated with anthrax infected material. Disease may cause serious mortalities in young ungulates, once it assumes epizootic form. Epidemic and sporadic forms have been reported in wild bison (Bison bison) and white-tailed deer. Transmission Apart from common routes such as ingestion of contaminated soil or water and inhalation, certain scavengers and migratory birds play an important role in the transmission of the disease in wild ruminants and in some cases, chewing of infected bones. Clinical signs The disease is generally septicemic in nature. Usually it occurs in peracute or acute form but milder form of the disease has been described in gaur and sambar (Sinha, 1976). Postmortem lesions Similar as that of domestic animals. Diagnosis Clinical signs. Microscopic examination of the swabs of the exudate from any of the body orifices for the presence of the bacteria, which have a characteristic square ends. Diagnosis is

confirmed by detection of characteristic spores in stained blood films. Bacterial culture, isolation and identification. Ascolis agar gel precipitation test.

Distribution of disease in different states of India

Incidence of disease in different states of India

Animal affected Sambars Nilgai Musk deer

Age/no. affected All ages (1500) 2 1

Name of zoo/park Sariska Wildlife Sanctury, Rajasthan (1970-71) Himalayan Zoological Garden, Darjeeling, WB(1975) Zoological Garden, Trissur, Kerala Deer sanctuary, Guindy, Chennai

Basis of diagnosis/ source of infection Postmortem

Reference Sinha, 1976

Postmortem (carnivores) Postmortem (P.multocida) Postmortem (P.multocida)

Report, 1978

Chital Barking deer Chital

7 1 6

George, 1985 Srinivasan et al., 1977 Damodaran et al., 1977 Bhowmik, 1999 Parihar, 1979 Arora, 2003 Chakraborty et - al., 1995

Hog deer

Deer Antelope Ch ital Fallow deer Sambar Deer

Musk deer Chinkara

12 10 8 6 4Occurrence 2 0 As MP

Eastern Himalayan Region Postmortem (P.multocida &P.hemolytica) Zoological Garden, Bhilai Postmortem (MP) 1 Adult(8 VPU IVRI, Izatnagar (UP) Postmortem yr) (P.hemolytica) Zoological Garden, Postmortem 2/19 Guwahati (Assam) (P.multocida) 1/1 do 1/4 (P.hemolytica) 20 Deer Park, Taptapani, Postmortem Bhubaneshwar (Orissa) (1998) 1 Chamoli deer park Postmortem (Uttranchal) (1990) 1 National Zoological Park, Postmortem New Delhi

HT-UNI Report, 1998 Cited by Arora, 2003 Zoo Ann. Rep, 1993











of disease in different states of India









As - Assam MP - Madhya Pradesh UP - Uttar Pradesh Ut - Uttranchal ND - New Delhi Kl - Kerala Or Orissa Ra - Rajasthan TN - Tamilnadu WB - West Bengal

Pathology Species susceptibility Sporadic outbreaks of pasteurellosis have been reported in bison and farmed, park, zoo and wild deer. Deer affected includes spotted (Axis axis), red, sambar (Cervus unicolor), wapiti, fallow, white-tailed, black-tailed (Odocoileus hemionus), mule and caribou deer. Wild animals are often predisposed to various forms of stress such as, overcrowding, inclement weather etc. leads to precipitation of disease. Serotype of Pasteurella multocida associated with HS in deer and other wild ruminants was B:2,5 (B&M Div. Report, 2004). Clinical signs Pasteurellosis may be seen as peracute form or acute septicaemia. In less severe form, different organs of the body particularly the lungs are affected. In peracute infection, the animals die suddenly without exhibiting any clinical signs (George, 1985; Dhoot and Upadhye, 2001). George (1985) reported death of 6 spotted deer and a barking deer out of the available 39 deer with clinical signs such as sudden onset of fever, neutrophilia, profuse salivation, depression and rapid prostration. Typically animals held their heads low with the ears drooping, showed excess salivation and sometimes tremors (acute form). Postmortem findings Postmortem lesions are generally of septicaemic nature (George, 1985) viz, generalised venous congestion and petechiation in visceral organs. In spotted deer, haemorrhages on larynx, trachea, muscles around neck region and heart, congestion of visible mucus membranes, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, stomach and intestines associated with presence of bipolar organisms in heart blood smears and impression smears of lungs were seen (Damodaran et al., 1977). Manumohan et al,. (l995) described fibrinous pneumonia and petechiation on the

serous membranes, heart, and trachea and enlargement of lymph nodes. Histologically, haemorrhagic tracheitis, fibrinous bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, hepatitis and haemorrhages in lymph nodes were seen. Arora (1994) described pneumonic pasteurellosis in the blackbuck with lesions of congestion and haemorrhages in visceral organs and consolidation of lungs due to fibronecrotic changes resulting in adhesion of lungs to the chest wall.

Diagnosis Clinical signs and post-mortem lesions. Isolation and identification of the bacteria. Demonstration of bipolar organisms in stained blood smears and impression smears of lungs, liver, lymph node and spleen.

Distribution of disease in different states of India

Incidence of disease in different states of India

Animal affected Deer Black buck Gazelles Nilgai Giraffe Black buck Sambar Chital Black Buck Barking Deer Antelopes (Causingha, Nilgai) Gaur Hog deer Mouse deer Sangai deer Black Buck Hog deer Chital Black Buck Chital

Age/no. affected

Name of zoo/park Zoological Garden, Bombay(1913-21)

12 yrs (1) 2 1 1 All ages

Zoological Garden, Vandallur, Madras Chhatbir Zoological Park, Patiala (Panjab) Nanadan Kanan Biological Park, Bhubaneswar (Orissa)

Basis of diagnosis/ Source of infection Postmortem M. bovis (Llamas from Germany) Postmortem M. tuberculosis Postmortem Postmortem

Reference ListonSoparkar,1924 Rai and Chandrasekharan, 1958 Singh et al., 1981 Rao et al., 1982

1 (1983) 1 1 1 1

Eastern Himalayan Postmortem Region M. tuberculosis National Zoological Postmortem Park, New Delhi M. avium Zoological Garden, Lucknow, UP VPU, IVRI, Izatnagar (UP) Postmortem M. tuberculosis

Rao, 1989 Bhowmik, 1999 Arora, 2003

Arora, 2000 Arora, 2003 Channakeshava et al., 2006

Occurrence of disease in different states of India

25 20 16.7 15 10 5 0 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 16.7 25

ND - New Delhi UP - Uttar Pradesh Or Orissa As - Assam TN - Tamilnadu Mr Maharastra Pa - Panjab

ND UP Or As TN Mr Pa

Wild ruminants are found to be more susceptible to bovine and human type of Mycobacterium spp,. than avian type. M. bovis was frequently isolated from most of wild ruminants (Chakraborty et al., 1993, Thakuria, 1996, Bhowmik, 1999 etc.).M. tuberculosis was isolated from some cases (Chakraborty et al., 1993, Arora, 2003, Bhowmik, 1999 etc.). Recently M.avium has been recognized causing Tb in deer (Arora, 1993). Species susceptability Among wild animals primates, deer and antelopes in our zoological collections are highly susceptible (Arora, 2003). Postmortem findings The pathological characteristics of lesions in free-living white- tailed deer are quite variable. The predominant lesions occur in lymph nodes which are often grossly enlarged, on section containing one or more areas of pale, viscid purulent material. The central zones of these areas are sometimes partially mineralised and appear as white chalky material with gritty sound. The degree of mineralization may vary between different species of deer (in White tailed deer mineralization common but not in others) (Rhyan J.C. & Saari D.A., 1995). A smaller percentage of lesions present as solid caseo-granulomas. Acute abscessation with neutrophilic infiltration may be found in acutely infected animals in severe outbreaks of Tb in deer herds (Griffin J.F.T. & Mackintosh C.G., 2000). Microscopicaly typical granulomatous nodules occur. A few Langhans type giant cells may be seen around the caseated area although it is rare (Singh et al, 1986). In deer the encapsulation may be poor, giant cells may be present in less number, central zones of these areas are sometimes partially mineralised and the degree of mineralization may vary between different species of deer. Acute abscessation, involving neutrophils and large numbers of acid fast organisms may be found in acutely infected animals in severe outbreaks of Tb in deer herds (Griffin J.F.T. & Mackintosh C.G., 2000). Channakeshava et al., 2006 observed predominance of caseo-necrotic areas with increased lymphocytic and moderate macrophage cellular reaction, scanty fibrinous tissue reaction at the periphery of the lesions and the absence of calcification, epitheloid and giant cells in a systemic case of M. smegmatis in spotted deer from the Van Pryani Udyan, IVRI, Izatnagar (UP). Diagnosis Antemortem diagnosis 1. Clinical signs 2. Immunoassays Cell-mediated immune-based tests In vivo tests - Intradermal tuberculin test

In vitro tests - Lymphocyte proliferation assays, IFN- assay Serological tests ELISA

Post-mortem diagnosis Gross pathology and Histopathology Microbiology 1. Acid fast staining method for light microscopy 2. Bacterial Isolation and Identification BACTEC systems Isolation of M. tuberculosis in different species of wild ruminants in Assam state zoo, Guwahati (Thakuria, 1996) Kind of animal No. of samples examined Nature of samples used for isolation of organisms Lung, lymph node Lung Lung, lymph node Lung, lymph node Lung, lymph node Lung Type of Mycobacterium Isolated- Number of isolates M. bovis 4 M. tuberculosis - 2 M. bovis - 6 M. tuberculosis - 2 M. bovis - 1 M. tuberculosis - 2 M. bovis - 2 M. tuberculosis 5 M. bovis - 6 M. tuberculosis 3 M. bovis - 1

Spotted deer 06 Barking deer Blackbuck Hog deer Sambar Giraffe 08 03 07 09 02

Nucleic Acid Detection Tests: Rapid DNA amplification procedures - PCR DNA Finger printing - RFLP of IS6110 for strain typing

Johnes disease

Distribution of disease in different states of India

Incidence of disease in different states of India Animal affected Hangul stag Chital Swamp deer Gaur Mithun Age/no. affected 1 Name of zoo/park/ Basis of diagnosis Dachigam Sanctuary(1977) Dudhwa National Park, UP Tiger Reserve, Palamu, Bihar Royal Veterinary Epidemiology Center, Thimpu, Bhutan Postmortem Clinical signs (fecal smear exam.) Histopathology Histopathology and immunoperoxidase test Reference Saharia, 1982 Arora, 1994 Lal and Ashraf, 1991 Sharma and Tripathy, 2000

Adult (1) 1

Occurrence of disease in different states of India

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0




UP - Uttar Pradesh Bi Bihar JK Jammu Kashmir




Pathology An acute form of paratuberculosis often occurs in red deer under 1 year of age in contrast to the chronicity of paratuberculosis in cattle. Profuse diarrhea in red deer can lead to death of the animal within 2 weeks (Griffin, 1988; Mackintosh et al., 2002). Species susceptibility The disease occurs in wild and captive populations of deer and bison in their native habitats but most commonly recognized among captive wild ruminants in zoological collections or on game farms. The severity of disease may vary between deer breeds, with mule deer apparently the most susceptible. Some animals may be infected with M. paratuberculosis without showing any overt clinical symptoms. Most isolates from deer similar to bovine strains of M. paratuberculosis (de Lisle et al., 1993) but sheep strains have been found in deer and antelope (de Lisle et al., 1993; Dukes et al., 1992). Transmission Intrauterine transmission from dam to fetus has been demonstrated to occur in cattle, but whether this occurs in deer and bison is not known. Infected sheep and cattle herds may act as sources of infection for deer and bison if cross-grazing or contamination of food or water occur. Postmortem lesions Gross lesions are variable, and even in cases with severe clinical disease, lesions may be relatively mild as compared with classic paratuberculosis in cattle. Growth of antlers and horns may be adversely affected. Microccopically necrosis and mineralization in granulomas some time occurs in cervids. Clinically-affected bison show non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. Subclinically-affected bison produce micro-granulomata and multinucleate Langhans giant cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes.

Diagnosis Postmortem finding Bacterial culture Intradermal johnin test AGID ELISA PCR

Clostridial diseases
Distribution of disease in different states of India

Incidence of disease in different states of India

Animal affected Black buck (BQ) Giraffe (ET)

Age/no. affected 1 1.5 yr (1)

Name of zoo/park Zoological Park, Shillong Zoological Park, Kanpur (UP) Deer Park, Izatnagar

Basis of diagnosis Postmortem Postmortemtoxicological and immunological exam. (Cl.perfringens type D ) Postmortembacteriological and immunological exam. (Cl.perfringens type C ) Postmortembacteriological and immunological exam. Postmortembacteriological and immunological exam. Clinical signs

Reference Rathore and Khera, 1982 Parihar et al., 1981

Chital (ET)

45 days (1)

Arora, 1987

Chital Four horned antelope (ET) Hog deer (ET) Sambar (Tetanus)

Zoological Park, Bikaner 1 Adult (1) Kerala State Meuseum and Zoo Zoological Park, Patna, Bihar

Mehrotra et al., 1999 Zoo Record, 1999 Shashikanth Ajay, Zoo Vet. Officer, 2003

Occurrence of disease in different states of India

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 UP Me Bi Ra Kl 33.3





UP - Uttar Pradesh Me Mehalaya Bi Bihar Ra Rajasthan Kl - Kerala

Pathology Most of the clostridial disease reported in deer and other wild ruminants have been

cases of Enterotoxemia, BQ and Tetanus associated with trauma, darting or injection sites for chemical restraint during handling and velvet antler removal and injury from fighting during the breeding season. Clinical signs and PM lesions are similar as that of domestic animals. Giraffe died due to ET (type - D) showed clinical signs such as, nervousness, reluctance to move and passing semisolid to loose feces. PM examination showed ballooning of intestines and petechiae on mucous membrane of duodenum, jejunum and some portion of large intestine. Liver, spleen, kidney and heart were congested (Parihar et al., 1981). Diagnosis History of wound. Clinical signs and Post-mortem lesions. Confirmatory diagnosis requires identification of typical bacteria or toxin (toxin antitoxin neutralization) in intestinal contents. Tetanus - Organisms in wounds are difficult to demonstrate. Black quarter - Identification of the organism using a FAT.

Incidence of disease in different states of India Animal affected Gnu Hog deer Age/no. affected Adult (1) 7 Name of zoo/park Zoological Garden, Hyderabad. Eastern Himalayan Region Basis of diagnosis Reference

PM lesions& bact. Char et al., 1986 Isolation Clinical signs Bhowmik,1999

E. coli serotypes isolated from clinical and nonclinical cases of captive wild ruminants Kind of animal Specimens examined Deer (Saxena et al.,1983) Swamp deer 6 fecal (Arora et al., 1986-95) samples Barking deer 4 fecal (Rahman et al, 1986) samples (Char et al., 1986) Sambar (Char et al.,1986) No. of positive specimens/isolate 1 isolate 1 isolate 4 isolate 1 isolate 5 isolate E. coli serotypes identified 060 099 017(1), 030(1), U/T (2) 038 020, 02, 01,U/T(2)

Spotted deer Fallow deer Musk deer Hog deer Bison Gnu Water buck

3 isolate 1 isolate 1 isolate 3 isolate 3 isolate 1 isolate 1 isolate

056,055, 064 055 045 035, 0125, 0128 01, R/S(1), U/T(1) 02 02

E. coli serotypes isolated in captive ruminants (Chakraborty and Sarma, 1995) Kind of animal Spotted deer No. of animals 04 Nature of samples tested Pus swab from liver Lung Intestinal content Lung 04 Barking deer Intestinal content Intestinal content Intestinal content Lung Sambar 04 Swab from back wound Swab from cervical region wound 017 Duodenal content 07 Intestinal content Mouse deer 02 Intestinal content Intestinal content Swab from wound Intestinal content U/T R/S U/T 0133 017 E. coli serotypes 097 060 U/T 05 074 037 037 04 0154

Black buck




Intestinal content Intestinal content Heart blood

08 U/T R/S



Pathology A serotype of E. coli 099 was isolated from feces of free ranging Barasingha and which is of public health significance. E. coli is ubiquitous and is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and urogenital systems and skin etc. of all animals. Therefore, mere isolation of organisms is of no consequence unless its pathogenicity is tested particularly its implications in clinical signs and pathology. Some of the wild ruminants may be acting as reservoirs for E.coli pathotypes and act as potential threat to other animals and zoo keepers.Numerous serotypes are non-pathogenic, and among pathogenic serotypes some are specific for septicaemia and some for enteric disease. Diagnosis Specific diagnosis requires the isolation and typing of the bacterium.

Viral Diseases
Distribution of disease in different states of India

Incidence of disease in different states of India Animal affected Gaur Bisons Chital Sambar Gaur Bisons Bison 20 Adult (3/8) Age/no. affected Entire herd > 100 Name of zoo/park Manikgarh in old Hyderabad Warangal district (AP) Bandipur Forest Reserve Gir forest, Gujarat Biligiri range hills of Karnataka Zoological Park, Hyderabad (AP) Kaziranga Wildlife National Park, Kaziranga Basis of diagnosis Clinical signs Clinical signs Clinical signs Clinical signs Source village cattle Clinical signs type-C (Source -Infected feed) Clinical signs Reference Ali, 1935 Ali, 1935 Neginhal, 1974 Khan, J.A., 1987 personel communication Morris, 1953 Report, 1973-74 Deb Roy, 1992 (PC)



Van Vihar, Nagpur (Maharastra)

Cervids Antelope Yaks Yaks

25/113 Mr-22.1% Mt -20%

Biological park, Bhubaneshwar (Orrisa) Kinnaur dist. (HP)

Clinical signs and postmortem lesions. Type- A (Mukhopadhyay et al., 1975) type O, Source domestic cattle Clinical signs type O & Asia - 1

Paikne et al., 1976

Kar et al., 1983 Prasad et al., 1978 Katiyar et al., 1981

Deer Mithun

17/50 (3 Sikkim outbreaks) (2 calves < 1 yr) Mr -34%, Mt11.75% 34/38 Zoological Park, 2 Guwahati, Assam

Clinical signs

Nilgai Gazelle Blue bull Hog deer Four horned antelope Nilgais Wild ruminants Wild ruminants
15.78 15.78

Deer park, Hissar, Hariyana Patiala Deer Park, Punjab Zoological Park, Venkateshwar (AP) (1998) Zoological Garden, Culcutta, WB

Source domestic stock (via attendants) Clinical signs Clinical signs

Sarma et al., 1983 Dutt et al., 1979, Mahanta et al., 1980 Ahuja et al., 1985 Sinha, 1988

6 10

Clinical signs

16 14 12


Report, VIP, Bengal, 1938-39 CZA, Mortality data bank, 2001



10 8 6 4 2 0 AP Si WB As Pb Hy HP Or Mr Ka Gu

Occurrence of disease in different states of India

5.26 5.26 5.26 5.26 5.26 5.26

AP Andhra Pradesh Si Sikkim WB - West Bengal As - Assam Pa - Panjab Hy Hariyana Or Orissa Mr Maharastra Ka - -Karnataka Gu - Gujarat

Pathology Many animal species, including humans, and all artiodactyls, are susceptible. Among cervids, infection has been reported in reindeer, moose, muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), white-tailed deer, sika deer, fallow deer (Dama dama) and red deer. There is no report of FMD in bison. Experimentally although all species can be infected, there appears to be a range of susceptibility. Red deer and fallow deer develop only mild lesions and are much less susceptible than muntjac and roe deer, which develop severe potentially fatal disease. Strains isolated from wild ruminants Animal Nilgai Yaks Chitals,sambar, blackbucks Bison Type of Strain type A type O &Asia-1 type O type C Reference Mukhopadhyay et al., 1975 Dutta et al., 1981 Kar et al., 1983 Khan and Basith, 1988

It was possible to infect cattle, sheep, goat and guinea pigs by type A virus isolated from nilgai (Mukhopadhyay et al., 1975). Clinical signs Paikne et al., (1976) observed characteristic clinical signs like lameness, abortion and death in all the affected 4 nilgais at Van Vihar, Nagpur. According to Kar et al.,

(1983), the outbreak of thr disease first appears in blackbucks followed by chitals and sambars at Nandan kanan Biological Park (NKBP). The incidence and case fatality rates were found to be 22% and 20%, respectively. The other even-toed ungulates maintained in the zoo remained unaffected. In yaks, the morbidity rate was only 24% with lesions on tongue, gums, muzzle, nasal and feet epithelium without any mortality (Dutta et al., 1981). Sarma et al., (1983) observed high fever and vascular lesions on the feet and oral cavity of sambars. Soon, the disease spread rapidly to the other deer within a period of a week in which 34 of the 38 animals were affected. Mithun present in the adjoining enclosure had also contracted disease but surprisingly, all the ungulates housed in the adjacent enclosures were unaffected. Khan and Basith (1988) noticed that a number of ungulates notably llama, eland, wild beast, waterbucksand sambar deer housed in the adjoining enclosure of FMD affected gaur and bison did not contact the disease confirming the findings of Sarma et al. (1983). Of the 8 gaurs and bisons affected with disease, only the former succumbed to death and others recovered following treatment. Affected gaurs showed pyrexia, anorexia, salivation and lameness due to tenderness of feet. Ulcers were seen on oral mucosa, lips, tongue, hard palate and interdigital space. In bison, limping, salivation and nasal discharges were noticed. The animals remained anorectic and dull for 2 days and recovered after medication. Ahuja et al., (1985) described that the persons attending the domestic animals suffering from FMD were responsible for spread of the disease among nilgais and gazelles of Deer Park, Hissar. At Patiala Deer Park, a male blue bull and hog-deer died of FMD after exhibiting vesicular lesions in mouth and on the feet (Singh, 1988). Experimentally infected red deer, whether they were infected by exposure to infected cattle, or by inoculation of virus, developed either inapparent infection or only mild clinical signs. Vesicles developed in the mouth of only a small proportion of the infected animals. Those that did develop vesicles remained alert, did not show excess salivation, and are not lame. On the other hand, the closely related sika deer developed severe signs, with copious salivation, depression, lameness, and ulceration of the oral mucous membranes. Postmortem findings Apart from conventional sites, vesicles were noticed on the epithelium of the forestomach (Paikne et al., 1976). They also observed characteristic tigroid appearance of heart in the affected nilgai calves along with cyanosis of the conjunctiva, oedema and congestion of the lungs, and injection of subcutaneous blood vessels. Basith (1988) noticed on the epithelium on tongue, hard palate and interdigital tissue of gaurs affected with the disease. They did not observe any lesions on the udder and teats. In experimentally infected red deer, the main pathological signs are restricted to the

epithelium of the mouth and hard palate, where small vesicles are seen. No lesions developed on the coronets. In other species that die of acute infections, degeneration of the heart muscles is a feature of the disease Diagnosis Clinical signs and history Animal inoculation Virus isolation and serological testing ELISA or PCR Bhat and Manickam (1997) employed simple agar gel precipitation test for detection of antibodies against FMD virus. They detected positive reactors among the spotted deer but not in blackbucks against type O virus.

Incidence of disease in different states of India Animal affected Nilgai Barking deer Chousingha Hog deer Chital Sambars Age/no. affected 4/4 3/15 4/4 4 yearlings 1 2 Name of zoo/park Biological Park, Bhubaneswar (Orissa) Eastern Himalayan Region Forest of srivilliputtur, Tamil Nadu Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan Basis of diagnosis PM Lesions Reference Acharjyo Rao, 1986 and

Clinical signs & Bhowmik, 1999 PM Lesions Clinical signs & Sivaseelan, PM Lesions 2003 Immunological Prasad et al., 1998

Distribution of disease in different states of India

Occurrence of disease in different states of India

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TN Or Ra HER 25 25 25 25

TN - Tamilnadu Or Orissa Ra Rajasthan HER - Eastern Himalayan Region

Pathology Although BT is principally a disease of white-tailed and mule deer, several other species can become infected. Bighorn sheep and pronghorn antelope can develop fatal infections, and antibodies have been found in wild carnivores and rodents, although their significance is not known. Abortions, still-birth and foetal abnormalities reported in sheep are unknown in wild ruminants. Mortality in white-tailed deer herds may reach 50%, but in enzootic foci outbreaks of clinical disease are rare. Acharjyo and Rao (1986) reported case fatality rate of 75 % in nilgai and 100% in fourhorned antelopes and barking deer. Sudden deaths in 3 animals and deaths within 1-4 days of illness in 6 and within 20 days in one were observed. The clinical signs exhibited by the affected animals prior to death included dullness, depression, listlessness, anorexia, copious salivation and lacrimation.

Conclusion Transmission of infectious diseases at the wildlife/domestic animal interface is frequently bi-directional leading to loss of both domestic and endangered wild animals and many of these diseases are also zoonoses (Tb, JD etc..). Captivity and Farming of wildlife species frequently leads to the emergence of management- and/or density-related infectious disease problems (pasteurellosis, E.coli etc.,). Although schemes for the eradication of some infectious diseases in domestic livestock exist in many countries, similar schemes are costly and technically difficult to implement in free-ranging wildlife. In India, we do not have exact information regarding status of wildlife diseases due to lack of systematic surveillance of diseases in free ranging/captive wild animals except certain sporadic reports. Due to the technical difficulties of sampling free-ranging wildlife, surveillance and monitoring of infectious disease in wildlife requires imaginative and innovative thinking and techniques.



Submitted To Dr. Somvanshi, Ph.D Principal Scientist, Division of Pathology. Submitted By G. Jamuna, Roll No. 4604, M. V. Sc Scholar Division of pathology. DEEMED UNIVERSITY INDIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH INSTITUTE IZATNAGAR-243122, BAREILLY