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Marcel Senaubar Alves, firstname.lastname@example.org Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, email@example.com José Carlos Escobar Palacio, firstname.lastname@example.org
UNIFEI – Federal University of Itajubá Av. BPS, 1303, District Pinheirinho, Itajubá – Minas Gerais Abstract: This paper presents a technical analysis of a stand-alone ORC Solar power system design of 10kWel for Brazilian conditions. The analysis are based on the direct solar irradiance of Itajubá - MG, price criteria of commercial suppliers, simulation of temperature and evaporation pressure influences and a comparative analyses cost with photovoltaic and Diesel generators. The main objective is to design this equipment using available commercial systems in the market (PTC + ORC) for an implantation on the city of Itajubá - MG. Today a system can be built from 9.34 – 15.03 U$/W, the double from large CSP plants using Rankine Cycle, normally in the range 4.2 - 8.4 U$/W. The ORC Solar power system simulated for Brazilians conditions is able to produce 2.63kWh/year on average, producing electrical energy with a cost range of 0.081 – 0.131 U$/kW, also producing hot water, unfortunately the cost of electricity is a bit more expensive than photovoltaic technology in the range 0.058 – 0.081 U$/kW. Key Words: Solar, Organic Rankine Cycle, Parabolic trough collector, Renewable energy. 1. INTRODUCTION Energy is fundamental to any human being, used to meeting our basic needs, such as transportation, food and the own maintenance of life, dependent on energy in its various forms, throughout history we have developed, machines and ways of living that always need more and more energy, particularly electrical one. Nowadays, there is already a scientific consensus that climate has changed, it is already a reality and its main causes are human activities, mainly burning fossil fuels. Based on science, if we do not do something to reduce the emissions, the consequences will be catastrophic, says the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Renewable energy could be a solution to the existing environmental problems. Almost every renewable source of energy – hydraulic, biomass, wind, fossil fuels and energy from the oceans – are indirectly solar energy (ANEEL, 2002). Analyzing the commercially renewable energy options available today, it is easy to see that solar is far more abundant and it has greater potential than all other forms of renewable energy. The use of renewable energy sources such as solar power aims to ensure the future and prosperity of the energy sector in a sustainable way. In other words, by using directly solar energy it is like to take a shortcut, in a certain way be more efficient. Most forms of renewable energy are limited in their quantity – solar is not. In addition, as a natural resource, the sun’s energy is more abundant and geographically spread compared to other renewable resources (Solar Potential, 2009). The sun’s potential for power generation, occult all other renewable energy sources, providing available amount energy on earth of 1410W/m². This means that every hour it floods the earth with thermal energy equal to 21 billion tons of coal. The enormous output of solar energy is almost impossible to conceive, but for now solar barely registers in the world’s energy portfolio accounting for only a small fraction of total electrical output (Solar Potential, 2009). Until today, the use of solar energy to produce electricity gets more compliments than investments. From a technical standpoint, it is capable of producing clean energy in an unproductive area or in land that would hardly be used for any other economic development purpose. Also it has a reduced and relatively low risk management and low environmental impact, situation that turns to be quite different from what occurs with the use of rivers for hydroelectric and nuclear generation projects. This is a clean and endless source that does not emit waste, does not require deforestation, flooding areas or modify the course of rivers or be frightened by the possibility of radiation leak. Electricity production in the world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels (Figure 1), but this has been changed during past few years. In 2008 and 2009 were installed worldwide more than 300GW of power plants and 140GW (47%) of them use renewable energy (REN21, 2010).
with a hydraulic major part (Figure 2). when the sunlight hits a photovoltaic cell creating electricity – although the electricity generated . with a global consumption of 455. 2010) While the industrialized world needs to urgently rethink its energy strategy. Currently in Brazil there are about 600 thousand houses without electricity. Direct means with only one transformation sunlight is transformed in useful energy. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. depending on solar technologies adopted. Domestic electricity supply by source (2010). A new infrastructure must be constructed to allow that to happen. The analysis are based on data about the direct solar irradiance of Itajubá . one of the most promising solutions nowadays is the small-scale and small concentration of solar energy and even recent analysis suggests that ORC systems can compete in the costs of generating electricity with photovoltaic and diesel generators (Quoilin. convert and distribute sunlight are broadly characterized as either direct or indirect. deficiencies in the transmission and distribution systems. 2011). this paper presents a structured technical analysis of a stand-alone ORC Solar power system design of 10kWel for Brazilian conditions. 2011). Therefore.Br az il Figure 1. Brazil gives an good example of sustainability.3 million Brazilians out of darkness (Programa Luz para Todos. most of the energy supply is renewable (over 86%).7 TWh according to the Brazilian energy balance report (2011). Figure 2. of the habitants and industries. HARVESTING THE SUN The ways they capture. even though with this incredible infrastructure we cannot meet all the future energy needs. Worldwide electricity supply by source (2008). influence of temperature and evaporation pressure and a comparative analyses cost with photovoltaic and Diesel generators. 2. or by insufficient production. geographical issues. the developing world should learn from the past mistakes and build their economies from the beginning on a solid basis for a sustainable energy supply. There are many ways to converted solar energy in to electricity. with global consumption of 132 PWh (REN21.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. São L u is – M a ran h ão .MG. or even by the high cost of producing energy (Brazilian energy balance report. As an example. 2011). price criteria of commercial suppliers. The federal program “Luz para todos” helped much in the past eight years taking over more than 14.
The global market has been dominated by parabolic-trough plants. Regarding the temperature range it´s useful for electrical power generation and hot water. Stationary collector systems normally are used for water heating. Solar energy is concentrated by several rows horizontally arranged of flat mirrors onto a water filled collector pipe doing the same job as a parabolic trough. bringing the global total to 1095MW (at the end of 2010). HFC and PDR. (Solar Potential. designing spaces for natural air flow. Figure 3. Also include solar techniques. Normally. depending on the direct normal irradiation (DNI) on the site. whereas a solar collector with sun-tracking usually has concave reflecting surfaces to intercept and focus the sun’s beam radiation to a smaller receiving area. There are basically two types of solar collectors: non-concentrating or stationary and concentrating. However. Parabolic dish reflectors (PDR) concentrate the sunlight onto a Stirling engine. we can reach from 75% up to 84% of cost reduction by the year 2050 (IEA. From left to right. Heliostat field collector (HFC) or known as “solar towers” have huge arrays of flat mirrors that concentrate all the sunlight towards a receiver at the top of a tower. Solar energy collectors. Table 1. 2011). This allows achieve very high temperatures and as a result. a compound parabolic collector (CPC) was used in Japan to generate electrical power (350W) for a residential scale (Saitoh. 2010). Solar energy collectors are special kind of heat exchangers that transform solar radiation energy to thermal energy and transport it in a fluid. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. The major component of any solar system is the solar collector. The decreasing cost of CSP production is due to the investments on technological development during the last 25 years. or whole arrays can produce electricity on a large scale. and referencing the position of a building to better use the light or mechanical energy. 2007). These comparatively small units can be used individually for decentralized power supply.Br az il will require others conversion. and other fluid´s at low range temperature. therefor in Table 1 they are better explained and some are showed in Figure 3. Kalogirou (2004).2 U$/W up to 8. . some says that is the next stage on from the parabolic trough technology (Ausra. they are highly efficient. More than half of this (about 478 MW) was installed during 2010. A large number of solar collectors are available in the market. São L u is – M a ran h ão . 2004).4 U$/W. 2009). which selecting materials with favorable thermal properties. allowing nowadays a range of 4. but the space required and the specific cost are higher them the small PTC system (Kalogirou. It is expected a reduction on the construction´s cost of new CSP plants. examples of collectors – PTC. heat storage tanks cannot be used with these systems. widely commercialized the generating capacity of CSP market had grew about 740 MW between the periods of 2007 until the end of 2010. A non-concentrating collector has the same area for intercepting and for absorbing solar radiation. Indirect means that need to have more than one transformation to come up with usable energy. thereby increasing the radiation flux. the heated medium is used to generate steam and drive a steam turbine generator (Rankine cycle). Linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR). Even though. Parabolic trough collectors (PTC) concentrate the solar energy by parabolic mirrors onto vacuum tubes containing oil or other heat transfer medium. LFR. 2009) Known as well as Concentrated Solar Power technology (CSP).VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. which account for 90% of CSP plants (Solar Potential.
as well as India and China (REN21. CSP growth is expected to continue at large steps. Which is a shame. Annual average direct normal solar irradiation (SWERA.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. Actually in Brazil. Figure 5.789 MW expected to be in operation by the end of 2013. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. created in 2003 the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources for Electric Generation (PROINFA). Most of the financial resources are designed for biomass. Evolutional growth of CSP technology. 2009) Brazil undergoes trough some changes in the energy sector. solar energy appears in symbolic form. Figure 4.Br az il As showed in the figure 4. as it is showed in the figure 5. (Solar Potential. in Ceará (Eike Batista's work) with capacity of 1MW is the largest solar power plant. São L u is – M a ran h ão . only in Spain another 946 MW of capacity is under construction with total new capacity of 1. 2005). Interest is also remarkable in North Africa and the Middle East. at the Tauá plant. But this story is about to . encourage the creation of primary energy supply from renewable sources. using photovoltaic technology in Brazil. 2010). wind and SHP (small hydropower). concerned with environmental factors and their impacts. the solar resource in Brazil is enormous. unfortunately there are no specific resource to reinforce the usage of solar energy. The Brazilian energy matrix is changing.
with little modifications.Br az il change. 2011). due to enormous volumes of low pressure steam. waste heat recovery (WHR). will be built the first CSP solar power plant in Brazil. applied with low temperature range (under 200°C). Stirling engines. This implies higher mass flows for the same power output. due to their extensive use similar unit technologies in refrigeration applications. 2009). characterized by a molecular mass higher than water. in Coremas. Comparative chart of heat engines with applicable temperature range (Tarique. unlike with conventional power cycles. the ORC system vaporizes an organic fluid. Moreover. which can be technically and economically reasonable for distributed electricity generation. the most suitable option for small scale solar application. reinforced by the high technological maturity of most of its components. providing an initial capacity of 50MW by the end of 2015. The success of the ORC technology can be partly explained by its modular feature: a similar ORC system can be used. to mechanical work with a suitable heat engine based on a properly chosen appropriate thermodynamic cycle that is matched with the heat source temperature and capacity (Figure 6). waste heat temperatures as low as 70-80°C can be used in an ORC to generate electricity. (Época. organic Rankine cycle and others. in the “desert” of Paraiba. local and small scale power generation is made possible by this technology. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). 2011). Most common ORC applications (adapted from Enertime. external fired gas turbine (EFGT). ORC technology is spread in over 23 countries. which has an annual average direct irradiation of 5. Figure 6. is the ORC system. Instead of the water steam. . in an efficient way. in conjunction with various heat sources.day. and possibly expanded to 150MW. 2011) 3.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. The solar collector has also a low temperature limitation. placing Brazil in map of solar power generation on large scale. CONVERTION METHOD Currently there are several types of technologies that allow converting thermal energy. leading to a slower rotation of the turbine and lower pressure and erosion of the metallic parts and blades. depending on the type of organic fluid used. associate or not with cogeneration processes (Tarique. normally divided in four basics applications (Figure 7): biomass. units actually have higher cycle efficiency at these low temperatures. For instance. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. The Organic Rankine Cycle's (ORC) principle is based on a turbo-generator working as a normal steam turbine to transform thermal energy into mechanical energy and finally into electricity through an electric generator. which are internal combustion engines burning syngas (gasification).5kWh/m². São L u is – M a ran h ão . geothermal and solar power. Figure 7. For use of renewable sources the majority are in rapid developments (but not all are commercial). causing very voluminous and costly plants.1GWel. At these low temperatures a steam cycle would be inefficient. resulting in an enthalpy differences significantly lower for organic substances compared with water. generating about 2.
The important parameters are as follows (Tarique. 2011): If an ORC operates with a low temperature heat source. working fluid with low boiling point is preferred. operating conditions. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. 4. At high pressure and temperature organic fluids can suffer from chemical deteriorations and decompositions. Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). 2008). A working fluid with a high latent heat of vaporization can absorb more heat during evaporation. In an ORC heat engine. 2010). Figure 8. 2011). the expansion device is the most important component of the cycle. also the system power output. The performance and efficiency of the cycle strongly depend on the expander (Tarique. attention should be given to obtain higher cycle efficiency (Figure 8). São L u is – M a ran h ão . Therefore a fluid with high latent heat of vaporization is preferred to increase the efficiency of the system. and heat source characteristics. Simultaneously safety criteria. Schematic model from an ORC Solar system (Quoilin. In selection of a working fluid. SOLAR ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE Here is a model of the solar organic Rankine cycle for better comprehension (Figure 9). a very low boiling point at atmospheric pressure may require a low condensing temperature. the ORC unit and the condenser system. A lower freezing point below the heat sink temperature is desired to prevent freezing of the working fluid. cost and availability should also be considered. . boiling temperature (Aoun. Figure 9.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. this correlates with working fluid. Global Warming Potential (GWP) and toxicity rating of the working fluids should be considered. Efficiency of Rakine cycle vs. Expanders are broadly divided into two categories: turbo-machines and positive displacement machines.Br az il In the selection of organic fluid for use with low temperature heat sources in ORC heat engines. starting with the solar field (PTC) and the thermal storage in a primary circuit. demonstrating that the uses of positive displacement expanders (screw and scroll machines) were advantageous compared to turbomachines (radial turbine) for use in low temperature and low capacity applications (Quoilin. environmental impact. 2011). However. Consequently.
in the worst case. for this reason it is a challenge to integrate directly the renewable energy in to the grid. with an efficiency estimated on the range of 50% to 70% depending on the work temperature.97 4. That means. using an area from 286 m² up to 560 m².35 5.97 Aug 4.11 Jun 3. Figure 12. 2011).95 4. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. ORC Solar overalls cost.Br az il 4.65 5. which results in a minimal irradiation of 200W/m² (with 286m² of solar field). .day by month in 50km range (Cresesb.49 4.49 3.23 5. is in June (2011). the lowest average peak is inferior than 600W/m² (Figure 10). Sizing The first decision is to specify the maximum power of the ORC equipment. Changing the ORC unit and the collector efficiency. for that a parametric study is needed. São L u is – M a ran h ão . normally 35% of the nominal power. equal to 6 hours (minimum) per day of sun light in the worst case (June). 2011) City/Month Campos do Jordão Lorena Passa Quatro Jan 4.650W/m².28 3. to produce 10kW of electrical power is need at the maximum 140kW of thermal energy. The sunlight is intermittent. Table 2. this difference can be explained by the type of the turbine (scroll. when the average peak is near 950W/m² (figure 11) with an irradiation superior than 5kWh/m². with a specific cost of 152 – 210 U$/m².06 5.03 U$/W for a maximal coverture during the year.61 Dec 4.00 4.12 5.58 Sep 4. the result is the overall price system with the solar field area (Figure 12).95 4. screw or radial turbine).75 5. around 7% to 10%.07 4.33 3.83 3.day. In a small village (up to 20 houses) or a small industry a 10kWel can supply enough energy.day.33 3.81 5. Average irradiation during June 2011 in Itajubá (UNIFEI meteorological station).1. Average irradiation during January 2011 in Itajubá (UNIFEI meteorological station). sizing the solar field for a specific average irradiation of 3kWh/m².64 4.39 Figure 10.97 3.83 5. The ORC system only runs with a minimum input power. the system is designed for Itajubá – Minas Gerais conditions. The lowest average irradiation. Figure 11.19 Feb 4.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. The system used to concentrated the sun is a parabolic trough collector. Some information about the specific irradiation is needed for sizing the solar field. There are a few suppliers for this type of range with a specific cost of 3270 – 5000 U$/kW. As showed in the table 2 some data about 3 other city’s nearby (less than 50km radius).22 Apr 4.35 5.47 Mai 3.33 Oct 4.34 – 15. when reaches 3kWh/m².25 Mar 4. which performs the highest thermal and exergy efficiency (Wang. Annual average direct normal irradiation in kWh/m². but all of them uses as fluid R245fa. the temperature (from 80°C to 150°C) and the global efficiency of the machine.65 5.17 Nov 5. The system will be set to work with a nominal solar input from 500 .02 3. The best scenario is normally in January (2011).53 Jul 3.day. The overall specific cost remains on the range of 9.
unlike the pressure. working 7 hours a day (4kWh/m².43%. o Heating up process for CSP. 0. with this cost a small scale CSP system can compete with photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator (cost data from Alibaba. Within the range of 550kPa to 1000kPa efficiency increases with an intervals of (in order) 0. (using an constant temperature) increases the system efficiency. 4. Al. 2012). Economic study Figure 15. from that point the increase of pressure would have a negative influence on the system.Br az il 4. the enthalpy difference between the high pressure and low pressure states becomes lower as the degree of superheating increases resulting in a reduction in the specific work. the first simulation analyses the influence of the pressure on the system (Figure 14).57. with increase of 4. The work from Orosz et. 0. Influence of the fluid superheating on the system. Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE): o No Diesel engine maintenance. as conclusion there is no benefit associated with the increased degree of superheating over certain value. (2010). starting from an initial evaporation pressure of 550kPa using an increase rate of 64. Diesel cost 1. 0. 0. without buffer/storage system. Figure 13. 2011). Influence of the pressure increases during the heating up of the system.com. . 2012). efficiency does not grow in the same way. Basic parameters used to simulate the ORC system using Aspen HYSYS. here some considerations: Annual average irradiation of 600W/m². If this progression is continued it will reach a limit pressure of 1400kPa. Pay-back time of 5 years. 2012). which they built a small scale ORC solar system. 0. reaching a specific cost of about 6 U$/W. If one fixes the intake and discharge pressures for an expansion process.47 and 0.7°C in the system causes a decrease in the efficiency of 0. the temperature and efficiency changed linearly. we can synthetize all cost in the table 3.3L/kWh (Geradores rio preto. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12.64.2. to make a technical analysis. Parametric study Through a simulation of the system (in Aspen HYSYS).52.72.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring.82. Figure 14. The second simulation analyze is whether the fluid is superheated (Figure 15). adapting a vehicle airconditioning compressor to work as a turbine (scroll). using the basics parameters presents in the figure 13.2 U$/L and consumption of 0. in another words. for low temperatures the superheating for dry fluids do not make sense (Tarique. São L u is – M a ran h ão .day). o Efficiency of photovoltaic system according to average irradiation (Kyocera.3.2kPa.02%. but unlike the pressure.
with a higher average direct irradiation.34 – 15. São L u is – M a ran h ão .3 – 0. Influence of solar irradiation on the system output and electricity cost. but this technology is new in the market with few options for suppliers. we will reach the same result (Figure 16) near to 6 U$/W.03 90% 2.67 – 6.383 – 0. Also we have another solution. with a reduction of 50% in CSP cost. mass production and cost reduction. which is also close from large solar plants (from 4. Influence of solar irradiation on the system output and electricity cost. Figure 16. hence Diesel generator does not depend on the location nether the solar irradiance.92 0.4 U$/W). changing the equipment for other location. . Figure 18. Influence of cost reduction on ORC solar system in electricity cost. Figure 17.399 Installation cost in Brazil [U$/W] OEE* Average production [kWh/year] Final cost [U$/kWh] The result is very close with the predicted.5 60% 1.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. To make this consideration only the CSP and PV will be used. CSP 9.63 0.081 – 0.Br az il Table 3.131 PV 4.5 100% 2. In a future possibility of market expansion. Specific cost evaluation between 10kWel stand-alone generators. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. There are two possible scenarios: The present scenario – Using available technology (Figure 17).058 – 0. The future scenario – Considering a cost reduction of 50% on the CSP and ORC technology (Figure 18).82 0.081 Diesel 0.2 U$/W up to 8.
unfortunately the cost of electricity is more expensive than photovoltaic technology. Available: < http://www.Centro de Referência para Energia Solar e Eólica Sérgio Brito. (2009) – Available < http://www. T. M.br > IEA (International Energy Agency) (2010). Price Water House Coopers.cycle-organique-rankine.asp?id=1> QUOILIN. N.A. (2010).br/aplicacoes/Atlas/download.. In: International Congress on Heating.. 2008.com/Ciencia-etecnologia/noticia/2011/09/energia-extraida-do-sol-da-caatinga. normally in the range 4.4 U$/W. OROSZ. H. Lisboa. G. Volume 30..cresesb. Analysis of working fluid for organic Rankine Cycle. V.gov. HEMOND. The thermal storage allows the solar system work without sun.VII Nation al Cong re ss of M e chani cal Engin ee ring. Performance and design optimization of a low-cost solar organic Rankine cycle for remote power generation.br/site/arquivos/produtos/76. SORCE: A Design Tool for Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Systems in Distributed Generation Applications. "Theoretical and experimental study of an oil-free scroll type vapor expander". The Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science . Kyocera (2012). 186p.areva. Available <http://www. CRESESB (2011) . São L u is – M a ran h ão . allowing the commercialization in large-scale or by developing the national industry for this type of technology (ORC and CSP). Experimental Investigation of Scroll Based Organic Rankine Systems.pdf> OROSZ. (2004).63kWh/year on average.br/luzparatodos/asp/default. Ausra (2012). (2012). Energia extraída do sol da caatinga. H. WANG.. 955–966 REN21. J. SWERA.com/EN/solar-220/areva-solar. 6..unep. EuroSun 2010: International Conference on Solar Heating. and Buildings. also produces hot water (at least 80kW thermal).081 U$/kW.com/> Época (2011). S. S. (2011). (2011). S.058 to 0. Solar Rakine cycle system using scroll expander.com. AND D. CONCLUSION The available technologies commercial in the market is capable to built a system from 9. Renewables 2010 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat).globo.. 31 th Ju ly – 03 rd Au g u st 20 12. LI. OROSZ. Also the governments could even give financial incentives.gov. (2008) Micro-Cogeration pour les batiments residentiels fonctionnant avec des energies renouvelables. Solar thermal collectors and applications.htm > AOUN. Páginas 231-295. A. M. (2011). REFERENCES ANEEL.Concentrating Solar Power. ANEEL and CPFL for their collaboration and financial support in the development of this work. Fevereiro 2004. No 4. hence the superheating for low temperature are baneful for the system efficiency. University of science and technology of China. being the larger one. YAMADA. Available <http://www.081 to 0.html > Geradores rio preto. M. Vol. 13 de novembro 2008. Diesel generators are the smallest if compared against CSP technology. Journal of environment and engineering.University of Ontario Institute of Technology. AOUN. Proceedings of the International Compressor Engineering Conference at Purdue: paper 1188.day.. Available < http://www. (2007). Cooling. Available < http://www.com. Programa Luz para Todos.kyocerasolar.aneel. Product description..br/ > ENERTIME.. producing electricity with a cost range of 0. LEMORT.Br az il 5. The climate group.br>. Another remarkable possibility over the PV technology is the capacity to improve the system. Designed for the minimal irradiation of 3kWh/m².131 U$/kW. Solar Potential (2009). Y. (2010). 167. Tese – Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris. S. Available <www. <http://luzparatodos. 1. S.html> Brazilian Energy Balance (2011). 8. The expected cost reduction on CSP technology.gov. Pg. which could be from a passage of cloud until work all night long. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors want to thank to CAPES. S. D. B. by using thermal storage (buffer) or cogeneration processes during the solar irradiations peaks. Abril 2011. from 75% to 84%. PEI. Therefor the need of hot water (thermal power) could qualify the system to work in better conditions of cost than the PV technology.. (2008). 2. M.net> TARIQUE. (2002) – Atlas da Energia Solar. 2010. during a programed period of time. 7.epe. WAKASHIMA. CLODIC. Progress in energy and combustion science. in the range 0.03 U$/W. KALOGIROU. Cooling and Buildings. QUOILIN. Available: < http://revistaepoca. Technology Roadmap . cepel. RESPONSABILITY NOTICE The authors are the only responsible for the printed material included in this paper. which will possible reduce the cost of this technology.geradoresriopreto.2 to 8. and PV is normally more than half of the size of CSP.Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment. EPE – Empresa de pesquisa energética. Available <http://swera. CNPq. Paris. will also reflect on small-scale system. HEMOND. Solar Energy 85. FAPEMIG.mme. B. Modeling and experimental investigation of an Organic Rankine Cycle using scroll expander for small scale solar applications. the ORC Solar system is able to produce 2. JI. SAITOH. S. . almost twice more than a large CSP plants using Rankine Cycle. J. OECD/IEA. (2005) . Portugal QUOILIN.34 to 15.
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