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40th Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit 28 June - 1 July 2010, Chicago, Illinois

AIAA 2010-4627

Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Testing in a Mars Wind Tunnel


Masayuki Anyoji, Kei Nose, Shingo Ida, Daiju Numata, Hiroki Nagai, and Keisuke Asai Department of Aerospace Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-1 Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan

The aerodynamic characteristics of a 5% flat plate and NACA0012-34 airfoil in low Reynolds number (Re=0.43x104~4.1x104) and high subsonic flow (M=0.1~0.6) were investigated in the Mars Wind Tunnel (MWT) at Tohoku University. A two-component balance system and Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique have been developed to measure the lift and drag forces and pressure profiles on the model. For the flat plate, Mach number effect does not have much effect on its aerodynamic performance while Reynolds number affects the lift slope and the drag characteristics. On the contrary, for NACA001234 airfoil, both Reynolds and Mach number effects become more prominent. The lift curves are highly nonlinear and the drag polars are affected by behaviors of a laminar separation bubble in trans-critical condition. A comparison of the results obtained at different Mach numbers has suggested that the compressibility has an effect to stabilize separated shear layer. It has been verified by this experiment that the MWT can offer a unique capability to investigate airfoil performance in low Reynolds number and high Mach number flow.

Nomenclature
a Cd Cl Cp I KSV P P0 R T T0 M m Re U = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Sound velocity, m/s Drag coefficient Lift coefficient Pressure coefficient Luminescence Intensity Stern-Volmer constant Static pressure, Pa Total pressure, Pa Gas constant, J/kg-K Static temperature, K Total temperature, K Mach number Mass flow, kg/s Reynolds number Velocity, m/s Angle of attack, degree Specific heat ratio Density, kg/m3

Subscripts
c in ref Test section center Test section inlet Reference

I. Introduction

ars airplanes have been considered in NASA1,2 and JAXA3,4 as a feasible means of exploring the Mars. Using 1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Copyright 2010 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mars airplanes, we can obtain wider and more detailed information of the Mars surface than ground rovers or satellites that have been used in the current and past missions to Mars. For the optimal design of a Mars airplane, it is important to predict the aerodynamic performance with sufficient accuracy. However, the design criteria for the conventional airplanes can not be applied to the design of Mars airplanes because the atmospheric condition on Mars is quite different from that on the earth. The atmospheric condition on the Mars makes an atmospheric flight difficult. The Martian atmosphere is mainly composed of CO2 and has lower density and lower temperature than the earth atmosphere. This leads to that a Mars airplane has to perform a flight at low Reynolds number and high subsonic Mach number. In the range of Reynolds number of 104 to 105, it is known that the maximum lift-to-drag ratio of smooth airfoils significantly deteriorates. Complicated flow phenomena including separation, transition and reattachment take place on the wing surface and strongly affect the flight performance. Particularly, laminar separation bubbles play an important role in determining pressure distributions on the wing and aerodynamic characteristics. In addition, the Mars airplane flies at Mars Airplane relatively high speed to produce a lift enough to sustain its weight as well as to ensure a stabile flight in gusty NASA atmosphere. The flight Mach number reaches 0.4 to 0.7 JAXA because the sound speed is low in the CO2-based Martian atmosphere at low temperature6. The effects of the specific heat ratio () are also important since the value of is different in CO2 and air. Thus, it is expected that the flow field on a Mars airplane will become highly complicated with a strong interaction of viscous effect and compressibility effect. However, the experimental data of airfoils is very Fig. 1 Martian atmospheric flight limited in low Reynolds number and high Mach number flow (Created referring to Ref.6) region (Fig. 1). As a test facility to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of Mars airplane wings at low Reynolds number and high subsonic Mach number, the Mars Wind Tunnel (MWT) has been developed by Tohoku University late in 2007. Initially, the tunnel was operated with air as the working gas, but a modification has been made to allow the tunnel to be operated using CO2 that is the main constituent of the Martian atmosphere. The operational characteristics as well as the flow quality in the test section have been investigated both in air and CO2 mode. As a result, it has been confirmed that the Mars Wind Tunnel has a capability to simulate the Martian atmospheric flight condition and good flow quality. The details of these test results have been reported in our previous papers7, 8. In this paper, we report the results obtained in the initial airfoil tests conducted in the Mars Wind Tunnel. To evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil models at low pressures, a force balance system and PressureSensitive Paint (PSP) technique have been developed. The balance system has sensitivity high enough to measure small force acting in a low-density condition so that the lift to drag characteristics and stall characteristics could be evaluated. Also, the Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique has been applied to measure the model surface pressure distribution in the MWT tests. This paper describes these techniques and the results of aerodynamic measurement of a 5% flat plate and NACA 0012-34 airfoil at low Reynolds number and high subsonic flow in the MWT.

Fig. 2 Mars Wind Tunnel at Tohoku University 2 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

II. Mars Wind Tunnel


A. Tunnel Construction The MWT is composed of a vacuum chamber, an induction-type wind tunnel, a buffer tank, a pipe connecting the chamber and the tank, a butterfly valve in the connecting pipe as shown in Fig.3. The vacuum chamber is cylindrical, 5,000 mm in length and 1,800 mm in inner diameter. The induction wind tunnel is placed inside the vacuum chamber where the condition of Martian atmosphere can be simulated. In this arrangement, it is easy to replace the test gas with carbon dioxide that is the main constituent of the Martian atmosphere. In the CO2 operation mode, liquid CO2 from a liquid gas reservoir (ELF) is fed to a gas evaporator that can produce gaseous CO2 at the rate of 212 l/min. The evaporated gas is then stored in a high-pressure storage up to 0.97 MPa at the maximum The total length of the induction tunnel is 3,490 mm. The tunnel is made of aluminum alloy. One honeycomb and five screens are provided in the settling chamber to reduce the turbulence level in the test section. The contraction ratio of the nozzle is as high as 16 to 1 so that further reduction of longitudinal turbulence can be achieved. The test section is designed to test a two-dimensional airfoil model with a chord length of 50 mm. The cross section of the test section is 100 mm by 150 mm that was determined to keep the influence of the model blockage less than 1%. The test section is equipped with four solid walls among that both the upper and lower walls are inclined by 1.3 degrees to compensate for the evolution of boundary layers along the test-section walls. To achieve high subsonic speed under low-pressure conditions, the wind tunnel is driven by a supersonic ejector located at the end of the first diffuser. The ejector consists of five pipes each having equally-spaced six small orifices. Ejection of high-pressure gas from these nozzles reduces adjacent pressure and induces the flow in the test section. The total pressure of the wind tunnel is controlled by adjusting the gas exhausting to the buffer tank. This adjustment is made by a butterfly valve. The total pressure of the wind tunnel is measured by a Kulite pressure sensor (CCQ-093) that has been calibrated against a Baratron pressure sensor (627-12T, MKS) and a piezo transducer (Series902, MKS), for pressure ranges of 0-13.3 kPa and 0.133-133 kPa, respectively. The Kulite sensor is installed at the inlet of the settling chamber. The analogue signal from the Kulite sensor is transmitted to a controller of the butterfly valve. Before starting the wind tunnel, the vacuum chamber is evacuated to the pressure lower than the set point pressure and the buffer tank is evacuated to the pressure sufficiently lower than that of the vacuum chamber. The PID control of the butterfly valve starts when the total pressure reaches the set-point pressure. Then, the same amount of gas as injected in the chamber is exhausted to the buffer tank and the total pressure is kept constant for several seconds. The specification of the tunnel is tabulated in Table 1. Use of CO2 allows the tunnel to be operated at higher Mach numbers, because the molecular weight of CO2 is larger than that of air. The Reynolds number is ranged from 2.6x103 to 1.3x105 with the Mach number range up to 0.84 at the maximum. The results of calibration tests show that the flow across 75% of the test section height is uniform and its dispersion is within 0.35%. The velocity gradient along the test section is almost zero at the design point8.

Fig. 3 Schematic of MWT operation

Table 1 Specification of MWT at Tohoku University Operation Mode Air CO2 Total pressure 1 to 60 kPa Specific heat ratio 1.4 1.3 Mach number 0.74 (max) 0.84 (max) Reynolds number 2.6x103~1.1x105 4.2x103~1.3x105 Test time 2 ~ 8s (Pt = 1kPa) Test section 100 mm x 150mm

B. Flow Velocity in the test section The Mach number at the test-section inlet is calculated from following the isentropic flow equation;

Pin 1 2 1 = 1 + M in P0 c 2

(1)

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The total pressure (P0c) is measured by the Kulite pressure sensor installed at the settling chamber while the static pressure at the test-section inlet (Pin) is obtained from the total pressure and the differential pressure measured between the upstream and the downstream of the contraction section by using a Baratron high-sensitive differentialpressure gauge (Type 698, MKS). The Mach number at the test-section center (Mc) is calculated from P0c and the static pressure at the test-section center Pc. Pc is different from Pin due to the effect of boundary-layer development. A difference between Pc and Pin obtained by the results of calibration tests are used to calculate Mc. The velocity at the test section is calculated from Mc and sound velocity.

U c = M c a c (2)
The sound velocity is calculated from following equation.

a c = RTc

(3)

The static temperature at the test section (Tc) is calculated from the isentropic equation using the total temperature (T0) measured by a thermocouple at the settling chamber and Mc.

III. Measurement Techniques


A. Balance System The 2-component balance system consists of two load cells and a stepping motor for changing the angle of attack. The sketch is illustrated in Fig. 4 and the specification is tabulated in Table 2. The range of load cells for lift measurement (A&D AC4101 K006) and drag measurement (A&D AC4101-G600) is 60 N and 6 N respectively. Both load cells are rigid enough to sustain loads in the span direction. The accuracy of load cells is 0.015% of the full-scale output. The angle resolution of the motor is 1.44x10-2 deg and the accuracy is 3.4x10-2 deg. The angle of attack can be changed remotely from outside of the vacuum chamber. To prevent the balance from contacting to the tunnel walls, the gap between the model support rod and the pass-though hole in the wall is kept at 0.7 mm. An airfoil model is set with a clearance gap of 0.15 mm between the wing tip and the side wall. The output signal from the load cells are amplified by a DC strain amplifier (NISSHO-ELECTRIC-WORKS, DSA-100A) and then measured by PC. Table 2 Specification of balance system
Load cell Lift (A&D, LC4101-K006) Drag (A&D, LC4101-G600) Weight range 60 N 6N Accuracy 0.015% of R.O.

Stepping motor Oriental motor, CRK513PAP-H50 DC Strain amplifier Fig. 4 Sketch of balance system NISSHO-ELECTRICWORKS, DSA-100A

Resolution 1.4410-2 deg

Accuracy 3.410-2 deg

Nonlinearity 0.005% of F.S.

B. Pressure-Sensitive Paint(PSP) B-1 Theory PSP is a coating-type sensor consisting of luminescent molecules and binder. Being illuminated with light at an appropriate wavelength, the sensor molecules in PSP are elevated to the excited state. The excited molecules return to the ground state through several photochemical mechanisms; luminescence, thermal deactivation and oxygen quenching. The principle of PSP is based on oxygen quenching. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the energy of 4 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

excited molecules is transferred to oxygen molecules and no luminescence is emitted. As a result, the luminescence intensity decreases with increasing oxygen concentration. Theoretically, the relationship of the luminescence intensity I and the oxygen concentration [O2] is expressed by the following relation, known as the Stern-Volmer relation;

I0 = 1 + K SV [O 2 ] (4) I
where KSV is the Stern-Volmer constant and subscript 0 represents the vacuum condition. For air, pressure is proportional to the oxygen partial pressure (pO2=0.21p for air). Therefore, the Stern-Volmer relation can be expressed by pressure p and luminescence intensity I;

I ref I

= A(T ) + B (T )

p p ref

(5)

where the subscript ref represents the reference condition, and A(T) and B(T) are calibration coefficients. In wind tunnel tests, the surface pressure can be calculated from the ratio of luminescence intensity images obtained at the wind-on and wind-off (reference) conditions. A-2 Paint formulation and Calibration method 11 In this experiment, we choose PdTFPP (Pd(II) meso-Tetra (Pentafluorophenyl) Porphine) as the sensor molecule and poly(TMSP) (poly 1-trimethylsilyl propyne) as the binder (Fig. 5). The PSP composed of PdTFPP and poly(TMSP) is known to have high pressure sensitivity at low pressure conditions9,10 so that it is considered applicable to low-pressure experiment in the MWT. The composition of the paint is PdTFPP (4.8mg), poly(TMSP) (0.16g) and Toluene (20ml). The absorption peak is approximately 407 nm and the emission peak is 670 nm. We conducted sample tests using the chamber calibration. The pressure sensitivities of PdTFPP/poly(TMSP)PSP are shown in Fig. 6 in the pressure range from 0.4 to 1 kPa. The test gas is air and the temperature is 20 degrees in Celsius. It is seen that the pressure sensitivity is about 77%/kPa in the pressure range below 1 kPa. This is sufficiently high to resolve a small change in pressure. It is noted the pressure sensitivity is dependent on temperature. In the present experiment, however, temperature effects have not been corrected so that the PSP results shown in this paper should be considered semi-quantitative.

CH

n Si(C H ) 33

(a) PdTFPP

(b) poly(TMSP) Fig. 6 Calibration test results for air (Pref =1 kPa)

Fig. 5 Structure of PdTFPP and poly(TMSP)

IV. Experimental Setup


A. Test Model A 5%-thick blunt flat-plate and a NACA 0012-34 airfoil, shown in Figure 7 are used as test models. The chord length and the wingspan are common and 50 mm and 100 mm respectively. The flat plate is made of aluminum alloy. The cross section is rectangular with 2.5 mm thickness. The NACA 0012-34 airfoil is also made of aluminum alloy and has smooth contour. Static pressure taps are provided on the center line of the upper surface of the models to obtain the reference pressure for PSP measurement. 5 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

B. Setup for PSP measurement The setup for PSP measurement is shown in Fig. 8. The optical equipment was placed outside the vacuum chamber and measurements were made through an optical window on the top of the vacuum chamber and a transparent ceiling of the test section made of acrylic. A luminescent image was captured by a thermoelectrically cooled 12-bit CCD camera (Hamamatsu, C4742-95-12ER) with an optical band-pass filter (transmission wavelength 67020 nm). F1.4 camera lens (Nikon, 50mm) was attached to the camera. In this study, calibration is made in the test section and using the model during the evacuation process of the vacuum chamber. A change in model temperature during the calibration is small and negligible. In this method, the calibration coefficients are obtained on each pixel of the image of the model so that the nonuniformity in pressure sensitivity can be corrected.

Fig. 7 Test models

Fig. 8 Optical setup for PSP measurement in the MWT


1
Reynolds Number Effect Mach Number Effect

C. Experimental condition Figure 9 shows the experimental conditions plotted over the operational envelope of the MWT. For evaluating Reynolds number effect, Mach number was fixed at about 0.20 and Reynolds number was changed from 4.1x103 to 4.9x104. On the other hand, for evaluating Mach number effects, the Reynolds number was kept between 9.8x103 and 1.1x104 and the Mach number was changed in the range from 0.10 to 0.60. Mach number and the Reynolds number were changed by controlling the total pressure and the supply pressure to the ejector independently. Tests were conducted in the range of the total pressures from 20 kPa to 2 kPa. The test gas was air and the gas pressure supplied to the ejector was changed from 0.2 MPa to 0.80 MPa.

0.8

Mach Number

0.6

Operational Envelope

0.4

0.2

0 3 10

10

10

10

V. Results and Discussion


A. Flat Plate A-1 Reynolds Number Effects

Reynolds Number

Fig. 9 Experimental flow condition and operational envelope of the MWT

Figure 10 shows the effects of Reynolds number on the lift and drag characteristics of the flat plate model. In this experiment, Reynolds number was varied from 4.9 x103 to 4.1x104 while Mach number was kept constant around 0.2 (M = 0.19~0.22). In all cases, the lift curves are almost linear below = 5 to 7 degrees. The lift slope increases with increasing Re. On the other hand, the stall angle increases with increasing Re. At Re =1.1 x103, the lift slope is close to that obtained using the potential flow theory (=2). At the angles of attack higher than the stall angle, the lift coefficient starts to level off and keeps practically a constant value until = 15 degrees (at least). It is seen in Fig. 10(b) that the drag coefficients increase with decreasing Re, indicating that the effect of viscosity becomes pronounced. In all cases, the drag rapidly increases near the stall angles. It is noted that, for the Re range from 4.9 x103 to 1.1x104, the drag increases in two steps. This suggests that separation (separation bubble) occurs on the upper surface of the flat plate. Figure 11 show pressure distributions over the upper surface of a flat-plate model obtained by PSP for the angles of attack from zero to 12 degrees and at constant Re (1.1 x 104) and M (0.21). First, it is noted that pressure distributions are symmetric and can be considered two-dimensional except the regions near the walls. The low6 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

pressure region appears at the leading-edge and its axial length increases with increasing angle of attack. It is considered that these low-pressure regions are corresponding to the regions where laminar separation bubbles are present. When = 9 degrees, the low-pressure region covers entire upper surface on the flat-plate. The maximum lift coefficient has been achieved at this . Above this angle of attack, the separated flow would not attach to the model surface so that the lift coefficient would levels off. These observations agree well with the balance measurement in Fig. 10. Figure 12 shows a variation of pressure distribution on the flat plate in the Reynolds number range from 4.9x103 to 4.1x104. Low pressure region appeared at the leading edge of the model is caused by leading-edge separation bubble. It is noted that the reattachment length is strongly dependent on Reynolds number. At lower Reynolds number, it is considered that the flow separates at the leading-edge, attaches to the model downstream with a small distance, and forms a separation bubble. In this region, the flow reattaches to the model while maintaining laminar state, then the separation length increases with increasing Re. At higher Reynolds number, however, transition of the separated shear layer from laminar to turbulent states occurs and the separation length decreases with increasing Re.
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

Cl

Cl
0 -0.2 Re = 41302 Re = 20206 Re = 11293 Re = 6157 Re = 4900 Re = 41302 Re = 20206 Re = 11293 Re = 6157 Re = 4900 -5 0 5 10 15 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 0.05

0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Cd

(a) Lift Curve (b) Drag Polar Fig. 10 Effects of Reynolds number on aerodynamic characteristics of a flat plate for constant Mach number (M = 0.19 to 0.22)
0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.3

-0.6

-0.6

-0.6

-0.6

-0.6

-1.5
-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0

-1.5
-1
-0.8 -0.6

-1.5
-0.8 -0.7 -0.6 Cp

-1.4
-0.9 -0.8 -0.7 Cp -0.6 -0.5 -0.4
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-1.5

-0.8 Cp -0.6 -0.4 -0.2


0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

Cp

Cp

-0.4 -0.2 0

-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

0.2 0

0 0

-0.3

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

(a) = 0 deg (b) = 3 deg (c) = 5 deg (d) = 9 deg (e) = 12 deg Fig. 11 Pressure distributions on upper surface of flat plate for various angles of attack (M=0.21 and Re=1.1 x 104)

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0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.5

-0.4

-0.4

-0.6

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.2

-1.2

-1.5

-1.5
-1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 00

-1.5

-1 -0.8 -0.6 Cp Cp -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-0.8 -0.6 Cp -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0

-0.8 -0.6 Cp -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

Cp

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

(a) Re = 4.9x103 (b) Re = 6.6x103 (c) Re = 1.1x104 (d) Re = 2.0x104 (e) Re = 4.1x104 M = 0.22 M = 0.19 M = 0.21 M = 0.19 M = 0.19 Fig. 12 Effect of Reynolds number on pressure distribution on a flat plate A-2 Mach Number Effect Figure 13 shows the effects of Mach number on the lift and drag characteristics of the flat plate model for constant Reynolds number. Mach number was varied from 0.1 to 0.6 while Re is kept constant at 1.1 x 104. It is noted that the lift slope curve and the maximum lift coefficient change little when Mach number changes. This is the case for the drag polar data (Fig. 13 (b)) and the effect of Mach number is not significant in this Mach number range. Figure 14 shows pressure distributions on the upper surface of the flat plate measured by PSP at zero angle of attack. Mach number was varied from 0.21 to 0.65 while the Reynolds number is kept constant at 1.1 x 104. A separation bubble is formed in all cases and the reattachment point is slightly shifted downstream as the Mach number increases. The reattachment point and pressure recovery process are nearly unchanged and Mach number effect has little effect on the aerodynamic performance of the flat plate at low Reynolds numbers. Pressure distributions obtained at M=0.21 and 0.33 are similar to those obtained at relatively high Reynolds number cases in Fig. 14, indicating that the shear layer is reattached on the surface in the turbulent state. On the other hand, pressure distributions obtained at M=0.49 and 0.65 are similar to those obtained at relatively low Reynolds number cases in Fig. 14, indicating that the shear layer is reattached in the laminar state. This observation suggests that the compressibility has an effect to stabilize a separated shear layer and to delay transition to turbulence.
1 0.8 0.6 0.4

1 0.8 0.6 0.4

Cl
M = 0.60 M = 0.48 M = 0.31 M = 0.21 M = 0.10 -5 0 5 10 15

Cl

0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6

0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 0.05 M = 0.60 M = 0.48 M = 0.31 M = 0.21 M = 0.10 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

(a) Lift Curve (b) Drag Polar Fig. 13 Effects of Mach number on aerodynamic characteristics of flat plate for constant Reynolds number (Re = 1.1 x 104) 8 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.6

-0.6

-0.5

-0.5

-0.4

-1.5
-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0
-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0

-1.5
-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0

-1.5
-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 Cp -0.2 -0.1 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-1.5

Cp

Cp

Cp

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

0.1 0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

(a) = 0.21 (b) = 0.33 (c) = 0.49 (d) M = 0.65 Fig. 14 Mach number effect on pressure distribution on flat plate (= 0 deg and Re =1.1x 104) B. NACA0012-34 B-1 Reynolds Number Effect Figure 15 shows the effects of Reynolds number on the lift and drag characteristics of NACA 0012-34 airfoil model. In this experiment, Reynolds number was varied from 4.3 x103 to 4.2x104 while Mach number was kept around 0.2 (M =0.19~0.22). In contrast to the flat plate results (Fig. 10), the lift curves and drag polars are strongly sensitive to Reynolds number. Most pronounced feature of the lift curve is that it is highly nonlinear. The lift slope is small at low angles of attack and rapidly increases above a certain angle of attack. The turning point is delayed with decreasing Reynolds number. A similar trend can be seen in the drag polar; the minimum drag value is about the same for three different Reynolds numbers (4.3 x103, 1.1 x104 to 4.2x104), but the drag polar for Re = 1.1 x104 and that of 4.2x104 show a rapid change in lift and drag in the angle of attack range where a rise of the lift slope is seen in the lift curve. These features can be considered to represent the behavior of laminar separation bubbles in the critical Reynolds number range. Figure 16 show pressure distributions over the upper surface of NACA 0012-34 airfoil obtained by PSP for the angles of attack from zero to 14 degrees and constant Re (1.1 x 104) and M (0.21). It is noted that, in some cases, pressure distribution is distorted slightly at the free-end probably due to a flow passing through the narrow gap between the model tip and the wall (nominal 0.3 mm). However, the effects of the gap flow are limited near the tip region and negligible in the center region. At = 0 and 5 degrees, the pressure distributions show typical pressure distribution of an attached flow on the contoured airfoil. Above =5 degrees, the low-pressure region appears downstream of the leading-edge and extends its length as the angle of attack increases. These low-pressure regions are considered to correspond to a laminar separation bubble. At = 7 and 9 degrees, it is likely that the reattachment occurs in the laminar state, on the other hand, the reattachment occurs in the turbulent state at = 11 degrees. The unusual variations in the lift curves and the drag polars in Fig. 15 are considered to be associated with the occurrence of these separation bubbles. At low angle of attack separation bubble is formed near the leading edge, so the lift force increases while the drag remains almost unchanged. Then, the separation bubble is extended to downstream and the reattachment point reaches downstream of the airfoil maximum thickness point, then the drag force increases very rapidly. Figures 17, 18 and 19 show the results to PSP measurements for three different Reynolds numbers. At zero angle of attack, the flow is attached to the model regardless of Reynolds number. The leading separation occurs and a separation bubble is formed at different angle of attack. At Reynolds number of 1.1x104, the flow is attached at =5 degrees, but, at Reynolds numbers of 4.3 x103 and 4.2x104, the flow separates near the leading edge. It is noted here that, in Fig. 15, the lift curve for Reynolds numbers of 4.3 x103 shows a small step between = 2 and 3 degrees. It can be considered from the pressure data shown in Fig. 18 that this step may be related to the initial indication of a separation bubble. To fully understand the flow phenomena involved, it is required to obtain pressure data at intermediate angles of attack. 9 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0 Re = 41514 Re = 11347 Re = 4260 -0.6 -5 0 5 -0.4 -0.6 0.05 -0.2

Cl

0 -0.2 -0.4

Cl

0.2

Re = 41514 Re = 11347 Re = 4260

10

15

20

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Cd

Fig. 15

Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 0012-34 at Same Reynolds Number (Re = 1.1 x 104)

0.5

-0.5

-1.5
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0
-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 -2 -1.5 Cp -1 Cp -0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 -2 -1.5 -1 Cp -0.5 0 0.5 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 1

-2 -1.5 -1 -1.2 -0.8 Cp 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 -0.4 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

Cp

Cp

-0.5

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

x/c

x/c

(a) = 0 deg (b) = 5 deg (c) = 7 deg (d) = 9 deg (e) = 11 deg (f) = 14 deg Fig. 16 Flow Characteristics on Upper Surface as Angle of Attack Increases (M = 0.21 and Re = 1.1 x 104) B-2 Mach Number Effect Figure 20 shows the effects of Mach number on the lift and drag characteristics of NACA 0012-34 airfoil model for a constant Reynolds number. Mach number was varied from 0.1 to 0.6 while Re is kept constant at 1.1 x 104. In contrast to the flat plate results (Fig. 10), the lift curves and drag polars are strongly sensitive to Reynolds number. The region with a high lift slope decreases as Mach number increases. This is a similar effect that we observe when reducing Reynolds number, indicating that the extent of a separation bubble becomes smaller. Figure 21 shows pressure distributions over the upper surface of the airfoil model obtained by PSP for the angles of attack from 0 to 11 degrees and constant Re (1.1 x 104) and M (0.47). At = 0 degrees, the pressure distributions show the typical pressure distribution of attached flow on the contoured airfoil. At higher angles of attack, the observed pressure distributions show a typical evolution of a long separation bubble. The low-pressure regions near the leading edge are considered to correspond to the region where the laminar separation bubble is present. The reattachment length increases with the angle of attack. At = 5 degrees, it is likely that the reattachment occurs in the laminar state. A comparison between Fig. 21 (M=0.47) and Fig. 16 (M=0.21) suggests that the compressibility has an effect of stabilizing the shear layer and delaying transition to turbulence.

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0.8

0.5

-0.35

-0.5

-1.5
-0.6 -0.4 -0.2 Cp Cp 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 -0.5 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 -2 -1.5

-1.5
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 -2 -1.5 Cp -1 -0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

(a) = 0 deg (b) = 5 deg (c) = 11 deg Fig. 17 Pressure Distributions at M = 0.2(approx) and Re = 4.1x104

(a) = 0 deg (b) = 5 deg (c) = 8 deg Fig. 18 Pressure Distributions at M = 0.2(approx) and Re = 1.1x104
0.5 0 -0.5 -1.2

-0.8 -0.6 -0.4

-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0

Cp

Cp

Cp

-1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

Cp

-1

Cp

Cp

(a) = 0 deg

(b) = 5 deg (c) = 12 deg Fig. 19 Pressure Distributions at M = 0.2(approx) and Re = 4.1x103

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0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

Cl

0.2

Cl
0.2 0
M = 0.62 M = 0.47 M = 0.21

0
M = 0.62 M = 0.47 M = 0.21

-0.2 -5 0 5 10

-0.2 20 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

15

Cd

0.35

0.4

(a) Lift Curve (b) Drag Polar Fig. 20 Effects of Mach number on aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 0012-34 airfoil for constant Reynolds number (Re = 1.1 x 104)

0.2

-0.4 -1
0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 Cp -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1 -0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-1.2 -1 Cp Cp -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c 1

-1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

-1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

Cp

Cp

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 x/c

(a) = 0 deg

(b) = 5 deg

(c) = 7 deg

(d) = 9 deg

(e) = 11 deg

Fig. 21 Flow Characteristics on Upper Surface as Angle of Attack Increases (M = 0.47 and Re = 1.1 x 104)

VI. Conclusions
To evaluate the aerodynamic characteristic of airfoils in low Reynolds number and high subsonic flow, a twocomponent balance system and Pressure-Sensitive Paint technique has been developed. By applying these techniques, the aerodynamic characteristics of a 5%-thick flat-plate and NACA0012-34 airfoil were investigated in the Mars Wind Tunnel at Tohoku University. The results obtained in these experiments can be summarized as follows; 1) The force balance and PSP technique developed for the present experiment have proved to be an effective tool to measure the lift and drag forces and pressure profiles in the MWT. Using PSP, pressure distributions caused by a laminar separation bubble were clearly visualized. 2) For the flat plate, Mach number effect does not have much effect on the aerodynamic performance of the flat 12 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

plate, while Reynolds number affects the lift slope and the drag characteristics. PSP measurements show that the observed change in aerodynamic characteristics is closely related to behaviors of a leading-edge separation bubble. 3) For NACA0012-34 airfoil, both Reynolds and Mach number effects become more prominent. The lift curves are highly nonlinear and the drag polars are affected by behaviors of laminar separation bubbles in trans-critical conditions. 4) A comparison of the results obtained at different Mach numbers has suggested that the compressibility has an effect of stabilizing the shear layer and delaying transition to turbulence. 5) It has been verified by this experiment that the MWT can offer a unique capability to investigate airfoil performance in low Reynolds number and high Mach number flow.

Acknowledgments
We would like to express our sincere thanks to Prof. S. Obayashi and Mr. T. Ogawa of Tohoku University for their continuing supports to our study. Wed like to express sincere thanks to Prof. Okamoto of Kanazawa Institute of Technology for valuable discussion on low Reynolds number airfoil. We thank also Mr. T. Ono for his development of measurement techniques. We thank also Mr. S. Tanaka for his personal supports. This research was partially supported by KAKENHI (2056081) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

References
Guynn, M. D. , et al, P. A., Evolution of a Mars Airplane Concept for the ARES Mars Scout Mission, AIAA Paper, 20036578, 2003. 2 Robert D. Braun and David A. Spencer, Design of the ARES Mars Airplane and Mission Architecture, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol.43, No.5, Sep.-Oct., 2006. 3 K. Rinoie, Mars Airplane for Geographical Exploration -Conceptual Design Results from Student Design Projects, The 2nd International Symposium on Innovative Aerial/Space Flyer Systems, Univ. of Tokyo, Dec. 2-3, 2005. 4 A. Oyama, K. Fuji, A Study on Airfoil Design for Future Mars Airplane, AIAA-2006-1484, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 2006. 5 McMasters, J. H. , Henderson, M. L. , Low Speed Single Element Airfoil Synthesis, Technical Soaring, Vol. 6, pp. 1-21, 1980. 6 M. Drela, Transonic Low Reynolds Number Airfoils, JORNAL OF AIRCRAFT, Vol.29, No.6, Nov.-Dec.1992 7 M. Anyoji, H. Nagai and K. Asai, Development of Low Density Wind Tunnel to Simulate Atmospheric Flight on Mars, The 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orland, Florida, January 5-8, 2009. 8 M. Anyoji, et al, Characteristics of the Mars Wind Tunnel at Tohoku University in CO2 Operation Mode, The 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orland, Florida, January 4-7, 2010. 9 T. Niimi, M. Yoshida, M. Kondo, Y. Oshima, H. Mori, Y. Egami, K. Asai, and H. Nishide: Application of PressureSensitive Paints to Low Pressure Range, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 19(1), 9-16, 2005. 10 H. Mori, T. Niimi, M. Hirako and H. Uenishi, Pressure sensitive paint suitable to high Knudsen number regime, Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 17, pp. 1242-1246, 2006.06. 11 T. Ono, et al, Development of Pressure-Sensitive Paint Technique for Surface Pressure Measurement in a Mars Wind Tunnel, ISFV14-14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization , EXCO Daegu, Korea, June 21-24, 2010.
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