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Esperanto Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes
bo dis ek eks fi ge mal mis pra relative by marriage, in-law separation, dispersal, discommencement, suddenness former, exfilthy, disgusting, pornographic both sexes together direct opposite, inwrong, misprimordiality, remoteness of relationship return, repetition, rebopatrino, mother-in-law; bofrato, brother-in-law disj eti, to scatter about; dissemi, disseminate; disdoni, dispense, distribute; dissendi, broadcast ekdormi, to fall asleep; ekbruli, to catch fire; ekflami, burst into flames; ekiri, to set off eksrego, ex-king; eksprezidento, ex-president; eksig i, leave office, resign, retire fimensa, dirty-minded gepatroj, parents; gefratoj, brother(s) and sister(s); geknaboj, boy(s) and girl(s); geonkloj, uncle(s) and aunt(s) malgranda, little; malbela, ugly; malbona, bad; malaperi, to disappear; malami, to hate miskompreni, to misunderstand praarbaro, primitive forest; prahistorio, history of the distant past; pravorto, primitive word; pranevino, grandniece; praonklino, great aunt revidi, re-see (see again); rekanti, re-sing; relegi, to reread; redoni, return, restore

re

Suffixes
ac ad disparagement, contempt, dislike, wretched, vile, awful (adds the idea of action) action, particularly prolonged, repeated, or habitual denotes concrete idea member (of a group), inhabitant (of a country) collection (group, set) of (several or all) units of the same kind denotes possibility, -able, -ible denotes quality or state (in abstract form), -ship, -ness great in size or degree domac hovel; hundac cur; infanac brat; skribac o, o, o, i, scrawl; ac poor, rotten, awful a, nag ado, swimming; pafado, shooting; sangado, bleeding; batado, beating; kuirado, cooking; kantado, singing; parolado, speech; lavado, washing novaj o, news; pakaj o, package; glaciaj o, ice cream; ac o, purchase; konstruaj o, building etaj klubano, member of club; Akademiano, member of Academy; vilag ano, villager; Kristano, Christian; sipano, mariner, sailor; Afrikano, African arbaro, forest; vortaro, dictionary; iparo, fleet; meblaro, s furniture; safaro, flock (of sheep); homaro, humanity, human race; kamparo, countryside au debla, audible; videbla, visible; portebla, portable; legebla, legible; lernebla, easy-to-learn amikeco, friendship; blankeco, whiteness; boneca, goodness; vereco, truthfulness; felic eco, happiness; grateco, brotherliness; frauleco, bachelorhood grandega, enormous, immense; domego, mansion; virego, giant; amegi, love passionately; malamegi, detest, abhor; ungego, talon, claw; malsanega, at deaths door

aj an

ar

ebl ec

eg

ej

place (with verb root) where an action lernejo, school; nag ejo, swimming pool; hundejo, occurs doghouse; banejo, bathroom; dormejo, bedroom; kafejo, coffee-house; gastejo, guest-house; ludejo, playground; koncertejo, concert hall; preg ejo, church

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em end

denotes an inclination, bent, bias, proclivity, leaning, -full which-must-be-done

parolema, talkative; ludema, playful; timema, fearful; mortema, mortal; pardonema, merciful solvenda problemo, problem which must be solved; farenda laboro, work that must be done; legenda, must be read; lavenda, must be washed monero, coin; pluvero, rain drop; panero, crumb; c enero, link; herbero, blade of grass; semero, seed of grain; neg ero, snowflake; akvero, drop of water hotelestro, hotel manager; estraro, leadership (governing body); sipestro, captain; familiestro, head of the family; imperiestro, emperor; staciestro, station master dometo, cottage; dormeti, to doze, nap; vojeti, path; ruldometo, trailer (camper); sipeto, boat; stoneto, pebble; rideti, to smile; blueta, bluish hundido, puppy; katido, kitten; arbido, seedling; bovido, calf; safido, lamb; musido, baby mouse; regido, prince; Israelido, Israelite blankigi, bleach, whiten; akridi, to sharpen; klarigi, clarify, explain; purigi, to clean; nuligi, to nullify, cancel, void; boligi, to (cause to) boil malsekig to become wet; malpurig to become dirty; i, i, palig to grow pale; amikig to become friends; anig to i, i, i, join (a club, society); naskig to be born i, skribili, anything used for writing; hakilo, axe; ludilo, toy; fotilo, camera; tranc ilo, knife; muzikilo, musical instrument; kudrilo, needle patrino, mother; onklino, aunt; fratino, sister; bovino, cow; porkino, sow; edzino, wife; skoltino, girl scout; c evalino, mare; amikino, female friend fidinda, trustworthy; admirinda, admirable; lerninda, worth learning; leginda, worth reading; aminda, lovable; lau dinda, praiseworthy; memorinda, memorable kandelingo, candlestick; glavingo, scabbard; ovingo, egg cup; plumingo, pen holder; rozingo, bud vase Platonismo, Platonism; alkoholismo, alcoholism; imperiismo, imperialism; optimismo, optimism; turismo, turism; Budhismo, Buddhism dentisto, dentist; marksisto, Marxist; instruisto, teacher; floristo, florist; muzikisto, musician; maristo, sailor; aferisto, businessman; postisto, postal worker; (leter)portisto, (letter) carrier duobla, twofold; triobla, triple; multobla, manifold duono, half; kvarono, quarter; du trionoj, 2/3; dekono, tenth; sep okonoj, 7/8; dekonaj o, tithe unuope, one at a time; duope, in twos (pairs), two by two; triope, in threes, three by three inkujo, inkwell; monujo, purse; c apelujo, hatbox; Italujo, Italy (holds Italians); abelujo, beehive junulo, youth; drinkulo, drunkard; maljunulino, an old woman; sanktulo, saint; bonulo, a good person

er

denotes element or unit of homogeneous whole leader, head, boss, ruler, commander, chief dimunitive; weakens the idea of the root to a high degree offspring of living creatures

estr

et

id

ig

make, cause to be, render, -ify

ig

become, come to be, get, grow, turn

il

object used to perform an action, appliance, tool, implement, instrument denotes female, feminine

in

ind

worthy of, deserving of

ing ism

holder for one object (sheath, socket, stand) doctrine, movement, theory, system,ism person connected with the root, usually by profession (business, calling, vocation, habitual interest) denotes multiplication, -ple denotes fraction, -th collective numeral (number of elements together, in a group) container, receptacle, holder (also countries) denotes individual (person)

ist

obl on op uj ul um c j, nj

no definite meaning: sense is defined malvarmumo, a cold; manumo, cuff; krucumi, to by usage or context crucify; plenumi, to fulfill, perform; okulumi, to ogle affectionate endings patro, father: pac daddy; panjo, mom; Roberto, jo, Roc jo, Bob; Vilc jo, Bill

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