The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Second Urban Governance and Infrastructure Improvement (Sector) Project (UGIIP-II)
Presented by

Md. Shafiqul Islam Akand
Project Director

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

1

Project Background
    38 million people live in urban areas i.e. 28% of national population Urban population growth rate is 2.5 percent (i.e. 1.5% higher than national growth rate) Lack of urban services, poor governance and weak citizen participation are among key urban issues UGIPP II follows lessons learned from a series of urban projects supported by ADB; particularly Urban Governance and Infrastructure Improvement Project (UGIIP-I) from 2003 to 2010, 30 municipalities) Policy shift: from only infrastructure to also ‘capacity building’ of local government institutions Second Urban Governance and Infrastructure Improvement (Sector) Project (UGIIP-II), 35 municipalities (duration 2009-2014)
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

 

2

Level of Urbanization in %
39.3 29.6 23.2 19.8 14.9 7.6 4.2 5.1 25

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2005

2015

2030

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

3

Growth of Municipalities in nos.
314

178

78

1981

1998

2012

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

4

GROWING DEFICIENCIES

Access to safe drinking water: 45% Solid waste management-20% Severe traffic congestion Distorted land and housing market URBAN POVERTY
 50-60% urban population below poverty line  Low level of basic infrastructure services  Low per capita floor space  Small size and weak dwellings  Vulnerability to natural hazards  Lack of tenure and land

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

5

Growing Urban Poverty

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

6

Expected Outcome
Expanded access to and usage of urban infrastructure and services, and improvement in urban governance

Project Objectives
 Enhance capacity of Pourashavas (municipalities) to implement operate, manage and maintain basic urban services;  Improve Urban Governance;  Increase accountability of municipalities towards citizens;  Provide improved physical infrastructure and services.
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

7

PROJECT AT A GLANCE
Component B: Governance Improvement & Capacity Development (UGIAP)

Component A: Urban Infrastructure & Service Delivery
       Urban Transport Solid Waste Mgt Urban Drainage Water Supply & Sanitation Municipal Facilities Basic Services for Urban Poor

Performance Criteria:

 Citizen awareness and participation  Women’s participation  Integration of urban poor  Urban planning  Financial accountability and sustainability  Administrative transparency Outputs Municipalities

Component C: Project Management & Implementation Supports  Establish PMO at LGED office  Establish PIU at Pourashava level  Capacity Building Training  Support Extra Human Resources  Allocation of Resources

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

8

Gender Action Plan (GAP): Main Features
Improving Women’s Representation in Local Governance
 Participation of women in decision making forums;
 TLCC headed by Mayor with at least 1/3 women members in all


  


*

project municipalities; WLCC headed by Ward Councilor (at least 1/3 women members in project municipalities; GC headed by woman Ward Councilors (at least 1/3 women members); Municipal Standing Committees (at least 40% women members); SICs (at least 2/3 women); and CBO executive committee (40% women).
TLCC = Town Level Coordination Committee, WLCC = Ward Level Coordination Committee, GC = Gender Committee, SIC = Slum Improvement Committee, CBO = Community Based Organization
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

9

GAP: Main Features
Improving Women’s Participation in Infrastructure Planning

 Mass awareness and participation in planning and campaigns

(FGD, Visioning at Ward and Municipal Level);  Participation of women members in different committee meetings (CBOs, WLCC, TLCC);  Preparation of Pourashava (Municipal) Development Plan with at least 33% women participation;  Preparation of Community Action Plan (CAP) addressing women’s needs with at least two-third women participation.
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

10

GAP: Main Features
Improving Women’s Participation in Infrastructure Construction and Maintenance  Ensure at least 20% women laborers in construction;  Ensure equal wage for equal laborers for men & women;  Provide personal & occupational safety to women labor;  Ensure separate toilets and water for women laborers, employees and visitors in the municipality;  Engage women beneficiaries construction and maintenance toilets & tubewells.

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

11

GAP: Main Features
All Quotas for Women Met
 Quota set for women staff employment in municipalities;  Women friendly work environment;  women in planning, implementation of basic services for

urban poor;
 Consider women’s needs and participation in urban

service delivery mechanisms;
 Awareness raising programs targeting women; Women’s

participation in infrastructure maintenance.
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

12

Support to GAP Implementation
 Ensuring monthly Gender Committee meetings at Municipality;
 GAPs and PRAP (highlighting women’s needs and participation) prepared &


  

included in each Pourashava (Municipality) Development Plan (PDP); Separate budget allocation for GAP implementation from project and almost 2% from municipality revenue budget; Monitoring system developed in a participatory method - monthly and quarterly qualitative and quantitative reporting based on sex segregated data ; Gender sensitization and training for project and municipal staff, Gender Committee Members, women and men councilors; Guidelines developed on how to implement GAP, and gender-inclusive PRAP and UGIAP.
* PRAP = Poverty Reduction Action Plan
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

13

Achievements to Date
 33% women participation in Pourashava Development plan (PDP)       

formation through focused group discussions, Ward visioning & Municipal visioning; 1750 CBOs are operating with 7,140 women (34% ); 35 TLCCs are in operation with 591 women (33%): specific time has been provided for women members to express opinions in TLCC meetings; 1,524 women (41%) are actively taking part in 369 WLCCs; 35 GCs headed by Women Ward Councilor (WWC) & all WWCs as members are in operation; GAP in 35 municipalities prepared & included in PDP; Municipal standing committees contain 40% women members; Sitting arrangements, toilet and drinking water facilities for women Ward Councilors & women staff of municipality is ensured.

Continue ….
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

14

Achievements to Date
 115 municipality based rallies and 738 Ward based rallies organized on   

different topics; 1,481 monthly meeting of GC held & minutes prepared; 3,350 Court yard meetings held; 1,188 PGs with only poor women of slums and 153 SICs including 75% women members & chaired by a woman are active in slum development (from planning to implementation and maintenance); are active on slum development; Need based budget BDT 28.99 million has been used from municipal revenue budget for GAP implementation.

* PGs = Primary Groups

Continue ….
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

15

Achievements to Date
 Orientation conducted for 35 project Municipal bodies on GAP 


implementation; Training/workshop for member secretaries of GC 3 times; 2day workshop (by ADB) at HQ level; and 5 days ToT at regional level; Daylong training/workshop for Facilitators (CM) & Regional Coordinator (CM) 3 times & 2day workshop (by ADB) at HQ level; Daylong Orientation/Training workshop for GC chairperson at HQ level & regional levels; Workshop for the Gender Committee at regional level Trained 1,484 female members of SIC.
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

16

Policy Support to GAP Implementation
• Government enacted Municipal institutionalize TLCC, WLCC;

Act,

2009

to

• Ministry issued specific instruction to ensure women representation mentioned earlier in TLCC & WLCC; • Standing Committees also formed by the Act with

provision of 40% women representation; • Recent draft Urban Sector Policy emphasize gender mainstreaming in urban governance.

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

17

Additional Innovative Activities and Initiatives by Municipalities
Several GCs of Project Municipalities have taken additional initiatives in GAP implementation such as:  For economic development of women Project municipalities have provided training to 4,837 women and assistance to 836 women;  2,639 women (46.51%) are earning regularly;  6,741 women received health service, study assistance, adult literacy, etc. services.

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

18

Additional Initiatives taken by Municipalities
 Preventing child marriage;
 Helping oppressed women;  Ensuring  

separate toilet for women in Rail station & bus


terminals; Separate sitting arrangement for women in parks; Arrangement of female patrol police in bus stations; Campaign and resistance against dowry, eve teasing, etc. Training for girls and women on vocational skills for income generation and distribute sewing machines to them; Introducing one stop service centre for women at municipality.
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

19

Challenges Encountered
 Motivation for 



 

allocation from yearly revenue budget of Municipalities for GAP; Motivating municipal bodies (Mayor, staff & councilors) for regular effective monthly meeting and GAP implementation; Orienting and accepting GAP by local citizens; Creating scope for women members to raise opinions in TLCC and other forums; Receiving sex disaggregated data and qualitative report on GAP; Ensuring equal wage for female laborers is still a challenge; In both urban/rural areas women are gradually shifting towards self-employment and RMG from construction sector.
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

20

Lessons Learned in Facilitating Gender-responsive Urban Governance
 Legal framework established by the Government is necessary to

ensure adequate participation of women in decision making. With the Municipal Act of 2009 and following executive order of 2011, Government of Bangladesh mandated 33% women representation in TLCCs and 40% in WLCCs which has provided women the opportunity to voice their needs, issues and concerns and to participate in Ward and Municipality level priority setting;  Specific detailed conditions and performance criteria regarding GAP implementation is essential;  Strong monitoring and timely reporting from field is required;
Cont….
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

21

 Participatory approach can ensure gender-responsive governance

improvement and capacity development of municipalities that lead towards sustainability;  Regular motivational and training activities are essential to resolve social barriers in women’s participation and involvement in project activities;  Strong leadership at the Municipal level (Mayor, GAP Chairperson) can promote and demonstrate innovative practices;  GAP built in project components contributing towards project objectives helps achieving better results.

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

22

Thank You
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh

23

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