The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory Author(s): Ted Hopf Reviewed work(s): Source: International Security, Vol

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Hopf The Promiseof Ted in Constructivism International Relations Theory
challenger to the in continuing dominance of neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism the is relationsin the United States,constructivism regarded studyof international with a greatdeal of skepticism mainstreamscholars.1 While the reasons for by this receptionare many,threecentralones are the mainstream'smiscastingof constructivism's as constructivism necessarilypostmodern and antipositivist; own ambivalence about whether it can buy into mainstreamsocial science its distinctiveness; and, related to this methods withoutsacrificing theoretical failureto advance an alternativeresearchproambivalence, constructivism's claims, outline the differences gram. In this article,I clarifyconstructivism's and between "conventional" and "critical"constructivism, suggest a research agenda thatboth provides alternativeunderstandingsof mainstreaminternaTedHopfis Visiting The Ohio State University. is the He Professor Peace Research, MershonCenter, of author PeripheralVisions: DeterrenceTheory and American ForeignPolicy in the Third World, of Foreign 1965-1990 (Ann Arbor:University MichiganPress,1994) and is at workon Constructing of is a and relations developed Policyat Home: Moscow 1955-1999,in which theory identity international of and tested. can be reached e-mailat <<hopf.2@osu.edu>>. He by I am most grateful Matt Evangelista and Peter Katzensteinwho both read and commentedon to draftsof thiswork,and, more important, supported my overall research many less-than-inspiring to agenda. I am also thankful Peter Kowert and Nicholas Onuf forinvitingme to Miami in the winter of 1997 to a conferenceat Florida International Universityat which I was compelled to I come to grips with the difference between critical and conventional constructivisms. also benefitedfromespecially incisive and criticalcommentsfromHenrikkiHeikka, Badredine Arfi, RobertKeohane, JamesRichter, Maria Fanis, Ned Lebow, Pradeep Chhibber,Richard Herrmann, David Dessler, and one anonymous reviewer.I would also like to salute the members of my Irfan at of relationstheory the University Michigan,in particular, graduate seminarin international Canedo helped me figureout the relationNooruddin, Frank Penirian,Todd Allee, and Jonathan ship between the mainstreamand its critics. Politics(Readof 1. The canonical neorealistwork remainsKennethN. Waltz, Theory International 1979). The debate between neorealismand neoliberalinstitutionalism ing,Mass.: Addison-Wesley, (New York: and is presented and summarized in David A. Baldwin, ed., Neorealism Neoliberalism challenges can be found in Nicholas Greenwood Press, 1993). Constructivist Columbia University Relations(Columbia: and International Onuf, Worldof Our Making:Rules and Rule in Social Theory of ed., The Culture NationalSecurity: of University South Carolina Press, 1989); PeterJ.Katzenstein, Press, 1996); and Yosef Lapid in Politics(New York:Columbia University Normsand Identity World and in (Boulder,Colo.: and FriedrichV. Kratochwil,eds., The ReturnofCtulture Identity IR Theory Lynne Rienner,1996).
Ihnternational Security, 23, No. 1 (Summer 1998), pp. 171-200 Vol. ? 1998 by the Presidentand Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute Technology. of

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can a tional relationspuzzles and offers few examples of what constructivism uniquely bringto an understandingof world politics. Constructivism offers alternative understandingsof a numberof the central relationstheory, including:the meaningof anarchyand themesin international relationship between state identityand interest,an balance of power, the elaborationof power,and the prospectsforchange in world politics.Construcand variants,the tivismitselfshould be understood in its conventional critical latterbeing more closely tied to criticalsocial theory.The conventionalconinternational relations to structivist desire to presentan alternative mainstream theoryrequires a research program. Such a program includes constructivist theory, securitydilemma,neolibthe reconceptualizations balance-of-threat of and the democraticpeace. The constructivist research eral cooperationtheory, program has its own puzzles that concentrateon issues of identityin world politics and the theorizationof domestic politics and culturein international relationstheory.

and Conventional Constructivism Issuesin Mainstream Relations International Theory
is Since constructivism best defined in relation to the issues it claims to themes in apprehend, I presentits position on several of the most significant relationstheorytoday. international
ACTORS AND STRUCTURES ARE MUTUALLY CONSTITUTED

constrainand enable the actions of actors,and how How much do structures In of much can actorsdeviate fromthe constraints structure? world politics,a structureis a set of relativelyunchangeable constraintson the behavior of states.2Although these constraintscan take the formof systems of material dis/incentives,such as a balance of power or a market,as importantfroma constructivist perspective is how an action does or does not reproduce both For the actor and the structure.3 example, to the extentthatU.S. appeasement in Vietnam was unimaginable because of U.S. identityas a great power,
structure. thisis the neorealistconceptualizationof international 2. Most important thisarticle, for of Politics. Waltz,Theory International All references neorealism,unless otherwisenoted,are from to in is 3. FriedrichKratochwilsuggests thatthis difference the understandingof structure because structuralismentered internationalrelations theory not through sociolinguistics,but through microeconomics.FriedrichV. Kratochwil,"Is the Ship of Culture at Sea or Returning?"in Lapid and Identity, 211. p. and Kratochwil,The Return Culture of

others throughthe media of norms and practices. exercises of power. pp. thatis.that is. of and Culture 5. Meaningfulbehavior. . U. Sullivan. mainstream international relationstheory'smost crucialstructural component.and social practicesthatconstitute the actors and the structure alike. or actions. Vol. a situation where no agency is imaginable.The Culture NationalSecurity. in National Security.eds.Actors develop their relations with."What's At Stake in theAgent-Structure Debate?" International 43. So. 459-460. Jepperson.7But absent knowledge of social practices or constitutive norms.institutions. Organization. David Dessler. Appeasethe ment was an unimaginable act. Identity.Md. the absence of any authority above the of state.the or aged or the infirm.S. illustratesthe point.strucin this seeminglyoverdeterminedcircumstance. in of p.even nate.In the absence of norms..anarchy. The criticaldistinction between action and behavior is made by Charles Taylor.or action.Discord and Collaboration (Baltimore.ThePromise Constructivism of | 173 military intervention constituted United States as a greatpower. procedures. Interpretive A SecondLook(Berkeley:University CaliforniaPress. Ronald L. Constitutive norms define an identityby specifying the actions that will cause Others to recognize that identityand respond to it appropriately. and understandingsof. of One will need to know about the culture. still indetermiis ture. 1962).the United States reproduced its own identity greatpower." in Paul Rabinow and WilliamM.4is possible only within an intersubjective social context. Even in a theaterwithjust one door. pp. Alexander Wendt. 6. By engaging in the "enabled" action of intervention. is it just a mad dash? Determiningthe outcome will of require knowing more about the situationthan about the distribution material power or the structure authority.5 Since structureis set meaninglesswithoutsome intersubjective of normsand practices.while all run forthatexit. 7.can "socialize" statesto thedesiderata of the international absent some set of meaningfulnorms system'sstructure and practices. as well of as the structurethat gave meaning to its action. is meaningless. Arnold Wolfers." Katzenstein.nor the distribution capabilities. 3 (Summer 1989). would be devoid of meaning.Neitheranarchy. 33-81.: Johns Hopkins UniversityPress.and PeterJ. The scenario is a firein a theaterwhere all run for the exits. interventionin Vietnamperpetuated the international intersubjective understandingof great powers as those states thatuse military power against others.who goes first? Are they the strongestor the disabled.norms. 54.6 A storymany use in first-year international relationscourses to demonstrate the structuralextreme. No.Katzenstein. the women or the children."Interpretation SocialScience: and the Sciences ofMan. 4. 1987). "Norms.rules.

thena continuumofanarchiesis possible.8 possibilityof thinkingof anarchy as having multiple meanings for different actorsbased on theirown communitiesof intersubjective understandingsand practices. 10. 186-215. Insofaras identitiesare the most proximate causes of choices. of Security.implyingthat anarchyis as as indeterminate Arnold Wolfers'sfire. neorealistconceptualizationsof anarchyare most apt.for example.culture. 46."International Organization.A world without sufficiently 8. IDENTITIES AND INTERESTS IN WORLD POLITICS in Identitiesare necessary. Vol. in and order. The focus on identity does not reflect lack of appreciationforotherelementsin the construca tivistapproach. But where actors do not worrymuch about the potential costs of ceding control of over outcomes to other states or institutions. Elizabeth Kier.cultural. international politicsand domestic societyalike. Alexander Wendt. Where there are catastrophicconsequences for not being able to rely on one's own such as arms controlin a world of offensive capacityto enforcean agreement. action. such as norms." in Katzenstein.and institutional context. 391-425. or less.International Security 23:1 | 174 ANARCHY AS AN IMAGINED COMMUNITY it Given that anarchy is structural. is a structurally only to the extentthata single particularunderstandingof anarchyprevails.'0 order to ensure at least some minimal level of predictability Durable expectationsbetween states require intersubjective identitiesthatare stable to ensure predictablepatternsof behavior.this is a realm of world politics where neorealistideas of anarchyare just imaginary.And ifmultipleunderstandings anarchyare possible.but withthe fullrecognition and on that identitiescannot be understood withouta simultaneous account of normative. the thatall states should prefersecurity indeSelf-help. anarchic. 9.preferences. pp. "Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Constructionof Power Politics. Elizabeth Kier.thenone can of begin to theorize about different domains and issue areas of international politics thatare understood by actors as more.9 If theimplicationsof anarchyare not constantacross all relationships and issue areas of international politics. TheCulture National "Culture and FrenchMilitaryDoctrinebeforeWorldWar II. this move opens the tional relations theory.I concentrate them.Alexander Wendt has offereda constructivist critiqueof thisfundamentalstructural pillar of mainstreaminternaBut still more fundamentally. neorealistinference determinedbehavior of an actor pendence wheneverpossible. military advantage. such as in the enforcement trade agreements. 2 (Spring 1992). must be mutually constitutedby actors employingconstitutive rules and social practices. . No.and institutions. shows how the same "objective" externalstructural arrangement of power cannotaccount forFrenchmilitary strategy between the two world wars.

317-356. Journal International of Studies. The identityof a state implies its preferences and consequent actions.The crucial observationhere is thatthe producer of the identity not in controlof is what it ultimatelymeans to others.Constructivism stressesthat this propositionexempts fromtheorizationthe very 11. and with respectto particularactors."pp. p. All of the above are in Katzenstein."Norms.The Cultureof National Security. p. The Soviet ForeignPolicy Revolutionand the End of theCold War.ThePromise Constructivism of | 175 identitiesis a world of chaos. Human Groupsand Social Categories: Studiesin SocialPsychology (Cambridge. notions of what constitutes "humanitarian"shaping deciin of sions to intervene otherstates.but also by daily Soviet practice. 114-152. Whereas constructivism treatsidentity an empiricalquestion to be theoas rized within a historicalcontext." in Katzenstein. Other examples of empirical research that have linked particularidentitiesto particularsets of preferencesare "civilized" identitiesdriving attitudes toward weapons of mass destruction. These argumentscan be found in Richard Price and Nina Tannenwald. Robert Herman. "Status.U. identity Japan. TheCulture NationalSecurity. "Identity. No.which of course included conversingwith East Europeans in Russian. For example. Martha Finnemore. 3 (Winter1993). pp. Proliferation Conventional Weapons: An Institutional of Theory Approach. offer cognitiveexplanationbecause it has minimala prioriexpectations. and superpower manipulation.K.and National Security: and National Securityin Germany and pp." Norms. despite the factthatthe Soviet Union was trying hard not to have thatidentity." pp. world much more dangerous than anarchy. 22. 1981). Identity. 12.Identitiesperformthree necessaryfunctions a society:theytellyou and otherswho you are and they in In tell you who othersare.: Cambridge UniversityPress. Soviet control over its own identitywas structurally constrainednot only by East European understanding.neorealism assumes that all units in global that of self-interested politics have only one meaningfulidentity. On of and mutual intelligibility. a world of pervasive and irremediableuncera tainty. Berger. and the century. a assuming only thatidentitiesare needed to reduce complexityto some manageable level.controlling rationalstrategic for need. 454. "ConstructingNorms of Humanitarian Intervention. domestic coalition politics.11 tellingyou who you are. and "antimilitarist" foreignpolicies. 255."Norms and Deterrence:The Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Taboos.countries in the third world prefer certain weapons systems over others because of their understandingof what it means to be "modern" in the twentieth Dana P. "The Bounds of 'Race' in International see Relations."Millennium: Vol. and Thomas U. Eyre and Mark C. Roxanne Lynn Doty. states. Henri Tajfel. the intersubjective structureis the final arbiterof meaning. findthat. forexample.the identity a "normal" stateimplyingparticular Soviet foreign identitiesin Japan and German shaping their post-World War II policies. during the Cold War." pp.Yugoslavia and other East European countriesoftenunderstood the Soviet Union as Russia.Norms. 153-185. Although there are many accounts of the origin of I identity. Dana Eyre and Mark Suchman. 271-316. identitiesstrongly imply a particularset of interests preferences or with respectto choices of action in particulardomains. .12 A it to state understandsothersaccording to the identity attributes them. 73-113. Suchman.while simultaneouslyreproducingits own identity throughdaily social practice.

390-391. "InternationalInstitutions: StudiesQuarterly. "Culture and Preferencesin the ScienceReview. N."American pp. (Princeton. "Culture and French MilitaryDoctrine before World War II.and chemicaland submarine organizations withoutfirst understandingthe identitiesof the military warfare. where instead. that imply intereststhat are not consistentwith the practices and structure At an thatidentity. has shown how the preferences greatpowers beforeand during WorldWar II withrespectto theuse and nonuse ofstrategic bombing. actors." International of 14. Vol. "Norms and Deterrence. Contested Press. Keohane.and therefore tion is that interestsare absent where there is no reason for them. JaneK.:PrincetonUniversity . is assumed to have a single eternalmeaning. otherwords. 118-137.Jeffrey Legro. Robert Keohane calls the failure to contextualizeinterestsone of the major weaknesses of Two mainstreaminternationalrelations theory." Peter Loizos Identities: Genderand Kinshipin Modern Greece and Evthymios Papataxiarchis. but neorealism further Such a homogenizingassumption is possible only if one denies that interests. 1991). Constructivism. 32. the extreme.23:1 | 176 Security International fundamentalsof internationalpolitical life.of states are a cultural. responsible for shaping those preferences.Robert 0. actor would not be able to imagine constitute an absent interest.constructivism particular interestscome to be. is.J. The explanaalso true. See. 203.and unsatisfying tautological. 4 (December 1988). Cowan. having different from the identity"great power" implies a particularset of interests those implied by the identity"European Union member. 1 (March 1996).most common. 90. For a brilliantaccount of how social structure and interest. the state in international politics. "Going Out for see of enables and impedes the construction identity in Coffee?Contestingthe Grounds of Gendered Pleasures in Everyday Sociability.across time and space. Vol. Tannenwald. political." and Kier. Constructivism instead assumes that the selves. even if presentedwith it.Just as identities and interestsare produced are as throughsocial practices. but also why many interestsdo not. a priori. theylikelydepend on historical. Approaches. omissions that are the understandable product of social cannot an The social practicesthat constitute identity practicesand structure.14 a exploresnot only how By makinginterests centralvariable.and social context.missinginterests understoodby constructivists produced absences. 15. meaning of absent interests.15 13. actors are interests the productsof the social practicesthatmutuallyconstitute that are and structures. No. Constructivism and neorealism share the assumption that interestsimply assumes that states have the same a priori choices." p. for example. pp. Jeffrey Legro. The neorealistassumption of self-interest In just what is the selfbeing identified. forexample.constructivist logic precludes acceptance of pregiveninterests.are unfathomable W. No.. or identities. eds."and that identities are multiple.the nature and definitionof the presumes to know. pp. variable. 196-197. theorizes about the promised gains are too meager.13Given thatinterests the productof identity. Political International Cooperation Two-Step.

that power is more than brute force. Antonio Gramsci's theoryof ideological hegemony. THE POWER OF PRACTICE Power is a centraltheoretical elementforboth mainstreamand constructivist but their conceptualizations of approaches to internationalrelations theory. is important to recognizethatideas.. Neorealism and neoliberalinstitutionalism assume power are vastlydifferent.ideology. Walkerhas clarified." in Walker. ideas. Worldof Our Making. whethermilitary economic or both. 18. N.J.17 The notion thatideas are a formof power. p. Culture. 1984). 3. pp. Michel Foucault's articulationof the power/knowledge nexus. and interests otheractors thatprevail in particular of historicalcontexts.and ideology are bound up withmore immediately visible kinds of political.and anarchy: states are expected to have (1) a farwider arrayof potentialchoices of action before them than is assumed by neorealism.ed. economic power.. and Max Weber's differentiation coercion fromauthority all precursors of are to constructivism's position on power in political life.18Empiricalwork exists 16. 64. Ideas and ForeignPolicy (Ithaca.1980). Ideology. Jr. and ed.identities. suggest thatcultureand ideology are crucialforthe analysis "To it of world politicsis not necessarilyto take an idealist position. Keohane. On the contrary.: Cornell University Press.: Westview Press. and (2) these choices will be constrainedby social structures thatare mutuallycreatedby states and structures via social practices.: HarvesterPress. As R. Nye. U.Hegemonies. 1993).. thatis.and that materialand discursive power are related is not new. choices are rigorouslyconstrainedby the webs of understandingof contrary. Joseph interpreNye's conceptualizationof "soft" power could be usefullyread througha constructivist tation. Colo.The Promise Constructivism of | 177 The consequences of this treatment interestsand identitieswork in the of same directionas constructivism's account of structure.B.and language.military. aned 1972-1997. eds.. A rare effort the mainstreamliterature break away fromthis focus on materialpower is in to JudithGoldstein and Robert 0.Y. (Boulder. See also Onuf. 1991).. culture.is the single most or in important source of influence and authority global politics. agency.. Sussex. Colin Gordon.. AntonioGramsci.ed. esp. Bound to Lead: The Changing NatureofAmerican Power (New York: Basic Books. and World Orders.byMichel Foucault(Brighton. In other words. the practices.K. and Walker. emphasize both because oftenconstructivists dismissed as unRealistic for believing in the power of knowledge.B.. "East Wind. 17. thatmaterialpower. consciousness.16 Constructivism argues thatboth materialand discursive power are necessaryforany underI are standing of world affairs.To the constructivism." In R. states have more agency under but that agency is not in any sense unconstrained. discourse.WestWind: and WorldOrder Civilizations. trans.culture.Selectionis thePrison from Notebooks. 173-201. Quinton Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International . Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews OtherWritinigs.J.See JosephS.p.

identities: great power. 19.1992). In Price and Tannenand wald. and Max Weber. No.N.ally. Onuf sees these reproduciblepatternsof action as the product of "reflexiveself-regulation.S.Jervispointed out that state actions.J. Vol. here I concentrate the discursive side.S. imperialist.International Security 23:1 | 178 in both international relationstheoryand securitystudies that demonstrates the need to appreciateboth the materialand the discursiveaspects of power. "Norms and Deterrence. Others observing the United States not only inferred U. 1 (Spring 1981). such as gunboat diplomacy.the meaning of being an In imperialist statewas reproducedby the U.but web of meaning about what precisely also reproduced the intersubjective constituted thatidentity.. States. but social practicesnot only reproduceactorsthroughidentity."Millennium: Journal International of Studies. Karl W." wherebyagents refer theirown and other'spast and anticipatedactionsin deciding how to act. therebyincreasingconfidencethatwhat actions one takes will be followed by certainconsequences and responses fromothers. 1953).enemy. 10. ed.FromMax Weber. The Logic ofImages in International Relations(Princeton. 21. Applying Erving Goffmann's self-presentation theoryto international politics. Hans Gerthand C. . of in the twentieth century througha close readingof the interaction between materialand discursive Relations power. 60-80. and so on. pp. RobertW. example. and World Orders: Beyond International Theory. The power of social practiceslies in theircapacityto reproducethe intersubjective meanings that constitutesocial structuresand actors alike. "Social Forces. 126-155. WrightMills (New York:OxfordUniversity Press. thata group of countries To for an attributed imperialist to identity the United States. 1946).20 An actor is not even able to act as its identity until the relevantcommunity the of meaning. also reproduce an intersubjective social structure throughsocial practice. 20. Deutsch. The U.A most important and so. 1970). dominance demise of nineteenth-century British supremacy.S. military intervention Vietnamwas consistent in with a numberof U.: PrincetonUniversityPress. were meaningless unless situated in a larger intersubjective communityof diplomaticpractice.Social power of practiceis its capacityto produce predictability practicesgreatlyreduce uncertainty among actorswithina socially structured community. Deutsch was a constructivist long ahead of his time to the extentthat he argued that individuals could not engage in meaningfulaction absent in some community-wide Anotherwork constructivist essence is RobertJervis's intersubjectivity. the extent.S.to paraphrase Karl Deutsch."RobertCox has provided an account of the rise. Price and Tannenwald show that even power as material as nuclear missiles and chemical artillery had to be understood and interpreted beforeit had any meaning. the power of on practicein constructivism. to Onuf. military intervention.World OurMaking. and the rise and reproduction U.21acknowledges legitimacyof that Publishers.S. order. pp. Nationalismand Social Communication: Inquiryinto the Foundations An of Nationality (New York:MIT Press. 62.reproduction.19 Given that the operation of the material side of power is familiarfromthe mainstreamliterature. identityfromits actions in Vietnam. of p. Cox. thisway.

243. 4 (October-December1987). No.The Promise Constructivism of | 179 action.silence alternative interpretations.boundaries of understandingbecome well known. Ashley.22 The meanings of actions of members of the community. In this way. 53. discipline. 24. 409. 12. Vol."The Geopolitics of GeopoliticalSpace: Toward a CriticalSocial Theoryof International Politics. well as the many communitiesof as identity found therein. Finally. No. No. Ashley. p. fora discussion of this process. RichardK. in Vol. See Richard K. the appropriate domains in which specificactors may secure recognition and act competently. and Carol Cohn. . the power to control intersubjectiveunderstanding is not the only formof power relevantto a constructivist approach to world politics.23 rize. including the international community."25 Although I have necessarily concentratedon articulatinghow discursive power works in this section. 454.for example. Vol.in thatsocial context. well as the actions of as Others. have the power to reproduce entirecommunities.and orchestrate collectivemaking of history.definesits sociallyrecognizedcompetence.24 State actions in the foreign policy realm are constrainedand empowered by prevailing social practicesat home and abroad. "Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique. "Sex and Death in the RationalWorld of Defense Intellectuals. p. 12. 2 (Summer 1988). p. 32 (Summer of 1987). making some interpretations of realityless likelyto occur or prevail withina particularcommunity. Richard K. the ultimatepower of practiceis to reproduce and police an intersubjective Social practices. Richard Ashley."Millennium: Journal International of Studies.become fixed throughpractice." International StudiesNotes(1988)."The Bounds of Race. and secures the boundaries that differentiate domestic and international the economic and political spheres of practice and.by thatactor." p. or disciplininginterpretation. 23.The power of practiceis the power to produce intersubjective It meaning withina social structure. is a shortstep fromthis authorizingpower of practiceto an understandingof practiceas a way of bounding. See Doty. practhe tices. Ashley. 25." Alternatives."ForeignPolicy as PoliticalPerformance."Signs:Journal Women Cultureand Society. Having resources that allow oneself to deploy discursive wherewithalto sustain institutions necespower-the economic and military 22. pp. writesof a foreignpolicy choice as being a kind of social practicethatat once constitutes and empowers the state. 687-718.and police. the extentthattheyauthoto reality. 17. foreignpolicy practicedepends on the existenceof intersubjective "precedentsand shared symbolicmaterials-in orderto impose structure interpretations upon events. with them.Ashley concludes.

are not impregnable. does power of practice. and particularity.and police. No. although difficult chalto lenge. 37-47. that"bad" neorealiststructures if thoughtaway.27 Constructivism conceives of the politics of identityas a continual contestfor controlover the power necessary to produce meaning in a social group. contrary some critics28 to who assert thatconstructivism believes that need only be change in world politicsis easy. See. R. So long as thereis difference. What constructivism offer an account of how and where change may occur. implies that there are many different understandingsof anarchyin the world. pp."The False Promise of InternationalInstitutions. thereis a potentialforchange. set of hypothesesabout the same. And Walker rightlyobserves that constructivism.B. John J. Thus.and quite imperviousto change. 31. and so state actions should be more varied than only self-help. CHANGE IN WORLD POLITICS Constructivism agnostic about change in world politics. 1 (Winter1994/1995). Vol. But thisis an observationof already-existing reality. Mearsheimer. example. in factconstructivism appreciates the power of structure. the extentthat it surfacesdiversity.but it does not offerany more hope for change in world politicsthanneorealism. These intersubjective structures. "Realism.Alternative actorswith alternative identities. 1 (March 1987). for example. Vol.pp. for no other reason then it assumes that actors reproduce daily theirown constraintsthroughordinarypractice. to opens up at least potentialalternatives the current prevailing structures.Constructivism's conceptualizationof the 26. ." International Security.discipline. and sufficient capable of effecting and Americansupremacy. 19.J.but also its possible demise. pracmaterial resources are theoretically tices. These different undermaintained by the standings of anarchy are still rooted in social structures. a or. is One aspect of constructivist power is thepower to reproduce. change in world politics is very hard indeed." International StudiesQuarterly. When such power is realized. for example.Change.Constructivism's insightthatanarchy is what states make of it. 5-49. Walker. to difference. esp. 27. RobertCox's account of British for perhaps best illustratesthe extraordinary stayingpower of a well-articulated ideological hegemony.26 restoresmuch is It varietyand difference world affairs to and points out the practicesby which intersubjective order is maintained. Criticalconstructivism denies this vigorously.International 23:1 | 180 Security of sary forthe formalizedreproduction social practices-is almost always part of the storyas well. however. 28. change. No.more precisely. and International PoliticalTheory. 76-77.

neorealismand constructivism share fundamental concernswiththe in role of structure world politics. p.the effects anarchyon statebehavior.and Katzenstein.stable." wherein constructivism.and Katzensteindifferentiate kind of "sociological" analysis performed the in theirvolume from "radical constructivist the position"ofRichardAshley. on each concern. consistent or Both criticaland conventionalconstructivism on the same side of thebarricadesin YosefLapid's are characterizationof the battle zone: the fixed.and the prospectsforchange. and 29. natural. also resolves some issues by adopting defensible rules of thumb. reflectivism. the of They disagree fundamentally. As. Walker. Neorealism's positionthatall statesare meaningfullyidentical denies a fairamount of possible change to its theoretical structure. in Mearsheimer."The False Promise of International Institutions. Jepperson.the of definition stateinterests. ture. and CulWendt. ."Norms. for example. conventional constructivism.The Promise Constructivism of | 181 relationship between agency and structure grounds its view thatsocial change is both possible and difficult.J.anarchymust be interpreted have meaning.B.See Jepperson. unitary. becomes "conventional" constructivism.David Campbell. Identity. power is both materialand discursive. a collection of is principles distilled from critical social theorybut without the latter'smore theoretical epistemologicalfollow-through. ratherthanfollowingcritical theory theway all in up the postmodern critical path. notes 41 and 42.Contra neorealism. however. natureof power. 30. stateinterests part of the process of identity construction. R. constructivism assumes that actors and structuresmutually constituteeach to are other. note 128. In sum.or conventions. postmodernism. Althoughconstructivism shares many of the foundationaleleit ments of criticaltheory. Wendt."p.30 Below I sketch out the relationshipbetween conventional and criticalsocial theoryby identifying constructivism both those aspects of critical theory that constructivism has retained and those it has chosen to conventionalize.and poststructuralism all reduced to "critical are theory.and change in world politics is both possible and difficult.and Cynthia Weber. The result." 37.29I situate constructivism this way to highlight both its commonalitieswith traditional international relationstheory and its differences with the criticaltheorywith which it is sometimesmisleadingly conflated. 46. Constructivisms: Conventional Critical and To the degree that constructivism and epistemologicaldiscreates theoretical and its originsin critical tancebetween itself it theory.

"CriticalTheoryand the Inter-Paradigm Debate. On Diplomacy. Identity. 32. the mutual constitution actor and of structure." p."The Geopolitics of Geopolitical Space." in and WorldOrder. Vol." pp.p. Vol. 67. the mode. and Culture. accept the restoration agency to human individuals.32 Both believe thatintersubjective realityand meanings are criticaldata forunderstandingthe social world. p. No. example. theymust be relatedto. Jepperson. meaning-producing."37 The authors are carefulto stressthattheydo not depart from"normal science" in this volume.Walker."p.International 23:1 Security | 182 relationstheory)hand." Millennium: Journal Interof nationalStudies. 3-20.U.given. . in the social environment which they were gathered. of social construction.: Basil Blackwell.35Both also power of practice in its disciplinary.36 Perhaps where constructivism most conventionalis in the area of methis The authors of the theoretical introduction The to odology and epistemology.38 This position is anathema to critical questions theorywhich. of pp. and Disorder: The Case of the Arab States System. 2 (Summer 1987). theother (constructivist) one." International StudiesQuarterly.J.K. 1987). Wendt. interactive. R."The Geopolitics of Geopolitical Walker. Both aim to "denaturalize" the social world. Ideology. In this respect. vigorously. or matterof fact. constructed. 4.31 Conventional and criticalconstructivism share theoretical do fundamentals. "Culture's Ship: Returnsand Departures in International Relations Theory. 16.on the one (mainstreaminternational and on the emergent.Hegemony.B. and Ashley."Norms. 37. CultureofNationalSecurity. that is. 3 (September1993). 33. Mark Hoffman.even partial."thatis. Space. Finally."Institutions.are. No.34Both accept the nexus between power and knowledge. See Taylor. 37. contested. 195. process-like. Roles. of both stressthe of reflexivity the self and society. 271-296. Yosef Lapid.both criticaland conventionalconstructivism be understood as sharingan can interpretivist epistemology."in Lapid and Kratochwil. 31. 409-410. "Norms and Deterrence."World Politics and WesternReason: Universalism. has a lengthybill of particularsagainst positivism. pp.Culture. as part of its constitutiveepistemology. for and perhaps defensively.exceptions are Price and Tannenwald. Barnett. James Der Derian. thatis. 233-236. 38. Ashley. 403. Genealogy Western A of Estrangement (Oxford." 35."and Michael N. pp. more generally. and essence-like. "Interpretation and the Sciences of Man. deny that their authors use "any special interpretivist methodology.and Katzenstein. 34.in order to understand theirmeaning. The only. 36.33Both insistthatall data must be "contextualized. to empiricallydiscover and practicesand identitiesthat people take and reveal how the institutions as natural.the product of human agency. in fact. and situatedwithin.The Return Culture and Identity. and none of the contributors eitherdeviates fromthatground or whether it is appropriate.Pluralism.

"The Geopolitics of Geopolitical Space. Responsibility. No. and riskshiding the patternsof dominationthatmightbe revealed if closure could only be deferred. 42. No.39 Ashley chides all noncritical approaches for"anticipating analysis coming to a close. This difference manifestsitself as well in how critical and conventional constructivism understand identity. Mark Hoffman.still assumes that it can specifya set of conditionsunder which one can expect to see one identityor another. But critical theoristshave a different aim. Thomas Bergermakes claims about Japanese and German nationalidentities thatimplya certainoutcome foran indefinite period of time to come. forexample. Rearticulation. criticaltheorists can an argue. critical theoryrejectseitherthe possibilityor the desirability a minimal or continof gentfoundationalism.and power relationsthatunderlay the productionof those identitiesare somehow fixedor constant. p. Ashley.Vol.ThePromise Constructivism of | 183 Conventional constructivism.The Returnof Cultureand Identity.42Such a claim requiresthe presumed nonexistenceof relevantunobservables. "ViolentPerformances: in Identity.constructivism adopts positivistconventionsabout sample characmethods of difference. fordifferences this issue. norms. See also Stephen J. "The pp. 408. 15."Millennium: Journal International of Studies. Berger.41 So. Sovereignty. Conventional constructivists wish to discover identitiesand their associated reproductivesocial practices. 41." 232. institutions. 3 (July-September 1990).and multiple understandings.as well as the assumptionthatthe practices. accepting that a contingent universalismis possible and may be necessary. while expectingto uncover differences. Reinscription.It mustbe critically deconstructed soon as it acquires as a meaning. In making this choice. constructivism offer understandingof social realitybut cannot criticizethe boundaries of its own understanding.David Campbell. They also wish to surface identities. and National Securityin Germanyand Japan. on 40. Hoffman. of Vol. none of these factorscan be so easily immobilized foreitheranalysis or prediction." p. p." In allowing for such prematureclosure."In contrast. Forms of Internationalization: Representation WesternCulture on a Global Scale. teristics. the analyst participatesin the normalization or naturalizationof what is being observed. Four Voices in 39."Restructuring.not to but to elaborate on how people come to believe in a articulatetheireffects. Identity. 20. Criticaltheorists would see thisas an illusion of control. identities.This is what Mark Hoffmanhas called "minimal foundationalism. Reinscription. process tracing. 164-166.40 reach an intellectually To satisfying point of closure. 1 (Spring 1991). p. 170." Lapid and Kratochwil. Rearticulation: Critical International Theory. Reconstruction.Rosow. David Campbell argues that no identity(or any other theoreticalelement for that matter) may be allowed to be fixedor final. 289.and then offeran account of how those identitiesimply certain actions. "Norms.and spuriousness checks." Alternatives. "Restructuring. Reconstruction.and this is preciselywhat criticaltheoryis all about." .

Perhaps conventionalconthatidentity helps him construct structivism could accept this assumption: the need for others to construct moves beyond thisposition with the aid of oneself. 1988).43 social entities while largely ignorethisinjunction. Press. For a review ofthisissue see Friedrich pp. criticaltheoryaims at whereas conventional formation.In other words.Simulating criticaltheorists. Webersimilarly Exchange the Intervention. Reflections 46. Press. of and Kratochwil."in Lapid Blaney.: Cambridge University "Is Kratochwil. and a capacity to fosterchange. theShip of Cultureat Sea or Returning?" 44.whereas Nietzsche."Knowing Encounters:Beyond Parochialismin International pp. and Lacan. p.44 are no foridentity. (Cambridge.constitution. 206-210. remarkedabove. 3. his other.23:1 | 184 Security International single version of a naturalized truth.and in a relatedvein. critical and fixingof the their own participationin the reproduction. exploding the mythsassociated withidentity as wish to treatthose identities possible causes ofaction. Relations Theory. Tzvetan Todorov and Ashis Nandy.45 necesto produce one's own identityis found in with an other sity of difference Hegel's bondsman's tale. be separated. respectively. a subject of the same self-reflective also split over the originsof idenConventional and criticalconstructivists accommodate a cognitiveaccount Whereas conventionalconstructivists tity. that could make. The discussion of the work of Todorov and Nandy is in Naeem Inayatullah and David L.K. offer account at all.U.and Symbolic Sovereignty: Max Weber. forexample. Cynthia Weber points this out as a very importantdistinction from separates conventionalconstructivists state and more modernistapproaches.46The former between her approach to the 43.Critical constructivists in theorythus claims an interest change. Political . throughpractice.but criticalconstructivism to allows difference reign. 45. Conventionalconstructivists of understandingsof the connectivity subjects with adopting interpretivist meaning.The Return Culture on see Anne Norton. For an account of identitybased on these three theorists. and Identity. They realize thattheactorand observercan never theyobserve.The observerneverbecomes othersubjectsin a web ofintersubjective criticalinquiry. 1995). 65-84. where the more powerful slaveowner can neither nor know his own identity exercisehis superiorpower untilhis slave. no conventionalconstructivist recognize theorists self-consciously In addition.Freud. everyselfis incompletewithoutan other)until The theyencounteredpeoples in the Americas and India. State. assume thatEuropean identitieswere incomplete(indeed. accepts the existence of identitiesand wants to conventionalconstructivism use but understandtheirreproductionand effects. criticalconstructivists more likelyto or As see some formof alienationdrivingthe need foridentity. criticalconstructivists critical social theory to specify some understanding of the origin of identity.: JohnsHopkins University Identity (Baltimore. Md.

For a very useful analysis of how different accounts of identityhave made theirway throughfeminist theorizing. 23. "The Question oftheNext Stage in International Relations Point of View. 477-491. see Richard K. of pp. pp. 91. 377-378. 219. 1 (Spring 1992).Vol.if deemed equal. power as both materialand discursive.47 Critical theory'sapproach toward identityis rooted in assumptions about power. and International Relations. see Sacrificial Logics:Feminist Theory and theCritique Identity of (New York:Routledge.or domination ironicallyappears similar to the expectationsof realistsand neorealistsabout world politics. theyare not necessarilyinterested interrogating in those relations. 50. p. Studies. CriticalTheory. For an alternativeaccount of international relationstheoryfroma criticaltheoryperspective in which conventional constructivism's positions can be found as well. of anarchy as a social construct. or his oppression. see and thereis always a dominantactorin thatexchange. No. For a view on preciselythe point of the emancipatory power of criticaltheory. Vol. Allison Weir. Vol. Ashley."Discourse and Power in Development:Michel Foucault and theRelevance of His Work to the Third World. 48. 21."Knowing Encounters. This is takenfrom Andrew Linklater. My views on the differences separatingcriticaland conventionalconstructivist positions on power were shaped in conversationwith JimRichter. No. Chris Brown. 2 (Summer 1994)."pp. remains "analyticallyneutral" on the issue of power relations.48 Criticaltheorists power being exercisedin every social exchange. No.see Ashley. 1996).and stateidentities and interests as variables-conventional constructivism does not accept critical theory's ideas about its own role in producing change and maintainsa fundamentally different understandingof power. Critical theory'sassumption that all social relations are instances of hierarchy. p. On the construction anarchy. 51."Millennium: Journal ofInternational Vol. 49.Unmaskingthesepower relationsis a large part of criticaltheory'ssubstantiveagenda. 4 (October-December 1984)."'TurtlesAll the see Way Down': Anti-Foundationalism. Inayatullahand Blaney. the otherhand. 10. conventional on constructivism.49 The different conceptualizations of power imply differenttheoretical agendas. and is based on his interpretation Jurgen of Habermas."Untying the Sovereign .Although conventionalconstructivists share the idea that power is everywhere. "criticaltheoryanalyzes social constraints and cultural understandingsfroma supreme human in interest enlightenment and emancipation." International Studies Quarterly.in particular. subordination." Alternatives. 27.because they believe that social practices reproduce underlying power relations." Millennium: Theory: A Critical-Theoretical Journal International of Studies. See ArturoEscobar. 65-66. esp."50 Although conventionaland criticalconstructivism share a number of positions-mutual constitution actors and structures.51 47. "Three Modes of Economism. 4 (December 1983).The Promise Constructivism of | 185 the latterimplies eitherthe assimilationof the other.if inferior. No. Whereas conventional constructivismis aimed at the production of new knowledge and insightsbased on novel understandings.

Vol. 5. 54. geographically proximatestate with offensivemilitarycapabilities and perceived hostile intentions." in Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave. conventionalconstructivism more willing to accept the ontological is status of the state when theorizing." pp. 1970).54 Whereas geographicalproximity and offensive military capacitycan be established a priori. U. 20. but against particularkinds of power." p."Untyingthe Sovereign State. eds. whereas criticaltheorydemands thatthe state remain a zone of contestation. its autonomous existence should not be accepted.K."ConstructingInternational Politics. Stephen M. BALANCE OF THREAT. By acknowledging that "one cannot determinea priori . "Falsification and the Methodology of ScientificResearch Programmes. 26. 91-196. The latter is the power possessed by a relatively capable. in Biersteker." International Security.Several constructivist scholarshave pointed to balance of threatas one of the mainstream State.perceived intentionsthreatentautology. 1987. while I adopt Lakatosian criteriafor what constitutesa in progressiveand degenerativeshift a researchprogram. For the criticalview of the state." International Studies Quarterly. Vol. p.International Security 23:1 | 186 A Constructivist Research Agenda This sectionaims at moving constructivism fromthe margins52 articulating by a loosely Lakatosian research program for a constructivist study of internaI tional relations. It is a loose adaptation because. 1 (Summer 1995).Y: Cornell University Press. 33.The attemptedfix was to claim that states will balance. see Thomas J. p. Steven Walt rightlyobserved that this is empiricallywrong. The last step is forconstructivism point out its own weaknesses.Quotation on p.and should be understood as such." 392.p. pp. 248-251. 53. CONSTRUCTIVIST SOLUTIONS Constructivism provide alternative can accounts of the balance of threat. "InternationalInstitutions. p. For the challenge to constructivists develop a research program or be marginalized.and the liberal theoryof the democraticpeace. one can say only that all of them are likely to play a role. 253. neoliberal institutionalist accounts of cooperation under anarchy. Criticism and the Growth Knowledge of (Cambridge.The first step is to show that constructivism offers competingunderstandingsof some key puzzles frommainstream international relationstheory.: Cambridge University Press. . No."Critical Reflectionson Post-Positivismin InternationalRelations.see to Keohane. 52. No." Waltz does not offer nontautologicalmeans forspecifying a threat. For criticism a similar vein. not against power. He suggested. instead.see Ashley.N. that states ally against threats. 266. Neorealism tells us that states ally against power. For the formerconventionalview. which sources of threatwill be most importantin any given case.See Imre Lakatos. .TheOriginsofAlliances(Ithaca. securitydilemmas. to MAINSTREAM PUZZLES. In addition. Waltz.. . 3 (September1989). see Alexander Wendt.I do not adopt his standardsof falsificationismor theirassociated "protective belts" of auxiliaryhypotheses. The second move is to suggest what new and innovative puzzles constructivism promises to raise.53 presentthisresearchagenda in threesections. 72.

Peter J.55 accountsmost susceptibleto a constructivist is a theory of threatperception.as an instance of superior Russian power in Europe.and this is precisely what a constructivist account of identity offers. Politics. ances. 78. Instead. Katzenstein.S. 27-28. communist. NATO.| 187 of The Promise Constructivism What is missinghere alternative. how of the the United States constructed Soviet communistthreatneeds to be understood in relation to how WesternEuropeans understood that threat. the United States. of in TheCulture NationalSecurity. the Soviet Union demonstratedby its behavior thatit was an objectivethreat account would be thatthe state identities to WesternEurope. 361-368. otherwise."Introduction:AlternativePerspectives on National Wendt. not only explains the anticommunist as but it also tellsus thattheUnited Statesunderstooditself theanticommunist protector a particularset of values both at home and abroad. each rooted in of domesticsocioculturalmilieus. or authoritarian as what? First.S. were not operative." Katzenstein.instead regardingthirdworld states as economic actors or as former colonies. "Collective Identityin a Democratic Community:The Case of "Identityand Allipp. actions in the Cold War." pp. Identity. for example.Britain. Germany. In particular. directionof U. not the Soviet Union. that the United States balanced against the and what thatmeant Soviet Union because of the latter'scommunistidentity. Second.the issue mustbe how France.the United States would have been balanced against. anticommunist whereas theUnited Statessaw the thirdworld duringtheCold War as an arena forbattlingcommunism. and the Soviet Union. See Thomas Risse-Kappen.p. Security. International and Culture. such to the United States.produced understandings one anotherbased in on differences identityand practice. Russian." in Katzenstein.If."Constructing stein.So as an Asian.it means thatotherpossible Soviet identities."Norms. and Wendt. The potential advantage of this apin proach is that it is more likelyto surfacedifferences how the Soviet threat sites than is the neorealistapproach. how the United StatesunderstoodtheSoviet threat. threat. Stalinist.as in Vietnam. join in U. then France would not readily ventures against the Soviet Union. A constructivist of WesternEurope. thatemergedafter of Distribution power cannotexplain the alliance patterns World War II. 55. . 63.Europeans very rarelyunderstood it in those terms. 401-404. Barnett.and Katzenpp. France understood the Soviet threatas a Russian threat. for example.If true."p. which acwas constructedin different cords objectivemeaning to Soviet conduct. and the United States came to understand Soviet militarycapabilities and The neorealistaccount would be that as geographical proximity threatening. Jepperson. Let us imagine.The CultureofNationalSecurity.

" p. can taintymightbe best treatedas a variable..57 States understand different states differently.uncerstates or two neutral states.ratherthan a constantto assume. N."in KennethA. NEOLIBERAL COOPERATION. I thankMaria Fanis forbringinghome to me the importanceof thinking about world politics in this way. 478. Knowing that anotherstate is an aggressorresolves the securitydilemma. 414.a sufficiently discount (high appreciation)rate forfuture and an gains fromthe relationship.Constructivism provide an understanding of what happens most of the time in relations between states. namely.and so on."58 empiricalmission is to surface the "background" that makes uncertaintya variable to understand.59 56."Three Modes. Oye. "Explaining Cooperation under Anarchy: Hypotheses and Strategies. see also Ashley. Ashley.we do not see much evidence of standing conflictual security dilemmas among many pairs or groups of states:membersof the same alliance. Vol. No. identitiesreduce uncertainty. 59." World Politics. Neoliberalism offers compelling arguments about how statescan achieve cooperationamong themselves.International Security 23:1 | 188 SECURITY DILEMMAS. increased confidencethat the other state is in fact threatening. pp.the intentionsof others.but only by replacingit with certain an insecurity.bowing generouslyto Karl Deutsch. Cooperation underAnarchy (Princeton.capacityto monitorany noncooperaof low tive behavior and punish the same in a predictablefashion.Simple iterative interaction among states. nothing threateningat all. expectationthatthe relationshipwill not end in the foreseeablefuture.may stilllead to cooperativeoutcomes. Oye.J. perhaps two peaceful In the study of world politics.:Princeton University Press."The Geopoliticsof GeopoliticalSpace. 58. 57. 1-24. pp." p. pointed out. As Richard Ashley. ed. 1978). members of the same economic institution. 1986). not a constant. 2 (March "Cooperation under the SecurityDilemma. Kenneth A. By providing meaning. Soviet and French nuclear capabilitieshad different meanings forBritishdecision makers. But as importantas the securitydilemma is to underrelationsamong states. politics itselfis impossible in the absence of "a backgroundof mutual understandings and habitual practices that orients and limits the mutual comprehensionof of Constructivism's practices. Securitydilemmas are the products of presumed uncertainty. 30.even when theypreferto exploit one another. 167-214.The conditionsminimally necessaryforsuch outcomes include transparency action. But of course is certainty not always a source of security. RobertJervis.the signification social action.56 They are assumed to be commonplace in world politics because states presumably cannot know. . with sufficient certaintyor confidence.

For an early foundational volume that includes theoretical and specification. International Regimes (Ithaca. see ed.despite large numbersof players..60 Constructivism sharesneoliberalism's conclusionthatcooperationis possible under anarchy. The regimes literatureis vast.help provide these necessary conditions for cooperation.Instead it mightsee itselfas a partnerin pursuit of some value otherthan narrow strategic In interest. Too littleattention 60. LogicofCollective Action. or organizations.61A constructivist approach mightbegin by investigating how states understand theirinterests withina particularissue area. By formalizingthese relationships. Keohane. treaties." 386. Robert Keohane presents as the heart of neoliberalismtwo fundamental assumptions:thereare potentially beneficialagreementsamong states that have not been reached. After Hegemony (Princeton.ThePromise Constructivism of | 189 International institutions. 1983). p.the absence of a group large enough to provide a public good. Elaborationof the marketfailurelogic is in Robert0.and so on.J. Krasner. These were situationswhere communitiesof identityexisted such thatthe players were not in a noncooperativegame in the first has been paid to thisinsight.laws. a institutions help increase the confidenceof each statethatit will not be exploited and that its own cooperative move will be reciprocated. empiricalillustration. 1984). StephenD. but sufficiently small to avert coordinationproblems no (a k-group).Y.institutions help reduce each state's discount rate for futuregains while increasingeach state's expectationthatthe relationshipwill continueinto the future. again enhancing confidencethat a defectionwill be seen and a cooperativeaction will be followed by the same.: Cornell University Press. and they are hard to achieve.institutions enable states to see what other states are doing. hegemonicleadership. By creatingrules and procedures for surveillance and sanction. "International Institutions. Perhaps it would no longerunderstandits interests theunilateral as exploitationof the otherstate. place. N. By having rules about what constitutes violation of a relationship. The assumption of exogenous interests an obstacle to developing a theory is of cooperation. The distribution identities of and interests the of relevantstates would then help account forwhethercooperation is possible. Keohane. 61. all parties can have greater confidence that violations will be punished. .:PrincetonUniversity Press.but offersa very different account of how that outcome emerges. establishingformalmechaBy nisms of surveillance. Sittingdown to negotiatea trade agreementamong friends(as opposed to adversaries or unknowns) affects state's willingnessto lead with a cooperaa tivemove. Mancur Olson bracketeda host of situationswhere cooperationwas relatively easy. N. whetherin the formof regimes. some self-critique.

. pp. 63. Weingast. Richard Ned Lebow.the less certainty one has.63 On the other side of the life cycle. . the closest one can get in social life to being able to confidently expect the same actions fromanother actor time aftertime.Y. Formal game-theoretic consistently shows thatit should matter. that is.In this respect. Shepsle. Keohane. p.International Security 23:1 | 190 A constructivist such intersubjective account of cooperationwould reconstruct communitiesas a matterof course. but onlywhen assumed to do so. Identitiessubsume reputation. Ideas and ForeignPolicy. facilitation iteration. Peripheral Visions:Deterrence Theory American and Foreign Policyin theThird 1965-1990 (Ann Arbor: Universityof Michigan Press. identitiesare a congealed reputation. has one particular problem in mind: uncertainty. see Geoffrey Garrettand BarryR.being a particularidentityis sufficient provide necessary diagnostic information to about a state's likely actions with respectto otherstates in particulardomains. Kreps. Interests." 387. and of course the developmentof rules. LogicofImagesin International Relations. For a recognitionthat "shared focal points.ceterisparibus. and themore likely it will be to break down? Neoliberalismhas concluded thatan important part of ensuringcompliance with agreementsis the developmentof reputationsforreliability. See JonathanMercer. and that.: Cornell University Press. such as contracts. of enabling of decomposition. 1996). neoliberals argue that institutions die But when membersno longer"have incentivesto maintainthem. On the criticalimportanceof a theoryof reputationto account foreconomic transactions."Ideas. David M.62 of the One most importantcomponentsof discursivepower is the capacity to reproduce in order and predictability understandingsand expectations. Empiricalwork in international relationshas shown thatreputationsdo not work as hypothesizedby most international relations and theory.U. in she usually When a neoliberalwritesof difficulty reachingan agreement."in JamesE. Many of the institutional mechanismsdescribed above are aimed at reducinguncertainty among states: provision of transparency. "International Institutions. Peace and War:The NatureofInternational Crisis(Baltimore. pp. Alt and see Kenneth A.A constructivist but thata priorissue must be raised: Is it not likelythatthe level of certainty is a variable associated with identity and practice.Reputation International Politics(Ithaca. 90-143. and Institutions: Constructing the European Community's Internal Market. Between World. eds.have much in common with intersubjective realityand its capacity to promote cooperative solutions to iterativegames. Ted Hopf.: JohnsHopkins University Press.monitoring capabilities."64 one of the more enduringpuzzles forneoliberalsis why theseinstitutions persistpast the 62." in Goldstein and Keohane. 173-206. "Corporate Culture and Economic Theory. 1994)." a la Thomas Schelling.theharderthatcooperationwill be to achieve. 64. and Jervis.and adjudicawould agree thatthese are all veryimportant. the more institutional devices are necessaryto produce cooperation. and it does.: Cambridge work on reputation University Press.1990). tionprocedures.K. Perspectives PositivePoliticalEconomy on (Cambridge. Md. N. 1981).

No.Neither structural normativeaccountsfareverywell. "Assessing the Dyadic Nature of the DemocraticPeace. 4 (Autumn 1985).see Keohane. This is meant as a with narrowself-interest continuum." with the obvious positive relationshipbein tween interest the regime and willingnessto expend resourcesto maintain it afterhegemonic decline. 3 (April 1976).by democracies and the authoritarian states alike. Their answers include lags caused by domesticpoliticalresistanceto adjustment. the stickinessof institutional and the transactioncosts entailed in arrangements. 317-343. 66.68The former nor requiresassuming a consistently bellicose executivebeing constrainedby a pacificpublic and its duly-electedrepresentative institutions-butonly when democraticadver65. On transaction costs. 610-611.ThePromise Constructivism of I 191 point that great powers have an apparent interestin sustainingthem. THE DEMOCRATIC PEACE. Vol. pp. For a comprehensivereview of the most recentliterature the democraticpeace. 527. Duncan Snidal. includes as an untheorized variable "interestin the regime. 68."American PoliticalScienceReview. p. being arrayedat one end of the spectrum. 3 (September1996).66 Duncan Snidal. Theory.neoliberalinstitutionalizationof self-interested cooperationin the middle. community identity of toward the other end. ChristopherGelpi. see State Power and the Structure International of Trade.through exploring the and identities natureof the norms. Anotherconstructivist hypothesisoffers itselfhere: institutionalized cooperationwill be more likelyto endure to the extentthatthe identitiesof the membersof thatinstitution understood are as common and they are reproduced by a thick array of social practices. esp. 90. power and interestshave shifted. constituting membershipin some can institution.even if apparent underlying thenthe institution enterprise. and Dan Reiter. and an on with the status quo (a variable subject to constructivist empiricaltestthat shows thatsatisfaction interpretation) the single most important is factoraffecting use of force. Krasner. provide some measurable substantivecontentforthatvariable. pp. On lags and stickiness. No. Stephen D. how they understand the emergence and reproductionof such cooperation yields very different accounts and research agendas. Rousseau.practices. the renegotiationof agreementsand the establishmentof a new order. The observation that democratic states have not fought each other is an empirical regularityin search of a theory. and neoliberals agree that anarchy does not preAlthough constructivists clude cooperation among states.65 An alternativeconstructivist hypothesiswould be that if the identitiesbeing reproduced by the social practicesconstituting thatinstitution have gone beyond the strategicgame-playing self-regarding units posited by neoliberals." World Politics. No. After Hegemony. "The Limitsof Hegemonic Stability International Vol. 1918-1988. 28. 39. Vol." Organization. 67. and have developed an understandingof each otheras partnersin some common will persist. in his formalrepresentation of what is most likelyto happen as a hegemon falters. . and harmonyat the otherpole. see David L.67Constructivist research.

Cooperation among Democracies. I do not tryto compile a comprehensiveset of questions forconstructivists.then it must be because of same. Constructivism perfectly is suited to the task of testingand fundamentally revisingthe democraticpeace. For a very well developed researchdesign to test constructivist versus mainstreamaccounts of the democratic a peace.their intersubjective accounts of each other. Perceptionsof Imperial of Germany.69Its approach aims at apprehending how the social practicesand normsof statesconstruct identitiesand interests the the of each other.ethnicity. For accounts of the democraticpeace that focus on its contextualintersubjective characters. see Ido Oren. respectively. are untenable and untested. one of not limitedto democracies.International Security 23:1 | 192 saries are about. These pacific periods are obviously not associated with any how Africanand Latin "objective" indicatorsof democracy. see Colin Kahl.religion. and how they constructeach otheris a major part of the constructivist researchprogram. Collective Liberal Identity. 30. 71.and the socio-international practices that accompany those accounts. if democracies do not fight the way they understand each other. gender. Community."International Security.70 But constructivism a could offer more general account of zones of peace. 20. "Collective Identityin a Democratic p. and Risse-Kappen. "The Subjectivity the 'Democratic' Peace: Changing U. 2 (Fall 1995). 147-184.nonviolent resolution of differences. Thomas Risse-Kappen." Security Studies(forthcoming). what norms and practicesaccompany theirreproduction.themes thatdo not have a prominent place in mainstream international relationstheory. franchise.By investigating American states constructedthemselves and others.S. "Constructing Separate Peace: Constructivism. FirstAmendment-and its crucial assumption thatthese norms the actually matterto decision makers in democraticstates when making choices about war and peace with other democracies. an account of global politics. No. each involved in are ality. pp. and the Democratic Peace. .but its naturalizationof certain the aspects of liberalism-the market. The latterhas more promise. Ergo.71 proposes a way of understandinghow nationalism. instead merely but elaborate general themesforresearch." pp. Vol. Understandinghow identitiesare constructed." Constructivist Puzzles an It Constructivism offers account of the politicsof identity.it might be possible to understandthese neglectedzones of "authoritarian peace. 70.Different periods of the histories bothAfricaand Latin America have been marked by long stretchesof little or no warfare between states.and sexuand otherintersubjectively understoodcommunties. 69. 366-367. race.

Vol. 1996) pp. and role in any given political context."in ibid. theyare centralto how constructivism generatesunderstandings social phenomena. then we should expect different patternsof behavior across groups of states with different identities and interests. see also Roxanne Lynn Doty. For a most imaginative pp. not merely because they are topical or heretofore undervalued.J.U.K. Return Culture Identity. For a criticalview of neorealism'sbelated efforts capture nationalism.Ann Tickner observesthatcontemporary masculinizedWestern understandings of themselveslead to feminizedportrayals the South as "emotional and unpredictable. If true. 129-145. for an exploration of "Christian" and "European" states versus "Islamic" "Asiatic" Turkey.73 One of the most important of by-products thisconcernwithidentity politics is the returnof differences among states. a priori.Tickner. of "Identityin International Relations Theory:FeministPerspectives."Collective Identity a DemocraticCommunity."Revisitingthe 'National': Toward an IdentityAgenda in Neorealism?.The Promise Constructivism of | 193 Although nationalism and ethnicity receivingmore attentionin mainare streaminternational relationstheory." Thomas J.thatidentitiesare potentially part of the constitutive practicesof the state. "Ground Identity:Nature.based on the identitiesof each. 73. ."Sovereignty and the Nation: Constructing the Boundaries of National Identity.The 74.Iraq had If. forcesto deploy on Arab territory. many different actorsin world politics.The Returnof Cultureand Identity. Identitieshave much more meaning for each state than a mere label. in effect.it is impossible to make such an a prioriclaim. of Place.74 Although it is temptingto assert that similarity breeds cooperation. criticalconstructivist treatment nationalism. For example." in findsa common identity withinthe NorthAtlanticTreatyOrganization.: Cambridge University Press."in Lapid and Kratochwil. 327-348. 121-147.72Constructivism promises to deal with these issues.and so.motives." ratherthan a "sovereign. productiveof its actions at home and abroad. Understandinganotherstate as one identity.Risse-Kappen. Biersteker in and as CynthiaWeber.S. Iraq's understandingof Saudi Arabia as an Arab state implied that Riyadh would never allow U. 72. and Space in Nationalism.interests.eds.pp.its nature. attentionto gender.but because as varietiesof identity.and different statesbehave differently toward other states.. Michael Barnetthas speculated that the failure of deterrenceagainst Iraq in Kuwait in 1990 is because Saudi Arabia was seen as an "Arab.see Daniel Deudney.see Yosef Lapid and to FriedrichKratochwil. and religionhave received much less. Neumann and Jennifer M. instead. probable actions. ratherthan another. has consequences for the possible actions of both. pp. No. For example.sexuality. For example. 4 (October 1991). attitudes. Welsh. 105-126. Identitiesoffer each state an understandingof other states.."state. "The Other in European self-definition. StateSovereignty Social Construct (Cambridge. and certainly none of them is part of either neorealist or neoliberal accounts of how the world works. in Lapid and Kratochwil. 17.see also Iver B. race. The same state is. of and pp." Review of International Studies. Construcof tivismassumes. 147-162.

"Past as Prelude. Yale Ferguson and Richard Mansbach. "Institutions. Michael N." 392. the extentthatconstructivism ontologically international To is agnostic-that is. 423.and so forth.Ferguson and Mansbach.enemy."AnarchyIs What States Make of It. pp. including and would have been deterred. militaryintervention. in "International Institutions. has made this observationabout "reflectivist" p."p. forexamples.and so on. 77. and Disorder: The Case of the Arab States System. Vol. 276.For similarlaments. Roles. But if alternativeidentitiesare possible. No. but instead as an ally. In U. No.76 Finally. pp. Barnett. friend." p. caliphates.a democracy." pp. throughout A thirdconstructivist promise is to returncultureand domestic politics to relationstheory. forexample. Barnett." both in Lapid and Kratochwil. kingdoms.Constructivism has no inherentfocus on "second image" accounts of world politics."What's At Stake. 49.International Security 23:1 | 194 understoodSaudi Arabia as a sovereignstate. 271-296.polis. in some cases. it does not include or exclude any particularvariables as relameaningful-it envisions no disciplinarydivides between international tions and comparativesubfields(or any fieldsforthatmatter). See Risse-Kappen." such as a city-states."Collective Identity a DemocraticCommunity.constructivism promises to explain many other meaningfulcommunitiesof identity world politics."International Organization.The Return Culture of and Identity. Nationalism. While these common axes of analysis are certainly relevant." "Sovereignty. Roles.co-guarantor.S. 3 (Summer 1995)." International StudiesQuarterly. each of which had and. as constructivism suggests. and Disorder. 37. 76. 3 (September1993). 85-104." p. In fact. Vol.such as thatof Saudi Arabia. neorealistpredictionsof balancing behavior. an appropriate criticismwould be that it has remained far too long at the level of analysis.see Dessler.78 constructivism systemic Nevertheless. and Sujata ChakrabartiPasic. and Regional Order in the Arab System.75 other words.in a realistworld. the neorealist world is smaller than alleged. provides a promising 75. 78. 471. great power-non-greatpower. in and Michael N. constructivism's expectationof multiple identitiesforactors in world politics rests on an openness to local historicalcontext. and Barnett. Alexander Wendt acknowledges he has "systematically bracketed" domestic factorsin Wendt.. pp. empires.This receptivity identities to being generated and reproduced empirically. . North-South. rely on a single particularidentitybeing ascribed to that countryby Iraq. has and will have. opens up the study of world politics to different gether. offer rich varietyof "polities. scholarship. ratherthan restingon pregiven units altoassumptions.it would have perhaps expected Saudi balancing against Iraqi actions in Kuwait. "Institutions. "CulturingInternational RelationsTheory. threat. Keohane. 479-510. 22-28.77 Hypothesizingdifferences among statesallows formovementbeyond the typical binary characterizationsof mainstream internationalrelations: democratic-nondemocratic. civilizations. Or anotherstatemay not be seen as another"state" at all. meaningfulidentitiesin world politics.

1996). 80.identity at politicsat home constrainand enable state identity.and Indian culturewas understood and archaic. Normsin international are againstapartheid (Ithaca.: Cornell UniversityPress. productive and unproductive. theywielded. 81. N. Two worksthatmake the connection at between domesticidentity construction home and state relations: struggle the identity Audie Klotz.79 thisway. reproduction its cannotbe understoodwithoutinvestigatingthe social practices that accompanied it and the discursive power. N.Y.The Promise Constructivism of | 195 approach foruncoveringthose featuresof domestic society.81 Even ifmaterialpower is necessary to produce imperialism. Ashis interests. The critical difference that Cottam does not see Britishconstructionsof is themselvesor theirsociety'sparts as relevantto an understandingof British images of Egyptians.82The state's assumed need to a at construct nationalidentity home to legitimizethe state'sextractive authoron ity has effects state identityabroad. Within the state itself might exist areas of cultural practice. and actions abroad. the respectively. to Richard Cottam's very interesting account of imperial British images of Egypt. 1977). A more criticalconstructivist account 79.CulturalNormsand National Security (Ithaca. I mentiononly several here. Inayatullahand Blaney. sufficiently and to empowered throughinstitutionalization authorization.for example. differentiating latterinto young and old."Culture and FrenchMilitaryDoctrinebeforeWorld War II. 1995). 76-80. RichardCottam. 82. culture.80Whereas conventional accounts of colonialismand imperialismrelyon disparitiesin relativematerial power to explain relations of domination and subordination.: Cornell University Press. Compare this.Foreign PolicyMotivation: GeneralTheory Case Study(Pittsburgh: A and University of Pittsburgh Press. exerta constitutive or causative influence on state policy.In these ways Victorianunderstandings itselfmade as infantile of India comprehensibleto Britainin a particularway.There ticsthatshould matter stateidentity are many different ways in which a constructivist account can operate at the domestic level." ."Knowing Encounters.and polito and stateactionin global politics.Katzenstein. Nandy has writtenabout the close connectionbetween VictorianBritishgenerationaland genderidentities home and the colonizationof India. See Kier.constructivists would add thatno account of such hierarchical outcomes is completewithout exploring how imperial identities are constructedboth at home and with respectto the subordinatedOtherabroad.Y. One mightsay thisabout the Frenchmilitary between World Wars I and II. Victorian at Britaindrew a verystrict line between the sexes and also between generations. Any state identityin world politics is partly the product of the social In practicesthatconstitute thatidentity home. especially in the formof related identities. Britishcolonial dominance was understood as masculine in relationshipto Indian's femininesubmission. and Peter J."pp.

have described how differently treatthe originsof identity and the nature of power. not a theory."in reviews of constructivism and Katzenstein. 2 (January 1998). 324-348. "Is p.a price thatone may or may notbe willingto pay. Kratochwil. theoretical. and Their Limits:A TheoreticalReprise. it readilycombineswithdifferent critilinguistics. CONSTRUCTIVIST PROBLEMS A constructivist researchprogram. is a theoryof process. pp.see Jeffrey Checkel. "The Constructivist World Politics. ent. Constructivism fieldsand disciplines. DiscoursesofGlobal of Politics: Critical A (Re)Introduction International to Relations (Boulder. politics. For othercritical of p.constructivism Far fromclaimingprimacyas a theoryof international to lends itself collaborationwithotherapproaches.: Lynne Rienner. but theirexistenceneed not necessitatethe donning of protective belts of any has sort.and imply different is Kratochwil's statementreinforcesthe point that constructivism an apAnd if it is a theory. No.constructivism some theoryof politics to make it work. ventional constructivism UnitedStatesForeign Policyand thePolitics 83.and and outside. 3. it comes at a price.has unexplained anomalies.84 Paul Kowert and Jeffrey Legro construction offered any of the authors by thereis no causal theoryof identity in the Katzensteinvolume. 319-363." world politics. must adopt stantive outcome. I criticaland conand/or aestheticinterests.1994). Vol. 1992) and JimGeorge. itselfis the product of structural culturaland media studies.83 its A last promise of constructivism concerns not so much researchissues as offersa heterogamous research approach: research strategy. 85. This is done by David Campbell.Colo.so as to justify own rule at home. 50.literary criticism. Turnin International RelationsTheory.depending on empirical."European in Journal International of (1997). cal theory. Paul Kowert and Jeffrey Legro. Literatures decision making. "Norms. and Emanuel Adler. Identity. Criticaltheoryis farmore advanced but in thisregardthan conventionalconstructivism. 3 Ground: Constructivism World Politics. No. the Ship of Culture at Sea or Returning?" 206. . not subit proach.International Security 23:1 | 196 mightbegin by positingthe state's need foran Other in world politics. Vol. pp."Seizing the Middle Relations. In order to achieve the latter.both withinpoliticalscience in socialization. postmodernpolitical theory. and no doubt others.like all others. T.Constructivism thatis. 84.Conventionalconstructivism one large problemthathas several parts. for FriedrichKratochwilhas observed thatno theoryof culturecan substitute have pointed out that a theoryof politics. experimental cognitiveand social psychologywould seem to be most promising partners.TheCulture NationalSecurity.politicalculture. 469. Writing Security: ofIdentity (Minneapolis: University Minnesota Press.85Both criticisms as accurate as theyare differare remedies.

a theoryof process. subordination.and state-society struggle. criticaltheoryasserts its ultimateopenness to variation Of and change. not a single authorin the Katzensteinvolume assessed gender.however.the more it loses the possibility of maintaining the But the dilemma is methods afford.is more closed thanthatofits conventionalversion. Moreif can over.The Promise Constructivism of | 197 It is here thatcritical theoryfindsits animatingtheoryof politics. they choose.is the absence of a causal theoryof identity.class. but no a priori predictionper se.and social structures.By assuming that the identitiesof the Self and Other are inextricably bound up in a relationship of power. is or race in any of theiranalyses.practices.which stands accused of theoretical underspecification. domination. and that the state is a dominating instrument. The advantages of such an approach are in the nonpareil richness of its elaboration of causal/constitutivemechanisms in any given social contextand its openness (and not just in the last instance.providing an understanding of a process and an outcome. Instead. constructivism specifieshow these elements are theoretically situated vis-a-vis each other.let as alone the precise nature or value.in some social context. norms. of its main causal/constitutiveelements: identities. not a binaryopposition.a priori. Their to is only constraint just how durable theybelieve the social structures be that interthe theyhave demonstratedare constraining reproductionof identities. conventionalconstructivists make predictions. course. when RisseKappen argues that North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members regardeach otheras liberalallies. critical theorists can offer theoretically informed accounts of the politicsof identity: at least along the dimensionsspecified. ontologicalopenness thatits interpretivist a continuum. Just to take one example. The dilemma is thatthe more conventionalconstructivism moves to furnish such a causal theory. ratherthan as realiststatesbalancing against a threat.as in critical elementsat work. norms. The problem of underspecification existsbecause conventional constructivism. This observation(not criticism) intendedto underlinehow conventionalconstructivists already bound theira prioritheoreticaldomains according to empirical interestand theoreticalpriors. . The theory)to the discoveryof othersubstantivetheoretical cost here.is an ironic one that naturalizes certain "realities.emancipation. but the point here is that its theoryof politics.For example.thatof hierarchy." privilegingsocial relations of dominance and hierarchy.Conventionalconstructivists and do can specify their theoreticalelements in advance in practice. is making a prediction: NATO memberssee each otheras liberal if he allies. The price paid for such theories of politics. ests.however. NATO will persistbeyond the point where the threatdisappears.and practices.does not specifythe existence.

work on the connectionbetween identity The last problem with constructivism really not so much a problem as it is is an advantage. Since actors and structuresare mutually constructed.implied interests each. TheConstructivist Promise The assumptionsthatunderlay constructivism account forits different understanding of world politics. p.The answer may lie in trying marryconstructivist to process to psychological process.such as humanitarian interventionthatnorm). such as ridingpublic transportation. Criticaltheorists tional constructivism's to confidently declare theirindifference the issue: establishingcausality is an illusory goal. an interest opposing Japanesemilitary and expenditures(or between beliefin a norm.even in a limited domain for a short period. Here again. and an action to fulfill and behavior in social psychology. constructivist heterogamy allows foran attempted fix.86 To the extentit is possible to establisha causal link between a particularidentity. practicesthatconstitute the both.. . ing in lines. But what is missing is the decision based on the identity.it mightbe attainablethroughongoing ism. In fact. 479. Kowert and Legro point out the failure of any author in the Katzensteinvolume to establishmore than a correlative relationshipbetween an identityand an outcome. its of identities. and the overall social structureis necessarilyvast and varied. Constructivism's to theoryof process and commitment interdemands on the researcherto pretivistthickdescriptionplace extraordinary the gathermountains of elaborate empiricaldata. and going to bars and caf6s to participatein local practices.) The point here is that the evidence necessary to develop an understanding say.state behavior in the face of different distributionsof power or 86. requires thousands of pages of reading. Constructivism no is shortcut. relationto domestic of.and a standhost of less conventionalactivities.monthsof interviewsand archival research.International Security 23:1 | 198 One obstacle to the development of a causal model of identityis convensilence on the issue of intentionality. Kowert and Legro discuss the possibilityin termsof the experimentalsocial psychologicalwork of MarilynBrewerand Jonathan Turner. Ibid. To reconstruct operation of identitypolitics.(The latterneed not be so onerous.the authors do far more than that:they control for alternativeexplanations and they show the connectionbetween norms and interests and outcomes.a nationalidentity. in such as Japanese antimilitarism.

Since constructivist and possible.of ThePromise Constructivism I 199 meaning of anarchyis unknowable absent a reconstruction the intersubjective and actors.any account of (non)cooperation among them should begin by exploring how their underSince communitiesof standingsof each othergeneratetheirrelevantinterests.Since what constitutes a threatcan never be stated as an a priori. the a priori and exogenous attribution identitiesimply different identicalinterests statesis invalid.Contraryto both these two approaches. and social practices reduce uncertainty.norms.primordialconstant.domains withinwhich actorsshare understandings themselvesand each other. It denies the criticalconstructivist position thatworld politics is so heterogeneous thatwe should presume to look foronly the unique and the differentiating. Conventional constructivism rejectsthe mainstreampresumptionthatworld politicsis so homogenous that universallyvalid generalizationscan be expected to come of theorizingabout it. gards world politicsas an arrayof fragments to and regards efforts constructsuch a whole as a political move to impose . conventionalconstructivism in presumes we should be looking forcommunitiesof intersubjectivity world of politics. patterned behavior over timeshould be understoodas a resultofmaterial social pracor economic power workingin concertwithideological structures. identityare expected to exist.yielding predictable and replicable patterns of action within a specificcontext. the Since identities. ble. change in world politicsis considered both difficult international relations A conventionalconstructivist recastingof mainstream puzzles is based on the implicationsof its assumptions. Since power is both materialand discurto sive.patternsof behavior that spur scholars to consider a liberalpeace should instead provokeus to considerzones of peace more generally.Since actors have multipleidentities. undifferentiated eithertime or territory.institutionalized norms.and theorized at that level. dilemma should not be the starting Since states are already situated in multiple social contexts. security point foranalyzing relationsamong states. webs of meaning. The greattices. thatcan never add up to a whole. A conventional constructivist account of politics operates between mainstreaminternational relationsand criticaltheory. and these of these structures of interests.it should be of approached as a social construction an Other.and intersubjective est power of all is thatwhich disciplinesactorsto naturallyimagine only those of actions that reproduce the underlyingarrangements power-material and social structures both enduring and mutaare discursive. relations theorytreatsworld politics as an inteMainstream international Critical theoryreby grated whole.

90 line 17 should read "Numerical Balance". and Prospects. p. No. 22.however. naturalized order on irrepressible difference. In effect. 4 (Spring 1998): p. Obstacles. froman appreciationof difference. Arbatov." . 130 line 1 should read "down to a level of 1.2 millionby 1999". p. but Corrections: In Alexei G. 130 line 25 should read "are not carriedout. the other hand. promise of constructivism the is to restore a kind of partial order and predictability world politics that to derives not fromimposed homogeneity. Conventional constructivism. .International 23:1 | 200 Security some kind of rationalistic. p. and p. regards the world as a complion cated and vast array of different domains.."MilitaryReformin Russia: Dilemmas. 92 line 3 should read "reinforcement advantages and interdictioncapabilities against Russian reinforcements"."Vol. must be sacrificed higherquality for arms". p. the apprehension of all of which could never yield a fullycoherentpictureof international politics.will guarantee a theoretically unsatisfying understandingof the world. 86 line 13 should read "The quantity of military personnel . 106 line 10 should read "has never been preprogrammedinto". 109 line 11 should read "to findits forcelevels and structure a priority on basis". p.The failure to account forany one of them.

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