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Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Vol -1, Issue-1, July-September2012

ISSN: 2278 – 7496 REVIEW ARTICLE Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review
Sonia Goswami*, Ashish Singhai, R.S. Pawar *Sapience Bioanalytical Research Lab, Indrapuri, Bhopal Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutes, Neelbud, Bhopal-462044 (M.P.)

Article Received on 24 May 2012.

Abstract: Coriander is an annual herb of Coriandrum sativum (familyApiaceae). A glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous, annual 30-90 cm in height, It’s major constituents are the essential oil (~1%), in which major component is linalool (60-70%). It also contains borneol, citronellol, limonene, phenolic acid, flavonoids etc. Traditionally, it is being used for relief of anxiety, insomnia, digestive aid, inflammatory bowel diseases and post coital antifertility activity. Ground Coriander is apt to loose it’s flavour and aroma quickly and should be stored in a opaque airtight container It has various pharmacological studies such as acute diuretic activity, anthelmintic activities, antioxidants, antibacterial activities, anxiolytic effect, antimutagenic activities, synergistic effect with oil of dil and eucalyptus. The present review explores the different directions of the Coriandrum sativum plant and compiled it’s vast, pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological applications to comprehend and prepare the subject of it’s importance as a medicinal plant is growing up substantially with increasing and stronger reports in supports of it’s various therapeutic uses. Keywords: Coriandrum sativum, anthelmintic activity, antioxidants, antibacterial activities, anxiolytic effect, antimutagenic activity, post coital antifertility activity, antimutagenic. 9 AJPER July-September 2012, Vol 1, Issue 1 (9 -21)

Revised on 2 june 2012, Accepted on 12 June 2012

*Correspondence for Author:
Sonia Goswami Department of Natural Chemistry Sapience Bioanalytical Research Laboratory, Indrapuri, Bhopal, M.P Ph: +919039833735 Email: asambhav12@yahoo.com

Coriander grows wild over a wide area of the Near East and southern Europe. About half a litre of coriander mericarps were recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamun. or to its leaves (used as a herb). globular and ribbed. Middle zone of mesocarp shows sclerenchyma tissue which is fusiform and lignified arranged in sinous rows. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review INTRODUCTION Coriandrum sativum is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.setaceous lobes. the name Cilantro is given to the leaves. koriadnon.al. A glabrous. for example. lower ones short petioled and upper ones short petioled or subsessile. Issue 1 (9 -21) . and it appears that it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves. aromatic. separating into two halves (mericarps) each containing a seed. which may be the oldest archeological find of coriander. herbaceous annual 30-90 cm in height. The name 'coriander' in a culinary context may refer to either the seeds of the plant (used as a spice).3.2 John Chadwick notes the Mycenaean Greek form of the word." Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC.. white or pinkish purple in compound terminal umbels. fruits yellowish brown.5The Bible mentions coriander in Exodus 16:31: "And the house of Israel began to call its name Manna: and it was white like coriander seed.7 PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES Epicarp composed of polygonal cells with prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. has a pattern curiously similar to the name of Minos daughter Ariadne.Goswami et. Zohary and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. imparipinnatisect into linear. and its taste was like that of flat cakes made with honey. One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes. The entire structure shows a 10 AJPER July-September 2012. Vol 1. flower small. and because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt. however in North American countries. Outer five or six rows of schelerenchyma cells run longitudnally. and it is plain how this might be corrupted later to koriannon or koriandron.6This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period: the large quantities of the species retrieved from an Early Bronze Age layer at Sitagroi in Macedonia could point to cultivation of the species at that time. leaves decompound.1 The name coriander derives from French coriandre through Latin coriandrum. which forced Zohary and Hopf to admit that "it is hard to define exactly where this plant is wild and where it only recently established itself."4 Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemel Cave in Israel.

tapering at both ends. Vi: Vitta 11 AJPER July-September 2012.al.Goswami et. Ra: Raphe. Endosperm posses oil globules and aleurone grains. Cells of vittae are polygonal in shape. Fig. Ep: Epicarp. Fig. Tracheids show bordered pits.S.3Rectangular sclereids of the mesocarp with underlying endocarp in view x 504. Og: Oil globule. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review characteristic appearance of sinous rows crossing at right angles.. Me: Mesocarp. Endocarp composed of a layer of thin walled lignified cells. Fig.1-Schematic diagram of mericarp in T.6Tacheid showing bordered pits x 288. Es: Endosperm. Cr: Crystal. Fig. Vb: Vascular bundle.4 Fragment of Endosperm x 648. Sf: Sclerenchymatus fiber.5.8 Fig. Fig. Vittae are two in number arranged on the commisural surface.2-Epicarp in surface view x 504. Te: Testa.Sclerenchymatous tissue of Mesocarp x 180. Vol 1. Cp: Capophore. Issue 1 (9 -21) . long. En: Endocarp. They are aseptate.Vittae x 7 Ag: Aleuronic grain. Fig.7. elongated in surface view.

and are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta. cough.cymene etc. phthalides13 viz. flavonoids. isocoumarins11-12.pinene. . anorexia. PROPERTIES AND USES The leaves are acrid. anodyne. citronellol. chronic conjunctivitis. geranyl acetate. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS Major constituents are the essential oil (~ 1 %). hiccough. camphor. astringent. coriandrones A-E. burning sensation.in which major component is linalool (60-70 %). bronchitis. antipyretic. cephalagia. 12 AJPER July-September 2012. diarrhea. acrid.al. Issue 1 (9 -21) . р. epistaxis. furan and tetra hydrofuran derivatives. suppurations.Goswami et. emollient. hemorrhoids. stimulant. bitter. sweet. heterocyclic components10 viz. pharyngopathy.α. chronic conjunctivitis. Vol 1. dyspepsia. anti-inflammatory styptic and are useful in halitosis. aromatic. The fruits are aromatic. anti-inflammatory. appetizer. astringent. vomiting. γ. coriandrin. pharyngopathy. colic. analgesic. phenolic acids and sterols.terpinene.. neochidilide and z. flatulence.. dihydrocoriandrin. β. expectorant. ulemorrhagia. inflammations. stomachic. dysentery. constipating.digustilide.pinene. limonene.9 Minor constituents are monoterpene hydrocarbons viz. borneol. thermogenic. jaundice and odontalgia. geraniol. pyrazine.

They lose flavour when dried. Develop the plate in the solvent system to a distance of 10 cm. Ground coriander is apt to lose its flavour and aroma quickly and should be stored in an opaque airtight container. dropsy. rather than the pinch.1 ml) distilled from the drug in acetone (5ml).al. Spray the plate with vanillin sulfuric acid reagent. In day light: A blue spot 13 AJPER July-September 2012. A leaf paste is good for allergic inflammations caused by ‘Marking nut’. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS TLC IDENTITY TEST Prepare test solution by dissolving the volatile oil (0.3: 0. Their flavour may be enhanced by a light roasting before use. being brittle. Coriander seeds are also used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin seeds. it is a spice to be used by the handful. Whole seeds keep indefinitely. Issue 1 (9 -21) . depending on the texture desired.14 In holistic and some traditional medicine. Now apply 10µl of test solution on a precoated silica gel 60 plate of uniform thickness (0. It is best bought whole as.17 PREPARATION & STORAGE Coriander seed is generally used coarsely ground or more finely powdered. erysipelas. hemorrhoids.7) is used as solvent system. then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid.. intermittent fevers. 1 TRADITIONAL USES Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iranian folk medicine.2 mm). scrofula. It is believed that it’s seeds has post coital antifertility activity. anthelmintic. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review epistaxis. Toluene: ethyl acetate (9. strangury. The leaves can be chopped or minced before use. it is easy to mill or pound in a mortar.Goswami et. it is used as a carminative and for general digestive aid15-16. but may be frozen either blanched or chopped and frozen into ice cubes. Vol 1. As coriander is mild. hyperdipsia. gout. inflammatory bowel diseases. rheumatism and giddiness.

al. Issue 1 (9 -21) . Acid insoluble ash : Not more than 1.8 PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Diuretic activity -The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the acute diuretic activity of continuous intravenous infusion of an aqueous extract of the seed of Coriandrum sativum L.64). Water soluble extractive : Not less than 16. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review corresponding to linalool (Rf 0.0 % . Total ash : Not more than 6. Injector temperature : 230˚C.1µl. 14 AJPER July-September 2012.25 mm coating of free fatty acid phase (FFAP). Volatile oil : Not less than 0. Injection Volume : 0.. Detector temperature : 240˚C.Goswami et.25 mm × 20m) with 0. Vol 1.0 % .0 % .0 % . ASSAY/ ANALYTICAL METHODS Analysis of volatile oil using GC Column : Fused silica capillary column (0. The letter also contains a grey zone (Rf 0. GC CHROMATOGRAM LIMITS FOR QUALITY PARAMETERS Foreign organic matter : Not more than 2. Alcohol soluble extractive : Not less than : 8. Flow rate : 1. Carrier gas : Helium .3 % v/w.5 ml/ min. Oven temperature :Programmed from 90 to 210˚ C at 7˚C/ min.0 % .26) is visible in test solution as a major spot.

19 Antioxidant and antibacterial activitiy. hongone (Alternanthera sessilis). cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. ED50 of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.05). excretion of electrolytes.21 The investigation was undertaken with an objective of analyzing the antioxidant capacity of leafy vegetables (LV) and testing their efficacy on storage of heated oils. The total phenolic content was quantified with the Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. The mechanism of action of the plant extract appears to be similar to that of furosemide. furosemide was more potent as a diuretic and saluretic. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. including determining relative free radical-scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities.5 mg/ml. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review Apiaceae (coriander) in rats The crude aqueous extract of coriander seeds increased diuresis. . The present study evaluated the antioxidant potencies of polyphenolic compounds from a spice. Several mechanisms of potential antioxidant activity of all extracts.al.20 Polyphenolic compounds are widely distributed in plants and known to be excellent antioxidants in vitro..Goswami et. Vol 1.18 mg/ml.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0. as well as reducing power. They have the capacity to reduce free-radical formation by scavenging free radicals and protecting antioxidant defenses. The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one . Issue 1 (9 -21) . and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were analyzed for antioxidant activity by 15 AJPER July-September 2012. were examined. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p > 0.18 Anthelmintic activitiy. capitata).. and glomerular filtration rate in a dose-dependent way. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0. Coriandrum sativum against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human lymphocytes. coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum).The activities of freeze-dried and irradiated parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) leaves and stems were determined on methanol and water extracts. Four leafy vegetables viz.

In conclusion. The anxiolytic effect of aqueous extract (10. i.It can be hypothesized that soil degradation might have affected the amount of volatiles produced especially by coriander. Issue 1 (9 -21) . was analysed using chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to identify the phenolic compounds responsible for its antioxidant activity.. addition of coriander to food will increase the antioxidant content and may have potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation processes. it was noted that caffeic acid. generating a “soil degradation scent” that determined the structure in the insect community.25 Soil degradation.Goswami et. protocatechinic acid and glycitin were present in high concentration in different fractions. its effect on spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination were evaluated. 25. analyzed for peroxide value that indicates the oxidative state of oils.The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect in mice. LV extracts conferred a protective effect on peroxide formation on storage of heated oils. chemical and biological characteristics. The effects of the extract on spontaneous 16 AJPER July-September 2012.23 Coriander leaves showed stronger antioxidant activity than the seeds. Results indicate that supercritical extraction is a promising processing alternative for producing odorless and tasteless antioxidant fractions from coriander seeds.26 Anxiolytic activity. and were tested for their antioxidant activity. Additionally. and/or the soil itself emitted different signals.p. in relation to changes in its physical. The ethanol extracts of LV were added to refined sunflower and groundnut oils heated to frying temperature and stored for 4 weeks. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review standard methods.al. and in both parts of coriander. 100 mg/kg. Their antioxidant activity. the ethyl acetate extract contributed to the strongest activity. LV are excellent antioxidants that are stable at high temperatures and can serve as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. 50. according to the β-carotene/linoleic acid model. was similar to one another but inferior to that of the crude extract and of butylated hydroxytoluene. Vol 1. Of the phenols identified through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.) was examined in male albino mice using elevated plus-maze as an animal model of anxiety.22 An aqueous coriander extract obtained through a sequential extraction process.24 Fractions from seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) were obtained by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide in semi continuous lab-scale equipment.

typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. Cu and Zn.28 Anti inflammatory activity. In the elevated plus-maze.Goswami et. Vol 1. K.30 Antibacterial activity. The activity was comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) were separated into heterogeneous mixtures of components by fractional distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. coriander (Coriandrum sativum). cilantro (leaves of immature C. safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). aniseed (Anisum vulgare). P. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review activity and neuromuscular coordination were assessed using Animex Activity Meter and Rota rod. Sicilian sumac (Rhus coriaria). Si. Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes). The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against inflammatory bowel diseases. Ca. 100 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination.Essential oils from dill (Anethum graveolens L.). respectively. coriander (seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. Fe. S. Aqueous extract at 50. cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and nigella (Nigella sativum). Cl. Dhanyak (Coriandrum sativum). Issue 1 (9 -21) . gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined for 17 AJPER July-September 2012.). caraway (Carum carvi).29 Ten oriental spices were analyzed for their element composition using X-ray fluorescence (XRF): nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)...The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz. The spices were found to contain the following elements: Mg. compared to control group. Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids).27 Antimutagenic activity. Ti.al. with varying concentrations. sativum L. m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay (his− to his+) with the S. The formulation showed significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect and may have potential sedative and muscle relaxant effects.The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. Al. black pepper (Piper nigrum). aqueous extract at 100 mg/kg showed an anxiolytic effect by increasing the time spent on open arms and the percentage of open arm entries. cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). compared to control group. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against gram-positive bacteria. Mn.

al. Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations on Coriandrum sativum: A Review the crude oils and their fractions.33 Hypoglycemic activity. Fam. Vol 1. Mixing of fractions resulted in additive. revealed decreased rates of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.The preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum. likely due to the presence of long chain (C6–C10) alcohols and aldehydes. Results suggest that Chinese parsley has suppressive activity on lead deposition.The effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in rats fed a high fat cholesterol diet. Umbelliferae (Chinese parsley) on lead deposition was investigated in male ICR mice given lead (1000 ppm) as lead acetate trihydrate in drinking water for 32 days. There was no significant change in the weight and length of the foetuses delivered by rats treated with the extract and no abnormalities were seen in the organs of the offsprings. The spice showed significant hypoglycemic action. There was an increase in the concentration of hepatic glycogen as was evident from the increased activity of glycogen synthase. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase. The increased activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycolytic enzymes suggest the utilization of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. The strength and spectrum of inhibition for the fractions often exceeded those determined in the crude oils. The extracts produced a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels on day-5 of pregnancy which may be responsible for the anti-implantation effect observed. and gluconeogenic enzymes. Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes. synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual test microorganisms. developed to analyze the promutagen activation by plant systems and can be used as an indicator of potential genetic effects.32 Anti-implantation.31 Coriander cells were metabolically competent and suitable for a plant cell microbe co-incubation assay.34 Suppressive activity on lead deposition..Goswami et. probably resulting from the chelation of lead by some substances contained in Chinese parsley.Effect of the aqueous extract of fresh coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds has been studied on female fertility in rats. Issue 1 (9 -21) .35 18 AJPER July-September 2012.

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