J0
Js
=
1
+
Note:
_x +
ox
ot
Jt]
_
o0
ot
Jt] n
J0
x
x +_
o0
ot
Jt] n = _x +
ox
ot
Jt]
ox
ot
=
o0
ot
n
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
7
From (1),
o = _
o:
s
ot
x + :
s
o0
ot
n] +:
s
_
o:
s
os
x +:
s
n
+
]
= _
o:
s
ot
+:
s
o:
s
os
] x +_:
s
o
ot
___
n
t
+
:
s
2
+
_n
or
o = o
s
x +o
n
n
with
o
s
=
o:
s
ot
+:
s
o:
s
os
, o
n
=
o:
n
ot
+
:
s
2
+
where,
s
t
= local o
s
in s direction
n
t
= local o
n
in n direction
:
s
s
s
= convective o
s
due to spatial gradient of v
i.e. convergence /divergence
s
2
+
= convective o
n
due to curvature of : inward centrifugal acceleration,
i.e. towards center of curvature.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
8
3.3 Bernoulli Equation
Consiuei the small fluiu paiticle of size os by on in the plane of the fig
uie anu oy noimal to the figuie as shown in the fieebouy uiagiam below. Foi
steauy flow, the components of Newtons seconu law along the stieamline anu
noimal uiiections can be wiitten as following:
1) Along a stieamline
om o
s
= oF
s
= oV
s
+oF
ps
wheie,
om o
s
= (pov) [:
s
s
s
oV
s
= yovsin 0
oF
ps
= (p op
s
)onoy  (p +op
s
)onoy = 2op
s
onoy
= 
p
s
ov
Thus,
(pov) [:
s
s
s
= 
p
s
ov yovsin0
op
s
=
p
s
6s
2
1
st
order Taylor Series
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
9
p [:
s
s
s
= 
p
s
y sin0
= 
s
(p +yz)
change in speed due to
p
s
and
z
s
(i.e. V along x)
2) Normal to a streamline
om o
n
= oF
n
= oV
n
+oF
pn
where,
om o
n
= (pov) _
:
s
2
+
]
oV
n
= yovcos 0
oF
pn
= (p op
n
)osoy  (p +op
n
)osoy = 2op
n
osoy
= 
p
n
ov
Thus,
(pov) _
:
s
2
+
] = 
p
n
ov yovcos 0
p
:
s
2
+
= 
p
n
y cos 0
= 
n
(p +yz)
streamline curvature is due to
p
n
and
z
n
(i.e. V along n)
op
n
=
p
n
6n
2
1
st
order Taylor Series
sin0 =
Jz
Js
cos 0 =
Jz
Jn
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
10
In a vector form:
po = v(p +yz) (Euler equation)
or p [:
s
s
s
x +
s
2
+
n = [
s
x +
n
n (p +yz)
Steady flow, p = constant, x equation
p:
s
s
s
= 
s
(p + yz)
s
j
s
2
2
+
p
p
+gz[ = u
:
s
2
2
+
p
p
+gz = constont
_________________
BcnouII cquuton
Steady flow, p = constant, n equation
p
s
2
+
= 
n
(p +yz)
_
:
s
2
+
Jn +
p
p
+ gz = constont
For curved streamlines p + yz (= constant for static fluid) decreases in the n di
rection, i.e. towards the local center of curvature.
It should be emphasized that the Bernoulli equation is restricted to the fol
lowing:
inviscid flow
steady flow
incompressible flow
flow along a streamline
Note that if in addition to the flow being inviscid it is also irrotational, i.e.
rotation of fluid = = vorticity = v v = 0, the Bernoulli constant is same for all ,
as will be shown later.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
11
3.4 Physical interpretation of Bernoulli equation
Integration of the equation of motion to give the Bernoulli equation actual
ly corresponds to the workenergy principle often used in the study of dynamics.
This principle results from a general integration of the equations of motion for an
object in a very similar to that done for the fluid particle. With certain assump
tions, a statement of the workenergy principle may be written as follows:
The work done on a particle by all forces acting on the particle is equal to
the change of the kinetic energy of the particle.
The Bernoulli equation is a mathematical statement of this principle.
In fact, an alternate method of deriving the Bernoulli equation is to use the
first and second laws of thermodynamics (the energy and entropy equations), ra
ther than Newtons second law. With the approach restrictions, the general
energy equation reduces to the Bernoulli equation.
An alternate but equivalent form of the Bernoulli equation is
p
y
+
I
2
2g
+ z = constont
along a streamline.
Pressure head:
p
y
Velocity head:
v
2
2g
Elevation head: z
The Bernoulli equation states that the sum of the pressure head, the velocity
head, and the elevation head is constant along a streamline.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
12
3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure
p +
1
2
pI
2
+yz = p
1
= constont
along a streamline.
Static pressure: p
Dynamic pressure:
1
2
pI
2
Hydrostatic pressure: yz
Stagnation points on bodies in flowing fluids.
Stagnation pressure: p +
1
2
pI
2
(assuming elevation effects are negligible) where
p and I are the pressure and velocity of the fluid upstream of stagnation
point. At stagnation point, fluid velocity I becomes zero and all of the ki
netic energy converts into a pressure rize.
Total pressure: p
1
= p +
1
2
pI
2
+yz (along a streamline)
At stagnation point I = 0,
Stagnation pressure p
stg
> static pressure p
stutc
by upstream
1
2
pI
2
.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
13
The Pitotstatic tube (left) and typical Pitotstatic tube designs (right).
Typical pressure distribution along a Pitotstatic tube.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
14
3.6 Applications of Bernoulli Equation
1) Stagnation Tube
p
1
+p
I
1
2
2
= p
2
+p
I
2
2
2
I
1
2
=
2
p
(p
2
p
1
)
=
2
p
(yl)
I
1
= 2gl
z
1
= z
2
p
1
= yJ, I
2
= u
p
2
= y(l +J) gogc
Limited by length of tube and need
for free surface reference
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
15
2) Pitot Tube
p
1
y
+
I
1
2
2g
+ z
1
=
p
2
y
+
I
2
2
2g
+z
2
I
2
= _2g __
p
1
y
+ z
1
_____
h
1
_ _
p
2
y
+ z
2
_____
h
2
___
1
2
where, I
1
= u and b = piezometric head
I = I
2
= 2g(b
1
b
2
)
b
1
b
2
from manometer or pressure gage
For gas flow p y > z
I = _
2p
p
Note:
z
1
= elevation difference between
1 and 3
z
2
= elevation difference between
2 and 4
i.e., p
1
= p
3
for z
3
z
1
small
and p
2
= p
4
for z
4
z
2
small
e
f
Note:
In general, using z = z
1
z
2
small
= 0 for pressure transducer.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
16
3) Simplified form of the continuity equation
Steady flow into and out of a tank
Obtained from the following intuitive arguments:
Volume flow rate: = IA
Mass flow rate: m = p = pIA
Conservation of mass requires
p
1
I
1
A
1
= p
2
I
2
A
2
For incompressible flow p
1
= p
2
, we have
I
1
A
1
= I
2
A
2
or
1
=
2
Jm
Jt
= u
u =
J
Jt
_ pJI
Cv
+_ pI nJA
CS
Note:
for system.
RTT:
57:020 M
Professor
4) Volu
1. Cross
(simp
u
u
Similarly
2. Gene
echanics of F
Fred Stern F
ume Rate
ssectiona
ple case wh
u = constan
u = consta
y the mass
eral case
Fluids and Tra
Fall 2009
of Flow (
al area or
here I A
nt: = vol
ant: = ]
A
s flux = m
nsport Proce
(flowrate,
riented no
A)
ume flux =
uJA
A
= ] puJ
A
esses
, discharg
ormal to v
= uA [m/s
JA
Ave
ge)
velocity ve
m
2
= m
3
/
=
= _
m =
erage veloc
ector
/s]
= _ v n
CS
_ v cos 0
CS
_ p(v
CS
city:
I
=
A
Chapte
nJA
0 JA
n)JA
er 3
17
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
18
Example:
At low velocities the flow through a long circular tube, i.e. pipe, has a para
bolic velocity distribution (actually paraboloid of revolution).
u = u
mux
_1 [
r
R
2
]
where, u
mux
= centerline velocity
a) find and I
= _ v n
A
JA = _ uJA
A
_ uJA
A
= _ _ u(r)rJ0Jr
R
0
2n
0
= 2n _ u(r)rJr
R
0
where, JA = 2nrJr, u = u(r) and not 0, ] J0
2n
0
= 2n
= 2n _ u
mux
_1  [
r
R
2
] rJr
R
0
=
1
2
u
mux
nR
2
I
=
A
=
u
mux
2
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
19
5) Flowrate measurement
Various flow meters are governed by the Bernoulli and continuity equations.
Typical devices for measuring flowrate in pipes.
Three commonly used types of flow meters are illustrated: the orifice me
ter, the nozzle meter, and the Venturi meter. The operation of each is based on
the same physical principlesan increase in velocity causes a decrease in pres
sure. The difference between them is a matter of cost, accuracy, and how closely
their actual operation obeys the idealized flow assumptions.
We assume the flow is horizontal (z
1
= z
2
), steady, inviscid, and incom
pressible between points (1) and (2). The Bernoulli equation becomes:
p
1
+
1
2
pI
1
2
= p
2
+
1
2
pI
2
2
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
20
p
1
p
2
=
1
2
p(I
2
2
I
1
2
)
2p
p
= _
A
2
]
2
_
A
1
]
2
=
2
_
1
A
2
2

1
A
1
2
_ =
2
A
2
2
_1 _
A
2
A
1
]
2
_
If we assume the velocity profiles are uniform at sections (1) and (2), the continui
ty equation can be written as:
= I
1
A
1
= I
2
A
2
where A
2
is the small (A
2
< A
1
) flow area at section (2). Combination of these
two equations results in the following theoretical flowrate
= A
2
_
2(p
1
p
2
)
p1  (A
2
A
1
)
2
]
assumed vena contracta = 0, i.e., no viscous effects. Otherwise,
= C
C
A
C
_
2(p
1
p
2
)
p1 (A
2
A
1
)
2
]
where C
C
= contraction coefficient
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
21
Vertical flow from a tank
Application of Bernoulli equation between points (1) and (2) on the streamline
shown gives
p
1
+
1
2
pI
1
2
+yz
1
= p
2
+
1
2
pI
2
2
+yz
2
Since z
1
= b, z
2
= u, I
1
= u, p
1
= u, p
2
= u, we have
yb =
1
2
pI
2
2
I
2
= _2
yb
p
= 2gb
Bernoulli equation between points (1) and (5) gives
I
5
= 2g(b +E)
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
22
A smooth, wellcontoured nozzle (left) and a sharp corner (right)
The velocity profile of the left nozzle is not uniform due to differences in
elevation, but in general J < b and we can safely use the centerline velocity, I
2
,
as a reasonable average velocity.
For the right nozzle with a sharp corner, J
]
will be less than J
h
. This phe
nomenon, called a vena contracta effect, is a result of the inability of the fluid to
turn the sharp 90 corner.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
23
Figure 3.14 Typical flow patterns and contraction coefficients
The vena contracta effect is a function of the geometry of the outlet. Some
typical configurations are shown in Fig. 3.14 along with typical values of the expe
rimentally obtained contraction coefficient, C
C
= A
]
A
h
, where A
]
and A
h
are the
areas of the jet a the vena contracta and the area of the hole, respectively.
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
24
I
1
=
z
2
z
1
I
2
1
2
p [
z
2
z
1
I
2
2
+yz
1
=
1
2
pI
2
2
+ yz
2
I
2
= _
2g(z
1
z
2
)
1(z
2
z
1
)
2
Other flow meters based on the Bernoulli equation are used to measure
flowrates in open channels such as flumes and irrigation ditches. Two of these
devices, the sluice gate and the sharpcrested weir, are discussed below under
the assumption of steady, inviscid, incompressible flow.
Sluice gate geometry
We apply the Bernoulli and continuity equations between points on the free sur
faces at (1) and (2) to give:
p
1
+
1
2
pI
1
2
+yz
1
= p
2
+
1
2
pI
2
2
+yz
2
and
= I
1
A
1
= bI
1
z
1
= I
2
A
2
= bI
2
z
2
With the fact that p
1
= p
2
= u:
= A
2
I
2
= z
2
b_
2g(z
1
z
2
)
1 (z
2
z
1
)
2
In the limit of z
1
> z
2
, then I
2
= 2gz
1
:
= (z
2
b)I
2
= z
2
b2gz
1
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
25
Rectangular, sharpcrested weir geometry
For such devices the flowrate of liquid over the top of the weir plate is de
pendent on the weir height, P
w
, the width of the channel, b, and the head, E, of
the water above the top of the weir. Between points (1) and (2) the pressure and
gravitational fields cause the fluid to accelerate from velocity I
1
to velocity I
2
. At
(1) the pressure is p
1
= yb, while at (2) the pressure is essentially atmospheric,
p
2
= u. Across the curved streamlines directly above the top of the weir plate
(section aa), the pressure changes from atmospheric on the top surface to some
maximum value within the fluid stream and then to atmospheric again at the bot
tom surface.
For now, we will take a very simple approach and assume that the weir flow
is similar in many respects to an orificetype flow with a free streamline. In this
instance we would expect the average velocity across the top of the weir to be
proportional to 2gE and the flow area for this rectangular weir to be propor
tional to Eb. Hence, it follows that
= C
1
Eb2gE = C
1
b2gE
3
2
i.e., IA
A = Eb
I ~ 2gE
C
1
= proportionality coefficient
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
26
3.7 Energy grade line (EGL) and hydraulic grade line (HGL)
This part will be covered later at Chapter 5.
3.8 Limitations of Bernoulli Equation
Assumptions used in the derivation Bernoulli Equation:
(1) Inviscid
(2) Incompressible
(3) Steady
(4) Conservative body force
1) Compressibility Effects:
The Bernoulli equation can be modified for compressible flows. A simple,
although specialized, case of compressible flow occurs when the temperature of a
perfect gas remains constant along the streamlineisothermal flow. Thus, we
consider p = pRI, where I is constant (In general, p, p, and I will vary). An equ
ation similar to the Bernoulli equation can be obtained for isentropic flow of a
perfect gas. For steady, inviscid, isothermal flow, Bernoulli equation becomes
RI _
Jp
p
+
1
2
I
2
+gz = const
The constant of integration is easily evaluated if z
1
, p
1
, and I
1
are known at some
location on the streamline. The result is
I
1
2
2g
+z
1
+
RI
g
ln _
p
1
p
2
] =
I
2
2
2g
+z
2
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes
Professor Fred Stern Fall 2009
Chapter 3
27
2) Unsteady Effects:
The Bernoulli equation can be modified for unsteady flows. With the inclu
sion of the unsteady effect (oI ot = u) the following is obtained:
p
v
t
Js +Jp +
1
2
pJ(I
2
) +yJz = u (along a streamline)
For incompressible flow this can be easily integrated between points (1) and (2) to
give
p
1
+
1
2
pI
1
2
+yz
1
= p ]
v
t
Js
s
2
s
1
+p
2
+
1
2
pI
2
2
+yz
2
(along a streamline)
3) Rotational Effects
Care must be used in applying the Bernoulli equation across streamlines. If
the flow is irrotational (i.e., the fluid particles do not spin as they move), it is
appropriate to use the Bernoulli equation across streamlines. However, if the
flow is rotational (fluid particles spin), use of the Bernoulli equation is re
stricted to flow along a streamline.
4) Other Restrictions
Another restriction on the Bernoulli equation is that the flow is inviscid. The
Bernoulli equation is actually a first integral of Newton's second law along a
streamline. This general integration was possible because, in the absence of visc
ous effects, the fluid system considered was a conservative system. The total
energy of the system remains constant. If viscous effects are important the sys
tem is nonconservative and energy losses occur. A more detailed analysis is
needed for these cases.
The Bernoulli equation is not valid for flows that involve pumps or turbines.
The final basic restriction on use of the Bernoulli equation is that there are no
mechanical devices (pumps or turbines) in the system between the two points
along the streamline for which the equation is applied. These devices represent
sources or sinks of energy. Since the Bernoulli equation is actually one form of
the energy equation, it must be altered to include pumps or turbines, if these are
present.