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Teachers should ensure that they understand and respect their class, and are approachable and reliable. Kramer (2003) explains that teaching is a calling, and not just a job, which is something that I believe. Teachers should also be able to make suitable decisions in the classroom. I believe that this process will be more difficult initially, especially when there is no precedence to influence decision making. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) explain that with practice, an increase in knowledge and experience, making decisions in the classroom becomes easier. The use of reflective practice in the classroom, which is the self-examination of one‟s teaching (Clarke, 2006) also gets easier with practice. By combining these elements, such as making a decision, and then using self-reflection to influence whether the same decision will be made in the future, is crucial for a professional teacher. Having a thorough knowledge of development and learning practices, teachers can be more aware of the needs and abilities of their students. Understanding how to organise the classroom, manage issues that arise and plan appropriate lessons do not rely on intuition or a “best guess” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Experience also does not solely equip teachers with the knowledge they require in the classroom. Successful professional teachers seek to further their knowledge throughout their career, as I plan to do. By endeavouring to establish strong relationships with my students, and using self-reflection to discover if I need more knowledge of development and learning practices, I will become a professional teacher. I am also confident that with practice and guidance, my decision making and reflective practice will improve throughout my career. (289) References Clark, A. (2006). The nature and substance of cooperating teacher reflection. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 910-921. Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Kramer, P. A. (2003). The ABC‟s of professionalism. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 40(1), 22-25.
. Bozhovich (2010)explains that development is contingent upon how susceptible subjects are to the types of help offered. I have also learnt that while scaffolding learning. I have had a lot of opportunity to scaffold learning to ensure the success of the store I was in charge of.Scaffolding learning Having been a retail store manager for four years. D. 2010). I spoke to them about their previous experience in similar jobs. Eggen. I cannot recall a time where I have unsuccessfully targeted someone‟s „zone of proximal development‟ when assisting someone in completing a new task. which is why some team members found different types of instructional scaffolding more effective than others. no 6. P. to ensure that they could relate the new information I was providing them with previous experience. and others required verbal instruction only. D. To ensure that I was successful in targeting my teams zone of proximal development. NJ: Pearson Education. I modelled how the filing was completed in the store. Some team members felt that written instructions were sufficient. & Kauchak. . Zone of proximal development: The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of indirect collaboration. to model desired behaviors clearly. I am confident I will be able to apply this knowledge in a classroom setting. and been trained. and asked my team which they would feel more confident with. and how this would affect store members. I felt that is was important to provide a different range of assistance.). and ensure that tasks are clearly explained. others preferred modeling. (298) References Bozhovich. I have learnt. and demonstrated a number of ways that filing could be completed incorrectly. E. (2010).Week 2. For example. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology. vol 47. (2010). a clear explanation of the importance of the task is key. The zone of proximal development is the range of tasks one can complete with assistance (Eggen and Kauchak. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. while training new employees to complete filing information. Upper Saddle River. explained why each part of information on the report was crucial to the success of the filing system.
NJ: Merrill/Pearson Eggen. Scevak. R.). and cautions teachers to consider their rationale before using more severe forms of punishment.. P.. 2006) believe that positive and negative reinforcement is most effective. E..).Conditioning in the classroom Operant conditioning in the classroom is a controversial subject (Martin & Pear. B. D. humiliation and classwork are ineffective forms of punishment. & Troutman. Upper Saddle River. Martin. time in the classroom. punishment and rewards is effective for managing classroom behaviors. F. Scevak. NJ: Pearson Education. NJ: Merrill/Pearson Snowman. I also agree that embarrassment. (2006). I believe that positive reinforcement is the most effective form of consequences. Biehler. the use of punishment is necessary to let children know that certain behaviors are unacceptable.. and that they should be used as a last resort. A. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) advises that punishment should be used cautiously. (229) References Alberto. & Kauchak. Snowman. I believe that through the use of operant conditioning. Psychology Applied to Teaching (1st Australian ed. Upper Saddle River. Milton. (2009).). Dobosy. Bryer. as they can lead to students associating negative feelings with class work. J. While I. It is evident that reinforcement can also act as antecendents for other children.). timeouts... Bartlett and Biehler (2009) questions the motivation behind teachers using punishments. J. (2010). Bryer. vicariously influencing a larger group of students. Upper Saddle River. and that desists. & Bartlett.. Behaviour modification (7th ed. detentions and response costs are effective punishments.Topic 3. I agree that teachers should be wary of the overuse of punishment in the classroom. Without this feedback. children may struggle to identify exactly what behaviors will and will not be acceptable in the classroom. Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia. Ltd. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. and the teacher. Dobozy. J. J. 2002). . and other theorists (Alberto & Troutman. Applied behaviour analysis for teachers (7th ed. P. such as timeouts and detentions. & Pear. G. (2002).
MEG correlates of bimodal encoding of faces and person‟s names. J. as I have not established any strategy to effectively elaborate. NJ: Pearson Education. G. P... They also have a son. which through the application of the mnemonic SKYWALKER. enabling me to recall their names. Passaro. which is people‟s names and faces. E. Castillo.). This indicates that recalling names should be easier than it actually is for me. 2010). I have a friend called Skye1. Brain Research.Topic 4. Simos. that I must effectively attend to people‟s names to encode them into my long-term memory.Encoding into Long-term memory I have always struggled to remember names.. Juranek. one must employ strategies of encoding the information to make it meaningful. As I am aware that names are something that I struggle to recall. A.. Dual-coding theory dictates that information that can be represented visually and verbally is easier to recall than information that is not represented in both ways (Eggen & Kauchak. I have found that through elaboration. and those of her family. 192-201. Pazo-Alvarez. The information. which I associate with the playschool character Abby.. Upper Saddle River. Skye has given permission for her real name. & Papanicoloau. is encoded in my long-term memory.. Castillo. to be used for the content of this assessment. over time. A. I am able to link their names with prior knowledge (Eggen & Kauchak. 1 . Passaro and Papanicolaou (2008) explain that “relating a person‟s name to their face involves the establishment of new associations between auditory and visual input. D. P. linking his name with information I already have. 2010). I have learnt. C. Simos. I can recall. I employ strategies of elaboration. P. through the use of mnemonics. D. who has a partner. (283) References Eggen. and two children. (2010). Skye‟s partner‟s name is Rob Walker. vol 1230. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. M. Their daughter is named Abby. Pazzo-Alvarez.” This is an example of dual-coding theory. whose name I struggle to remember. (2008). I must ensure that when encoding the information. Juranek. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) explain that in order to recall information. but the lack of further elaboration means that retrieval is impeded. & Kauchak.
By promoting social interaction within the classroom. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) explains that teachers must present an example to cause the student disequilibration with their existing misconceptions. I believe that the use of realworld tasks are crucial for meaningful learning and effective encoding.Topic 5. and that the onus is on the professional teacher to be able to determine ways to relate the subjects taught with the real world. Providing real world examples causes the student to examine whether the example or the learning is incorrect. (2010). but also for information processing. The role of intentions in conceptual change learning.Constructivist learning‟s reliance on real-world tasks Constructivism suggests learners create their own knowledge (Eggen & Kauchak. both in and out of an educational setting. M. R.). 2010). NJ: Erlbaum . teachers can make this information meaningful by relating it to time. (2003).. It is also important that teachers establish links to real world tasks not only for information. By providing real world examples.. Intentional conceptual change. Upper Saddle River. Sinatra. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. Teachers should ensure that children‟s learning processes will ensure success in the long-term. & Kauchak. P. these misconceptions can be changed. P. Sinatra and Pintrich (2003) explain that changing student‟s misconceptions is a difficult task for teachers to undertake. Teachers must ensure that they are addressing these learning misconceptions and providing students with the foundations of correct knowledge. By providing real world proof and tasks. This suggests that learners can create misconceptions and faulty knowledge. & Pintrich. When teaching fractions. D. The exhibition of real world examples can assist learners in returning to a state of equilibrium faster than abstract examples. G. as misconceptions can be resistant to change. Mahwah. students can practice effective learning strategies that can be used outside of the classroom. ensuring that the new information can be linked to both number schemas and time schemas that the student has already formed. teachers can also make learning more meaningful. (296) References Eggen. NJ: Pearson Education. by providing more opportunities for the curriculum to be linked to prior knowledge.
teachers can control extrinsic motivation by providing consequences for actions and behaviors.are they strict and imposing. the environment in which learning takes place and the learning activities selected influence motivation. Extrinsic rewards and inner motivation. P.). NJ: Pearson Education. J. (284) References Eggen. teachers are relatively limited in how they can encourage intrinsic motivation.. where intrinsic motivation is reliant on internal processes. which requires reinforcers provided by source separate to the individual. M. Evertson & C.Motivation in the classroom There are many different types of motivation. & Ormrod. overwhelming classroom.. Teachers must ensure that they are consistent in providing consequences for behaviors and actions. Child development and education (4th ed. Research. This positive relationship will also assist in identifying issues that hamper students motivation and possible solutions to these problems. Weinstein (Eds. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. In C. & Kauchak. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) also explain that teacher characteristics. and contemporary issues. D. Handbook of classroom management. such as a teacher. (2010). . Teachers must also ensure that they are meeting student‟s needs to encourage motivation. Mahwah.). enthusiastic teacher in a stimulating and motivating environment will increase performance dramatically when compared to a critical teacher in a crowded. McDevitt. As intrinsic motivation is personal. a safe environment and by encouraging self-esteem. such as a reward or punishment. Teachers must be aware of how they are unconsciously affecting motivation in the classroom. Upper Saddle River. McDevitt and Ormrod (2010) explain that extrinsic motivation is reliant on consequences in the outside world. Conversely. such as pleasure or morality. students can be motivated to behave in that manner more frequently. teachers can ensure that their demeanour. NJ: Merrill/Pearson. (2010). T. S. Upper Saddle River. practice. M.Topic 6. J. By rewarding positive behaviors. By having a positive relationship with their students. NJ: Erlbaum. including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.). E. the classroom environment and the activities that are used in the classroom are appropriate. or approachable and trusted? A supportive. (2006). motivation to behave in that manner decreases. 2006). by providing students with support. Reeve. Intrinsic motivation has shown several advantages over extrinsic motivation (Reeve. By punishing undesired behaviors.
NJ: Pearson Education. Evertson and Worsham (2006) explain that rules and procedures are especially important for primary teachers. S. Organisation should be apparent both in the classroom. facial expression. M. Teachers must intervene when students disobey these rules. and contemporary issues. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) explain the importance of establishing routines. & Worsham. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. . D. M. and out of the classroom. Upper Saddle River. Evertson & C. and their learning environment. (287) References Doyle. Teachers must ensure that they are prompt in intervening so as not to disrupt the flow and organisation of the lesson. it gives teachers the chance to discuss each rule and explain the importance of it. Being organised and having clear and practical routines is a key factor in managing the classroom.. to ensure continued success of these routines. Evertson. It is important that organisation of the classroom should not impede the flow of the lessons occurring. and they must ensure that their students understand both the rules and the reasons for them.). (2006). Mahwah.. In C. E. Emmer. (2010). P. M. C. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) describe the characteristics of effective interventions include proximity. eye contact. Classroom management for middle and high school teachers (7th ed. (2006).). Ecological approaches to classroom management. W. E. practice. Classroom rules develop learner responsibilities and autonomy in the classroom.Classroom management To create a productive learning environment. & Kauchak.. NJ: Erlbaum Eggen. timetables and the physical environment. Weinstein (Eds.). It is important to intervene when rules and procedures are not followed as it can negatively influence the learning environment for other students. It will also assist in helping children feel more responsible for their actions. Doyle (2006) explains that establishing positive norms and routines in the classroom will foster achievement and motivation. By including students in developing the rules or guidelines of the classroom during the initial week of the school year. teachers must effectively manage their classroom. the actions of their classmates. T. body orientation. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. through lesson structures. gestures and vocal variation. through the preparedness of the teacher. Handbook of classroom management: Research.Topic 7. Emmer. rules and expectations early in the school year.
simplified language and diagrams and pictures to ensure that students can compensate for their disabilities. and that learning must be tailored to suit these needs based on student‟s abilities and disabilities. As a teacher. numeracy or literacy. It is evident that children who have different learning requirements are unable to comprehend.Topic 8. There is a wide range of strategies that can be put in place to ensure that students with differing learning requirements do not suffer in terms of education.. & Kauchak.Inclusive practices in the classroom Every classroom has a variety of students with a variety of learning requirements. Upper Saddle River. inclusion strategies for students with behaviour disorders are different than strategies for students with visual or hearing difficulties. such as verbal as well as written instructions. Teachers may also find some students have developmental delays or difficulties with communication.). Vic: ACER press. Teaching and Teacher Education. Student teacher‟s attitudes toward the inclusion of children with special education needs in the ordinary school. (291) References Avramadis. Many school have programs to assist children with their learning disabilities. P. Camberwell. these requirements. & Burder. Westwood.. 277-293. speech. (2000). Eggins and Kauchak (2010) suggest behaviour management for students with behavioural disorders and routines to assist students with Autism spectrum disorders. D. It is crucial for teachers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these students and capitalise on this for the purposes of instruction and assessment. Students may have differing abilities and differing learning styles. which benefit all children and teach them the most effective way that they learn.. Eggen. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. such as learning problems. (2010). P. Bayliss and Burder (2002) explain that teacher sensitivity is key. Within the classroom. complete work. and behave in the same manner as the rest of the classroom. disabilities and disorders must be addressed. For example. Teachers must remind themselves constantly that students have individual needs. P. NJ: Pearson Education. Bayliss. Westwood (2001) suggests supplementing instruction and testing with a variety of formats. Avramadis. (2001) Reading and learning difficulties: Approaches to teaching and assessment. Teachers can also teach learning strategies. E. . R. such as one-on-one time with a tutor or Aide. 16.
Teacher behaviour and student achievement. NJ: Pearson Education. In M Wittrock (Ed. Having tutored a grade 2 student. D. J. I understand that both constructive feedback and praise is of the highest importance when working with children. (1979). However. 2010).Essential teaching skills in the classroom Eggen and Kauchak (2010) describe a number of major attributes of an effective teacher. (299) References Brophy. McDevitt. transition signals and the appropriate use of emphasis (Eggen & Kauchak.. and using wait-time effectively (McDevitt & Ormrod. Child development and education (4th ed. I believe that I will need to work on an equitable distribution of questions (Kerman. as I have not had an experience questioning a group of children. I will endeavour to develop this skill on a larger scale. T. Phi Delta Kappan. P. M. as I understand that feedback must be immediate. I believe that I provide good feedback. New York: Macmillan. (2010). 1986). (2010).. I believe that the hardest skill to acquire will be review and closure of a subject. connected discourse. as even though I have experience organising a tutoring session. I am positive and enthusiastic. T. I am aware that organising a full school day is a significantly different task.). using prompting to assist in questioning. 60. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed. (1986). 70-72. Teacher expectations and student achievement. 2010). As I see this as an important part of managing a classroom. 2010).Topic 9. . I also believe that I have very high questioning skills. Summarising the learning completed and relating this to previous information and information to follow is a skill that can be honed through active participation in a classroom setting.). & Ormrod. & Good.).) Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed. I also need to develop my organisation skills.. I believe that I have the attitude that is required to be an effective teacher. Eggen. I am also adept at attracting attention and maintaining it using a variety of stimuli. Upper Saddle River. E. corrective and positive (Brophy & Good. Kerman. Communication will also be developed in a classroom setting. NJ: Merrill/Pearson. as it is important to use precise language. and I expect active participation and success of my students (Eggen & Kauchak. & Kauchak. J. as I have no experience with this. S. specific. Upper Saddle River. 1979).
such as homework and quizzes. I believe that using homework and small quizzes as assessment tasks are a vital element in the planning of school lessons. H. as it takes up almost one-third of teacher‟s professional time (Eggen & Kauchak. that is.. It is also a good way for me to provide feedback to students so they are aware of their relative success at learning the information provided. McMillan. Teachers must be aware that assessment is a task that requires planning and dedication. they must also be taken into consideration when planning formal assessments. J. are a reliable way to receive feedback from students. as summative assessment is typically used for grading purposes (Eggen & Kauchak. (265) References Eggen.Topic 10. D. MA: Pearson Education. (2011). is a valid measure of the student‟s understanding and achievement at the completion of a learning topic. I understand that while informal assessments are generally not planned. informal formative assessment. & Kauchak. 2010). Formal assessment tasks. While McMillan (2011) explain that reliability can be an issue in relation to classroom assessment. Classroom assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction (5th ed. it is still a useful tool in ongoing assessment of topic comprehension. .). which are useful in monitoring comprehension of a topic (McMillan. NJ: Pearson Education. All assessments must be for learning.Assessing classroom learning I believe that classroom assessment. (2010). which is generally a more formal form of assessment. 2011). when planned and analysed successfully by the teacher. P. to develop more individualised instruction specific to students understanding and capabilities. I will use other formal formative assessment items.). 2010). summative assessment. is crucial in making instructional decisions in the classroom. It is the main way that I will identify if my learning goals have been met through instruction. Conversely. Boston. Upper Saddle River. Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (8th ed.