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CHEM 520

Navier-Stokes Equations
A mathematical description of fluid motion
under the following assumptions:
Constant density,
Constant viscosity,
Continuity (incompressible flow)
0 = u
CHEM 520
Derivation of N-S
Derivation based on force balance about a fluid element:
Net force = sum of forces
Convective force (convective transport of
momentum),
Viscous stress forces (viscous forces),
Pressure forces,
External forces, e.g. gravity,
u u

p
g
g p u u u
t
F p u u u
t


+ =

+ =

x
y
z
x
y
z
CHEM 520
Derivation of N-S
|
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|

\
|
=
=
zz yz xz
zy yy xy
zx yx xx
u



Viscous stress tensor
For Newtonian fluid
( )
( )
( )
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.
|

\
|

= =
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|

\
|

= =
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.
|

\
|

= =
(

=
(

=
(

=
z
u
x
w
y
w
z
v
x
v
y
u
u
z
w
u
y
v
u
x
u
xz zx
zy yz
yx xy
zz
yy
xx






3
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
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\
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=
y
u
yx

3-D 1-D
CHEM 520
Derivation of N-S
Viscous stress (recap)
Stress has unit of pressure.
It describes the local variation in velocity.
Viscous force = Stress x area
Force balance using stress:
Viscous forces balance (1) convective force,
(2) pressure force, and (3) external force.
A = ugrad(u) A + P A + F A
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\
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=
y
u
yx

0
0
CHEM 520
Derivation of N-S
From force balance:
Constant and :
Navier-Stokes eqt.
Inviscid flow, :
Eulers eqt.
0 =
F p u
Dt
D
+ =
D
u u p F
Dt

| |
|
|
\ .
= +
ur
r
r
2
D
u u p F
Dt
= +
ur
r
r
F p u
Dt
D
+ =
CHEM 520
N-S equation summary
Assumptions:
Constant density,
Constant viscosity,
Continuity (incompressible flow)
0 = u
Rate of change of
momentum; net
acceleration
Convective
force
Viscous
force
Pressure
force
External
force
= + + +
F p u u u
t
u
F p u u u
t
u
+ + =

+ = +

2
2


Rate of change
of momentum;
net acceleration
Convective
force
Viscous
force
Pressure
force
External
force
CHEM 520
N-S Equation in 1-D
In 1-D problem
x
F
dx
dp
u
x
x
u
u
t
u
+

2
2

Rate of change of
momentum; net
acceleration
External force
e.g. gravity
Convective
force
Viscous
force
Pressure
force
CHEM 520
Dimensional Analysis
Why?
Reduction of information,
Parameters and variables in a typical fluid system: P, D, U, ,
.
Parameters and variables in a typical reactive transport system
without effects due to electrical field: T, U, c, , , k, D
ab
, P, r
a
,
,
How about with electric field effects? Like electrochemical
systems?
Simplify problem and focus on important physical phenomena.
An art that depends on physical insights of problem at hand.
As a check to your solution when you can simplify the physics
CHEM 520
Dimensional Analysis
1-D, viscous forces dominant
x
F
dx
dp
u
x
x
u
u
t
u
+

2
2

D Ut t
D U F F
D U p p
D x x
U u u
x
x
/
) / /(
) / /(
/
/
*
*
*
*
*
=
=
=
=
=

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
2
2
x
F
dx
dp
u
x
x
u
u
t
u
DU
+

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\
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Du
= Re
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Re
2
2
x
F
dx
dp
u
x
x
u
u
t
u
+

|
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.
|

\
|
Drop *
x
F
dx
dp
u
x
x
u
u
t
u
+

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.
|

\
|
2
2
Re
CHEM 520
Dimensional Analysis
3-D case, we have
F p u u u
t
u
+ = +

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|

\
|
2
Re
When inertia forces are important, pressure scales as U
2
D Ut t
D U F F
U p p
D x x
U u u
x
x
/
) / /(
) /(
/
/
*
2 *
2 *
*
*
=
=
=
=
=

F p u u u
t
u
+ = +

2
Re / 1
x
F
dx
dp
u
x
x
u
u
t
u
+

2
2
Re
1
CHEM 520
Reynolds Number
A ratio of inertial to viscous forces.
D = characteristic dimension.
e.g. pipe/diameter, non-circular
duct/hydraulic diameter.

U = magnitude of velocity.
e.g. Average velocity <U>.
= fluid density.
= fluid viscosity.

Du
= Re
perimeter wetted
area sectional cross x
D
h

=
4
CHEM 520
Reynolds Number
High, Re > 4000; turbulent
Inertial forces dominant
e.g. ocean waves, air flow past
wing, tornado.
Intermediate, 2100< Re < 4000
Inertial >< viscous forces
e.g. pipe flow, open channel flow.
Low, 0.1-1 < Re < 2100; laminar
Viscous forces dominant
e.g. pipe flow
V. low, Re < 0.1-1; creeping
Very viscous flow
e.g. polymer flow, bacteria, blood

Du
= Re
CHEM 520
High and Low Re
F p u u u
t
u
+ = +

2
Re / 1
F p u u
t
u
+ = +

0 for large Re
High Re
Inertial forces
dominant
0 for low Re
F p u u u
t
u
+ = +

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.
|

\
|
2
Re
F p u + =
2
0
Low Re
Viscous forces
dominant
CHEM 520
High and Low Re
Low Re
Viscous forces
dominant
High Re
Inertial forces
dominant
F p u + =
2
0
F p u u
t
u
+ = +

Convective
force
External
force
Viscous
force
Pressure
force
External
force
Rate of
change of
momentum;
Pressure
force
CHEM 520
The ABCs of solving fluid problems
Assumptions and geometries
Mass balance, m
in
= m
out
Continuity
Navier-Stokes Equation
Need to specify:
Boundary Conditions
No-slip condition: u=0 at border
Slip condition: u=u* at interface
(e.g. liquid/liquid, gas/liquid)
Initial Conditions
u=0 at t=0
(Energy balance)
Attempt to simplify problem based on physical insights and symmetry.
Solve problem
0 = u
+ = +

domain F p u u u
t
u
2


CHEM 520
High Re example: Stagnation Point Flow Hiemenz Problem
F p u u
t
u
+ = +

2
Ax P =
P
Flow
y
x
P
x
P
x
y
+ Viscous
effects
+ Viscous
effects
for all ys
near
surface
CHEM 520
P
) sin 4 1 (
2
= A P
2
Ax P =
P
High Re example: Stagnation Point Flow Hiemenz Problem
CHEM 520
Recap: Flow past cylinder
Flow past cylinder
2-D simulation and
experiments
M. Van Dyke, An Album of Fluid Motion, Parabolic Press,
(1982, Stanford, CA), p.31.
F p u u
Dt
D
+ =
2

Re=10,000
CHEM 520
Low Re - example
F p u u u
t
u
+ = +

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\
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2
Re
0 for low Re
F p u + =
2
0

cos
) 2 / (
2
3
2
r
D U
p p =

2
cos
4
3
r
P

=
D.J.Acheson, Elementary Fluid Dynamics, Oxford, (Oxford, 1990) p.223
CHEM 520
Creep Flow Past Cylinder
U
M. Van Dyke, An Album of Fluid Motion, Parabolic Press,
(1982, Stanford, CA), p.11. [Re=0.16]
Re=0.04
CHEM 520

cos
) 2 / (
2
3
2
r
D U
p p =

2
cos
4
3
r
P

=
Creep Flow Past Cylinder
P
Re=0.04
CHEM 520
Creeping Flow
Uniqueness of flow
Many bodies interactions may become
important
Reversibility
e.g.:
Spermatozoan (p.235 Acheson)
Bacteria, protein molecules, polymer,
suspensions
CHEM 520
Example: Creeping flow in complex
geometry
CHEM 520
Transport Equation Transport
coef.
Transport
variable
Mode of transport
D
AB
c
A
Mass
k T Energy
U Momentum
Transport Analogies
F p u u u
t
u
+ = +

2

) (
2
u p T k T u
t
T
C = +


A
R c
AB
D c u
t
c
A A
A
+ = +