This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A DETAILED ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NIGERIAN FREE ZONE: LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
OLANREWAJU ABDULATEEF OLAYINKA
Page 1 of 33
ABSTRACT Following the collapse of the crude oil market, successive administrations have explored and adopted numerous economic stabilisation and development policies towards stimulating rapid national industrialisation and reviving the country’s dwindling economic fortunes. Amongst the export promotion industrialisation strategies adopted by the Nigerian Government included the Free Zone Scheme. The Scheme upon adoption became one of the Nigerian Government’s tactical revolutionary instrument fashioned to stimulate economic growth towards industrialisation. The Government’s rationale for adoption was based on the acclaimed global success of the Scheme and the Scheme’s inherent potential to counter numerous domestic economic growth barriers. Accordingly, Nigerian Zones were designed to create a thriving business environment so as to attract Foreign Direct Investments galvanised by strategic business incentives. However, the Scheme’s enacting legislative instrument (Nigeria Export Processing Zones Decree No. 63 1992 Act Cap. N107 L.F.N. 2004) has remained substantially unchanged. Hence, these enacting law has become obsolete, globally uncompetitive and business unfriendly. Therefore, this paper briefly explores the historic development of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme with particular attention paid on the Scheme’s Legal, Regulatory and Institutional Framework. Utilising the Nigerian Government’s Industrial Policy per time, this study employs a flexible qualitative research methods in an attempt to accumulate relevant information concerning the effectiveness or otherwise of the Scheme’s Legal, Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks. Projecting forward, it is intended that this research will allow for a rigorous performance assessment of the of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme precisely the Legal and Regulatory Framework: identifying cogent lapses affecting the Scheme’s functional effectiveness and recommending necessary corrective measures towards repositioning Nigerian Zones. Furthermore, upon conclusion of a rigorous examination of the effectiveness and efficiency of government regulatory agencies directly or indirectly charged with the administration, establishment, facilitation, supervision, co-ordination, regulation, monitoring etc. of the Nigerian Free Zones, paying particular attention to the lapses and challenges faced by these institutions, cogent recommendations will be made towards developing an effective and efficient regulatory institution with a robust institutional framework.
Page 2 of 33
Conducting a concrete x-tray of the Scheme’s Legal and Regulatory Framework including the supporting institutional structure(s) also affords a unique opportunity to contribute to the increasing academic write-ups on the subject matter. As a result, a robust recommendation will be proposed following a detailed evaluation of adoptable international best practices in order to create an effective, vibrant and responsive Legal and Regulatory Framework.
Page 3 of 33
ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS EPZ FDI FP FTZ FZ FMTI IMF IPs IPR JV M&E MOU NCS NERFUND NEPC NEPZA NIPC NIS NOIP NOTAP OPEC R&D SAP SEZ UNIDO WTO Export Processing Zone Foreign Direct Investment Free Port Free Trade Zone Free Zone Federal Ministry of Trade and Investment International Monetary Fund Industrial Parks Intellectual Property Rights Joint Venture Monitoring and Evaluation Memorandum of Understanding Nigeria Customs Service Nigeria Economic Reconstruction Funds Nigeria Export Promotion Council Nigeria Export Processing Zones Authority Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Nigeria Immigration Service National Office of Industrial Property National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Research and Development Structural Adjustment Program Special Economic Zone United Nations Industrial Development Organization World Trade Organisation Page 4 of 33 .
LIST OF FIGURES/TABLES Fig 1: Fig 2: Fig 3: Fig4: Fig 5: Fig 6: Fig 7: Free Zone Development Statistics Free Zone Typologies. Evolution and Development Trend Categories of Free Zone Legislative Instruments Evolutionary Model of Free Zone Objective Proposed Research Process Flow Proposed Comparative Historical Research Process Illustrates a detailed Data Collection. Verification and Analysis Process Page 5 of 33 .
..... 1.......8................................................. 19 1....2 Research Design..................................................................................................................................... 9 1........................................ 19 26 27 1..............10.........................……......... 13 1..........................................................5 Study Objective....................3 Justification........................4 Statement of the Problem....10 Data Requirements...................................................................8.................8.......7 Motivation for Research........8 Research Requirements……………………………………………………………............................... 1...........................................8..............1 Research Objectives....................... Verification and Analysis Process............................ Approach and Strategy……..........................................................2 Study Area........... Questions and Hypothesis................... 27 1............. 9 1......... 10 1............................................... 12 1.............................4.......................................................1 Data Collection...............................1 Specific Objectives: ...............................................................................9 Methodology............................................... 28 1....... 7 1..................11 Expected Research Output.............6 Significance of Research.........................1 Background............................. 29 1........ 13 1......... 29 1..... 30 Page 6 of 33 ... 12 1........3 Research Method(s)……………………………………………………………….........................................................................................................................4 Proposed Research Process Flow..............…………………………....................................…............TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Abbreviations/Acronyms List of Figures/Tables Table of Content 1.................................................
The Cluster Concept: Will Nigeria’s New Industrial Development Strategy Jumpstart the Country’s Industrial Takeoff? Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences Volume 2. U. the Nigerian Government frantically explored different economic stabilization measures and development policies towards ensuring an even Balance of Payments. 2011. As a result. 4 The government also introduced that “Industrial Policy of Nigeria: Policies. Therefore the Nigerian economy became wholly dependent on the FDIs and revenues from the oil industry. 44 2 Essentially to enable the country import capital goods like machinery.org/wiki/1980s_oil_glut assessed 13l06l2012 at 4:33pm. the fall of the petroleum economy in 1980 caused by the collapse of the crude oil market and the subsequent reduction in the production quota of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) member countries1 signalled the need to diversify the economy away from its subsisting mono-product state.1. Furthermore. her alarmingly growing import bills. facilitate the assembly of these products within the country. p. accumulating trade arrears. 2. achieving economic development through rapid industrialization has remained a major economic thrust and challenge for successive administrations. News & World Report. Additionally. consecutive administrations have adopted numerous economic development policies towards ensuring rapid national industrialization. These initiatives included the promulgation of the Incentives and Miscellaneous Provision Decree. upon the discovery of crude oil and commencement of oil exploratory related activities. these industrialization policies were passively jettisoned.1 BACKGROUND Since Nigeria became independent in 1960. 5 Obi Iwuagwu.4 Quarter IV 2011 6 To provide different funds and financial assistance to exporter 1 Page 7 of 33 . 3 Aim was to reduce the dependence on imported consumer goods and create employment opportunities for the Nigerian workforce. tools and spare parts and by so doing. No 18 6.wikipedia. The government also introduced other far reaching economic revitalization initiatives towards the promotion of non-oil exports. Guidelines and Institutional Framework” under SAP with the aim of achieving an accelerated pace of industrial development towards making the industrial sector the prime mover of economic development. the Government adopted the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP)4 and other Trade and Financial Liberalization Policies5 towards the revitalization of the nation’s dwindling fortunes. Oil Glut.S. 1980-0818. No. http://en. Some of the Nigerian Government’s economic development policies ranged from Import Substitution Strategy (ISS)2 or Resource Based Strategy3 under the First National Development Plan (1962 – 1968) to various indigenization initiatives. Price Cuts: How Long Will They Last?". while encouraging the manufacture of consumer goods. However. high interest rate. the government’s economic diversification thrust was later strengthen by the nation’s dwindling foreign exchange earnings. the introduction of the Nigeria Economic Reconstruction Funds (NERFUND) and the deregulation of the Foreign Exchange Market (FEM) with the aim of enhancing price competitiveness of Nigerian goods in the foreign markets. 89. Therefore. Incentives. But. high unemployment rate and mounting external debt servicing burden.
the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) amongst other international institutions. established by the Nigeria Export Processing Zones Act.9 the Free Zone Scheme was fashioned to create an enabling business environment aimed at promoting economic activities geared towards the processing of local and imported raw materials into finished goods for export. N107 L. Free Industrial Parks etc. processing and exporting of non-oil related trade items galvanised by strategic business incentives. Free Port. 2004. Therefore. strategies and reforms. the Nigerian Government failed to attain its industrial development targets despite these industrial policies. 10 Iliya Saidu Kure. The Agency offers exporters to export incentives upon satisfying the prescribed requirements.Furthermore.  The South Korea’s Masan Free Export Zone Experience: Lessons For Nigeria’s Export Promotion Drive 7 Page 8 of 33 .10 The abovementioned Act also established the Nigeria Export Processing Zones Authority (NEPZA). the National Office of Industrial Property (NOIP). the government switched from import replacement policy under the philosophy of economic nationalism to export promotion industrialization strategies for a faster economic growth and structural upgrade. As a result. within Nigeria amongst other obligations. the Oil and Gas Export Free Zone Decree No. Free Trade Zones. Nevertheless. Amongst the export promotion industrialization strategies adopted by the government included the Free Zone Scheme: an initiative that was touted by several International bodies including the World Bank Group. OGFZA like NEPZA also functions under the Federal Ministry of Trade and Investment and is situated in Onne/lkpokiri Agency vested with the responsibility of administering export incentives including Export Expansion Grant and Export Development Fund in Nigeria. supervision and management of all Export Processing Zone. 8. regulation. 8 Grants Pioneer status certificate upon application to pioneer industry or product thus enabling the applicant access to tax holidays. Furthermore.F. the Government also established the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP). 9 Nigeria Export Processing Zones Decree No.N. as the body charged with the registration/deregistration. Free Zone Enterprises. World Trade Organisation. 63 1992 Act Cap. under the then Federal Ministry of Trade and Commerce (now Federal Ministry of Trade and Investment). Nigeria Export Promotion Council (NEPC)7 and the strengthening of the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC)8 so as to control and administer incentives for investment attraction. of 1996 established the Onne Oil and Gas Free Zone (OGFZ) and created the Onne Oil and Gas Free Zone Authority (OGFZA) towards facilitation of transhipment activities for the oil and gas industry. The Scheme’s entire ecosystem was designed to gyrate around importing.
3 JUSTIFICATION Numerous literatures have been written on the Free Zone Scheme globally.2 STUDY AREA This research will briefly examine the historic development of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme guided by the Government’s periodic policy thrust per time so as to enable a detailed assessment of the Scheme’s Legal and Regulatory Framework real-time.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 19(4): 593-621. Furthermore. 2010. institutional and regulatory reform initiatives.000 . all refer to similar concepts with variations determined by policy prescriptions and objectives. by the year 2005. since terms such as Export Processing Zones. 11 Page 9 of 33 . Export Processing Factories etc. The Zone has also attracted and registered over 112 reputable major multinational oil exploration and production companies and a wide range of support firms in furtherance of its objectives. Xiangming Chen. Hence. Special Economic Zones. 1.20. this paper adopts the term Free Zone of the Scheme to encompass the several array of Zones for consistency and ease of understanding going forward. Nigeria: Mainstreaming Trade Policy into National Development Strategies. 1. extensive attention will be paid on the Scheme’s institutional framework by conducting a holistic performance evaluation exercise so as to effectively identify existing lapses and propose requisite curative actions for future legal. 2007. 11 Free Zones notwithstanding the briefly mentioned achievements and regardless of their respective objectives. Whilst a significant number pay considerable attention on Scheme’s typologies. typologies.0 Billion and created between 7. OGFZ had attracted investment worth over USD1. nomenclature or establishing instruments. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). OGFZ till date remains the only Free Zone in the world wholly dedicated to the servicing of oil and gas related activities.12 1995) others explore the developmental catalytic Inye Nathan Briggs. 1995.area of Rivers State in Nigeria. are economic enclaves where trade activities are conducted freely and foreign investments are exchanged for goods and/or services. Economic Commission for Africa: African Trade Policy Centre.000 jobs. Therefore. “The Evolution of Free Economic Zones and the Recent Development of Cross-National Growth Zones. evolution and economic theories (Aggarwal Aradhna. 12 Xiangming Chen. Free Trade Zones.
literatures on the Nigerian Free Zone Legal. the Scheme undoubtedly possesses the ability to propel a country’s economy to industrialisation by facilitating the transfer of technology/expert knowledge within the shortest time possible. Page 10 of 33 . achieving broader/long term economic development and providing an enhanced platform for global exchange amongst other objectives. Additionally.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Based on the brief introductory narration provided above and as further elaborated in the succeeding sections of this proposal. 2003. and J. This phenomenon has led to a considerable upsurge in the number of Free Zones globally with Nigerian Free Zones steadily increasing from zero (0) to twenty-five (25) since the adoption of the initiative and enactment of the enabling statues. upgrading production standards. reducing reliance on traditional export. incoherent or sparsely obtainable.upshot and economic transformational possibilities in the economic affairs of the host country (Meng Guangwen. regulatory and institutional reforms may be proposed and/or effected. Akinci. Therefore. Crittle. 2008). very few sighted and/or reviewed literature focus specifically on the Nigerian Free Zone legal and regulatory framework. G. this research provides a unique up-to-date data collation opportunity upon which real-time profitability and economic impact assessment can be based. raising industrial output. Besides. The proposed research also creates an avenue within which legislative. conducting a research squarely aimed at assessing the Scheme’s Legal and Regulatory Framework including the supporting institutional structure(s) affords a unique opportunity to contribute to the increasing academic write-ups on the subject matter. As a result. Institutional and Regulatory Framework are mostly obsolete. Furthermore. developed and developing countries have increasingly adopted liberal economic policies via export-led growth strategies utilizing the aforementioned Scheme as a means of generating FDIs. 1. the conclusion can be reached that the Free Zone Scheme functions as a revolutionary engine for economic growth stimulation with an inherent potential to counter numerous economic growth barriers. Nevertheless.
neglect and/or refuse to reposition the Scheme by providing the necessary Legal & Regulatory Framework. the enabling Nigerian Free Zone Legal and Regulatory Framework have remained static: thus rendering these Laws. the Scheme’s Legislative Framework is currently characterised harmonisation. Volume 20. a rigorous assessment of the scheme’s institutional framework will be conducted with special attention paid to the lapses caused by these institutions as a result of their discordant mandates and modus operandi. Article 6. Tangible transfers include the transfer of capital equipment and spill overs such as the development of auxiliary and support industries whilst intangible transfers include the transfer of skills. 02-07. Fordham International Law Journal.Nevertheless. (1996) The Role of Law in Business Development.I. Additionally. this research paper will highlight the direct/indirect consequence of the obsolete legislations with detailed attention paid to the problematic sections of these Laws. tangible and intangible technology transfer 14 and spill over. 2002. Furthermore. Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique UMR 5824 du CNRS 13 14 Page 11 of 33 . a weak enforcement/regulatory agency and a lack of concerted efforts towards trade laws Ibrahim F. Therefore elongated business dispute resolution processes are beginning to occur without adequate legal succour. A Review of the Role and Impact of Export Processing Zones in World Trade : the Case of Mexico. 15 Enrique Blanco De Armas. institutional and regulatory framework is developed. To this end. Mustapha Sadni-Jallab. the Nigerian Government’s desire for the Scheme alongside its globally acknowledged static (increased capital and capital goods) and dynamic (technology diffusion. Furthermore. 13 the conclusion may be reached that present day reality does not reflect the government’s aspirations for the Scheme which is to stimulate Nigeria’s economic towards industrialisation. high net-worth individuals will continue to ignore the humongous business opportunities available in Nigeria should Government continued to overlook. these laws as a result of its static nature have become hugely irresponsive to the challenges of modern trade. Issue 5. export promotion) benefits of FDI15 will remain a façade.P. globally uncompetitive and business unfriendly. save and except a robust legal. galvanised by requisite statutes. These legislative provisions will be compared with those of strategic countries so as to enable the possibility of recommending worthy alternatives in line with international best practices. Shihata. Moreover. Balancing the above state of affairs with the opinion that Free Zone Scheme require numerous conditions that are not always strictly speaking economic or financial. Therefore. W. The need to continue to enjoy government’s by absence of convergence in related legislations.
co-ordination. 2. regulation. 3. monitoring etc. To stress-test. facilitation. A robust recommendation will also be proposed following a detailed evaluation of adoptable international best practices in order to create an effective. To explore and recommend globally recognized legal & regulatory best practices/models towards creating a profitable and sustainable business environment within Nigerian Free Zones. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 1. To identify and propose robust remedial actions towards eradicating highlighted lapses in the existing legal & regulatory framework. Page 12 of 33 . supervision. Furthermore. vibrant and responsive Legal and Regulatory Framework. 5. To evaluate and produce a pragmatic unbiased detailed assessment report on the effectiveness of the existing Nigerian Free Zone Legal & Regulatory Framework. identify loopholes and advocate necessarily corrective measures (where applicable) to the proposed Free Zone regulatory reforms.support and long term commitment will also be stressed alongside a need for a revised/streamlined/dedicated importation/exportation process for Free Zones. To appraise the effectiveness of established Free Zone Regulatory Authorities alongside other supporting agencies and suggest essential corrective actions towards remedying identified lapses. establishment. 4. this study will undertake a rigorous examination of the effectiveness and efficiency of government regulatory agencies directly or indirectly charged with the administration. the principal objective of this study is to effectively assess the performance of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme precisely the Legal and Regulatory Framework: identifying cogent lapses affecting the Scheme’s functional effectiveness and recommending necessary corrective measures towards repositioning Nigerian Zones as a choice destination going forward.5 STUDY OBJECTIVE As mentioned in the Abstract Section of this proposal. 1. of the Nigerian Free Zones paying particular attention to the lapses and challenges faced by these institutions.
further studies will be inspired. Additionally. 1. money laundering. extensive research and the researcher’s first-hand experience in a Nigerian Free Zone Management Company. (2005) Free Trade Zone and Port Hinterland Development. investors may continue to avoid Nigeria’s thriving business environment.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH The significance of this research becomes palpable when the lapses and inadequacies of the existing Legal. Lessons Learned. Transport and Tourism Development (TTD) Publication reference ST/ESCAP/2377 16 17 Page 13 of 33 . The eighteenth (18 th) and Special Economic Zones Performance. Furthermore. the need for this research is further necessitated and strengthened by the fact that except a robust Legal and Regulatory Framework including an effective institutional structure is developed. the significance of this research paper is effectively captured in the research questions listed below which were developed from a plethora of reviewed literature. It is hoped that upon conclusion of this research.7 MOTIVATION FOR RESEARCH Numerous factors instigated and consistently motivate the conduct of this research principally amongst which includes the acclaimed performance of the Free Zone Scheme globally. a clear and transparent legal and regulatory framework which codifies the Scheme’s strategy and establishes the Free Zone Rules for all concerned stakeholders must be holistically captured in other to shape the boundaries of behaviour. the Scheme within the last fifty (50) years has become increasingly popular in both developed and developing countries mostly as an economic growth policy instrument aimed at enhancing industry competitiveness16 and the promotion of export-oriented Foreign Direct Investments. counterfeiting etc. Accordingly. and Implications for Zone Development United Nations Economic and Social Commission For Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and Korea Maritime Institute (KMI). the Free Zone concept originated from Free Ports like the Port of Aegean island of Delos and Port of Leghorn in the Bay of Genoa.17 Historically. This research also echoes and contributes significantly to the call for a review of the Free Zone legislations by offering a platform for a rigorous assessment of the existing framework towards giving a fresh policy perspective to civil societies and government agencies/organisations engaged in the promotion of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme. North West Italy (1547). Undoubtedly. Institutional and Regulatory Framework is examined against the backdrop of current global challenges facing the Free Zones Scheme including terrorism.1.
the U.nineteenth (19th) centuries also witnessed increased establishments of Free Ports in places like Gibraltar (1704). the modern concept of free trade "zone. 48 Stat. supporting existing foreign enterprises and ensuring efficient government supervision of enterprises amongst other objectives. February 2010 / 17:43 22 Foreign Trade Zones Act of 1934. Bredo. The Economic Intelligence Unit." as opposed to free "port" or free "city. Therefore. Aradhna. The FIZ model developed at Shannon was a combination of the FTZ concept with the emerging concept of industrial estates. No.S. 73-397. Jayawardena (1983). Hamburg became the first port to be granted the special privilege of manufacturing. §§ 81a-81u (1982)). the Irish Government in 1959 established the Shannon Free Zone by extending liberal policies normally accorded to ports and airports to the industrial area adjoining Shannon Airport. Thoman. Hong Kong (1848). Shannon Free Zone still remains Ireland's largest cluster of North American In 1888.24 The Irish Government’s rationale was geared towards attracting FDI. cited in Note. and distribution facilities for trade.23 As a commendable follow up.19 Ephesus (now Turkey) for instance. 998 (codified as amended at 19 U. the level of international trade was linked to domestic production but depended on expanding transiting trade related activities. "a tract of land which is subdivided and developed according to a comprehensive plan for the use of a community of industrial enterprises. The Shannon Free Zone was the first Free Industrial Zone (FIZ) created expressly for customs-free export oriented manufacturing. posted 26. 1 was established in 1937 as the first FTZ in the world. 22 The New York Foreign Trade Zone No. Hamburg (1888) 18 and Copenhagen (1891) to name a few.20 Free Zones historically were small.S.Industrial Estates: Tool For Industrialization 1 18 Page 14 of 33 . Thus creating for the first time an FTZ where manufacturing was permitted.C." was introduced by the United States in the Foreign Trade Zones Act of 1934. L.e. (1960). at 732 n. However. on the conditions that it not compete with the hinterland and remain export-oriented.55. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper No. fenced-in. 24 W. The rationale of setting up these zones was to facilitate ‘transiting trade’ of other countries exports. storage. FTZs remained rather small until a 1950 Act authorized export-oriented processing within the Foreign Trade Zones. Pub. i. 427 19 Currie. and were located in most ports of entry around the world. Free Trade Zones. London 20 José. Jean (1979) Investment: The Growing Role of Export Processing Zones. Free Ports and Foreign Trade Zones 140 (1956). Foreign Trade Zones. transhipment and re-export operations. 23 R. WORLD TRADE L. duty-free areas. Till date. Cerón (2004) Assessment of Mongolia’s Free Trade Zone Program and Site Evaluation: Mongolia Economic Policy Reform And Competitiveness Project (EPRC) 21 Aggarwal. through its Free Port initiative welcomed traders and tradesmen with open arms as a result the region recorded remarkable economic developments during those times. supra note 14. Singapore (1819). 17 J. 20902. (2010) Economic impacts of SEZs: Theoretical approaches and analysis of newly notified SEZs in India. offering warehousing.21 However.
32 Nevertheless. FIAS.[a]… country's development if they are appropriately Http://Www.26 In 2007. 31 http://www. the modern concept of Free Zone unlike the abovementioned Free Port concept is not static and does not need to be situated adjacent to a port. generated USD 8. 30 Akinci et al (2008). Taiwan (1966) like the Shannon Free Zone effectively exemplify the modern concept of Free Zone. India (1965) and Kaohsiung. 70th Annual Report of the Foreign Trade Zones Board to the Congress of the United States FY2008.29 Whilst China which leads Asia with 187 Zones.doc. [for the development of a country’s economy]. reports exports transactions worth more than USD 145 billion followed by Indonesia.. twenty-nine (29) countries had seventy-nine (79) Zones across the world.is not a first best policy choice…. Puerto Rico (1962). published online at www. Thailand.doc.gov/ftzpage/annualreport/ar-2008. 1. the world’s second largest FTZ.Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network . zones can play a long term dynamic role in . Taiwan and S. 27. Department of Commerce (2007). WorldBank Group.. and the International Labor Organization (ILO). modern Free Zones are dominated by low cost labour intensive industries in the earliest phase of development. Special Economic Zones: Performance. exported more than USD 40 billion.. Philippines. The best policy is one of overall liberalization of the economy… [Although]. Date from an ILO document dates April 2007. Washington. By 1975. Commercial Service.com/articles/free-trade-zones-investment-hits-over-13-6bn/113362/ at14/04/2012 32 Trade Issues Brief: Special Economic Zones. 30 Nigeria.. Lessons Learned. Mayaguez. 29 Free Trade Zones Board (2009). there are approximately 3000 zones in 135 countries worldwide.S.Com/ Akinci. and J.25 In addition. in terms of the composition of economic activity and technological sophistication. published online at http://ia. 2. 27 Akinci et al. strong arguments have been made that the FZ Scheme “…. total global exports from FTZs were estimated at USD 400 billion.Shannonireland. (2008) These statistics were derived from a database developed by FIAS in close consultation with the World Economic Processing Zones Association (WEPZA). India.28 The United States which possesses more than 161 active Zones. Modern Zones also evolve with economic growth of the domestic economy. Modern Free Zones can be located anywhere with relatively good connectivity. has attracted over USD 13. Korea.gov/stlouis/189.investments with a successful track record as a choice location for international companies wishing to invest in Europe.6 billion in exports and re-exports in 2008. U. 28 U. Panama: Warehousing and Wholesaling.31 Overall Free Zones are estimated to account for more than USD 200 billion in global exports and employ directly at least 40 million workers. Panama City. and Implications for Zone Development. Kandla.S. which possesses about twenty-five (25) Zones.buyusa.thisdaylive. p. Additionally.ita. Washington. Crittle (2008). World Bank Group .6 billion investment and paid over N150 billion to the government as customs duty since its inception. 27 The Colon Free Zone in Panama.International Trade Department 25 26 Page 15 of 33 . Today.pdf. G.
33 34 35 Madani. (2001) “Export Processing Zones: Has Africa Missed the Boat? Not Yet. Peter. The Theory and Practice of Free Economic Zones: A Case Study of Tianjin. The abovementioned policy change marked a deep structural reform for most countries and puts an end to the monopoly of closed economies. the Government introduced the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) as means of reducing the Country’s excessive dependence on oil sector revenues. Dorsati (1999)A Review of the Role and Impact of Export Processing Zones. unbalanced regional policy (i.”34 The foregoing facts prove undeniably that Free Zones.e. the Nigerian Government. has certainly played a critical role in economic growth and the development of a Nation’s rapidly increasing exports. like the rest of the world also commenced its transformational economic reform initiative towards diversifying the economy away from its subsisting mono-product state. Hence. No. and employment generation capabilities. outwardly-oriented economic strategy. numerous countries adopted the Free Zone Scheme as a development strategy and export promotion policy aimed at liberalizing their respective economies by reducing economic barriers and facilitating global free trade in an attempt to provide a stimulus to national and local economies towards international productive capital.35 Therefore. The policy also acts as an economic growth stimulus whereby capital. 17. the use of the Free Zone Scheme by countries as a catalyst for economic reform also constitutes another motivating factor. The programme also sought to promote exports from other non-oil producing sectors including agriculture. Africa Regional Working Paper Series. foreign exchange earnings. solid mineral etc. Secondly. technology and resources introduced into Zones create new job opportunities for local workers and business opportunities for local companies. (Washington. Historically. thus introducing a hybrid system in line with the host Government’s economic transformation agenda. People’s Republic of China Page 16 of 33 .C: World Bank) Watson. as a Scheme. World Bank Meng Guangwen. This catalytic effect also holds the keys to China’s rapid and sustained economic growth. not all Chinese regions are treated the same way) and growing integration into the global economy since the 1980s.set-up…as an integrated part of a national reform and liberalization program” 33 or if they are used “to integrate …[their economy]… into the world’s global economy. D. A vivid illustration of the catalytic effect of the Free Zones Scheme is best exemplified by the Shannon Free Zone scenario mentioned above.
Hence. Therefore. 36 Page 17 of 33 . was fashioned to create an enabling environment with suitable financial and other incentives towards promoting economic activities which seeks to process local and imported raw materials into finished goods. Fig1: illustrates additional Zone Development Statistics. International Labor Organization database. WEPZA (2007). 37 Ibid. concerted steps will be taken in this research paper to understand the very essence of the Scheme as a cartelistic economic development strategy. 38 BearingPoint. except proactive steps are taken towards The Calabar Free Zone. the need for an end-to-end reform of the existing Legal and Regulatory Framework trumps all other motives and constitutes the fundamental objective of this research. 38 Thirdly. the prospect of achieving the Nigerian Government’s economic objective(s) via the creation of the FZ Scheme will remain an idea or illusion. FIAS research.The Government also established the Calabar Export Processing Zone 36 with the aim of boosting manufactured exports and promoting foreign and domestic trade in line with its economic transformation objective. transparent and predictable business environment. As a result. This is because until a holistic reform is carried out. the premier FZ. although the Scheme has recorded significant success overtime. the point must be made that the FZ Scheme is just an instrument of industrial policy whose success depends on carefully designed and broadly implemented coherent strategy aimed at rapid economic development. evidence has shown that the development of a responsive and proactive legal and regulatory framework still remains a critical component towards ensuring a stable.37 Nevertheless. Globally. Nigerian Zones like rest of the Free Zones globally account for approximately USD 200 billion in gross exports per annum and directly employ some 40 million workers and perhaps some 60 million indirectly.
linkages.enhancing the existing framework (including FZ Laws. Stein (2008). facilitation. This is because a significant number of government agencies with specific function(s) within Nigerian Zones are established by nonrelated/unsynchronised statutes. Issue 5. Finally. Hence.I. none Ibrahim F. This is because although numerous literatures have hitherto been written about the Free Zone Scheme globally. of Zones appear to function discordantly. the performance and efficacy assessments of the regulatory agencies direct and indirectly charged with the administration of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme also form part of the research motive. investments. Regulations and Operational Procedures). regulation.39 competitiveness. The Efficacy of Regulation in Developing Countries. the Nigerian FZ investment climate may also continue to lose credibility. Shihata. the key to a successful Zone rests with the ability of the overseeing authorities and supplementary government agencies to act efficiently and independently while encouraging more developmental activities. 39 40 Page 18 of 33 . spirited efforts must be taken by the Nigerian Government towards developing an effective and efficient regulatory institution with a robust institutional framework. supervision. (2003). 2008 41 Seema. Therefore. operationalizing their respective mandates often create red-tapes and/or corruption. Paper Prepared for Africa Task Force Meeting. United Nations 42 Developmental competitiveness refers to an institutional continuum which propels a dynamic process of accumulation focused on increasing the diversity. monitoring etc. Africa. co-ordination. These Institutions going forward must possess established well-functioning systems.40 Nonetheless. and depth of an economy. the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme may continue to suffer serious conceptual and operational weaknesses. organizations and regulations aimed at fostering private and/or state activities within the FZ Scheme so as to improve developmental competitiveness 42 and sustainable economic growth. As a result. 41 Additionally. the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme currently lacks a harmonised institutional framework. Howard. Addis Ababa. investors and global appeal. Fourthly. Fordham International Law Journal. these Institutions must help shape a revised institutional matrix of new norms. with clear and transparent rules. the fact that the study of the Nigerian Free Zone Legal and Regulatory Frameworks remains a novel area also stimulates the conduct of this research. Undoubtedly. incentives. market share. Ethiopia 10-11 July. establishment. Volume 20. Hafeez. effective checks and balances and strong enforcement mechanisms. Nigerian government agencies directly and indirectly charged with the administration. capacities. Additionally. Article 6. Industrial Policy and Export Processing Zones: Lessons from Asia. (1996) The Role of Law in Business Development.
What amendments have been made to these establishing legislative and administrative instruments? RQ1f. .43 Nigerian Territorial-type Zones occupy clearly defined area(s) and possess a high quality infrastructure and administrative facilities with better trained members of staff than in the customs territory. Nigerian Zones will be. Historically. Free Zone terminologies are diverse therefore in this study. Chinese Geographical Science Volume 15. 103-112. government policies and directives that established and regulate the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme? RQ1c. 1.specifically seeks to assess the functional effectiveness of the legal. having observed this literature lacuna. 43 Page 19 of 33 . regulatory and institutional framework of the Scheme. Hence.8. As stated above. Science Press Beijing China. What lapses occurred as a result of these amendments? RQ1g. Regime-type Zones strictly speaking are only ‘free economic regime’ Meng Guang-wen.8 RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS 1. What was the government’s establishment rationale? RQ1e. QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS OBJECTIVE 1: To evaluate and produce a pragmatic detailed assessment report on the effectiveness of the existing Nigerian Free Zone Legal & Regulatory Framework. Evolutionary Model of Free Economic Zones. RESEARCH QUESTIONS RQ1a. there are Twenty-five (25) Zones in Nigeria. What are the existing legislative instruments. pp. a majority are still under construction. this research paper aims at bridging the gap by contributing to the critical x-ray of the aforementioned framework with a view to making valuable contribution to the Nigerian Free Trade Zone Laws vis-à-vis recommending reforms in line with international best practises. What principle(s) guided the establishment of Free Zones in Nigeria? RQ1d. Do the existing legal and regulatory framework(s) adequately provide an effective administrative. supervisory and monitoring system for the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme? HYPOTHESIS: H1a. Although some Zones are operational. categorised into Territorial and Regime-type Zones.Different Generation and Structural Features.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE. Number 2. broadly speaking. What types of Free Zones exist in Nigeria? RQ1b.
The Open Zones (such as Special Economic Zones. other recognised types of Zones include: 1. Free Trade Zone 2. Cross-National Regional Economic Integration (REI) Page 20 of 33 . grouped according to industrial sector and background features such as economic freedom.e. Nigerian Zone can be classified into the following types/categories. Cross-border Cooperation Zone and Cross-National Growth Triangles 3. Industrial Parks etc. Comprehensive Zones – i. geographical and macro location. Service Based Zones – i.e. Science & Technology Parks Globally. Export Processing Zones 3. Trade Based Zones – i.e. Free Tourism & Finance Zones 4. Nigerian Enclave Zones often have clearly defined boarders (such as Free Trade Zones.e. it is worth stating that Territorial-type Zones are further subdivided into Enclave and Open type Zones depending on their linkages with the domestic economy and customs supervision policy. for the purpose of this study our attention will be fixed on Territorial-type Zones. Therefore. Cross border Zones – i. Moving on. Manufacturing Zones – i. Free Ports.e. 2. 1.) on the other hand enjoy special/open customs supervision which encourages direct linkages with the domestic economy. Export Processing Zones etc.) and operate with a closed customs supervision which result in a less direct linkage with the Nigerian domestic economy. Therefore.enjoyed within a defined location but are not ‘Free Economic Zones’ per se. Science Based Zones – i. Science and Technology Parks. Free Financial and Tourism Zones.e.
Acts: i. Submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of Ruprecht-Karls University of Heidelberg. i. Evolution and Development Trend H1b. Nigeria Export Processing Zones Act Onne Oil and Gas Free Zone Authority Customs & Exercise Act Immigration Services Act CAP 171 LFN 1990 Investment Procedures. ii. 2004 b. i. 44 Page 21 of 33 . Policies & Operating Guidelines: Meng Guangwen. Regulations and Operational Guidelines for Free Zones in Nigeria.44 Fig 2: illustrates Free Zone Typologies. . People’s Republic of China. Germany for the Degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences. Notable Free Zone legislative instruments include: a. ii. Supplementary Legislations: c. The Theory and Practice of Free Economic Zones: A Case Study of Tianjin.
macro. a. Stimulation of the local/regional economic performance and the transformation of the Nigerian economy d. Decentralisation of markets h. foreign exchange and attraction capital to absolving advance technology. The microeconomic objectives evolve from creating trade. Attraction of domestic and Foreign Direct Investment b. See Fig 4 below for the Evolutionary Model of Free Zone Objective g. employment. k. Generation of employment opportunities vis a vis the eradication of poverty e. Implementation of liberal market economy principles and policies. Development of export oriented industries i. The Government’s establishment guiding principles and rationale(s) include: a. Enhancement of foreign exchange earnings c. Realization of micro. b. Page 22 of 33 . Encouragement of foreign commerce Diversification of exportable products Overcoming structural balance of payments pressures 45 Ibid. export. common and special economic objectives.45 Fig 3: Illustrates the various categories of Free Zone Legislative Instruments H1c & d. investment and training personnel. f. j. Whilst the macroeconomic objective evolved from promoting regional development to carrying out structural reforms and Regional Corporation in order to foster Regional Economic Integration (REI).
There has been no amendment to the NEPZ Act but added-on guidelines such as the……. H1f. including international capital movements and international trade Fig4: Evolutionary Model of Free Zone Objective46 H1e. Augmentation of forward and backward linkages with domestic firms. Importation of modern technology. leading to potential formation of clusters o.have been drafted so as to regulate and guide Zone operations. Improving domestic markets supply conditions n. Lapses that emanated from the amendment of establishing instrument(s): a. management know-how and human capacity building within and outside the Zones m. although there has been no amendment to the NEPZ Act save the referred Operating Guidelines notable lapses yet include: 46 Ibid Page 23 of 33 . A stated above. Integration of the Nigerian economy into the international economic system. Amendments to the establishing legislative instruments include: a.l.
terrorism financing and weapons of mass destruction proliferation. Weak and ineffective regulatory instruments have resulted in the enactments of additional laws and regulations. Do the existing legal and regulatory framework(s) adequately provide an effective administrative. trade based money laundering activities. Weak x.i. Consistently confronting novel issues with out-dated and unresponsive legislative instruments which often expose investors to reoccurring litigation and disputes. This study will irrefutably and conclusively show that the existing Nigerian Free Zone: Legal and Regulatory instruments are archaic. Page 24 of 33 . Obsolete or Inadequate information technology based recordkeeping systems. ix. The multiplication of ineffective. However. iv. Inconsistent application of laid-down rules and regulations has resulted in a plethora of conflicting judicial precedence. Lack of implementing regulations and procedural definitions prevents the achievement of minimal transparency and operationalisation of key international best practices vii. Lack of adequate coordination and cooperation between Zone and Customs Authorities presents a unique money laundering and terrorist financing threat/opportunity. vi. static and reactionary. Enterprise Registration process and customs inspection procedures. ii. weak and excessive laws and regulations also reduces their quality and the chances of their enforcement. these regulatory laws have resulted in an arguably under-regulated industry and undermined the chances of new investment in Zones. Drastic increment in bureaucratic bottlenecks and corruption caused by the wanton abuse of inflexible rules and regulations. viii. Activation and implementation of the existing policy framework underpinning the Free Zone investment climate is threatened by poor human capacity particularly in the public sector. Inadequate combative safeguards against customs fraud. supervisory and monitoring system for the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme? a. iii. xi. H1e. v.
Therefore. supervision. facilitation. What proactive remedial actions can be adopted towards addressing these highlighted constraints? OBJECTIVE 3: To identify and propose robust remedial actions towards eradicating highlighted lapses in the existing legal & regulatory framework. What are the direct and indirect consequence of these lapses on the profitability and sustainability of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme? 3. How effective was the government’s response to these lapses? Page 25 of 33 . co-ordination. establishment. What legislative and regulatory instruments established the Free Zone Authorities and supporting agencies? 2. What corrective steps have the government taken to tackle these lapses? 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Do the existing regulatory authority(ies) vis a vis the supplementary Government Agency(ies) directly or indirectly charged with the administration. monitoring etc. of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme efficiently and effectively provide the requisite support? 3. OBJECTIVE 2: To appraise the effectiveness of established Free Zone Regulatory Authority(ies) alongside other supporting agencies and suggest essential corrective actions towards remedying identified lapses. legally vibrant and profitable business destination. What are the critical issues and challenges constraining the functional effectiveness of these institutions? 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What are the identified and acknowledged (legal and otherwise) lapses affecting the successful execution of the Nigerian Free Zone Scheme? 2. a strong case will be made for a wholesome review of the prevailing Framework so that Nigerian Free Zones can be repositioned as a globally acclaimed. the Legal and Regulatory Framework(s) have become ineffective administrative and regulatory tools.Accordingly. regulation.
Page 26 of 33 .2 RESEARCH DESIGN. What are the possible remedial actions needed to cure the highlighted defects benchmarked against international best practices? OBJECTIVE 5: To explore and recommend globally recognized legal & regulatory best practices/models towards creating a profitable and sustainable Free Zone environment in Nigeria. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. APPROACH AND STRATEGY This study is a qualitative research that attempts to accumulate relevant information and data regarding the effectiveness or otherwise of the Nigerian Free Zone: Legal and Regulatory Framework. instruments and mechanisms can be adopted or mirrored in order to ensure a sustainable Free Zone Scheme in Nigeria? 2. What are the proposed Free Zone reforms? 2. What are the direct and indirect effect(s) of proposed legislative reforms on the continued existence. instruments and mechanisms can be adopted or mirrored in order to ensure a sustainable Free Zone Scheme in Nigeria? a. assessment and conclusion on the performance efficacy of the aforesaid framework. profitability and sustainability of Free Zone in Nigeria? 3. The impetus for doing this qualitative research is to investigate and become more experienced with the subject matter so as to deliver a detailed description. What other notable Free Zone developmental model/approach can be borrowed from globally acclaimed Free Zones? HYPOTHESIS: H5a.8. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What innovative and globally acknowledged legislative best practices. identify loopholes and advocate necessarily curative actions (where applicable) to proposed Free Zone regulatory reforms. United Arab Emirates a. Dubai International Financial Centre 1. What innovative and globally acknowledged legislative best practices.OBJECTIVE 4: To stress-test.
stakeholder and comparative policy analysis etc. the utilisation of a flexible qualitative research approach further enables the rigorous examination of the aforesaid matter through the adoption of diverse qualitative research approach. analytical and exploratory research methods would be utilised so as to obtain current performance information/indicators of the framework and to yield instructive information concerning the problems with same. In line with the foregoing. Primary and secondary methods of data collection will also be used so that the research’s objectives can be achieved.Additionally.4 PROPOSED PHD RESEARCH PROCESS FLOW Fig 5: Proposed Research Process Flow Page 27 of 33 . It is intended that following the application of these research methods.8. the descriptive.9 1. observed and confirmed lapses with the framework. approaches and strategies.) so as to conclusively verify assumed.8.3 RESEARCH METHOD(S) See Section 1. strategies and analysis (including statistical. 1. considerable insight would have been acquired towards the production of a holistic. accurate and verifiable report on the framework.
Fig 6: Proposed Comparative Historical Research Process 1. Relevant Free Zone laws and regulatory practices will also be rigorously analysed alongside various country reports on Free Zones prepared by local and international bodies (such as the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)) directly and indirectly involved in the promotion of international trade.9 METHODOLOGY This research will take a holistic look at Nigerian Free Zones generally as a unit of analysis in order to effectively assess the functional effectiveness of the Legal and Regulatory Framework. etc. this research will employ both library and qualitative field research methods alongside numerous research techniques with the intention of improving accuracy of collated data through robust triangulation methods. The aforementioned research methods and techniques will also foster an in-depth understanding of the general theoretical and philosophical nature of the Nigerian Free Zone Legal and Regulatory Framework. will also be considered for an extensive comparative historical analysis. China. Additionally. The experience of countries with successful Free Zones like the United Arab Emirates. Singapore. existing scholarly writing and jurisprudence on the above-subject matter will also be utilised towards addressing the abovementioned research questions. Also. Page 28 of 33 .
c. email. directives.10 DATA REQUIREMENTS a. f. agreements etc. Outputs from focus group discussion and participatory performance appraisal (PPA) method with Free Zone Stakeholders e. Local and International Legal Practitioners with requisite Free Zone knowledge and expertise and other targeted contributors.10. Page 29 of 33 . This verification exercise will involve the use of various Data Analysis methods alongside repeated authentication exercises until the conflicting responses are totally reconciled. The types of data that will be collected. Outputs from well-structured in depth interview for a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative data. directives.1. Robust literature search/survey and case studies on Nigerian Free Zones. d. b. Service Providers with cogent dealing in Nigerian Zones. reports and indicators on Nigerian Free Zones from different level governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Statistical data. guidelines. several rounds of interactions via email and telephone with many survey respondents will be conducted so as to verify the received data and explore the reasons for inconsistent responses where applicable. policies. analysed and utilised include: 1. policies. agreements etc. VERIFICATION AND ANALYSIS PROCESS Data for the purpose of this study will be collected mostly through rigorous review of Local and International legislative instruments including laws. Structured questionnaires and (one-on-one/telephone) interviews for subject matter expert surveys. telephone and/or personal interviews and standardized questionnaires completed by subject matter expert respondents. Zone Managers and Operators. Investors. treaties. treaties. in order to ensure accuracy of collected data. guidelines.1 DATA COLLECTION. Local and International legislative instruments including laws. Additionally. A robust literature search/survey will be conducted with case studies. The abovementioned subject expert respondents will include selected representatives of NEPZA and other supplementary Government Agencies.
11 EXPECTED RESEARCH OUTPUT The projected research output will be a PhD thesis containing numerous chapters in which written articles. journals and/or presentations made at local seminars and international conferences will be submitted for relevant assessment. (1984) Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods.M. Verification and Analysis Process 47 1.B.. 47 Miles M. CA: Sage Page 30 of 33 . Huberman A. Newbury Park. Please see Fig 7: (above) for projected yearly outputs.Fig 7: illustrates a detailed Data Collection.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Aggarwal. D. 20902. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Efficacy of Regulation in Developing Countries. . and Implications for Zone Development. Volume 20. and J. Volume 1. Special Economic Zones: Performance. Chinese Geographical Science Volume 15. WorldBank Group. International Labor Organization database.com/32wmlww . February 2010 / 17:43 Akinci. [I960]. Page 31 of 33 . The Economic Intelligence Unit.  The South Korea’s Masan Free Export Zone Experience: Lessons for Nigeria’s Export Promotion Drive. . 2008 Ibrahim F.Different Generation and Structural Features. Briggs. . No. Chicago: Free Press Currie. Industrial Estates. FIAS. Addis Ababa.P. A Review of the Role and Impact of Export Processing Zones in World Trade: the Case of Mexico. The Role of Law in Business Development. . Economic impacts of SEZs: Theoretical approaches and analysis of newly notified SEZs in India. Bearing Point. Number 2.http://tinyurl.I. .C: World Bank) Meng. Crittle. Fordham International Law Journal. 17 J. 02-07. Washington. World Export Processing Zones Association: FIAS Research Bredo. Aradhna. Jean. . Paper Prepared for Africa Task Force Meeting. Investment: The Growing Role of Export Processing Zones. . Tool for Industrialization. Stein. W. 103-112. 31 . Nigeria: Mainstreaming Trade Policy into National Development Strategies. Science Press Beijing China. William. Africa. Economic Commission for Africa: African Trade Policy Centre. Department of Economics. London Enrique Blanco De Armas. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Industrial Policy and Export Processing Zones: Lessons from Asia. Free Trade Zones. Mustapha Sadni-Jallab. . . Article 6 Iliya Saidu Kure. Jayawardena. Dorsati. Guangwen. Assessment of Mongolia’s Free Trade Zone Program and Site Evaluation: Mongolia Economic Policy Reform and Competitiveness Project (EPRC) Madani. Seema. Shihata.Accessed on 26/04/2012 Howard. Cerón. World Trade L. . A Review of the Role and Impact of Export Processing Zones. pp. 427 José. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper No. Ethiopia 10-11 July. Evolutionary Model of Free Economic Zones . (Washington. G. Glencoe (Ill). Lessons Learned. . 1 Inye Nathan. . posted 26. . Issue 5. Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique UMR 5824 du CNRS Hafeez. University of Jos.
The Theory and Practice of Free Economic Zones: A Case Study of Tianjin. Miles. People’s Republic of China. Africa Regional Working Paper Series. Huberman. Submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of Ruprecht-Karls University of Heidelberg. Peter. No. Newbury Park. 55. . International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 19(4): 593621. 2. . cited in Note.B. Page 32 of 33 .M. The Cluster Concept: Will Nigeria’s New Industrial Development Strategy Jumpstart the Country’s Industrial Takeoff? Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences Volume 2. supra note 14. No. Export Processing Zones: Has Africa Missed the Boat? Not Yet. CA: Sage. . . The Evolution of Free Economic Zones and the Recent Development of Cross-National Growth Zones. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. M. Watson. Foreign Trade Zones. Free Ports and Foreign Trade Zones 140. R. . A.Meng Guangwen. Iwuagwu. . World Bank Xiangming Chen. Germany for the Degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences. @ 732 n. 17. Obi.4 Quarter IV Thoman.
Page 33 of 33 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.