-e.√-Ω- - --∫.’ ae.a o.√.’ ·.·.-√.·.

˛ a
Yakub Patan, Hanamkonda
Q. If we have to write common
nouns then won't we have
to capitalise the first letter
of the word, even if we have
to start a sentence with a
common noun?
A: We have to capitalise the
first letter of sentence, whatever the part of
speech the word beginning with that letter is.
Q. The letter has been got written by the MLA.
. letter MLA .√.... ’.π◊√¸.Ω’ - Is this cor-
rect?
A: Not wrong, but a very confusing construc-
tion. Writers and speakers of correct English
do not use such sentences. Use the Active
voice instead: The MLA has got the letter
written.
Q. Is the letter 'r' silent, when it is followed by a
vowel and also if the letter 'r' comes after a
vowel. i.e., in the middle of a word
e.g.: Government - ∫.˛. ’..
A: The letter 'r' is not silent when it is followed
by a vowel. 'r' in British pronunciation is
silent when it follows a vowel and is followed
by a consonant, but not by a vowel.
Form - In this word 'r' comes after the vowel
'o', and is followed by the consonant 'm'. So 'r'
here is silent (Only in British pronunciation. In
American pronunciation it is pronounced.)
But 'r' is pronounced even in British English,
if it comes after a vowel and is followed by
another vowel.
e.g.: Forum - Here 'r' comes after the vowel 'o'
and is followed by another vowel 'u'. So 'r'
is pronounced here.
In the word, 'Government', 'r' comes after a
vowel, and is followed by a consonant and not
by vowel. So it is silent.
Q. In the school premises/ On the school
premises - Which one is correct?
A: On the school premises - Correct.
Q. Are the words eye, population, parliament,
water etc., common nouns or proper nouns.
A: They are all common nouns.
Q. Aspect - Explain the meaning in Telugu.
A: Aspect = 1) ..π.. In this aspect, he is
much better than his brother
= · ..π../ :≠ . ’.™
2) Appearance = .. √/.. ·. √
.π·.œ.. ·.Ω’
Q. Consecutive - Explain the meaning in Telugu
with an example.
A: ..Ω/ ¸.π.’. ..¸ – Consecutive num-
bers = 1, 2, 3, 4
etc.,
They stood in the
consecutive order of
their classes = .√∞
. ’. ..Ω™
B. Narasinga Rao,
Anakapalli.
Q. Gerund, Infinitive and present participle -
· .‚...· .·. .√.π¸.™ .™ .. ...
..¸ ..Δ..Ω... :......
A: i) ... ing form (going, coming, singing etc.,)†’
noun .√.. .: gerund ... ’.:
Subject of a sentence ™‰.Δ Object of verb/
objects of a preposition .√.. .: noun
... ’.:
a) Walking is good for health. ..π¸. walking †’
subject of the sentence .√.’. ’√¸. – .•.
.: gerund
b) I like walking - Here, 'walking' is the
object of the verb, like. So "walking
here is a gerund".
c) He goes for walking in the evenings
- Here 'walking' is the object of the
preposition 'for'. So walking is a
gerund.
ii) Infinitive: To + 1
st
regular doing word - to go,
to sing, to walk etc. The infinitive like the
gerund can also be used as the subject of
sentence/ the object of a verb.
To walk is good for health - Subject;
'to walk' - infinitive
I like to sing: 'to sing' - 'infinitive' - Object of
the verb, 'like'.
iii) A mere 'ing' form is a present participle.
While drinking water, the deer saw a tiger
Gerund, present participle, infinitive .†’
...√¸·¸ •. .·. sentence ™ .√. .. ’¸
Losing the job while making him sad, forced
him to commit suicide. ..¸∫. .... .. ..
:.√.Ω. .πt.. ..’ ..π◊..≈ ..¸..¸.π◊ .ƒ.¸.™
.œ.:
..π¸. losing - gerund, the subject of the sen-
tence.
making - present participle
to commit - Infinitive
Q. Having + V
3
.· ...‰ ..π .· ...† ..√¸.—
.· ..Ω.· ™‰.Δ . ..Ω.. ..— .· ..Ω.·
A. Having + past participle (V
3
) - ·...’ ..√.
.≤ƒ..
Having finished his work, he went to bed.
( .· .‹. .œ† «-√¸« ...’ ·¸... .’·
Having lost all his money, he was not able to
buy even clothes for himself.
( .•¸..√ ..’ .... .. .’ ’.’ .π.≈ .†’
.¸™‰ .π.. .’·
Q. "Stealing a piece of cheese, a crow flew to
her nest to enjoy the tasty meals" ™ steal-
ing ...‰ ..t.:† ..√¸. .· ..Ω.· .™.
. . ¸. ’ after stealing .· .√. ’.π . .Δ·
:......
A: After stealing a piece of cheese .†..’
Correct.
Stealing a piece of cheese - ..t .
..Ω. · ’.π◊..‰ sentence ...’ ..t
∫ .’™. .. .Ω’:.π.Ω. ’† .μ.†. ..Ω.:.: – .†.
.π.Δ·
Adisankaracharyulu, Warangal
Q. Have you been awake/ awaken since yes-
terday - Which one is correct?
A: Have you been awake since yesterday? -
Correct.
Have you been awaken since yesterday? -
Wrong.
Have you been awakened? - :’.’¸t¸ ..·.√
·¸.™‰ .ƒ.√· – Correct. If you add, "since yester-
day" here, ·†¸. †’.: :’.’¸t¸ ..·. √
·¸.™‰ .ƒ.√·– · :.μ. .†..π.Δ So it is wrong.
Q. I have bought 'OXFORD ADVANCED
LEARNER'S DICTIONARY' recently but I
am weak at pronunciation and phonetics
i.e., understanding the symbols. Suggest
me a good book on phonetics.
Following words are given in the Dictionary.
Explain the pronunciation of it.
Article: /a: ti kL/
Savoir faire: /s vwa: fe (r)
A: There are number of good CDs on pronun-
ciation - use them. EFLU pronunciation CDs
are good.
Article = a: ⏐ik⏐ - a = . ti = .
k⏐ = .˙™ – a: ⏐ik⏐ = .. .˙™
Savoir faire = ..˛.√.∂. (British English); ..˛
.√.∂ ..˝ (American). .... . pronuncia-
tions™ .˛— ..∞Ÿ ..: ..:. . .•. .—
....†’ ∫ ’.¸.. :.œ¸ . .•.
---∫.μ·≠= ---∫.μ·≠= 697
M. SURESAN
Maybe India will win atleast ten medals!
Maybe India will win atleast ten medals!
Spoken English .ƒ« .√¸≤ƒe -·.- --˙ .¬’-. www.eenadupratibha.net
Wahab: Maybe we
are late. We
might miss the
first ten minutes
of the movie.
.’†. .. ¸
.’. ¸ . ’. · .
œ·. .... 10
·:’ ≥ƒ.’ .’†.
. . ™‰ .π... ’¸·
Vincent: Doesn't mat-
ter. We can follow Indian movies and
Indian serials very well, even if we miss
portions of them. Didn't Bharani tell you
that he might be joining us?
..√¸™‰.’ – .μ.Ω·. ’ œ·.. ‘.. ’∞Ÿ
... .μ∫. . ..π...√ ..Ω. . ’.∫..
.’†t¸ .π.’ ’†¸.’ .μ.Ω. ·. ..¸™‰.Δ··
Wahab: He did. But I doubt very much. He
might be quite busy with the arrange-
ments for his sister's marriage.
..ƒ¸.’ .· √.π◊ .. ..’ .√∞ .™„t ..
..√¸.. ·..𙉠.π◊..≈ ... .. ’¸·
Vincent: May the marriage go off very well! I
remember his telling me how difficult it was
for them to get a suitable bridegroom.
.. . ..Ω. ...Δ. ·.† .. ..’.π◊
..Ω.π.. ... .π≠ . ... ..¸.. √.π◊
∫ ’.Ω’.:·
Wahab: He wanted us to help him in making
arrangements for the wedding. We
should, shouldn't we?
.. ..√¸..π◊ .’† ≤ƒ. ’. ...√¸.’
.. t .π.Δ··
Vincent: We should, of course. But the day of
the weddings, happens to be the day of
inspection at the office as well. Boss told us
we should be at office.
..¸.π◊..≈ .. ¸t .... .’† ..∂‘ˇ
.·. . .. ..π.‰ ....: ..∂‘ˇ.π◊
..¸.π◊..≈ .√.√.· .ˇ ..ƒ¸.’·
Wahab: Yea. We may not leave office before
5. But the marriage is late in the evening.
So the inspection need not come in the
way.
..†’ .’†. 5 ∫... ..Ω.π ..∂‘ˇ .:™‰.
.’.π◊ :™‰.’ .... .. ≤ƒ. ’.¸.. ..’
.. ·. ..: .•. .·. ... ..’·
Vincent: That's right. We can make it to the
wedding without difficulty.
..†’ .’†. .•¸.: ™‰.π◊..≈ ... .∞. ’¸·
Look at the following expressions from
the conversation above
★ Maybe we are late
★ May the marriage go off well
★ We may not leave office before 5
.... ≤ƒ. .·¸ May .. ..’ . ..
..¸.’ .’. .·¸..· ..’ ’.π◊..Δ.
1· Maybe we are late - ..π¸. Maybe - .·...
:· ..Ω. Perhaps = •.›.
Maybe India will win at least ten gold medals
in the Olympics (.t..œ .˙,™ .μ.Ω.˝ .π·. .:
¸.√ .√ ·.’ ’.../ ·....¸.·
Venkat: Rani is not to be seen nowadays at
all. How is she so busy. · .’.μ¸ .√.
..’ .π·.œ.... ™‰.’ ... ... ·..π
™‰.π◊..≈ ...Δ··
Sravani: Maybe she is busy looking after the
construction of her house. (•.›. ..’ .π.’
....™ ·..𙉠.π◊..≈ ....·
b) Devnath: How much may the car cost?
. ..Ω’ ...’ ... ... .. ’¸··
Surendra: Maybe anything above Rs.10 Lakh.
•.›. . 10 ..π. .Ω.ƒ. ’. . .... ’¸·
'May' .’. .. .∫. – .. ’,.’ .Ÿ.μ...π.’
.t. ’.‰ . ’.. "May the marriage go off well ''
.. . ..Ω.· . ...π
a) Yaswanth: This is my invitation to you to
my house warming function. . †.†
∫¸. ¸.. .·. :’.π◊ . ..…¸†.·
Subhakar: May your life in your new home be
very happy. May you build Many more
houses :’ †.† ∫¸..™ :’ .:..
..≠. ...≈.· :’.Ω’ .’.·¸ .∞Ÿ .π. .·
. ....π·
C) Dayakar: Sir, today is my birth day.
.˝ ·.. √ .. †..·
Teacher: Many happy returns of the day and
may God bless
you with long life.
(.™.. . . † .
..’ ·.π◊ .√™ .√.√
.· . .. ’ ·†’¸
:.√ . . . .. .Ω ¸
:..√.· √ ...π·
5· You may not leave
office before five.
Formal situations
= ı.Ω. .’.√¸..’ ·•..μ†.†’ .ƒ... ..
.√¸™· may not †’ prohibition .. ’.π.·:·
.t. ’.‰ . ’.≈·. .√..√. ·•..솆’ .’.√¸.
.t...¸.’
a) Nelson: May I speak to my friend Komal in
your office, please? (:’ ..∂‘ˇ ™ √ ¸.œ
. ’.’ ..’™. .. . ..√¸··
Nancy: You may not disturb the staff at work,
please sorry. .π :’. . . . . ·™ .†¸
œ•¸.:· :’.Ω’ .π:t...π. .’)
b) Sampath: Could you leave your footwear
out side please? :’ .ƒ..Ω.π.†’ •. ’. :.’
≤ƒ.√··
Madhav: Why? ...’.π◊··
Sampath: You may not enter the place with
your slippers on . .¸.. :’.Ω’ ¸.. ....π..’·
While drinking water... the deer saw a tiger!

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