Web Quest: Teaching Approaches It is well-known that all students do not learn in the same why.

In addition, not all the teachers teach in the same way. There are different teaching approaches and methods. The difference between approach and method is sometimes difficult to be defined. However, the word approach in teaching refers to theories about the nature of language, the way a language is learned or acquired and the reason why some things happen in a classroom. A method is the practical version of an approach. At this point it would be useful to make a distinction between learning and acquiring a language. Children acquire all the necessary skills in their mother tongue easily whereas sometimes they fail in the second language. So, it is obvious that acquisition is an active process which happens subconsciously by which mother tongue capability develops, while learning another language is an active conscious process which requires study or experience. All the different teaching techniques that exist have a common goal: teaching effectively all students regardless of their level in particular subjects of the language. Having a class of students with a variety of levels in different subjects of the language is a very common situation. Teachers have to choose the most appropriate approach for every part of teaching sometimes even for every student. So, it is essential for every teacher to know all these teaching approaches, whether they are widely used or they have fallen in obscurity, in order to use a combination of them in class. One of the approaches that brought revolution in the field of teaching is the Communicative Language Approach (CLT). The communicative approach is the result of educators and linguists’ dissatisfaction with the audio-lingual and grammartranslation methods of foreign language teaching. Students who were learning English as a second foreign language used to be weak at using social language gestures or expressions. The new method that communicative approach introduced in 1970s and 1980s was focusing on language functions and expressions instead of concentrating on grammar. Exposure to the learning language and to real or realistic communication has been considered important. This is why authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students were communicating with each other were developed. A purpose for communication is essential in CLT approach. Teachers set up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life (a scene at a shop/airport etc) and students through role playing or stimulation practice language. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. A way of reassuring that the communicative approach will remain communicative and that each exercise will be meaningful, is the use of information gap activities. This is an exchange of information between partners when one has the information that the other doesn’t. In addition students are encouraged to focus on the context and not on grammar structure. A lesson which follows a CLT approach is student-centred. The teacher is there to facilitate and monitor usually without interruption, and then to provide feedback. Teachers in a CLT class tend to speak as less as possible while students actively participate in their learning. Students can also gain confidence as long as they are forced to talk cooperate with their classmates and participate actively in different realistic situations. The communicative approach has been criticized for favouring teachers who are native speakers because they will be capable of responding to any language problem. This happens because the CLT approach includes a variety of non controlled activities. Also some say that the meaningful activities included in this approach are the same as the

For some learners this approach is ideal because they need the security of the mother tongue and the opportunity to relate grammatical structures from the target language to mother tongue’s structures. written words and texts are very important as long as the accuracy of the language. Accuracy is very important. Customs and traditions differ as well as the different languages. In addition it is known that sometimes exact translation is not possible.traditional exercises and that there is no communicative purpose. If the reinforcement is negative the response won’t appear again.’ A positive feedback from the teacher like ‘’good’’ can work as reinforcement. total physical response. For behaviourists language is developed by a stimulus. The Presentation Practice and Production approach is a variation on audio-lingual approach. This . However. and practise using the item through writing sentences and translating it into the mother tongue. Skills like reading for details or skimming. In presentation the teacher introduces to his students a situation and presents also the language required for the activity. Suggestopaedia was based on the power of suggestion in learning and specifically on the positive suggestion that would encourage the student to engage in learning. In the end in the production stage students are introduced to create their own sentences using language and grammar structures they used in practice stage. Stimuli cause responses and these responses in turn produce some kind of reinforcement. In the deep end approach students are exposed to the production stage from the very beginning. The grammar translation approach focuses on the grammatical rules of the target language. Certain elements of these approaches can be taken and incorporated into the more eclectic approach to language teaching widely in evidence today. the traditions and modes of behaviour of a community’s speech. If there are difficulties. For others this focus on sentence and translation may be boring as long as the fact that they don’t have the chance to participate and practice their fluency. The text is often accompanied by a vocabulary list consisting of new lexical items used in the text together with the mother tongue translation. A typical approach would be to present the rules of a particular item of grammar. There are three stages in this approach. Then the students practice language using some kinds of drills like choral repetition. the communicative approach remains a popular teaching approach in Europe. illustrate its use by including the item several times in a text. If the sequence of the stages changes then another approach appears. If the reinforcement is positive the response to the stimulus will be repeated. As a result. This happens because a language contains elements from the customs. In a lesson for example the airport can be the stimulus and the response can be a sentence like: ‘she went to the airport yesterday. In the direct approach mother tongue language isn’t used at all. The audiolingual is based mostly on drills and repetitions. Based on the number the sequence and the alternation of the stages other alternatives are created such as the Engage-Study-Activate Trilogy. The audio-lingual method was developed in the 1920s and 1930s under the principles of behaviourism as a different version of The Direct teaching approach. then the teacher goes back to presentation and practice stage. The following four approaches (suggestopaedia. Students relate unknown words and grammatical forms to objects and pictures. scanning. It is obvious that speaking in this approach is being ignored. finding the gist and understanding through the context are not being developed as we focus on the level of the sentence. individual repetition and cue-response drills. the silent way and community language learning) are approaches that individually are rarely used exclusively in teaching.

This approach favours students’ confidence and language fluency because it doesn’t focus on language structures. An adult native speaker or adult language speakers know thousands of these lexical phrases. suggestopedia makes use of music. which means knowing these lexical phrases. The aim of such a course is not to make the student a better language learner but to improve him in a subject e. to elicit student responses. re-arranging sentences with fixed phrases. Despite his/her silence he/she uses hand gestures or mouthing words as well as teaching materials such as Cuisenaire rods. mechanics or medicine. For some teacher’s silence is beneficial because forces students to be responsible for their learning.g. Listening and doing tasks based on listening is crucial for this approach. A content-based teaching could be an ideal solution for every student. The silent way remains a very controversial teaching approach. In a later stage all students reflect on how they felt during the activities. the last of these four approaches. In a task-based learning approach the most important element is the completion of a task. in particular. a comfortable and relaxing environment. fixed and semi-fixed phrases etc. The lexical approach is based on the concept that a language consists of word combinations and lexical phrases such as collocations. the community language learning requires a ’chosen’ student who has the role of a knowledge-provider teacher who helps his classmates by translating. Students have to complete tasks or solve problems and language is the instrument students have to carry out these tasks. and to encourage them to correct their own errors. For others teacher’s silence is inhuman and creates many barriers in learning. then the same can happen when learning a foreign language. So the main idea of the lexical approach is that acquisition. instructions etc. reading a text and underlining all the nouns and verbs that collocate with these nouns etc. The interesting thing is that millions of students have acquired rapidly foreign languages through the study of other subjects. A teacher using this approach gives commands such as: ‘Open the window’ ‘Give Helen your dictionary’. there is no apparent theory of language in suggestopedia and no obvious order in which items of language are presented. suggesting or correcting. This . It is believed that if we acquire our mother tongue by listening and responding physically to parental commands. As a result. In order to create this relaxed state in the learner and to promote positive suggestion. Music. The silent way tries to promote the autonomy of learner by using extensive silence. All these help students and encourage them to help also their classmates. These teaching materials are used to help pronunciation which is considered very important. in a lexical approach lesson the main focus is these lexical phrases by word order activities.means that the student needs to be comfortable and relaxed. It includes teaching the language by referring to subjects that interest every student. sound-colour charts. Usually there is a pre-task stage where the teacher may pre-teach some new vocabulary give explanations. The teacher talks as little as possible in order to focus students’ attention. and a relationship between the teacher and the student that is similar to the parent-child relationship. leads to fluency. Unlike other methods and approaches. is central to the approach (usually Baroque). The Total Physical Response is based on the theory that learning and especially memory is enhanced and associated by the physical movements. Only when the task is completed the teacher discusses the language that was used. coloured word charts and coloured Fidel charts. If the students respond correctly then they can give instructions to their classmates. Finally.

slideshare.ac. They can communicate with other students all over the world.wordpress.uk/~mflwww/seclangacq/langteacht7. it’s wise not to forget that computers and the internet can help us in the improvement of language teaching.happens because their high level of interest in anything to do with another irrelevant to language subject makes them eager to learn and acquire language unconsciously. Learners may already be several steps ahead in this area and to retain credibility teachers need to be familiar with the latest developments in computer technology and to be able to integrate computers confidently into their everyday classroom practice.wikipedia.htm http://www.monografias.onestopenglish. teachers can communicate with other teachers exchange opinions.org/wiki/Silent_Way .com/blog/the-audiolingual-approach/ http://www.a/language-teaching-approaches-and-methods http://answers.wisegeek.yahoo.com/support/methodology/teaching-approaches/ http://www.shtml http://myenglishpages.altalang. In addition. Finally.com/language-training/methods.esljobproject.com/2010/07/07/methods-and-approaches-ofteaching-english/ http://www.com/what-are-some-different-teaching-methods.com/trabajos18/the-communicative-approach/thecommunicative-approach.wikipedia.com/question/index?qid=20070124021719AABMjhR http://nsambatcoumar. technology can improve procedures during a lesson making it more interactive and interesting. YouTube and generally doing lots of different activities. follow the news concerning teaching and learning a language etc.html http://en.net/emma. Students can practice listening and writing by using chat rooms blogs.org/wiki/Grammar_translation http://en.aspx http://www. They can look for information and many other things.aber. Moreover. http://www.com/esl_info/methods-approaches.html http://www.

onestopenglish.onestopenglish.article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_Approach http://coerll.com/support/methodology/teaching-approaches/teachingapproaches-task-based-learning/146502.org/wiki/Task-based_language_learning http://www.edu/methods/modules/vocabulary/02/lexical.utexas.php .com/support/methodology/teaching-approaches/teachingapproaches-what-is-the-silent-way/146498.wikipedia.http://www.article http://en.

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