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SCRITTI LETTERARI
ui

LEONARDO DA VINCI
Mgft
(ftufografi
e

pu66etca*i

J.

P.

RICHTER

IN

DUE

PARTI.

PARTE

II.

LONDRA:
8AMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE & RIVINGTON
188,

FLEET STREKT

1883

u
i.

.

saiK\

THE LITERARY WORKS
OF

LEONARDO DA VINCI
compifeb anb &tfeb front f(k Original
BY

JEAN PAUL RICHTER,
KNIGHT OF THE BAVARIAN ORDER OF
ST.

PH. DR.,
MICHAEL,
&C.

IN

TWO VOLUMES.-VOL.

II.

LONDON:
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE & RIVINGTON
1

88,

FLEET STREET

1883

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

DEDICATED
BY PERMISSION
TO

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

THE QUEEN

CONTENTS OF VOLUME
XI.

II.

Pages

NOTES ON SCULPTURE
Some practical hints (706 monument (710 715). Models
Notes on the casting of the Sforza 709). for the horse of the Sforza monument (716

124

The project Occasional references to the Sforza monument (719 724). 718). The mint of Rome (726). On the coining of the Trivulzio monument (725). of medals (727. 728). On plaster (729. 730). On bronze casting generally
(73
J

74o).

INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS ON THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS AND WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE
XII.

25.

26

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS
Plans for canals and streets in a 744). (741 town (745 B. Projects for palaces. III. Castles and villas. A. Castles. 747). C. Plans for small castles or villas (748 IV. Ecclesiastical Architec752). ture. A. General observations (753 B. The theory of constructing 755). Domes. i. Churches formed on the plan of a Greek cross. Group I. Domes rising from a circular base. Group II. Domes rising from a square base. Group III. Domes rising from a square base and four pillars. Group IV. Domes
I.

2774

Plans

for

towns

II.

above an octagonal base. Group V. Suggested by S. Lorenzo at Milan 2. Churches formed on the plan of a Latin cross. A. Studies after B. Designs or Studies (757). C. Studies for a form of existing monuments. church most proper for preaching D. Design for a mausoleum. E. Studies for the Central tower or Tiburio of Milan Cathedral (758). F. The Project for G. Descriplifting up the Battistero of Florence and setting it on a basement.
rising

(756).

tion

of

an

unknown

temple

(759).

V.

Palace

architecture

(760

763).

VI. Studies of architectural details (764
XIII.

769).

THEORETICAL WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE
I.

75

99

On
III.

Fissures

778).

On

the

walls (770 776). nature of the arch (779
in

nature of the ground and supports (789

(777 IV. On Foundations, the 788). V. On the resistance of beams 792).

II.

On

Fissures

in

niches

VUI

CONTENTS OF VOLUME

II.

Pages

ARCHITECTURE KKMARKS ON THE STYLE OF LEONARDO'S
XIV.

100-104

I

ANATOMY, ZOOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY and \NATOMY :-A general introduction ( 79 6).-Plans
"trials
for the
<

105-133
suggestions for

the

arU"mof

Th" ir/.-Miv

men and the organs of sense Comparative study of 8t6) -III PHYSIOLOGY: animals (828 in the structure of the eye in certain animals (827). Advantages 8 33 ).-On the conditions of to 8 3 i).-Remarks on the organs of speech (832. The seat of the common sense (836). On the origin of the sight (834. 835). On the organs of sense (838). soul (837) -On the relations of the soul to Miscellaneous physiological observations muscular action (839). involuntary and the support of life (843 848). On (840 841). The laws of nutrition Some notes on medicine (851855). of the blood (848 the circulation 850).
XV.

problems (814-.815 ).anima kingdom COMPAUmi. AMATOMY:-The divisions of the AN,, Comthe study of Zoology (818-821). notes on (816. 8 17). -Miscellaneous of muscles (822of the structure of bones and of the action
parative study

797 -8o,).-Pl.n. -8o 9 ).-0n corpulency and ,ir,wings (8o 3 !,> divisions of the head (812. 8 13). -Physiological

of

,

u-

repn^trton leanness (809-8

).-

m

ASTRONOMY
The earth's place in the universe (857. 858). AS A PLANET: How to prove that the laws of the solar system (859 The fundamental 864). The principles of astronomical perspective (868 earth is a planet (865867). On the luminosity of the earth in the universal space (874 878). to 873). The question of the true and of the apparent size of the sun II. THE SUN: (879884). Of the nature of sunlight (885). Considerations as to the size
I.

13

5~

1

72

THE EARTH

III. THE MOON: On the luminosity of the moon (892 of the sun (886 891). On the spots to 901). Explanation of the lumen cinereum of the moon (902). in the moon (903 On the moon's halo (908). On instruments for 907). On the light of the stars IV. THE STARS: observing the moon (909. 910). Observations on the stars (914). On the history of astronomy (911 913). Of time and its divisions (916 918). (915).

XVI.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION. Schemes for the arrangement of the materials (919 General introduction (929). I. OF THE NATURE OF WATER: The
928).

173221
arrangement of

Book I (930). the globe (933
(937-

Definitions (931. 932). Of the surface of the water in relation to Of the proportion of the mass of water to that of the earth 936).

93 8 ) -The theory of Plato (939). That the flow of rivers proves the slope of the land (940). Theory of the elevation of water within the mountains (941). The relative height of the surface of the sea to that of the land II. ON THE OCEAN: (942 945). Refutation of Pliny's theory as to the saltsea (946. 947). The characteristics of sea water (948. 949). On the formation of gulfs On the encroachments of the sea on the (950. 951). land and vice versa The ebb and flow of the tide (955960).(952 954). INEAN WATER COURSES: Theory of the circulation of the waters (961.

ervations in support of the IV. OF RIVERS: hypothesis (963 969). which the sources of rivers are fed The tide in (970). On the alterations caused in the courses of rivers by their On the alterations in the channels Whirlpools (975). ~~?74).

m

Fhe origin of sand in rivers V. ON MOUN(977. 978). f mountains The authorities for the study (979 983).

CONTENTS OF VOLUME

II.

IX

Pages

VI. GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: of the structured the earth (984). Programme (985). Doubts about the Deluge (986). That marine shells could not go up the mountains (987). The marine shells were not produced away from the sea Other problems (992 VII. On Further researches (989 994). 991). (988). On the motion of Constituents of the atmosphere (995). the atmosphere:
air

(996

999).

The globe an organism
XVII.

(1000).

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES
Canals in Canals in connection with the Arno (1001 ITALY: 1008). Estimates and preparatory studies for canals (1014. the Milanese (1009 1013). Remarks on natural pheNotes on buildings at Milan (1016 1019). 1015). nomena in and near Milan (1021. 1022). Note on Pavia (1023). Notes on Notes on the North Italian lakes the Sforzesca near Vigevano (1024 1028). Notes on places in Central Italy, visited in 1502 (1034 1054). 1033). (1029 The Alps (1057 1062). The Alessandria in Piedmont (1055. 1056). II. FRANCE (1069 On the Germans (1080. 1068). 1079). Appenines (1063
I.

223270

The Danube (1082). III. THE COUNTRIES OF THE WESTERN END OF THE 1081). MEDITERRANEAN: The straits of Gibraltar (1083 1085). Tunis (1086). Libya Majorca (1088). The Tyrrhene Sea (1089). IV. THE LEVANT. The (1087).
Levantine Sea (1090).

Customs of

Asiatic

(1103. 1104). The Euphrates Dardanelles (uc8). Constantinople (1109). On the natives of hot countries (1112). Asia (mi).
XVIII.

The Red Sea (1091. 1092). The Nile (1093 1098). Nations (1099. noo). Rhodes (noi. 1102). Cyprus The Caspian Sea (1105. 1106). The sea of Azov (1107). The
(i

no).

Central

NAVAL WARFARE.
The

MECHANICAL APPLIANCES. MUSIC

271282

of Alberti and of Leonardo (1113). ship's log Methods of staying and moving in waters (1114). On naval warfare (1115. The use of swimming belts (1117). On the gravity of water (1118). 1116).
of Vitruvius,

Diving
1126).

apparatus

On

mining (1127).

and skating (11191121). On fly ing -machines (1122 On Greek fire (1128). On music (1129. 1130).
XIX.

PHILOSOPHICAL MAXIMS. MORALS. POLEMICS AND SPECULATIONS
I. PHILOSOPHICAL MAXIMS: The powers of Prayers to God (1132. 1133). Nature (1134 1139). Psychology (11401147). Science, its principles and rules (11481161). II. MORALS: What is life? (1162. 1163). Death (1164). How to spend life (1165 1179). On foolishness and ignorance (1180 On riches (1183 1187). Rules of Iife(n88 1202). Politics (1203. 1182). III. POLEMICS. SPECULATION: 1204). Against speculators (1205. 1206). Against alchimists (1207. 1208). Against writers of Against friars (1209).
.

283311

epitomes (1210). on Nature (1217

On

spirits

(1211

1215).

Nonentity

(1216).

Reflections

1219).

XX.

HUMOROUS WRITINGS
STUDIES ON THE LIFE AND HABITS OF ANIMALS (1220 1264). FABLES II. Fables on animals (1265 Fables on lifeless objects 1270). Fables on plants (1275 III. (1271 1274). JESTS AND TALES 1279). IV. PROPHECIES (1293 (1280 1292). 1313). -V. DRAUGHTS AND SCHEMES FOR THE HUMOROUS WRITINGS: Schemes for Fables &c. (1314 1323); Schemes for Prophecies (13241329); Irony (1331. 1332). Tricks (13331335)I.
:

313

379

b

CONTENTS OF VOLUME

II.

XXI.

Pages

LETTERS.

PERSONAL RECORDS.

DATED NOTES

381

417

Draughts of letters and reports referring to Armenia (1336. 1337). Notes about adventures abroad (1338. 1339). Draughts of letters to Lodovico il Moro (1340 1345). Draught of letter to a Commission at Piacenza (1346 Letter to the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este (1348). to '347)Draught of letter to the French Governor of Milan (1349). Draughts of letters to the Superintendent of canals and to Melzi (1350). Draughts of letter to Giuliano de' Meili<i Draught of a letter written at Rome (1353). A fanciful (1351. 1352). Miscellaneous draughts of letters and personal records letter (1354). (1355 to Notes bearing dates (1369 1368). 1378).

XXIL

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES
Memoranda
year

419472

1500 Notes on pupils and artisans (1458 1468). Quotations and notes on books and authors (1469 1508). Inventories and Accounts (1509- 1545). Notes in unknown handwriting among the Manuscripts (1546 Leonardo's 1565).
will

before the year 1500 (1379 Memoranda after the 1413). Memoranda of unknown dates (14351457). (1414 1434).

(1566).

REFERENCE TABLE TO THE NUMERICAL ORDER OF THE CHAPTERS
APPENDIX
History of the Manuscripts.
Bibliography.

473478
479-499

JO-

LIST
PI.

OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Two
preparatory Studies
for

IN

VOLUME
the

II.

Page

LXV.

the Sforza

Monument; from

Library, Windsor Castle: No. i drawn with the pen, No. .2 the silverpoint on bluish tinted paper
PI.

Royal drawn with

To

face

i

LXVI.

Study
Castle

for

the

Sforza

Monument;

from the Royal Library,

Windsor

To

face

3

Fragment of Drawing, representing a walking Horse; from the Ambrosian Library,
Milan
PI.

4

LXVII.

tinted paper;

Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn with the silverpoint on bluish from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To face

....

4

PL LXVIII.

Study for the Sforza Monument; charcoal drawing on brown paper; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To face

6

PI.

LXIX.

Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn in charcoal and with the pen and Indian ink; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To face

....

8

PI.

LXX.
LXXI.

Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn with charcoal; from the Royal
Library, Windsor Castle

To
at
first

face

10

PI.

Study

for

the

Sforza
the

Monument,
from

afterwards

with

pen;

the

drawn with charcoal and Royal Library, Windsor Castle

To
PI.

face

12

LXXII.

Drawing of a walking Horse, and two studies for the Sforza Monument; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To face
Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn with charcoal; from the Royal
Library,

14

PI.

LXXIII.

Windsor Castle
first

To
Royal

face

16

PI.

LXXIV.

afterwards

Study for the Sforza Monument, at with the pen; from the

drawn with red chalk and Library, Windsor Castle

To
PI.

face

18

LXXV.

Study
Castle

for

the

Sforza

Monument;

from

the

Royal Library,

Windsor

see text No. 711

To

face

20

XII

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

II.

Page
PI

LXXVI.

for the Sforza Monument; drawn in red Drawings: No. i Study No. 2 e text No. 712 se (from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan); chalk, see text No. 726 ; of instruments for the mint of Rome, Drawing To face from Manuscript G, Institut de France, Paris

Two

22

Sketch of a walking Horse, and two studies for casting the figure of a horse,
the Royal Library, Windsor Castle
PI.

from on page

24

LXXVII.

Two Two

Drawings of Plans for Towns; from Manuscript B, France, Paris see text Nos. 741, 742 and 743

Institut

de
27

To

face

PL LXXV1IJ.

Architectural Drawings, from Manuscript B, Institut de France, 2 drawing see text No. 761 i representing a stable ; No. To face of Plans for Towns
Paris: No.

29

PI.

I.XXIX.

Two
Paris

Plans for Canals in a
see text Nos. 745

Town; from Manuscript
and 746
for Castles:

B, Institut de France, To face

30

PI.

LXXX.

Four Drawings of Architecture

No.

i

from the Vallardi Vo-

lume, in the Louvre, Paris; Nos. 2 and 3 from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris; No. 4 from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; and one Drawing of Ecclesiastical Architecture: No. 5, from Manuscript B, Institut
PI.
I.

de France, Paris
i

between pp. 32 and
a sketch for Decorations, from the

33

XXXI.

Two

Architectural Drawings: No.

Trivulzi Manuscript, Milan; No. 2 Plan for a the Codex Atlanticus, Milan see text No. 748
PI.
I.

Royal residence; from

To
i

face

33

XXXI I.

Four Drawings of projects
the

for Castles

Codex

Atlanticus,

No. 749 , and No. 3 de France, Paris
PI.

Milan; No. 2 see text No. 750
;

and Villas; Nos. from Manuscript

and 4 from
see
text

KJ

from Manuscript B, Institut between pp. 32 and

33

LXXXIII.

No
PI.

Drawing of Plans for a Castle, and of a Nude Figure, washed with Indian ink; from the Royal Windsor Castle see text Library,
-

1I(>3

To
of Ecclesiastical Architecture,

face

34

LXXXIV.

Drawing
Milan

from

the

Codex

Atlanticus, To face

37

PI.

LXXXV.

from the Ashburnham Manu2 script II; No. 13 from Manuscript I , and No. 16 from Manuscript H3, Institut de France, Paris see text No. 768; Nos. 1416 (Nos. 14 and 1 6 in red chalk) from the Manuscripts III and IP, South Kensee text No. 768 sington Museum, London To face
Milan

Five Architectural Drawings: Nos.

112

38

PL LXXXVI.

Drawing of Ecclesiastical Architecture;

from

the

Codex

Atlanticus
rp

lo c face

41

PL LXXXVII. Four Drawings of
cus

-npt B, Institut de France, Paris

Ecclesiastical Architecture: No. Milan; No. 2 -see text No. 755-, 3

from the Codex and 4 from Manui

To

face

43

Three Plans of Churches:
a

PL LXXXVIII. Two Drawings from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris: Nos. iHan. of Churches; Nos. Plan of
6,

from the Royal Fig. Library, Windsor Castle; Nos. 2 -om Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris on page
,

....

44

7

Pavilion

at

Milan-see

text

To
'

face

CS fr
f

m

44

rfT from f
Cri

B

'

InStitUt

de France>

P*

Church,

the

Ashburnham Manuscript

(%

i,

>)
(fig.

and
3)

II

on page

45

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

II.

XIII

Page

PL LXXXIX.

Drawing of Churches, from Manuscript B,
i and 2 from Manuscript B, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle

Institut

de France, Paris

To
Plans of Churches: Fig.
Institut

face

46

de France, Paris; Fig. 3 on page

47

PI.

XC.

Drawing of Churches; from Manuscript B,

Institut

de France, Paris
II

.

To

face

48

PL XCI.
PL XCII.

Two

Drawings of Churches;^ from the Ashburnham Manuscript No. 754

see text

To To

face

48

Two
Two
No.

see text No.

Drawings of Churches ; from Manuscript B, 753

Institut

de France, Paris
face

48

PL XCIII.

i

Architectural Drawings; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris: To face Pillars and Beams; No. 2 View and Plan of a Church
.

50
51

Sketch of the Plan of a Church; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris

.

.

PL XCIV.

Three Drawings of Churches: No. i from Manuscript L, and Nos. 2 and 3 from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris; No. 34 from the To face Ambrosian Library, Milan
St.

52

Sketch of a church in the background of Leonardo's unfinished picture of in the Pinacoteca of the Vatican, Rome

Jerome,

54

PL XCV.

Two

Plans of Churches; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris

To

face

54

Two

Plans of a Theatre for Preaching: Fig.
Paris; Fig.
2

i from Manuscript B, from the Ashburnham Manuscript II

Institut

de France, on page

56

PL XCVI.

Two
No.
2

Drawings of Churches: No. 7 from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris see text No. 757

To
PL XCVII.
Drawing of Churches;
from Manuscript B,
Institut

face
Paris

56

de France,

To
Drawing of a Theatre
for Preaching;

face

56
57

from the Ashburnham Manuscript

II

....

PL XCVIII. Design

for

a

Mausoleum;

from the Vallardi Volume, Louvre, Paris between pp. 58 and

59

PL XCIX.

Three Drawings of Milan Cathedral: No. i from the Trivulzio Manusee text No. 758 No. 2 in red chalk, from Manuscript, Milan ; script III, South Kensington Museum, London; No. 3 from the Codex To face Atlanticus, Milan
.

60
61

Two

Drawings of Milan Cathedral, from the Trivulzio Manuscript, Milan
detail,

.

on page

Sketch of architectural
PI-

Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

on page

62

C.

Five Drawings of Milan Cathedral: No. i from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan; Nos. 2 4 from the Trivulzio Manuscript, Milan; No. 5 from between pp. 64 and Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris

65

Sketch of a Palace; from the Manzoni Manuscript,

Rome

on page

67

Three Sketches of Houses: Fig. i and 2 from Manuscript I, Institut de France, on page Paris; Fig. 3 from the Arundel Manuscript, British Museum
.

68

XIV

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

II.

Page

PL CL

from the Royal Windsor Castle; No. 2 from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan; Library, No. 3 Designs of Fountains, drawn with the pen on bluish paper, To face from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle

Two

Architectural Drawings: No.

i-see

text

No. 760

..........

68

I'l.

Oil.

Three Architectural Drawings: No. i in red chalk, from the Royal Library, see text No. 762 from Windsor Castle; Nos. 2 (reversed) and 3 To face Manuscript B, Institut de France, Pance

..........
III,

70

Two

Drawings of the Base of a Column;

Museum, London
PL CHI.

.................... on

from Manuscript

South Kensington page

72

Three Architectural Drawings: Nos. i and 2 from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris; No. 3 see text No. 769 (reversed) from the Codex To face Atlanticus, Milan

....................

74

PI.

CIV.

Architectural

Drawing; from the Arundel

London
PI.

see text No. 770

................ To
...... .....
'.

Manuscript, British Museum,
face

77

CV.

Two

London

Architectural Drawings; from the Arundel Manuscript, British see text Nos. 771, 775, 778

Museum,

To

face

84

Architectural

London

Drawing; from the Arundel Manuscript, see text Nos. 772, 789

Architectural Drawing; from the

Codex

............. Museum, To face Atlanticus, Milan ........ on page
..........
face

British

94
104

Anatomical Drawing, drawn with the pen and washed with Indian ink; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To

no

PL CVIIL

Leicester Manuscript,

Four Anatomical Drawings; No. i see text No. 809 and No. 4 see No. 814 from the Royal Windsor Castle; No. 2 Library, -see text No. 824 from Manuscript KJ, Institut de France, Parisfrom Manuscript III, South 3 -see text No. 813 Kensington Museum; and an Astronomical Drawing see text No. from the 902
>.

Holkam Hall
from
the

............ To
T-

face
text r face

120

PL

CO.

Sketch

Map

NO. IOIO

......

of Milan;

Codex Atlanticus, Milan-see

......... To

233

Four Topographical Drawings from Manuscripts in the Institut de France No. i (Constantinopel)-see text No. izo 9 -from Manuscript LV,g evano)_see text No. 1 02 -in red 4 chalk, from Manuscript nena Urbmo)-see text Nos. 765 and io 3 8-andNo. 4 (Cesenaj text No. 1040 from Manuscript L ..
:

H

........

To

face

o

/

LlhL?"5i ?' A Awry, Windsor

?P Castle,-see text Mediterranean Sea; from the Codex

r

resentin g

the

Town of No. 105:-;

Imola from the Royal No. 2 representing the Atlanticus-see text' No between pp. 240 and

T ^2-

241

Coloured ed

Ma Map

of part of art Tuscany, from the Royal Library, Windsor between pp. 240 and
par. of Central Italy; from the Royal Library, Windsor yal

241

Cdoured Map of

between pp. 248 and

249

.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

II.

XV
Page

PL CXV.

Sketch
British

Map of Museum

the Loire

see text

Amboise; from the Arundel Manuscript, No. 1074 To face
at

251

PI.

CXVI.

Sketch of Armenian Mountains; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan
text

see
face

No. 1336

To

385

PI.

CXVII.

text
PI.

see Sketch of Armenian Mountains; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan, To face No. 1336

388

CXVIII.

Sketch of a Peak in Armenia, and Sketch

Map

of Armenia;
,
. .

from the

Codex
PI.

Atlanticus, Milan

see text No.

1336

To To

face

391

CXIX.

Sketch

Map

of Armenia;

from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan

see text
face

No. 1336

392

PL CXX.

Drawing of Oriental Heads,

in red chalk;

from the Royal Library, Turin

To
PL CXXI.
Drawing of Musical Instruments &c. ;
British

face

394

Museum, London

see text Nos.

from the Arundel Manuscript, 1128 and 860 To face
.
. .

411

PL CXXII.

Drawing of Caricatures;

from

the

Royal

Library,

Windsor

Castle
face

To

411

The size of the original drawings has been reduced on Plates LXVI, CVII, CIX, CXI No. I, CXII, CXIII, CXIV, CXVI, CXVII, CXVIII and CXXII. On Plate CXIX it has been enlarged. The colour and tone of the paper have in every case been faithfully imitated, in order to give to the facsimiles a perfect and complete resemblance to the originals, whether drawn in charcoal, red chalk or pen and ink. It is to be understood that all Drawings here reproduced are in pen-and-ink, unless otherwise stated.

I

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/or oro

rW
/.

loro.

/. 309 L 9 /or arimetici

aritmctici;

r*W odo.-/. frrm At /W/or abbraccieraoi

M/OT

Modi

3*9

31

/or regoli

/. 358

$/rom

the

n for sie stende read si estende. /. 328 end for bellonti read bollenti. p. 365 /. 3

rtad abbraccicran
1.

:

ffft 46

ii
/.

ftr PL IX

mul

PI. XIJII.

/. 60

/or No. 14 rw*/ No. 4--/. 49 /. 19 for PI. CXXXIV rnirf PI. LXXXIV.-p. first Note, 8/*r PI. CXIX r*-^ PI. XCIX. /. 102 /. 4 /n> ike end for XCVI arf XCIV.-p. 103 /. 8

^

/w

PI.

ill**.

/. J

XL nrWPI. XC; t, ^ftr PI. XL read PL XC. /. 155 n /or weight read weighty./. 190 /. 25 for it there read i 4>w* *** tndfor to much rr<u/ so much./. 368 /. 24 for Flammc read Flame; 29 for to blows read blows.
/. /.

u

XL
The notes on Sculpture.

Compared with

the

mass of manuscript treating of Painting, a very small number

of passages bearing on the practice

and methods of Sculpture are
are

to

be

found
of

scattered
section

through
(Nos. 706

the

note

books;

these

here

given

at

the

beginning

this

709,).

There
is

is less

cause for surprise at finding that the equestrian statue

of Francesco Sforza

only incidentally spoken of; for, although
it is

Leonardo must have
it

worked at

it

for a long succession of years ,

not in the nature of the case that
therefore regard
it

could have given rise to

much

writing.

We may

as particularly

fortunate that no fewer than thirteen notes in the master's handwriting can be brought
together,

which seem

to

throw light on the mysterious history of

this

Until

now

writers on Leonardo were acquainted only with the passages

famous work. numbered 712,
which

719, 720, 722

and

723.

In arranging these notes on sculpture
treat

I have given

the precedence to those
fullest,

of the casting of the monument, not merely because they are the
to

but more
really

especially with a view

reconstructing the

monument,

an achievement which

almost

lies

zvithin

our reach by combining and comparing the whole of the materials
alike in notes

now brought

to light,

and

in sketches.
this

good deal of the first two passages, Nos. 710 and 711, which refer to subject seems obscure and incomprehensible; still, they supplement each other and one
tributes in

A

con-

no small degree

to the

comprehension of

the other.

A

very interesting

and

instructive
VOL.
II.

commentary on these passages

may

be

found

in the fourth chapttr

of Vasari's

A

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.

oter designs

W*
/<-

* * *~*
copious

P^ing

***/

** <***'
to

notes as to the

method of cos**, <*<

71 ^.finally
il

selected,

*~
di

be

MM

4<*f
*y
in the

"^ ^

*******
Saggio on

"II

cavallo dello

Sforza''-^ Boito remarks very appositely
fratello al cavallo del Colleoni.

26 "doveva sembrare

E

si

direbbe che questo fosse

jio
vano

del cavallo del Gattamelata,
forse sull'Arco
di

quale pare

figlio

uno

dei quattro cavalli che sta-

Nerone

in

Roma" (now

at Venice).

in the reproduction of a drawing Saggio also contains and supported by a scaffolding, given walking to the left whether this represents the model as // must remain uncertain

The publication of the red chalk, reP resenting a horse here on PL LXXVI, No. I.
it

stood during the pre-

parations for casting
the

it,

or whether-as seems
exhibited in
I

to

me

sketch shows highly improbable-this

model as

it

was

493 on

the Piazza del Castello in

Milan under a
to

the marriage of the Emperor Maximilian triumphal arch, on the occasion of that strong evidence seems Maria Sforza. The only important point here is to prove

Bianca
to

show

that,

the equestrian statue, only those which represent of the numerous studies for

the horse pacing agree with the schemes of the final plans.

horse as galloping, The second group of preparatory sketches, representing the the history must therefore be considered separately, a distinction which, in recapitulating the note given under No. 720. of the origin of the monument seems justified by a Galeaszo Maria Sforza H as assassinated in 1476 before his scheme for erecting

monument

to his

into father Francesco Sforza could be carried

effect.

In the following

throne was exiled to Pisa, and only year Lodovico il Moro the young aspirant to the in 1480 returned to Milan in 1479 when he was Lord (Governatore) of the State of Milan,

after the minister Cecco Simonetta
this that Lodovico il

had

been murdered.
competition

It

may have
this

been soon after
statue,

Moro announced a

for an equestrian
in
il

and

it is

tolerably certain that Antonio del Pollajuolo took

part

it,

from

passage

in Vasari's

Life of this artist:

"E

si

trovo,

dopo

la

morte sua,

Lododisegno e modello che a
ha sotto Verona;
il

vico Sforza egli aveva fatto per la statua a cavallo di Francesco Sforza, duca di Milano;
il

quale disegno e nel nostro Libro, in due modi:

in

uno

egli

nell'altro,

egli tutto armato, e

sopra un basamento pieno di battaglie, fa saltare
cagione

cavallo addosso

a un armato;

ma

la

perche non mettesse questi disegni

in opera,

non ho gia

potuto sapere." One of Pollajuolo's drawings, as here described, has lately been discovered
by Senatore Giovanni Morelli in the Munich Pinacothek.
is

Here

the profile of the

horseman
to the

a portrait of Francesco Duke of Milan, and under the horse,

who

is

galloping

left,

we

see

a warrior thrown and lying on the ground; precisely the same idea as we find

V ;.>''.';
*
''.-'."''

;X^^P.*

:

'.

S

Imp Eudes

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.
in

some of Leonardo's designs for the monument, as on
No.
i ;

PI,

LXVI LX VII LXVIH,
,
,

LXIX and LXXII
in the

and, as

it is

impossible to
it

explain this

remarkable coincidence
can only conclude that
horse in full

by supposing that either artist borrowed

from

the other,

we

terms of the competition the subject proposed
its hoofs.

was

the

Duke on a

gallop , with a fallen foe under

Leonardo may have been

in the competition there

and

then, but the

means for

exe-

It was not perhaps to have been at once forthcoming. cuting the monument do not seem until some years later that Leonardo in a letter to the Duke (No. 719,) reminded him of

the project for the

monument.

Then, after he

had obeyed a summons
in consequence

to

Milan, the plan

seems

to

have been so far modified, perJiaps
artist,

of a remonstrance on the

part of the

that a pacing horse zvas substituted for one galloping,

and

it

may
and

have been at the same time that the colossal dimensions of the statue were first decided
on.

The designs given on PL
24,

LXX,

LXX

I,

LXXII,
on

2

and

3,

LXXIH

and

LIV

on pp. 4 and

as

well as
its

three

sketches

PL

LXIX may

be studied with that in that in

reference to the project in
either

of these we see the

new form, though it is hardly possible to believe design as it was actually carried out. It is probable

Milan Leonardo worked
as preparatory
black chalk, PI.
to

his

on draivings, than in making small models of wax and clay larger model. Among the drawings enumerated above , one in
less

LXXIH

the upper sketch on the right
If,

hand

side,

reminds us strongly
until

of the antique statue of Marcus Aurelius.
then visited

as

it

would seem, Leonardo had not

Rome, he might

easily

have known

this statue

from drawings by

his former

master and friend Verrocchio, for Verrocchio had been in
1470 and 1480.
In

Rome for a

long time between

1473

Pope Sixtus

IV had

this

antique equestrian statue restored
in
still

and placed on a new pedestal in front of the church of San Giovanni Leonardo, although he was painting' independently as early as in 1472 is
as working in Verrocchio 's studio in 1477.

Laterano.

spoken of

Two years
and as
to

later the Venetian senate decided

on erecting an

equestrian statue to Colleoni;

Verrocchio, to

whom

the

work was

entrusted, did not at once move from Florence
the casting

Venice

where

lie

died in 1488 before

was completed
till

but on the contrary remained in Florence for some years,

perhaps even

1485, Leonardo probably

had

the opportunity of seeing all his designs

for the equestrian statue at Venice and the red chalk drawing on
a reminiscence of
it.

PL

LXXIV may

be

The pen and ink drawing on PL LXXII, No.
of Gattamelata at Padua.
before 1499, but
statue

3,

reminds us of Donatella's statue

However
conclude

it

does not appear that Leonardo

was ever at Padua

we may

that he took a special interest in this early bronze
it,

and
in

the reports he could procure of

form an

incidental
Vol.

remark which

is to

be

found

C.

A. 145

;

432, and which

will be given in

II under Ricordi

or

Memoranda.

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.

Among the studifsin the widest sense of the word made in preparation for this statue we may include the Anatomy of the Horse which Lomazzo and Vasari both
mention, the most important parts of this

work

still exist in

the Queen's Library at

^
,o

tlua

are

l6ani

,o that

tr*s<, a koru

in full gallop

^rs hu ocf

--e.-.og-

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.
If

we may

trust the account given by

Paulus Jovius

about 1527 Jovius

Leonardo's horse
seen the

was

represented as "vehementer incitatus et anhelatus".
but,

had probably

model exhibited at Milan;
Jiorse

need we, in fact, infer from
1

this

description that the

was

galloping'?

Compare Vasari" s
vi

description of

tJie
il

Gattamelata monument at

Padna: "Egli [Donatello]
sulla

ando ben

volentieri,
si

e fece

cavallo di bronzo, che e in
il

piazza

di
il

Sant Antonio, nel quale
la fierezza

dimostra lo sbuffamento ed

fremito del

cavallo,

ed

grande animo e

vivacissimamente espressa dall'arte nella figura

che lo cavalca".

These descriptions,
the

it

seems

to

me, would only serve

to

mark

the difference between

work of

the middle-ages

and

that of the renaissance.
Castiglione that,

We
is

learn

from a statement of Sabba da

when Milan was taken
informant, who, however
fully sixteen years to
sedici

by the FrencJi in 1499, the model sustained some injury ;
not invariably trustworthy, adds tJiat Leonardo

and

tJiis

had devoted

this

work

(la forma del cavallo, intorno a

cui

Leonardo avea

anni

continui

consumati).

This often-quoted passage has given ground for an assumption, which has
it,

no other evidence to support

that Leonardo

had

lived in Milan ever since 1483.

But

I

believe it is nearer the truth to suppose that this author's statement alludes to the fact

that about sixteen years

must have past

since the competition

in

which Leonardo had

taken part.

I must
more of

in these

remarks confine myself

strictly

to
is

the

task
to

the history

of the Sforza monument than
to

needed

hand and give no explain the texts and
'in

drawings I have been able

reproduce.

In the first place, with regard

to the

drawings,

I may observe that they are all, with the following two exceptions, in the Queeris Library at Windsor Castle; the red chalk drawing on PI. LXXVI No. i is in the MS. C. A. (see No. 712) and the fragmentary pen and ink drawing on page 4 is in the Ambrosian Library. The drawings from Windsor on PL LXVI have undergone a trifling
reduction

from

the size of the originals.

There can no longer be the slightest doubt that the well-known engraving of several horsemen (Passavant, Le Peintre-Graveur, Vol. V, p. 181, No. $) is only a copy after
original drawings by Leonardo,

executed by some unknown engraver;

we have
2,

only to

compare the engraving with the facsimiles of drawings on PL

LXV,

No.

PL LXVII,

LXVIII and LXIX
On PL
and

which,
\,

it is

quite evident,

have served as models for the engraver.

LXV No.

in the larger sketch to the right hand, only the base is distinctly

visible, the figure of the horseman is effaced.

Leonardo evidently found

it

unsatisfactory

therefore rubbed

it out.

The base of the monument the pedestal for the equestrian statue is repeatedly sketched on a magnificent plan. In the sketch just mentioned it has the character of
a shrine or aedicula
to contain

a sarcophagus.

Captives in chains are here represented

on the entablature with their backs turned to that portion of the monument which more

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.
strictly

constitutes

the pedestal of the horse.

The lower portion of the aedicula

is

surrounded by colutnns.
on the right hand side
entablature is

In the pen
the

and ink drawing PL sarcophagus is shown between
this

LXVIthe
the columns,

lower drawing

and above

the
to

a plinth on which the horse stands. But

arrangement perhaps seemed

Leonardo
is

to tack solidity,

and

in the

little

sketch on the left hand, below, the sarcophagus

shown as lying under an arched canopy.

In this the trophies

and

the captive warriors

are detached from the angles.
is

In the first of these two sketches the place

for the trophies

merely indicated by a

few

strokes; in the third sketch on the left the base is altogether

broader; buttresses
black chalk

and

pinnacles having been

added

so as to

form
on

three niches.

The

drawing on

PL LXVIII shows a
little

base in which the angles are

formed by
\,

niches with pilasters.

In the
to

sketch

to the

extreme

left

PL LXV, No.

the

equestrian

statue serves

tempietto of San

Pietro in Montorio at

crown a circular temple somewhat resembling Bramante's Rome, while the sketch above to the right dis-

plays an arrangement faintly reminding us of the tomb of the Scaligers in Verona. The base is thus constructed of tii'o platforms or slabs, the upper one considerably smaller

than the lower one which

is

supported on flying buttresses with pinnacles.

On

looking over the numerous studies in which the horse is not galloping but merely
this,
to

walking forward, we find only one drawing for the pedestal, and
the altered character of the statue, is quieter

accord with
It rises

and simpler

in style (PI.

LXXIV).

almost vertically

from

the

ground and

is

exactly as long as the pacing horse.

The

whole base

is

here arranged either as an independent baldaquin or else as a projecting

canopy over a recess in which the figure of the deceased

Duke

is

seen lying on his sar-

cophagus; in the latter case it
'oo,

was probably intended as a tomb
work for

inside

a church.

Heret

it

was

intended to fill the angles with trophies or captive warriors.
to the

Probably only

No. 724 in the text refers
If

the base of the

monument.
of a plan for an

we compare
monument

the last mentioned sketch with
to

the description
it

equestrian

possible that this

Gian Giacomo Trivulzio (No. 72$) drawing is a preparatory study for the
infonnation.

seems by no means im-

very

monument

concerning:

vhich the manuscript gives us detailed

We

have no historical record

egarding

this sketch

The simple monument
*ts

nor do the archives in the Trivulzio Palace give us any informato

the great general in

San Nazaro Maggiore

in

Milan

mo
t

merely of a sarcophagus placed in recess high on the ivall of an octagonal The figure of the warrior is lying on the sarcophagus, on which his name cribed; a piece of sculpture which is certainly not Leonardo's work

Gian

Trivulzio died
to

at

Chartres in

highly improbable that this should have been the date of this sketchunder these circumstance, it wouldhave been dong
r

me

1518, only five months before

Italian
:

gwral was
Trivulzio

certainly not in

G acomo
t

tf favour with the French monarch at the time

^ ^ ^.^

Leonardo,

and

^_ J

was a sworn foe

to

overthrow.

On

the

to Ludovico il Moro, whom he strove for years September , 499 he marched victorious into Milan at the head

PL. LXVIII.

i

iS--taa>&..>xlmi*fnmAt3iL.,

Helio9j-.

Dujardin

THE TRIVULZIO MONUMENT.
of a French army.
Lndovico
1

7

In a short time, however, he
bore

was forced

to quit

Milan again when
troops.

il

Moro

down upon

the city with

a force of Swiss

On

the

5**

of April folloiving, after defeating Lodovico at Novara, Trivulzio once more entered

Milan as a Conqueror, but his hopes of becoming Governatore of the place were soon wrecked by
acts,

intrigue.

This victory

and triumph,

historians tell us,
it

were signalised by

of vengeance against the dethroned Sforza, and

might have been particularly

flattering to

him that the casting

and construction of the Sforza monument were suspended
moment
his

for

the time.
It

must have been at

this

as

it

seems

to

me

that

he commissioned

the artist to prepare designs

for

own monument, which he probably intended should
He,
the husbatid of
to the

find a place in the Cathedral or in some other church.
rita di Nicolino
tion

Colleoni,

would have thought that he had a claim
his
less

Marghesame distinc-

and

public

homage as
It

illustrious connection

had

received at the hands of

the

Venetian republic.

was

at this very time

that Trivulzio

had a medal
SF

struck

with a bust portrait of himself and the following remarkable inscription on the reverse :

DEO FAVENTE
(ducem)

1499
.

DICTVS
NOIE
(nomine)

10
.

IA

.

EXPVLIT

LVDOVICV

-

(Sfortiam)
-

DVC

-

FRANCORVM EODEM ANN (anno) RED'T LVS (Ludovicus). SVPERATVS ET CAPTVS EST AB EO. In the Library of (redit) the Palazzo Trivulzio there is a MS. of Callimachus Siculus written at the end of the XVth or beginning of the XVIth century. At the beginning of this MS. there is an
ML1
(Mediolani)

REGIS

.

exquisite illuminated miniature of

the base; it is

an equestrian statue with the name of the general on however very doubtful whether this has any connection with Leonardo's

design.

Nos.j$i

740, which treat of casting bronze, have probably a very indirect bearing

on the arrangements
portions
evidently

made for
to

casting the equestrian statue of Francesco Sforza.
the

Some
about
to

relate

casting of cannon.

Still, to

in

our researches

Leonardo's work on the monument,

we may

refer

them as giving us some clue

the process of bronze casting at that period.

-/-^r^v-

:
.

-f

*

11\
IV.

:::*
..

fv Wv

-

;

s

*r:

TS&

k

t,S^,^,'
-

*i^^$ff .fc"
rts*"
1

P;.,;^ yC;

^t
:. *

3P '-

;-''

''

-'j*t*Js *^-' **^ M .1L
!

-

-

-

'

^>.

'J.

-

Imp. Eudes,

A. 43 a\

706.

STATUA.

OF A
If
first

STATUE.
figure in marble, Some prac(706^-709)?

fa

Se vuoi fare vna figura di marmo ne prima vna ^di terra la quale, finita che 1' ai, secca e mettila in vna cassa che sia ancora capace dopo la figura tratta a ricieuere il marmo- che sd'esso loco
2
, , ,

you wish
it,

to

make a
clay,

make one of
let

finished

which
figure

vuoi

siscoprir vi dentro la figura alia di poi ^rnessa militudine di quella di terra la figura di terra in detta cassa
;

6

it, to receive also the marble, from which you intend to reveal the figure in imitation of the one in clay. After

is

should taken out of

and when you have it dry and place it in a case be large enough, after the

you have put the clay
this

figure into
little

abbi bacchette ch' etrino 8 apputo per i sua busi e spingile dentro tato per ciascuno 9 buso che ciascuna bacchetta biaca tocca la figura in I0 diuersi lochi, e la parte d'esse
,

said case,
will

have

rods
in to

which

exactly

slip

the holes in it, so far in at

and
each

thrust

them
that

hole

each white rod
figure
in

may touch
parts

the

bacchette, che resta

fori della

"cassa, tigni di nero, e fa il cotrassegno alia bacchetta e al 12 suo buso in modo che a tua T posta- si scotri; 3e trai d'essa cassa la figura di terra e mettivi il tuo I4 pezzo di marmo, e tato leua del marmo che tutte le j stue bacchette si nascondino sino al loro segnio in detti busi, I6 e per potere questo meglio fare fa che tutta-la cassa si po I7 ssa- leuare in alto, e' 1 fondo d'essa cassa resti sepre sotto
,

I8

il

marmo ed a

leuare coi ferri

questo J 9con gra

modo ne
facilita.

potrai-

of it. And colour the portion of the rod that remains outside black, and mark each rod and each hole with a countersign so that each may fit into its place. 'Then take the clay figure out of this case and put in your piece of marble, taking off so much of the marble that all your .rods may be hidden in the holes as far as their marks; and to be the better able to do this, make the case so that it can be lifted up but the bottom of it will always remain under the marble and in this way it can be lifted with tools with great ease.
different
;

706.

i.
.
.

desstatua.

2.

sevolli.
7.

3.
.

tera
.

.

.

chellai
.

essecha mettila nvna.
8.

4.

[che] schoprir.

tera
10.
lasi].
. .

chassa
. .

abi bachette.
ressta.
. .

aputo
. .

.

.

esspignile
.
.

chassa chessia anchora [dop atta] "capace". 5. loco tato [che] per ciasschuno. 9. ciassuna ba. . . .

chetta biacha tocha.
. .

bachette
13.

n. chassa
.

effa
14.

chotrassegnio
.

bachetta.

12. sio
r$.

buso imodo
.

.

.

atta

sisschotri

[ettare

ettrai

chassa

.

tera.
18.

pezo
. .

.

ettato
19.

.

.

chettutte.

bachette

.

naschodino

.

.

aloro.
11.

16. chettutta

chassa.

17.

chasa

ressti.

acquesto

cho.

chon.

VOL.

B

NOTES ON SCULPTURE.

[707-710.

707.
W.
P. $-1

Alcvni aho errato a insegniare
tori

'*^

alii

scul-

c

'

m

"

erred in teaching sculptors to limbs of their figures with measure the threads as if they thought that these limbs

Some have

essi parte da

fili

s

ci

threads were

708.
A.
-)

MlSURE E COPARTITIONE DELLA STATUA.
ciascuno 'Diuidi la testa in 12 gradi, e ^rado diuidi in 12 puti e ciascuno 3putoe i mi12 minvti- e i minvti in minimi,
"imi
I

MEASUREMENT AND

DIVISION OF A STATUE.

semiminimi.

4Grado -- punto

minvto

minimo.

and Divide the head into 12 degrees each degree divide into 12 points, and each and the minutes into point into 12 minutes, ims and the mmims mto semi mimms Degree-point minute minim.
-

Ah.

I.

19*1

709.
rilievo
in pie,

1 Le figure di moto-, posandole cadere jnazi.

pajono I ragione deo per

che

will,

Sculptured figures which appear in motion, in their standing position, actually look as if they were falling forward.

w.

x.)

710.
2

3 Ferri che cinga la forma.

[Se

uolli

Three
[If
ly,

braces
to in

which
a box

bind

the

mould.

cassa

presti di sabbione

gietti e

S enplici, fagli con di fiume invmidito
3

vna con

you want make them

make simple

casts quickof river sand wet-

*atieto.]

ted with

vinegar.]

707.
70!.

i.

alchuni

.

.

erato ansegniare.
a.

2.

chirchundare.
3.

3.

menbr.
e.

4.

retondita.
4.

5.

circhundati.

i.
i.

chopartitionc.

12 (parti e] gradi.

minvti iminimi e

grado [minvto] punto.
red chalk.
chon.
sabio
.

709.

pajano

.

.

chadere.

710. Tktit fattoftt art written in ink

mid

tuisequently crossed through ivith

3.

4.

.

cho.

6. arai

709. figure di rilitvo. Leonardo applies this term exclusively to wholly detached figures, especially to thote standing free. This note apparently refers

as

one of his arguments for abandoning the first scheme of the Sforza Monument, in which the horse also is It was to be galloping (see page 2 ).
in

some particular case, though we have no knowledge of what that may have been. If we suppose
to
it

favour

of

this

theory that the note
as to

is

written
in I49 2 -

in a manuscript

volume already completed
the

to refer to the

first

model of the equestrian statue

Leonardo's
plastic

opinions

shortcomings

of

of Francesco Sforza (see the introduction to the notes on Sculpture) this observation may be regarded

works when compared with paintings are under No. 655 and 656. given

'^^^t^^^^
.".
,'

VV/^*^"***''**

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.
tu avrai cauallo e tu sopra del metallo 9di terra.]
6

II

[Quando
il

.

fatto
8

la la

7

forma

[When you
upon
the horse

shall

farai

grossezza
ore

have made the mould must make the thickness you

of the metal in clay.]

IO

Nota

nello allegare
TI

quante

va

[nel gittare ognuno tenga per cetinajo I2 suo infocato]; stoppato il fornello col '3[nel dentro di tutta la forma sia inbeuerato olio I4 di lin seme o di tremetina; e poi sia dato vna mano I5 di poluere di borace
l6 e la forma e di pece greca con acqua vite, J di fori inpeciata, accioche stado sotto 7 terra
1'

Observe in alloying how many hours are wanted for each hundredweight. [In casting each one keep the furnace and its fire
well stopped up.]

[Let the inside of

all

the

umido non
24

la ...

moulds be wetted with linseed oil or oil of turpentine, and then take a handful of powdered borax and Greek pitch with aqua vitae, and pitch the mould over outside so that being under ground the damp may not [damage
it?]

[Per maneggiare la forma grade, fa ne modello della pi 2 5ccola forma; fa una piccola statia a proportione
26
;

[To manage the large mould make a model of the small mould, make a small room in
proportion.] [Make the vents is on the horse.]
in the

]

[fa le

bocche

alia

forma,

metre ch'e
,

mould while

it

in sul cavallo;]
2 e fondile 7lJTieni le corna-in molle con colla di pescel z8 pesa le parti 29 della forma, da che quatita 3di metallo ella a a essere occupata, ^e tato ne da al fornello, che 32 a quella parte a a porgere il ^suo metallo, e questo cognio^scerai a pesare la terra di quella 35 parte della forma, dove

Hold the hoofs in the tongs, and cast them with fish glue. Weigh the parts of the mould and the quantity of metal it will take to fill
them, and give so much to the furnace that may afford to each part its amount of metal ; and this you may know by weighing the clay of each part of the mould to which the quantity in the furnace must correspond. And this is done in order that the furnace for the legs when filled may not have to furnish metal from the legs to help out the head, which
it

forne! 36 lo colla sua quatita a a rispodee questo si fa acioche '1 38forn ello 37re, delle gabe le epia, e che 39dalle gabe non abbia a socorrere 4 alia testa che sarebbe
il

inpossibile] ^[gitta

nel

medesimo

42

gietto

would be impossible. [Cast
as the horse the
little

at the

same casting

del cavallo

1

sportello della]

door]

w.

xi.]

711.

FORMA DEL CAVALLO.
2

THE MOULD FOR THE
di

HORSE.

Fa

il

cavallo
la

sopra

gambe

ferro

Make
and well

the horse
set

ferme

e stabili in
gli

inseva e fa

bo^no fondameto, poi lo cappa di sopra, ilasciado
in-

on legs of iron, strong on a good foundation; then

ben seccare a suolo a suolo, e questa

s arma e ferra gras serai tre dita -, di poi secondo il biso 6 gno; oltre a di questo cava

grease it and cover it with a coating, leaving each coat to dry thoroughly layer by layer; and this will thicken it by the breadth of Now fix and bind it with three fingers.

facto.

7.

chauallo ettu.
di stoppi.

S.grosseza.

10.

hore va

.

.

cietinaro.

n. hognivno
16. ella

.

.

stopato
.

.

.

chol.
17.

12.

infochato madiriano
\\U\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

ea Q tenpo
chose.

13. holio.

14. poi dato. 15.
19il

grecha chonacq"a".
sabione di for

.

chesstado.
di.
.

lomido nolla

18. fatte subito chella

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

azzo cioe

2<f.

fforme\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

chon
2tf,

acieto.

21. e

ben

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.
. .

22. miscia nella

forma
26.

\\\\\\\\\\

manegiare.
forma]
le.

25. cholla

falle

una pichola.
31.

falle

boche.

uno quadrello. 23. pesto cholla 27. chorna imole effondile
parte a porgiere.
33. 39. ale
.
.

quello^da e cienere co ciara douo e a ceto.
di

pesscie.

28.

pensa
. .

[la

30. ella essere 36. cholla
.

ochupata.
.

ettato.

32. acquella 38.

ecquesto chognio.
abiasschorrer.

34. sscierai

tera.

35. forne.

risspode. 37, ecquesto.

gabe Spinteche doubtful.
off.

40.

chessa rebe

inpossib.
711. 2.

42. chavallo.
. .

43. sportello della.
3.

Here

the text breaks
4.

ghanbe

esstabile.

sondometo

.

.

effagli la

chappa.

scechare assuolo assuclo

.

.

ecquesta.

5.

efferra sechondo. 6.

chava

710.

under
that

this

The importance of the notes included number is not diminished by the fact
.

haps they were crossed out when Leonardo found himself obliged to give up the idea of casting
the
first

chalk.
fuller

out with red they have been lightly crossed Possibly they were the first scheme for some

equestrian

statue.

In
1.

the
I,

original

the
third

two sketches are above
1.

and the

observations

which no longer

exist;

or per-

below

9.

12

NOTES ON SCULPTURE.
iron as

[712.

forma, c poi fa la 'grossezza, e poi riepi 8 e quella inla forma a mezza a mezza, con sua ferri cierchiala e 9 cigni tegra, poi c Ta ricuoci di dctro dove a a toccare il
la

the
fill

may be necessary. Moreover take off mould and then make the thickness. Then the mould by degrees and make it good

zo.

throughout; encircle and bind it with its irons and bake it inside where it has to touch the bronze.

DKI. FAR

I.A

FORMA
il

DI PEZZI.
finite
tutti
li

OF MAKING THE MOULD

IN PIECES.

"Segnia sopra

cavallo

di che tu voi vestire pezzi della for'^ma, tal cavallo, e nello interrare '<li taglia in

e fini'sta ogni interratura, accioche quado si la forma che tu la possi cavare e poi ricomettere l6 al primo loco colli sua scotri
delli
l

Draw upon the horse, when finished, all the pieces of the mould with which you wish to cover the horse, and in laying on the clay cut it in every piece, so that when the
mould is finished you can take it off, and then recompose it in its former position with
its

cotrasegni.

joins,

by the countersigns.
b will
is

ia b quadretto stara infra la cappa l8 ncl uacuo dove a a cioe e'l maschio, stare il brozo liquefatto e questi '^tali quadretti di

The square blocks a
the cover

and the core,

that

in the

be between hollow

brozo manterrano li spati della for*"ma alia cappa con equal distatia, e per questo tali "quadretti so di grade inporJ2
'4

tantia.

HLa

terra sia

tollicera,

ruista 2J co rena; a rcde 25 re, e pagare

where the melted bronze is to be; and these square blocks of bronze will support the intervals between the mould and the cover at an equal distance, and for this reason these squares are of great importance. The clay should be mixed with sand.

la

co-

Take wax,
and
to
[2 7]

to return
is

[what
used.

is

not used]

pay for what

?Secca la 28 a suoli. 2 9Fa la forma 'di giesso per fugire p il tepo del seccare, ^ 2 e la spesa di legnie, e co utal giesso ferma li ferri di fori e di ?5 dentro co due dita di 6 grossezza, fa
2

di

fori

>

terra "cotta.
38 E questa tal forma ^farai n un dl; vna mez*za navata di giesso *'ti serue.
j

in layers [2 8]. outside mould of plaster, to save time in drying and the expense in wood; and with this plaster enclose the irons [props] both outside and inside to a thickness of two fingers; make terra cotta.

Dry

it

Make

the

And
[4 2]

this

mould can be made

in

one day

;

half a boat load of plaster will .serve you.

JRitasa co ^collae terra over- chiara d'ovo *e mattone e ro^sume.

Good. it up again with glue and clay, or white of egg, and bricks and rubbish.

Dam

C. A.

712.
i

Tutti

capi deMle chiavarde.

All the heads of the large nails.

.

.

(alia.
.

7.
.

grosseza.
chavallo.

8.

ecquella

.

cosua
fini.

.

.

ec.

9.

ella
. .

richuoci

.

.

dove attochare.
16.

n.

pczi.

12.

pezi.

13.
.

cheUu

.

.

vewtire

14.

quado se

15.

chcttu

chavare
.

ricomettere.
.

al

p"o" locho
19.

cholli
20.

.

cotrassegni.

17. infralla

chappa elmasscio cioc
.
.

|dij.

18.

uachuo dove asstare
27. sechalla soli. 28.

liquefacto
oli.

ecquesti.

Hsspati.

dallalla

chon
38.

chappa
fatterra.

.

.

diutatia

queuto.

22. lera sie.

assu

31. sechare.

32

cspesa.

36. rosseza

71*.

12
7H.

ecquesu. 39. farai nudi voa me. R. i. lucti i chapi.*

43. ritasa.

44. etterra

47.

ssume.

See
sketch

PI.

LXXV.
the

The

figure

"40,"

close

the back of this sheet

is

to

the
1

the text given as No. 642.

lines

6 and

middle of the page between 17 has been added by a collector's
in

Compare
712-

also No. 802.

See

PI.

hand.
In the original, below line 21, a square piece of the page has been cut out about 9 centimetres by 7 and a blank piece has been into the

LXXVI, No.

i.

This drawing ha,

already been published in the "Saggio delle Optre di L. da Vinci." Milano 1872, PI. XXIV, No. i. But, for various reasons I cannot regard the editor's

gummed

place.

24 arc written on the margin. 28 are close to the second marginal sketch.

Lines 22

suggestions as satisfactory.. He says: "Veggonsi armature di legname colle quali forse venne sagtcnuto
modello,

le
il

1.

27 and

quando per

le noate di esso

Bianca Maria Sfona con
collocato soUo

I. 42 is a note written above the third marginal sketch and on

Afassimiliano imperatore,

fu

un area

trionfale davanti al Caste//o."

PL LXXI
.

'

i-

-.."'..
-.

w

.

.

'
.
' .

f

'

'"
",

v

'

-

N

-

-'x

'''.
"
",'

A ^
'

.v
\
i!

.

.

.<

?

-

(^

^
:

~
*
?,"

./

^scrt^/v^ ^'
TP
'

'

-"'t^T'^

'V*'

.>.-.;
'

'.^
'
.

.

::.
.

':
'

;-s.'--;
^
';"
.

-.

.

,

'i-

>J.

J

"'*

-

'

'

y.

-ft.

Heliogp Dxyardin.

713-

7H-]

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.

W.

XII.]

713.

gature

Queste le 2 vano
I

These
dings go
side.

binin-

di dentro.

w. xin

714.

Sale fatto di stereo
bruciato
2

vmano
e fattodistesa
ster 4 chi

Salt

may be made from human
and dried slowly
all

e ralcinato e e
que^lla
tutti
li

excrements, burnt and calcined,

ne

liscia

made

into lees

al leto foco,

at a fire,

and
salt

the excrements

in

simile
5

modo

fanno sale, e

quelli

sali destillati

sono molto

produce and these

in

a similar

way

salts

when

distilled, are

penetrati.

very strong.

714.

i.

stercho.

2.

chalcinato effatto neliscia ecque.

3.

disecha alleto focho ettutti

lisster.

4.

quali.

5.

desslilati.

714.

VASARI
of
his

repeatedly
Introduzione

states,

in

the

fourth
that
in

this,

it

remains doubtful whether

I

am

justified in

chapter

della Scullura,

preparing to cast bronze statues horse -dung was If, frequently used by sculptors. notwithstanding

having introduced here this text of but little interest, no such doubt can be attached to the sketch which

accompanies

it.

NOTES ON SCULPTURE.

[715720.

W.

XII

715I

MODO
'Questo
si

DI RICUOCERE.
for-

METHOD OF FOUNDING
This

AGAIN.
the furnace
is

potrebbe fare fatto

may be done when

nello *ferma e pillata.

made

[4] strong

and bruised.

w. H.
Model*
for

716.
di

the hone of the Sforia

Ginnetto grosso

messer Galeazzo.

Messer Galeazzo's big genet.

monument
(716718).

w

H

j

V

.

717.

Siciliano di

messer Galeazzo.

Messer Galeazzo's

Sicilian horse.

C. A. 286 bj 8700]

718.
siciliano,
la

Misura del
2

ganba

dirieto,

Measurement of the
from behind, seen

Sicilian horse the leg

in faccia,

alzata e distesa.

in front, lifted

and extended.

C. A. 382*1; 11820)

719.

Ancora si potra dare opera al cauallo di bronzo che sara gloria Tmortale e eterno 2 felice memoria del lothe'sTona onore della signore
occasional

monument vostro

padre

e

della

Iclyta

casa

Sfor-

zesca.

Again, the bronze horse may be taken in hand, which is to be to the immortal glory and eternal honour of the happy memory of the prince your father, and of the illustrious house of Sforza.

C

15*

(i)|

720.

'di comlciai 23 d'aprile 1-4-90 questo libro e ricomlciai il cavallo.

A

On the 23 rd of April 1490 I began book, and recommenced the horse.
. .

this

715. 717.

i. i.
i

richuocere.
ciciliaoo
t written
.
.

i.
.

potre.

4.

pilau.
718.
i.

716.
i.

i.

gianecto
2.

galeaz.

meser galeazo.
It/t to ri^kt,

ciciliano.
. .

alza.
2.

719.

from
.

Anchora

si

potera

honore dela.

S"gre"

vost

.

.

dela.

7*0. chomiciai

richomiciai.

715.

This note
717.

716.

in 1. 4 is written below the sketches. These notes are by the side of a

San Severino, the famous captain who married Bianca the daughter of Ludovico il Moro.
from which this passage is here be found complete in section XXI. (see the explanation of it, on page 2).
719.
letter

drawing of a horse with figured measurements. 718. There is no sketch. belonging to this
sage.

The

Galeazro here probably means

pasGaleazzo di

extracted

will

72i

725-J

THE SFORZA MONUMENT.
7 21
in nelle

Leic. 9

-

<}]

Vedesi
Piacetia
2

montagnie
di

di

Parma

e

There

is

to

be seen,

in the

mountains of

la

moltitudine

nichi e coralli
de' quali,

intarlati

ancora appiccati

alli'sassi,

quand'io facevo il gra ^cavallo di Milano, me ne fu portato vn gra sacco ne^lla mia villani che in tal loco fabrica da cierti
trovati.

Parma and Piacenza, a multitude of shells and corals full of holes, still sticking to the rocks, and when I was at work on the great
horse for Milan, a large
sackful

of

them,

which
to

were

me

found thereabout, was brought into my workshop, by certain

peasants.

C. A. 316^; 9580]

722.

Credetelo a me, Leonardo fioretino che
fa
il

cauallo

del duca Francesco

di

brozo

has

che non ne bisognia fare stima, 2 perche a che fare il tenpo di sua vita , e dubito che per P essene si grade opera, che non la finira mai.

Believe me, Leonardo the Florentine, who to do the equestrian bronze statue of the Duke Francesco that he does not need to care about it, because he has work for all his life time, and, being so great a work, I doubt whether he can ever finish it.

C. A. 328 b; 983 a]

723

Del cauallo no
osco
i

diro niete perche cogniI

tepi.

Of the horse I know the times.

will

say nothing because

C. A. 272^; 833 a]
2

724.

Del marmo operasi dieci arii; io no vo' aspettare che '1 mio pa^gameto passi il termine del 4 fine della opera mia.
C. A. i76<5; 533*]

During ten years the works on the marbles have been going on I will not wait for my payment beyond the time, when my works are finished.

725-

SEPULCRO
2

DI MESSER GIOVANI

JACOMO DA
materisa

THE MONUMENT TO MESSER GlOVANNI JACOMO
DA TREVULZO.
[2]

TREVULZO.

Spesa della

3

manifattu^ra e

Cost of the making and materials for The

project

del cauallo.

the horse [5].
sacho.
il

"VilJ"
monument.

731. i. in nelle

.

.

mvltitudine.
|

2.

apichati

.

.

3.

fabricha.
. .

722.
724.

i. i.

me

saluo [quel]

"lonar fioretino" cheffa
inovo.
3.

chauallo

franc"o" "di brozo" chenone.

2.

lesere

.

.

nella.

marmoperassi.

2.

ghameto.
3.

4.

dela.
7.

725. i. giovani

iacomo da

trevlsa.

manifatu.

inel

.

.

ellegrame

ella.

n. soma.

15.

pezo.

16.

lungha br 4 ellargho

br.

722. This passage is quoted from a letter to a committee at Piacenza for whom Leonardo seems The to have undertaken to execute some work. it Leois given entire in section XXI. ; in letter

recently published by G. Govi in Vol. V, Ser. 3 a, of Transunti Reale Accademia dei Lined, sed. del 5 Giugno, 1881, with the following introductory note:
,

nardo remonstrates as
723.

to

some unreasonable demands.

a letter to Ludovico

This passage occurs in a rough copy of il Moro, without date (see below This

sia.no stampati questi pocki frammenti perche so che sono stati trascritti ultimamente, e verranno messi in luce tra poco fuori d' Italia. Li ripubblichi pure chi vuole, ma si sappia almeno che anche tra

"Desidero intanto che

among
724.

the letters).

possibly refers to the works for the pedestal of the equestrian statue concerning which we have no farther information in the MSS.

quando che
Leonardo."

noi si conoscevano, e s'eran raccolti da anni per comporne, fosse, una edizione ordinata degli scritti di

The learned
has
written
'

editor

has
8
less

left

out
in line

line

22 and

See

p.

6.

12 In the original, lines 14, 33 35, are written on the margin. This passage has been
725.

25,

3 pie for are other deviations of
original.

piedi

25.

There
the

importance

from

i6
6

NOTES ON SCULPTURE.

Vno corsiero grade al naturale coll'omo sopra vuole per la spesa due. del metallo 7 E per la spesa del ferrameto che ua in nel modello e carboni e legname e la 8 fossa per gittarlo e per serrare la forma,

A courser, as large as life, with the rider
500.
requires for the cost of the metal, due. And for cost of the iron work which
is

.........
si

500.

e col fornello doue
9

Per fare

poi di cera
10

E

per

quado fia "In somma sono 12 Spesa de' m^armi
tura.
'5

......... due. lauorati che lo netterano gittato ....... due.
li

il

modello

de' gittare due. di terra e

200.

inside the model, and charcoal, and wood, and the pit to cast it in, and for binding the mould, and including the furnace where it is to be cast due. To make the model in clay and
. .

200.

432.

then in

wax
the labourers
is

due.
for

432.

To
when
it

.....

450. due. 1582.

cast

.

polishing it due.
. .

in all

della ^sepulil

[12] Cost 'of

the

marble

450. due. 1582. of the

monument [14].
Spesa

disegnio; jl sotto il cauallo l6 ch'e lungo braccia 4 e largo braccia 2 e oncie 2 e grosso oncie 9, cetinara 58, a L. 4 e S. 10 due. per cetinaro 17 per 13 braccia di cornice e

marmo secodo pezzo del marmo che ua
del

Cost of the marble according to the The piece of marble under drawing. the horse which is 4 braccia long, 2 braccia and 2 inches wide and 9 inches
58.

........

E

thick 58 hundredweight, at 4 Lire and . 10 Soldi per hundredweight . due.

58.

And
24.

for

13

braccia and 6 inches
in. thick,

6

larga 6 7, e grossa 6 4, cet. 24, due. 18 per lo fregio e architrave ch'e lungo br. 4 e 6 6 largo br. 2 e due; grosso 6 6, cet 20
6,

E

of cornice, 7 in. wide and 4 24 hundredweight

due.

24.

And
20.

for the

frieze
in.

and

architrave,
20.

......
....

,

which and 6

is

4

br.

and 6

long, 2 br. wide

X

9E per

li

capitelli fatti di metallo,

che sono 8, vano I tavola 6 5, e 20 ducati 15 grossi 6 2, a prezzo di due. per ciascuno montano 21 E per 8 colonne di br. 2 e 6 7, x due. grosse 6 4 e /2 cetinara 20 . 22 E per 8 base che sono in tauola 6 5 e J /2 e alte o 2 cent. 5 . due.
. .

29 hundredweight., due. And for the capitals made of metal, which are 8, 5 inches in. square and 2 in. thick, at the price of 15 ducats
in. thick,

120.
20.

each, will

come

to
2

due.
br.
7
T

122.
20.

And
4
T

for 8

columns of

in.,

/2

in.

And
5.

thick, 20 hundredweight for 8 bases which are 5

due.

/2

in.

square

and

2

in.

high 5 hund'.
2

.

due.

5.

per la pietra dou' e su la sepultura, luga br. 4 e o 10, larga br. 2 e 6 4 e 1 J2 2 *centinara 36 due. 2s E per 8 piedi di piedistalli che ua I lunghi br. 8 e larghi o 6 e J2 grossi 6 26 centinara 20, motano . due. 6'/2 2 ?E per la cornice ch'e di sotto, ch'e luga br. 4 e 6 10, larga br. 2 e 6 5, e grossa 6 4, cet. 32 due. 28 E per la pietra di che si fa il morto ch'e lunga br. 3 e 6 8, larga br. uno e 6 6, grossa 6 9, cent 30,

2

^E

And
36.

for the slab of the
br.

...
.

4 br. 10 in. long, 36 hundredweight

tombstone 4'/2 in. wide
36.

20.

due. pedestal feet each 8 br. long and 6 I /2 in. wide and 6 J /2 in. thick, 20 hundredweight come to due. And for the cornice below which is 4

And for 8

...
.

20.

...

32.

due.

per la pietra che ua sotto il morto- ch'e luga br. 3 664, larga br. uno e 6 2, grossa 6 4 x / 2 . due. per le tauole del marmo Iterposte infra li piedistalli, che sono 8 e son lughe br. 9, 3'larghe 6 9, due. grosse 6 3 cent 8

29

E

30.

and 10 in. long, and 2 br. and 5 in. 1 due. wide, and 4 in. thick, 32 hund And for the stone of which the figure of the deceased is to be made which is 3 br. and 8 in. long, and i br. and 6 in. 1 due. wide, and 9 in. thick, 30 hund And for the stone on which the figure
br.
.
.

32.

.

30.

16.

3E

32

In

somma sono
Co
di

...... .....
.
. .

which is 3 br. and 4 in. long and i and 2 in., wide and 4 T/2 in. thick due. And for the squares of marble placed between the pedestals which are 8 and are 9 br. long and 9 in. wide, and 3
lies

br.

16.

8.

in.

thick, 8

hundredweight

.

.

.

due.

389.

in all

.

.

due. due.

8.

389.

2

e
.

Co

egrosso

9.

17. 13 br.
si

18. frego
i

.

.

lungho

.

.

largho.
i

19.

prezo.

20.

ciasscuno.
30. infra
li

22.

chessono.

25.

lungh
.
.

br.

8

ellarghi.

28.

ce

br

e o 6, grosa.

29. larga br

e o 2 grosa.

piedi di stallo che

lugh.

/&'

PL LXXItt
'

\.

t

/
:

.

-

-

].

'

B^^fepi'^;$;'/^

:

:

";.

i^^^^^KCvi^^

726.]

THE TRIVULZIO MONUMENT.
[33] Cost of the the base

33Spesa della 34 manifattu35ra ne'marmi. 3 6 Attorno allo inbasameto del cauallo va figure 8 di 25 ducati Puna, due. 37 nel medesimo inbasameto ci va festoni 8 co certi altri ornameti e di questi 3 V e n'e 4 a du-

Round
each

work in marble [35]. on which the horse
200.

E

2OO.

cati
39

15

per ciascuno,

e

due. isquadrare dette pietre, due. 4 Ancora pel cornicione che ua sotto lo inbasameto del cauallo, ch'e br. 13 e 6 6 a due. 2 due. per br. 41 per 12 br. di fregio, a ducati due. 5 per br

di 8 ducati

Puno

prezzo^di 4 a^prezzo

E

92.
6.

stands there are 8 figures at 25 ducats due. And on the same base there are 8 festoons with some other ornaments, and of these there are 4 at the price of 15 ducats each, .and 4 at the price of 8 ducats each due.

92.
6.

per

And

for squaring the stones due. Again, for the large cornice which

.

E E

27.

60.
18.

per 12 br. d' architrave, a ducati i e J /2 per br due. 43 E per 3 fioroni che fa soffitta alia sepultura, a 20 ducati per fiorone,
due.
44

42

60.

goes below the base on which the horse stands, which is 13 br. and 6 in., at 2 due. per br due. And for 12 br. of frieze at 5 due. due. per br And for 12 br. of architrave at due. I'/a due. per br And for 3 rosettes which will be the soffit of the monument, at 20 ducats each due.

27.
60.
18.

60.

E

per 8 colonne accanalate, a
due.
64.
8.

And

for for

8

fluted

columns
i

at

8 ducati
4

Puna *E per 8 base, a un ducato

ducats each

8 due.

64.
8.

Puna,
due.

And And

8 bases at

ducat each, due.

46

E

per 8

piedistalli,

de' quali n' e
.
.

4 a 10 due. Puno, che ua sopra li due. catoni, e 4 a 6 due. Puno
per isquadrare e incorniciare li piedistalli, a due due. Puno, che sono 8,
due.
48 47

E

64.

which 4 are at 10 due. each, which go above the due. angles; and 4 at 6 due. each And for squaring and carving the
for 8 pedestals, of
. .

64.

1

6.

E per

moulding of the pedestals each, and there are 8

at

2

....

due. due.

16.

6tavole con figure e

a 25 ducati Puno 49 E scorniciatura per la pietra che ua sotto il morto
s

......
.

trofei,

And
150.

for 6 square blocks with figures

due.
della
. .

and
the

And
40.

trophies, at 25 due. each . . due. for carving the moulding of

150.

stone

under

the

figure

of

the

due.

deceased

due.
statue of the deceased, to

40.

Per

la

figura del

morto a

farla

For the
100.

bene
s

due.
colli candelieri,

do

it

well

due.
at

100.

'Per 6 arpie

a 25
due.
si

For 6 harpies with candelabra,
150.

ducati
52

Puna

ducats each

25 due.

150.

Per isquadrare la pietra dove posa il morto e sua incorniciatura
S3
54 In giuta so

For squaring the stone on which the statue lies, and carving the moulding
in all
. .

In

somma
cosa

20. due. due. 1075.

20. due. due. 1075.

somma

ogni

insieme due. 3046.

The sum
together

total

of every thing added
to

amount

due. 3046.

G. 43 a]

726.

ZECCA
2

DI

ROMA.
3
;

MINT AT ROME.

Puosi ancora fare sanza molla
il

Ma

sempre

maschio
alia

di

sopra debbe

4

stare

congiunto
31. larghi.
46.

parte della guSaina mobile;
37.
li

can also be made without a spring. The But the screw above must always be joined to the part of the movable sheath:
It
. .

mint of

36. va.

va fessto 8 co

.

.

queste.

38. ciasscuna
.
.

luna.
.

39. issguadare.

40.

cornicone.
52. essa

41.

frego.

piedistalle.
54.

tura.

soma
PI.

esscornicare lipiedisstallo 47. issguadrare onicossa guta so due.
. .

chessono

.

luma.

48. trufei.

50. a ffaria.

scornica-

726.

See

LXXVI.

This passage

is

taken from a note book which can be proved to have been

used

in

Rome.
11.

VOL.

THE MINT AT ROME.
6

[727. 728.

Tutte
8

le

chio

intero,

monete che ^ non ano jl non sieno accisettate
10

cier-

per
'

All coins which do not have the rim complete, are not to be accepted as good; and
to secure requisite
this

buone, e a "cierchio e

mone^te
vna
l6

perfectione del lor neciessario I2 che in prima le sie tutte di perfetto cir^colo, e
fare
la
I5 e'

that,

the perfection of their rim it is in the first place, all the

a fare questo
l8

si

debbe
in

in
I7

prima fare

coins should be a perfect circle; and to do a coin must before all be made perfect

moneta perfetta

peso

e in larghez-

za e grossez za, e di questa tal lar^ghezza 20 e grossezza sie fat te molte lamine, tira-

and size, and thickness. Therefore have several plates of metal made of the same size and thickness, all drawn through
in weight,

una medesima tra 22 fila, le quali reno a modo di righe, e 24 di queste 26 2 tali righe si tode, 5stanpl fuori le monete criuelli da castaa modo che si fa 7no
2I

te per

the

same gauge so as

to

come out
you

in strips.

stera 2

And

out of [24] these strips

will

stamp

2

i

poi si stanpino sopra detto ecc. 3 I1 vacuo della stanpa ^ 2 sia piu largo da alto 33 che da basso vni^formemente,
*gnie,
-J

2

e queste

mone 29 te

the coins, quite round, as sieves are made for sorting chestnuts [2 7]; and these coins can then be stamped in the way indicated

nel

u

modo

above; &c.
[31] The hollow of the die must be uniformly wider than the lower, but imperceptibly [3 5].

J

35

e insesibile.
36

monete. di perfetta ro37tondita e grossezza e peso e ris 38 parmia 1'omo che taglia e pesa, e 39rispiarmia Porno che fa le monete *tonde; aduque sol pas-

Questo

taglia

le

This cuts the coins perfectly round and of the exact thickness, and weight; and saves
the

sa

per

li

mani

4'del

trafilatore

e

dello

2 stanpato' re e fa

monete

bellissime.

passes only through the hands of the gauger and of the stamper, and the coins are very superior.

man who cuts and weighs, and who makes the coins round. Hence

the
it

man

(i)]

727.

POLUERE DA MEDAGLIE.
to On
c

POWDER FOR MEDALS.
The incombustible growth of soot on wicks reduced to powder, burnt tin and all the metals, alum, isinglass, smoke from a brass to be moistened, forge, each ingredient
aqua vitae or malmsey or strong malt vinegar, white wine or distilled extract of turpentine, or oil; but there should be little moisture, and cast in moulds.
with

the

medfis
(727. 7*8).

incombustibili di fungo ridot3 stagnio bruciato e tutti i metalli, ^allume scagliuolo, sfumo di fucina da ottone, 6 e ciascuna cosa inumidisci con. acquauite o maluagla TO acieto forte di

2

Stoppini

in

poluere,

g ra u no bianco
? j

,

o

di quella

8

di

poco
Mz.

trementina destillata, sia 9invmidita , e gitta in

prima acqua o olio, pure che
telaroli.

o'J

728.

DELLO INPROTARE MEDAGLIE.
Polta di smeriglio mista con acqua vite 2 o scaglia di ferro con aceto , o cenere di foglie di noce -, o cenere 3 di paglia sottilmete trita.

OF TAKING CASTS OF MEDALS.
of emery mixed with aqua vitae, or iron filings with vinegar, or ashes of walnut leaves, or ashes of straw very finely powdered.

A paste

736.

i.

zeccha di roma.

2.

Puossi anchora.
14.

3.

masscio.
15. e si

4.
. .

chom giunto
in

.

.

ghu.

9. ectate

.

.

eaf.

10. perfectione.

12.
.

prima
.

ne mone.
26. chessi.

13. perfecto.

cholo e afiare.

28. ecqueste.

29. sisstan pino.
.

30. decto ele.

p"a". 16. perfecta. 18. quessta. 19. 31. vachuo. 32. larcho. 33. chedda.
. .

sie fac.
36.

24.

queste

sis.

Quessto.

37. grosseza

eppeso
727.
i.

eriss.

38.

spiarma

.

chettaglia eppesa.

39. rispiarma

falle.
6.

40. istanpito.

42 effa.
.

stopini inchonbusstibili.
ella

3.

brusato

ettutti.

4.

alume schagliolo.
inolto
[inp] in

essciasschuna

.

inumidissci con acq"a".

7.

biancho

o di
7a8.
i.

prima acq"a".
. .

8. desstillata

o holio.
4.
.
.

polta di smeriglo

acq"a".

2.

ho cenere.

battutto.

5.

radopiato [ere] essitiene.

6.

accochettal

726.

See

PI.

LXXVI

No.

2.

The

text of lines

will

be found

in

this

volume.

Hitherto

nothing

31

35 stands parallel 1. 24 27. Farther evidence of Leonardo's
at

has been
occupations and X. may be
letters

known of

his

work

in

Rome beyond some
in Vasari.
is

doubtful,
727.

and perhaps mythical, statements

engagements
gathered

Rome under Pope Leo

The meaning

of scagliuolo in this passage

from some rough copies of

which

doubtful.

L.

LZXIV

,

j'

I

if
'

if

729.]
4 II

ON MEDALS AND ON STUCCO.
diametro
,

si

presta

inuolto in nel

piobo

e battuto

piv volte; tal tiene involto ne! 6 la

con martello s e disteso piobo e raddoppiato e si

accioche tal carta, poluere no si versi, e poi fondi il piobo e la pol7vere vi e di sopra al pionbo fonduto, la qual poi sia fregata infra due 8 piastre d'acciaio tanto si poluerizi bene, di poi

The diameter is given in the lead enclosed; it is beaten with a hammer and several times extended; the lead is folded and kept wrapped up in parchment so that the powder may not be spilt; then melt the lead, and
will be on 'the top of the melted which must then be rubbed between two plates of steel till.it is thoroughly pulverised; then wash it with aqua fortis, and the blackness of the iron will be dissolved leaving

the

powder

lead,

lauala coll' acqua da partire 9 e risoluerassi la negrezza del ferro, e lasciera la poluere

netta;

the

smeriglo in pezzigrossi si ro pecol metterlo sopra vn panno in mol IT ti doppi, e si percuote per fianco col martello, e cosl se ne va; poi mischia 11 I2 a poco a poco, e poi si pesta co facilita, e se tu lo
.

IO

Lo

putting

tenessi sopra 1'ancu^dine, essendo cosl grosso.

mai

lo roperesti,

grains may be broken by on a cloth many times doubled, and hit it sideways with the hammer, when it will break up; then mix it little by little and it can be founded with ease but if you hold it on the anvil you will never break
it
;

powder clean. Emery in large

it,

when

it

is

large.

smalti debbe fare tale esercitio sopra le pias is tre d'acciaio, tenperato col macinatojo da conio, e poi metter l6 lo nell' acqva forte, la qual risolue tutto esso acciaio che si e ^cosumato e misto con esso smalto e lo fece nero, onde poi I8 rima purificato e netto, e se tu lo macini sul porfido, esso '9 porfido si consuma e si mischia collo smalto e lo guasta,
li

^Chi macina

Any one who
on
plates

shaped which melts away the steel that may tis, have been worked up and mixed with the smalt, and which makes it black; it then remains purified and clean; and if you
grind

grinds smalt should do it of tempered steel with a cone grinder; then put it in aqua for-

e 1' acqua da partire mai lo lieva da dosso, 2I risoluere tale porfido. perche no puo
colore bello azzurro risolui 2 lo smalto, fatto ^ col tartaro, e po' li leva il sal da dosso.
volli fare
2

20

it on porphyry the porphyry will work and mix with the smalt and spoil it, and up aqua fortis will never remove it because it

22

Se

cannot dissolve the porphyry. If you want a fine blue colour dissolve the smalt made with tartar, and then remove
the
salt.

*L'ottone vetrificato

fa bello

rosso.

Vitrified brass

makes a

fine red.

75 6}

729.

STUCCO.
stucco sopra il gobbo del di giesso, ^U quale sia coposto di venere e * mercuric, e impasta bene sopra esso gobbo Scon equal grossezza di costa di coltello fatta colla 6 sagoma,
2

STUCCO.
over the prominence of Oa stucco (?29 which may be composed of Venus and Mercury, and lay it well over that prominence of the thickness of
Place
stucco
'

Fa

the

e questa copri co coperchio di canpa?na da stillare, e riavrai 8 il tuo vmido co che inpastasti, 'el rimanete bene e poi I 9 foca e batti over asciugga
ella poi. 7.
. .

the

side

of a knife,

made

with

the

ruler

and cover this with 'the bell of a still, and you will have again the moisture with which you applied the paste. The rest you may dry
.
.

here

vi e. S.'piasstre

dacaio
. .

.

.

imol.

ii. essi 15.

perchote per fiancho
16.

misscagle.
17.

lavolo chollacq"a". 9. la negredine del ferro ellascieara. 10. lossmeriglo chosi. essettu. 12. a pocho appocho 13. rSperessti
. . . .

chol
lis-

14.

smalti.

chol macintatoio.
20. ellae

accaio chesse.
[s]

missto
22.

.

.

ello.
.

18. purifichato

ennetto essettullo.

19. essimissca col-

lossmalto ello.
719.
i.

qua dosso
. .

perche no po.
.

azurro
3.
7.

.

lossmalto.

24. vetrifichato.
e.
8.

stuccho.

2.
.
.

fasstucho
cholla.
6.

ghobb

del

a engui di giesso.
. .

copossto di erenev
dasstillare erriarai.

4.

oirucrem e inpassta
. .

.

5.

grosseza

saghoma ecquessta

choperchio.

inpasstassti

assciugha.

9.

ghobbo. focha

wards;
borace.

words have been 729. In this passage a few written in a sort of cipher that is to say backas in 1. 3 erenev for Venere, 1. 4 oirucrem for
Mercurio,
I.

in
is

1.

I

is

unknown; and the
in

sense, in

which sagotna
is

used here and

other

passages

obscufe.

Venere and Mercurio

may mean
orreve

'marble* and 'lime', of

12

il

orreve co ecarob for

il

everro

(?)

co

which stucco
12.

is

composed.
is

The meaning

of the word before "di giesso"

The meaning of

unknown.

20
brunisci co buon inverse la costa.

ON CASTING BRONZE.
brunitoio e fa
I0

[730734-

grosso

well ; afterwards

with a

fire it, and beat it or burnish it good burnisher, and make it thick towards

the side.

STUCCO.
"Poluerizza
il
.

STUCCO.

.

.

.

co borace e.acqua,

Powder
to a paste,

e poi scalda in moin'^pasta e fa stucco, do si sec' 4 chi, e poi vernica con foco in

modo

che

lustri.

heat it it, with

with borax and water and make stucco of it, and then so that it may dry, and then varnish
. . .

fire,

so that

it

shines well.

C. A. 313 a

5

951 a]

730-

STUCCO DA FORMARE.
Togli-butiro parti 6-, ciera parti 2-, ^e tata farina volatile che, messa sopra *le cose strutte le facci sode a modo s di cera
,

STUCCO FOR MOULDING.

2

Take of butter 6 parts, of wax 2 parts, and as much fine flour as when put with these 2 things melted, will make them as
firm as

o

di terra

da formare.
COLLA.

wax or modelling
GLUE.

clay.

?Togli
biacca.
s.

mastice

tremetina

stillata

8

e

Take mastic, white lead.

distilled

turpentine

and

K. M. in 50 a]

731-

DA
2

GITTARE.

To
Tartar
ster

CAST.

II tartaro bruciato e pol^verizzato col on brome giesso e gittaHo fa che esso giesso si 6 s tiene insieme poi, ch' e ricot to, e poi

burnt and powdered with plaand cast cause the plaster to hold together when it is mixed up again ; and then
it

(731-740).

nell'

acqua

si disfa.

will dissolve in water.

s.

K. M.

m. 53]

732IN GIESSO.

PER GITTARE BROZO
2

To

CAST BRONZE IN PLASTER.
i

Togli per ogni 2 scodelle di giesso di ^corno di bo bruciato e mischia Isieme *e gitta.

una

Take to every 2 cups of plaster ox-horns burnt, mix them together and
your cast with
it.

of

make

S. K.

M.

II. i

95 a]

733-

Quado

sciuma 2 con una candela, sanza busi.

voi gittare di ciera, abbrucia la e'l gietto verra

When you want
the

to take

a cast in wax, burn
the cast will

scum with a candle, and come out without bubbles.

s.

K. M. in. 55*)

7342

3noce che
.

2 ocie di giesso da libbra di metallo ; fa simile alia *curva.

2

walnut,
12.
il

ounces of plaster to a pound of metal which makes it like the curve.
orreve co ecarob e acq"a"
in.

;

.

brunissci co bio brunitoio effa.
14.

10. chossta.
.

ti.
.

stuccho.

ij.

passta

effa

stucho

eppoi scal"d"a.
730.
731.
739.
i. 2.
i.

eppoi vcrnicha con vocho
.

lusstri.
5.

stucho.
tartero.

2.

toli

bituro parte

.

parte.

4.
5.

chose.

tera.
. .

7.

tomastice temetina.
6.

8.

biaccha.

3.

verizato .chol.
3.

4. hvsso..

tiene sieme

rico.

acq"a".

giesso

i

di.
t.

bruciata e misscia.
734.
i.

733.

i.

abrucia.

chandela.

libra.

734.

The second

part of this

is

quite obscure.

2.C7

.

.

t

V

%"''

-

irf

Ulf/lW^ *WY^
-.^?/f '^triJ

4*r<fy/

:

;

ij>/*/H^ .-> *-WU//ih
!,IS4
_

]^1

^j^^ v

^>

*te/>*f]

^f*>'
r

&<f>i

"''*' v-> Sq * lrf "r v *"** " T 'f r?

J^>^'*Y
ft J?h

W

-"*

^

(

,

*r-*/^ r
'-"'*

'

<

t.

Wt'-w/-W" ~4L

A-X'. ii<tAA- J

'"Cf

"

^

v

^'HT;

Imp, Eudes.

735

737-]

ON CASTING BRONZE.

21

S.

K. M.

III.

56 a]

735-

6

2 [Terra asciuta 16 libbre, 100 libbre di metallo 3 la bagniata terra 20, 4 di bagniato 100, di meta, 5 che cresce 4 libbre d'acqua,

una

di

cera,
8

una

libbra di me7tallo,

al-

100 pounds of [Dried earth 16 pounds, metal wet clay 20, of wet 100, half, i of wax, which increases 4 Ibs. of water,
the scrapings i Ib. of metal, a little less, of linen with earth, measure for measure.]

quato maco,
misura.]

cimatura co terra, 9misura per

52*]

736.
fia
il
2

Tal

gietto

qual

fia

la stapa.

Such as the mould

is,

so will the cast be.

Tr. 52]

737-

COME
2

SI

DEBBONO PULIRE

I

GIETTI.

HOW

CASTS OUGHT TO BE POLISHED.

Farai
di

uno
^e

mazzo
coll'

di

fila

ferro,

grosso

come
acqua

spaghetto,

rv___
*^

fregherai, tenedo sotto uno tinello, accio no facci 4fago
sotto.

Make a bunch of iron wire as thick as thread, and scrub them with [this and] water; hold a bowl underneath that it may not make a mud
below.

COME
6

si

DE'

LEUARE

HOW
i

TO REMOVE THE ROUGH EDGES FROM
BRONZE.

RICCI D'EL BROZO.

che sia a uso palo d'uno largo scarpello, 7 e co quello freghesu per quelle creste del brozo, che rai rimarrano 8 sopra i gietti delle bobarde, che diriuano dalle schiappature della 9 forma, ma fa che '1 palo pesi bene e' colpi
di ferro
,

Farai uno

sieno lughi e gradi.

Make an iron rod, after the manner of a large chisel, and with this rub over those seams on the bronze which remain on the casts of the guns, and which are caused by the joins in the mould; but make the tool heavy enough, and let the strokes be long and broad.

FACILITA DI FONDERE.

TO

FACILITATE MELTING.

Allega prima una parte del metallo manica, di poi lo metti I fornace, 12 col suo bagnio al e questo fara prlcipio fondere del rame.
alia

11

First alloy part of the metal in the crucible, then put it in the furnace, and this being in a molten state will assist in beginn-

ing to melt the copper.

PER PROVEDERE AL RAME CHE
NELLA FORNACE.
**

SI

FREDDASSE

TO PREVENT THE COPPER COOLING
FURNACE.

IN

THE

Quando

il

rame
,

si

fredasse

nella

When

the copper cools in the furnace, be

che subito quado tu te n'avedi, j sdi tagliarlo co frugatojo metre ch'eli eovero se fusse I6 iteramete I paniccia raffreddato, taglialo, come si fa il piobo, co
fornace fa
,

ready, as soon as

you perceive
it

it,

to cut

it

with a long stick while

is

still
it

in a paste;
is

or

if

it

is

quite cold cut

as lead

cut

I7 larghi e grossi scar pelli.

with broad and large
*

chisels.

735.
737.

i. i.

assciutta.

2.

libre 100 Ibbre.
i

5.

cressie.
3.

4.

librdacq"a".

6. i di
. .

.

.

libra.
. . . . . .

debe.

8.

14.
1
.

i tinello. 6. 5 chessia rima. palo largho. 7, cho echollacq"a" frecherai derame. fredassi. n. J parte manicha. 12. ecquesto chol chalpi. 13. chessi isciappature. 9. maffa cho chargi schar. 18. aflfare overo [mete] seffussi. 16. raffredo taglalo chome . imetre chessubito. 15. cho

2.

fara

mazo

.

.

spagetto.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19. affare

i

.

libre fallo

.

.

cho 2006

libr.

20.

ciasschuno

.

.

libr.

735.

The

translation

is

given

literally,

but the meaning

is

quite obscure.

22
AVESSI A FARE avessi a
fare

ON CASTING BRONZE.
VNO GRA GIETTO.
IF

[738. 739-

YOU HAVE TO MAKE A LARGE

CAST.

uno

gietto di cento

mila
libbre

libbre, falo
20
il

per
piv.

2 fornelli ciascuno o Isino

co

con 2000
.

If you have to make a cast of a hundred thousand pounds do it with two furnaces and

in

3000

with

libbre

2000 pounds in each, or 3000 pounds at most.

as

much

as

r.

5J|

738-

ICOME FARE BENE
2

A ROPERE VNA GRA MASSA

HOW
If

TO PROCEED TO BREAK A LARGE MASS
OF BRONZE.

DI BROZO. 1

Se

volli

ropere

una

gra
^poi

massa
H
di

di

you want
bronze,

to break
first

up a

large

mass of
then
sides,

brozo
fa

sospedilo
lati

prima,

da 4

uno muro a vso
e
fa
11

make round it
like

suspend it, a wall on the four

and

truogo
foco
4
,

di

mattoni,

gra
dali

a trough of bricks,
fire

and make

e quado

e be

rosso,
s

a great

therein.
it

When
above
it,

it

is

uno colpo
levato
in alto

con vno

gra

peso

quite red hot give

a blow with a

co gra forza.

heavy weight

raised

and

with great force.

Tr. 54]

739IL

11

DEL FARE VNIRE
2

PIOBO CON ALTRO

METALLO.1
mettere il volessi per masseritia e per sopire alia soma dello stagnio che si richiede nel metallo ,
nel metallo
.

TO COMBINE LEAD WITH OTHER
If

METAL.

Se

you wish
with
tin

for

economy
in order
is

in

combining

piobo
'

lead

the meta]

to lessen the

amount of
tal,
first

which

allega prima il poi metti sopra
II

piobo
il

collo

4

stagnio

e

alloy the lead with the tin

necessary in the meand then

rame

foduto.

add the molten copper.

COME
6

SI

DEBE FONDERE IN UNO FORNELLO-t

HOW

TO MELT [METAL]

IN

A FURNACE.

II

fornello

de' essere

ifra

4.

The furnace should be
four well founded pillars.

between

pilastri

be

fodati.

1 DELLA GROSSEZZA DELLA CAPPA.H
8

OF THE THICKNESS OF THE COATING.
la

La cappa no debe
di 2

grossezza
rare
^ in

dita

,

prevalicare e debesi inter-

The

coating should not be
it

fingers thick,

quatro volte sopra la terra e poi bene annare, I0 e sia sola mete ricotta di detro e dato poi sottilmete di cenere e bouina.
.

thicknesses
fixed, and the inside

sottile

with ashes

more than two should be laid on in four over fine clay and then well it should be fired only on and then carefully covered and cow's dung.

DELLA GROSSEZZA DELLA BOBARDA.
12

OF THE

THICKNESS OF THE GUN.

La bobarda
1

de' essere

da 600 libbre
X

di ballotta

co questa regola; misura del diametro della ballotta
su,

3farai la

e quel-

The gun being made to carry 600 Ibs. of ball and more, by this rule you will take the measure of the diameter of the ball and

738. 739.

i.
i.
. .

be a
chol.

*
. .

1

gra.

2.

gra.

3. 3,

j

muro
.

.

.

effa

.

.

focho.

4.
.

ecquado
arame.
.

.

.

dallt

i

colpi chon.
i

2.

e per soperire.

chessi

.

cholo.
. .

4.

eppoi

.

5.
.

fondere

fornello.

7.

grosseza
12. Hbr.

.

.

prevalichare la grosseza debessi.

9.

gutro

soctile.

10. cssia

richotta.

n. grosseza.

13.

chappa. 8. chappa ba"lo"ta dia. .

PL IXXV1

'

V

K,-~,

<L

I**

PIMMPM

*-.-

',%J +' *

740.]

ON CASTING.
-16T

la

diuidi

parti,

fia la

grossezza

dinazi

*e una d'esse partie la meta sepre

I5 e se la ballotta fia di libbre piv rieto, 700, J del diametro della ballotta fia la sua /7 l6

grossezza
e

dinazi

,

e se la

ballotta- fia

800-, 1'ottavo del suo diametro ^dinazi, e
se 900J

'/s

/2

e se IOO

T

/9-

it into 6 parts and one of these parts be its thickness at the muzzle; but at the breech it must always be half. And if the ball is to be 700 Ibs., y7 th of the diameter of the ball must be its thickness in front; and if the ball is to be 800, the eighth of its diameter in front; and if 900, Ygth VzP/ie], and if 1000, Y9 th.

divide
will

DELLA LUGHEZZA DELLA TROBA BELLA BOBARDA.

OF THE LENGTH OF THE BODY OF THE GUN.
If

^Se
pietra insino
I

voi
fa la

ch'ella

gitti

una ballotta
20

di

lughezza della troba
,

in

6-0

e se la ballotta fusse 7 ballotte 2I detta troba -Isino in 12 balfa 22 lotte e se la ballotta fusse di piobodico farai la insino in diciotto ballotte, 2 quado la bobarda ^avesse la bocca atta a ricieuere in se da 600 libr di ballotta
di ferro
,

make much
ball

,

you want it to throw a ball of stone, the length of the gun to be 6, or as as 7 diameters of the ball; and if the is to be of iron make it as much as
and
as
if

12

balls,
it

the ball
as
to
Ibs.

is

to

be of lead,

make when
to

much

the

receive

gun is 600

I mean 18 balls. have the mouth fitted

of

stone

ball

,

and

di pietra

I

su.

more.
DE' PASSA VOLANTI.

DELLA GROSSEZZA
2

OF THE THICKNESS OF SMALL

GUNS.

dinazi de' passavolanti 26 al Isino passare dalla meta terzo del diametro della ballotta, E la lu-

sLa grossezza
deve

no

The thickness at the muzzle of small guns should be from a half to one third of the diameter of the ball, and the length from 30
to

ghezza da 30 Isino

I

36

27

ballotte.

36

balls.

Tr. 55]

740
ILLOTARE
IL

U DELLO
2

FORNELLO DI DETRO.U
inazi

OF LUTING THE FURNACE

WITHIN.

II

fornello
3

debbe

che tu
di

Iforni
di

il

metallo

essere

illotato

terra

Valenza,

e sopra quella
1L

cienere.

The furnace must be luted before you put the metal in it, with earth from Valenza, and over that with ashes.

KDEL RISTORARE
s

METALLO, QUADO

OF RESTORING THE METAL WHEN
MING COOL.

IT

IS

BECO-

RIVOLESSE FREDDARE.t

Quado

tu

vedi

il

brozo volersi co-

When you
take

see that the bronze

is

congealing

tolli legnie di salice, schiappate gielare 6 fa foco. sottilmete, e co quelle

some willow -wood cut and make up the fire with it.

in small chips

TIL.A
8

CAGIONE DEL COGIELARSI. If
I

THE CAUSE OF
say that the
often

ITS

CURDLING.

d'essa cogielatione la cagione 9e spesse volte da troppo foco da legnie mal secche. ancora

Dico

derivar

cause of this congealing proceeds from too much fire, or from

ill-dried

wood.
CONDITION OF THE FIRE.
the
fire
is

If

A

CONOSCIERE LA DISPOSITIONS DEL FOCO. If
conoscierai,

.

To KNOW THE
and
.

."Il foco
vtile
,

quado

fia

bono e
I2
'

You may know when
fit

good

alle

fiame
i
.
.

chiare, e

se uedrai

le

for

your purpose by a clear flame,
.
.

mitro.
. .
|

14. e

grosseza

.

.

ella.
*

15. esse
. .

.

.

di br 700

.

balotta
.

.

.

diamitro. 16. grosseza
21. essela
.
.

sella

.

.

diamitro.
la

17. esse 24.

e ese.
25.

18. lugeza.

19.

ballotta

lugeza.
. .

20. essella

.

fussi.

fussi.

23.

avesse

.

bocha.

gro-

sseza.

grosseza
2.chetti
.

.

.

debono.

26. diamitro
4,

lugeza.
5.
. .

740.

i.

ilotare.

.

.

tera di ualeza.

uolessi fredare.
. .

chogielare

.

.

sciapate.
12. effinire

6.

cho.

8.

dicho
. .

la

chagione

. .

dirivar.

9.

anchora

.

seche.

10. focho.

n. conosscierai

ale

esse uederai.

co.

13. arai

acq"a".

14.

alegare.

740.

1.

2.

Terra di Valenza,

Valenza

is

north of Alessandria on the Po.

ON CASTING.
pute
d'esse
,

[740-

flame turbe e

finire

co molto

and

if

fumo no te ne fidare, e massime '3quado avrai il bagnio quasi in acqua.

ending in

you see the tips of the flames dull and much smoke do not trust it, and

particularly

when the

flux

metal

is

almost

fluid.

IDELLO ALLEGARE
'5 II

IL

METALLO.!

OF ALLOYING THE METAL.
Metal for guns must invariably be made with 6 or even 8 per cent, that is 6 of tin
to

uole fare vniversalmete l6 nelle bobarde co 6 o uisino 8 per cieto , cioe 6 di stagnio sopra cieto di rame, e
metallo
si

quato meno ve ne metti, la bobarda.

^piv sicura

fia

one hundred of copper,
in,

for the less

you

put

the stronger will the

gun

be.

IQlJADO
19

SI

DEBE ACC&PAGNIARE COL RAME.1
col
il

LO STAGNIO

WHEN THE

TIN SHOULD BE COPPER.

ADDED TO THE
with the copper
to a fluid.

Lo

stagnio
ai

tere

quado
SI

rame si debbe metrame codotto in acqua.
IL

The tin should be put in when the copper is reduced

ICOME
21

DEBE AVMETARE

FONDERE-U

HOW
You can

TO HASTEN THE MELTING.
hasten the melting
2

fondere fia da te avmetato quado "m 2 sara codotto il rame in /3 acqua , alII

lora

con

v

legnio
il

rimaneggerai cora Itero ifra
metalo.

di castagnio ispesso rima z: nete del rame an-

when /jds o f the copper is fluid; you can then, with a stick of chestnut-wood, repeatedly stir what
of copper remains
melted.
entire

amidst

what

is

la

parte
18.

fonduta.
chol.

15.

17. sichura.

acopagniare

.

.

19.

acq"a".

21. datte.

22.

chastagnio

.

.

rimanerai.

2.5

Introductory Observations on the Architectural Designs (XII), and' Writings on Architecture (XIII).
now very
has been known regarding Leonardo's labours

Until

little

in the

domain

of Architecture. No building is known to have been planned and executed by him, though by some contemporary writers incidental allusion is made to his occupying himself with Moro, which has long been a well-known document, in ivJiich he offers his service as an architect to that prince, tends to confirm the belief that lie zvas something more than an amateur of the art. This hypothesis has lately been confirmed by the publication of certain documents, prearchitecture,

and

his

famous

letter

to

Lodovico

il

served at Milan

,

showing that Leonardo was not only employed

in

preparing plans but
public

that he took an active part, with
buildings; his

much

credit,
tJie

as

member of a commission on

name remains

linked with

history of the building of the Cathedral at

Pavia and that of the Cathedral at Milan.
.

Leonardo's writings on Architecture are dispersed
it

among a

large

number of MSS.,
the

and

would be

scarcely possible

to

master

their contents

witJiout

opportunity

of arranging,

sorting arid comparing the whole

comprehensive idea of the whole.
selves,

The

sketches,

mass of materials, so as to have some when isolated and considered by- themtill

of but little value; it is not general purport, from comparing them with each other, that mate of their true worth.

might appear

to

be

we understand
can

their
esti-

we

form any just

Leonardo seems to have had a project for writing a complete and separate treatise on Architecture, such as his predecessors and contemporaries had composed Leon Battista Alberti, Filarete, Francesco di Giorgio, and perhaps also Bramante. But, on 'the other
cannot be denied that possibly no suck scheme was connected with the isolated notes and researches, treating on special questions, which are given in this work; that

hand,

it

he was merely
special interest.

"working

at problems in

which, for some reason or other he took a

great number of important buildings were constructed in Lombardy during the period between 1472 and 1499, and among them there are several by unknown arcJntects,
VOL. n.

A

D

26

INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURE.

that cither B ram ante or of so high an artistic merit, that it is certainly not improbable Leonardo da Vinci may have been, directly or indirectly, concerned in thdr erection. Having been engaged, for noiv nearly twenty years in a thorough study of Bra,

particular interest in detecting the distinguishing marks of his style as compared with Leonardo's. In 1869 I made researches about tJitarchitectural drawings of the latter in the Codex Atlanticus at Milan, for the purpose of

mantis

life

and labours, I have taken a

finding out, if possible the original plans and sketches of the ciiurcJies of Santa Maria delle Grazie at Milan, and of the Cathedral at Pavia, which buildings have been supposed to be
the

work both of Bramante and of Leonardo.

Since

1

Leonardo's architectural studies in the collection of his manuscripts
France,

876 / have repeatedly examined in the Institut de

and some of

these

I have already given
de
St. Pierre

to the public in

my work

on "Les Pro-

de Rome", PL 43. In 1879 / had the pour jets the manuscript in the Palazzo Trivulzio at Milan, and in \ 880 opportunity of examining ZX Richter showed me in London the manuscripts in the possession of Lord AsJiburnJiam,
Primitifs
la Basilique

and

those in the

British

Museum.

I have thus had

opportunities

of seeing most of

Leonardo's architectural drawings in the original, but of the manuscripts themselves I
r which accompany the sketches. Richter's It is to exertions that we owe the collected texts on Architecture which are now published, and while he has undertaken to be responsible for the correct reading of t/ie original texts,

have deciphered only the notes

D

he has also
It

made it

his task to extract the wJiole

has been

my

task to arrange

and

elucidate the texts
tJie

of the materials from the various MSS. under Jlie heads which have Codex Atlanticus at Milan arc the

been adopted in this work.

MS.

B. at Paris and

chief sources of our knowledge of Leonardo as an architect,
these to

and 1 have
to this

recently subjected

a thorough re-investigation expressly with a view

work.

complete reproduction of all Leonardo's architectural sketches has not, indeed, been possible, but as far as the necessarily restricted limits of the work have allowed> the

A

utmost completeness has been aimed at, and no efforts have been spared to include every It would have been very thing that can contribute to a knowledge of Leonardo's style.
interesting, if it

had
in

been possible, to give some general account at least of Leonardo's
engineering, fortification,

work and

studies

canal-making and the

like,

and

it

is

only on mature reflection that

we have

reluctantly

abandoned

this idea.

Leonardo's

occupations in these departments have by no means so close a relation to literary work, in the strict sense of the word as we are fairly justified in attributing to his numerous
notes on Architecture.

Leonardo's architectural studies fall naturally under two heads I. Those drawings and sketches, often accompanied by short remarks
:

and

explato

nations,
built.

which may be regarded as designs for buildings or monuments intended With tfiese there are occasionally explanatory texts.
77ieoretical investigations

be

II.

and

treatises.

A

special interest attaches to these

because they discuss a variety of questions which are of practical importance to this day. Leonardo's theory as to the origin and progress of cracks in buildings is perhaps to be considered as unique in its way in the literature of Architecture.

HENRY DE GEYM&LLER

PL LXXVn.

2.7

XII.

Architectural Designs.
I.

Plans for towns.
new town with a double system of high15*).

A.
level

Sketches for laying out a
low-level road-ways.

and
PI.

LXXVII,
it

No.

i

(MS. B,
(MS. B,

A

general view of a town, with the

roads outside

sloping up to the high-level ways within.
3

PL LXXVII, No.
explanatory references.
PI.

16*, see

No. 741; and

MS. B.
and

15*, see

No. 742^ gives a partial view of

the town, with its streets

houses, with

LXXVII,

No.

2

(MS. B, 15*;
of
2

see

No. 743).

View of a double

staircaise with two opposite flights

steps.

a Sketches illustrating 3 (MS. B, tf ). the connection of the two levels of roads by means of steps. The lower galleries are lighted by openings in the upper roadway. B. Notes on removing houses (MS. Br. M., 270^, see No. 744^.

PL LXXVIII, Nos.

and

B. i6a]

74 I.

strade sono piv alte che le strade braccia 6., e ciascuna 2 strada de' es/-.ysere larga braccia 20, e avere '/ braccio
j .^ di calo dalle stremita
,.
,

Le

m

the

The roads m are '6 braccia higher than roads/ s, and each road must be 20

3

al mezzo, e

m

esso

mezzo
4

sia

a

braccio slope from braccia wide and have ^ the sides towards the middle: and in the mi(Mle let there be at every braccio an

%

ogm

braccio
dito ,

fessura,

largo uno

uno braccio di dove 1' acqua che
chalo.

opening, one braccio long and one finger wide, where the rain water may run off into

741.

i.

strade

.

[m]

M

.

.

chelle.

2.

largbr

.

.

3.

mezo [eda

esse stremita einesso

mezo

.

.

br unobr.

4.

deba.

6.

largeza

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.
ca've fatte al ue debba scolare nelle da ogm streSsimo Piano di delta sUada-siafta della ^larghezza 6 sul
,

[742-744.
the

hollows

di/,e

same level as / s. the extremity of the And on each be an arcade, width of the said road let there

made on

side

at

"no portico

i di braccia larghezza chi volesse an"le colonne, e sappi che, 8 strade alte terra per le dare per tutta la P e chi voles* acconcio usarle, po ra a suo ancora il simile; \ndare 'per le basse andare strade alte non devono le per cose, anzi siano simili -earn, nc altre le basse solamete per li gieteli omini; per

6 braccia broad,
that

on columns; and understand
the whofc can use them

di

he

who would go through
the high level streets

place by
for this

,

he who would go by purpose, and do the same. By the high the low level can shoul vehicles and similar objects
streets

circulate,

SSTo
e

andare

i

carri

e altre
;

some
,

al

uso

la schiene '3all'altra ; lasciado volgierele *s uscibassa in mezzo, ed agh strada come legnie, vino

commodita

del popolo

1'

una casa de

mettano

votare l6 dall'uno arco all'altro

le vettovaglie, <5 V ie sotterrane si de e simili cose; per le e simili cose fetide destri, stalle

the use but they are exclusively for The carts and burdens for the of gentlemen. the inhabitants have use and convenience of One house must the low ones. to go by the lower turn its back to the other, leaving them. Provisions, such as streets between are carried in wood, wine and such things

no

by the doors
fetid

matter

ground.

and privies, stables and other must be emptied, away underFrom one arch to the next
,

742.
B.

de'

cioe ciascuna delle ricieve il lume dalle fessu're via che arco de essere strade di sopra, e a ogni ne catoni una scala a Iuma3ca toda, perche c nella 'pnma delle quadre si piscia, e larga, i destri e pisciuolta sia vn uscio ch'entri s discieda dallacomuni, e per scala si atoi 6 e le strade alte si strada alta alia bassa, a esse comlcino fori delle porte, e givnte 1'altezza di bracessere

braccia

300,

each must be 300 braccia,
its

streets

each arch must be a winding because the corners stair on a circular plan ones are always fouled; they of square the first vault there must be wide, and at door entering into public privies must be a from the upper and the said .stairs lead

street receiving the openings of the upper light through

and

at

porte abbia?no conposto o presso a mare cia 6; Fia fatta detta terra acciocche le brutti o altro fiume grosso, sieno pordella 9 C itta, menate dall'acqua
tate
via.

and the high level streets to the lower streets and slope up ti outside the city gates begin

attained the height atthese gates they have Let such a city be built near braccia. of 6

in order that the dir the sea or a large river be carried off by the water. of the city may

B

743
15*]

'

no

^
M. 270*)
2

A

rtifii-;:?S3&

<

'% =
The

stairs construction of the stairs: The in the same way

>> -*

744-

Br.

MUTATIONE

DI CASE.

ON MOVING
4

HOUSES.

Le

case sieno trasmutate e messe per
3

ordine,

e questo co facilita

si

fara,

per-

in order;

Let the houses be moved and arranged and this will be done with facility

c 'ocl":

r

Imp Eudes

744-]

PLANS FOR TOWNS.
because such houses are at first made in pieces on the open places, and can then be fitted together with their timbers in the site

pra
8

case son prima fatte sdi pezzi so6 si comettono insieme piazze, e poi colli lor 7legniami nel sito dove si debbono
tali

che

le

stabilire.

where they are

to

be permanent.

9

"ve

Li omini, del pae I0 se abitino le nuocase in parte, I2 quando no v'e la

[9]

Let the
is

men

village]

partly inhabit the

of the country [or the new houses when

cor^te.

the court

absent [12].

to

744. On the same page we find notes referring Romolontino and Villafranca with a sketch-map of the course of the "Sodro" and the "(Lo)era" (both There can hardly are given in the text farther on).

given above, refers to the court of Francis I. King of France. L.g 13 are written inside the larger sketch, which, in the original, is on the right hand side of
the

page by the side

of lines

I

8.

The
J.

three

be a doubt that the

last

sentence of the passage

smaller sketches are below.

P. R.

//.

in a town. Plans for canals and streets

MS. B. 36', 745- <** PI LXXIX, .. and 2, (MS. B, 37*, k*k the A Plan for streets and canals inside a town, by see No. ^6). are made accessible in boats. cellars of the houses Leoto works executed by third text give* under No. 747 refers The
nardo in France.
745B. 37*1

*

La
4 Ze
-

faccia
e

a

2

m

dark

il

lume

'alle sta-

The
rooms; a

front

a

m

will

give

light

to

the

sark- braccia 6; a b fia bracciale stanze e fia braccia 30; accioche 8-, 6 luminose -, c- d-fsiano sotto i portici vadi a scaricare le navi il loco donde se
5

e will

a

-J

fia

in

abbia

cosanelMe case; Avolere che questa effetto bisogna che la inondatione alle cade' fiumi non madasse 1' acqua
e neciessario

c dj under the porticoes may be lighted; the where the boats come to the place is order to render houses to be unloaded. In order and this arrangement practicable, of the rivers may not

* SO braccia,

be 6 braccia-a * 8 braccia in order that the rooms

m

that

the

inundation

elegiere sito nove; a vno fiume, il dato, 9 come porsi uicino che no si possino ne ti dia i canali, quale 10 inodatione o secchezza delle acque

accomo-

per dare mutatione alle altezze d'esse acque, face il modo e qui di sotto figurato, e di bel fiume che no intorbidi, ciasi eletione come Tesino Adda e

ne

"per pioggia,

the cellars, it is necessary penetrate into as a s] an appropriate situation, such chose can be diverted into near a river which of the water will canals in which the level or drought. not vary either by -inundations and. make is shown below; The construction which the rams do choice of a fine river, the T not render muddy, such as

t

modo
.
.

.

.

.oto

.

.

effaci

.

.

nSnintorbidine.

.2.

per piogie

chome

sare

.

disfacicsino.

745 L.

.-4

are on the left

hand side and within

On

the page

#*. Which comes

next in the.original

12

Tesino,

Adda

e molti altri, i. Drivers

coming
lakes.

with
^

p R>

from the mountains

and

flowing

through

PL.LXXIX

|pfpipi

'*

-*.

J
,
I

A

"..-'

f

^

^

......

..f:

Heliog-^ D-ujardin.

^x

:s^SS

746. 747-1
stieno
I3

PLANS FOR CANALS AND STREETS.

a un altezza sara una coca,
la

come

to

oblige

the

waters
.

to

keep constantly

at

qui disotto,

quale
..

fia

all'
.

entrare della

M terra,
nimici

e

megho

alquato

detro

acioche

-IN

same level wil1 be a sort of dock > as shown below, situated at the entrance of the town or better some way within in
the
.

no

la disfacciessino.

order that the

enemy may not destroy

^

^

it

[14].

B. 36 a]

746.
sia larga la stra 2 da
3
,

Tanto
universale

quanto e

la

Let the width of the

streets

be equal to

altezza delle case.

the average height of the houses.

Br.

M.

270-5]

747-

II

fiume

di
3

mezzo

2

no

The main underground channel does not receive turbid water,

ricieva

acqua
terra

torbida,
li

ma
5

tale

ac 4 qua vada per
della
6

fossi

di fori

but that water runs in the ditches
outside the town with four mills
at the entrance

con

4

molina
u
8

nelFe^trata

e

4

nella

scita,

and four

at the

e questo
1'

si I0

fa^ra col ringorgare

outlet;

and

this

may

be

done

acqua

di

sopra a
I2

Romoin

lontino;

by damming Romorantin.
[ 1

the

water above

"Facciasi
J

fonti

cia-

1]

There should be foun-'
in

3scuna piazza.

tains

made

each piazza [13].

746. 3. alteza
747.
i.

.

.

chase.
3.

el

.

.

mezo.

mattale.

7.

nella vs.

8.

ecquesto.

9.

ringhorghare.

12.

[chome] in

cias.

13. piaza.

747.
after the

In the original this text comes immediately

10.

Romolontino

is

Romorantin, South of Orleans

passage given as No. 744. The remainder of the writing on the same page refers to the construction of canals

in France.

Lines
lines
11

I

II

are written to the right of the plan
it.

and

is

given

later, in

the "Topo-

13 underneath

J.

P. R.

graphical Notes".

^sy

///.

Cast/es

and

A.

Castles.

PL

LXXX,

No.

i

(P. V.fol. 39*;

No.

ct'ordre 2282).

The fortified

place here represented

said by Vallardi to be the "castello" at Milan, but The high tower behind the "rivellino" rawithout any satisfactory reason. velin seems to be intended as a watch-tower.
is

PI.

LXXX,

No. No.

2

bably intended for the
PI.

(MS. B, 2$ same use.
3

b

).

A

similarly constructed tower pro-

LXXX,
LXXX,

(MS. B).

Sketches

for corner towers with

steps

for a

citadel.

PL
an

No. 4 (W. XVI).
of decorative
it

A

cupola crowning a corner tower;

interesting example

fortification.

In

this

reproduction

of

the original

pen and ink drawing

appears reversed.

B. Projects for Palaces.
PI. LXXXI, No. 2 (MS. C A, 75*; 22 i, a royal residence at Amboise in France. a PL LXXXII, No. i (C. 308*; 939 /
see

No. 748;.

Project

for

A

A

plan for a somewhat
to elucidate it; in

extensive residence,

and various

details ; but there' is

no text

courts are written the three names:
C08i

mo

(Cosmo)

nmo

(John),

C.

Plans for small

castles

or Villas.

The

three following sketches greatly resemble each other.
2

PL LXXXII, No.

(MS. K* 36*;

see

No.

749;.

.:

:_-

c^y k ^
5?
v

1

ViO>"

^'

&

^

r^

*4

^

'

f.i*f'?J."-

_

'V.

:.;*
'
-.
.

l '*-

:

SJs^ *

"i.""

^ -t^*

'.,-..

PI.

LXXX:

n rytev ^-x;v%A^ !:U; JJ.JLfc '^W>;
in
rf-A;

l

^1^

**

=**f->
.

1

-'

'

*'

'''
'

'

v
'

/
i

'

-.,/

:/'

/-.'

...-.

-J?

..>"

,

v<"

,^
;-

.;/.."'*';

l<.'f* A

fl
ft
I

|

vfrt/tW**^ ArfJ *^-rflA

[

r^r

ris^

"

^

fh-

ftfc^

Imp hudcs

>,

Imp, Eudes.

748.]

CASTLES AND VILLAS.

33

PL LXXXII, No. 3 (MS. B 60 PL LXXXIII (W. XVII), The
(see

;

see

No. 750^.
Cyprus

text on this sheet refers to

Topographical Notes No.

1103,), but seems to have no direct connection

ivith the sketches inserted between.

PL
tion

LXXX VIII,
circiilar

of a

Nos. 6 and 7 (MS. B, 12"; .see No. 75 \). secpavilion ivith the plan of a similar building by the side

A

These huo draivings have a special historical interest because the text ivritten below mentions the Duke and Duchess of Milan.

of it.

The sketch of a villa on a terrace at the end of a garden occiirs in C. A. 150; and in C.A. 7J b ; 225^ is another sketch of a villa somewhat resembling the Belvedere of Pope Innocent VIII, at Rome. In C.A. 62^;
193^ there
is

a Loggia.
4 (C.A. 387
is
a

PL LXXXII, No.
above a fountain.

;

1198*;

is

a tower -shaped Loggia

The machinery

very ingeniously screened

from

'view.

C. A. 75<5; 22ia]

74 8.

[II

palazzo del principe de' auere dinati

The Palace of
piazza in front of

the prince
it.

must have a

vna

piazza.] 2 Le abitationi
3

o fare diuersi

S alti

doue s'abbia a ballare o uari movimeti con

moltitudine di gente sieno terrene, perche veduto ruinare colla morte di gia n'6 5 molti; E sopra tutto fa che ogni muro, 6 abbia fondameto in sia, per sottile che
terra o sopra archi
8

Houses intended for dancing or any kind of jumping or any other movements with a multitude of people, must be on the groundfor I have floor; already witnessed the destruction of some, causing death to many
persons, and above all let every wall, be it ever so thin, rest on the ground or on arches with a good foundation. Let the mezzanines of the dwellings be divided by walls made of very thin bricks, and without wood on account of fire.

bene

7fondati.

Sieno li mezzanelli delli abitacoli $dida- muri fatti di stretti mat I0 toni e sanza legniami per ri^spetto del fuoco. I2 Tutti li neciessari abbino esalatio I3 ne le grossezze de' muri, e in I4 modo che per spirino per li tetti.
uisi
*s

Let all the privies have ventilation [by shafts] in the thickness of the walls, so as to exhale by the roofs.

I6

sara
18

Li mezzanelli sieno in volta, le quali tanto piu forti quato e' .sara micatene
di

Le

quercia

per

li

muri accio no

sie rinchi'^use sie ofifese 20 da foco.

The mezzanines should be vaulted, and the vaults will be stronger in proportion as they are of small size. The ties of oak must be enclosed in the
walls in order to be protected from
fire.

748.

i.

palazo.

2.

abitationini
8.

.

.

abballare
.
.

offare.
9.

3.

chomoltitudine.
10.

4.

rrene
.
.

.

.

cholla.

5.

Essopra tucto
12.

.

.

persottile.

6.

ossopra arachi.
chesspirino
.
.

mezanelli

abitacholi.
18.

mac.

tono essanza
20. focho.

ris.

n. fuocho.
.
.

Tucti.
il

13.

grosseze.

14.

tecti.

15. mezanelli.

chatene diquercie.

21.

Lesstaze

adesstri.

23.

ferore

non

isspiri.

748. The remarks accompanying the plan reprodticed on PI. LXXXI, No. 2 are as follows: Above,
to the left
(in
:

moat.

In the large

"in terre No.

court surrounded by a portico Largha l/r.So e lugha br 120." To

"in a angholo

stia la

guardia de
dabosa"

la sstalla"

the

Below

angle a are the

may be
words
with

the

keeper of the
"fossa

stable).

"strada
this

(road

to
(the

Amboise),

parallel

br

40"
of

for is a large basin castle right of the "Giostre colle nave aquatic sports with the words doe li giostra li stieno sopra le na" (Jousting in boats that is the men are to be in boats). J. P. R.

the

moat
VOL.

40
II.

braccia)

fixing

the

width

the
"E

34

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

[74975I-

"Le
abitationi,
26

staze

d'andare

a'

destri

"molte che entrino Tuna nell' al^tra, cioche il fiero odore non spiri per
e
tutti
li

sieno ac24

The
one
into

privies must be numerous and going the other in order that the stench

le

may
all,

loro

usci

2

Ssi

serrino
di

their

not penetrate into the dwellings, and doors must shut off themselves with

colli cotrapesi.

counterpoises.
diuisione
in
2

La massima
28

della frote
parti, sia la

27 que sto palazzo

due

cioe che

la

Iarghez

za della corte
9fronte;

meta

di

The main division of the facade of this palace is into two portions; that is to say the width of the court-yard must be half the
whole facade; the
2 nd

tutta la predetta

La

2 a ...

...

K.J

749-

Largo per ogni lato br. 30; 1'entrata da in una sala larga braccia 10 e ^ braccia 30 e a 4 camere co sua cami 4 ni. lunga
2

basso e

30 braccia wide on each side; the lower entrance leads into a hall 10 braccia wide and 30 braccia long with 4 recesses each with a chimney.

B. 6oa|
2

75.
primo grado
sia

II

tutto

ripieno.

The
solid.

firststorey [or terrace]

must be

entirely

B. 12 a]

751-

Padiglione del giardino della duchessa
2

di Milano.

*

Fondameto del padiglione mezzo del laberinto del duca

di

ch'e nel Milano.

The pavilion in the garden of the Duchess of Milan. The plan of the pavilion which is in the middle of the labyrinth of the Duke of Milan.

24.

li

.

.

ettutti
.

.

.

vssci.
2. [z].

25. cholli chotrappesi.
.
.

26. ques.
.

26. chella larghe.

749. 751.

i.

Largho
zardino.

.

dab.
del

basso [e ino] e in
4.

la"r"gha br

10

el.

3.

lungha br

30.

i.

3.

mezo.

749.

On

each side of the castle,
are

PI.

LXXXII.

taken as to the mark on the MS. as well as

in

his

of details, to the left "Camino" a chimney, to the right the central lantern, sketched in red "8 latf i. e. an octagon.

No. 2 there

drawings

statements as to the date, for the MS. in question has no date the date he gives occurs, on the con;

trary, in

another note-book.

Finally,

it

appears to

published by AMORETTI in Memorie Storiche Cap. X Una sua opera da riportarsi a quesf anno fu il bagno fatto per la duchessa
751.

This passage was

first

:

quite an open question whether Leonardo was the architect who carried out the construction of

me

the dome-like

Pavilion

here shown

in

section,

or

Beatrice nel parco o giardino del Castello.
sofo

Leonardo non

ne disegnb
segnato

il

piccolo

edifizio

a foggia di padiglione,

of the ground plan of the Pavilion drawn by the side of it. Must we, in fact, suppose that "// duca

nel cod.

Q. 3, dandone anche separatamente la
Padiglione del giardino della

pianta;

ma

sotto vi scrisse:

duchessa;

e sotto la pianta: Fondamento del padiglione ch'e nel metxo del labirinlo del duca di Milano; nessuna

mentioned was, as has been geneassumed, Ludovico il Moro? He did not hold this title from the Emperor before 1494; till that date he was only called Govematore and Leonardo
di Milano" here
rally
in
"il

data

ma
glio

e presso il padiglione t disegnato nella pagina 12, 10 Lupoco sopra fra molti circoli intrecciati vedesi

=

speaking

of him,
after

mentions
1494.

him generally
18,

as

Moro" even

1492

=

On Januaiy

1491,

e nella pagina
letto

2 presso

ad

alctmi

disegni

di legumi qualcheduno ha

Settembre 1482 in vece di
e

1492,

come dovea

scrrverevi,

probabilmente

scrisse

he married Beatrice d'Este the daughter of Ercole I, Duke of Ferrara. She died on the 2"d January 1497, and for the reasons I have given it seems improbable that it should be this princess who is here From the spoken of as the "Duchessa di Milano". style of the handwriting it appears to me to be beyond

Leonardo.

The

original text

pretation

put

i.

however hardly bears the interHe is mispun it l>y AMORETTI.

PL LXXXlll.

^7^\

7jr~

^

'/>
j

I

/
;>

/

/.

^
i,

<

jl
Bl
?

P
^^

.

<

fil
.

i ? ?

*^ 4. c

M

752.]

CASTLES AND VILLAS.

35

B. 19

*J

752.

II terreno che si cava dalle canove 2 si debe elevare da cato tato in alto che sfacche sia alto quato la sala, 4 ma cia un orto fa che tra'l terreno dell' orto e'l muro sdella casa sia uno intervallo, accio che 6 l'umido no guasti i muri maestri.
,

The earth that is dug out from the cellars must be raised on one side so high as to
make
a terrace garden as high as the level hall; but between the earth of the terrace and the wall of the house, leave an

of the

interval in order that the

damp may not

spoil

the principal walls.

753.

i.

tereno chessi chava delle chanove.

2.

ellevare

da chato.

3. chessia.

4. chettral tereno.

5.

cbasa.

6. maesstri.

all

is

doubt that the MS. B, from which this passage is older than the dated MSS. of 1492 and In that case the Duke of Milan here men1493.
taken,

the Duchess
to

whom

would be his wife Isabella of Aragon, he was married on the second February
J.

14.89.

P.

R.

tioned would be

Gian Galeazzo (1469

1494)

and

Ecclesiastical Architecture.

A. General

Observations.

B. 39*]

753-

Senpre vno

edifitio

cato dintorno a volere vera forma.

vole essere 2 spicdimostra^re la sua

A
on
all

building should always be detached sides so that its form may be seen.

Ash.

II.

%b\

754-

2 Qui no si pu6 ne si debe fare capa3 stare nile, anzi debe separate come a il do 4 mo e Sa Giovanni di Fireze-, 5e cosl il

domo

che mo 6 stra il capanile per se to T circa e cosl il domo, e o 8 gni dispicca vno per se puo mostrare la sua 9 perfetI0 fare colla tione, e chi lo uolesse pure chiesa, faccia la la^terna scusare capanile 12 come e la chiesa di Chiaravalle.
di Pisa
7

Here there cannot and ought not to be any campanile; on the contrary it must stand apart like that of the Cathedral and of San Giovanni at Florence, and of the Cathedral at Pisa, where the campanile is quite detached as well as the dome. Thus each can display
its
it

own

to the church,

perfection. If however you wish to join make the lantern serve for

the campanile as in the church at Chiaravalle.

753.
754.

2.
I.

ispichato.

po

nessi.

2.

chlpanile.

3.

chome.

4.

essagiovani.

6.

chapanile

.

.

displicha.

7.

circho e chosi.

8.

po.

9.

perfeclione.

10. colla.

II.

schusare chapanile.

753.

No.

i

The original text is reproduced to the left hand at the bottom.
is

on

PI.

XCII,

cross in the style of that of the Certosa of Pavia, but

the style

is

mediaeval (A. D. 1330).

Leonardo seems

754. This text

written
2.

by the side of the plan

given on
12.

PI.

XCI. No.

The Abbey of

Chiaravalle, a few miles from

here to mean, that in a building, in which the circular form is strongly conspicuous, the campanile must either be separated, or rise from the centre of
the building and therefore take the form of a lantern.

Milan, has a central tower on the intersection of the

.

;

>,k'
'
'

,

.
-

-.

"%-'

_

Iniv

Eudes

755-]

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

37

B.

755-

A
azi
3

nessuna chiesa sta
S ia

2

bene vedere

tetti,

rappianato e per canali 1'acqua
fatti

discesda ai condotti

nel

6

It never looks well to see the roofs of a chur ch; they should rather be flat and the water should run off by gutters made in the

fregio.

frieze.

755- 3- rapianato

.

.

cha.

4. la

ch

.

gua

dissie.

5.

chondotti.

755. This text

is

to the left of the

domed church reproduced on PL LXXXVII, No.

2.

B.

The theory of

Dome

Architecture.

This subject has been more extensively treated by Leonardo in drawings than in writing.
mately
to

Still

we may fairly assume

that

it

was

his purpose, ulti-

embody the results of his investigation in a "Trattato delle CuThe amount of materials is remarkably extensive. MS. B is partipole." cularly rich in plans and elevations of churches with one or more domes from the simplest form to the most complicated that can be imagined. Considering
the evident connexion betiveen a great
the impossibility

number of

these sketches,

as well as

of seeing in them designs or preparatory sketches for any building intended to be erected, the conclusion is obvious that they were not designed for any particular monument, but were theoretical and ideal researches,

made

in order to obtain a

clear understanding

of

the laws

which must

govern the construction of a great central dome, with smaller ones grouped round it ; and with or without the addition of spires, so that each of these parts by itself and in its juxtaposition to the other parts should produce the
grandest possible
effect.

In

these sketches
'

combination.

satisfactory ;

have exhausted every imaginable The results of some of these problems are perhaps not quite still they cannot be considered to give evidence of a want of
to

Leonardo seems

taste or of any other defect in Leonardos architectural capacity. They were no doubt intended exclusively for his own instruction, and, before all,

as

it

seems, to illustrate the features or consequences resulting from a given

principle.

'

In

MS.
fol.

B, 32 *

(see

M.

C

III,

in

MS.

C.A.,

87

to

98 form a whole

No. 2) we find eight geometrical patterns, eaeh drawn in a square; and series of patterns done with the same intention.

i

"..'.

:
,

*v~^-*
'

M

(

/

,'
.

..^.-,-j,.<

r

j >^^

j
sa^^^a^a:"!';^;^;^

J

^% Jn.f

tr: :^fP
ft
n.

^

THE THEORY OF DOME ARCHITECTURE.

39

pointed out the law of construction for buildings crowned by a large dome: namely, that such a dome, to produce the greatest effect .possible, should rise cither from the centre of a Greek

/ have

already,

in another place,

I

or from the centre of a structure of which the plan has some symmetrical affinity to a circle, this circle being at the same time the centre of
cross,

the whole

plan of the building.
sketches

Leonardo s
pected,

show

that he

was fully aware,

as

was

to be ex-

of

this tritth.

Few of

them exhibit the

form of a Latin
'

cross,

and

when

met with, it generally gives evidence of the determination to assign as prominent a part as possible to the dome in the general effect of
this is

the building.

on the one hand, that the greater number of these domes had no particular purpose, not being, designed for execution, on the

While

it

is

evident,

other

hand
of

several reasons

may

be

found for Leonardos perseverance

in his

studies

the subject.

Besides the theoretical interest of the question for Leonardo Trattato and besides the taste for domes prevailing at that time,
likely that the intended erection
like

and
it

his

seems

of some building of the flrst importance the Duomos of Pavia and Como, the church of Sta. Maria delle Grazie

of a Dome or central Tower (Tiburio) on the cathedral of Milan, may have stimulated Leonardo to undertake a general and thorough investigation of the subject; whilst Leonardo s intercourse
at Milan,

and

the constriiction

with

Bramante for
this

ten

years or more, can hardly have remained without

in-

fluence in
studies

matter.

for

S. Peter s

In fact now that some of this great Architect's at Rome have at last become known, he must be conthe greatest master

sidered henceforth as
existed.

His

influence,

of Dome- Architecture that ever direct or indirect ez>en on a genius like Leonardo

seems the more likely, since Leonardo s sketches reveal a style most similar to that of Bramante, whose name indeed, occurs twice in Leonardos manuscript notes.
the

It

must not

be forgotten

that

Leonardo

was
domes

a Florentine;

characteristic

form
and

of
the

the

two

principal
constantly

of
as

Florence,

Sta.

Maria

del Fiore

Battisterio,

appear

leading

features in his sketches.

The dome

The church of San Lorenzo at Milan, was at that time still intact. is to this day one of the most wonderful cupolas ever constructed,
its

and with

two smaller domes might well attract the attention and study

1

Les
p.
2.

Projets

Primitifs

pour

la

Basilique

de

St.

Pierre

de Rome, par Bramante, Raphael

etc.,

Vol.

I,

4O

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

whole class of these sketches of a never resting genius such as Leonardo. betray in fact the direct influence of the church of S. Lorenzo, and this also seems to have suggested the plan of Bramantes dome of St. Peter s at Rome. In the folloiving pages the various sketches for the construction of domes have been classified and discussed from a general point of view. On
tivo sheets: PI.
b (Ash. //, 6 )

A

LXXXIV (C. A.
we

354*;

1

18; and PL

LXXXV, Nos.

i

1

1

see various dissimilar types,

grouped together ; thus

these

may be regarded as a sort of nomenclature of the on which we shall now have to treat.
two
sheets

different types,

PL L XXXVI

;

Vu

i

V
f

v
<*.-

1.

Churches formed on the plan of a Greek cross.
Group L
Domes
rising

from a

circular base.

The simplest type of central building is a circular edifice. PL LXXXIV, No. 9. Plan of a circular building surrounded by a
colonnade.

PL LXXXIV, No. PL XC. No. 5. A PL LXXXVI, No.
extremities

Elevation of the former, with a conical roof. dodecagon, as most nearly approaching the circle. Four round chapels are added at the i, 2, 3.
8.

of the two principal axes ;
3 on p.

p. 44

and fig.

47

(

W.

P. $'

6

compare this plan with fig. i on J where the outer wall is octagonal.

Group
Domes
rising

II.
base.

from a square

The plan
to be

is

a square surrounded by a colonnade, and the dome seems

octagonal.

PL

LXXXIV.

The square plan below the circular building No.
above the plan:

8,

and

its elevation to the left,

upper storey octagonal. sketches C. A. 3 (not reproduced

A

here the ground-plan is square, the further development of this type is shown in two
here),

and

in belongs
to

LXXXVI, LXXXIV.
PL
Fig.
3,

PL

No.

5

(which

possibly

No. 7

on

PL

LXXXV,
is

No.

4,

and p.

45, Fig.

3,

a Greek

cross, repeated p. 45,

the

another development of the square central plan. The remainder of these studies show two different systems ; in the first dome rises from a square plan, in the second from an octagonal base.
II.

VOL.

42

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

Group
Domes
a) First type.
edifice,

III.
base

rising

from a square

and four

pillars*

resting on four pillars in the centre of a square We have cle:en with an apse in the middle, of each of the four sides.

A

Dome

variations of this type.

PL LXXXVIII, No. 3. PL LXXX, No. 5. bb) PL LXXXV, Nos. 2, 3, 5. cc) PL LXXXIV, No. i and 4 beneath. dd) PL LXXXV, Nos. i, 7, 10, n. ee) b) Second type. This consists in adding aisles to the whole plan of the first type; columns are placed between the apses and the aisles; the plan
aa)

thus obtained
Fig.
i

is

very nearly

identical with
a

that of S. 'Lorenzo at Milan.

adapted

to

on p. 56. (MS. B, 7$ ) shows the result of this treatment a peculiar purpose about which we shall have to say a few

words

later on.
i,

shows the same plan but with the addition of a short This plan seems to have been suggested by the general arrangement nave. of S. Sepolcro at Milan. MS. B. 57 b (see the sketch reproduced on p. $\). By adding towers
in the
the

PL XCV, No.

named plan, we obtain a plan which general features of Bramantes plans for S. Peter s at Rome.
four outer angles
i.;

to the last

bears
(See

2

p. 51 Fig.

Group IV.
Domes
This system,
rise to
rising

from an octagonal

base.

developed according to two different schemes,

has given

two
a)

classes

with

many

varieties.

of the octagon chapels of equal form are added. In b) The chapels are dissimilar ; those which terminate the principal axes being different in form from those which are added on the diagonal
sides

In

On

each side

of the octagon.
a.

First Class.

The Chapel "degli Angeli," at Florence,
20 feet by Brunellesco,
and, indeed
i

built only to a height

of about

may

be considered as the prototype
it.

of

this

group;
\\
b

it

probably suggested
Satiro, via
etc.,

The fact that we
is

see"

in

MS. B.

The ancient chapel San

dd
9

Falcone, Milan,
12.

a specimen of

this type.

*

See Les projets primitifs

PI.

Via.

lOt**/* .,.>.*<l~*il>. *
(

^
-

'

^a

hMip;" S
..

**

..

:

^.>-^.j

,.

y~-.

^r;-.:V
i

-r^
:

""^x

;

/'"

'5^
_J

fe;t^--- :i~

'i

.

;v<>;

%

fflfl
;

- -V

-1^

-IV

1-

fi\

V
.:'[.'
' '-

,.' : ^:-;';vijJwaii;i5
:

^x/
tttsfeft,
~
"

^S
.

-&S
?;-js

S'ti':
^**~"

'C*-

~-

-

-

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

43

of a plan almost identical with that of the Capella Only two small differences, or we degli Angeli, confirms this supposition. may say improvements, have been introduced by Leonardo. Firstly the back
3)

(PL

XCI V,

No.

by the side of Brunellescds plan

for

the Basilica

Sto. Spirito at Florence,

of the chapels contains a third
pilaster
like

niche,

and

each angle
di
S.

those in

Bramantes Sagrestia

of the Octagon a folded M. presso San Satiro at

Milan, instead of an interval between the two pilasters as seen in the Battistero at Florence and in the Sacristy of Sto. Spirito in the same town

and

also in the above

named

chapel by Brunellesco.

of sketches which come under consideration have at first of mere geometrical studies. They seem to have been suggested by the plan given on page 44 Fig. 2 (MS. B, 55^ in the centre of which is written "Santa Maria in perticha da Pavia", at the place marked

The first

set

sight the appearance

A

on the reproduction.

In the middle of each side a, co(MS. B, 34^, page 44 Fig. $). lumn is added, and in the axes of the intercolumnar spaces a second row of columns forms an aisle round the octagon. These are placed at the intera)

section

of a system

of

semicircles,,

of which

the sixteen

columns

on the

sides

of the octagon are the
b)

centres.
is

The preceding diagram
in
is

completed

and

becomes more

monumental
\).

in

-style

the sketch next to it

(MS. B,

35", see p. 45 Fig.

An

outer aisle

added by

circles,

having for radius

the distance between the

columns in the middle sides
c)
,

of the octagon.

b (MS. B, 96 see p. 45 Fig. 2). Octagon with an aisle round it; the angles of botJi are formed by columns. The outer sides are formed by 8 niches

forming chapels.
sponding

The exterior

is

likewise octagonal, with the angles correthe interior chapels.
).

to the centre
2

of each of

PL XCII, No.
plan

(MS.B. 96

b

Detail

and

modification of the preceding

half columns against piers an arrangement by which the chapels of the aisle have the same width of opening as the inner arches between the half columns. Underneath this sketch the following note owirs: questo vole avere 1 2 facce co 1 2 tabernaculi come a b. (This will have twelve sides with
'

twelve tabernacles as a bj In the remaining sketches of this class the octagon is

not formed by columns at the angles. The simplest type shows a niche in the middle of each side

and

is re-

peated on several

sheets,

viz:

MS.

B

3;

MS. C.A.

354^

(see PI.

LXXXIV,
elevations

No.

\\),

and MS. Ash II 6^;

(see

PL

LXXXV,

No. 9 and the

No. 8; PL No. 2).

XCII,

No. 3/

MS.

B. 4* [not reproduced here] and

PL

LXXXIV,

44

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

Fig.

i.

Fig. 2.

Fig- 3-

i

1

V

>|

---fe--~l!-S?'-

3

^tesp^?

-

'

^->*A
r^'-/->

>-.' -'

*"
.

tV *
.

'

'

/s
'/;

-

-

':'',*

'^^'K;:-:fr

"^mk
i

f

-

^ -/.V
jr

:

->.T.?I.^-

'^

-

.

'

.*
:

tl

-'

/

.

.

-s'

,..,..

lardin

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

45

Fig.

i.

Fig.

3-

Fig.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

PL XCII,

B

35

fl

*n

b (MS. B, 56 ) corresponds to a plan like the one in MS. which the niches would be visible outside or, as in the follow-

3

ing

sketch,

with the addition of a niche in the middle of each chapel. The niches themselves are surrounded by smaller niches PI. XC, No. 6.

(see also

No.

I

on the same plate).
Octagon expanded on each
side.

A. by a square chapel: MS. B. 34* (not reproduced
B. by a square with 3 niches:

here).

MS. B.\\ b
C.

(see PI.

XCIV,
PI.

No.

3/

by octagonal chapels :
a)

MS. B,2\;

LXXXVIII,

No.

14.

b) No. 2 on the same plate. Underneath there is the remark: "quest'e come le 8 cappele ano a essere facte" (this is how the eight chapels

are
c)

to be executed).

PI.

LXXXVIII,
di 2

No.

5.

Elevation to the plans on the same

sheet,

it is

accompanied by the note: "ciasscuno de' 9 tiburi no'uole
quadri"
(neither

passare
tJte

1'alteza

of the 9 domes must exceed

height of two squares).
d) PI.

LXXXVIII,

No,

MS. B, 30, and
D. by a circular chapel:

Inside of the same octagon. 34^; these are three repetitions of parts of the
i,

same plan with very

slight variations.

MS. B,

i8 a (see Fig.
is

which the exterior

on page tf) gives the plan of this arrangement in square on the ground floor ivith only four of the
I

chapels projecting, as
PI.

LXXXIX, MS.

explained in the next sketch. Elevation to the preceding plan sketched on B, \j b
is
.

the opposite side
'

of the

sheet,

and

also

marked A.

It is accompanied by

the following remark, indicating the theoretical character

questo
insu.
("

edifitio

anchora

starebbe

bene

affarlo dalla

of these studies : a b c d linja

This

edifice

the lines a b, c d,

PL

LXXXIV,

would also produce a good effect if only the part above were executed"). No. ii. The exterior has the form of an octagon, but tlic
it.

chapels project partly beyond

On

the left side

of

the sketch tht\

appear larger than on the right side. XC, No. i, (MS. B, 25*); Repetition of PI. LXXXIV, No. u. PI. XC, No. 2. Elevation to the plan No. \, and also to No. 6 of the
PI.

same

sheet.

\'&*+

>
.

>s*>"^i"
:Vf

*>"%
1

-^

^ layr;
-^4.

r.'-v.
!

^

**

t

l

-^f

op

IXijardin.

Kudcs.

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

47

Fig. 3-

48

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

E.

By
PL

chapels

formed by four

niches:

No. 7 (the circular plan on the left below) shows this become circular inside and arrangement in which the central dome has
might therefore be classed after this group. The sketch on the right hand side gives most
1

LXXXfV,

likely

the elevation

for

the last

named plan.
chapels

F.

By
PI.

of

still richer

combinations, which necessitate an octagon of
II. 8*} 2 ; on this

larger dimensions:

XCI, No.
to

2

(MS. Ash.

plan the chapels themselves

appear
group.

be central buildings

formed
3.

like the first type

of

the third

PI.

LXXXVIII,
2

No.

PL XCf,

No.

above;

the exterior

of the preceding figure, particu,

larly interesting on account
latter cantaining statues

of the alternation of apses and niches
size,

the

of a gigantic

in proportion to the dimen-

sion

of the

niches.

b.

Second

Class.

Composite plans of this class are generally obtained by combining two the one worked out on the principal axes, the other types of the first class on the diagonal ones.

B. 22 shows an elementary combination, without any additions on the diagonal axes, but with the dimensions of the squares on the two
principal axes exceeding those of the sides of the octagon. In the drawing W. P. 5 b (see page 44 Fig. ij the exterior only of the edifice is octagonal, the interior being formed by a circular colonnade;

MS.

round

chapels are placed against the four sides of the principal axes. The elevation, drawn on the same sheet (see page 47 Fig. 3}, shows the
'

whole arrangement which

is closely

related with the one on

PL

LXXXVI

No.

i,

2.

MS. B.
a)

2\

a

shows:
with
rectangular
chapels

four

sides

crowned

by

pediments

PL
b)

LXXXVII
sides

No.

3

(plan and
chapels

elevation) ;

by octagonal domes. PL No. 4; the plan underneath. a MS. B. i8 shows a variation obtained by replacing the round chapels in the principal axes of the sketch MS. B. 1 8 a by square ones, with an

four

with

square

crowned

LXXXVII

This plan
represented

and some

others

of

this

class

for instance by Durand.
6, 82.
this

See Cab.

remind us of the plan of the Mausoleum of Augustus as it is des Estampes, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Topographic de

Rome, V,
a

The note accampanying

plan

is

given under No. 754.

PL .XC

.

Imp. Euder

PL.XC

I

Imp, Elides.

I

r

.

Helio\>- Dxijardin

Imp Eu.de

s

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

49
side, see

apse.

Leonardo repeated both ideas for
47.
PI.

better

comparison side by

page

Fig.

2.

Elevation for the preceding figure. The with the plan on page 47 Fig. 2, comparison of the drawing marked the same mark, and of. the elevation on PI. below bearing with the corresponding plan on page 47 is highly instructive, (marked A)
\*j ).

LXXXIX

(MS. B.

b

M

LXXXIX
No.

as illustrating the spirit in which Leonardo pursued these studies.
PI.

LXXXIV

No. 12 shows

the design PI.

LXXXVII

3 comsides.

bined with apses, with the addition of round chapels on the diagonal PL No. 13 is a variation of the preceding sketch.
PI.

The round chapels of the preceding sketch are replaced by octagonal chapels, above which rise campaniles. PI. No. 4 is the elevation for the preceding plan.
3.

LXXXIV XC No.
XC

MS.

B.

25*.

PL XCII No. i. (MS. B. 39^; the plan below. On the principal as well as on the diagonal axes are diagonal chapels, but the latter are separated from the dome by semicircular recesses. The communication between
these eight chapels

forms a square
is
3.

aisle

round

the central dome.
1

Above
PI.

this

figure

the elevation,

showing four campaniles on the

angles.

CXXXIV No.
B.

On

the principal axes are square chapels ivith

three niches ; on the diagonals octagonal chapels with niches.

Cod. Atl. 340^

gives a somewhat similar arrangement.

MS.

30.

The principal development

is

thrown on the diagonal axes

by square chapels with three niches ; on the principal axes are inner recesses communicating with outer ones.
22) differs from this only in so far as the outer semicircles have become circular chapels, projectingfrom the external
2

The plan PL

XCIII No.

(MS. B.

square as apses ; one of them serves as the entrance by a semicircular portico. The elevation is drawn on the left side of the plan.

MS.
the

B.

19.

A further

development of

MS.

B.

four principal
a)
b)

chapels the type

PL

LXXXVIII

by employing for No. 3, as we have al1

8,

ready seen in

PL XCI No.

2 ; the exterior

presents two varieties.

The outer contour follows
It is semicircular.

the inner. 2

PL

LXXXVII
1

No.

2

b (MS. B. \% ) Elevation

to the first

variation

MS. B.

9.

If we were not
to take it

mightfeel tempted

was by Leonardo, we as a study by Bramante for St. Peters at Rome3
certain that this sketch
reproduced under No. 753. sizes; it is the smaller type which

1

The note accompanying

this

drawing

is

2

These chapels are here sketched in two different 3 See Les projets primitifs PI. 43.
11.

is

thus formed.

VOL.

G

50

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

[756.

MS.
and
its

P.

V. 39*.

In

the principal axes the chapels

of

MS.

B.

19,
edi-

semicircular niches on the diagonals.

The

exterior, oj the

whole

fice is also

an

octagon, concealing the

form of

the interior chapels, but with

angles on their axes.

Group

V.

Suggested by San Lorenzo at Milan.

A. 266 IP, 812* there is a plan almost identical with that The diagonal sides of the irregular octagon are not indiof San Lorenzo. cated. If it could be proved that the arches which, in the actual church, exist on these sides in the first story, were added in 1574 by Martimo Bassi, then this plan and the following section would be still nearer the original state of San Lorenzo than at present. A reproduction of this slightly sketched
In
C.

MS.

plan has not been possible. It may however be understoodfrom PI. LXXXVIII No. 3, by suppressing the four pillars corresponding to the apses.

PL

LXXXVII No.

i

shows the

section in elevation corresponding

with

The recessed chapels are decorated with large shells in the an Lorenzo, but with proportions halfdomes like the arrangement in like those of Bramantes Sacristy of Santa Maria presso S. Satiro.
the above-named plan.

MS.
On
the

C.

A. 266; a

sheet containing three views

of exteriors of Domes.

same

sheet there is

uninterrupted aisles

a plan similar to the one above-named but with and with the addition of round chapels in the axes

(compare PL XCVII No. 3 and .page 44 Fig. \), perhaps a reminiscence of the two chapels annexed to San Lorenzo. Leonardo has here sketched the way

of transforming
side aisles.

this

plan

into

a Latin cross by means of a nave with

in

Plan showing a type deprived of aisles and comprised a square building which is surrounded by a portico. It is accompanied
i
.

PL XCI No.

by the following text:

Ash. n.

7 a]

756.
edifitio

Questo
sopra

come
c

d
i.

e abitato di sotto e di e san Sepulcro, 2 ed e sopra sotto, saluo che '1 di sopra al tiburio e' 1 di sotto 3 a l tiburio a b e quado

come

This edifice is inhabited [accessible] below and above, like San Sepolcro, and it is the same above as below, except that the and the upper story has the dome c d;
e ecquado.
4.

756.

tocto

.

.

chome

.

.

sansepulchro.

a.

chome.

3.

a

.

b

.

nela

.

.

socto.

4. chali

10 schalini.

5.

schalini

.

.

756.

The church of San Sepolcro
and repeatedly rebuilt

at Milan, foun-

ded

in 1030

after the

middle

of the XVI century, the original structure.
ih

still

stands over the crypt of

756.]
entri nella chiesa di sotto,
lini,
4

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.
tu cali

10 sea.

e quado

mod

205scalim, che a '/3 luno fano 10 braccia, e questo e lo spatio ch'e 6 infra i piani

.....

in quello di ... ._

sopra tu sali

the dome a b, and when you enter into the cr7P^ y u descend 10 steps, and when * you mount into the upper you

lower has

e ach,

make

delPuna e
10. br
.

1'altra chiesa.

between one

10 braccia, and this is the. height floor of the church and the other.

e.

n.

ellaltra.

the plan on the same sheet is a view of the exterior. By the aid two figures and the description, sections of the edifice may easily of be reconstructed. But the section drawn on the left side of the building
these

Above

seems not to be in keeping with the same plan, notwithstanding the explanatory note written underneath it: "dentro il difitio di sopra" (interior of
the edifice above) 1
.

Before leaving

this

group

,

it

is

^vell

to

remark that

the

germ of

it

seems already indicated by the diagonal lines in the plans PL No. ii and No. 7. We shall fend another application of the same type to
the

LXXXV

Latin cross in PL
1

XCVII

No.

3.

above,

and

The small inner dome corresponds to a b on the plan it rises from the lower church into the upper The aisles above and below thus correspond (e di sopra come di sotto, larger, rises the dome c d.
etc.).

?

salvoche

The only

difference

is,

that

in

the section

Leonardo has not taken the trouble

to

make
J.

the form

octagonal, but has merely sketched circular lines in perspective.

P. R.

>'

2.

Churches formed on the plan of a Latin cross.
Leonardos studies several
sketches

We find among

for churches on

the

plan of the Latin cross ; we shall begin by describing them, and shall add a few observations.

A. Studies
PI.

after existing
\\
b

Monuments.

XCIV

No.

2.

(MS. B.

a basilica built after the indication of a portico in front, either his own invention or the reproduction of a now lost design.

Plan of Santo Spirito at Florence, Leonardo has added the designs of Brunellesco.
.)

No. 2. Plan accompanied by the words: "A e santo sepolcro PL milano di sopra" ^A is the upper church of S. Sepolcro at Milan) ; although since Leonardos time considerably spoilt, it is still the same in plan. The second plan with its note: "B e la sua parte socto tera" (B zs its subdi

XCV

terranean part [the crypt]") still corresponds with the present state of this part of the church as I have ascertained by visiting the crypt with this plan.

Excepting the addition of a few insignificant walls, the state of this interesting part of the church still conforms to Leonardos sketch ; but in the
Vestibolo the

two columns near the entrance of the winding stairs are absent.

B.

Designs or Studies.

PL
San
of
the

Sepolcro at Milan.

Plan of a church evidently suggested by that of The central part has been added to on the principle second type of Group III. Leonardo has placed the "coro" (choir) in
i.

XCV

No.

the centre.

PL.XCIV

n*^A^v^ttrwr;^rer-^' ft:

-

5

f

/rs*

g!p*a**ifi& /flW^Ji^Hfi. Aw^^-^ft^^

j& /w*rXr*Vvif^Jr

;

V.A. V*o^r/Vv1

'**

r>

,_
j

lpf;p
/

fl

V

/

-

1

ft

m
i

E

1

u
lf..;7
i

-a

>

C
!

*

&%& *3^'?Tfr*y4 ^^i-^)^-.1^^ovr|^-Mr^t
iH

TV

'

**

^J ^ %
"

>%Mfi

"P* **"r

>

!Trf4f

fVT

_~rrr^

~">TV*^^f

*

i

^

;

:

'] '^|k> !*

j>k

.

-

>

f^&^S^^,

;

'
:

elio-.

Daardi

Im

.

Elides.

757-]

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

53

PL
to

XCVI No.
Class
.

2.

In

the

plan the dome, as regards
""IV,

its interior,

belongs

the First

of Group

and may

be

grouped with the one in
1
.

The nave seems to be a development of the type represented MS. B. 35 a in PL XCV No. 2, B. by adding towers and two lateral porticos' On the left is a view of the exterior of the preceding plan. It is accompanied by the following note:
B. 24
]

757edifitio

Questo
sotto;
2

di

sopra
,

-si

e abitato di sopra e di va per li campanili e

uassi su per lo

4 tibun, e detto piano 4 a uno parapetto dmazi, e di detti tibun nessuno s n e riesce
i

...

piano 3dove
.

sono fondati

x

is inhabited below and way up is by the campaniles, d ^ going up one has to use the platform, where the drums of the four domes and thig platform has a parapet in frontj an d none of these domes communicate with

This

building

above;

the

f

^

in chiesa,

anzi sono separati

I

tutto.

the church, but they are quite separate.

757.

4.

a

i

parapecto.

5.

neriessie

.

.

tucto.

PL
PL

XCVI

No.

i

(MS.

C.

A. i6 b ; 6$ a).

Perspective view

of a church
.

seen from behind; this recalls the

Duomo

at Florence, but with two campaniles 2
is

S.
is

The central part 3 (MS. B. 52). Lorenzo at Milan, such as was executed at the Duomo
sufficient

XCVII No.

a development of of Pavia. There

analogy between the building actually executed and this sketch

to suggest

a direct connection between them.

Leonardo accompanied Fran,

cesco

di Giorgio^ when the latter was consulted on June 2\ st 1490 as to this church; the fact that the only word accompanying the plan is: "sagrestia", seems to confirm our supposition, for the sacristies were added only in 1492,
i.

e.

four years
likely

after the
still

beginning of the Cathedral, which at that time
unfinished to be capable of receiving the

was most

sufficiently

form of the present PL XCVII No.
edifitio

sketch.
2

al

shows the exterior of this design. Below is the note: proposito del fodameto figurato di socto (edifice proper for the
the

ground plan figured below). Here we may also mention C. A. fol. 266 (see p. 50,).

plan of a Latin cross drawn in

MS.

External side view of Brunellescds Florentine basilica San Lorenzo, seen from the North. PL XCIV No. 4 (V. A. V, \). Principal front of a nave, most
i

PL

XCIV

No.

(MS. L. 15^.

likely

of a church on

the

plan of a Latin

cross.

We notice here not

only the

1

2

Already published in Les projets primitifs PI. IX. Already published in the Saggio PI. IX.
See MALASPINA,
il

3

Duomo

di Pavia.

Documents.

54

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

principal features which S. Maria Novella, but

were employed afterwards in Albcrti's front of even details of a more advanced style, such as

we are accustomed
In
the

to

meet with only after the year 1520.

background of Leonardos unfinished picture of St. Jerome (Vatican Gallery) a somewhat similar church front is indicated (see the
accompanying
sketch).

front of a temple, apparently a dome in the centre of four corinthian porticos bearing pediments (published by Amoretti Tav. II. as being by Leonardo), is taken from a drawing, now at the Ambrosian
the

The view of

B

Gallery.

We

cannot consider this

to be

by the hand of the master.

'/-

.

.-

-

r

-

'

Imp Eude s

C.

Studies for a

form of a Church most proper for

preaching.

The problem as

to

what form of church might answer

the require-

have engaged Leonardo s very particular attention. The designation of "teatro" given to some of these sketches, clearly shows which plan seemed to him most favourable for hearing the preacher s voice.
to

ments of acoustics seems

PI.

XCVII, No.

i

(MS. B,

naves with an apse on either side, rising seats, as in antique buildings.

Rectangular edifice divided into three terminated by a semicircular theatre with
52).

The pulpit

is

in the centre.

Leonardo
(Theatre

has written on the

left side

of

the sketch: "teatro

da predicare"

for preaching).

domed church after the type of page 56, Fig. ij. shows four theatres occupying the apses and facing the square "coro" (choir), which is in the centre between the four pillars of the dome. The rising arrangement of the seats is shown in the sketch above.
(see
1

MS. B, 55* PL XCV, No. i,

A

At

the place

seats to

marked B Leonardo wrote hear mass), at T teatri, and at C

teatri

per uldire messa (rows of

coro (choir).

In
choirs

MS. C.A.

and

are slight sketches of two plans for rectangular two elevations of the altar and. pulpit which seem to be in con260,
a II, 8 (see p.

nection with these plans.

56 and 57. Fig. 2 and $). "Locho dove si preThe dica" (Place for preaching). most singular plan for a. building. interior is a portion of a sphere, the centre of which is the summit of a column destined to serve as the preacher s pulpit. The inside is somewhat

In

MS. Ash

A

'

The note teatro de predicar, on

the right side

is,

I believe,

in

lJu'

handwriting of Pontpeo Leoni.

J.

P.

R.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

Fig. 2.

'

.

"

.

.

>

.'.

,

fpfl
'V-

\

,v^^.^.V,^-

V

'

ImD. Eiid.es.

~
i-'r

vcf/A

V.

^'. ^A -;/. 'C^
-:

-^

-

-v-.v-v

(.$;?-'

m&m>
''
-

-

,"*

"

'

:;

:

:,'
.-^.i
..

;!;:'

.^^aeSyGA.v'j

5^^'-'-

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.
like

57

a modern theatre, whilst the exterior and the galleries and stairs recall

the ancient amphitheatres.

Page

57,

Fig. 4.

A

If

this gives the complete

plan accompanying the two preceding drawings. form Leonardo intended for the edifice, it would

Fig. 3-

Fig. 4.

have comprised only about .two thirds of the circle. Leonardo wrote in the centre "fondamento", a word he often employed for plans, and on the left
side

of the view of the exterior:
in).

locho

dove

si

predicha

(a

place for

preaching

VOL.

II.

n

D. Design for a Mausoleum.
PI.

XCVIII

(P. V.,

182.

No. d'ordre 2386;.

In the midst of a

hilly

landscape rises an artificial mountain in the form of a gigantic cone, crowned by an imposing temple. At two thirds of the height a terrace is cut out with six doorways forming entrances to galleries, each leading to three
sepulchral halls,
so

constructed as

to

contain about Jive hundred funeral

From two opposite sides urns, disposed in the customary antique style. steps ascend to the terrace in a single flight and beyond it to the tetnple above. large circular opening, like that in the Pantheon, is in the dome

A

above what

may

be the altar, or perhaps the central

monument on

the level

of the terrace below. The section of a gallery given in the sketch to the right below shows the roof to be constructed on the principle of superimposed horizontal layers,
projecting one beyond the other, and each furnished ivith a sort of heel, which appears to be undercut, so as to give the appearance of a beam from within.

Granite alone would be adequate
stone, as the thickness

to

the dimensions here given to

the key

of

the layers can hardly be considered to be less than

a foot.

In taking this as the basis of our calculation for the dimensions of whole construction, the width of the chamber would be about 2 5 feet but, the
the

judging from

number of urns

it

contains

and
it

there is no reason to

suppose that these urns were larger than usual more than about 8 or \ o feet.

would seem

to be

no

The construction of
etruscan
tumuli,
ly discovered)

for and also

the vaults resembles those in the galleries of some instance the Regulini Galeassi tomb at Cervetri (late-

that of the chamber

and passages of

the

pyramid of

Cheops and of

the treasury

of Atreus at Mycenae.

The upper cone displays not only analogies with the monuments mentioned in the note, but also with Etruscan tumuli, such as the Cocumella

. :

Imp.

Elide

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

59
is

tomb at Vulci, and the Regulini Galeassi tomb' The whole scheme of the most magnificent in the history of Architecture.
1
.

one

It

would

be difficult to decide as to whether
to

any monument he had seen
to

suggested this idea

Leonardo, but

it

is

worth while
earlier date

enquire, if

any
to

monument,
have done

or group of monuments of an
so.
2

may

be supposed

1

See FERSGUSON, Handbook of Architecture,

I,

291.

There are, in Algiers, two Monuments, commonly called "Le Madracen" and "Le tombeau de la Chretienne," which somewhat resemble Leonardo's design. They are known to have served as the Mausolea of the Kings
2

of Mauritania. Pomponius Mela, the geographer of the time of the Emperor Claudius, describes them as having
been

"Monumentum commune

CAHEN, Constantine 1873
Constantine 1873.

Memoire

regiae gentis." See Le Madracen, Rapport fait par M. le Grand Rabbin AB. sur les fouilles executees au Madras'en par le Colonel BRUNON,
. .

Deux Mausolees Africains, le Madracen et le tombeau de la Chretienne par M. J. DE LAURIERE, Tours 1874. Le tombeau de la Chretienne, Mausolee des rois Mauritaniens par M. BERBRUGGER, Alger 1867. / am indebted to M. LE BLANC, of the Institut, and M. LUD. LALANNE, Bibliothecaire of the Instilut for having first pointed out to me the resemblance between these monuments; while M. ANT. HERON DE VlLLEFOSSE of the Louvre was kind enough to place the abovementioned rare works at my disposal. Leonardo's
observations on the coast of Africa are given later in this work.
el Fureidis,

The Herodium near Bethlehem in Palestine (Jebel

Frank Mountain) was, according to the latest researches, constructed on a very similar plan. See Der Frankenberg, von Baurath C. SCHICK in Jerusalem, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins, J. P. R. Leipzig 1880, Vol. Ill, pages 8899 and Plates IV and V.
the

E. Studies for the Central Tower, or Tiburio of Milan Cathedral.

end of the fifteenth century the Fabbricceria del Duomo had to settle on the choice of a model for the crowning and central part of We learn from a notice published by G. L. Calvi that this vast building.

Towards

the

'

among
Pietro

who presented models in the year 1488 were: Bramante, da Gorgonzola, Luca Paperio (Fancelli), and Leonardo da Vinci.
the artists

Several sketches by Leonardo refer to this important project: PL CXIX, No. 2 (MS. S. K. Ill, No. 36*; a small plan of the The projecting chapels in the middle of the transept are whole edifice.

wanting here. The nave appears by an inner "vestibolo".

to be

shortened

and seems

to be

approached

PL
piers

C,

No.

2

(Tr. 21).

Plan of

the octagon tower, giving the disposition

of the buttresses ; starlingfrom the eight pillars adjoining the four principal
These butsupport the eight angles of the Tiburio. with those described by Bramante as existing in tresses correspond exactly the model presented by Omodeo. 2
to

and intended

PI. C, 3

(MS.

Tr.

1

6).

Two plans showing
to be

different

of

the buttresses,

which seem

formed partly

by the intersection

arrangements of a
to

system of pointed arches such as that seen in PL C, No. 5 (MS. B, 2? a) destined to give a

broader base

the

drum.

The
B,

text

underneath

is

given under No. 788.

MS.

3

three slight sketches

of plans in connexion with the pre-

ceding ones.
G. L. CALVI, Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti scultori e pittori che fioriMilano, Part 111, 20. See also: H. DE GEYMULLER, Les projets primitifs etc. /, 37 and 116 119. The Fabbricceria of the Duomo has lately begun the publication of the archives, which may possibly tell us more

rono

in

about the part taken by Leonardo, than has hitherto been known. * Bramante's opinion was first published by G. MONGERI, Arch. stor.

Lomb.

V, fasc. 3

and afterwards

by

me

in the publication mentioned in the preceding note.

^""fB^^^'-i "-"*.>

'--

-

-'.

.T

it'_
!

i
;

^r-

i'

,

,

I;

;

'

-xj5.

i

C>

:

F

-;;^-4- E > */
i
.
.

;

x=
k^

* *

1
-

! Vc >
-%

-

L

.**,"->' *v
' .

$

_-

.

-

>-

D-ujardm

Imp.

E-

758.]

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.

6l

PL XCIX, No.
sections

i

(MS.

Tr.

15)

contains several small sketches

of

and

exterior views of the

shaped as inverted arches.
Tr. 15)

Dome; some of them show buttress-walls Respecting these Leonardo notes:
758.

L'arco rivescio e migliore per fare 2 spalla che 1'ordinario, perche il rovescio 3 trova muro resistete alia sua se sotto 4debolezza, e 1'ordinario no trova nel suo sdebole se non aria.
758.
i.

The inverted arch is better for giving a shoulder than the ordinary one, because the former finds below it a wall resisting its
weakness, whilst the part nothing but air.
latter finds in its

weak

larcho.

2.

isspalla

.

.

riverscio.

4.

deboleza ellordinario.

Three slight sketches of sections on the same leaf- above those reproduced here are more closely connected with the large drawing in the centre of PL C, No. 4 (MS, Tr. 4 1) which shows a section of a very elevated
dome, with double vaults,
posed, so the dome.

connected by ribs
the

and

buttresses ingeniously dis-

as

to

bring

weight of the

lantern to bear on the base of

A
-

sketch

underneath

it

shows a round pillar on which

is

indicated

which part of its summit is to bear the weight: "il pilastro sara charicho 6." in a (The column will bear the weight at a b.^ Another note is above on the right side: Larcho regiera tanto sotto asse chome di sopra
se

(The arch supports as much below it [i. e. a hanging weight] as above it). PL C, No. i (C.A. 303^. Larger sketch of half section of the Dome, with a very complicated system of arches, and a double vault. Each stone
shaped so as to be knit or dovetailed to of the Dome cannot be seen from below.
its

is

neighbours.

Thus

the inside

MS. C.A.
modi/lea tions.

303^.

A

repetition

of the preceding sketch with very slight

Fig.

i.

Fig. 2.

MS.

Tr. 9

(see

Fig.

i

and

2).

Section of the

Dome

with reverted

buttresses between the windows,
to be intended.

above which iron

anchors or chains seem

Below

is

the sketch of the outside.

62

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.
PI.

XCIX,
1

No.

3 (C.A.,

262) four

sketches

of the exterior of the
vault, in

Dome.
C.

A.

2.

Section,

showing the points of rupture of a gothic

evident connection with the sketches described above.

It

deserves

to

be noticed

how

easily

Leonardo manages to combine gothic modern shape of the Dome.

and apparently without effort, details and structure with the more
leaf,

The following

notes are on the

same

oni cosa poderosa,

and

oni

cosa poderosa desidera de(scendere); farther below, several multiplications most likely intended to calculate the weight of some parts of the Dome, thus 16 Soo = 176000, next to 720; 720 47

x

=

x

written: peso del diameters high). pillar 9
is

which

pilastro di 9 teste (weight

of the

Below: 176000

x

8

=

1408000; and below:

Semjlio e se ce 80 (?) il peso del tiburio (six millions six hundred (?) 80 the weight of the Dome), Bossi hazarded the theory that Leonardo might have been
the architect

who

built the

church of Sta. Maria

delle Grazie,

but there is no evidence to support this, either in documents or in the materials supplied by Leonardos manuscripts

and drawings.

The

sketch given at the side

shows the

arrangement of the second and third socle on the apses of the choir of that church ; and it is remarkable that

j
-\
*J

those sketches, in

with the

K. M. II2 2 a and i 6 occur passage given in Volume I as No. 665 and
S.
,
,

MS.

666 referring

to the composition

of the Last Supper in

the Refectory of that church.

F.

The Project for

lifting

up the Battistero of Florence and setting a basement.
Vasari gives as

it

on

Among

the very

few

details

to the architectural studies

of Leonardo, we read: "And among these models and designs there was one by way of which he showed several times to many ingenious citizens who then governed Florence, his readiness to lift up without ruining it, the church San Giovanni in Florence (the Battistero, opposite the Duomo) in order to of place under it the missing basement with steps; he supported his assertions
with reasons so persuasive, that while he spoke the undertaking seemed feasable, although every one of his hearers, when he had departed, could see by
himself the impossibility of so vast an undertaking" ^ In the MS. C. A. fol. 293, there are two sketches which possibly might have a bearing on this bold enterprise. We find there a plan of a circular or polygonal edifice surrounded by semicircular arches in an oblique These may be taken for the foundation of the steps and of the new position.

platform. In the perspective elevation the same edifice, forming a polygon, is shown as lifted up and resting on a circle of inverted arches which rest

on an other

circle

of arches in

the ordinary position, but so placed that the

inverted arches above rest on the spandrels of the lower range. What seems to confirm the supposition that the lifting up of a building is in question, is the indication of engines for winding up, such as jacks, here

and a rack and

wheel.

As

the lifting apparatus represented on this sheet

does not seem particularly applicable to an undertaking of such magnitude, we may consider it to be a first sketch or scheme for the engines to be used.
This latter statement of Vasarfs must be considered to be exaggerated. I may refer here to some data given by LlBRl, Histoire des sciences mathematiques en Italic (II, 216, 217): "On a cru dans ces derniers temps faire un miracle en mecanique en effectuant ce transport, et cependant des 1'annee 1455, Gaspard Nadi et
i

Aristote de Fioravantio avaient transporte, a une distance considerable, la tour de la Magione de Bologne, avec ses fondements, qui avait presque quatre-vingts pieds de haut. Le continuateur de la chronique de
le chroniqueur affirme avoir Pugliola dit que le trajet fut de 35 pieds et que durant le transport auquel tait suspendue, assist^, il arriva un accident grave qui fit pencher de trois pieds la tour pendant qu'elle mais que cet accident fut promptement repare (Muratori, Scriptores rer. ital. Tom. XVIII, col. 717, 718).

Alidosi a rapporte une note ou Nadi rend compte de ce transport avec une rare simplicite. D'apres cette note, on voit que les operations de ce genre n'etaient pas nouvelles. Celle-ci ne couta que 150 livres la meme annee, (monnaie d'alors) y compris le cadeau que le L6gat fit aux deux mecaniciens. Dans
Aristote redressa le clocher de Cento, qui penchait de plus de cinq pieds (Alidosi, instruttione p. 188 Bossii, chronica Mediol., 1492, in-fol. ad ann. 1455)Muratori, Scriptores rer. ital., torn. XXIII, col. 888.

On ne

conc,oit pas

comment

les historiens des beaux-arts ont

pu negliger de

tels

hommes."

J.

P. R.

G.

Description of an

unknown Temple.

C. A. 2800; 8520]

759-

Per dodici gradi di scale al magno tempio si saliva, il quale otto cento braccia 2 circundaua, e con ottagulare figura era fabricate, e sopra li otto anguli otto gran base si posauano a un braccio e mezzo, e grosse 3, 3 e lunghe 6 nel suo sodo, colPangolo in mezzo, sopra delle quali si fondauano 8 gra pilastri: sopra del sodo della
si Ie vava per ispatio di 24 braccia, e nel suo termine erano stabiliti 8 capitelli di 3 braccia 1'uno, e largo 6, sopra di 5 questi se guiva architraue fregio e cornice con altezza di 4 braccia e 1 /2 il quale per retta linia 6 dall' un pilastro all' altro s' astendea, e cosl con circuito d'otto cento braccia il tempio circundava infra 1* u 7 pilastro e P altro; per sostentacolo di tal mebro erano stabiliti dieci gran colohe dell' altezza de' pilastri e co 8 grossezza di 3 braccia l sopra le base, le quali era alte vn braccio e /2
4
,
.

Twelve flights of steps led up to the great temple, which was eight hundred braccia
circumference and built on an octagonal At the eight corners were eight large plinths, one braccia and a half high, and three wide, and six long at the bottom, with
in

plan.

basa

middle; on these were eight great pillars, standing on the plinths as a foundation, and twenty four braccia high. And on the top of these were eight capitals three braccia long and six wide, above which were the architrave frieze and cornice, four braccia and a half high, and this was carried on in a straight line from one pillar to the next

an angle

in the

^Salivasi a questo tenpio per 12 gradi di
il quale tempio era sopra il dodecimo grado fondato in figura ottan'gulare, e sopra ciascuno angulo nasceva vn gran pilastro; e infra li pilastri erano inframessi "dieci

scale,

so, continuing for eight hundred braccia, surrounded the whole temple, from pillar to pillar. To support this entablature there were ten large columns of the same height as the pillars, three braccia thick above their bases which were one braccia and a half high. The ascent to this temple was by twelve flights of steps, and the temple was on the twelfth, of an octagonal form, and at each angle rose a large pillar; and between the pillars were placed ten columns of the

and

759. Either this description

is

incomplete,

or,

as

native land

of colossal octagonal buildings, in the

seems to me highly probable, it refers to some ruin. The enormous dimensions forbid our supposing this to be any temple in Italy or Greece. Syria was the

centuries A. D. The Temple of Baalbek, early and others are even larger than that here described. J. P. R.

759-]

DESCRIPTION OF AN

UNKNOWN

TEMPLE.

i

colonne colla medesima altezza de' pilastri, 28 quali si levaua sopra del pauimeto I2 braccia e */ 2 di questa medesima sopra altezza si posaua architraue fregio e cornice con lunghezza d'otto ceto braccia, e cignea
;

same height as the pillars, rising at once from the pavement to a height of twenty eight braccia and a half; and at this height the architrave, frieze and cornice were placed which
surrounded the temple having a length of eight hundred braccia. At the same height,

tenpio a vna medesima altezza circuiua dentro a tal circuito sopra il medesimo piano; in giro in centre del tempio per spatio di 24 braccia nascono ^le conrispondentie delli 8 pilastri delli angoli, e delle colonne poste a esse prime faccie, e si "Sleuauano alia medesima altezza sopra detta, e sopra
3il

X

and within the temple at the same level, and all round the centre of the temple at a distance
of 24 braccia farther in, are pillars corresponding to the eight pillars in the angles, and columns corresponding to those placed in
the outer spaces. These rise to the same height as the former ones, and over these the continuous architrave returns towards the outer row of pillars and columns.

tal

pilastri

li

architraui
li

l6

perpetui
detti

ritor-

navano
colonne.

sopra

primi

pilastri

e

br e ^z.
"iciero
[di
il

12.

di queste sta

.

.

alteza

.

.

frego e corice cho collungeza dotto
di 24 br
.

ceto br cigea.

13.
. .

alteza

.

.

attal
15.

.

.

piano

|

centre del tenpio per ispatio

nasscie.

14.

e

delle

[ottamta]

colone

facce essi.

alteza sopra

que] detta.

L

i?i "tff

V.

Palace architecture.

But a small number of Leonardo s drawings refer to the architecture of palaces, and our knowledge is small as to what style Leonardo might
have adopted for such buildings.
i (W. XVIII). A small portion of a faqade of a palace somewhat resembling Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai. Compare with this Bramante s painted front of the Casa Silvestri, and a painting by Montorfano in San Pietro in Gessate at Milan, third chapel on the left hand side and also with Bramantes palaces at Rome. The pilasters with ara-

PL CII No.
stories;

in

two

besques,

the rustica

between them,

and

the figures over the
is

window may

be

painted or in sgraffito.
PI.

The original
i

drawn

in red chalk.

LXXXI

No.

(MS.

Tr. 42).

ments and decorations, most
the Castello at

likely graffiti; the details

Sketch of a palace with battleremind us of those in

Vigevano.*

contains a design for a palace or house with a loggia in the middle of the first story, over which rises an attic with a Pediment reproduced on page 67. The details drawn close by on the left seem to indicate
o",

MS. Mz.

an arrangement of coupled columns against the wall of a first story. PL No. 14 (MS. S. K. M. Ill 79) contains a very

LXXXV

slight

Fasc.
note:

Count GlULIO PORKO, in his valuable contribution to the Archivio Storico Lombardo, Anno VIII, (31 Dec. 1881): Leonardo da Vinci, Libro di Annotazioni e Memorie, refers to this in the following "Alia pag. 41 vi e uno schizzo di volta ed accanto scrisse: 'il pilastro- sara charicho in su 6' e potrebbe
i

IV

darsi che

si

riferisse
al

alia

cupola della

chiesa
si

rassomiglia assai however be doubted.

basamento che oggi

The drawing, here referred

delle Grazie tanto pii che a pag. 42 vi e un disegno che vede nella parte esterna del coro.di quella chiesa." This may to, on page 41 of the same manuscript, is reproduced on PI. C No. 4
Afilan.
J.

and

described on

page 6 1 as being a study for the cupola of the Duomo of

P. R.

PALACE ARCHITECTURE.
sketch in red chalk,

67

which most probably
is the

is

intended to represent the faqade

of a palace.

Inside

short note 7 he 7 (j

and

7).

//////////// /

f

M m\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\
1 1

.

72 8 a ^r^ pages 68 /^.
plan
is

i

tfTZdf 2^)

contains a view

of an unknown

palace.

Its

indicated at the side.
(see

Fig. 3 on page 68) there is a sketch of a house, on which Leonardo notes: casa con tre 'terrazi (house with three terraces).

In MS. Br. M. 126*

68

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

[760.

PL CX, No.
drawn

4 (MS. L. 36*) represents the front of a fortified building
1040).

at Cesena in 1502 (see No.

I

.9
II

Fig. 2

Fig.

..

Here we may

also

mention

the singular

building in the allegorical

VIII in Vol. I. In front of it appears composition represented on PL the head of a sphinx or of a dragon which seems to be carrying the palace
away.
.

L

.

The following texts refer to dings destined for private use:
W. XIX]
2

the construction

of palaces and other

buil-

760.
In the courtyard the walls must be half height of its width, that is if the court be 40 braccia, the house must be 20 high as regards the walls of the said courtyard; and this courtyard must be half as wide as
the
the whole front.

On

the proportions of a court yard.

La corte de' auere le parieti per 1'altezza la meta della sua ^larghezza, cioe o~ corte *sara braccia 40, la casa deve essere Salta 20 nelle parieti di tal 6 corte, e tal corte vol essere ?larga per la meta
di tutta la
8

facciata.

760.

i.

pariete.

2. lalteza.

3.

largezza coe sella.

4.

br 40

.

la

casa e essere.

5.

alte

.

.

pariete.

6. volerssere.

7.

faccata.

760. See PL CI, no.

i,

and compare the dimensions here given, with No. 748

lines 26

29; and the

drawing belonging

to

it

PI.

LXXXI,

no. 2.

I
j

f4 ^*i^&^|ft fc
:

|ii^ ^S
r
.

;

,V .l/v*rtl

IW

'

/
,

'

,

'

'

':

_

>
(

-

y.y,'. i
.

'

,

.

s>.,

'

-

,

..

-f

-y.

^i&.<

y

'
.

'-'

s
.

.

i

.

vK'.^.;^-.
'-.

-^.

?
]mp Eludes.
.

PALACE ARCHITECTURE.

69

B. 39*]

76l.

PER FARE VNA POLITA STALLA.
2

FOR MAKING A CLEAN
The manner
a stable.
in

STABLE. On .^ e

Modo come

si

de'

componere vna
la

stalla: Dividerai in

za in e le dette divisioni * sieno equali e di 3 larghezza di braccia 6 per ciascuna, e alte de' 10, e la parte di mezzo 5 sia in uso maestri di stalla le 2 da cato per i ca6 vagli, de' quali ciascuno ne de' pigliare per larghezza braccia 6 lughezza braccia 6, e alte piv dinanti che dirieto l / 2 braccio; 7 la mangiatoia sia alta da terra braccia 2, 8 il braccia -3-6 principio della rastrelliera 1' ultimo braccia 4 Ora a volere atenere quello ch'io prometto, cioe di 9 fare detto sito cotro allo universale vso pulito e netto
,

sua lar^ghezprima parti -3-6 la sua lunghezza e libera -,

You must

which one must arrange ,..,.
.

,.

first

divide

its

width

,

m
.

dispositions of a stable.

3 parts, its depth matters not; and let these 3 divisions be equal and 6 braccia broad for each part and 10 high, and the middle part shall be for the use of the stablemasters ;
the 2 side ones for the horses, each of which must be 6 braccia in width and 6 in length, and be half a braccio higher at the head than behind. Let the manger be at 2 braccia from the ground, to the bottom of the rack, 3 braccia, and the top of it 4 braccia. Now, in order to attain to what I promise, that is to

,

;

make

this

place,

contrary

to

the

general

inquato

al
il

di

sopra
,

I0

della stalla

,

cioe

dove

debe detto loco avere nella sua testa di fori vna "finestra alta 6 e larga 6, donde con vn facil modo si coduca il fieno su detto I2 solaro, come
sta

fieno

custom, clean and neat: as to the upper part of the stable, i. e. where the hay is, that must have at its outer end a part

window

appare nello strumeto E e sia collocata 1 un sito di larghez^za di braccia 6, e lungo quato la stalla, come appare in k -p e 1' altre 2 parti J 4che mettano in mezzo questa, ciascuna sia diuisa in 2 parti, le dua diverso
,

6 braccia high and 6 broad, through which by simple means the hay is brought up to the loft, as is shown by the machine E; and let this be erected in a place 6 braccia wide, and as long as the stable, as seen at k p. The other two parts, which are on
either

side
to

of
the

this,

are again divided;

those

nearest

il

fieno sia I5 no braccia

4

,

p

s

,

solo allo

ofitio
1'

e

andamento
l6

2 che sieno di braccia 2, come appare in s /-, I7 e queste sieno allo ofitio di dare-il feno alle magiatoie per condotti stretti nel 18 principio e larghi sulle magiatoie, accio che'l feno no si fermi infra via, sieno ^bene
altre
rali

de' ministri d'essa stalla, confinano colle parieti mu-

hay-loft are 4 braccia, / s, and only for the use and circulation of the servants belonging to the stable; the other two

which reach to the outer walls are 2 braccia, as seen at s k, and these are made for the
purpose of giving hay to the mangers, by means of funnels, narrow at the top and wide over the manger, in order that the hay should not choke them. They must be well plastered and

Itonicati e politi, figurati dov' e

segnato
le

.

f-s-,

in

quanto

al

dare

20

bere siano

ma-

giatoie di pietra, sopra le quali sia 1' acqua, si che si possino 2I scoprire le magiatoie come si scoprono le casse, alzado i coperchi loro.

As to clean and are represented at 4 fs. the giving the horses water, the troughs must be of stone and above them [cisterns of]

The mangers may be opened water. boxes are uncovered by raising the lids.

as

761.

2.

chome
.

.

.

chomponere

.

.

isstalla.
.

3.
7.

geza
la

in parte.

3.

ella

.

.

lungeza
.

.

.

decte.

4.

largeza di br 6
il
.

.

.

mezo.
8.
.

6.

lar.

geza br
,

3 ellugeza br 6
. .

.

1/2 br.
. .

mangiatoria sialta dacterra br
9. decto
. .

2
. .

.

[larastella era]

.

dela rastelliera.
feno.
. .

br
.

3

ellultimo br 4
. .

attenere
13.

promecto.
.

necto.

10.

feno
14.

decto

.

.

nela.
. .

n.
br
2

12.

apare
15.

essia

colocata

large.
ofitio [de

br 6

.

apare in K. p.

laltre 16. 2

e

laltre.

metano imezo

si
. .

diuisa
. .

feno.
17.

no br 4
. .

"p

.

s"

.

.

mini si.ribe] e andamento.
strecti.

che che chonfinano chole pariete
le

apare.

ecqueste
si

magiatore
prano.

.

per condocti

18. sule

magiatore acio. 20.

magiatore

.

.

sia la sichessi.

21.

magiatore chome

scho-

761.

See PL LXXVIII, No.

i.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

[762. 763.

B.

762.
SI FANNO JORNAMETO si
2

MODO COME
s

L*

ARMATURE PER FARE
le per-

THE WAY TO CONSTRUCT A FRAME-WORK FOR
DECORATING BUILDINGS.
which the poles ought to be tying bunches of juniper on to them. These poles must lie close to the framework of the vaulting and tie the bunches on with osier withes, so as to clip them even
in

4

Di KDIFITI.

Modo come
7

debbono 6 mettere
i

The way

per legare ginepri I0 9 confitte sopra esse pertiche, le quali sono jl I2 sopra rar matura della vol ta e lega essi ma'3zzuoli con salci e 14 su per fare cimerosa scolle forbici e Ia l6 vora le co salci; J 7Sia da Pu l8 no all' altro ''cerchiouno
braccio e '1 gi 2I nepro si de' 22 regiere collie cime in giv 2 *c6mlciado 2 $di sotto; 2 26 questa colonna si lega 7d'intorno 2 4 pertiche, dintor *no alle quali s'inchioda 2 9vinchi grossi uno dito e poi 3 si fa da pie e vassi in alto lega^do mazzuoli di
l

tiche

mazzuoli

8

de'

placed for

20

/2

A

cime

di

^2

ginepro colle cime

J

ba^sso doe

afterwards with shears. Let the distance from one circle to another be half a braccia; and the juniper [sprigs] must lie top downwards, beginning from below. Round this column tie four poles to which willows about as thick as a finger must be nailed and then begin from the bottom and work upwards with bunches of juniper sprigs, the tops downwards, that is upside

sotto sopra.

down.

Br.

M.

19211]

763-

C

OL

Sia
tutto
il

lasciata

cadere

1'acqua

2

in
fall

The water should be allowed
from the whole
circle

to

cerchio di a b.

a

b.

762.

i.

fa.

2.

larmadure.
22. cho.
2.

5.

debe.

7.

mazoli.

10. chofittc.
29.
i

n. madura.
31.

13.

coli

chon

salcie[l]e.

16.

cosalci.

19.

cierchio

i.

20.

*/2

br.

26. acquesta.
il

28. ale.

dito.

mazoli di [gin] cime.

32. cholle.

763.

i.

lacq"a".

lotto

cierchio.

762.

See

PI.

CII, No.
I

3.

The words here given
are the last in the orifig.

as the title line, lines

4,

ginal

MS.

Lines 5

16 are written under

4.

763. Other drawings of fountains are given on PL CI (W. XX) ; the original is a pen and ink drawing on blue paper; on PL CIII (MS. B.) and PL LXXXII.

PI,.
**>*

"'
'

-

'

'

v^
::'^

.>*

.-.

0&

,

r-'

m

.

.

3 T r".'

\

V
I

jlfcS^V 1>

p4**r^SSiS .^^
TTcliop^.

Dxijardin

Imp. Elides.

II

VI.

Studies of architectural details.

Several of Leonardos drawings of architectural details prove that, like other great masters of that period, he had devoted his attention to the study of the proportion of such details. As- every organic being in nature has its

law of construction and growth, these masters endeavoured, each in his way, to discover and prove a law of proportion in architecture. The following
notes in

Leonardos manuscripts refer

to this subject.

Fig. 2.

Fig.

I.

diagram, indicating the rules as given by Vitruvius and by Leon Battista Alberti for the proportions of the Attic base of a column.

MS.

S.

K. M.

Ill, 47

b

(see Fig.

i).

A

MS.

S.

K. M. Ill 55

(see

Fig.

2).

Diagram showing

the.

same

rules.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

[764766.

S.

K.

M.

III.

|8/>]

764.

3

B B B B B 6 B
2
4

toro superiore
nestroli
..

toro superiore
astragali
.
.

quadre
troclea

orbiculo
nestroli

astragali

quadre

5

toro Tferiore
latastro

toro Iferiore
plintho <^

L. 19

;

765-

SCALE
3 II

D'

URBINO.

STEPS OF URBINO.

latastro

la

grossezza di qua luque 8 latastro s'ap poggia.

deve ^essere largo quaHo 6 muro dove 7 tale

The plinth must be as broad as the thickness of the wall against which the plinth
is

built.

C. A. 318*; 9610]

766.
architettori
i

I

nostri
in

antichi

coquali se2

The
with

ancient architects

beginning
as
to

miciando codo che
i

prima dagli Egitti, descrive Diodoro Sicolo

furo

the

Egyptians

(?)

who,
first

Diodorus
build and

primi edificatori e componitori di citta grandissime. e di castelli ed edifizi publici e
le quali

Siculus writes,

were the

grandezza e qualita per loro antecedeti riguardevoli con * stupefazione e maraviglia le eleuate e grandissime macchine paredo loro .... s La colonna ch' a la sua grossezza nel terprivati di forma,
i

3

construct large cities and castles, public and
private buildings of fine form, large and well

proportioned

zo

6
.
.

.

.

quella che fusse
.

sottile nel
.

The column, which has its thickness at the third part .... The one which
would be thinnest in the middle, the one which is of would break equal thickness and ofequal strength,
.

mezzo ronperassi

nelle quella ch'e di pari grossezza e di pari fortezza e migliore per 1'edi8 seconda di bonta sara fizio, quella ch'a la maggior grossezza dov' ella si cogivgnie colla 9basa.
7
;

. .

;

is

better for the edifice.

The

se-

cond best as to usefulness will be the one whose greatest thickness is where it joins with the base.

764.
765.

i.

toro superio
(il
. .

.

.

super.

2.

nexstroli.
4.
i.
.

3.

torclea.
5.

5. inferior

.

.

Iferi.

6.
7.
.

|

pinto] plinto.
8. pogga. desscriue sechodo
.

2.
i

muro].
written

3, illatasstro

debbe.

fg] largo.
. .

grosseza di qu"a".
.

latastro.
. .

766.

Jrom

left to right,

nosstri

otalecine chomlciando
4.

daglitii

.

.

.

sicholo.

2.

edi*

tichatori e
.

chomponitori

di cita
off.

.

chasstella.
5.

grandeza
.

.

.

anticiedeti [gestupessani che] righuardevoli chonnistupefazione
.

.

loro; here the text breaks

cholonna-.

groseza terzo qui

ve ana aroper se

(?)

6.

.

.

mezo

.

.

nelle 2 ispasia.

764.

No
the

explanation can be offered of the meanletter

ing
It

of

B, which

precedes each name.

may be meant

for basa (base).

Perhaps

it

refers

It is to be found besides the text given above, as far as I am aware, only on two drawings of the Uffizi Collection, where, in one instance, it

in use.

to

some author on

mante ?) who
3. troclea.

architecture or an architect (Braemployed the designations, thus marked

indicates the abacus of a Doric capital.
765.
right

See

PI.

CX

No.

3.

The hasty sketch on

the

for the mouldings.

hand

side

illustrates the unsatisfactory' effect

Philander:

Trochlea

sive

trochalia

aut

rechanum.
6.

produced when the plinth is narrower than the wall. 766. See PI. CIII, No. 3, where the sketches
belonging to lines 10
sed.

Latercului

or latastrum

is

the Latin

name
been

for

Plinthus (TtMvdo;), but Vitruvius adopted this

Greek
little

The sketch

name and "lataMro" seems

to

have

wood

16 are reproduced, but reverof columns, here reproduced by a 8. cut, stands in the original close to lines 5

7 67

.

768.]

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.
The
way.
capital

73

10

II

capitello a a essere J questo formato,
la

must be formed
thickness at the
it

in

this

dividi
d'

sua

u

pie,

da capo j 8 grossezza "e fa che sia alto 5/7 e ver~
la

Divide

its

top into

8; at the foot

make

s/7

}

and

let it

be

5/7

ra a essere quadro, dipoi
8,
*/8

come

facesti

dividi 1'altezza J colonna, di poi poni

1'uovolo I2 e un altro ottavo la grossezza della tavola che sta di sopra al capitello; '3i corni della tavola del capitello ano a

sportare fuori dalla maggior larghezza della 2 capana /7 I4 cioe settimi del di sopra della che tocca a ciascu corno di sporto capana Y7 I5 e la mozzatura de' corni vuole essere l largha quat' e alta, cioe /& jl resto degli or;

nameti
T

lascio

l6

jn

liberta

degli

scultori;

7ma per

tornare alle colonne,

e provare

secondo la forma di lor fortezza o debolezza, dico cosl, che quado le linie si partiranno dalla sommita della I9 colonna e termineranno nel suo nascimeto e la lor uia e lughezza sia di pari 20 distanzia o latitudine, dico che questa colonna ....
la ragione
18

high and you will have a square ; afterwards divide the height into 8 parts as you did for the column, and then take J /s f r the echinus and another eighth for the thickness of the abacus on the top of the capital. The horns of the abacus of the capitalhaveto project beyond the greatest width of the bell 2 /7 , i.e. sevenths of the top of the bell; so l /7 falls to the projection of each horn. The truncated part of the horns must be as broad as it is high. I leave the rest, that is the ornaments, to the taste of the sculptors. But to return to the columns and in order to prove the reason of their strength or weakness according
to their shape, I say that

when

the lines starting
. .

from the summit of the column and ending at its their base and their direction and length ., distance apart or width may be equal; I say
that this

column

.

.

Ash.

III.

767.

Ilcilindro d'vn corpo di figura colo 2 nale, e le sua opposite fronti so due cierchi

The
circles

shape and

interpositione paralella *e infra li lor s'estede una linia 5 retta, che passa 6 del cilindro per il mezzo della grossezza e termina nelli cietri ?d'essi cierchi, la quale linia dalli antichi e detta axis.
J

d'

columnar in of a body two opposite ends are two enclosed between parallel lines, and
cylinder
its

cietri

through the
straight

centre

line,

of the cylinder is the centre ending at

a of

these

circles,

and called by the

ancients

the axis.

H.3 73^1

768.

a
3
1'

d

*/3

di

n
'/6

m
di
.

2
",

m
*

l

/t

r

o;

a b

is

J

/3

of n m;
J

mo

is

*/6

ovo sporta
b
si
8

r o

;

s
6
2
1

7

*/, s

r-o
.

The ovolo

projects

/6

of r o; s

j^/ s

of ^ of r

o. 0,

s#

diuida in 9 e
fusaiolo e listello

abaco e
e

5/9J

a b is divided into Q 1 ^; the abacus is 3/9 the ovolo 4/9 , the bead-moulding and the fillet
2

7ovo

4/9

;

/9

/9

and

T

L,

7. J
|

grosseza
7
|

.

.

forteza.

8.

sechonda

.

.

Sdupie ne
13.

me
i

5/7.

n. evera
. .

.

.

lalteza
. .

grosseza da chapo chogivgnie cholla. 10. chapitello magior grosseza dovela chessta cholona chome poni 1/8 luovolo. 12. grosseza dalla
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

chapitello.

chorni

chapitello

assorportera

.

.

della

magior largheza
. .

.

.

chapana.
.
.

14. cio settimi

.

.

chapana
17.
.

lonne

essre largha che tocha aciasschu chorno dissporto 1/7. 15. mozatura de de chorni sechondo 18. deboleza dicho chosi che quado [che qua] le. forteza. 19.
.
.

"j

resto.

16. ischultori

.

.

cho-

.

.

cholonna ettermineranno

.

nassci-

meto
767.
i.

ella

.

.

ellugheza.
. .

20.
.
.

1

disstanzia
2.

.

.

dicho
. .

.

.

cholonna.
3.

Here

the text breaks off.
.

El chilindro
5.

chorpo

cholo.

elle

fronte.
7.

dinterpositio paralella
8.

e infra

li

lor cietri.
. .

4.

sastede

.

.

linia

pa.
768.

mezo
6.

.

.

grossetta.
7.

6.

chilindro ottermina.
8.

linia e di detta.

lima cietrale e

dalli

assis.

i8

R.

labaco he.

hovo.

fesaiolo.

767. Leonardo wrote these lines on the margin of a page of the Trattato where there are several drawings of columns, as well as a head drawn in

di

profile

Francesco 'Mi Giorgio, inside an outline

sketch of a capital.
768.

See PL

LXXXV,

No.

16.

In the original the drawing and writing are both in red chalk.

VOL. u.

K

74

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS.

[769.

6 (MS. Ash. II 6 b) contains a small sketch of a in three lines: I chorni del capitelo. capital with the following note, written deono essere la quarta parte d'uno quadro (The horns of a capital must

PL

LXXXV No.

measure the fourth part of a square). MS. S. K. M. ///72* contains two sketches of ornamentations of windows. In MS. C. A. 308"; 938* (see PI. LXXXII No. \) there are several
sketches

One of the two columns on the right is similar to those employed by Bramante at the Canonica di S. Ambrogio. The same columns
of columns.

There they appear appear in the sketch underneath the plan of a castle. The archivolls which seem coupled, and in two stories one above the other.
to

spring out of the cohtmns,
to be

haps

twisted branches.

are shaped like twisted cords, meant perThe walls between the columns seem to be formed

out of blocks of wood, the pedestals are ornamented with a reticulated pattern. From all this we may suppose that Leonardo here had in mind either some
festive decoration,

or perhaps a pavilion for some hunting place or park. The sketch of columns marked "35" gives an example of columns shaped like candelabra, a form often employed at that time, particularly in Milan,

and the surrounding districts for instance in the Cortile di Casa Castiglione now Silvestre, in the cathedral of Como, at Porta della Rana &c.
G. 52a

]

7 6 9-

DELLI

ARCHITRAVI

DI

UNO

2

E

DI

PIU

CONCERNING ARCHITRAVES OF ONE OR SEVERAL
PIECES.

PEZZI.
-J

L' architrave di piu pezzi

piu potete

An
than

architrave of several pieces

is

stronger

che quel d'u 4 sol pezzo, essendo essi pezzi colle lor lunghezze situati Sper inverso il cetro del modo; pruovasi perche 6 le pietre anno il neruo overo tiglio gienerato per il
tra 7 verso, cioe per
il uerso delli orizzonti 8 opposti d'un mede simo emisperio, e questo e contrario al tiglio delle 9piate 1 quali

that

of

one

pieces are placed direction of the centre
is

if those single piece, with their length in the

of the world.
their

This

/'.

grain or fibre generated in the contrary direction e. in the direction of the opposite horizons of the hemisphere , and this is contrary to

proved because stones have

anno
769.
i.

.

.

.

fibres

of the plants which have
7.

.

.

.

di

i.

2.

eddi 4.

j.

eppiu

.

.

che cquel.

4.

pezo

.

.

cholle

.

.

lungheza.

orizonti

opopositi.

8.

ecquesto e chontrario.

769.

The

text is incomplete in the original.

The Proportions of the stories of a building are indicated by a sketch in MS. S. K. M. 77 2 1* (see PL No. 15;. The measures are
1

LXXXV
1

written on the left side, as follows: br i 2 br 5 6 9 6 3 [br -= braccia; o onciej.

63

4

br

'

2

br

9 e

'

'

a

i

,

PL LXXXV No.
give a

13

(MS. B.

62*)

and PL XCIII No.

i.

(MS. B.

15")

few examples of

arches supported on piers.

v
";
'

-"^v

1

280S1' I^-J^

Pv^ "v+pg

'

Heliog-. Dujaxdin.

->~*~jij
Imp.Kudes
.

XIII.

Theoretical writings on Architecture.
Leonardo's original writings on the theory of Architecture have come
only in

down

to

us

a fragmentary
It

state;

still,

there seems to

be no doubt that he 'himself did not
the idea of writing a large

complete them.

would seem that Leonardo entertained
Architecture;
to

and connected book on
possess ,

arid

it

is

quite

evident that the materials

we

which can be proved
with a more or
title:

have been written at different periods, were noted

doivn

less

definite

aim

and

purpose.

They

might

all be collected
investi-

under the one
gations

"Studies on

the Strength of Materials".

Among

them the

on

the subject of fissures in

walls are

particularly

thorough,

and

very fully
certainly

reported; thesef passages are also especially interesting,
the first writer on architecture

because Leonardo
all.

was

who

ever treated the subject at

Here, as in all other

cases

Leonardo carefully avoids

all abstract

argument.

His data are not derived from

the principles of algebra, but
strictly

from

the laws of mechanics,

and

his

method throughout
not

is

experimental.
the
conclusions

Though
precision which
is

drawn from

his

investigations
scientific

may

have

that

we

are accustomed to find in Leonardo's

labours, their interest

not lessened.

They prove at any rate

his deep sagacity

and wonderfully

clear mind.

No

one perhaps,

who has

studied these questions since Leonardo, has combined with a
delicacy

scientific

mind anything
to

like the artistic

of perception which gives

interest

and

lucidity

his

observations.

I do not

assert that the arrangement here adopted for the passages in question

is

that originally intended by Leonardo; but their distribution into five groups

was suggested

by the

titles,

or headings,

which

Leonardo

himself prefixed

Some of the

longer sections perliaps sJiould not, to be in strict

most of these notes. agreement with this divito

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.
sion,

have been reproduced

in

their entirety in the place

where they

occur.

But
so,

the

comparatively small amount of the materials
ciently intelligible to the reader;
it

we

possess will render them, even

suffi-

did not therefore seem necessary or desirable

to sub-

divide the passages merely for the sake of strict classification.

The small number of chapters given under the
gravity in roof-beams, bears no proportion
refer to the
to the

fifth class, treating on the centre
studies

of

number of drawings and

which

same

subject.

Only a small selection of these are reproduced in this work
text.

since the majority

have no explanatory

PL CIV

r*

-*''

*

'T

-'

>.

.

^ nj.

^^
i^V'^^ vhv/r
'^
;i|

r

-.w*

>^
;

Vj
/

^

"

fWJ %ivV)^-,/fi X^^WA^V'W-'UWI^^^^^y^JL
*fat* S^.; 1 ^2LT^^r?^r% w/fL *j^W^W4^w V/*r
A

^^^^^d^rc^ *fcM*i ^ ^ m

(y

>^?3^ AviriWA^ ^H-)ViVf 2.2iteft***tiTw
f

w

i

fe^vf

f^r

W

*' Vf 'r *T*f^]ViAj>l

^ir^>>i

4 *r &S?

'

Hwr-?i

*m 9WcZV

*

Du]ardin

Imp Eudes

I

77

I.

ON FISSURES
Br.

IN

WALLS.

M.

157

]

770.
il

Fa prima
ratrici

de! 2 le

trattato delle cause gienerotture de' muri, e poi il

First write

the

treatise

trattato de'rimedi separate.
paralelli sono vniversalmete in quelli edifiti che si edificano gienerati in lochi montuosi, li Squali sien coposti di
3

the giving way of walls treat of the remedies.
Parallel
fissures

on the causes of and then, separately,

Li

fessi
4

buildings

which

are

constantly erected

occur

in
hill

on

a

pietre faldate

con obbliquo
obbliquita

perche
7

in

tale

faldameto, e spesso penetra
,

6

side, when the hill is composed of stratified rocks with an oblique stratification, because water and other moisture often penetrates

acqua e altra vmidita portatricie di cierta e perche terra 8 vntuosa e sdrucciolante tali falde no sono 9 continuate insino al fondo delle valli, I0 tali pietre si muovono per la loro obli"quita e mai terminao il moto insin I2 che discendono al fondo della valle, J 3portando con seco a vso di barca ^quella parte dello edifitio che per lo'Sro si separa
dal suddetto rimanete; 16 II rimedio. di questo e
17 si 18
il

these oblique seams carrying in greasy and slippery soil; and as the strata are not continuous down to the bottom of the valley,
the rocks slide in the direction of the slope,

and the motion does not cease till they have reached the bottom of the valley, carrying with them, as though in a boat, that portion of the building which is separated by them from
the rest.

The remedy
piers

for this

is

always to

fondare spes-

build
is

thick

under

the

wall

which

sotto il muro che si move, e con archi dall'uno alPaltro e be^ne ab20 barbicati, e questi tali pilastri sieno funda 2I ti e fermi 22 nelle falde le quali non sieno rotte; 2 3Per trovare la parte stabile delle sopra dette falde e neciessario fare vn 2<* pozzo sotto il pie del muro co gra profondita infra esse falde 25 e di tal pozzo pulirne co
pilastri

arches from one to a good scarp and let another, and the piers have a firm foundation in the so that they may not break away strata from them. In order to find the solid part of these strata, it is necessary to make a shaft at the foot of the wall of great depth through the
slipping,

with with

piana superfitie la larghezza
chause.
.

d'un palmo

and in this shaft, on the side from which the hill slopes, smooth and flatten a
strata;
chon obbriquo.
16.
8.

770.

i.

3.

[di]

sono.
12.

4.

chessi edifichano illochi.
13.

5.
.

choposti
.

.

.

essdrucciolente.
17. pilasstri
. . .
.

9.

chontinovate.
18.
. .

10. tale

.

simovan.
esti.

cheddisciendano.

chonsecho
22. rutte.

barcha.

Irimedio
24.

.

.

spe.

chessi.

chon.
. .

19. abarbatiati

20. pilasstri.

21. effermi.

23.

per

[del].

pozzo [no] sotto

cho.

25.

pozo

cho

770.

See PL CIV.

UklTINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.
26

[771-

da quel mote discede, 27 e in capo quato tempo questa parte pulita, che si
dalla somita insino al fondo
il

lato,

donde
nella

d'alfecie

pa

28

riete del pozzo,

mostrera manifesto
si

space one palm wide from the top to the bottom; and after some time this smooth portion made on the side of the shaft, will show plainly which part of the hill is

segnio qual parte del
Br.

mote

move.
77 1

moving.
-

M.

157*]

Mai le fessure de' muri 2 sara paralelle, fuor che se la 3 parte del muro, la qual * si 5 separa dal suo rimanete, non disceda.

The cracks in walls will never be parallel unless the part of the wall that separates from the remainder does not slip down.

QUALE REGOLA
8

E QUELLA CHE FA ?LI EDIFITI PERMANETI.
delli
edifiti

WHAT

is

THE LAW BY WHICH BUILDINGS HAVE
STABILITY.
stability

La permanetia
10

e la regola

The
of
the

contra9ria alle 2 anteciedeti, cioe che le
raglie

mu-

sieno

eleuate in alto tutte equal-

mete con

e quali

"gradi, che abbraccino
I2

1'intera circuitione dello

edifitio colle intere

two former cases. That is to say that the walls must be all built up equally, and by degrees, to equal heights all round the building, and the whole thickness at once, whatever kind of
contrary
walls they
dries

of buildings law to the

is

the

result

grossezze e ancora che

di
il

qualunque sorte

di

'^muri,

may

be.

And

although a thin wall

muro
lui

sottile secchi piu pre-

sto
per
1'

che

il

grosso,

e'

no

si

avra a ropere

il

peso che
all'

una

altra giornata, perche,

'Spossa acquistare dall6 se il suo

more quickly than a thick one it will not necessarily give way under the added weight day by day and thus, [i6J although a thin wall dries more quickly than a thick one, it will not give way under the weight
the latter may acquire from day to Because if double the amount of it dries in one day, one of double the thickness will dry in two days or thereabouts; thus the small addition of weight will be balanced by the smaller difference of time [18]. The adversary says that a which projects, slips down.

which

I7 duplo seccassi in una giornata il dop pio secchera in due o circa, si uerra ragguagliado l8 co piccola differetia di peso in piccola

day.

differetia di tepo.
J

9Dicie 1'aversario

20

che a becca 2I tello
2

disciede.
22

E

qui dicie 1'auersario
e.
25

3che r disciede

And
and not

here the adversary says that r slips
c.

e non

DELLE FESSURE DI PRONOSTICI DELLE CAVSE 26 MURO. QUALUCHE
2

HOW

TO PROGNOSTICATE THE CAUSES OF CRACKS IN ANY SORT OF WALL.
part

7Quella parte del muro che no disciede
28

se 1'obbiquita del beccatello, 2 copritore dell' o 9bliquita del muro da lui discesa.
riserua
in

does not which the obliquity projects and overhangs the portion which has parted from it and slipped down.
slip
is

The

of the wall which

that in

DE'SITI DE'FONDAMETI E IN QUAL ^'LOCO so CAVSA DELLE RUINE.

ON

THE SITUATION OF FOUNDATIONS AND

IN

Quando la fessura del muro e piu c he di sotto elli e manifesto larga di sopra segnio che la mu^raglia a la causa della ruina remota dal perpe^diculare d'essa fessura.
32

WHAT PLACES THEY ARE A CAUSE OF RUIN. When the crevice in the wall is wider at the
than at the bottom, it is a manifest sign, that the cause of the fissure in the wall is remote
top'

from the perpendicular line through the crevice.
. .

larcheza.
771.
2.

26.
.

dacquel

.

.

dissciede.

27.

chapo dalquato lento questa
6.

chessi.

28.

mossterra
.

.

.

mote

si m\\\\\.

paralelle.
. .

chella. 3. par del.

s.disscieda.
.

qual

cho

quali.
16.

n. abraccino
il

.

ella reghola. reghola ecquella cheffa. 8. edifiti(e) sechi. 12. cholle circhuitione. q aluche sorte. 13. anchora
. . . .
.

9. chelle.
14.

10.
.

che

ara

.

chellui.
.

15. acquisstare.

sudduplo sechassi innuna.
22.

17. 25.

sechera

.

.

circha
27. [I|

.

.

ragualgliado.
.
.

18.

cho pichola
chausa.

diferetia
28.

.

pichola

diferetia.

20.

becha.

ecqui.

24.

chause.
31.

delle

(mu).

Quella

no

[si

move] "disciede".

bechatello

copritricio dello.

29. delei disciesa.

locho so chavsa.

32. largha.

33. chella.

34. alia

35. dichulare.

refer to PI. CV, No. 2. 771. Lines Line 9 alle due anteciedete, see on the same page. Lines 1618. The translation of this is doubt-

15

ful,

Lines 19
to

and the meaning in any case very obscure. 23 are on the right hand margin close the two sketches on PI. CII, No. 3.

7/2.]

ON FISSURES

IN WALLS.

79

Br.

M.

i 3 8rt]
i

772.

SO

2

DELLE FESSURE DE'MURI, LE QUALI LARGHE DA PIE E STRETTE DA CA^PO E
LOR CAUSA.

OF CRACKS IN WALLS, WHICH ARE WIDE AT THE BOTTOM AND NARROW AT THE TOP AND
OF THEIR CAUSES.

Quel muro senpre si fende che s non si vniformemete 6 con equal tepo; 8 7 E quel muro d' uniforme gros sezza no si 9 secca con equal tepo, il quale non e in cotat I0 to d' equal mezzo; come se "vna parte d'un muro fusse edi I2 ficata in cotatto d'u monte ^vmido e '1 rimanente restasse J 4in
4

secca

in

That wall which does not dry uniformly an equal time, always cracks. A wall though of equal thickness will
dry
with

contatto
si

dell' aria,
l6

che

allo I5 ra

il

rimanete

ciascun verso e 1'umido si ristrigne per man^tiene nella sua prima gradezza, l8 e

allora-quel che s'asciuga ^nell'aria, restri20 gnie e diminui scesi, e quel che e inu22 2I si asciuga e volentieri si r6 midito no pe es 23 so vmido al secco daH'umido perche non a tenacita da 2 4seguitare il moto di

equal quickness if it is not with contact the same if one side of a wall were in contact with a damp slope and the other were in contact with the air, then this latter side would remain of the same size as before; that side which dries in the air will shrink or diminish and the side which is kept damp will not dry. And the dry portion will break
in everywhere medium. Thus,

not

away
the

readily from the

damp

portion because

quel che al continue

si

secca.

part not shrinking in the same proportion does not cohere and follow the movement of the part which dries continuously.

damp

DELLI
28

FESSI
2

ARCATI LARGHI DI SOPRA

?E STRETTI DI SOTTO.

OF ARCHED CRACKS, WIDE AT THE NARROW BELOW.
narrow

TOP,

AND

arcati larghi di sopra Quelli fessi 9e stretti di sotto nascono nelle 3porte rimurate che cala piu ne3 I l'altezza che nella 32 per tanto quato 1'altezza larghezza loro e maggiore 33 che nella larghezza e per
2

Arched cracks, wide at the top and found in are below walled-up doors, which shrink more in their height than in their breadth, and in proportion as
their

quato le com34messure della calcina son 35 in nell'altezza che nella piv numerosi
larghezza. 3 6 I1 fesso r o 3 8 che in
4r

and

more
width.

height is greater than their width, of the mortar are the joints as numerous in the height than in the

diminuisce

37

tanto

quato ma4teria che in n m.
n,

m

39 infra

meno in roe. me
cocavo
44

Ogni
43 di

fessura

fatta

421

loco
di

diminishes less in r o than in proportion as there is less material between r and o than between ;/ and m. Any crack made in a concave wall is

The crack
in

m

n,

-

e e larga sotto, e stretta sopra, come 4S mostra b c d da lato questo nascie,
figu
46 rato.

wide below and narrow
originates, the side figure.
1.

as

is

at the top ; and this here shown at bed, in

TICio che si inumidi4 sce cresce per s quato e 1'umido ac quistato.H 51 2 a cosa umi S2 da si restrignie HE ogni nel53lo asciugare per ta.54to quanto e 1' umido ss che da lei si diuide. If
4?

p

a

8

That

which

gets

wet

increases

in

tato

49

it imbibes. proportion to the moisture 2. And a wet object shrinks, while drying, in proportion to the amount of moisture which evaporates from it.

773. 2. dappiedi

esstrtte

da cha.

3.

ellor
12.

chausa.
fichato.

5.

secha.

6.

chon.
14.

7.

Ecquel

.

.

gro.

8.

secha chon.
16.

9.

ch5ta.
. .

10.

del

qual mezo comesse.
17.

u.

fussi.

13.

resstassi.

chontatto.
.

15.

sirisstrignie.
21. 29.

cias
22.
.

chun
secho.

ellumido

grideza.
24.
.
.

18.

[il]

quel chesassciugha.
25.

19. restringnie
.
.

20. ecquel
27.
esstretti.

.

Inumidito.
archati.
35.

assciugha.
esstretti
.

23. nona[re.

tenacita.
31. lalteza 41.

ch5.

secha.
32.

26.

delli
33.

archati.
. .

28.

nasschano.

30.
38.

chala.

largheza.
42.

magiore.

larghezza

lecho.

34. 44.

mesurie.

larghezza.

36.

diminuisscie.

quado.

Oni

.

.

tatta.

locho chochavo ellargha.
51. chosa.

43. esstretta.

ecquesto nasscie.

45. dallato fighu.

47. chessi inumidis

48. scie cresscie.

49. ellumido.

53.

Ho assciugrare.

54. ellumido.

55. dallei.

772.

The
on

facsimile

text of this passage is PI. CVI to the left. L.

reproduced

in

inside the sketch No.

3640

are written

are partly written L. 2. the sketch No. 3 to which they refer. over

4146

8o

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.

[773-

Br.

M. 1580]

773-

DELLA CAVSA DEL RONPERE DELLI
PUBLICI E PR1VATI.
2

EDIFITI

OF THE CAUSES OF
OF] PUBLIC

AND PRIVATE
way
less

FISSURES IN [THE WALLS BUILDINGS.
in cracks, some of vertical and others

Romponsi

li

muri per fessure, che anno
;

The
are

walls

give

del cliretto e alcune che 'anno dello obbliquo le rotture che anno del diretto 4 son gienerate dalli muri novi sin cogiutio de' muri vecchi ditali

which are more or
vertical

The cracks which are in a oblique. direction are caused the by

o co morse giute alii 6 muri vecchi, perche morse, no potendoresistereallo ?insopportabile peso del muro a lor'cogiuto, e necies 8 sario a quelle ronpersi e dar loco al discieso
litti

joining

del predet 9 to

muro novo,
maggiore o
infra

braccio per ogni 10 braccia, o piu

secondo

la

quale cala vn I0 o meno, minore sorha di
il

calcina "interposta e co calcina piu I2 o

le

pietre

murate

senpre

si

debbe

liquida; iprima fare 'Jfi

me

E

of new walls, with old walls, whether straight or with indentations fitting on to those of the old wall; for, as these indentations cannot bear the too great weight of the wall added on to them, it is inevitable that they should break, and give way to the settling of the new wall, which will shrink one braccia in every ten, more or less,

nota che muri e poi

vestirli delle pietre

che

li

ano a
il

vestire,

^pere' I6

according to the greater or smaller quantity of mortar used between the stones of the masonry, and whether this mortar is more or
less

che se cosl no

si

faciesse,

muro

facciedo
sanelli

liquid.

And
be

observe,
built first

that

the

walls

j maggiore calo che sla crosta di fori, rebbe neciessario che le morse fatte

should always

and then faced

lati

ropessino; perche che vestono li mu I7 ri, essendo di maggiore l8 grandezza che le pietre da quel le vestite, e neciessario che ricievino minor quatita di calcina '^nelle loro comessure e per cose2 gueza faccino minore calo, 9il che accadere no puo, essendo murate tali croste poi ch' el rmr'ro e secco. 22 a b muro nuo 2 3vo, c e muro vechio 2 iche gia a fatto il calo, 2 5e lo a b fa il calo poi, 26 beche a, essedo fonda 2 ?to
28 vechio, no si puo sopra il c muro 2 in nes 9su modo ropere per ave 3 re

de' muri

si

le pietre

with the stones intended to face them. For, if you do not proceed thus, since the wall settles more than the stone facing, the projections left on the sides of the wall must inevitably

give way ; because the stones used for facing the wall being larger than those over which they are laid, they will necessarily have less mortar laid between the joints, and consequently
if the

they settle less; and this cannot happen facing is added after the wall is dry. a b the new wall, c the old wall, which has already settled; and the part a b
settles

stabile fondameto 3' SO pra del muro ve> 2 chio, ma sol si ronpe 33 ra il rimanete del mu 34 ro nvovo b c635ciosia ch'elli e murato di 36 S opra dalla sommita del edifitio insino al fondo, 37 faciedo il rimanete del muro nuovo beccatello ^ 8 sopra il muro che di-

afterwards, although a, being on c, the old wall, cannot break, having a stable founpossibly But only the dation on the old wall. remainder b of the new wall will break

founded

away, because it is built from top to bottom of the building; and the remainder of the new wall will overhang the gap above the wall that has
sunk.

sciede.

773.

i.

chausa

.

.

pubbici.
.

2.

ronpasi
7.
.

.

.

alchune.

3.

rocture.

4.
. .

[no]
jo.

ve "echi"
.
.

.

cho.

allor
.

chogiuto.

8.

acquelle

locho
.

novi fmurati in tepo brcvissimo]. 5. in chogiutio de muri al disscicso. oppiu 9. chala vn br per ogni 10 br
.

sechondo
.

ominore
14.

chalcina.
. .

xx. interpossta infralle
.
.

.

cho chalcina.
.

12.

ome
.
. .

.

.

chessenpre.

13.

eppoi

vesstirl.

chelli
.
.

avesstire.
. .

chosi
18.

chelle

dacque.

crosste.

ax. essecho. 38.

22.

16. vesstano. farebe chelle. 17. esendo magiore chalo chel. 15. lacrossta murato tale chalo. 20. achadere chalcina. vesstite 19. chomessure e per choseghueza chalo. 30. fondame. 34. cho. 30. cio chelli. muro [vechio] nuo. 24. affatto il chalo. 25. ello

faciessi
. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

37. bechatello.

\\\\\\il

muro

cheddistiede.

774

776.]

ON FISSURES

IN WALLS.

81

Br.

M.

159 6]

774-

Torre

nova

fundata

2

sopra

la

A

new tower founded

partly

on old

vecchia in parte.

masonry.

Br.

M.

157

]

775si

DELLE PIETRE CHE

Dis 2 GiucoNO

DALLA LOR

OF STONES WHICH

CALCINA.
pietre
altezza,

DISJOIN THEMSELVES FROM THEIR MORTAR.

d'equal
nella
si

numero
partita

nella loro
di calcina,

migrate con equal quatita
s

fano equal

c alo

dell'umido
la

che
7

mollifi

6

c6 essa calcina.

Stones laid in regular courses from bottom and built up with an equal quantity of mortar settle equally throughout, when the moisture that made the mortar soft evaporates.
to top

Per
8

lo passato

prvova che

poca
n

By what
will settle

is

said

above

it

is

proved

that

A

del muro nuovo interposta infra quatita n fara po 9 co calo rispetto alia quatita del medesimo mu I0ro che s'interpone infra

the small extent of the

new wall between
c

A

and
d.

but

little,

in proportion to the

extent
the the

of

the

same wall between
will in

and

c d, e tal fia la pro"portione che anno inI2 dette calcine qual' fra loro le rareta delle

The proportion
thinness

fact

be
the

that

of
to

of

the

mortar in relation
to

e la proportioe delli ^nvmeri over delle quatita delle calcine interpo^ste nelle comessure delle pietre murate so is pra le varie
altezze delli muri vechi.

quantity of mortar laid between the stones above the different levels of the old wall.

number of courses or

A. 53 a]

776.
si

Questo muro /perche i sette
soffitieti
3

ropera sotto
2

1'

arco e

quadrelli

integri

no sono

a sostenere il pie dell' arco sopra e roperannosi questi 7 quadrelli postoli nel mezzo aputo come appare in a b ; la ragione si e che il quadrello a a solamete sopra se il peso a k s e 1' ultimo quadrello sotto 1'arco a sopra se il peso
c d,

x-

a\

6

c

d- pare che

facci fare

for-

This wall will break under the arch e f, because the seven whole square bricks are not sufficient to sustain the spring of the arch placed on them. And these seven will bricks give way in their middle The reason exactly as appears in a b. that the brick a has above it only is, the weight a k, whilst the last brick under the arch has above it the weight c d x a.
}

774.
775.

2.

sopra
chessi.

il

vechio.
.

i.

9.

2. giughano pocho chalo risspecto.

.

chalcina.
10.

3.

puetre.
.

4.
.

chon

.

.

chalcina.

8.
[di]

cho

.

.

chalcina.

7.

la passata
12.

.

.

chella pocha.
13.

chessinterpone

ettal.

n. portione
posstoli.

che anno

infralloro.

chalcine.

chal-

cine.
776.
i.

14.

ste
.

.

.

chomesure.
[c] e
.
.
.

Quessto
larcho.

.

larcho

f.

2.

assosstenere

.

.

archo
archo.

.

.

3. e
.

roperanosi

.

quesste

.

.

mezo

.

.

chome

apare.

6.

7.

cheffacci

archo uerlasspalla.

8.

9.

chome

.

dopio.

775.
letter

See

PI.

CV, No.
in the
d,

I.

The

n which,

original,

top of the tower is wanting in this reproduction, and with it the stands above the letter A over the top of the tower, while c stands

perpendicularly over VOL. II.

L

82
za all'arco

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.
verso la spalla nel puto
11

[776.

/

7
,

ma
il

c

d seems
o

to

press

on
it,

the

peso / o peso ne va
il

fa

resistetia

,

ode

tutto
8

the

abutment

at the point

/

arch towards but the weight
the whole

nella radice delParco;

adu-

/

opposes resistence to

whence

que
piu

fa

la radice delli archi
il

forte

doppio che

come 7 x z.

6, ch' e

pressure
arch.
like 7

is transmitted to the root of the Therefore the foot of the arch acts 6, which is more than double of x z.

II.

ON FISSURES
lir.

IN NICHES.

M.

777-

DELLE ROTTURE BELLI
2

NICHI.
il

ON
quale sua

FISSURES IN NICHES.

L'arco fatto del semicircolo,
3

An
bearing

arch constructed on a semicircle and
weights

fia

carico nelli

due
4

ropera in della sua curvita; provasi e sieno li pe 5 si n m, li quali rompono esso arco a b ., dico per lo 6 passato come c a stremi sono
curvita,

oppisiti terzi della cinque lochi

of
this

its

on the two opposite curve will give way
of the curve.
the
will

thirds
at five

points
let

To prove
be
the
at n arch

weights

m
a,

f

which
b,

break

equalmete aggravati dal peso n, a 7 seguita per la 5 che 1'arco ronpera nella parte piii remota dalle 8 due potentie che lo premono, il quale
e
il

f. I say that, by the foregoing, as the extremities c and a are

mezzo

e

,

e altre^tanto intedo

equally pressed upon by the thrust th that n, it follows, by the 5 , the arch will give way at the point which is furthest from the two forces
that is the middle be understood of the opposite curve, d g b; hence the weights n m must sink, but they cannot sink by the 7 th ,

aver detto

dell'

arco

g
no

d;

adu I0 que n

m

opposite
pesi

d

acting
e.

on them and
is

vegono

The same

to

a discedere, e disceder no posso lj no per la a che non si faccl piu vicini, e avicinar 7
si
I2 pos sono, se 1'arco che
li

infra lor s'inli

sua ^stremi, no si possono accostare sanza rottura del ^suo mezzo; adu-

terpone non avicini

quali

without coming closer together, and they cannot come together unless the extremities of the arch between them come closer,

que
lochi
l6

1'arco

si

ronpera

in

2

and if these draw together the crown of the arch must break; and
thus the

come

fu

primo

^pos*

arch will give

way

in

to ecc.

two places as was

at first said

&c.

Domada del peso dato in che parte ne risponde I n e co che peso s'a a 'yiinia, vinciere il peso posto in /.
a,
777.
i.

f
churvita prosi essieno.

I ask, given a weight at a what counteracts it in the direction n and by what weight must the be counteracted. weight at

/

rocture.

2.

semil

.

.

charicho.

3. churvita.
7.

4.

5.

ronpano
8.

.

.

archo

.

.

per

la.

6.
9.

passata

chome
.

ca"stremi" sono ecqualmete agravati.
10.

seguita "per la 5" chellarcho."
12.

chello priemano
13.

.

.

altrec.
14.

archo
.

.

addu.

veghano addissciedere

e disscieder
17.

no possa.
.

sano dellarclio che infrallor.

achosstare.

larcho

.

chome

fu

pr"o"

.

ne

rissponde.

cho

.

possto.

84

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.

[778.

Br.

M.

778.
a

BELLA DIMINUITIONE DE'CORPI VMIDI
GROSSEZZA O LARGHEZZA DIFFORME.

Di

ON THE

SHRINKING OF DAMP BODIES OF DIFFERENT THICKNESS AND WIDTH.
is

^ La finestra a e causa della rottura del b e questa tal rot^tura e aumetata dal peso n m, il quale piu si ficca ovvero penetra intra la ter 5 ra che ricieve il suo fondameto, e ancora il foche no fa la leuit& del b 6 dameto vechio che sta sotto b a fatto il calo, il che fatto non avea li pi^lastri n e la parte b non disciede perpendiculare, anzi si gitta info 8 ri per obbliquo e non
,

The window a
at b;

the cause of the crack

and
the

this

crack

pressure of n and
into
soil

in

is increased hy the which sink or penetrate which foundations are built

m

more than

m

the lighter portion at b. Besides, the old foundation under b has already have not settled, and this the piers n and yet done. Hence the part b does not settle

m

down

in detro, gittare perch tal parte disuni^ta dal tutto e piu larga di fori che di dentro e li labri del
si

pu6 per

1'aversario

I0 e della medesima figura, e se disunita avesse a etrare in denparte "il entrerebbe nel mitro, maggiore

rimanente

tal

perpendicularly; on the contrary, it is obliquely, and it cannot on the contrary be thrown inwards, because a portion like this, separated from the main wall, is larger outside than inside and the main wall, where it is broken, is of

thrown outwards

the

same

nore, il che sarebbe inpossibile; adunque 12 e cocluso che per necessita la parte tale emiciclo si disuniscie dal tutto di
col
'^gittarsi

than inside

were to
to pass
sible.

and is also larger outside therefore, if this separate portion fall inwards the larger would have
shape
;

colla

e

non

indetro

parte inferiore infori come vole ^Pauersario

ecc.

'sQuando le tribune intere o mezze sara di sopra vinte da superchio peso, alJ 7lora le sue volte si aprirano l8 co apritura diminuitiva ^dalla parte di sopra e larga 20 di sot to e stretta dalla parte di dentro e 22 21 scorza larga di fuori, a similitudine della 2^ del pomo ovvero melaracia divisa in molte
16
2 parti per la sua Iughez 'za,

which is imposevident that the portion of the semicircular wall when disunited from the main wall will be thrust outwards, and not inwards as the adversary says. When a dome or a half-dome is crushed from above by an excess of weight the vault will give way, forming a crack which dimi-

through the smaller
it

Hence

is

sara

che quato ella premuta da! 25 le opposite parti della

nishes towards the top and is wide below, narrow on the inner side and wide outside; as is the case with the outer husk of a pomegranate, divided into many parts lengthwise; for the more it is pressed in the direction of its length, that part of the joints
will

sua lughezza, 26 quella parte delle giuture 27 piu si a prira, che fia piu distate alia causa 28 che la prieme e per questo mai si 2 9deb,

open most, which

is

most

distant from

bono
unche

caricare li archi delle volte 3di qual3 1 suo emiciclo dalli archi dello

the cause of the pressure ; and for that reason the arches of the vaults of any apse should never be more loaded than the arches of the
principal building.

2 massimo, perche quel che * pi\i pesa piu prieme sopra cio che li e di33sotto, e piu disciende sopra li sua fon^dameti, il che interuenire no pu6 35 a lle cose piu lieui come sono li emi3 6 cicli predetti.

edifitio

Because

that

which
but
like

weighs most, presses
this

most on the

parts be;

low, and they sink into the foundations

cannot happen to lighter structures

the said apses.

778.

i.

chorpi.

2.
.

"ollarghezza".
affatto
il

3. finesstra
7.

.

.

chausa
.

.

.

roctura
.

.

.

ecquesta

.

.

roc.
.

4. ficha
.

over
8.

.

.

intralla.
9.
.

5.

anchcia
.
.

6.

chessta

.

chalo.
10.
.
.

lasstri

n

m
.

.

ella

.

dissciede per
. .

pedichulare

infer.

po.
.

eppiu largha
.
.

cheddi dentro
13. gittari

[ess] elli.

fighura essettal
[di]

.

avessi.
.
.

n. enterrebbc
chome.
.
.

[dap]

cholla

inferiore
. .

inforienone
el.

15.

chol. disunisscie addunque. 12. e chocluso omeze. 17. apirrano [chota]. 18. [tamaj trebune
. .

cho.

19. ellargha.
.

20. esstreta

dentro

21.
.

largha
.

assimilitudine.
28.
.

22.

over.

23.
29.

imolte parte.

24. sara

permuta.

25. parte

.

lugheza.

26. quela. 27. pirra chcffia

chausa.

chella
.

.

.

quessto.
39.

debbe charichare.
40.

32. sopra chilli
41. in-

edi. 33. dissciende. 35.

chose

.

.

chome.

36. predecti. 37. quessti

chubi. 38. ho.

chubo.

chubo b sosspeso.

778.

The
is

the
fig.

first

5

figure on PI. CV, No. 4 belongs to paragraph of this passage, lines I 14; sketched by the side of lines 15 and

The sketch following. refers to line 22. The
original, over line

below of a pomegranate drawing fig. 6 is, in the 37 and fig. 7 over line 54.

\ M '<M 2j^r^*T H *rt W*:*fo ^V^-v' ^ *M^.rCJ^7
toll.*?
.

I

~ Y 3

Ji \

,

\

frr7l >

L |T

Vflf/ Aftw

>/*w *Y
-/T

/H^

-

f

r'

<j

-*^

.,

778-]

ON FISSURES

IN NICHES.

8 Qual di questi due cubi dimi^ nuira vniformemete o 39il cvbo A posato piu sopra il pavi'meto, o'l cubo b sospeso 41 infra 42 e 1'altro cubo 1'aria, essedo 1'uno

37

,

Which of these two cubes will shrink more uniformly: the cube A resting on
pavement,
air,

the the

peso *3 e in quantita e di terra con equale vmidita? 45 Quel cubo che si posa sopra 46 il pavimeto piu diminui^scie della sua altezza che 8 per la * sua larghezza, il che 4 ?far no puo il cubo ch'e di 5 sopra e sospeso infra 1'aria; S'pruovasi cosl; il cubo po S2 sato sopra questa medesima 53 S ta meglio qui di
equal!
in

mista

44

or the cube b suspended in the are equal in weight and bulk, and of clay mixed with equal quantities of water?

when both cubes

nishes

The cube placed on the pavement dimimore in height than in breadth, which

the cube above, hanging in the air, cannot do. Thus it is proved. The cube shown above
is

better

shown here below.
the
arid

sotto.
5411

fine

delli

dua

cilindri
le figure
:

di

ss

terra

fresca

cioe
59

a.b

sa5 6 ra

piramidali
cilindro a,

di s; sotto c

d
j

8 provasi co5 sl
il

il

two cylinders of b will be the This is pyramidal figures below c and d. proved thus: The cylinder a resting on block of stone being made of clay mixed
with a great deal of water will sink by its and in weight, which presses on its base, proportion as it settles and spreads all the parts will be somewhat nearer to the base

The final result of damp clay that is a

suo pavimeto per esse 6o re lui di terra assai mista 6l coll'umido, va calado me 62 diante il suo peso che da di se 6 3alla sua basa, e tato piu camera e inposato
sopra
6 grossera, quato e'sa 5ra colle sua parti piu 66 alla sua basa, perche 11 si cari 6 ?ca presso 68 il suo tutto si mile fara il peso d, ecc; 6 il 9u s'astedera, quato elli a magquale pi gi?or peso sotto se, la qual maggiorita 7'e

E

whole that is charged with the &c.; and the case will be the same weight, will stretch with the weight of b which at in proportion as the weight lengthwise
because

ne'cofini del suo sostetaculo.

bottom is increased and the greatest tension will be the neighbourhood of the weight
the

which
chub.
missta.
chilindri.

is

suspended by
chessi.
le.
..

it.

frallaria esse luno.
50.

44. ellaltro

43. 54.

44.
55.

chon.

45.

chubo
56.

47.

alteza.
. .

48. [che]
58.

il

che.

49.

chubo.

essosspeso.

51.

chosi

il

chubo.

fressca.

ra

57.
.

socto

cho.

chilindro.

60. missta.
69. sas-

61.

chollumido va chalado.
.

63. ettato piu cha.
71.

64.

egrossera.
.

65.

cholle

parte.

66. chari.

67.

cha

.

.

Essi.

stedera

.

magi.

70. laqqual magiorita.

cne chofusi

sostetachulo.

III.

ON THE NATURE OF THE ARCH.
A.

779-

CHE COSA
2

E ARCO.

WHAT
The arch

is

AN ARCH?

Arco non e

cavsata da
1'arco

altro che una fortezza due debolezze, Jpero^ch^

quarti
culi,

negli edifiti e coposto di 2 4 di circulo i quali quarti cir,

is nothing else than a force originated by two weaknesses, for the arch in buildings is composed of two

ciascuno debolissimo per se, desidera cadere, e opponeMosi alia ruina 1'uno dell' altro de'due debolezze, si covertono in vni 6 ca fortezza.

segments of a circle, each of which being very weak in itself tends to fall; but as each opposes this tendency in the other, the two weaknesses combine to

form one strength.

DELLA QUALITA DEL PESO BELLI
8

ARCHI.
quello
ri

OF THE KIND OF PRESSURE
As
the arch remains in
is

IN ARCHES.

Poiche 1'arco

fia

coposto

,

mane

gie 1'uno-, e se pesa piv 1'uno
circulo

in equilibrio, Ipero9che tato spi1'uno 1' altro 1' altro quato
I0

quarto

leuata e negata la permaneza, "imperoch^ '1 maggiore viciera il minore peso.
1'

che

altro

,

quivi fia

composite force it because the thrust is equal from both sides; and if one of the segments weighs more than the other the stability is lost, because the greater pressure will outequilibrium

a

weigh the

lesser.

DEL CARICO DATO

AGLI ARCHI.

OF

DISTRIBUTING THE PRESSURE ABOVE AN ARCH.
giving the segments of equal weight it is necessary to load them equally, or you will

circuli

il peso equale de' quarti e neciessario dare loro equale

Next

to

the

circle

'+peso di sopra, altremeti si correrebbe nel sopra detto errore.

fall

into the

same defect

as before.

779.

i.
.
.

chosa e archo.
chadere eopone.
esse e

2.

archo

*
. .

forteza
.

.

.

deboleze.
6.

3.

larcho

.

.

choposto
. .

.

.

circhuli.
8.

4. circhuli
.

ciaschuno
.

.

debolisimo
9. chettato
.

5.

deboleze
.

.

chouertano.

cha

forteza.

7.

dela

deli.

choposto quelo
13.

equilibra.

.

.

pesa.

10.

circhulo

.

premaneza.

IT.

magriore.

iz.

chartcho dati

ali.

circhuli.

14.

chorerebe

.

erore

ON THE NATURE OF THE ARCH.
DOVE L'ARCO
l6 si

ROPE.

WHERE AN ARCH
J
il

BREAKS.
at

L'arco
parte

si

ropera
passa
il

An
part

arch

breaks
lies

the

quella

che

which

below half

suo mezzo sotto

cietro.

way from the centre.
SECOND RUPTURE OF THE ARCH.
If the excess of weight be placed in the middle of the arch at
a, that weight tends to towards b, and the arch breaks 2 and g e at /3 of its height at c e is as many times stronger than e a,

ROPIMETO DELL ARCO.
l8

posto

Se '1 superchio peso fia I mezzo 1'arco nel puto a
,

g

J e quello desi 9dera cadere in b 2 ronpesi ne' / 3 della sua altezza c e, 20 e tato fia piu potete e che e a quanto 2I ;/z <? en,

the

point

fall

m

.

i

tra in

w

n.

as

m

o goes into

m

n.

D'UN ALTRA CAGIONE
23

DI RUINA.

ON ANOTHER
The arch

CAUSE OF RUIN.

L' arco verra ancora meno per essere 2 sospito da traverse, inpero *che quado il carico no si dirizza ai pie de2s 1'arco poco dura. 1'arco,

will likewise give way under a transversal thrust, for when the charge is not thrown directly on the foot of the

arch,

the

arch lasts but a short time.

A.

50,5]

780.

DELLA FORTEZZA
2

DELL' ARCO.

ON THE
si

STRENGTH OF THE ARCH.

II

modo

di fare 1'arco
i

permanete
di

e

The way

a

rienpiere

sua angoli
3

to

to give stability to the arch is fill the spandrils with good
to the

buono

insino ripieno raso overo culmine.

al

suo

masonry up
summit.

level of

its

4

DEL CARICARE SOPRA

L'ARCO TODO.

ON THE

LOADING OF ROUND ARCHES.

s

DEL CARICARE

L'ARCO

ACUTO BENE.

ON THE

PROPER MANNER OF LOADING

THE POINTED ARCH.

6

DELLO INCOVENIETE CHE SEGUITA A CA7

RICARE

L'ARCO ACUTO SUL suo MEZZO.

ON THE EVIL EFFECTS OF LOADING THE POINTED ARCH DIRECTLY ABOVE ITS CROWN.

15. larcho.

16.

larcho
.

.

.

mezo g
2.
.

[da],
22.

17.

sechodo
23.

.

.

archo.

18.
.

imezo larcho
anchora
. .

.

.

quelo.
24.

19.

chadere
.

.

.

dela
diriza

.

.

alteza.

20.
25.

[c

.

in n

che in

e]

e.

chagione.

larcho

vera

esserre.

charicho

.

.

.

archo.

larcho pocho.
dela forteza delarcho.
.
.

780.

i.

larcho.

3.

chulmine.
. .

4. 8.

charichare

.

.

larcho.

5.

charichare larcho achuto.

6.

delo incho10.

veniete

charichare.

7.

larcho achuto

mezo.

dano

.

.

larcho achuto.

9.

charichato sopra a sua fiachi.

larcho

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.

[7

8l.

ON THE DAMAGE DONE
ACUTO "DEL DANNO CHE RICIEVE L'ARCO
A ESSERE 9CARICATO SOPRA
I

SUOI FIACHI.

TO THE POINTED ARCH BY THROWING THE PRESSURE ON THE FLANKS.

10

L'arco
se fia

poco curvo
carico
I2
,

fia

sicuro per se,

An

"ma
spalle

le

bisognia armare; '3 1' arco

bene

safe in itself, arch of small curve is but if it be heavily charged, it is necessary to strengthen the flanks well. An arch of a
is very large curve and stronger itself,

d'assai

weak
if it

in

curvita fia per se debole, MC piv forte se fia carico
,

be

efara poca noia 'Salle sue in e lui ropera spalle

will do charged, and

little

harm to its abutments,and its places of giving way are*/.

o-p.
781.

A. 51

DEL

RIPARO A TERREMOTI.

ON THE REMEDY
The
arch

FOR EARTHQUAKES.
throws
its

which

pressure

6 verso per qualuque 8 a giacere, o ritto.

si stia,

?o rovescio, o

its

ropera se la corda di den1' arco che IO trol; Questo-appare per isperieza, che la corda- a-o-n dell' arco ogni-volta "di fori- n-r-a- tocchera -1' arco di 12dentro deboa sua x-b-y 1'arco dark pricipio e tato si fara piv debole quato lezza 1'arco-di detro- ropera dessa- corda. 13 fia- carico dal'una Quell' arco -il quale sulla somita I4 il de'lati, peso si carichera

9lL'arco no
fori

si

del' arco di

no tocchera

function whatever be its direction, upside down, sideways or upright. The arch will not break if the chord touch the inner the outer arch does not manifest by experience, This is arch.

because

,

-

,

whenever the chord a o n of the inner arch outer arch n r a approaches it will the arch will be weak, and x b y the inner arch passes weaker in proportion as an arch is loaded beyond that chord. When thrust will press on only on one side the of the other side and be transmit! the
top

780. Inside the large figure

on the right

is

the note:

Da par*

I*

f*na

dM archo.

782-784.]
dePaltro
il

ON THE NATURE OF THE ARCH.
e
al

89

mezzo-,
isino
,

pas'Ssera

dameto

peso per e ropera in quella I(3 parte che fia piv lontana dai sua stremi e dalla sua corda.

suo

fon-

to the spring of the arch on that side; and it will break at a point

half

way between
where
it

its

mes,

is

farthest

two extrefrom

the chord.

H.I 35*1

782.

La
che
2

quatita per forza

cotinua,
in

arco

fia

piegata,
linia,

splgie per

continuous body has been forcibly bent into an arch, thrusts in the direction of the

A

which

la

ode

deside^ra
straight

line,

which

it

tornare.
H.I 36 a]

tends to recover.
783.

L'arco
fa forza
2

di quatita discreta

In

an

arch

judiciously
is

per

linia

obliqua,

weighted the thrust
so
that

oblique,
c

cioe

il

triangulo

n b no

the

triangle
it.

n b

sete peso

has no weight upon

S.

K. M.

Il.a

676]

784. qui

Domando
^

de' contrapesi

che 2 pesi fieno a fa^re resistetia alia

quelli

di ciascun arco?

I here ask what weight will be needed to counterpoise and resist the tendency of each of these arches to give way?

chera sula soraita
782.

.

.

mezo e
2. fie.

pa.

15. quela.

16. cheffia

.

.

dala.

13
784.

R.

i.

archo.

783.

i

3

R.

i.

larcho.

784.

2.

hce

pesi.

3. affa.

4. resisetia.

The two lower sketches
II.

are taken from the

MS.

S.

K. M.

Ill,

io; they have

there no explanatory text.

VOL,

M

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.

[785.

Br.

M.

158 6}

785.

DELLA POTETIA DELL'ARCO NELL'ARCHITETTURA.
3

ON THE STRENGTH
The
architect
flanks.
stability

OF THE ARCH IN ARCHITECTURE.
of the
in

La permaneza

dell'

arco fabbricato dallo

arch
tie

built

by an
in

architetto coivsiste nella corda e nelle spalle
sue.

resides

the

and

the

DELLA SITUATIONS DELLA CORDA NEL SOPRA
DETTO ARCO.
5

ON THE

POSITION OF THE TIE IN THE ABOVE NAMED ARCH.

La

situatione della corda a equale ne-

cessita nel princi 6 pio dell'archo, e nel fine della rettitudine del pilastro 7 dove si posa;

sostetaculi che delli pruovasi per la 2 8 Quella parte del sostentaculo manco resiste che e piu remota dal fersmame'to * del suo tutto; adunque essendo la "somita del pilastro vltima reniotione d il suo ferdicie:

a

The position of the tie is of the same importance at the beginning of the arch and at the top of the perpendicular This is proved pier on which it rests. nd "of supports" which says: that by the 2
part of a support has least resistance which
.

mameto, e '1 si 1 'mile accadedo ntlli oppositi stremi dell' arco, che sono vl^tima distantia dal mezzo, suo vero fermameto, noi abbia con^cluso, che tal corda a b di neciessita
richiede
siti

from its solid attachment; hence, top of the pier is farthest from the middle of its true foundation and the same being the case at the opposite extremities of the arch \\hich are the points farthest from the
is

farthest

as

the

middle, which

is

la

situatione
li

delli

J

*sua
stremi

oppopre-

we have concluded

really its [upper] attachment, that the tie a b requires to

stremi infra
'5

4

oppositi

detti;

Dicie

1'

auersario che tale arco vole essere

I6 tondo, e allora non avra piu che mezzo di corda perche tali stremi J 7no bisognio

spignerano infuori, ma indentro, come si dimostra nello ecciesso a c b d\ Qui si risponde, tale ^inventione essere trista per
l8

be in such a position as that its opposite ends are between the four above-mentioned extremes. The adversary says that this arch must be more than half a circle, and that then it will not need a tie, because then the ends will not thrust outwards but inwards, as is seen in the excess at a c, b d. To this it must be answered that this would be a very

poor
refers
it

device,
to

for

three reasons.

The

first

alla forprima e inquanto tezza, perche e provato jl paralello cir2I culare, essendo coposto di due semicirculi, sol ropersi dove "tali semicirculi insieme
5

cause,

e

la

20

the

is

proved

strength of the arch, since that the circular parallel

congiugono, come mo 23 stra la figura ;/ oltre a di questo seguita, ch'egli e magsi
2

m

;

4giore spatio infra
le

li

stremi del semicirculo
alia fortezza 26 dell'

che infra

pa

2

5rieti delli

peso posto per cotro
diminuiscie tanto
27

muri; terza e che '1 arco

di peso, quato le poste sono piu larghe che detto spatio 28 che li pilastri interposto infra li pilastri, 4* e

being composed of two semicircles will only break where these semicircles cross each other, as is seen in the figure n m', besides this it follows that there is a wider space between the extremes of the semicircle than' between the plane of the walls; the third reason is that the weight placed to counterbalance the strength of the arch diminishes in proportion as the piers of the arch are wider than the space between the
Fourthly in proportion as the parts a b d turn outwards, the piers are weaker to support the arch above them. The 5 th is that all the material and weight of the
piers.

dell'arco

at c

indeboliscono per tato quato la parte loro

785.

i.

dellarcho.
6.

2.

premaneza dellarcho fabrichato
del
la.

.

.

architettoch
. .

\\\\\\.
.

3.

chorda.

4.

chorda
8.

.

.

archo.

3.

chorda allaq"a"
9.

neciessita.

rectitudine
delli]

pilasstro.
10.

7.
. .

dovessi

pella
. .

.

sostetachuli cheddicie.

sostentachulo ma.
ntlli
.

tucto

.

.

essendo
chon.

[la

somita

somita

pilasstro
14.
.

repotione.
.

n. achadedo
15. chettale

[nellarcho]
16.

.

.

archo chessono
17.

.

.

13.

chluso chettal chorda "a b"
.
.

di.

infralli
.

.

predecti.
19.

archo.
[tre]

ara

.

chorda.
. .

no

[gitte-

ranno] inspignierano
[larcho sol]
.

indreto.
. .

18.

mosstra
. .

rispoule.
.

trissta

per "5"
. .

chause
.

ella

e inq.

20.
.
.

provato
quessto
27. e

jl.

21.

chulare
.
.

choposto
.

semice

.

22.

semicirchuli

chongiughano

.

mos.
. .

23. fighura

.

ema.

24. infralli
. .

semics

.

infralle.

25. riete
28.

.

.

possto perchotro.
pilasstri

26.

archo diminuisscie
29.

posste dellarcho.
la

piu largha

interpostu infralli

pilasstri\\\\\.

\\\\

elli

indebolisschano.

larcho

.

.

5" he.

30. chettutta.

786.]

ON THE NATURE OF THE ARCH.
arch which are
are useless
in

*b d si piegha indirieto nel ritienere a sopra di se 1'arco; la 5 e 3che tutta la spesa e '1 peso dell' arco che eccede il mezzo tondo 3 J e inutile e dafioso, ed e qui da notare, che il peso 3 2 sopra posto all' archo ropera co piu facilita 1'arco in a b troua^do la curuatura dell'ecciesso che al mezzo circulo 34 che essendo dirieto il s'agiugnie pilastro
c

a

2<

excess of the semicircle

and indeed mischievous; and here it is to be noted that the weight placed above the arch will be more likely to break the arch at a b, where the curve of the excess added to the semicircle, begins that is
than if the pier were straight up to its junction with the semicircle [spring of the
arch].

insino al cotatto del semicirculo.

LARCHO

IL QUALE E CARICO SOPRA IL suo MEZZO ROPERA 3 6 NEL SUO QUARTO DESTRO

AN ARCH LOADED
WAY AT THE
This
is

OVER THE CROWN WILL GIVE LEFT HAND AND RIGHT HAND
QUARTERS.
th

E SINISTRO.

37Frouasi per la 7 di questo che dicie tie opposite stremita delli sostetaculi sono equalmete agra39yate dal peso che per lor si sospede; aduque il peso dato in /si 4 sete in b c cioe mezzo per ciascuno stremo, e per la terza che dicie: 4I Quella parte del sostetacolo d' equal potetia piu presto si rompe 42 che e piu distante al suo fermameto, ode seguita che .... 4 3per essere d
38

a

proved by the

7

of this which

says: The opposite ends of the support are equally pressed upon by the weight suspended to them; hence the weight shown at f is
felt at

b

c,

that
third

is

and by the
will give
its

half at each extremity; which says: in a support

of .equal strength [throughout] that portion way soonest which is farthest from

equalmente distate

al

fe

ferma

attachment; whence it follows that equally distant from /, e

d being

35

Se 1'armadura
37

dell'ar3 6 co

no cala
e
4

in-

If
settle

the

centering

of the

arch does not
as
it

sieme

C ol calo dell' arco,

la cal3 8 cina nel
si

as the

arch

settles,

the mortar,

seccarsi restri39gnie in se 4I spicca dall'u de'matto ni,

medesima
alii

quali ella per

co! 42 legarli

e interpo 43 sta, e cosl li lascia dis 44 legati, per la qual co 4 5sa la uolta resta disu 46 nita e le pioggie in brie 47 ve la ruinano.

and detach itself from the bricks between which it was laid to keep them together; and as it thus leaves them
dries, will shrink

disjoined the vault will remain loosely built,

and the

rains will

soon destroy

it.

A.

786.

DELLA FORTEZZA E QUALITA DELLI
DOVE SONO FORTI
O DEBOLI COLONNE.
2

ARCHI, E E COSI LE

ON THE STRENGTH AND NATURE OF ARCHES, AND WHERE THEY ARE STRONG OR WEAK; AND THE SAME AS TO COLUMNS.
That part of the arch which
weight placed on
it.

IMQuella parte dell' arco che fia piv 4 al piana, fara minore resistetia peso sopra postoli.H

is

nearer

to the horizontal offers least resistance to the

archo
tatto.

.

.

eciede.

31.
.

[dellarcho] e innutile.
.

32.

possto

.

.

larcho.

33.

churuatura
18.

.

.

mezo

circhulo.
40.

34. pilasstro

.

.

cho-

35.
.
.

charicho

mezo.
42.

36.

desstro
. .

essinisstro.

37.

cheddicie.
43.

sosstetachuli
al
f

seno.

ciasscuno.
36.
. .

41.

sosste-

tacholo
37. chol la
. .

si r\\\\\\\\\\.

disstante

seghuita che
40. sispicha.

\\\\\\\\\\.

deq distante
42. legharsi.

e ferma

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.

cho no chala.
45. la

chalo dell archo.
46. elle.

38. secharsi.

41. chol.

43. e chosi.

44. leghati

qual che.

ressta.
2.

47. ve le.
3.

786.

i.

forteza.

chosi le cholone.

archo cheffia.

6.

chalando chaccia.

7.

ciaschuno

1/2

archo.

8. echosi.

n. ciasschuno

92

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.

[

7 86.

sQuando
do caccia
2

jl

triagolo

z

n

6

calan-

When

the

triangle

u
2

indirieto

z n, by settling, drives backwards the
/3

ciascuno di /3 arco 8 cioe a.s-e '/a cosl z m, ela 9ragio si e che a I0 e pioba sopra b,
7j

that

of each '/2 circle is a s and in the
z

same way
reason
b
is
is

m

,

the

a is perpendicularly over
that

cosl

5-

sopra /.
*/ 2
,

and so likewise z above f.

1 '

Ciascuno

arco
si

superchio

peso

sendo vinto dal 2 ronpera ne /3 della
,

Either half of an
will

break at

2

/3

of

its

arch, if overweighted, height, the point which

"sua

altezza-, la quale-parte

risponde

per

perpediculare linia sopra il mezzo della sua l * basa- come appare in a b\ E questo accade che'l pe o desidera cadere '*e passare pel puto r E s'egli desiderasse cotra sua natura cade'Sre dal puto s -, 1'arco M s si roperebbe nel stio mezzo apputo 16 e se 1' arco n s fusse d' u solo legnio, il desidereb'7be cadere in peso posto ine ronperebbesi in mezzo * 2 all' arco e; -

corresponds to the perpendicular line above the middle of its bases, as is seen at a b; and this happens because the weight tends
to fall past the point r.

And

if,

against

its

l8 di sopra ropera nel terzo 20 nel puto ?a -, perche da a n e 1'arco 2I 22 a o e che piv pia no, che non e da no^n e da o s; 2 4,e tanto quato *$p .t e 26 maggio re che t-n-^ tanto fia piv for 28 te -a o che 2 9non e a n -Je similmete 2 3 1 tanto fia piv * forte s o che 33 a
,

m m

altremeti
l

si

should tend to fall towards the point s the arch n s would break precisely in its middle. If the arch n s were of a single piece of timber, if the weight placed at n should tend to fall in the line n ni, the arch would break in the middle of the arch e m, otherwise it will break at one third from the top at the point a because from a to n the arch is nearer to the horizontal than from
nature
it

-

a to
is

;

o and from o to j, in proportion as / / than greater than t n, a o will be stronger a n and likewise in proportion as s o is

-

quato ^r- p fia maggi^ore che p t. 36 Quel arco che fia raddoppiato nella quadratura della sua grossezza 37 re giera
quattro tanti peso quanto regieva lo sce38 pio , tanto piv quanto il diamitro della sua grossezza entra me numero di uolte nella 39 S ua lunghezza, Cioe se la grossezza delFarco sciepio entra- 10 * volte nella sua lughezza, la grossezza del arco dupplicato etrera 5 volte *' nella sua lughezza ; Aduque entrado la meta meno la grossezza de 4 2 P arcodupplicato nella sua lunghezza che no fa quella de+ 3 1'arco- sciepio nella sua -, e ragionevol cosa che regga la meta

stronger than o a, r p will be greater than / /. The arch which is doubled to four times of its thickness will bear four times the weight that the single arch could carry, and more in proportion as the diameter of its thickness goes a smaller number .of times into its length. That is to say that if the arch goes ten the thickness of single times into its length, the thickness of the

x

doubled arch

will

go

five times into its length.

4peso che no gli toccherebbe, se fusse proportione dell' aH SCG sciepio; Onde essendo quest' arco dupplicato per 4 volte la qua4 6 tita del' arco sciepio, parrebbe che dovesse regiere?4 tati piv peso, 47 e la sopra detta regola dimostra che ne sostiene 8 cotati apputo.
piv
alia

Hence as the thickness of the double arch goes only half as many times into its length arch does, it is as that of the .single reasonable that it should carry half as much more weight as it would have to carry if it were in direct proportion to the arch. Hence as this double arch has single 4 times the thickness of the single arch, it would seem that it ought to bear 4 times the weight; but by .the above rule it is shown that it will bear exactly 8 times as
much.

'/2

archo.

12.

alteza
.

.

.

14.

Essegli desiderassi

.

chotra

risponde perpedichulare . . chade. 15. larcho .

.

.

mezo

dela.
. .

13.

chome apare
magi.
36.

.

.

Ecquesto achade
. .

.

.

chadere.

.

roperebe

aputo. 16. esselnrcho (in) fussi
34.

desidere.
.

17.
.

be cha-

dere eronprrebesi in
37.
la

1/2

archo. 20. elarcho. 25. magio. 30. essimilmete.
. .

archo

.

cheffia radopiato

grosseza.
. .

Ettanto. 38. grosseza. 39. lungeza sella grosseza dellarcho duplichato etera. lugeza 40. volte ila archo duplichato etera. 41. nela lungeza che no fa che lugeza grosseza. 42. larcho duplichato archo duplichato. tocherebe [ali] sefuss ssi ala. 45. cho chosa che rega. 44. peso |ap] che no fa. 43. larcho cha vcra. 49. macho. 50. cholona . dovessi. 47. cbotali aputo. 48. cheffia charicho diseghuale parebe 46. archo
lossciepio
. .

grosseza

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

ON THE NATURE OF THE ARCH.
QUEL PILASTRO CHE
SEGUALE
50

93

FIA

49 PESO

VERRA
c
fia

PIV PRESTO
-

CARICO DI PIV DIAL MACO.
carica

THAT

PIER,

WHICH

is

CHARGED

MOST UN-

EQUALLY, WILL SOONEST GIVE WAY.

d'

piv permae 1'altre 2 di fori ano bisognio di tato peso dal loro cietro infori S2q U at'e dal loro cietro indetro cioe dal cietro della colonna insino a mezzo 1'arco.
nete,
$
l

La colonna equale somma

b

per 1'essere

The column

being charged with an equal weight, [on each side] will be
c b,

most durable, and the other two outward columns require on the part out-

53

Li archi che stano per forza di catene

no fieno permaneti.

much pressure of their centre, that is, from the centre of the column, towards the middle of the arch. Arches which depend on chains for their support will not be very durable.
side of their centre as
is

as there

inside

L'ARCO FIA DI PIV LUGA PERPETUITA QUALE AVRA BONO CONTRARIO AL SUO
*

,

IL

THAT ARCH WILL BE OF LONGER DURATION
WHICH HAS A GOOD ABUTMENT OPPOSED TO
ITS

SPIGIERE.

THRUST.

L' arco per se desidera cadere, e se 30 braccia e lo iteruallo ch' e infra i mvri s^che lo sostegono sia 20 , noi sap55

1'

ar-

The arch

itself

co

fia

piamo che 30 no passera per 20, se 20 no si 57 fa ancora lui ode sendo vinto 30
;

tends to fall. If the arch be 30 braccia and the interval between the walls which carry it be 20, we know that 30 cannot pass through the 20 unless 20 Hence becomes likewise 30.
the arch being crushed by the excess of weight, and the walls
offering
part,
insufficient

1'

arco dal superchio peso si dirizza e i mvri s8 ma i e resiteti

resistance,

1'aprono e dano 1'entrata infra loro spatio alia ruina
del'

and afford room between
fall

them, for the

of the arch.

arco;
6o

59Ma

se tu

no

uolessi mettere alli

But

1'arco la sua corda di ferro,
tali

spalle che facciano

resistetia al
:

debbi fare suo

la qual cosa farai cosl carica n di pietre che le linie delle angoli loro givnture se dirizzino al cientro 62 del circulo del' arco, la ragione, che sara

spingiere,
61
li

m

E

you do not wish to strengthen the arch with an iron tie you must give it such abutments as can resist the thrust; and you can do this thus: fill up the spandrels m n with stones, and direct the lines of the joints between them to the centre of the circle of the arch, and the reason why this makes
if

permanete, piamo chiaro che quarto suo a b
-

1'arco

fia

questa,
carica

Noi

6

chi

1'arco

3sapnel

6

^muro -f-g6s
.

fia

di superchio peso che' 1 sospmto, perche 1'arco si

uorra

dirizzare;
c

E

chi

caricasse

Paltro

know very the arch durable is this. well that if the arch is loaded with an excess of weight above its quarter as a b, the wall g will be thrust outwards because the arch would yield in that direction; if the

We

f

quarto

ch'eli

f-gpietre

indetro,

se

no

tirerebbe il mvro fusse la linia delle

^x y
II. 2

che

fa sostegnio.

other quarter b c were loaded, the wall g thrust inwards, if it were not for the line of stones x y which resists this.

f

would be

S.

K. M.

661]

787-

FONDAMETO.
2

PLAN.
archi
i

Qui
dell'

si

dimostra

come

li

3

fa tti ne'

Here
in

it

is

lati

ottagolo

spmgo^no

pilastri

delli

the

side

shown how the arches made of the octagon thrust the piers

richa

.

.

soma

.

.

premanete.
55.

51.
.

ano
.

.

.

tado

.

.

daloro. 52. daloro
. .

.

.

cholona

.

.

ihezo. 53. stano
.

.

.

chatene. 54. larcho
57.
.
.

.

.

ara
. .

.

.

chontrario.
58.

larcho
.

chadere Esselarcho
ala
. .

30 br
.

.

.

Tterualo.
.

diriza.

laprano edano
. .

.

archo.

59.

Massettu
.

.

archo
.

.

sostegano sapiano. chorda. 60. spale cheffacino
56.
.
.

anora

.

.

larcho
.

chosa

.

chari-

cha.

61.

chelle

dele

.

.

dirizino.
.

62.

circhulo

.

archo
.

.'

larcho

.

premanete.

63.

sapiano

.

.

chariche larcho.

64. larcho si

uora dirizare

.

charichassi.

65. tirerebe

.

fussi.

66. cheffa.

787.

2.

dimosstra chome.

3. caciarlo.

94
angoli
6

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.
infori,

[ 7 88.

Scome
linia /

si

of the angles outwards, as
is

dimostra nella
e
nella
linia
^ il

k

c

d

che

shown by the line h c and by the line / d which
thrust

spingono
in

pilastro
si
8

m

out

the

pier

m

;

fori, ciod

sforzano

that
it

is

cacciarlo dal cietro di tale

away

they tend to force from the centre of

^ottangolo.

such an octagon.

B. 37 a]

788.

La

sperieza
si

vno arco no
colon 2 ne,

carica tutto

che vn peso posto sopra sopra alle sua
fra-

An Experiment to show that a weight placed on an arch does not discharge itself
entirely on its columns; on the contrary the greater the weight placed on the arches, the less the arch transmits the weight to the columns.
is the following. Let a man be placed on a steel yard in the middle of the shaft of a well, then let him spread out his hands and feet between the walls of the

anzi

quato e maggior peso
,

il

posto sopra 1'archi peso alle colone
;

tanto

me

pesa ^I'arco
:

la

sia

messo vn omo * sopra
troba d'uno pozzo;

sperienza sie questa le stadere in mezzo

The experiment

la

allarghi le

mani
,

detto pozzo

fa dipoi che questo e piedi infra le parieti di vedrai questo pesare alia stas
;

well,

and you
steel

will see

the

dera
spalle,
7

molto meno
uedrai
ti

da

li

vno peso

yard; give

him weigh much less on him a weight on the

alle

per sperieza quato maggior

shoulders, you will see by experiment, that the greater the weight you give him the greater
effort

peso

dara,

maggiore forza
8
il

fara in aprire

le

braccia eganbe, e piv

p6 dare

nelle parieti,

he will make in spreading his arms and legs, and in pressing against the wall and the less weight will be thrown on
the steel yard.

e piv macare

podo

alle stadere.

788.

i.
. .

archo
ala.

.

.

carica tu sopra
.

.

.

colo.
.

2.

magior.
7.

3.

larcho

el

.

.

cholone
.

.

.

questa

si

mezzo.

4.

imezo

.

.

pozo.

5.

pozo

6. spalli

.

isperieza

.

magior.

darai magiore.

8.

pariete

.

mac hare.

f*fet*rv"T
/h/rr<4'th?fe '* H*"'Mf)
<

++
*tSr*-f
I

/Ml*

jr-

*****J

*>LfcVVi1*W
.

r^i^

LSfcS^*^^ ^ JM w-rw"' H*" ?
1

f^V^^'V""^ ^"'""^r^v^
'l^!Si*v
:

:(^$SpW> r.-^l^
If

is22S3^^ ^/^ *** ^
Wl

i

i.^6^?J;,?-J --''

/AvA-'""i r/r* "/

K iii^ r"I AN'-iVB^KPrt *' A>jpiI>v "
''
>

_,^V'i

r ""'^"-<3
v 'f

X-

v

;'

oiiVrf*.-^"***^''

T

~ *^r*y WM^W*^ %1 h
LA.
.iw.r.ftvo}
c

fcn*"F
<

- 11

:?

-""n;"","!""^'
.)

**

*n*(re*C2i'2 .J,1 /.Jirfifi.
:

>^r :

N i^i-jS Wrt'* '*T c'^ > .^flT

%^W

^^vS-'fi JL.wv Mr *i\

B5Ka.J

^.i?
'_!:

JS^tf*^ Juni^K

^

Hcliog-.

Dujardin

,

Imp. Eude s

.

)<^*$|K^t^^

IV.

ON FOUNDATIONS, THE NATURE OF THE GROUND AND
SUPPORTS.
Br.

M. 1380]

789.

La prima parte neciessarissima e la loro permanetia. 2 Delli fondameti che anno le mebrificationi
fiti

The
stability.

first

and

most important thing

is

As

to the foundations of the

component

componi3trici

delli

tepli

e

altri

edi-

public!,

tal proporti 4 one

deve essere da

parts of temples and other public buildings, the depths of the foundations must bear

s profondita a profondita quale e da peso a che scaricare si deve sopra essi me 6 bri. peso

della pro 8 fondita, che a la I0 fatta a suoli, terra per alquato spatio, e e o TI gni suolo e coposto di I2 parti, piu grave '3e piv leue Puna chel'aHtra; nel profondarsi e piu grave, e questo si prova,

?Ogni parte
9

the same proportions to each other as the weight of material which is to be placed upon them. Every part of the depth of earth in a given space is composed of layers, and each layer is composed of heavier or the lowest being the materials, lighter heaviest. And this can be proved, because

perche qu'esti tali soli so co^posti dalle l8 mare turbulentie l6 delle acque scaricate I dal corso de' fiumi, X 9che in quello ver2I 20 la parte delle quali turbulentie sano, 2 fu 22 quella che prima 3si scarico piu grave successiva 24 mete, e" questo fa Pac 25 qua, dov' 2 26 ella si ferma, Ie vado prima dove es ?sa 28 si move; di que sti tali soli di terra 2 9si manifesta nelli lati 3di fiumi che coi lor con3 T tinui corsi anno secati z 2 e partiti con
is

E

these layers have been formed by the sediment from water carried down to the sea, by the current of rivers which flow into it. The heaviest part of this sediment was that which was first thrown down, and so on by degrees; and this is the action of water when it becomes stagnant, having first brought down the mud whence it first flowed.

gra pro33fondita di tagli Pu m634te dall'al36 tro, doue per li 35ghiajosi soli 1' acque so no 37 l a materia si e secscolate e per questo

such layers of soil are seen in the banks of rivers, where their constant flow has cut through them and divided one slope from the other to a great depth; where in gravelly strata the waters have run off, the ma-

And

789.

i.

ella loro perfnanentia.
. .

2.
si

chean

le mebrificationi
8.

chonponi.
10.

3.

pubblici.

4.

debbe

.

dapprofondita approfondita.
12.

5.

dap[opi]..

peso
13. 22.

chesscarichare
lievi

debbe.
14.

alia.

9.

spatiotio.

faetata

assuoli.

n. chopossto.
16. turbbulentie.

parte

.

.

grave

eppiv

luna chellal.
23.

tra
24.

"nel -grave" ecquesto.si prove.
ecquesto
fallac.

15. quessti.

17. scharichate.

21. fuc.

prim"a".
esspartiti.

sisscharicho.
35.

25.

ferme.
38.

29.

manifessta.
40.

30.

cholor chon.
41.

31.
43.

chorsi an seghati.
tereste.

32.

34. dallaltre.

gliorosi.

37. se

secha.

chovertita.

fagho.

ecquesto.

45.

chosi

de choverso.

WRITINGS ON ARCHITECTURE.
cata
di

[790. 791.

ecouertita in dura 39pietra, e massime *quel fago, che era piu 4'sottile, e questo
38

4 cocludere, che ogni par He della terrestre superfitie fu * gia cietro della terra e 2 ci < fa

de coverso
A.

ecc.

have, in consequence, dried and been converted into hard stone, and this happened most in what was the finest mud; whence we conclude that every portion of the surface of the earth was once at the centre of the earth, and vice versa &c.
terials

790.
delli
edifiti

il

piv leggiero disunite da se; 1 1E quel terreno ch' e piv premvto, sendo poroso piv acconsente 1 Senpre tu devi fare i fondameti che sportino egualmete fori del scarico-de'lor mvri e pilastri come appare in a b e se 6 farai come molti fanno,
3
,
;

UQuellaparte del fondameto che piv pesa 2 piv si ficca e lascia

in alto

m

The heaviest part of the foundations of settles and leaves the most, buildings lighter part above it separated from it. And the soil which is most pressed, if it be porous yields most. You should always make the foundations project equally beyond the weight of the walls
and
as

,

cioe di fare uno fondameto d'equale 7 larghezza in sino alia superfitie della terra, e di sopra li danno diseguale 8 carico come

as shown at a b. If you do do, that is to say if you make a foundation of equal width from -the bottom up to the surface of the ground, and charge
piers,

m

many

t:

si dimostra in b e e in e o, la parte del fonda^meto b e, perche e piena dal pilasxo in tro del catone piv pesa e piv splgie basso il suo fodameto che no fa il muroe o che non occupa 1 interamete il suo fodameto, e pero meno spegnie e me si
, 1

above with unequal weights, as shown at and at e o, at the part of the foundation at b e, the pier of the angle will weigh most and thrust its foundation downwards, which
it

b e

the wall at e o will not do; since it does not cover the whole of its foundation, and therethe
fore thrusts less heavily and settles less. Hence, pier b e in settling cracks and parts

onde ficcadosi il pilastro b e e si diunisce e parte dal mv^ro e o come si uede nel piv delli edifiti che sono spicati intorno a detti pilastri.
ficca,
-

I2

from the wall e o. This may be seen in most buildings which are cracked round the piers.

A. S3"!

791.
finestra
-

La
2

a

sta

bene sotto
-3-

The window a
under the window

is
c,

well placed

la finestra c

e la finestra
lo spatio

b

and the win-

sta

male sotto

**/,
sanza
6 si

dow

b

perche detto
Ssostegnio
ricordati di
li

spatio

e

pier d,

badly placed under the because this latter is without
is

e fondameto,

che

support and foundation; mind therefore never to

no ropere

7

mai sotto

make a break under

spati

delle finestre.

the piers between the windows.

790.

i.

Quela.
chatone.
3.

2.

ficha
.

.

ellasscia
6.

.

.

el
.

.

.

chome
9.

"aparc

.

csse.
. .

chome

.

10.

baso

none ochupa.

dasse. 3. Ecquel tereno . achosete. chessportino. 5. pilasstri 4. debi ala delatera dano. 8. charicho. fondameto [equi] de quale. 7. largeza disunis>cie. 13. ckome chessono spichati. 14. pil.isslri. n. ficha. 12. fi[g] chadosi
legieri
.

.

.

.

!

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

791. 2. ella.

sotto [la finestra] lo spatio.

5.

effondameto.

6. richordati.

792.]

ON SUPPORTS.

97

A.

48*5]

792.

DEL
2

SOSTETACULO.

II pilastro moltiplicato per grossezzacresciera tanto piv che la sua debita potetia 3quato della ragionevole e' maca

A

creased

pillar will

of which the thickness more than its gain
to

is

in-

due
its

altezza.

strength, in direct proportion loses in relative height.

what

ESENPLO.
s Se uno pilastro debe essere alto 9 grossezze-, cioe che s'egli sara- grosso uno 6 braccio, la regola lo pone di 9 braccia-; se ne collegherai 100 insieme per grossezza fia grosso braccia 10 e alto -9, 7 e se

EXAMPLE.
If a pillar should be nine times as high it is broad that is to say, if it is one

as

ilprimo pilastro regieva 10000 libbre, perche 8 questo secodo non e alto se non e circa a una grossezza, e macadoli 8 parti della lunghezza e' regiera piv otto volte, 9 cioe ogni pilastro collegato li toccera a regiere piv 8 volte che dislegato, cioe I0 che se prima regieva dieci mila libbre adesso ne
,

braccio thick, according to rule it should be nine braccia high then, if you place 100 such pillars together in a mass this will be ten braccia broad and 9 high; and if the first pillar could carry 10000 pounds the second being only about as high as it is wide, and thus lacking 8 parts of its proper length,
to say, each pillar thus united, is bear eight times more than when disconnected; that is to say, that if at first it would carry ten thousand pounds, it would now carry 90 thousand.
it,

that

will

sosterra

90

mila.

799.

i.

sosstetachulo.
. .

2.
. .

pilasstro mvltiplichato per grosseza cressciera
1

.

tanto "piv che".
.

3.
7.

macha
. .

.

.

alteza.
.
.

5.

Se
.

I

.

.

gros-

seze
8. a

chesseli

br

.

[de]
.
.

la.

6.

9 br

.

.

cholegerai

.

.

grosseza
tochera.

br. 10.

esse

Ibr
. .

sechodo

.

circha.

i

grosseza e machadoli

dela lungeza.

9.

cholegato

.

.

10.

chesse

.

.

mila Ibr

sostera.

VOL.

N

V.

ON THE RESISTANCE OF BEAMS.
s.

K. M. n.i 72 a]
2

793sa^ra
'1

QuelPangolo
fia

che

piv aScuto e

piv resiste tia 6 piv ottu so fia piv
di

4

debole.

That angle will offer the greatest resistance which is most acute, and the most obtuse will be the weakest.

PALCO DOPPIO.

S.

K. M.

III.

i

got]

Se
fia

i

travi

e'l
2

100

peso
che
4

libre, sara in a b

peso o quato a fa3re

If the beams and the weight
i oo pounds, how much weight will be wanted a.ia-b to resist such a weight, that it may not fall down?

o are

resistetia

a esso
in

no caggia

peso basso?

A.

531

795-

BELLA LUNGHEZZA DELLE
1

TRAVI.

ON THE
che
le

LENGTH OF BEAMS.
is

Quella

trave

che
1

fia

luga piv
fia

That beam which
as long as its brief duration
'

more than 20

times

20 sua 3maggiori grossezze, manete e roperasi in /2 *e
;

poco per-

greatest thickness will

be of

ricordati che
794.

and

will

break in half; and

793. 4. cheffia.

5.

piotu.

14

R.

2. affa.

3. resisstetia.

4.

chaggio.
is

793.

The

three smaller sketches
it.

accompany
be found on

the
fol.

text in

rectly connected with

It

is

to

the original, but the larger one 89 a of the same Manuscript and there
(roof of the flagstaff of the castle).

not

di-

we

read in

a note, written underneath, coverchio della perdicha del
also PI. XCIII,

castello

Compare

No.

i.

795-J

ON THE RESISTANCE OF BEAMS.

99

la
s

parte ch'etra nel mvro, sia penetrata pece calda e fasciata d' asse di quercia, acor essa penetrata ; 6 Ogni trave vole passare i sua muri e esser ferma di la da essi mv^ri co soffitieti catene, perche spesso si vede per terremoti le traf 8 vi usci re de'mvri e rovidi

remember, that the part built into the wall should be steeped in hot pitch and filleted Each with oak boards likewise so steeped. beam must pass through its walls and be
secured
,

beyond the

walls

with

sufficient

chaining, because in

con-

nare poi i mvri e solari; dove, se sono icatenate, 9 terranno i mvri in sieme fermi, e i mvri fermano 10 Ancorati ricordo che tu
i

earthquakes the beams are often seen to come out of the walls

sequence

of

and bring down the walls
i

solari.

and

no

faci

mai

hold

smalti sopra legni lj ame, imperoche nel cresciere e discresciere che fa il legname 12 per 1'umido e secco, spesse volte cre-

pano detti solai e crepa^te le loro diuisioni a poco a poco si fano in poluere e fano
^brutta evidetia. 'sAncora ti ricordo no facci solari sostenvti da archi l6 e travi, imperoche col tepo il
1 solaro, ch' e sostenvto dalle tra ?vi, cala alin nel suo mezzo, e quella parte quato 18 del solaro, ch'e sostenuta dal arco, resta nel suo loco, onde *9j solari che sono soste-

chained they will strongly together and the walls will hold the floors. Again I remind you never to put plaster over timber. Since of by expansion and shrinking the timber produced by damp and dryness
floors; whilst if they are

the

walls

their divisions

and once cracked gradually produce dust and an ugly effect. Again remember not to lay a floor on beams supported on arches; floor which is made on for, in time the beams settles somewhat in the middle while that part of the floor which rests on
such
floors

often crack,

the arches remains in
laid

its

nvti

da 2 varie nature
colli.

di sosteta 20 culi

paiono

over two kinds

place; hence, floors of supports look, in
in hills [19].
5.

col tepo fatti a
795.
i.

time, as if they were
.
.

made

dela lungeza.
7.

2.

cheffia

pivi

.

chele [10]
.

20.
.

3.

magiori grosseze
8.

.

.

pocho.
terano
.
. . .

4.

richordoti.
10.

chalda

.

.

essa

t's

wanting.
chettu.

cho

soffitiete

chatene

.

tremoti

.

ussci.

Ichatenate.

9.

e e mvri.
soli
. .

Anchora
13.
ti

ti
.

richordo
.

u.
.

cressciere e disscressciere rheffa ilegname.
15.
.

12.

essecho
. .

.

.

isspesse
.

detti

e

crep.
. .

le

apocho
equle

apocho
parte.

.

effano.

Anchora
archo
.
.

ti

richordo no
19.

faci.

16. ettrav

chol

.

dale.
20.

17.

chola

inel

mezo [che
.
.

elp]

18.

sostenta

.

locho.

propositione J solari chessone.
to

ch

chili

paiano
but

ch'ol

acholli.

The word

propositione written on the margin near line 19 has apparently nothing

do with

this text,

M.

Ravaisson, in his edition of

MS. A. has

been misled by

it to

take

j

solari (line 18)

for

the beginning

of a new paragraph.

795.

19.
it

M. RAVAISSON,
thus
:

translating

in his edition of MS. gives a very different rendering of this passage Les planchers qui sont soutenus far deux differmtes natures de supports paraisseiit avec le
chollt\.

A

temps /aits en voute [a

/<r>

Remarks on

the style

of Leonardo's

architecture.

few remarks may here be added on the style of Leonardo s archiHowever incomplete, however small in scale, they allow tectural studies. us to establish a certain number of facts and probabilities, well worthy of
consideration.

A

began his studies the great name of Brunellesco was still the inspiration of all Florence, and we cannot doubt that Leonardo was open to it, since we Jind among his sketches the plan of the church of No. i), a plan Santo Spirito* and a lateral view of San Lorenzo (PL

When Leonardo

XCIV

almost identical with the chapel Degii Angeli, only begun by him (PI.

XCIV

,

among Leonardos designs for domes several clearly betray the influence of Brunellesco s Cupola and the lantern of Santa Maria del Fiore*. The beginning of the second period of modern Italian architecture falls
No.
$) "while

during the first twenty years of Leonardos life. However the new impetus given by Leon Battista Alberti either was not generally understood by his contemporaries, or those who appreciated it, had no opportunity of showing
that they did
so.

It

loped by him to the

was only when taken up by Bramante and devehighest rank of modern architecture that this new infelt.

fluence
is that,

was generally
like the

Now

the peculiar feature

of Leonardos

sketches

works of Bramante, they appear

to be the

development and

continuation of Alberti s.

See PI.

XCIV, No.

2.

Then only in course of

erection

after

the designs of Brunellesco,

though he IMS

already dead; finished in
2

1481.

A

small sketch of the tower of the Palazzo della Signoria (MS. C. A. 309^) proves that he also studied

mediaeval monuments.

ON THE STYLE OF LEONARDO'S ARCHITECTURE.

IOI

till

But a question here occurs which is difficult to answer. Did Leonardo, he quitted Florence, follow the direction given by the dominant school of " Brunellesco, which would then have given rise to his First manner', or
he, even before he left Florence, felt

had
his

Albertis influence

either through

works (Palazzo Ruccellai, and the front of Santa Maria Novella) or through personal intercourse? Or was it not till he went to Milan that

Albertis work began to impress him through Bramante, who probably had known Alberti at Mantua about 1470 and who not only carried out Albertis

Rome, proved himself the greatest of modern architects. When Leonardo went to Milan Bramante had already been living there for many years. One of his earliest works in Milan was the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Via del Falcone*.

views

and

ideas, but, by his designs

for

St. Peter s at

and

LXXXV and in PI. LXXX

Now we find among Leonardos

of Cupolas on Plates several sketches which seem to me
stiidies

LXXXIV
to

have

been suggested by

Bramante s dome of this church. The MSS. B and Ash. II contain the plans of S. Sepolcro, the pavilion in the garden of the duke of Milan, and two churches, evidently inspired by the church of San Lorenzo at Milan.
two notes relating to Pavia, one of them a design for the sacristy of the Cathedral at Pavia, which cannot be supposed to be dated later than 1492, and it has probably some relation to Leonardos
besides

MS.

B. contains

call to

Pavia June 21, I49O 2 These and other considerations justify us in concluding, that Leonardo made his studies of cupolas at Milan probably
.
,

between the years 1487 and 1492 in anticipation of the erection of one of the grandest churches of Italy, the Cathedral of Pavia. This may explain the decidedly Lombardo-Bramantesque tendency in the style of these studies,

among which only a few remind us of the forms of the cupolas of S. Maria del Fiore and of the Baptistery of Florence. Thus, although when compared with Bramante s work, several of these sketches plainly reveal that masters influence, we find, among the sketches of domes, some, which show already Bramante s classic style, of which the Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio,
his first building executed at

On

Plate

LXXXIV

is

Rome, is the foremost example 3 a sketch of the plan of a similar circular
.

building; and the Mausoleum on PI. XCVIII> no less than one of the pedestals for the statue of Francesco Sforza (PI. LXV), is of the same type.
1

Evidence of

2

The
It

sketch

Manuscript,
3

may may be

this I intend to give later on in a Life of Bramante, which I have in preparation. of the plan of Brunellescrfs church of Santo Spirito at Florence, -which occurs in the same have been done from memory.

mentioned here, that in 1494 Bramante
delle Grazie.

made a

similar design for the lantern of the Cupola of

the

Church of Santa Maria

102

ON THE STYLE OF LEONARDO'S ARCHITECTURE.

The drawings PL
the

LXXXIV

No.
the

2,

PL

LXXXVI
PI.

No.
No.

i

and
2,

2

and

ground flour of

the building in

drawing

XCI

with the

interesting decoration by gigantic statues in large niches, are also, I believe, more in the style Bramante adopted at Rome, than in the Lombard style.

Leonardo on his part influenced Bramante in the sense of simplifying his style and rendering it more congenial to antique art? The answer to this important question seems at flrst difficult we are here in presence of Bramante, the greatest of to give, for modern architects, and with Leonardo, the man comparable with no other.
to conclude

Are we

from

this that

have no knowledge of any buildings erected by Leonardo, and unless we admit personal intercourse which seems probable, but of which there is no it would be difficult to understand how Leonardo could have proof affected
,

We

Bramante s style. The converse is more easily to be admitted, since Bramante, as we have proved elsewhere, drew and built simultaneously in different manners and though in Lombardy there is no building by him in his
,

classic

style,

the use

of brick for building, in that part of
is

Italy,

may

easily account

for it. Bramante s name

incidentally

in

two passages
to

(Nos. 1414

and

mentioned in Leonardos manuscripts On each occasion it is only a 1448^).
the context gives us no due infor-

slight passing allusion,

and the nature of

mation as

any

close connection between the

two

artists.

It might be supposed, East given in sections

on the ground of Leonardos relations with the

XVII

and

XXI

of

this volume, that

some evidence

I do of oriental influence might be detected in his architectural drawings. not however think that any such traces can be pointed out with certainty
unless perhaps the

drawing for a Mausoleum,

PI.

XCVIII.
of cupolas above a Greek
These,

Among
it is clear,

several studies

for

the construction

cross there are

some in which the forms are decidedly monotonous.

were not designed as models of taste; they must be regarded as the results of certain investigations into the laws of proportion, harmony
contrast.
,

and

The designs for churches on the plan of a Latin cross are evidently intended to depart as little as possible from the form of a Greek cross; and they also show a preference for a nave surrounded with outer porticos.

The architectural forms preferred by Leonardo are pilasters coupled No. 5 and XCVI No. 4), (PL LXXXII No. i) or grouped (PL

LXXX

often combined with niches.

We

often meet with orders superposed,

one in

each story, or two small orders on one story, in combination with o ne great

order (PI.

XCVI No.

2).

ON THE STYLE OF LEONARDO'S ARCHITECTURE.
The drum (tamburo) of
cathedral of Florence,

103

these cupolas is generally octagonal, as in the

and with similar round windows
2
it is

in its sides.

In

PL

LXXXVII
The cupola

No.

circular like

the

model actually carried out

at St. Peters. by Michael Angelo
itself is either

Baptistery
churches

more generally suggests the curve of Sta Maria del Fiore (PL LXXXVIII No. 5; PL XL No. 2; PL LXXXIX, M; PL XL No. 4, PL XCVI No. 2). In other cases No. 2) it shows the sides of the No. 4; PL LXXXIX; PL (PL
\) ;

of Florence, (PL XCI No. i and PL

under a pyramidal roof, as in the San Lorenzo of Milan and most of the Lombard
hidden

XCII No.

but

it

LXXX

XC

octagon crowned by
the Cathedral

semicircular pediments, as

in Brunellescds lantern

of

and

in the model

for

the Cathedral

of Pavia.
semicircular,

Finally, in some sketches the cupola is

either
line,

or as in

PL

adopted sixty years later by Michael Angelo for the existing dome of St. Peter s.
2,

LXXXVII
It is

No.

shows the beautiful

worth noticing that for all these domes Leonardo is not satisfied to decorate the exterior merely with ascending ribs or mouldings, but employs also a system of horizontal parallels to complete the architectural system. Not
the least interesting

are the designs for the tiburio

(cupola)

of the Milan

They show some of the forms, just mentioned, adapted to the peculiar gothic style of that monument. The few examples of interiors of churches recall the style employed in
Cathedral.

Lombardy by Bramante, for instance in S. Maria di Canepanuova at Pavia, or by Dolcebuono in the Monastero Maggiore at Milan (see PL CI No. i /C. A. i8i b ; 546^ PL No. iqj.

LXXXIV

The few indications concerning palaces seem
followed Albert? s
rustica,

prove that Leonardo example of decorating the walls with pilasters and a flat
to

either

in stone or by graffitti

(PL CII No.

i

and PL

LXXXV

No.

i

4;.

pointing out the analogies between Leonardos architecture and that of other masters we in no way pretend to depreciate his individual and These are at all events beyond dispute. original inventive power. The

By

project

for

the

Mausoleum (PL
architects

XCVIII)
who
ever

would alone
lived.

suffice to

rank him

among
pages 56

the greatest

tower (PL

LXXX),
57, Fig.

of the churches
i

The peculiar shape of the for preaching (PL XCVII No. i and

and

4), his

curious plan for a city with high

and low

level streets

(PL

LXXVII

with fountains (PL
cility

LXXX

and LXXVIII No. 2 and No. 3;, his Loggia II No. 4) reveal an originality, a power and fa-

of invention for almost any given problem, which are quite wonderful.

104

ON THE STYLE OF LEONARDO'S ARCHITECTURE.
In addition
to all these qualities

he propably stood alone in his day in

his investigations, namely, as to the one department of architectural study, resistance of vaults, foundations, walls and arches.

As an

(PL CHI on tht columns on which

vault application of these studies the plan of a semicircular be mentioned here, disposed so as to produce no thrust No. 2) may
it rests:

volta

I

botte e non ispignie
to

Tfori le

colone.

Above the geometrical patterns on the same sheet, close in a square is the note: la ragio d'una volta cioe il
della sua
.
. .

a

circle inscribed

terzo

del

diamitro

del tedesco in domo.

There are
treatment of

few data

by which

to

detail.

On

PI.

LXXXV No. 10

judge of Leonardos style in the and PL CIII No. 3, we find

ofpillars', on PL CI No. 3 slender pillars designed for a fountain and on PL CIII No. i MS. B, is a pen and ink drawing of a vase which Three handles seem to have been also seems intended for a fountain. some
details

intended

to

connect the upper parts with the base.

There can be no doubt

that Leonardo, like Bramante, but unlike Michael
delicacy of motive

Angelo, brought
of
his work.

infinite

and

execution to bear on the details

XIV.

Anatomy, Zoology and Physiology.
Leonardo's eminent place in the history of medicine, as a pioneer in the sciences of Anatomy and Physiology, will never be appreciated till it is possible to publish the mass of manuscripts in which he largely treated of these two branches of learning. In the
present work
these labours,
subjects.

I must

necessarily

limit

myself

to

by publishing his introductory notes to
extracts,

giving the reader a general view of the various books on anatomical

I have added some
treatises ,

and suck
to

observations as are scattered incidentally
scientific attitude,

through these
besides

as

serving

throw a light on Leonardo's

having an interest for a wider circle than that of specialists only. VASARI expressly mentions Leonardo's anatomical studies, having had occasion

to

examine the manuscript books which refer to them. According to him Leonardo studied Anatomy in the companionship of Marc Antonio della Torre "aiutato e scambievolmente
aiutando."

This learned Anatomist taught the science in the universities first of
,

Padua

and at Pavia he and Leonardo may have worked and studied We have no clue to any exact dates, but in the year 1506 Marc Antonio together. della Torre seems to have not yet left Padua. He was scarcely thirty years old when
and then of Pavia
he died in 1512, and his writings on no manuscript copy of them is known

anatomy have not only never been published, but
to

exist.

This

is

tomo della

not the place to enlarge on the connection between Leonardo and Marc AnTorre. I may however observe that I have not been able to discover in

Leonardo's manuscripts on anatomy any mention of his younger contemporary. The few either of antiquity or of the middle quotations which occur from writers on medicine

are printed in Section XXII. Here and there in the manuscripts mention is made of an anonymous "adversary' (avversario) whose views are opposed and refuted by Leonardo, but there is no ground for supposing that Marc Antonio della Torre
ages
1 1
'

should have been this "adversary". Only a very small selection from the

have been published here in facsimile, but
VOL.
11.

mass of anatomical drawings left by Leonardo to form any adequate idea of their scientific

O

ANATOMY, ZOOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY.
should be

chared

*

*

-n

*

*-** A""-" **"*

'"

*

the originals in the King's L,brary time of George III. of seeing suc" desins

has

attend mechanics an,t hydrauhcs, and the his particular excellence in am JuUy see oojects vhich he ><as to draw ihichsuch a man would ermine and Leo. the world was the best Anatomist, at that time, persuaded that Leonardo the rac,,ce of makmg * know of, who introduced nardo was certainly the firs, man, < London 1784, pages 37 (Two introductory letters.
superiorly
,.v/A

But I saw, a pa.nter in his own profession. and deep student. had been a general astonishment, that Leonardo tke My, the ,:< >u,s taken upon every part of ^a,
/

*

useul

,o

W

t

When I cons,der of ,ns u,:,v^

pains

genius

m

P

anatomical drawings"

&

The
no
less

of seeing

die noch Jahrhunderte nachher und Darstellers der Natur hat schon auf Dinge geachtet, medicinische Bibhothek, unbemerkt geblieben sind" (sec Blumenbach's

German Naturalist Hunter, had the chance he was one of tke privileged few who, after highly ; dieses grosser, Forschers He writes: Der Scharfblick these Manuscripts.
illustrious

Johan Friedrich Blumenbach

esteemed

the:,.

1795

'

the dr^nngs alone. ^nions were founded on known of the text, and, for the anything has hen made

These

Up

to the

present day hardly
,,

reasons

than a selection of extracts intention to reproduce here no more at In the Bibliography of the Manuscript, the originals at Windsor Castle ami elsewhere. Anathese is given of the valuable contents of the end of this volume a short review the in the possession of her Majesty almost all tomical note books which are at present with approbate accuto assign the date Oueen of England. It is, I believe, possible thus led to conclude that the greater part of I and racy to almost all the fragments, out after the death of dclla Torre anato,nical investigations were carried Leonardo's whuh are notes to his various books on Anatomy Merely in reading the introductory anatomtcal studies Master's to resist the impression that the it is

I have gn-en, ,t ,s which 1 have mad. fro,,,

am

here printed
to

impossible

bear

a very great extent the stamp of

originality

and independent

thought.

ANATOMY.
W. An.
IV. 167 a]
2

796.
miracles; 'it may be A general introduction possess less than other men o f more peaceful lives, or than those who want to grow rich in a day. I may live for a long time in great poverty, as always hapI

abbi me cheli altri Voglio far miraculi; o 3 mini piu quieti e 4 quelli che vogliono vivi 6 nel lungo tepo in arSricchirsi in u dl co 8 me interviene e ^interverra ?gra poverta, I0 "cercatori di in etter no alii alchimisti, cre I2 are oro e argeto, I3 e all' Igegnieri che l6 vita ^vogliono che I'a'Scqua morta dia motiua *?a se medesima l8 con cotinuo J 9mo, ;

wish to work

that I shall

pens, and to all eternity will happen, to alchemists, the would-be creators of gold and
silver, and to engineers who would have dead water stir itself into life and perpetual motion, and to those supreme fools, the necromancer and the enchanter. [23] And you, who say that it would be better to watch an anatomist at work than to see these drawings, you would be right, if it were possible to observe all the things which are demonstrated in such drawings in a single figure, in which you, with all your cleverness, will not see nor obtain knowledge of more than some few veins, to obtain a true and perfect knowledge of which I have dissected more than ten human bodies, destroying

to,

e al Icantatore.
23

20

somo

sto! 2I to

negromante

22

e

E
25

tu che dici, esser

me 24 glio
26

il

uedere

fare

l'anatomia, che uede re tali disegni, 28 dire 2 ?sti bene, se fusse possibile vedere 3 in tal disegni si tu^tte queste cose che 32 sola in una di 3I mostrano figura, nella 34 33 quale con tutto il tu o ingenio no vee non avrai la no 36 titia, se no dra 35 i,

poche vene, de! 38 le quali io, aver^ne vera e plena 4 notitia, 6 per disfatti 4I piv di dieci co 42 rpi vmani, 43 did'alqua,37te

796.

3.

quieti
asse.

ecq.
20.

4.

voliano a.
23.

5.

richire

nudi.
di.

6.

lungho.
31.

9.

intervera.

io.

archimisti.

14.

voglia.

15.

cq"a" morta.
destrugendo.

17.

somo.

"e"

ettu

che

27.

fussi.

mosstrano.

35.

e

non

arai.

37.

vene de.

43.

I 59 and 60 89 are written in two When we here find Leonardo columns. parallel putting himself in the same category as the Alche-

796.

Lines

Books
rent

satire

on Perspective sets himself with transpaon a level with other writers on the

subject.

mists and Necromancers,
at

whom

he elsewhere mocks

so

bitterly,

the

same way

evidently meant ironically. In Leonardo, in the introduction to the
it

is

Line 23 and the following seem to be directed against students of painting and young artists rather
than against medical

men and

anatomists.

io8
"altri

ANATOMY.

[797-

mebri, struggendo ogni 6 carne con minutis sime particule ?tutta la 8 a esse 9vene si trovaua, d'intorno chc 2
s-sanza
sibile
s

consumando
d'i

insanguis'narle,

se

non

sen-

the other members, and removing the very minutest particles of the flesh by which these veins are surrounded, without causing them to bleed, excepting the insensible bleeding of
all

insanSJguinameto vn sol corpo no ssbastava 6 tepo, che bisoS gnava procedere 7 in tanti in mano corpi, che si
e

delle

vene

capillari;

the capillary

veins;

and as one
since
it

single

a
di

tanto

would not
sary
to

last so

long,

body was neces-

mano

proceed
I

with

several

finisca la

degrees, until

came

to an
this I

bodies by end and had a

inte^ra cognitione; le qual repli *cai 2 volte per vedere le diflerentie. 60 E se tu avrai 1'amore a tal cosa,
01

complete knowledge;

repeated twice, to
for such

learn the differences [59].

And

if

you should have a love

tu

sarai

forse inpedito

morti notturni in copagnia di tali 6 e scorticati e ?spaventevoli a squadrati b8 vederli; e se que sto no t'Ipedisce, forse
6

e se questo no ti 6 inpedito dal *la paura
5pi

dallo 6a stomaco, 63 iorse inpedi sce, tu sarai
coll'

abitare nelli te66
*:

things you might be prevented by loathing, and if that did not prevent you, you might be deterred by the fear of living in the night hours in

ti

mache^rk

il

disegnio
tal

bono,

il

s'appa7rtiene a

figuratione;

E

quale
7'se tu

2 avrai il disegnio e' no sara ? accopagnato ^ e se sara accopagnato dalla prospettiva, 7e'ti machera 1'ordine 75 delle dimostratio 77 delle calculation 76 geometriche e 1'ordine

those corpses, quartered and to see. And if this did not prevent you, perhaps you might not be able to draw so well as is necessary for such a demonstration ; or, if you had the skill in drawing, it might not be combined with knowledge of perspective; and if it were so, you might not understand the methods of geometrical demonstration
the

company of

flayed

and horrible

valimeto de' 79muscoli; e 8l tu no forse ti 8o machera la patietia che sarai diligete; Delle 82 quali se in me tutte 8 84 i ceto ->cose sono state o no, queste 20 libri da me 8 5conposti ne dara sentedelle

7*fbrze e

and the method of the calculation of forces and of the strength of the muscles; patience also may be wanting, so that you lack perseverance As to whether all these things were found in me or not [84], the hundred and twenty books composed by me will give verdict Yes or No. In these I have been hindered neither by avarice nor negligence, but simply by want of time. Farewell [89].

tia del si o del no, nelli ?quali no sono stato inpedi 88 to ne d'auaritia o negligetia, 8 9ma sol dal tenpo vale.

86

8

W. A.

II.

3(>a (21)]

797-

DELL'ORDINE DEL LIBRO.
2

OF THE ORDER OF THE
tion of

BOOK.

and
*u

cocietticne-

Questa opera si deve pricipiare alia deH'omo ., e devi descrivere il
,

n*

F*r"the

m
suo

This work must begin with the concepman, and describe the nature of the

d
'1

ormeiau' e
(797-802).

della matrice, 3 e come il putto-1'ae in che grado lui risegga- T quella-, modo dello vivificarsi e cibarsi, 4 e '1 accrescimeto , e che interuallo sia
,

womb and how the foetus lives in it, up to what stage it resides there, and in what way , it Also its quickens into life and feeds. growth and what interval there is between
54.
ripri.

44. 57.

consi.

45.

niinuti.
si

46.

partichule.
58.

53.

capillar "e"(?).
[s]

e

[altrettate]

e vn.

55.
.

attanto
.

tepo chc.
60.

56.

imano.

corpi che

nnisMmi

la inte.

cognitione le qual
70. attal.

59.

cai [i] ''2" volte
72.

diferentie.
.

essettu arai.

66. squartati.

68. notipedisce.
82.

69. qual sapa.

71. settu arai.

acopagnato.
del.

73. esse

.

metrice.
797. 2. debe.

79. efforse.
2.

scimc.
3.

83.
il

onno

[lili].
.
.

84.

icceto 20.
.

86.

tia [di] 4.

88. negli etia.
.
.

89.

acopagnato. 76. geod 1 [dalla ve] tenpo.
.

e disscrivere.

chome

pucto

risega

.

uiuicharsi.

acresscimelo

da

i

grado da cresscimcto

a

.

1

.

84.

wrote

in note

Leonardo frequently, and perhaps habitually, books of a very small size and only

period of his

life,

script note-books as

Leonardo speaks of his Manunumbering 120; but we should

moderately thick; in most of those which have been preserved undivided, each contains less than Thus a considerable number of such fifty leaves. volumes must have gone to make up a volume of the bulk of the Codex Atlanticuf which now contains nearly 1200 detached leaves. In the passage under consideration, which was evidently written at a late
*

that

hardly be justified in concluding from this passage the greater part of his Manuscripts were now
in

missing (see Prolegomena, Vol. I, pp. 5 7). 797. The meaning of the word nervo varies
different passages,

being sometimes used

for muscolo

(muscle).

797-]

ANATOMY.
uno
grado
,

da
altro,

d'

accrescimeto

a

uno

e che cosa lo spigna fori sdel corpo e per che cagione qualche della madre uolta lui uega fori dal uetro di sua madre 6 inati al debito tepo. ? Poi discriuerai quali mebrasieno quelle che crescono poi che' 1 putto e nato piv

is

one. stage of growth that forces it out

che 1'altre, 8 e da la misura d'u putto d'un anno. 9 Poi discrivi I'omo crescivto e la feminae nature di complessione e sue misure
colore
11

and for comes out of the mother's womb before the due time. Then I will describe which are the members, which, after the boy is born, grow more than the others, and determine the propormother,,

and another. What it from the body of the what reasons it sometimes

boy of one year. Then describe the fully grown man and woman, with their proportions, and the nature
tions of a

I0

e fisonomie.

di

Di poi descrivi com'egli e coposto muscoli e ossa; Questo uene nerui
, ,

oftheir complexions, colour, and physiognomy. Then how they are composed of veins,

tendons, muscles and bones.
at the

This

I shall

do

farai nell'
in

ultimo del libro;

4

storie

quattro
la

di poi figura vniversali casi delli
atti

lz

omini,

cioe letitia

con uari
del
d'

di
;

ridere,

figura

var co uari
,

cagio modi colla sua

riso
;

cagione
,

piato in cotetione
,

movi^meti
,

poi vna fatica co tirare, spiegniere figura simili sostenere e fermare, portare, 16 cose; T ?Di poi discriui attitudine e movimeto;
casi;
18

ferocita pavre cose apparteneti

uccisione ardimeti micidi

fughe
I5

,

drawings, represent four universal conditions of That is, Mirth, with various acts of men. laughter, and describe the cause of laughter. Weeping in various aspects with its causes. Contention, with various acts of killing;

end of the book.

Then,

in four

e tutte
di

a

simil

fear, ferocity, boldness, murder and Then every thing pertaining to such cases. represent Labour, with pulling, thrusting, carrying, stopping, supporting and such like things. Further I would describe attitudes and
flight,

movements.
the functions

Then
and

di

poi

prospettiva
dell' udito,

per

1'ofitio

e

effetti

effects

perspective, concerning of the eye ; and of

dell'ochioe

dirai di

mvsicha

e

descrivi delli altri sesi.

9Di poi discrivi la natura de' sensi. Questa figura strumetale dell'omo di2I mostreremo in figure, delle quali le 3
J

20

.

.

I will here speak of music , of the other senses. And then describe the nature of the senses. This mechanism of man we will demonof which the three strate in ... figures; first will show the ramification of the bones;

hearing

and

treat

prime saranno
cioe

la

ramificatione delle ossa,

that is:
in

first

one

to
:

che "dimostri 1'altitudine de' siti e figure delli ossi, la seconda sara veduta in 2 3proffilo e mostrera la profondidinazi

vna

position and shape

show their height and the second will be seen

ta del tutto e delle parti e loro sito; 2 figura fia dimostratrice delle ossa

La

a

3 dalla

Di poi faremo ^3 altre parte dirieto; figure ne' simili aspetti colle ossa segate, nelle quali si vedranno le lor 26 grossezze e uacuita; 3 altre figure faremo dell' ossa intere e de' nerui che na 2 ?scono dalla nuca,

e in che mebra ramificano; E 3 altre de'ossa e vene e do 28 ve ramificano, poi 3 con muscoli e 3 con pelle, e figure proportionate, e 3 della femina per dimostrare matrice e vene mestruali, 3 che vanno alle

poppe.

profile and will show the depth of the whole and of the parts, and their position. The third figure will be a demonstration of the bones of the backparts. Then I will make three other figures from the same point of view, with the bones sawn across, in which will be shown their thickness and hollowThree other figures of the bones comness. plete, and of the nerves which rise from the nape of the neck, and in what limbs they raAnd three others of the bones and mify. Then three veins, and where they ramify. figures with the muscles and three with the and three skin, and their proper proportions of woman, to illustrate the womb and the menstrual veins which go to the breasts.
;

altro

.

.

chosu

.

.

spiga.

5.

chorpo
eli

.

.

chagione
.

.

.

uega ..del.
12.

7.

cresscano enato.
. .

9. ella

.

.

essue

.

.

choprlessione chollore
.

effisosbmie.
. .

n.
.

desscrivi

chom
lofitio

e choposto

.

musscoli.
.

chasi

chouari.

13. effigura la 15.

chagio

de

riso
.
.

.

.

cholla

chagione
16.
.

chotetione cho.
chose.
.

14.

ucisione
. .

.

fuge

.

ettutte
.

chose aparteneti assimil chasi.
. .

faticha cho
20.
le.

sosstenere

essimili.

18.

effetti

della
24.
. .

uldito

.

musicha
. .

sesi.

19.

de

.

2
. .

.

"sensi" sensi.
segate
. . . .

dimosterreno.
26.

22. effigure

sechonda.
27.

23.

mossterra.

delle [ner] ossa

faren.

20.
.

asspetti
.

uetra

gosseze e
. .

uachuita
struale.

.

.

fareno.

sea della nucha

ramifichino.

28.

ramifichino

mvsscoli

effigure.

29.

tionati

me-

no

ANATOMY.

[798.

W. An.

IV.

79 8.

ORDINE DEL
1

LIBRO.

THE ORDER OF THK
This
will

BOOK.

ti

Questa mia figuratione del corpo vmano sara climostra no altre'menti, die se
1'omo naturale inati, e la rago si che se tu vuoi be'ne conoscere le parti
tu lo vuoi

tu auessi
e,

depicting of mine of the human be as clear to you as if you had body the natural man before you; and the reason know the is that if you wish thoroughly to

delFomo anatomizzato,
chio tuo
s

o

I'o-

cosideper di versi aspetti, quello rando di sotto, e di sopra, e dalli lati, volciascu taiuiolo e cercando 1'origine di

of man, anatomically, you or your require to see it from different aspects, eye considering it from below and from above
parts
its sides, turning it about and seeking the origin of each member; and in this way the natural anatomy is sufficient

and from

mcbro, e

I

tal

modo

la

a soddisfatta

alia tua

notitia;

notomia na?turale Ma tu ai a

intedere, che tal

noti"tia

no

ti

lascia sad-

disfatto, cociosiache la gradissima confusione che 'resulta della mistione di paniculi misti

for your comprehension. But you must understand that this amount of knowledge will not continue to satisfy you; seeing the very great confusion that must result from the combination of tissues, with veins, arteries,

co uene, arterie, nerui, corde,
ossi,

nerves,

sinews,
itself,

muscles,

bones, and

"'muscoli,

blood which, of

sangue, il quale tignie di se ogni parte d'un medesimo colo^re, e le vene, che di tal sangue si votano non sono conosciute per la lordimi I2 nutione, ela integrita delli pannicoli, nel cercare le parti che dentro a '^loro
s'includono,
trasparetia,
si

same colour.

And

tinges every part the the veins, which dis-

charge this blood, are not discerned by reason of their smallness. Moreover integrity of the tissues, in the process of the investigating the parts within them , is inevitably destroyed, and their transparent substance being tinged with blood does not allow you to recognise the parts covered by them, from the

viene
di

a

rompere,

e la lor

sangue, ^no ti lascia coperte da loro per la similitu' 5 dine del lor colore insanguinato, e no puoi avere la notitia dell'u che tu l6 no
tinta

conoscere

le

parti

cofonda e
te

adunque e distrugga 1' altro necessario fare piu notomie, '^delle quali 3
;

hue; and similarity of their blood-stained you cannot know everything of the one without confusing and destroying the other. Hence, some further anatomy drawings become necessary. Of which you want three to give full knowledge of the veins and arteries,

ne bisognia per auere piena notitia delle vene e arterie, l8 distruggedo con soma
diligentia

everything

else being

destroyed with

tutto
notitia

il

rimanete,

auere
le
li

la

'9 delli

e altre 3 per pannicoli, e 3 per
e
la

the greatest care. play the tissues;

And

three others to dis-

and three for the sinews and muscles and ligaments; and three for the bones and cartilages; and three for the

corde

e

muscoli e legameti,
,

3

per

ossi e car 20 tilagini

e 3 per

notomia

s' anno a segare e dimo"strare, quale d buso e quale no, quale e midolloso, quale 6 spugno 22 so, e quale grosso dal fori al dentro, e quale e sottile, e alcuno a in al^cuna parte gra sottiglezza,

delle ossa, le quali

anatomy of the bones, which have to be sawn to show which are hollow and which are not, which have marrow .and which are spongy, and which are thick from the outside inwards, and which are thin. And some are extremely thin in some parts and thick in others, and in some parts hollow or filled

up with bone,

e in alcuna e grosso, e in alcuna busa, o

And

all

-or full of marrow, or spongy. these conditions are sometimes found

798.

2.

Quessta.
.

3.
.

chessettu
ciasscu.
. .

.

.

ella

.

.

chessettu.

4.

conosscere
.

le

parte
8.

.

.

natomizate tu lo voli
.
.

ollui ollochio.
.

5.

asspetto. 6. ecdella
. .

cerchando
chuli.
ij.

7.

turale ta sadidisfatto

.

chettal.

lasscia
12.

cocosia chella
.
.

.

chonfusione.

9.

pani. .

10.

musscoli
.

dumedesimo.
. .

n.
.

elle

.

.

cognosscute.
14.

nuitione ella

pannichuli nel cierchare le parte

al.

sincludano
15.

si
.

uegano
.

ella
16.

.

trassparetia.
. .

lasscia cognossciere le
18. 21.

parte [che son sotto a]

coperte dalloro per

almilitu.

poi e

chettu.

desstruggha
. .

natomie.

desstrugedo

.

.

soma.

19.

pannichuli

.

.

musscoli ellegameti
.

ejej.
23.

20.
. .

[ij

3 per la natomia
.

assegare e dimos. alchuna.

chuna

sotu'glicza

alchuna

.

.

quale he spugn"a". sarano. 24. osspugnosa e chosi .
.

22.
25.

ecqua le he numedesimo.

.

essottile

.

.

innnl.

26.

essuo.

28-

as-

110
PL. C
VII.

79 8.]
piena

ANATOMY.
in

I I I

24 d'osso, o midollosa, o spugnosa; e tutte queste cose sarano alcuna volta cosl

tro 25 vate

in un medesimo osso, e alcuno che non a nessuna e 3 te ne bisog26 na fare per la donna, nella quale e gra mis2 ?aterio, mediante la matrice e suo feto; mio disegnio ti fia noto ogni il dunque per 28 parte e ogni tutto mediante la di mostratione di 3 diuersi aspetti di ciascuna parte, perche

one and the same bone, and in some bones none of them. And three you must have for the woman, in which there is

osso

fia

;

much

tu avrai vedu 2 9to alcun mebro dalla dinanzi con qualche neruo, corda, o parte vena che 3 nasca dalla opposita parte, ti fia dimostro il medesimo mebro volto per lato 3z o dirieto-; non altremeti che se tu auessi 2 in mano il medesimo mebro e andas3 si lo voltado di parte in parte insino a tanto che tu auessi piena notitia di que! 3 3lo che tu desideri sapere, e cosl similmete ti fia posto inariti in tre o 344 dimostrationi di ciascu mebro per diuersi aspetti in modo che tu resterai con^vera e piena notitia di quello che tu vuoi sapere della figura dell'omo. 36 Adunque qui con 12 figure intere ti sara mostrata la cosmografia del minor 37 modo col medesimo ordine che inazi a

quando

of the Therefore by my drawings every part will be known to you, and all by means of demonstrations from three different points of view of each part; for when you have seen a limb from the front, with any muscles, sinews, or veins
that
is

mysterious
foetus.

by reason

womb and

the

which take their rise from the opposite side, the same limb will be shown to you in a side view or from behind, exactly as if you had that same limb in your hand and were from side to side until you turning it had acquired a full comprehension of all you wished to know. In the same way there will be put before you three or four demonstrations of each limb, from various points of view, so that you will be left with a true and complete knowledge of all you wish to
learn of the

human

figure [3 5].

Thus, in twelve entire figures, you will have set before you the cosmography of this lesser world on the same plan as, before

me
38

fu

fatto

da Tolomeo
cosl
lui

nella sua

cosmoin

grafia,

e

diuidero
diuise
il

mebra, come
cie;

poi quelle tutto in provin-

39 e 1'ufitio delle parti ,'poi diro per ciascu verso, mettedoti dinati alii ochi la notitia 4 di tutta la figura e valitudine del-

l'omo inquato a moto locale mediante le sue parti, 4I E cosl piacesse al nostro autore che io potessi dimostrere la natura delli omini e Io 42 ro costumi nel modo che io descrivo la sua figura.
43

me, was adopted by Ptolemy in his cosmography and so I will afterwards divide them into limbs as he divided the whole world into provinces; then I will speak of the function of each part in every direction, putting before your eyes a description of the whole form and substance of man, as regards his movements from place to place, by means
;

of

his

different

parts.

And

thus,

if

it

E

ricordoti che la
ti

notomia

delli

ner-

ui

dara la situatione della loro rami44 ficatione, ne in quali muscoli essi si ramificano mediante li corpi disfatti in acqua 45 correte, o in acqua di calcina, perche, ancorache ti rimaga la origine de'lor nasscimenti 46 sanza tale acqua come coll' acqua, le ramificationi loro pel corso del4 1'acqua si ?vengono a vnire, non altremeti che si fascia il lino o canapa pettinata per 48 tutto in vn fascio in modo che infilare, possibile e a ritrovare in quali muscoli o co quale 4 9 o co quate ramificationi li nerui
.

non

please our great Author, I may demonstrate the nature of men, and their customs in the way I describe his figure. And remember that the anatomy of the nerves will not give the position of their
ramifications,

nor show you which muscles

they branch into, by means of bodies dissected in running water or in lime water;

though indeed their origin and starting point may be seen without such water as well as with it. But their ramifications, when under running water, cling and unite just like flat or hemp carded for spinning all into a skein, in a way which makes it impossible to trace in which muscles or by what ramification the
nerves are distributed
imano.

s'infondino ne' predetti muscoli.
spetti
. .

among

those muscles.
Ho chettu
38.
.

quanto

.

.

arai.
.
.

30.

parte [tuj eti
35.

.

.

per
36.

lalo.

31.
la

chessettu

.

.

32.

attanto chettu.

33.

.

.

possto.
.
.

34. asspetti

chettu.

chettu voi.
.
.

mosstro

cossmografia.
.
.

37. fuffatto
.
.

dattolomeo
42.

.

.

cossmo.
.

imebra

province.

39. ciasscu.- 40. lochale
44.

parte.
. .

41. Eccosi

piacessi
45.

altore

dimosstrare.
. .

cosstumi
46.

desscrivo.
.
.

43. cholla dilora.

facione

.

.

musscoli
facci
. .

ramifichino.

corete o in acq"a"
49. ramificatione
.

rimagha.

tale

acq"a"

ramificatione.

47.

vengono chessi

chanapa.

48. fasscio.

.

mvsscoli.

798.

35.

Compare

PI.

CVII.

The

original

drawing

at

Windsor

is

281/2

X

upper figures are slightly washed with Indian ink.

On

the back of this drawing

is

The ^9 I /z centimetres. the text No. 1140.

ANATOMY.
112

[799-802.

799W.

ORDINE

DI

NOTOMIA.

THE ARRANGEMENT OF ANATOMY.
of the draw the bones, let us say, the motor muscle from the arm and put in with all its lines. shoulder to the elbow the same way from the Then proceed in from the wrist to elbow to the wrist. Then hand to the fingers. the hand and from the motors And in the arm you will put the which open, and these you the
First

dire le braccia, Fa prima Fossa come dalla spalla al 'gomito per e poni il motore g omitoalbracc,o;

tuttelelime;Dipoidal
Di poi dal 'braccio
alii

alia

mano
h

e dalla

mar
.

diti.

,

sE

nel

braccio

norrai

moton

,

of

nnmo
e

po?ni sopra che con essi ossa SSLTalSa confusione

ado a crado per non confondere. mudell' ossa quell,
si

in their demonstration. will clothe In the second demonstration you with the secondary motors c these muscles and so proceed by degrees to the
will

fingers

show separately

congiungono,
neru,

d'altri

che li nutriscono, auendo pnma bero delle ue"ne e neru, sopra
_

co^quelli

porrai

li

muscol,, e uene, fat to 1 aldelle sen-

on the bones avoid confusion. But first lay the said muscles which lie close to those confusion of other muscle bones, without the nerves and and with these you may put their nourishment, aftt veins which supply the tree of veins and having first drawn nerves over the simple bones.

fingers

plici

ossa.

800.
W. An.
IV,

XXI]
la

Cormcia

notomia

alia

testa e finis-

cila nella piata del piede.

at the Begin the anatomy the sole of the foot. at

head and

finish

80 1.
W.
An.
II.

39* ()1

of entire figures

'

802.
W.
An. IV.
151 a]

s

superficial,.

gunghano.
800.
801.
cffiniscila.
i.

10. musscoli.

n.

chelli notrissc
ettu.

homini.

2.

chon.

3. ssenplici.

6.

tiere.

8oa.

2.

cress ciere

.

.

3-

lasstatua

.

cho.

8oa.

Crescifre

V omo.

The meaning

of this ex-

out the figure in marble. then mean, you must work
If this interpretation
is

to pression appears C. A. i$7 a , passage

be different here and in the I. 2). 468- (see No. 526, Note

the

correct
to
find
I

one, this
a place

pas
tl

Here

than anything else hardly mean since the sculptor forms the figure by modelling, wet clay and the figure consedegrees, by adding la statua would increases or grows. Tu farai quently
it

can

no sage would have series on anatomical

right

m

studies.
in this

was
the

originally

inserted

may say connection
,

that

unde

di impression that

crescitrc

should be

scrivere.

803. 804.]

ANATOMY.

W. An.

Ill,

XXII]
2

803.

colle Farai tutti li moti dell' ossa delle giunture loro dopo M a dimostratione 4 dell' ossa, e s questo si deve pri me tre figure

You must show all the' motions of the bones with their joints to follow the demon-

Plans for

fare nel

prime

6

libro.

stration of the first three figures of the bones, d ^?* and this should be done in the first book. (803-809).

^J^ m

6

"

b

j

W.

XXIII]

804.
farti

Ricordoti che per

certo

del nas-

qualunche muscolo, che tu tiri 2 la corda, partorita da esso muscolo, in modo che tu veda movere esso 3 muscolo e '1 suo nascimeto sopra delle legature
cimento
di
delli ossi.

Remember that to be certain of the point of origin of any muscle, you must pull the sinew from which the muscle springs in such a way as to see that muscle move, and where it is attached to the ligaments of the bones.
NOTE.

NOTANDO.

sTu non
nascimeti
?e

farai

mai
se

se

no confusione
e lor
fai
siti,

nella di 6 mostratione de' muscoli
fini,
8

prima non
sottili

vna

You will never get any thing but confusion in demonstrating the muscles and their positions, origin, and termination, unless you
first

make a demonstration of
manner of

thin muscles

dimostratione di
fila

muscoli-

a uso di

after the

linen threads;

and thus

di

refe,
dell'

e cosl potrai

9figurare
situati la

PunI0

sopra
tura,

altro,
li

come
potrai

li

a

na-

e cosl

mebro "al quale lor della pu I2 ta del dito grosso e del suo osso di mezzo o del primo ecc; 3e dato che
T

nominare secodo il seruono, cioe il motore

you can represent them, one over another as nature has placed them; and thus, too, you can name them according to the limb
they serve; for instance the motor of the great toe, of its point

of the

middle

bone,

tu ai tale notitia, figurerai al lato a
la

^questa
fili,

uera forma e quatita e sito di ciascu

muscolo;
insegniano che son le
e
"cosl tali

'Sma
li

ricordati

di
l6

fare
li

li

che
siti

muscoli,

neg

medesimi
la figura

linie centrali di
fili

ciascu musscolo,
del-

dimostreranno

e la loro distantia spedita e nota. '9 Ho spogliato di pelle vno il quale per una mala 20 ttia s'era tanto diminuito che li muscoli era 2I consumati e restati a uso di
la

ganba

l8

And when of its first bone, &c. have the knowledge you will draw, by you the side of this, the true form and size and But remember to position of each muscle. give the threads which explain the situation of the muscles in the position which corresponds to the central line of each muscle; and so these threads will demonstrate the form of the leg and their distance in a plain and clear manner.
who
have removed the skin from a man was so shrunk by illness that the muscles were worn down and remained in a state like thin membrane, in such a way that the sinews instead of merging in muscles ended in wide membrane; and where the bones were covered by the skin they had very little over their natural size.
I

22

pellicola
in

sottile,

in

modo

che

le

corde

scabio del conuertirsi 2 3in muscolo si convertivano in larga pelle, 24 e quado 1' ossa era uestite di pelle, poco acqui 25 staua della lor naturale grossezza.

803. 804.

2.
i.

guhture.

3.
.

dimosstratione.
.

4.

ecq.
3.

5.

defare.
..

nasscimeto

chettu.

2.

corta.

musscolo

nasscimeto.
. .

6.

mosstratione
[delluli],

.

.

musscoli ellor

.

.

nassci.neti.
14.

7.
. .

effini

.

.

dimosstratione. 8. musscoli. 10. mebr.

n. seruano coe
.
.

motore
ciasscu.

12.

mezo.

13. chettu.
.
.

cquessta
.

essito
19.

.

.

mussolo.
spogliato.

15.

musscoli ne.

16. le

medesimi

chesson

.

.

17.

dimostera.
23.

18. ella
.

disstantia
24.

.

e note.

hos-

20. chelli musscoli.

21. cresstati.

22. chelle

corde niscabio.

musscolo

.

largha.

pocho.

25. grosseza.

804.

The photograph No. 41
:

of

Grosvenor
muscles

of the

foot,

includes

a complete facsimile of the

Gallery Publications VOL. u.

a

drawing

of the

text of this passage.

114

ANATOMY.

[805808.

W.

An.

I.

805.
if[

del moto Quale nervo e cagione
1'ochio a lare-che tin Paltro.
2
'1

del-

moto

dell'un ochio

'dello alzare le ciglia, dello abbassare le ciglia.li 5 1 dello leciglia, 6 dello aprire li ochi,1i chiudere li ochi, dello alzare le narici, "del aprire le labra 71

1Del chiudere
*

co deti-serrati, sdello-apputareI0 del ridere, "del maravigliarsi.

le

labra,

"A
elli
si

discriuere

il

principio

deH'omo quado

cavsa-nella matrice, '^e perche uno '<che cosa e putto no uive-d'otto-mesi; I6 mal'Sche cosa e sbadiglio, starnvto,
maestro, '^spasimo, paralitico, ^tremito 2I 20 stachezza, "fame, di freddo, sudore, 2 2 Jsonno, ^sete, Mussuria.
26
l8

Which nerve causes the motion -of the eye so that the motion of one eye moves the other? Of frowning the brows, of raising the of closing the brows, of lowering the brows, of raising the of opening the eyes, eyes, nostrils, of opening the lips, with the teeth shut, of pouring with the lips, of smiling, of astonishment. Describe the beginning of man when it is caused in the womb and why an eight months child does not live. What sneezing
is.

What yawning

paralysis,
tigue,

is. Falling sickness, spasms, shivering with cold, sweating, fa-

1 Del

neruo-ch'e cagione
27

della spalla al gomito,

del
2

del moto moto che e dal

hunger, sleepiness, thirst, lust. the nerve which is the cause of movement from the shoulder to the elbow, of

Of

the

gon.ito alia

mano,

2t)

dalla givntura
<>dal

della
all'ul-

mano-al nascimeto
timo nodo.li
^

de'diti,

nascimeto

de'diti-al loro-rnezzo

Je

dal

mezzo

'Del neruo che e cagione del moto della
diti

coscia, 3'e dul ginochio al pie, e dalla givn-

tura del pie ai

^e

cosl ai lor mezzi,

3e

del girare d'essa ganba.

movement from the elbow to the hand, from the joint of the hand to the springing From the springing of the of the fingers. to the middle joints, and from the fingers middle joints to the last. Of the nerve which causes the movement of the thigh, and from the knee to the foot, and from the joint of the foot to the toes, and then to the middle of the toes and of the rotary motion of the leg.

806.

ANATOMIA.
2

ANATOMY.

Quali nerui over corde della

mano

so

3quelle che accostano e discostano li -diti della mano e de'piedi 1'un dall'altro?

Which nerves or sinews of the hand are those which close and part the fingers and toes latteraly?

W.

238*)

807.
le parti

Scuopri a grado a grado tutte
dinanti

deH'omo

2

nel fare la tua

notomia,

front of a
till

e cosl insino in sull'osso; ^descritione de' mebra della vita e lor trauagliameti.

Remove by degrees all the parts of the man in making your dissection, you come to the bones. Description of
and of
their motions.

the p'arts of the bust

K.3 28 a]

808.
la

Fa

notomia della ga 2 ba insino
i

al fiaco

per nutti
805.
i.

versi

e per tutti
j.

li

'atti e in

Give the anatomy of the leg up to the hip, in all views and in every action and in
[facci]
19.

15.

affare. chagione chosa essbaviglio.
.
.

anarise.

8.

cho

.

.

strati.

12.

a desscrivere
21.

.

.

chausa.
26.

13. 5 putto.

14.

chosa esstarnuto.
28.

16.

malmaesstro.
31.

18.

parletkho.
. .

fredc.

stachcza.

chagione

.

.

dalla.

nassimeto.

29.

nassimeto
anotamia.
9 R.
2.

.

.

raezo.

30. roezo.

chagione

cosscia.

33. mezi.

806. 808.

i.
i

3.

quelle che achosstano e disscostano.
7.

807.

i.

parte.

3.

discretio

de mebr

.

.

vite ellor.

fiucho.

He.

8.

scghatc

.

.

gro.

808.

A

straightened leg in profile

is

sketched by the side of this

text.

8098

1

ANATOMY.
5

tutte le spoglie,

vene, arterie, nerui, corde e ossa, e poi dell'ossa 8 9 segate per uedere la gros sezza dell'ossa.
e mvscoli, pe! le
7

6

every state;

veins,

arteries,

nerves,

sinews

and muscles, skin and bones ; then the bones in sections to show the thickness of the bones.

w.

A. n.

76

<*]

809.

Farai regola e misura di ciascun muscolo, e renderai ragione di tutti li loro vfiti, e in che s'adoperano e che li mu2

Make

the rule and give the

measurement

moMo

ove

ecc.

4 Farai prima la spina del dosso, di poi va vestendo 5a gradi 1'un sopra dell'altro 6 di ciascu di questi musco li, e poni li nervi all' arterie e vene a ciascun 7 muscolo per 8 se, e oltre a di questo nota a qua ti spondili si congiugono, e che intestini sono 9 loro a riscotro e che ossi e altri strumeti orga-

I0

nici ecc.
JI

Le
I2

parti piu alte
scolosi,

de'magri son piu

alte

of each muscle, and give the reasons of all their functions, and in which way they work and what makes them work &c. the spine of the back; [4] First draw then clothe it by degrees , one after the other, with each of its muscles and put in the nerves and arteries and veins to each muscle by itself; and besides these note the vertebrae to which they are attached; which of the intestines come in contact with them; and which bones and other organs &c. The most r prominent parts of lean people On
.

nelli

mu

e similmete ne'grassi;

Ma

la differetia,

che anno
losi,

li

che e ^dalla figura de'muscoli I4 delli muscogrossi a rispetto

are most prominent in the muscular, and equally But concerning the difso in fat persons.

11

corpulency and leanness
8 9

(

8l1 )-

sara qui di sotto descritta.

ference in the forms of the muscles in fat persons as compared with muscular persons, it shall be described below.

W. An

IV. 7 (A. A)]
2

810.

Descriui quali mu scoli si perdono nello Pgrossare, e nel dimagratre quali muscoli si sco s prono. 6 E nota che quel loco del?la superfitie 8 del grasso che sara piu cocauata, 9quado I0 si disgrassa- fia piu eleuato. "Doue li muscoli I2 si separano 1'u dal^.I'altro, farai p^roffili, e

Describe

which

muscles

disappear
visible

in

growing growing

fat, lean.

and which become

in

face of a fat person is he grows lean becomes

doue s'^appiccano

observe that that part which on the surmost concave, when more prominent. Where the muscles separate one from another you must give profiles and where
they coalesce

And

insieme

.

.

.

...

W.

239

(= W.

L. 131)]

8n.
FIGURA VMANA.

D
2

OF THE HUMAN
Which
is

FIGURE.

Qual parte e quella nell'omo che nel suo ingrassa3 re mai cresce carne? 4 Quale e quella parte che nel dimagrare dell'omo Smai no dimagra con dimagratio 6 troppo sesibile? infra le parti che ingrassano qual'e quella che piu ?ingrassa?
809.
i.

grows

man, which, as he never gains flesh? Or what part which as a man grows lean never falls away with a too perceptible And among the parts which diminution? grow fat which is that which grows fattest?
the part in
fatter,
.

reghola

.

.

ciasscu musscolo.
. .

3.

he

chilli.
8.

4.

lasspina
.

.

vavesstendo.
9.

5.

hagradi
.
.

.

.

ciasscu di quessti.
. .

6.

ciasscu.
12.

7.

musscholo

addi quessto
.

.

.

acqua.
13.
6.

losi

essimilmete
4. 4.

.

Malla

diferetia.
5. 6.

chongiughano musscoli che ali
lochi.
7.

.

intesstini.

arrisscotro
14.
9.

.

.

aris specto.
8.
.

mus. orgha. n. parte . musscholosi disocto desscrcta.
.

scho-

810.

2.

perdano.

musscoli.
ecquella.

prano.

que

lla.

chessara.
.

dissgrassa.

811. 3. cressce.

infralle parte.

8. infralle

parte

chessi.

10.

musscoli

.

.

di

n. musscoli. 15. apichano. ma. n. gore grosseza.

12. afri-

809. The two drawings given on PI. CVIII no. I come between lines 3 and 4. A good and very
early copy of this

exists

in

the

collection of drawings
it

belonging
attributed

to to

Christ's

College Oxford, where

is

drawing without the written text

Leonardo,

n6
Infra

ANATOMY.

[8 1 2.

813.

che dimagrano qual'c le parti che si fa. 'piu magra? quella IO muscoli Degli omini poteti in forze quali son di mag"giore grossezza c piu eleuati? l2 Tu ai a figurare nella tua anatomia
tutti
li

that

gradi

deU'omo
alia

'Jdelle mebra dalla creatio insino alia sua 'morte, e insino

those which grow lean which is which grows leanest? In very strong men which are the muscles which are thickest and most prominent? In your anatomy you must represent all the stages of the limbs from man's creation

Among

to his death,

and then

till

the death of the

morte dell'osso, e qual parte d'esso si coserua. sprima si cosuma e qual piu 16 E similmente dall' ultima magrezza alultima grassezza.

1'

bone; and which part of him is first decayed and which is preserved the longest. And in the same way of extreme leanness and extreme fatness.

S.

K. M.

III. 66,.|

812.

NOTOMIA.
2

ANATOMY.
cioe
-

1

membri
-

The dm-

3

"LS

the

cartilagine

nicoli

pans legamcti e c orde, cotica e carne e

sono vndici sefnplici ossi - nerui vene, * arterie

There are

eleven elementary tissues

:

Cartilage bones nerves, veins,

arteries, fascia,

ligament and sinews,

skin,

muscle and

fat.

DEL
?Le
cioe
8

CAPO.

OF THE HEAD.
sono 10:
;

parti del

uaso del capo
e
5

cotenute le conI0 muteneti ' sono: oapegli cotica carne e '1 " craneo scolosa panniculo grosso 12 le contenvte son queste du ra madre pia
5

conteneti

internal, the external are the hair, skin, muscle, fascia and the skull;
5

The divisions external and 5
internal

of the head are

10, viz.

the

|

:

mater, [which enclose]

madre cieruello diso I3 tto ritorna la pia e dura madre che dentro '*a se rinchiudono
|

il

cieruello-,

poi la rete

j

s

1'osso,

fondameto del celabro nascono li nerui.

mirabile- poi e Ib e donde

pia pia mater and the dura mater come again underneath and enclose the brain; then the rete mirabile, and the occipital bone, which supports the brain from which the nerves spring.
the
brain.

are

the

dura

mater,

the

The

S. K.

M.

III.

65*}

a

capelli

a. hair
n.

n cotica
c carne

skin

musculosa

c

paniculo grosso 50 craneo cioe osso

m
d

muscle
skull
/'.

m. fascia
o.
e.

bone

b dura madre
pia

b.

madre

d.

f ciervello
r-pia madre di sotto / dura madre
/

dura mater pia mater
brain pia mater, below

f.
r.
/.
/.

dura mater
rete mirablile

rete mirabile
'

s

osso fondameto.

s.

the occipitul bone.

gurare.
8ia. j. hossi.

15.
4.

ecqual.

16.
.

essimilmente
.

.

.

pannichuli

he.

5.

codigahe.

magreza graseza. 8. he 5 cotenute.
.
.

9.

codiga.

10.

musscolosa.

14.

asse ringiugano.

15. ellosso.

16. nasscie.

813. 2. codiga.

6.

[f cieruello].

813.

See PL CVIII, No.

3.

8 1 4. 815.]

ANATOMY.

117

W. An.

II.

37 a]
2

814.

Causa
core,
3

dell' alitare,

causa del moto del
4

dere
8

11

.,,.,,,, cibo dallo
s
li

causa del uomito,

causa del disce-

stomaco,
delle

causa del

,

,

votare
le inte
11

Of the cause of breathing, of the cause of the motion of the heart, of the cause of vomiting, of the cause of the descent of i f nA f c ,1 c food from <A, stomach, of the cause of empthe
ty i ng the intestines.

Ftestini;
9superfluita per

Causa del moto
I0

stini;
J

tossire,

I2 causa dello inghiottire, causa dello sbadigliare, ^ causa dello starnuto, j s causa dell' adormetame l6 to

Causa dello
3

Of the cause of the movement of the superfluous matter through the intestines. Of the cause of swallowing, of the cause of coughing, of the cause of yawning, of the
cause of sneezing,

of the

cause of limbs

di diuerse

mebra; l8 17 Causa del ad alcu perdere il seso mebro; *9 Causa del solletico; 20 Causa della lussuria e a! 2I tre necessita
del corpo,
22

getting asleep. Of the cause of losing sensibility in any limb.

causa delPorinare,

2

3e cosl di

tutte le lotioni natu^rali del corpo.

the cause of tickling. the cause of lust and other appetites of the body, of the cause of urine and also of all the natural excretions of the body.

Of Of

w. An. m. 230*

(-s-)]

815.
2

Le
dal
7

lagrime

vengono dal
6
8

3

core e

no

The

tears

come from

the heart

and not

4

ceruello.

from the brain.
tutte

le parti di che si cocorpo, co minciadosi dalla 9 cute colla sua so I0 praveste, la qual IJ e spesso

sDifinisci
il

pone

spiccata

I2

Define all the parts, of which the body composed, beginning with the skin with its outer cuticle which is often chapped by the
is

median te

il

sole.

influence of the sun.

814. 5. dello stomacho.
23. tutte lutibni.

6.

otare le

I.

7.

testine.

9.

super

fruita.

10. stine.

n.

delle ingiottire.

13. isbauiglare.

14. isstarnuto.

815. 2.

vengano.

5

difinisscitute.

6. parte.

8.

mincadosi.

9. cutic.

.

10. pravessta.

n.

spicha.

814.

By

ink

drawing

the side of this text stands the pen and reproduced on PI. CVIII, No. 4 ; a

skull with

indications

of the

veins

in

the

fleshy

covering.

&m&&&&&$m

II.

ZOOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.
W.
An.
I.

8l6.

I'onio
\

la
si

descritionc

dell'oino,
quelli

nella

Man.

The
sion*
.mini
il

()IM-

of the

qual

contengono

che

son

dom
(816.

king-

qua'si di simile spetie come babbuino, scimmia e simili che so molti.
J

The description of man, which includes that of such creatures as are of almost the same species, as Apes,

817).

Leone

\

e suoi seguaci
tigri,

come
lupi,

pantieri,

Monkeys and the like, which are many, The Lion and its kindred, as Panthers.
Wildcats
(?)

leonze,
gatti di

liopardi,

cervie 4 ri,
gatti co-

Tigers, Leopards, Wolfs,
cats,

Spagna, gannetti e
simili.

Lynxes,

Spanish

common
as Mule,

cats

mvni c
s

Cdvallo e sua seguaci come mulo, asino e simili che anno deti sopra e di sotto. 6 Toro e sua seguaci cornvti e sanza denti di sopra come bufolo ceruio, daino ^capriolo, pecore, capre, stam|

and the like. T/ie Horse and its kindred,

Ass and

the like, with incisor teeth above and below.

The Bull and

,

becchi, mvcheri, camozze, giraffe.

its allies with horns and without upper incisors as the Buffalo, Stag Fallow Deer, Wild Goat, Swine, Goat, wild Goats Muskdeers, Chamois, Giraffe.

W. An.

II.

206*

(I)]

817.

Scrivi

le

varieta

2

delli

intestini

deMla
in
8

spetie
6

vma 4 na,
si

scimie e sismili;
la

Di poi

Describe the various forms of the intestines of the human species, of apes and such like.

che

la

specie leonina, di poi bovina, 9 e vltimo li uccelli, lo e vsa tal
12

uaria

Then, in what way the leonine species differ, and then the bovine, and finally birds; and arrange this description after the manner of
a disquisition.

descrif'tione a uso di

discorso.

816.

homo
2.

la

.

.

contiene
6.

.

.

chesson.
7. 7.

2.

essimili.
. .

essimili cano.
17.

essanza.
4. essi.

pechore
elonina.

3. essua seguace stanbeche mvcheri

.

.

tigre.

4.

gannetti

.

.

essimili.

5.

chavallo

.

[cervio)

drlli intestini.

9.

ucielli.'

10. discrip.

816.

3.

Lfonta

wild cat?

"Secondo alcuni,

lo stesso che Ltontssa; e secondo altri con

//* ffrtnza,

lo stesso

che

Panlira."

KANFANI, Vocabolario page 858.

818823].
W.
A. IV.
i53<5]

ZOOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.
8l8.
2

119

Fatidarevna secodina delli. vitelliquado nascono e nota 3 la figura de' cotiledoni, se riser 4 vano li cotiledoni mas s chi o femminei.

Procure the placenta of a calf when it is born and observe the form of the cotyledons, if their cotyledons are male or female.

Misceiianes " t n

he Z
(8 i8

t

dy
sfi).

(

W. An.

IV.

i6;]

8ig.

Scrivi la

lingua del picchio

2

e la ma-

Describe the tongue

of the woodpecker

scella del cocodrillo.

and the jaw of the crocodile.

G. 64

820.
<5]

di parpaglioni formiche alate; 4 delle tre principali situation! s che fanno I'ali delli vccielli che discedono.

Volare della 4 a spetie
delle

2

Of
flies

the

flight

of the 4 th kind of butterants.

divo 3 ratori

that

consume winged
flight.

Of

the

three principal positions of the wings of birds
in

downward

M.

67 a]

821.

Che modo fa la coda del pescie a so2 spin giere il pescie innazi, e cosl 1'anguilla, 3 biscia e mignatta.
W. An.

Of
acts

trie

way

in

which the
the
fish;

tail

of a
the

fish eel,

in propelling

as

in

snake and leech.

IV. 157,1 (B)]

822.
DI DENTRO.

.

DELLA MANO

OF THE PALM OF THE HAND.
Then
in
I

2 Farai poi vn discor 3 so delle mani di ciascu 4 n animale per mostrare 5 in che si 6 uariano, come nell'orso che agiugne la

will

discourse

each animal
the
bear,

to

show
which
the

in

of the hands of Comparative what they vary; as?uctnreor
the
ligatures
f

has
toes

legatura decile corde de' diti del pie il collo d' esso pie.

8

^"action of
muscles

sopra

the

sinews

of

joined above the

instep.

W. XXIV

(-55-)]
2

823.

1'

Dimostratione secoda interposta infra anato 3 mia e '1 uiuo. 4 s Figurerai a questo p aragone le gambe
le

A second demonstration inserted between anatomy and [the treatise on] the living being.
You
tne
^

de' ra6 nocchi,

quali

anno gran
I0

^simili-

egs

will represent here for a comparison, f a frog; which have a great

tudine colle ganbe 8 dell'omo si come 9 ne' suoi muscoli; di poi
le
I2

nell'ossa

seguirai

XI della lepre, le quali son gabe dirieto molto muscolose e di I3 muscoli spediti, I4 sono inpedite da grasse'Szza. perche no

resemblance to the legs of man, both in the bones and in the muscles. Then, in continuation, the hind legs of the hare, which are
very muscular, with strong active muscles, because they are not encumbered with fat.
offeminine.
.

818.

i.

fatti.
.
.

2.

nascano.
2.

3.

cotilidoni.

4.

cotilidoni mass.

5. ci

819. lingha
821.
i.

pichio.

ella masscella.
2.

820.
3.

5.

cheffa

.

disceda.
822. 6.

pesscie assosspl.
6.

pesscio
8.

.

.

languila.

bisscia e
12.

migmaua.

agugne

la lecatura.

823. 4. acquessto.

nochi.

com"e".

9. nu:sscoli.

molte.

820.

4.

A

permit myself

to

passing allusion is all I can here Leonardo's elaborate researches

821.

A

sketch of a'fish, swimming upwards
inserted

is

in

the

original,

above

this

text.

Compare

into the flight of birds.

Compare the observations

on this subject in the Introduction to section XVIII and in the Bibliography of Manuscripts at the end
of the work.

No. 1114. 823. This text
in black chalk

is

written

by the

side of a drawing
is

of a nude male figure, but there no connection between the sketch and the text.

120

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.

[824826.

la difQui fo ricordo di dimostrare 3ferentia ch'e dall'o'mo al cauallo, e simil6 smente delli altri ani mali e prima 7 comin8 cerd alPossa, e proseguiro tutti li muscoli che sanza corde na^scono e finiscono nelle I0 e poi di quelli che co corda naossa, "scono e finiscono nell'ossa, e poi di "che con una sola corda da v can;

2

quelle
to.

a note to demonstrate the between man and the horse and in the same way with other animals. And first'I will begin with the bones, and then will go on to all the muscles which spring from the bones without tendons and end in them in the same way, and then go on to those which start with a single tendon at
I

Here

make

difference there

is

one end.

E. ,6-]

82 52 delle piegatu re

Nota
in
6

delle
tio e

giutu^re, e

che

mo do
4 7

cresce

la
8

scarne

sopra di

e di questa

stendimesti; Iportatissima "notitia fa uno 12 nel' 4 la descritione particulare '^trattato l6 delli animali *?di quattro sde' movimeti
loro nelli

lor

piegame
|

IO

Note on the bendings of joints and in what way the flesh grows upon them in their flexions or extensions; and of this most important study write a separate treatise:
in the description of the

mals with four

tl(

pi
lui

edi,
2I

2 infra li '^quali e 1'omo "che acora 22 va co 4 piedi. nella infatia

who
fours.

likewise

feet; in his

movements of aniamong which is man, infancy crawls on all

C. A. 2920; 888 a)

826.

DELLO AND ARE
2

DELL' OMO.

OF THE WAY OF WALKING
The walking of man
universal
is

IN

MAN.

e sempre a uso dell'omo andare delli animali di 4 3 movonp i piedi, imperoche siccome essi loro piedi in croce a vso del trotto del cauallo, cosl 1'omo in croce si move le sue 4 mebra, cioe 4 se caccia Inati il pie destro per caminare, egli caccia inazi co quello il

L'andare

dell'

universale

manner of walking

always after the in animals with

4 legs, inasmuch as just as they their feet crosswise after the manner
horse in trotting, so

move
of a

4 limbs crosswise; that is, if he puts forward his right foot in walking he puts forward, with
his
it,

man moves

braccio

sinistro,

e sempre cosl seguita.

his left

arm and

vice versa, invariably.

314.

2.

la.di.

4.

cssimil.

6. e

p"a".

7.

epposseguiro.

8.

musscoli.

9.

scano effiniscano.

TO. eppoi.

it.

scano effinisscano

.

.

he
825.
i.

poi.

12. [q] che.
4.

"nota" delle pieghatu.
18.

cressca.
19. 3.

5.

charne.

7.

pieghame.
chauallo

8.

esstendime.

9.

quessta.

12. partichulare.

13. tractato.

14. lla desscritione.

infralli.

ellomo.

20. achora.

826.

2.

esaenpre
. .

.

.

inperochessichome.

movano

illoro

.

.

.

chosi.

4.

chaccia

.

.

desstro

.

.

chaminare

.

.

chaccia

.

cho

sinisstro essepr.

824.

See

PI.

CVHI, No.

2.

r

,

i

V \

_^4~"

.

H-r*

Ileliog-.

Dujardin.

5x0/15 5x0/15 5x0/15 5^0/1) 5^0/15 ,5^0

m.

PHYSIOLOGY.
W. An.
IV. 173 a]

827.
I

vmano

trovato nella compositione del corpo come in tutte 2 le composition! delli animali, esso e di piv ottusi e grossi
che,

Ho

have found that
as

in the

the

human body
animals
the

compared with

Comparative composition of s the bodies "r/ans of
s

sentimeti;

^cosl

e

composto
;

di

strumeto

manco ingegnoso

e di lochi

maco ^capaci

a ricevere la uirtu de' sensi 6 veduto nella 5 spetie Ieoni na il senso dell'odorato auere della sustantia del celabro, e disceparte
6

of sense are duller ^dln^\. and coarser. Thus it is composed of less ingenious instruments, 'and of spaces less capacious for receiving the faculties of sense. I have seen in the Lion tribe that the sense of smell is connected with part of the sub-

of

organs

.

dere li narici, capace ricettaculo contro al senso dello odorato, 7 il quale entra infra gra nvmero di saccoli cartilaginosi con assai 8 vie contro all' avenimento del predetto
celabro.

stance

nostrils, tacle for

by

of the brain which comes down the which form a spacious recepthe sense of smell, which enters a great number of cartilaginous vesicles

ochi della spetie leonina anno gran I0 ricettacolo, parte della lor testa per lor e li nerui ottici inmediate congiugnersi col 11 celabro; il che al !! omini si uede in contrario, perche le casse delli ochi sono vna I2 picco la parte del capo, e li nerui ottici sono sottili e lunghi e deboli, e per deboX 3le operatione si uede di loro il dl, e peggio la notte, e li predetti animali ^vedono in nella notte che '1 giorno; I5 e '1 segno se ne vede, perche predano di notte I6 e dor9 Li

mono

il

giorno

come fano ancora

li

uccelli

notturni.

with several passages leading up to where the brain, as before said, comes down. The eyes in the Lion tribe have a large part of the head for their sockets and the optic nerves communicate at once with the but the contrary is to be seen in brain; man, for the sockets of the eyes are but a small part of the head, and the optic nerves are very fine and long and weak, and by the weakness of their action we see by day but badly at night, while these animals can see as well at night as by day. The proof that they can see is that they prowl for prey at night and sleep by day, as nocturnal birds do also.

87-

i.

ottrovato

.

.

conpositone
6.
.

.

.

chome.
7.
.

3.

chosi e conpossto

.

.

mancho
9.
.
.

.

.

mancho.
10.

4.

chapaci.
elli
.

5.
.

nel senso
ottitti
.
.

.

.

susstantia

del celabro
ii. Hi
.

disce.
.

ricettachulo.
12.
elli

sachuli chartilaginosi.
ellunghi.
13.

tessta.
elli.

ricettachulo
.
.

congugnersi.
il

.

.

chasse
.

picho.

.

eppeggo

14.

vegan inela

gorno.

15.

dormano

gorno

.

fano
II.

.

ucelli.

VOL.

Q

122

PHYSIOLOGY.

[828. 829.

828.

,

ITutte le cose vedute parrano mag3 mezzo d) Ad...ue, giori di mezza notte, che di n ,h e .in.cche *di mezzodl.l llla&5 iori di mattina macc lure of the * \ Ml 611 la pupilla delsQuesto accade percho minore assai di mezzo Ml- che l' ochio
i t

2

Every object we see will appear larger midnight than at midday, and larger in the morning than at midday. This happens because the pupil of the at midday than at any eye is much smaller
at

nessuno altro tenpo. ochio Tanto quato & maggiore a proportione '"dello 9 over pupilla del gufo mo animate, che non 6 quella dell' o" lume vede di notte che "no fa tanto
di
1
,

other time. In proportion as the eye or the pupil of the owl is larger in proportion to the animal than that of man, so' much the more light
see at night than man can; hence at can see nothing if its pupil does it not diminish ; and, in the same way, at night

can

it

Porno; ode di mezzo -dl no vede ni^ente-, e similselui no diminuisce sua pupil 'la vede di notte le cose mag'Sgiori mete
1

piv

midday

-,

-

things look larger to

it

than by day.

che

di di.

c. 44-1

829.

DELLI OCHI DELLI ANIMALI.
*Li ochi di tutti
popille,
le
li

OF THE
3

EYES IN ANIMALS.

animali ano le

lor

cresquali per loro medesitne

cono e diminuiscono secodo il mag^giore 6 e minore lume del sole o altro chiarore; Ma nelli uccelli fa maggio^re differetia, e massima nelli nottui^ni, come gufi, barbadi yianni, e all' ochi ?che son di spetie I0 la popilla in modo civetta; a questi cresce che quasi occupa tut 1 'to 1' ochio, e dimi-

The eyes of all animals have their pupils adapted to dilate and diminish of their own accord in proportion to the greater or less But in light of the sun or other luminary.
birds the
variation
is

much

greater;

and

particularly in nocturnal birds, such as horned owls, and in the eyes of one species of

owl
as

;

in

nuisce insino alia gra dezza d'u gra di miglio e sempre osser'^va figura circulare; Ma la spe M tie leonina come patere,
pardi,
gatti di

I2

'.Meoze,
l6

tigri,

lupi,

cieruieri,

*

e altri simili diminuiscono '7 la lucie dal perfetto circulo 18 alia figura biagolare, cioe questa '^e;

Spa gnia

^

or of a grain of millet, and always preserves the circular form. But ^ in the Lion tribe, as panthers, pards, ounces, tigers Spanish cats lynxes and other similar animals the pupil dimito

occupy nearly
the

these the pupil dilates in such a the whole eye ,
size

way

diminishes to

,

,

dimostra in margine; Ma 1'uomo per avere piu debole vista che nessuno altro a 2I nimale, meno e

come

C

t

si

20

nishes from the perfect circle to the figure of a pointed oval such as is shown in the margin. But man having a weaker sight than any other animal
is less hurt by a very strong light and his pupil increases but little 'in dark places; but in the eyes of these nocturnal animals, the

offeso

ochi 2 animali notturni, al <gufo vc2 ciello cornuto, il quale e '1 s massimo nella a6 spetie delli vccelli nottur ni a questo s' aumeta tanto la uirtu vi 2 ?siva, che nel minimo
delli detti
:

meta

dalla superchia luce, nelli lochi tenebrosi^ ma

"e me

s av-

horned owl
all

a bird which
birds
the

is

nocturnal increases so

power of

the largest of vision sees

much

that in the faintest noc-

turnal light (which

we

call darkness)

it

8*8.

i.

tucte

.

le

chose.

2.

magiori
.
.

.

.

meza.
14.

3.

mezo
lor.

.

.

magiori.
.
.

4.

mezo.

5.

acchade.

6.

mezo.

8.

he magiore.
6.
vcielli.

ix. nocte.

12.

mezo.

13.

diminuisscie
3.

popi.

cssimilmcte

8j)

i.

dclt[o|i cchi(o]i.
neli.
8.

popille le quali
9.

pe

4.

magiore. scano e diminvisschano
15.

ma.

.

.

il

ma.

5.

eminore.
essenpre.
si

7.

diferetia

emauime

ghufi.
16.

chcsson

.

.

qucssti cresscie.
17. circhulo. 18.
.

10.

ochupa.

ti. diminuisscie.
. .

12.
19.

13.

fighura circulare.
. .

M

lla.

14.

chome.
21.

diminuiscano.
23. notturniel.

fighura biaghola

quessta.

chome
28.

dimosstra

Mallom"o"
. .

20. vissu.

luci'V.

24.

ghupo

.

chornuto.

25. vcielli.

26. acquessto.

quale noc dimadano

ve

829.

Compare No.

24, lines

8 and

fol.

830.

SSL]

PHYSIOLOGY.
with

123
distinctness than

lume notturno (il 28 quale da noi dimadasi 2 tenebre) vede assai co 9piu vigore che noi 3 mezzo nello splendore del giorno, nel
tali vccielli sta s'nascosti in lochi te2 nebrosi; e se pur 3 S 6 costretti u^scire alPa34ria allumina^sta dal sole, elli' 3& diminuiscono 3?tato la lor po' 8 pilla che la

much more

we do

in the

quale

splendour of noon day, at which time these birds remain hidden in dark holes; or if in-

deed they are compelled
the

to

come out
the sun,
that

into

open

air

lighted

up
so

by

they
their

contract

their

pupils

much

po 39 tentia
colla
42

visiua

4diminuisce
.

4?insieme

power of

sight

^ e vedi e 49serrano quali ch'aprono le pre5dette popille s 1 delli ochi dels'li ani47 so li

quatita di tale 43l uc i e 44 Fa notomia 4 5di vari ochi,

diminishes together with the

muscoli

48

quantity of light admitted. Study the anatomy of various eyes and see which are the muscles which open and
close the said pupils of the eyes of animals.

mali.

Br.

M.

64

<J]

830.
il

a b n e
ude
2

Pochio
*c
4

di

oppaco,
idirieto

.coperchio di sotto che chisotto in su con coperchio n b chiude 1'ochio dinanzi

con coperchio transparete. sQiiudesi sotto in su 6 perche da
8

alto discie"7de.

Quando

1'ochio

delli

uccelli

si

la

prima la secondina qual "chiude dal lagrimatoio I2 alia co da d'esso ochio, e la prima si chi I3 vde da basso in alto, e queI4 sti due moti s in occupano intersegati dal lacrimatoio, perche gia abbiamo prima veduto che l6 dinanzi e di sotto si sono e sol serba I7 no la parte di assicurati,
sopra per li pericoli delli uccielli ra paci che discendono di sopra e dirieto; e scol8

chiude ^colle esso chiu I0 de

sue

due

copriture,

a b n is the membrane which closes the eye from below, upwards, with an opaque film, c n b encloses the eye in front and behind with a transparent membrane. It closes from below, upwards, because it [the. eye] comes downwards. When the eye of a bird closes with its two lids, the first to close is
\

the nictitating membrane which closes from the lacrymal duct over to the outer corner of the eye; and the outer lid closes from below upwards,

"^prano prima
20

il
'1

pannicolo di verso

la

coda,
egli

perche

se

nemico viene

dirieto,

a la como 2I dita| del fugire innazi, e ancora tiene 22 il pannicolo detto secondino e traspa*3rente perche se non avesse tale 2 scudo, e' no 4potrebbe tener li ochi cotro al 2 Sveto che percuote 1'ochio aperti
,

these two intersecting motions begin from the lacrymatory duct, because we have already seen that in front and below birds are protected and use only the upper portion of the eye from fear of birds of prey which come down from above and behind; and they uncover first the membrane from the outer corner, because if the enemy comes from behind, they have the power of escaping to the front; and again the muscle
first

and

called the nictitating

membrane

is

transparent,

nel
la

furo 26 re
2

del

suo
o

sua uedere

7popilla
28

crescie

minore

velocie volare; 'E e discrescie nel maggiore lume cioe

because, if the eye had not such a screen, they could not keep it open against the wind which strikes against the eye in the rush of their rapid flight. And the pupil of the eye dilates and contracts as it sees a
less or greater light, that
is

spledore.

to

say intense

brilliancy.
H.3 6i]

831.
If at

fra

UL' ochio che di notte s'interporra in'1 lume e 1'ochio 2 della gatta, vedra

night

your eye
fire.

is

placed between
cat,
it

the

light

and the eye of a

will see

esso occhio parere di foco.1
assai cho.
29. vighore. 31. nasscosti

the eye look like
inochi
48.
.

.

esseppur.
es.

32. cosstretti vs.

33. allalla.

36. diminuisca.

38. chella.

40. di-

minuissie.

41. cholla.
.

47. musscoli.
4.

aprano

830.

2.

socto
. .

.

oppacho.

chon choperchio transsparete.
panitolo
28.

6. discie. 7. da.
. .

8. vcielli.

9.

cholle

.

.

chopriture.

12.

ella.

13. di

basso
. .

ecque.

14. interseghati
19.
.

diriecto essco.

ochupano. choda.
.

15.
20.

dalacrimatoio

giaa ueduto.
22.

16. assichurati.J 17. pericholi. 18.

dissciendono
26.

nemicho

.

.

diriecto.

trasspa.

23. auessi.'

25.

perchuote.

Ella.

27.

cresscie
ellochio.

e
2.

disscresscie.

magiore.

831.

i.

vedera

.

.

focho.

PHYSIOLOGY.
124
W.
A.. IV. 184*

[832

834.

832.
(;)J

La
oomuscoli
gan.

auere 24 lingua e trouata
li

rispondono alii che 6 2 conposta la che si move quatita della lingua la bocca. per 3E quando a o v si pronutiano con intelligibile e spedita pronusnecessario che nella tia, egli 6 continua lor pronutiatione sanza intermissio di tepo, che 'I'apritura de' labri si uadi al cotinuo restrinel larghi sarano gnendo, cio

^ musco

quali

li

di

is found to have muscles which correspond to the six muscles which compose the portion of the tongue which moves in the mouth. And when a o u are spoken with a clear and rapid pronunciation, it is necessary, in order to pronounce continuously, without any pause between, that the opening of the lips should close by degrees; that is, they are wide apart in saying a,

The tongue

24

dire a, pi 9 u stretti nel dire o, e assai piv stretti nel pr'onuntiare v.

closer in saying
still

o,

and much closer

"Prouasi come tutte

le

uo-

pronounce u. It may be shown how all the vowels are pronounced with the
farthest portion of the false palate

to

"cali son pronQtiate colla 'Jparte ultima del pala'no mobile, il quale

which

is

above the

epiglottis.

copre Pe'Spiglotta.
w. xxij
833.
tirerai
fori

Se madar
sono
in
. .

fiato pel na'so ^per la bocca, tu
il

e lo vorrai
sentirai
il

4

che

fa

il

tramezzo cioe

il

Spanicolo

you draw in breath by the nose and out by the mouth you will hear the sound made by the division that is the
If

send

it

membrane

in [5]

.

.

.

C. A. 89*; 2580]

834.

DELLA NATURA DEL UEDERE.
2

OF THE NATURE OF
I

SIGHT.

Dico

jl

uedere
11
i

On

the conditions of
light

li

animali

mediate

essere operate da tutti la luce; e se alcuno
i

cotra

questo

^allegnera
dir6

jl

uedere

j

ndelli

animali

notturni,

mete essere
Jperoche

questo medesimasottoposto a simile natura;
.-'

chiaro

si

coprede

-,

j

sensi

ricievedo le similitudini delle cose

no mae

dano
seso

fori

di loro
si

alcuna virtu
trova

s
;

a nzi me'1

diate 1'aria, che
-,

ifra 1'obietto

jncorpora J se le spetie delle cose e per lo cotatto, 6 che a col seso, le porgie a quello se li obietti o per sono o
, ;

say that sight is exercised by all aniby the medium of light; and if any. one adduces, as against this, the sight of nocturnal animals, I must .say that this in the same way is subject to the very same natural laws. For it will easily be understood that the senses which receive the images of things do not project from themselves any visual virtue [4]. On the contrary the atmospheric medium which exists between the object and the sense incorpomals,
rates
its

in itself the figure of things, and by contact with the sense transmits the obit.

per

ject to

If the object

whether by sound

odore madano
7

le potetie spirituali all'

orechio

or

o

al

naso

,

qui
;

adopera
831.
i.

la luce

le

non e neciessario ne si forme delli obietti non
. .

presents its spiritual force to the ear or the nose, then light is not The forms of required and does not act.

by

odour

objects
boccha.
13. lla.

do
lingb.ua

not

send

their

images
Essecquando
.
.

into

musscole

.

.

rospondano
7.

musscoli.
8.

t.

conposta

.

.

3.

chessi perbocha.

4.

cho.

4.

csspedita.
ettirarai.

dellabri
3.

.

.

resstri.

coe.
4.

12. chali.

15. piglotto.
5.
.

833.

i.

a. ello.

bocha

tusscutirai.
.
.

cheffa

il

tramazzo.
.

panicholo.
.

8*.

i. 5.

operate [raediitc

la
.

In)

dattutti
. .

ette.

3.

alegera

.

sotto

posti
.
.

aasimile.

4.

cSpIede
.

.

.

similitudine

.

.

alchuna.
7.

iou

.

.

chessi

.

jnthorpora

chotatto.

6.

chol

.

.

acquelo

per [romore] "sono" per

.

mSda

.

per

la.

nessi

833-

5-

The

text

here breaks

off.

834.

4.

Compare No.

68.

8.

See No. 58-67.

835- 836.]

PHYSIOLOGY.

125

etrano per similitudine jfra 1'aria, 8 se quelli no sono Ivminosi essedo cosl 1'ochio no
;

la

puo
di
,

ricievere
la

da

quell' aria
9

che no
se tu

1'a e

the air if they are not illuminated [8]; and the eye being thus constituted cannot receive that from the air, which the air does not

che tocca
dire

sua superfitie;

volessi

molti animali j quali predano di notte dico che quando in questi manca la poca luce I0 che basta alia natura de' che questi s' aivtano colla poloro ochi tetia dello udito e dello odorato, IJ i quali no sono Ipediti dalle tenebre e de' quali
,
,

although it touches its surface. If to say that there are many animals that prey at night, I answer that when the little light which suffices the nature of their eyes is wanting, they direct themselves by their strong sense of hearing and of smell, which are not impeded "by the darkness, and
possess,

you choose

avazano di gra luga-1'omo-; Se porrai mete a una gatta I2 di giorno sal tare Ifra molte vasellameti -, vedrai quelli^ rimanere
e se farai questo medesimo di notte, vccelli notturni no li ronpera ne assai volano se no lucie tutta o I parte la luna,
salui,
I3
;
,

in

If

azi

si

e

la

Jfra il coricare itera oscurita della notte

pasco^no

del sole

;

'sNessuno corpo si puo coprendere saza lume e obra; lume e obra sono causate dalla luce.

which they are very far superior to man. you make a cat leap, by daylight, among a quantity of jars and crocks you will see them remain unbroken, but if you do the same at night, many will be broken. Night birds do not fly about unless the moon shines full or in part; rather do they feed between sun-down and the total darkness of the night. No body can be apprehended without light and shade, and light and shade are caused by light.

G. 90 a]

835.
2

PfiRCHE NELLI OMINI ATTEPATI MEGLIO DISCOSTO.

IL

UEDERE E

WHY MEN
Sight
in those

ADVANCED
better

IN

AGE SEE BETTER AT A

DISTANCE.
is

3 II uedere e meglio discosto che da pres*so in quelli omini, li quali s'attepano, 6 Sperche vna medesima cosa mada di se

from a distance than near

minore inpressione nell'oc 7 chio, remota che quado li e vi 8 cina.

essendo

are advancing in age, because the same object transmits a smaller impression of itself to the eye when it is distant than when it is near.

men who

C. At. 893; 2580]

836.

seso corhune e quello che givdica le 2 Li ana lui date dalli altri sensi ano cocluso che quella tichi speculatori che e data all'omo, parte del giuditio strumeto al quale sia causata 3 da vno referiscono li altri 5 mediate la ipressiva, e a detto strumeto ano posto nome seso essere comvne, 4 e dicono questo seso
II

The Common
of things

cose

;

,

by the other senses. The ancient speculators have concluded that that part of man which constitutes his judgment is caused by a central organ to which the other five senses refer everything by means of impressibility; and to this centre they have
given the name Common Sense. And they say that this Sense is situated in the centre of the head between Sensation and MeAnd this name of Common Sense mory.

Sense, offered to it

is

that

which judges The
the c

seat of

mon

se

mezzo il capo jfra la ipresE questo nome di e la memoria; siva seso s comvne dicono solamete perche e
situate
in
,

lalluce.

8.

nolla
.

po

.

.

dacquell

.

.

aria'"ce nola e" che tocha.
.

9.
.

che qua["do"
.

I

.

.

mancha
.
.

la

pocha.
14.

10.

allandatura
. .

chola
15.

.

.

delo

a[v]uldito.
. .

n. porai mete
chosa.
dali.
2.
[j

i

'.

gatta.

12.

vedera

esse.

13.

vcielli

pasca.

corichare

ella.

po

.

chopledere
3.
.

e chausata.
5.
.
.

835. 2. disscosto.

disscossto.

836.

i.

givdiCha

le
.

chose
.

allui

nosstri]

li
.

antich[e]i spechulatori
4. e

.

.

choncluso checquella
[il

.

.

guditio
j

.

.

chausata
Ipresiua
.

3.

referischano
. .

5

.

"mediate
dicano
. .

la Ipresine" e

a

.

ano.
.

dichano
6.

.

.

essere [situato] imezo
.
.

chapo

fralla

ella

Ecquesto.

5.

choravne

.

.

deli

.

vldire tochare.

Ipresiua

imezo

.

.

inpresiua.

7.

similitudine

.

PHYSIOLOGY.
cioe
is

comvne
dere
6
II

-judice- delli udire toccare

altri

5

sesi,

gustare e odorare;
si

mon

senso

comvne
si

move mediate
jfra lui

la

given to it solely i.e. judge of all the other five senses Taste and Smell. Seeing, Hearing, Touch, This Common Sense is acted upon by means

because

it

is

the

com-

Ipressiva
sesi;

ch'e posta-I mezzo

e

i

la inpressiua

move
a
lei
i

7

mediate

le si-

militudini delle cose

date

dalli stru-

meti
I

cioe sesi, superfitiali

quali sono posti

mezzo
,

siva
li

esteriori e la Ipres'jfra le cose si movono mediate i sesi e similmete
9 le

of Sensation which is placed as a medium between it and the senses. Sensation is acted upon by means of the images of things external instruments, presented to it by the that is to say the senses which are the medium between external things and Sensation.

In

the

same

way

the

senses are

obietti;

circostanti
ai sesi
;

cose
e
I0
i

madano

le

loro

similitudini
alia

sensi le tras-

feriscono

Ipressiva;
,

mada

al

stabilite

seso comvne nella memoria

Ipressiva le e da quello sono
la
-,

e

11

sono

piv

acted upon by objects. Surrounding things their transmit images to the senses and Sento the transfer them senses the Sensation sends them to the Comsation. mon Sense, and by it they are stamped upon the memory and are there more or
less

o meno "retenute
potetia della

secodo
data
;

la

Iportatia

o
.

cosa

Quello
jl
,

senso

I2 ofitio, e piv veloce nel suo alia uicino impressiva piv

quale
1'ochio

e

e

'3 del quale pricipe delli altri , superioreli altri lascieremo tratteremo e per solo no ci allugare dalla nostra materia dice 10 J la sperieza '*che 1'ochio s'astede
;

retained according to the importance That sense is or force of the impression. most rapid in its function which is "nearest to the sensitive medium and the eye, being Of the highest is the chief of the others. we will speak, and the this then only

varie nature d' obietti

cio

luce

e tenebre,

tione:

1'una-cagione dell'altre 9 -, e 1'altra privae corpo figura e sito 'Scolore
e proplquita

we will leave in order not to make our matter too long. Experience tells us that the eye apprehends ten different natures of Light and Darkness, one things, that is: being the cause of the perception of the nine others, and the other its absence:
others

remotione

moto

e quiete.

Colour and substance, form and place, distance and nearness, motion and stillness [15].

W. An.

IV. 184,.

(7))

837lo
2

Ancorache
OB
the ori-Iuetioni tin of the Q

ingiegnio

vmano

faccia

Though human

ingenuity

may make

va-

rispodedo co uari ^strumeti medesimo sfine, mai esso trove 6 ra a 8 inuentione piu ? Delia, ne piu facile, ne piu della natu 9 ra, perche nelle sue inbrieue :i I0 venzioni nulla ma ca e nullo e superfluI2 va co contra ^pesi, quado essa o, e non
va^rie,
1

rious inventions which, by the help of various machines answering the same end, it
will

tiful,

never devise any inventions more beaunor more simple, nor more to the purpose than Nature does; because in her insuperfluous,

fa le

corpi l6 Ma ui mette dentro I'a^nima animali; I(< cioe 1'anima d'esso corpo copo nitore, 20 del' 9 la madre che prima conpone nella ma 2 'trice la figura dell' o 22 mo; e al tenpo debito * 3 desta 1* anima, che di quel 24 deve 2 essere abitatore, Ma qual prima restau 26 a dormetata e in tutela J 7 dell' anima della

'*mebra

atti

al

moto

nel'sli

delli

is wanting, and nothing is and she needs no counterpoise when she makes limbs proper for motion in But she puts into the bodies of animals. them the soul of the body, which forms them that is the soul of the mother which first constructs in the womb the form of the man and in due time awakens the soul that is And this at first lies dormant to inhabit it.

ventions nothing

chose
dine.
elli.
.

.

.

dali

.

.

scsiggugali

.

.

mezo.
. .

8.

Infrallc

.

.

istcriori
.

ella Ipressiua essimilemete
.

.

.

movano
10.

.

.

obietti le similitu.

o..

delle circhuitanti chose
12.
. .

similitudine a sesic sensi

trasfcrischano

.

.

Tpresiua.
. .

Ipresiua la
14.

.

dacquello
.

.

.

n. sechodo.
chorpo
. .

uisino

.

ala

inpresiua

.

.

deli.

13.

trattereno e laltri lasciereno

data.

chagne

.

ellaltra.

15.
i.

cssito

ecquiete.
5. trover,

837.

chello.

2.

vmano

iniuetioni.

n. cha

e nulla.

13. fa

il.

14.

mebr.

16.

coe.

23. dessta.

24.

debbe. 25. restafui).

836.

15.

Compare No.

23.

838. J

PHYSIOLOGY.
28

127

madre,
per
la

la

quale

la

nutrisce e vivifi 2 9ca
tutti
2

vena ombelica3le, con
spiritual!,

li

sua

mother,

and under the tutelage of the soul of the who nourishes and vivifies it by the
with
all
its

me^bri

e

cosi

segu3

ira

insino

umbilical vein,

spiritual

parts,
is

che tale ombe^lico 11 e giunto colla se.3 4 condina e li cotilido35ni per la quale il
6 figlo3 lo

and

this

happens because

this

umbilicus

si

unisce colla madre;

3

?e questi

son causa che v3 8 na volonta, vn sommo desi 39derio, vna paura che 4 abbia la madre, o altro ^ i dolor metale a poteti 42 a piu nel 43 figliolo che ne! la madre, perche spesse sono 44 le volte, che il figlio ne per 4 5de la
vita ecc.
46

Questo discor-^so no ua
5

qui,

48

ma

si

r 49

ichiede

anima5 4 ti;
dell'

anima

nella cos^ositio S 2 delli cor53pi il resto difinitione della lascio nelssle meti de' frati,

E

padri de' popoli,

li

6 quali per inspira5 tione

joined to the placenta and the cotyledons, by which the child is attached to the mother. And these are the reason why a wish, a strong craving or a fright or any other mental suffering in the mother, has more influence on the child than on the mother; for there are many cases when the child loses its life from them, &c. This discourse is not in its place here, but will be wanted for the one on the composition of animated bodies and the rest of the definition of the soul I leave to the imaginations of friars, those fathers of the people

sanno tutti li segreti. 5 7 Lascio star le lettere incoronate, perche so soma verita.

who know

all

secrets

by

inspiration.

[57]! leave alone the sacred books; they are supreme truth.

for

W.

An.

II.

202 a (-B-)]

838.

COME
2

i

5

SENSI

SONO

HOW
OFITIALI

DELL' ANIMA.
nella

THE FIVE SENSES ARE THE MINISTERS OF THE SOUL.

L' anima
e la

pare
parte

risedere

juditiale,
3

parte juditiale pare essere
tutti
i

nel loco

doue

concorrono

sesi

,

il

quale e detto
4

senso comvne,
,

e

non e

tutta

ano
tutta
li

come molti per tutto il corpo creduto -, anzi tutto in nella parte
in
,

The soul seems to reside in the judg- On the reiaf he ment, and the judgment would seem to be ""^ th e seated in that .part where all the senses organs of sense. meet; and this is called the Common Sense and is not all-pervading throughout the body,
t

as
,

in

inpercche sc

tutta per tutto ella sfusse e non era necessario ogni parte stru 6 meti de' sensi fare infra loro uno

medesimo cocorso a uno
basta?va

thought. Rather is it entirely one part. Because, if it were all-pervading and the same in every part, there would have been no need to make the instruments of the senses meet in one centre and in one single spot; on the contrary it would have sufficed that the eye should

many have

solo loco

,

anzi

che

1'

ochio
8

del sentimeto

sulla
la

operasse 1' ufitio sua superfitie e no
delli nerui
ottici

of

its

sensation on

its

mandare per
similitudine

uia

la
,

delle
alia

cose

vedute

al

seso

sopra sdetta ragione le poteua compredere in essa superfitie del'o1'

che

anima

transmit the image the sense, by means of the optic nerves, so that the soul for the reason given above it in the surface of the eye. may perceive In the same way as to the sense of hearing,
it

fulfil the function surface only, and not of the things seen, to

would have

sufficed if the voice

had mere-

28. la

qual nutrisscie
38.

vivifi.

29.

cha

.

.

vnbilica.
43.

30.

le sua.

32. chettale vnbi. 54.

33. licho.

34. elli.

36. unisscie colla
55.
le

ma

37.

ecquesti.

somo.

42.

che ne.
.
.

spesse so.

45. della uita ecc.

dellania lasscio ne.

mete

.

.

ispirita

56. tatione san.

57.
.

Lascia doubtful
.

soma.
. .

838.

2.

ella.
.

3.

locho
. .

chonchorano
.

.

chomvne
6.
9.

ettuta.
.
.

4.

tutto
8.

ettutta
la

neciessario

fare

li.

infralloro .5.

chorpo chome chochorso a i
.

.

.

inela

.

.

ssella.

5.
.

fussi tutta [in ogni] per
.

.

.

locho.

7.
.

operassi
.

del
.

[suo]

sentimeto.

ottiti [il]

.

.

chose

.

.

chellanima.

conpledere.' 10. Essimilmete

il

.

.

dellavldito

risonassi

.

chochaue.

n. cho-

^37'

57-

lettere

incoronate.

By

this

term Leo-

the

works of the early Fathers, and

all

the books

nardo probably understands not the Bible only, but

recognised as sacred by the

Roman

Church.

128

PHYSIOLOGY.
ly

[839-

IO E similmete al seso dell' udito bastaua solamete la uoce risonasse nelle cocnue porosita "dell' osso petroso che e no fare da esso sta dcntro all'orechio osso al seso comune altro "trasito dove al essa s'abbocca, e abbia a discorrere comune givditio; l *l\ senso dell* odorato

chio

;

sounded in the porous cavity of the indurated portion of the temporal bone which within the ear, without making any lies
farther transit

from

this

bone

to the

common

,

sense , where the voice confers with and discourses to the common judgment. The sense of smell, again, is compelled by neto refer itself to that same judgFeeling passes through the perforated cords and is conveyed to this comThese cords diverge with infimon sense. nite ramifications into the skin which encloses the members of the body and the viscera. The perforated cords convey volition and sensation to the subordinate limbs. These cords and the nerves direct the motions of
cessity

acora

lui

si

uede

costretto a '5 II tatto passa

essere dalla neciessita cocorrere a detto ^juditio;

ment.

per

le
;

corde

forate,

ed e portato a esso seso I6 si uanno spargicdo con
;

le quali corde ifinita ramifica-

tione- in nella pelle-che circuda le corporee l8 Le corde perforate mebra '?e visciere
alii portano il comadameto e sentimeto mebri ofitiali, ''le quali corde e nerui 20 comadano a muscoli e lacierti infra mouimeto il ubidiscono, e quelli
i
;

the muscles

and sinews, between which they

quelli tale obedietia
fiare
,

si

"mette
'1

in atto

22 i quali lunghezze e tirasi dirieto i nerui, si tessono per le particule de' mebri; es-

imperoche

gofiare

raccorta

collo sgole loro

sendo
tano

infusi

nelli

stremi de'

diti,

^por;

cagione del loro cotatto a muscoli servono coi loro *I nerui e a codottieri soldati alle corde come come le corde 25 seruono al senso comune
al

seso

la

i

,

placed; these obey, and this obedience effect by reducing takes their thickness; for in swelling, their length is reduced, and the nerves shrink which are interwoven among the particles of the limbs; being extended to the tips of the fingers, they transmit to the sense the object which they touch. The nerves with their muscles obey the tendons as soldiers obey the officers, and the tendons obey the Common [central] Sense as
are
the officers obey the general.
[2 7]

26 i codottieri al capitano aduque la givn1 al neruo -, e tura delli ossi obbediscie
;
'

Thus

the

al muscolo e '1 muscolo alia corda, seso e'l 'e la corda al senso comune comune e sedia dell' anima e la memoria sua 28 munitione e la impress! va sua referedaria; 2 9come il senso -serve all' anima e no 1* anima al senso e dove

neruo
f

joint of the bones obeys the nerve, nerve the muscle, and the muscle the

and the
tendon

,

,

,

maca
1*

il

senso

ofitiale

dell'

anima 3al-

Sense. And the Common Sense is the seat of the soul [2 8], and memory is its ammunition, and the impressibility is its referendary since the sense waits on the soul and not the soul on the sense. And where the sense that ministers to the soul

and the tendon the

Common

anima
1'

,

maca

in

questa vita -la totalita del-

is

1'ufitio

e

-d'esso seso, or bo nato.
II.

come appare nel 3'mvto

not at the service of the soul, all the functions of that sense are also wanting in that man's life, as is seen in those born mute and blind.

W. An.

tot 6 (-B-)J

839.

COME

NERUI OPERANO QUALCHE UOLTA PER LORO *SANZA COMADAMETO DELLI ALTRI OFITIALI DELL' ANIMA.
I

HOW

SELVES WITHOUT

On

invoiun.

^Qucsto chiaramete apparisce
ch& tu
mvne.
gusto
.
.

,

vedrai
12.

movere
.

ai paraletici
.

inperoe a

THE NERVES SOMETIMES ACT OF THEMANY COMMANDS FROM THE OTHER FUNCTIONS OF THE SOUL. This is most plainly seen; for you will see palsied and shivering persons move,
achora
[di].
il
.
.

essaboca

abbia dischorere

al

chomune
le

givditio [lodor]. 13.
. .

chostretto a chochorrere.

14. jvditio

[il]

el tatto.

15. II tutto

no passa
18.
(j

elli

per

chorde
.

chorde
[il

si

uano

16.

sprgiedo chon

.

.

ramifichatione inella
19.

circhuda le chorporee.
20.
.

nervi] "le

corde"

.

portano

sentimento]

chomadameto essentimeto.
.

chorde

.

.

musscoli.
22. tcssano

acquelli

.

.

queli obediscano [chollosco] ettale.
23.

21. chollo schofiare ipero chel
. .

.

rachorta

.

.

lungeze

ettirasi.
.

partichule.

chagione

.

.

chotauo.
al
.

24. choi

mvsscoli
el

.

.

servno

.

.

chorde chome chodottieri
26.
.

elle

chorde.
.

25.

seruano
el

.

.

chomvne chome
27.
.

i

chodoueri
el

chapitano
.

seso
ella

chomvne
chorda
30.
. .

serve.

[adunque
.

il

neruo
essedia
31.

.

serue
.

ai
.

mvsscolo
essua.
29.

mvsscoJo).

musscholo

mvsscolo

chorda.
[e
il

28.

.

amvnitione

ella inpresiua

essua referedaria

chore essuoj.

chomvne de chome
. .

chomvne
. .

.

ella

all

mlcha.

macha

.

.

spare.

32. ellorbo.
2.

39.

i.

chome.

chomadameto.

3.

apariiscie inperro

.

chettu vederai

.

.

fredolleti.

4.

chome.

5.

chon

.

.

essi

.

benbri

.

.

8^8.

The

peculiar use of the

words

nervo,

mus-

ft/a, forda, senso

comune, which are here literally ren-

dered by nerve, muscle cord or tendon and Common Sense may be understood from line 27 and 28.

840-843.]
freddolosi,
4

PHYSIOLOGY.
e assiderati
-

129

le loro

tremati
-

mebra come testa e mani sanza licieza la quale 5 anima co tutte sue dell' anima forze no potra vietare a essi menbri che no tremino; Questo medesimo 6 accade nel malcaduco e ne' mebra tagliati come code
,
.

and their trembling limbs, as their head and hands , quake without leave from their soul and their soul with all its power cannot prevent their members from trembling. The same thing
happens in falling sickness, or in parts that have been cut off, as in the tails of lizards. The idea or imagination is the helm and guiding-rein of the senses, because the thing conceived of moves the sense.
Pre-imagining,
is

over imaginatiua e imperoche la cosa 8 move il seso; 9 preimaginare e irhaginata I0 lo imaginare ,le cose che saranno; poste imaginare le cose passate. imaginare
di lucierte
7
;

la idea

timone e

briglia de' sensi

,

imagining the things that are to be. Post-imagining, is imagining the things that are past.

Tr.

14.

840.
le
:

to,

potentie memoria e intellete cocupiscibili, 2 le 2 prime son 3 I 3 sensi ragionevoli e 1'altre sensuali; odorato sono di poca provedere, udire, ibitione , tato e gusto^no 1' odorato mena con seco il gusto nel cane e altri golosi

4 sono

lascibili

;

Powers: memory and Misceiianeou 10 and covetousness. The two JicaT " first are mental and the others sensual. The three senses: sight, hearing and smell cannot well be prevented; touch and taste not at
are

There

four

"

intellect,

desire

i

animali.

all. Smell is connected with and other gluttonous animals.

taste

in

dogs

W.

A. IV.

841.
2

Jo scopro alii omini 1'origine della prima o forse secoda cagione del loro essere.

I reveal to men the origin of the first, or perhaps second cause of their existence.

H.I 32*]

842.

Lussuria e cavsa della gienera 2 tione. 3Gola e matenimeto della vita, over timore e prolugaSmeto di uita 6 salvameto \iello strume^to.

Lust

is

Appetite

the cause of generation. is the support of life.

Fear

or timidity is the prolongation preservation of its instruments.

of

life

and

W. An.

II. 43,5 (8)]

843-

COME
II

IL

CORPO DELL'ANIMALE AL CONTINUO
2

HOW

MORE E

RINASCIE.

THE BODY OF ANIMALS IS CONSTANTLY DYING AND BEING RENEWED.

corpo di qualunche cosa la qual si al continue muore e al continue rinasce, perche entrare 5 non puo nutrimeto
nutrica,

se
6

non

in

quelli

lochi,

dove

il

passato

nutrimeto e spirato, e s'elli e spirato elli no a 7 V ita, e se tu no li rendi nutrimeto equa 8 le al nutrimeto partito, allora
piu

thing whatever that The law* of nourishment constantly dies and is "hTsup^orf because nourishment (Q of Iife0\ constantly renewed J Q can only enter into places where the former nourishment has expired, and if it has expired it no longer has life. And if you do not supply nourishment equal to the nourishment takes
J
:
.

The body of any

-

,

trie 9.

mino Questo medessi.
.
.

6.

achade

.

.

mal chaducho
10.

.

.

mebr
.

.

.

chome chode.
pocha
tato.

7.

e

etimone

.

.

inpero chella chosa.

premaginare
lascibili

chose

.

chessaranno.
2.

840.

i.

e chocupiscibili.
2.

ellaltre.

3.

posimaginare de [2] 3 sensi

.

chose.
vldire
. . . .

.

.

4.

choseco

.

.

chane

.

.

golos.

841. i. schopro.

della loro
6.

"prima offorse secodo" sechonda chagione
2.

di loro.

843.

i

7

R.

I.
.

chausa.
.

delo e saluameto.
rinasscie.
3.

843.

i.

chorpo
. .

chontinuo.
7.

chosa
8.

.

.

nutricha
9.

.

.

chon.

4.

chontinuo rinasscie.
. .

5.

senon.

6.

esspirato esselli

he

no[nuj.
II.

[trusscie] vita essectu.

mancha.

valtudine essettulli

tuc.

10. ressta

desstructa Massettu.

n. des-

VOL.

R

130
la vita
li

PHYSIOLOGY.

[844-

manca

di su 9 a

valetudine,
la

leui

resta

distrurta;

esso nutrimento, Ma se tu

uita

ne

e se tu tut'to redi tanto
in

which
if
is

is

gone,

life

will fail in

you take away
entirely

this

nourishment,

vigour, the

and
life

allora si "ne distrugge alia giornata, tanto rinasce di "uita, quanto se ne condella cansuma a similitudine del lume dela col nutrimeto datoli daH'omore ''d'esaa

quanto

>

quato di splendi'Ma lucie si convertc I8 moredo in tenebroso fumo, la qual morte e continua, siccome e cotinuo esso fumo, & equale al di tal fumo e la c6 I0tinuit
rendo,

candcla, il quale lume ancora lui al con'stinuo con velocissimo socorso restaura di I6 di sopra se ne consuma mosotto,

But if you restore destroyed. as much is destroyed day by day, then as much of the life is renewed as is consumed, just as the flame of the candle is fed by thi nourishment afforded by the liquid of this candle, which flame continually with a rapid supply restores to it from below as much as is consumed in dying above: and from a brilliant
light is converted in dying into murky smoke ; and this death is continuous, as the smoke is conti-

e

20 e in instante tutto il cotinuato nutrimeto, 2I lume e morto e tutto rigienerato insie me col moto del nutrimento suo.

nuous;andthe continuance of thesmokeis equal to the continuance of the nourishment, and in the same instant all the flame is dead and all regenerated, simultaneously with the move-

ment of

its

own nourishment.

W.

An.

III.

241

844.
ai

TiCome tu
mali
bestie
li

descritto
direi

il

re delli ani2

ma

io

meglio
la

dicedo

re delle

essendo tu

ai

uccisi, acci6

maggiore perche non che possino poi darti 3]i
tua gola colla
se'l
5

King of the animals as thou hast deI should rather say king of scribed him the beasts, thou being the greatest because thou hast spared slaying them, in order that they may give thee their children for the
benefit

lor figlioli in

benifitio della
farti

of the
to

4 quale tu ai te tato

sepultura di tutti
dire
il

li

animali,

e piu

oltre

direi,

uero mi fusse integramete lecito; Ma non usciamo 6 delle cose vmane, dicendo vna

somma
nelli

scelerata?gine, animali terrestri,

la
8

qual non accade

no
loro
(in

si

trovano

animali

inperoche in quelli che magino della

attempted mals and I allowed me to speak the entire truth [5]. But we do not go outside human matters in telling of one supreme wickedness, which does not happen among the animals of the earth, inasmuch as among them are found
;

of which thou hast a sepulchre for all aniwould say still more, if it were
gullet,

make

9S petie

se no per
loro,

poche
li

infra

macameto di celabro e de'ma I0 dri come
in tato

infra

omini,

beche no sieno

nu-

mero);

"e
. .

who eat their own kind, unless through want of sense (few indeed among them, and those being mothers, as with men, albeit they be not many in number); and this happens only among the rapacious aninone
mals, as with
the

I2 questo non accade se no nel li

leonine species, and leo-

itruggie
15.

rinasscie.

12.

chonsuma
"sochorso"
20. e
2.
i

assimilitudine.
. .

13.

socto della chandela chol.
17.

14.

chandela
18.

.

.

anchora

.

.

chon.

chon velocissimo
. .

(vita)

socto.
. .

16.

chonsuma.

chonverte

.

.

tenebro.

chontinua sichome chon-

tinno
844.

ella.
.
.

19.

chotinuato.
i
. .

ni state

ettutto.
la

21. chol.
|

i. isscritto

ma

dirai.
6.

bestie
.

"essendo tu
.

magore"
7.
. .

perche no
. .

li

ai

uticcoche
.

ti
.

possin.
. .

3.

figloli

.

.

ai te.

5. fiuti

.

.

none

vsscia.

disscendo

soma

issceleratagi.

gine
12.

soma

issceleratagi

achade
13.
si

terresri.
.

8. frova.
.

io.

numero)e.

n. [alcvna

volta)

ecquesto none achade

ne.

leonina [che sspessa].

magia che)

cerveri

self

We are led to believe that Leonardo himwas a vegetarian from the following interesting passage in the first of Andrea Corsali's letters to
844.
si

the Canary Islands after having stayed there in 1503:

"Hanno una
di carne
figliuolo, et

scelerata liberta di

viuere;
il

.

...

si eibano
il

humana,

di maniera che
il

padre magia
certo

Ginliano de' Medici:

non

Alcuni gentili chiamati Guzzarati eibano di cosa alcuna cht tenga sangue, ne fra
comentono che
si noccia

air incontro il figliuolo
sorte auiene.

padre se^ondo che a

caso e

per
di

Io

viddi
et si

vn
di

huomo
non

scele-

esri loro_

ad alcuna

cosa animata,

ratusimo
gloria

che si vantaua,

teneua

a

piccola

comf
5

il
1

noitro Leonardo da
8.

Vinci.

hauer

mangialo
citta,

pA

trecento

huomtni.

Amerigo Vespucci, with
Pietro Soderini,

whom Leonardo

Viddi anche vna certa
ventisetle giorni,

nella quale io dimorai forse

was personally acquainted, writes
letter

to

in his second about the inhabitants of

done

le

carni humane, hauendole salate,
si

eran afficate

alii traui,

come noi

alii

traui di cucina

845-8470

PHYSIOLOGY.
pards,

animali rapaci, come nella spetie leonina X 3e pardi, pardere, cervieri, gatte e simili, ^liquali alcuna volta si magiano i figlioli;

panthers

lynxes,
eat

cats

and the
children;

like,

ma

tu oltre

'Salli

figlioli

ti

magi

il

padre,

l6 madre, fratelli e amici, e no ti basta questo, che tu vai a caccia per le altrui isole, piT 7gliando li altri omini e questi mezzo nudi

culi fai ingrassare e te cacci giu per la tua gola; or Z 9non produce la natura tati senplici, che tu ti possa satia 20re? e se no ti cotenti de' senplici, non puoi tu co la mistio 2I di quelli fare
il

mebro e

li

testi

l8

li

but devourest father, and friends; nor is this enough for thee, but thou goest to the chase on the islands of others, taking other men and these half-naked, the .... and the .... thou fattenest, and chasest them down thy own throat [i 8]; now does not nature
their

who

sometimes

thou, besides thy mother, brothers

children

produce enough simples, thyself? and if thou art
simples, of them
canst

for thee to satisfy

not

content

with

infiniti
li

altri

conposti, come scrisse autori di gola?1

il

Platina

22

e

by the mixture make infinite compounds, as Platina wrote [21], and other authors on feeding?
thou

not

H.2 41 b\

845-

Facciamo nostra vita coll' a! 2 trui morte. 3ln nella cosa morta rima vi^ta dissensata,
la

Our
In

life

is

made by

the death of others.

quale

ri s cogiuta

alii

stomachi de'

vi 6 ui

ripiglia uita sesitiva ?e itellettiva.

life remains, which, reunited to the stomachs of living beings, resumes life, both sensual and intellectual.

dead matter

insensible

s.

K. M.

m,

846.

La natura pare qui in moltt 2 o di molti animali stata piu pre^sto crudele matrignia che ma 4 dre, e d'alcuni no matrignia 5 ma pietosa madre.

Here nature appears with many animals
have been rather a cruel stepmother than a mother, and with others not a stepmother, but a most tender mother.
to

C. A. 75

;

219/5]

847.

L'omo
e condotto

e

li

animali sono propi trasito

di cibo,

sepoltura

d' animali
2

albergo de' morti, facciedo a se vna
1'

del-

Man and animals are really the passage and the conduit of food, the sepulchre of animals and resting place of the dead, one causing the death of the other, making themthe covering other dead [bodies].
selves
for

altrui

morte guaina

di corrutione!

the

corruption

of

chatte essimili.
tutti.

14.

magano
. .

i

figloli, irattu.
elli
.
. .

15. figloli.

16. bassta

.

.

chaccia.

17.

meznudi.

18. ettelli

caccigu.

19. chet-

20. esse

no

poi.

22.
.

altori.
3. jnella.

845. i 846. 847.
i. i.

7

R.

i.

faciano nosstra
5. piatosa.

choll.

4. disensata.

5.

stomaci.

7. etellectiva.

immolti.
elli
. .

propi "trasitoe" chondotto

.

.

morti

[animali] faciedo asse.

2.

morte [pigliando piacere

dellaltri miserie]

guaina

di chorutione.

appicchiamo
et

le

carni di cinghali secche al sole o alfumo,
salsiccie, et altre

massimamente

simil cose:

ami

si

ma-

rauigliauano grddemete che noi non magiassimo della carne de nemici, le quali dicono muouere appetito, et essere di
maraniglioso sapore,
(Leltere
et le

magnifico Pietro Soderini, Gonfaloniere della eccelsa Republica di Firenze; various editions). 21. Come scrisse il Platina (Bartolomeo Sacchi, a

famous humanist).
tise
title

The

Italian

edition of his trea-

lodano come

cibi

soaui

et delicati

due di Amerigo Vespucci Fiorentino drizzate al

De arte coquinaria, was published under the De la honestra voluptate, e valetudine, Venezia 1487.

132

PHYSIOLOGY.

[848851.

r. .-]

848.
ne' vecchi sanza febre si causa che ua dalla milza alia porta uene
di

La morte
dalle
J

pelle fegaHo e s'ingrossan tanto richiudono e non danno piu si transito al san*gue che li nutrica. 6 II continue corso che fa il sangue per le sue ?uene fa che tali vene s'ingrossano e fanno 8 si callose in tal modo che al

del

Death in old men, when not from fever, caused by the veins which go from the spleen to the valve of the liver, and which
is

ch'elle

(4-so)- fine

si

riserra'no e proibiscono

il

corso al

sangue.

thicken so much in the walls that they become closed up and leave no passage for the blood that nourishes it. [6] The incessant current of the blood through the veins makes these veins thicken and become callous, so that at last they close up and prevent the passage of the blood.

it t]

849.

Raggirasi 1'acque con cotinvo moto dalprofondita de' mari alle altissime 2 la natura sorhita de' moti, non osseruando delle cose graui, e in questo caso fanno come il sangue delli animali che sempre si Jmoue dal mare del core e scorse alia somit& delle loro teste, e che quiui roposi le
1'infime

uene -, 4 come si uede una vena rotta nel naso, che tutto il sangue da basso si leua alia altezza della rotta vena; sQ ua ndo
1'aqua essa osserua la natura delle altre cose piv 6 gravi che 1'aria, onde senpre cerca i lochi
bassi.

The waters return with constant motion from the lowest depths of the sea to the utmost height of the mountains, not obeying the nature of heavier bodies; and in this they resemble the blood of animated beings which always moves from the sea of the heart and flows towards the top of the head; and here it may burst a vein as may be
,

seen

when a vein
rises

blood

from

bursts in the nose; all the below to the level of the the water rushes out from

escie

dalla

rotta

vena della terra

burst vein.

When

the burst vein in the earth, it obeys the law of other bodies that are heavier than the air

since

it

always seeks low places.

W.

A.

III.

2260

(-M-)l

850.

Come
2

il

sangue
si

che torna

indirieto,

riapre, ^riserra le porte del core.

quado

il

core

non e quel che

That the blood which returns when the opens again is not the same as that which closes the valves of the heart.
heart

Bi.

M.

147 6]

851-

casp sssT omini son

notes

Fattevi dare la difinitione e riparo del secondo .... 2 e vedrete che eletti per medici di mala^tie da loro non conosciute.
i.

you the definition and and you will see for that men are selected to be doctors diseases they do not know.
give

Make them

remedies for the case

.

.

.

848.

vechi.

2.

mua.
.

3. to

singrossan.

4.

vdano

.

.

transitu.

5.

chelli nutricha.

6.

cheffa.

7.

chettali

.

.

effan.

8. risera.

9.

proibisscano
Ragirasi.
2.

.

sanghuc.
.

849.

i.

fa

.

animati.

3.

move
.

[dal lago] "dal

mare"

del

.

.

tesste

.

.

echi quiui ropasi.

4. chettutto

.

.

alteza

.

.

ve"na".
830.
851.
i.

5. esscie.
. .

6.

grave chellaria

cercha.

chettorna
fatevi
.

de porte.
al.
2. laltro

i.

.

caso al sco e

e vedrete.

3. clallor

.

.

conossciute.

849.

From

this

passage

it

is

quite

plain

that

Leonardo had not merely a general suspicion of
the circulation

of the blood but a very clear conception of it Leonardo's studies on the muscles of the heart are to be found in the MS. W. An. III.

only a very brief excerpt from this note book can be given here. WILLIAM HARVEY (born 1578 and Professor of Anatomy at Cambridge from 1615) is

always
at

considered to have been the discoverer of

the circulation of the blood.

He

studied medicine

but no information about them has hitherto been made public. The limits of my plan in this work exclude all purely anatomical therefore
writings,

Padua

in 1598,

and

in

morable
sanguinis.

and

important

1628 brought out his mework: De motu cordis et

852856.]

NOTES ON MEDICINE.

133

w. xm<5]

852.

Medicina
Paraldo
2

da
re

del

di

grattature insegniomela Fracia: oncie 4 ciera

A
'

remedy
to the

for scratches taught

me by

the

Herald
V1 r g in
.

King of France.

4 ounces of

nova, ocie 4, 3 pe ce greca, ocie 2 incieso ,. ,. f , e oemi cosa *stia separata, e fondi la ciera, & e poi vi metti denstro 1' incieso, e poi la

wax> 4 ounces of colophony, 2 ounces of incense. Keep each thing separate: and ,1 14 j i. f melt the wax, and then put in ^ incense the an d then the colophony, make a mixture of
it

pece

;

fa

ne pe 6 verada e metti sopr' al male,

and put

it

on

the sore place.

Tr.

7]

853.

H Medicina e ripareggiameto de' disc2 H malattia e discordanza elemeti; d'elemeti ifusi nel uitale corpo.
quali

Medicine is the restoration of discordant elements; sickness is the discord of the elements infused into the living body.

Tr. 49]

854.
al

A chi da noia il uomito debba bere sugo 2 d'assetio.
C. A. 77*5 225*]

nauicare

Those who are annoyed by sickness at sea should drink extract of wormwood.

55-

Se vuoi star sano esser a questa nor2 no magiar sanza voglia ma;
3mastica bene; e per quel che niete ritiene, 5 C hi sia be cotto e di semplice forma; medicina piglia mal s' informa.
4

To keep in health, this rule is wise: Eat only when you want and relish food. Chew thoroughly that it may do you good. Have it well cooked, unspiced and undisguised. He who takes medicine is ill advised.

W. An.

Ill,

XXV]
2

856.
to preserve your health; and succed better in proportion as you shun physicians, because their medicines are the work of alchemists.
I teach

Insegnioti di conse rvare la sanita Ma s qual cosa tanto 4 piu ti riuscira, quato piu da fisici 6 ti guarder7ai; 8 perche le sue co I0 di spetie d'al^chimia. 9positioni so

you

in this

you

will

852. 4. sta seperata

.

.

metti\\\\\\.

5. 2.

effane.

6.

mal.

853.

i.

riparegiameto.

2.

dischordanza.

854. al 855. 856.
i. i.

womito

il

nauicare deba.
2. 4.

dasentio.
3.

uoi strasano.
e ingegniati.

voglia ecci\\\\ ellette.
riusscira.
18. dicina.
9.

masstica
10.

.

.

ecquel.
dar.
12.

4. chotto.
ella.

positione.

spetie

13.

qual.

14.

noneme.

15.

numero.

16.

de

libri.

17.

che

sia

dime.

The meaning of

these short lines 12

18

is

doubtful.

855.

856.

This appears to be a sketch for a poem. This passage is written on the back of the drawing

PI.

CVIII.

Compare

also No. 1184.

XV.

Astronomy.
by Vcnturi in 1797 and Libri in 1840 of some few passages of Leonardo's astronomical notes, scientific astronomers have frequently expressed the opinion, that they must have been based on very important discoveries, and that the
since the

Ever

publication

great painter also deserved a conspicuous place in the history of this science. In the passages here printed, a connected view is given of his astronomical studies as they lie scattered through the manuscripts, which have come down to us. Unlike his other purely scientific

labours,

the ancients ,

on them

as

to the opinions of he does not follow the practice universal in his day of relying though authorities ; he only quotes them., as we shall see, in order to refute

Leonardo devotes here a good deal of attention

their arguments.

His researches

throughout have the stamp of independent

thought.
epi-

There

is

nothing

in these writings to lead us to suppose that they

were merely an

tome

of the general learning common to the astronomers of the period. As early as in the XIVth century tliere were chairs of astronomy in the universities of Padua and but so late as during the entire XVIth century Astronomy and Astrology were Bologna,
still closely

allied.

It is

impossible

now

to

decide whether Leonardo,

when

living in Florence,

became

acquainted in his youth with the doctrines of Paolo

Toscanelli

the great astronomer

little is now known, and encouraged Columbus to carry out his project of His name is nowhere mentioned by Leonardo, and from the sailing round the world. dates of the manuscripts from which the texts on astronomy are taken, it seems higJily

and mathematician

(died 1482), of whose influence

and

teaching but

beyond the fact that he advised

probable that Leonardo devoted his attention to astronomical studies less in his youth than in his later years. It was evidently his purpose to treat of Astronomy in a connected form and in a separate work (see the beginning of Nos. 866 and 892; compare also

No. 1167).
propose Nos. 867
to

It is quite in

write
877).

a

accordance with his general scientific thoroughness that he should special treatise on Optics as an introduction to Astronomy (see

and

Some of

the chapters

belonging

to

this

Section bear the

title

136
"Prospettiva"
(set

ASTRONOMY.
Nos. 869

and

870;,

this

being the tenn universally

applied at the

time to Optics as well as Perspective (see Vol.

was still the beginning of the century true one, and Leonardo conceives of the earth as fixed, with unh'ersally accepted as the in the diagram to No. 897. the moon and sun revolving round it, as they are represented motions of the planets; with regard to these and into He does not theory' of the
At

XVI*

No. 13, /. iq). /, /. 10, note to the Ptolemaic theory of the universe

go

any

ttte

form Newton by pointing
in the moon.
spots on the
it

The spherical the phenomena of their luminosity. fixed stars he only investigates the earth he takes for granted as an axiom from the first, and he anticipates of
out the universality of Gravitation not merely in the earth, but even Although his acute research into the nature of the moon's light and the
to

moon did not bring

light

many

results

of lasting importance beyond

evident that they were a refutation of the errors of his contemporaries, they making contain various explanations of facts which modern science need not modify in any
essential point,

and

discoveries

which history has hitherto assigned

to

a very muck

later date.

The ingenious theory by which he tries to explain the nature of what is known as earth shine, the reflection of the surfs rays by tlie earth towards the moon, saying that it is a peculiar refraction, originating in the innumerable curved surfaces of the waves of the sea may be regarded as absurd; but it must not be forgotten that he had no

means of detecting the fundamental error on which he based it, namely the assumption that the moon was at a relatively short distance from the earth. So long as the motion
:

of the earth round the sun remained unknown,
estimate of the moon's distance

it

was of

course impossible to
its

form any

from

the earth by

a calculation of

parallax.

Before the discovery of the telescope accurate astronomical observations were only
possible to

a very limited

extent.

It

the notes here printed for the first time,
spots in the

would appear however from certain passages in that Leonardo was in a position to study the
eye.

moon more

closely

than he could have done with the unaided

So far

as can be gathered from the mysterious language in which the description of his instrument is wrapped, he made use of magnifying glasses; these do not however seem to have
been
constructed like

a

telescope

telescopes

were

first

made about

1600.

As LIBRI

Pointed

des Sciences mathematiques ITT, 101) Fracastoro of Verona ! J ( 473~ 553) succeeded in magnifying the moon's face by an arrangement of lenses (compare No. 910, note), and this gives probability to Leonardo's invention at a not much
(Histoire

out

earlier date.

THE EARTH AS A PLANET.
Kr.

M.

857.
2

3

linia dell'orizzote, d'equalita, equigiacete; 6 che con sua quelle stremi so 7 equidistant! al ce 8 tro del mondo. linia giacete, ^linia sQueste linie so

Linia

The

equator, the line of the horizon, the The

earth's

which in all their parts are equidistant from the centre of the globe.

ecliptic, the meridian: These lines are those

he pl C ri v se 8 H- 8 s 8 )(

F. 41

858.

Come la terra non e nel mezzo del cerchio del 2 sole, ne nel mezzo del modo, ma e ben nel mez^zo de' sua elemeti, conpagni e vniti co lei, e chi 4stesse nella luna, quad'ella insieme col sole Se sotto a noi, 6 questa nostra terra coll' ele mento dell' acqua parrebbe e farebbe ofitio tal 7q U al fa la luna a noi.

The earth is not in the centre of the Sun's orbit nor at the centre of the universe, but in the centre of its companion elements, and united with them. And any one standing on the moon, when it and the sun are both
beneath us, would see this our earth and the element of water upon it just as we see the

moon, and the earth would

light

it

as

it

lights us.

Br.

M.

151 a]

859.

La forza da carestia o douitia e gie2 nerata; questa e figliola del moto materiale e nepote 3 del moto spirituale , e madre e origine del peso; 4 e esso peso e finite nell'elemeto dell' acqua e terra, 5 e essa
857. 2. dorizote.
6.

Force
it

arises

is

the

child

the
is

grand-child

from dearth or abundance; The fundaof physical motion, and^-6 "^ s of spiritual motion, and system ~
1

^

the mother
limited

and
to

origin of gravity. Gravity the elements of water and

59

che cho.

7.

nequidistante.
5.

858. 859.

i.

mezo.

2.

mezo.
2.

4. stessi.
. .

essotto annoi
4.

.

.

nosta.
heffinito

6.
.

acq"a" parebbe
.

effarebe.
.
.

7.

annoi.

i.

odouitia.

effigliola

enepo.

chesso

.

.

ettera.

5.

chessa

he.

6.

mouerebbe

.

.

potessi.

7.

hessa

859.

Only part of

this

passage

belongs,

strictly

speaking, to this section. VOL. II.

The

principle laid

down

in

the second paragraph is more directly connected with the notes given in the preceding section on Physiology.

S

ASTRONOMY.
138
forza -e
*

r86o.

86 1.
and
if

infinita,

perche con essa
,

infiniti

earth;

but

this

force

is

unlimited,

modi

si

potessero, potesse. 8 La forza col

se strumeti farsi mouerebbero 7 doue essa forza gienerare si

by

it

infinite

moto matenale e 1 peso 'son le quattro accidetali colla percussione lo de' morpotetie, collequali tuttel'opere loro essere e lor morte; tali anno 11 La forza dal moto spirituale a origine; il degli animali
di

made by which the instruments force could be generated. Force, with physical motion, and graresistance are the four exterwith vity,
nal powers

worlds could be

might

be

moved

on which

all

actions of mortals

depend.

quale moto, "scorredo
sensibili
,

per le mebra ingrossa 3j muscoh
essi

and

Force has its origin in spiritual motion; this motion, flowing through the limbs

trarsi dirieto i nervi ue'^gono a raccortare e e di qui si causa 'Sso cogiunti die con essi
,

quelli-,

onde

ingrossati

muscoh

si

la forza
16

La

uomo
sara

l8 tanto maggiore proportio nevolmete essa sara di piv ^lugo moto, 1'una quato

delle forze d'uno qualita e quatita altra forza-, la quale potra ^partorire-

per

le

mebra umane.

of sentient animals, enlarges their muscles. Being enlarged by this current the muscles are shrunk in length and contract the tendons which are connected with them, and this is the cause of the force of the limbs in man.

The
of a
as
forces,

man

quality and quantity of the force are able to give birth to other

the

which will be proportionally greater motions produced by them last

che

1'altra.

longer.

Br.

M. 1750)

860.

sitor

H peso 2 non
si

resta

e do^de

perche non resta nel suo perche non a rcsistetia; movera? Moverassi inverse il
o

Why
place?
It

does not the weight o remain in its does not remain because it has no

centre; e perche no per altre linie? perche 5 il peso, che non a resistentia, disciendcra 6 in basso per la uia piv brieve, e '1 del mondo; e piu bas?so sito e il cietro 8 cosl tal peso trovarlo con perche lo sa tanta breuita? 9 perche non va come insenI0 sibile prima vagando per diverse linie.

resistance. Where will it move to? It will move towards the centre [of gravity]. And why by no other line? Because a weight

which has no |support falls by the shortest road to the lowest point which is the centre of the world. And why does the weight know how to find it by so short a line? Because it is not independant and does not move about
in various directions.

K. 2*1]

861.

2

Movasi la terra da che parte voglia, mai la superfitie dell'acqua uscira fori

the

^sua spera, ma senpre sara equidistante al ^centro del
della

Let the earth turn on which side it may surface of the waters will never move from its spherical form, but will always remain equidistant from
the centre of the globe. Granting that the earth might be removed from the centre of
the globe, what to the water?

mondo

;

slDato che

la

terra -si

ri-

movessi dal centro 6 del mondo, che farebbe l'acqua?1 7 Resterebbe intorno a esso centro 8 con equal grossezza, ma minore diami tro, che quando ella auea la terra in
r)

would happen

It would remain in a sphere round that centre equally thick, but the sphere would have a

corpo.

smaller diameter than enclosed the earth.
9.
18.

when

it

.

.

poUrssi.

quatro.

10.
19.
9.

ellor.

12.

scoredo.

13.

musscoli

di quelle

.

.

musscoli.

14.

gano aracortare.
linie.

16.

ecquatila

.

.

homo.

magiorc.
8.

luna ccllaltra.
[in gi] insensibilc

860.

4.

cientro he.

chon.
5.

perche nonva come
6.

prima.

10.

vagando per diuerse

Ml.

a.

acq"a" Ylcira.

chella.

cheffarebbe.

860.

This text and the sketch belonging to

it,

861.

Compare No.

896,

lines

48

64;

and

are reproduced on PL

CXXI.

No. 936.

862866.]

THE EARTH AS A PLANET.

139

F. ii

&\

862.
la terra
delli

Se
2

Poceano

s'inalzasse'

antipodi che sostiene e si scoprisse assai

3fori

che
li

modo
6

d'esso mare, essendo quasi pia*na, in sarebbe poi eol tepo creare
le valli.

moti e

Supposing the earth at our antipodes which supports the ocean were to rise and stand unc vered, far out of the sea, but remaining almost level,, by what means afterwards, in the course of time, would mountains and vallies be formed?

E

li

sassi di diuerse falde?

And

the rocks with their various

strata?

Tr. 28]

863.

del

Ogni omo senpre si troua nel mezzo modo e sotto il mezzo 2 del suo emiil

sperio, e sopra

cietro d'esso

modo.

Each man is always in the middle of the surface of the earth and under the zenith of his own hemisphere, and over the centre of the earth.

Leic.

i

a]

864.
io

Ricordo come
2

ho

in

prima a dimo-

Mem.: That

I

must

first

show the distance

strare la distantia del sole dalla terra, 3 e con u de' sua razzi passati per ispi 4 racolo in loco

oscuro ritrovare Ma sua quatita vera, e oltre a 6 di questo per lo mezzo della spera del 7 P acqua ritrovare la gradezza della terra. 1 8 Qui si dimostra come, quasdo il sole e nel mezzo del nostro I0 emisperio, che li IX oriental! cogli occidentaliue I2 dono antipodi
in

un

medesimo tenpo
il

spechiare

sole nelle

cias I3 cun per se ^loro acque, e '1

simile quelli del po is lo artico col antartico, se abi l6 tatori ui sono.

of the sun from the earth; and, by means of a ray passing through a small hole into a dark chamber, detect its real size; and besides this, by means of the aqueous sphere calculate the size of the globe Here it will be shown, that when the sun is in the meridian of our hemisphere [io], the antipodes to the East and to the West, alike, and at the same time, see the sun mirrored in their waters; and the same is equally true of the arctic and antarctic poles, if indeed they
. . .

are inhabited.

C. A.

5;

345^1

86 5
e una
stella.

.

Come

la terra

That the earth

is

a

star.

How

to

prove that
the earth is a planet (865-867).

F. 56 a]

866.

terra

nel tuo discorso ai a cocludere 2 la essere vna stella quasi simile alia luna, 4 e la nobilta del nostro modo; sE cosl farai vn discorso delle gra 6 dezze
di

Tu

earth

In your discourse you must prove that the is a star much like the moon, and the glory of our universe; and then you must treat of the size of various stars, according
to the authors.

molte
i.
i.

stelle,

secodo

li

autori.

862. 864.

sella.

2. sinalzassi
. .

.

.

scoprissi essi.
2.

5.

elle.
3.

6.

elli.

863.

i.

mezo
6.

.

.

essotto
7.

il

mezo.
8.

9.

chome mezo

in

p"a" a dimo.

disstantia.

razi.

4.

rachulo illocho osscuro.

mezo.

gradeza.
scun.

dimosstra chome.

.

.

nosstro.

io. emissperio chelli antipodi

di.

n.

horientali.

12.

gano nun.
6.

13.

14.

acque

.

.

quelgli.

15. articho

chol antarticho.
866.
i.

865.

R.

tutto tuo discorsa a co cludere.

3.

luna [e cosi proverra],

altori.

864.

io.

II.

Antipodi

orientali

cogli

ocddentali,

is

used as meaning

men

living at a distance of

90

The word

Antipodes does not here bear its literal as we may infer from the simultaneous sense, but

degrees from the zenith of the rational horizon of

each observer,

reference to inhabitants of the North and South

140

ASTRONOMY.

[867869.

ORDINE DEL PROVARE LA TERRA ESSERE VNA STELLA.
mostra Jlnprima definisci Fochio, poi stella viene dalil battere d'alcuna come 1'ochio, e perche il battere sd'esse stelle e e come li 6 razzi piu nell'una che nell'altra, delle stelle nascono dall'ochio, e di, che se '1 batte?re delle stelle fusse come pare nelle stelle, che tal baftimeto mostra d'essere
quat'e <>il corpo di essendo aduque maggiore della ter'ra che tal moto fatto in istante sarebbe la gradezza troppo veloce "a raddoppiare l2 di tale stella; Di poi pro va come la superdi tanta

THE METHOD OF PROVING THAT THE EARTH
IS

A STAR.

First

describe

the

twinkling

and why
another,
originate

the eye; then show how of a star is really in the eye one star should twinkle more than
in

and how the
the

eye;

rays from the stars and add, that if the

dilatatione,

twinkling of the stars were really in the stars that this twinkling appears as it seems to be to be an extension as great as the diameter

tale stella;

fitie

dell'aria

ne'

co-

foco, e ^la superfitie del foco nel suo termine e quel I4 la,
fini

del

of the body of the star; therefore, the star being larger than the earth, this motion effected in an instant would be a rapid Then doubling of the size of the star. prove that the surface of the air where it lies contiguous to fire, and the surface of the fire where

nella
li

qual

razzi
'5

solari

penetrado portano

la

celesti

similitudine di corpi grade nel lor

ends are those into which the solar rays penetrate, and transmit
it

Ieua l6 re, e pero e piccola, essendo esse nel
'7

mezzo
sia
l8

del

celo

;

sia la terra

a

dell'aria
20

che

n d m ^confina
\

la superfitie

colla
2I

sia il corso foco; h vuoi del sole; "dicoche quado il sole ap2 pari 3sce al'orizzote g, che 11 sono ueduti
24 li

fg

spera del della luna o

the images of the heavenly bodies, large when when they are on they rise, and small, the meridian. Let a be the earth and n d the surface of the air in contact with the

m

sphere

of
or,

fire

;

h

fg

is

the

orbit

of the

moon
zon
g,

if

you

say that

when

please, of the sun; then I the sun appears on the hori-

sua

razzi
infra

passare

per

la

superfitie

agoli inequali cioe o m, il che non e in d k, e acora 26 passa per e maggiore grossezza d'aria; tutto e
*s

dell'aria

m

aria piu spessa.

rays are seen passing through the surface of the air at a slanting angle, that is o m; this is not the case at d k. And so it passes through a greater mass of air; all of e is a denser atmosphere.
its

m

W. XXVI]
Infra 'I sole e noi e The pnn- F aria pare azzurra.
ciples
of

868.

tenebre,

e pero

Beyond the sun and us there and so the air appears blue.

is

darkness

astronomical
perspective (868-873).

E.

869.

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.
It is possible to find means by which the eye shall not see remote objects as much

3

le

Possibile e fare che Fochio no uedra cose remote molto diminuite, come fa

867. 3. difinissci.

4.

picne

.

.

il

bat. 6. razi
12.

.

.

nassca
el.

.

.

e di chessel bate.

7.

fussi
.
.

.

.

tal

ba.

9.

magor.
razi
.

10. istante sare trovo

veloce.

n. radopiare
. .

la

gradeza.

foco

15.

Ha

superfitie

.

.

focho

ecquel.

14.

.

portata.
25.

16.

pichole
.
.

mezo.
26.

20. foco.

21. della

nuna ouoi.

22. apari.

23. orizote

g chele veduto.

24. raii.

coe o

m

il

eppero e ce non

acora.
.

magore
2.

grosseza.

868. ellenchrt 869.
i.

.

azura.

proupytiva.

he fare chellochio

.

.

uedera.

3.

chome

ffa.

4.

presspcttiva naturale |le spe]

le.

5.

le

dimin;iisschano.

868.

Compare

Vol.

I,

No. 301.

869.]
4

THE EARTH AS A PLANET.

141

la prospettiva naturale, le quali sdiminui-

scono mediante la curuita del 6 Pochio, che e costretto a tagliare sopra di ^ se le piramidi di qualunche spetie che viene al 8 ochio infra angoli retti sperici; Ma ^I'arte, che
I0 margine, ta glia esse piramidi con angoli ret xi ti vicino alia superfitie di tal popilla; Ma I2 la convessa popilla dell'occhio r piglia sopra ^di se tutto il nostro e que I4 sta mostrera solo emisperio,

diminished as in natural perspective, which diminishes them by reason of the convexity which necessarily intersects, of the eye at its surface, the pyramid of every image conveyed to the eye at a right angle on its
spherical surface. But by the method here teach in the margin [9] these pyramids are intersected at right
I

io insegnio qui in

angles
pupil.

close

to

the

The convex

surface of the pupil of the eye

una

stella; cole stelle

ma
si

doue
della

I5

molte
per

ricevono

picsimilitu l6 dine

nella
stelle

superfitie

popilla,

^le

quali

son minime, questa di l8 mostrera vna sola stella, ma fia grade; ^E cosl la luna di maggiore gradezza, e le su 20 e macule 2I di piu nota figura; nostro ochio questo 22 si debbe fare v uetro pieno di quell' acqua di che si fa metione 2 3nel 4 del libro 113 24 la delle cose naturali, quale acqua fa 2 5vetro quelle cose parere spogliate di che son congielate ne! 26 le palle del uetro

A

in the whole of our hemiwhile this will show only a sphere, single star; but where many small stars transmit their images to the surface of the pupil those stars are extremely small; here only one star is seen but it will be large. And so the moon will be seen larger and its

can take

spots of a more denned form [20]. You must place close to the eye a glass filled with the water of which mention is made in number 4 of Book 113 "On natural substances" [2 3]; for this water makes objects which are enclosed in balls of crystalline glass appear
free

cristallino.

from the

glass.

DELL' OCHIO.
corpi minori della popilla delP ochio 2 9quella fia manco nota a essa po3 la pilla, quale le sara piu vicina E con
Infra
li
||

OF THE

EYE.

28

Among

the

smaller objects presented to

the pupil of the eye, that which is closest to And it, will be least appreciable to the eye.
at the same time, the experiments here made with the power of sight, show that it is not reduced to speck if the &c.[32]. Read in the margin. [34] Those objects are seen largest which come to the eye at the largest angles. But the images of the objects conveyed

questa ^sperietia
virtu visiva

ci si
si

no

32

e fatto noto che la riducie in puto perche

se la ecc.

;

33Leggi I margine. 34 Quella cosa si ^dimostra maggi 36 ore, che uiene 37 all' ochio co piu 38 grosso angolo. 39 Ma le 4 spetie delli ob bietti, che cocor 4I rono alia popilla 42 dell' ochio, si con-

paH^tono sopra tal popi 44 lla nel medesimo 4 5modo, ch'elle son c6 46 partite infra 1'aria; 4 ?e la prova di ques 48 to e in se 4 9guito; quado noi 5riguardiamo il 51 cielo stellate 5 2 sanza por la ui53sta piu a una stella che all'altra, ss c he allora ci si mo5 6 stra il
e so pro s8 portionate nell' ochio 59 S iccome lo sono in 6o cielo, e cosl li loro 6l spati fanno il simile.
cielo semina57to di stelle,
6.

pupil of the eye are distributed to pupil exactly as they are distributed in the air: and the proof of this is in what follows; that when we look at the starry sky,
to

the

the

without gazing more fixedly at one star than another, the sky appears all strewn with stars; and their proportions to the eye are the same as in the sky and likewise the spaces between

them [6 1 ].
.

chosstretta

attagliare.
pigli. 18.

12. delloccio

quista e di.
23.

spetie viene. 8. llochio 7. piramide mostro omissperio ecques. 14. mossterra. mossterra maffia. magiore gradeza 19. chosi
.
.

.

angholi.

io.
. .

Ha

[le]

esse

piramide
[qir].
.
.

chon angholi.
17.
stielle
.

13.

15.
elle.

pichole
20.

riciev.
22.

16. popille

.

.

.

.

.

machule.
29.

chose.

24.

aqua.
[no].

25.

chose chesson.
. .

26.

crisstallino.

28.

Infralli

chorpi.

metione [de], acqua [che] di mancho. 29. a essa [ochu] popilla.
dimosstra magi.
45. 37. cho. 38.

30.

chon questa
39.

31. ci se

chella.

32. sella.

33. [Quella u].
42.

34. chosa.

35.

grosse

anghole.

Malle

setie.

40. biecto

che chochor.
50.

41. rano.

chonpa"r".
53. ta.

43. tano.
58.

cho.

46. infrallari"a".

47. ella.

48. sto [cm] cie inse.

49.

quasa quado.

righuardiamo.

52. la ui.

ochi"o".

59. si

chomelle.

60. chosi.

869.

9.

32. in margine:

original, written

on

the

diagram

to

lines 34 6 1 are, in the margin and above them is which Leonardo seems to refer
th'e

23.

libro

113.

This
to

is

book

in

some

library catalogue.

perhaps the number of a But it may refer,

on the other hand,

one of the 120 Books men-

here.

20

and

fol.

Telescopes were not

in

use

till

a

century

later.

Compare No. 910

arid

page

136.

tioned in No. 796. 1. 84. 32. Compare with this the passage in Vol. No. 52, written about twenty years earlier.

I,

142

ASTRONOMY.

[8/0.

F. 6o*|

870.

PROSPETTIVA.
'Delle cose remosse dall'ochio con eesser me diquale di'stantia, quella parra min'vita che prima era piu. s Delle cose remosse dall'ochio con
quella prime equal distantia dal me diminuisce ?che prima era piu distante 8 fia la proportione tal da esso ochio; della diminuitione, qual fu ?la proportione 10 delle distantie ch' esse avea da !' ochio auanti
lor
sito

PERSPECTIVE.

Among objects moved from the eye at equal distance, that undergoes least .diminution which at first was most remote. When various objects are removed at equal
that

distances farther from their original position, which was at first the farthest from the eye

E

11

loro moto. "Come dire

will diminish least. And the proportion of the diminution will be in proportion to the relative distance of the objects from the eye before they were removed.

il

corpo

/

e

'1

corpo c e
dal-

12

che

la

l'ochio a I:J 6 dal suo sito

proportio qultupla; io rimovo ciascu I4 e lo fo piu distante dal-

delle lor

distantie

That is to say in the object / and the objects the proportion of their distances fromtheeyeais
quintuple. I
it

farther

remove each from its place and set from the eye by one of the 5 parts

che e 'sdiuisa la accade duque che il piu vicino propositione; l6 all' ochio avra doppiata la distantia, e per la penulti'^ma di questo esso e diminuto I8 e '1 corpo e per la meta del suo tutto, lo medesimo moto e diminuito /5 ^d'esso suo tutto; aduque per la, detta penultima 20 & vero quel che in questa vltima s'e pro2I e questo dico per li moti de' corpi posto; celesti "in 3500 miglia di distatia che piv esse 2 3do in oriete che sopra di noi, non crescono o diminuiscono 2 *con sensibile
1'

ochio vno

d'essi 5' in

into
it

which the proposition

is

divided.

Hence

l

happens that the nearest to the eye has doubled the distance and according to the last proposition but one of this, is diminished by the half of its whole size; and the body T of e, by the same motion, is diminished /s its whole size. Therefore, by that same last proposition but one, that which is said in this last proposition is true; and this I say of the motions of the celestial bodies which are more distant by 3500 miles when setting than when overhead, and yet do not
increase or

dimostratione.

diminish in any sensible degree.

Br.

M.

174*1

8 7 I.

a b k

lo spiraculo

donde

2

passa

il

sole,

e se tu poHessi misurare la grossezza de'
*razzi solari in
le
7

sun

uere

linie

6

n m, tu poHresti por bene del concorso d'essi razzi solari,

is the aperture through which the passes, and if you could measure the size of the solar rays at n m, you could accurately trace the real lines of the convergence of the solar rays, the mirror being at

a b

stante lo

spechio in

a

b,

e

8

poi fare

i

a

b,

and then show

the

reflected

rays at

870.

.

remosse "dallochio" (dellor sito cone] quala di. 4. che p"a"era . 6. p"o"sito qualla dis. 5. chon che p"a" Ettal. io. iloro. n. corpo e che e. 12. chella. 13. ciasscu del. 14. ellolofo inche. "ne" achade >5- ' a P r che piu. 16. ara dopiato. 20. preposto. 21. ecquesto . celestiche. 22. [1500 in] 3500 dutati.i cheli a piv. 23. crescano o diminuiscano.
prespcctiva.
2.
. . .
.

i.

diminuissce.

7.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

871. i. ellotspirnculo.

2.

esettu.

3.

grossezza.

4.

razi.

6. razi.

7.

lo-spcchio.

8.

rai-i

refressi.

io. chettu

uoli

poi torre

872. 873-J

THE EARTH AS A PLANET.

143

inuerso n vuoi torre in

razzi reflessi infra a9goli equali I0 poi che tu

m

ma

equal angles to

". m

togli den-

you want take them

to

n m; but, as have them at n m,

tro allo spiracu I2 lo in c d che si possan misura I3 re nella per-

at the inner side of the aperture at cd, where they maybe measured at the spot where the

cussione del razzo solare,
,

^e

poi poni il tuo spechio nella e 11 fa cadere i dista^tia a b
infra
18

risaltare poi I7 angoli equali in uer so c d- e questo e il uero modo;

razzi

d

b,

c a;

l6

solar rays fall. Then place your mirror at the distance a b, making the rays d b } c a fall and then

bisognia operare tale spe^chio nel medesimo mese e medesi 20 mo dl e ora e puto, e fara meglio 2I che di nessu
ti

ma

be reflected at equal angles towards c d] and this is the best method, but you must use this
mirror

always

in

the

same

tempo, perche
22

in

tal

distantia
tal

month, and the same day, and hour and instant, and this will be better than at no fixed time because when the sun is at a
certain

di

sole

si

causp

pi-

distance

it

produces

a

ramide.

certain

pyramid of rays.

872.

a parte del corpo 6 2 broso n vede
e vede parte alcuna sdella oscurita 6 e '1 simile accade nel terra;
la pa'rte dell' emisferio
c

tutta

b

d

e

f

4

no

ui

a, shade

the
;/,

side

of the
the
e

faces

della

hemisphere

be d

body in light and whole portion of the f, and does not face any

adunque lo spatio a d' una medesima chiarezza, in s vede sol 4 grapunto
e
o;
7

tutto

part of the darkness of the earth. And the same occurs at the point o', therefore the space a
o
is

8

di delF
vi

emisperio

d

throughout of one and the
brightness,

e

fg

Ji-,

same

and

s

faces

e

vede

tutta la terra

^s

k

a
will

che la fa piu oscura dara la calculatione.

quato
render

only four degrees of the hemisphere d e g A, and also the whole of the earth h, which

f

.$

it

darker;

and how much must

be demonstrated by calculation.

A. 64

6}

873.
DELL' ACCRESCIMETO DEL SOLE
2

PRUOVA
3

IN

NEL

THE REASON

OCCIDETE.

OF THE INCREASED SIZE OF THE SUN IN THE WEST.

Alcuni

matematici
,

dimostrano
1'

il

sole

cresciere nel ponete lo uede per aria di
4

perche

ochio

sepre

maggiore grossezza,
ai

allegado che

le

cose uiste nella- nebbia e

nel

acqua pajono

maggiori:

quali

io

rispodo di no, inperoche le cose viste

Ifra la

Some mathematicians explain that the sun looks larger as it sets, because the eye always sees it through a denser atmosphere, alleging that objects seen through mist or through water appear larger. To these I reply: No; because objects seen through a mist are

xi. allosspiracu.

12. chessi.
6.

13.'

razo.
.

15. elli

.

.

razi; in the
.

margin: "d b" c
. .

a.

17. ecquesto.

18. matti.

20. eflfara.

872.
873.

i. i.

in a.

5.

asscurita.
2.

achade

.

losspatio a
3.

.

o

ed.

9.

chella

osscura.

dellacresscimeto.

inel

ocidete.

raria

.

.

magiore grosseza.

4.

alegado chelle chose

.

.

nebia

|

"e nel acq*" paro

872.
ful

This passage, which has perhaps a doubtits

right to

place in this connection, stands in

Manuscript between those given in Vol. No. 117 and No. 427.
the

I

as

144

ASTRONOMY.
,

[8 74

.

8 75

.

nebbia so simiMi per colorc alle lotane e non cssendo siniili per diminvitione appariscono di maggiore gradezza; Ancora nessuna cosa crescie-in acqua-piana, e la ne farai a lucidare vn asse niczza
sotta

similar in colour to those at a distance; but

not

larger.

pruova Pacqua;
e

Ma
che
|

la

ragione che

'1

sol

being similarly diminished they appear Again, nothing increases in size in smooth water; and the proof of this may be seen by throwing a light on a board placed half under water. But the reason why the sun looks
larger
is

7crescie-si Ogni corpo luminoso s'allotana, piv pare grade. quato piv

that

larger in proportion as

every luminous body appears it is more remote.

II

libro

mio s'astede a mostrarc,
altri

2

come

venal (pace
(874-878).

mari ifa mediate il sole 1'ocea colli nostro modo a modo sdi luna il o'f'i^i^nhsplede're in the unie a p u rc moti pa"re stclla e questo
On
the
j

come ogni lume remote da'll'ochio fa razzi, li quali pare che accrescino la figu^ra di tal corpo I0 luminoso e di questo ne segui ta che 2
e vmida. frigida I4 '5 tale '^L'acqua e frigi da e vmida; l8 6 influeti' a da il nostro '7 mare alia Iu na ' 9 a noi. qual la luna
Br.'M. 25 a]

provo; ?Dimostra prima

In my book I propose to show, how the ocean and the other seas must, by means of the sun, make our world shine with the appearance of a moon, and to the remoter worlds and this I shall prove. it looks like a star; Show, first that every light at a distance from the eye throws out rays which appear to increase the size of the luminous body; and from this it follows
that 2
.

.[10].

"Luna

I2

is cold and moist. Water is cold and moist. Thus our seas must appear to the moon as the moon

[n]The moon

does to

us.

875.
il

L'onde dell'acqua crescono
della cosa che
J

simulacro

2

in lor si specchia.

a

sia

il

sole,

n

m

The waves in water magnify the image of an object reflected in it. Let a be the sun,
and n
water,

1'acqua in 6data, b e '1 simulacro 4 del sole, quansia

m
is

the ruffled

b the image of the sun when the the

do 1'acqua no
;

fusse

water

sia 1' oinondata chio s che uede esso simulacro in tutte 1'onde che si rinchiudo 6 no nella basa

f

f be
the

smooth. Let eye which

sees the image in all

waves included

within the base of the triangle c e f.

del triangolo c e f; adunque il sole 7 che
nella superfitie sanza

Now
ted

the sun reflecin the unruffled

onde occupava 1'ac8 qua c d, ora nella superfitie inondata occupa tutta 1'acqua c e (come 'prouato nel 4
magiorc
chosa.
874.
i.
. .

surface occupied the space c d, while in the ruffled surface it covers all the watery th of my space c e (as is proved in the 4
. .

llcchose
.

.

.

nebia.
. .

5.

le

per cholore ale

.

.

esendo simile
. .

aparischano

.

.

magiore gradeza Anchora ncsuna

6.

acq"a"
(il

.

meza
2,

lacq"a" Malta.

7. cresscie

libro

mio

is

Aianting). 5. e

"a"

pill. 6.

ecquesto. 7.0111
4.

chorpo. lume. 8. razi
.
.

.

.

acresscino. u.fregida. 13.

Lacq"a".

15. infrueti.
. .

875. i.

aq"a" crcsscano.

sisspechia.

3.

lacq"a".

lacq"a"

fussi.

5.

chessi

rinchiuda.

7.

ocupava lacq"a"

or"a".

873.

Lines

5

RAVAISSON

in his edition of
croit

and 6 are thus rendered by M. MS. A. "De memt, au-

the

first

right

of

diagram, it luna

is

written

Sole (sun),

and
of

to the

(moon).

Thus

either

these

cune chose ne

dans I'tau plane, et tu en /eras ^experience en calquant un ais sous 1'eau." Compare
the diagrams in Vol. I, p. 114. 874. 10. Here the text breaks off; lines fol. are written in the margin.
875.

heavenly bodies may be supposed to fill that space. Within the lower circle is written simulacro (image).
In the two next diagrams at the spot here marked L the word Luna is written, and in the last sole is
written in the top circle at a.

n

and

In the original sketch, inside the circle in

875-]

THE EARTH AS A PLANET.
mia prospettiva), e tanto piu occuped' acqua quanto esso simulacro fusse

145

della
I0

rebbe

piu distate dal'ochio. "Ill simulacro del sole si dimostrera I2 piv lucido nell'onde mi nute che nelle onde
grandill;

E

questo accade perche

le

simili-

^tudini over simulacri del sole sono piu I4 che nelle spesse nell'onde minute grandi, e li piu spessi splendori rendono maggiore

image remote from the eye[io]. The image of the sun will be more brightly shown in small waves than in large ones and this is because the reflections or images of the sun are more numerous in the small waves than in large ones, and the more
is

"Perspective") [9] and it will cover more of the water in proportion as the reflected

numerous

reflections

of

its

lume che li splendori piu rari. 16 L' onde intersegate a uso di scorza pigna rendono il si^mulacro del sole
I5

radiance give a

di di

larger light than the fewer. Waves which intersect like the scales of

l8 e questo accade grandissimo splendore, perche tanto son li simulacri quanto son li gio 9ghi del' onde vedute dal sole, e
T

a fir cone reflect the image of the sun with the greatest splendour; and this is the case because the images are as many as the of the waves on which the sun ridges

x
1'

onbre che infra esse onde s' inter 20 pongono son piccole e di poca oscurita, e li splendori di tanti
in
2I

simulacri insieme s'infondono

nelle similitudini

modo
;

tale

che di lor 22 viene alPochio, che esse obre sono insen-

and the shadows between these waves and not very dark; and the radiance of so many reflections together becomes united in the image which is transmitted to the eye, so that these shadows are impershines,

are small

sibili
2

H

ceptible.

3Q.uel simulacro del sole occupera 2 *piu lochi nella superfitie dell' acqua, che 2 Ssara piu distante dall'ochio che lo uede; 26 a sia il sole, p q e il simulacro d'esso 27 sole, a b e la superfitie dell' acqua doue
il

That reflection of the sun will cover most space on the surface of the water which is most remote from the eye which sees it. Let a be the sun, / q the reflection of
the sun; a b is the surface of the water, in which the sun is mirrored, and r the eye which sees this reflection on the surface of the water occupying the space o m. c is the

sol

28

si

spechia, r sia 1'ochio che uede
nella superfitie dell' acqua m; c e I'occhio
superfitie
d'
dell'

esso
piu
32

si 29 mulacro

occupare

3\o spatio remoto 3 'da essa

acqua,

e cosl dal simulacro,
e lo spatio n
8.
<?.

onde esso simulacro
acqua,

occupa maggiore spatio

quato

eye at a greater distance from the surface of the water and also from the reflection; hence this reflection covers a larger space of water, by the distance between n and o.
.

ochupa.
. .

9.

prosspectiva)

ettanto

.

.

ochupe.

10.

dacq"a"

.

fussi.

n.
il

dimosterra.
si.

12.

achade chelle.
[e

13. 18.

tudine.

14. elli

rendan magore.
ellonbre.
20.

15. chelli.

16. disscorsa di
. .

pina rendano [loss]
elli.

17.

plendore
.
.

chiareza].

ecquesto
[se]

achade.

19.

pongono
27. ella.

pichole

.

.

pocha osscurita
29.

21.

sinfondano
.

similitudine.
32.

23.. sole

ochupera.
.

25. chel

uede.

28. sisspechia.

acq"a" ocupare.

30. Losspatio

.

elloccio.

ochupa magore

.

elio.

9. is

Nel quarto
the

della

mia prospettiva. If

this reference

diagrams accompanying the text as is usual with Leonardo and not to some particular

to

It is the lowest and actually the must be meant. fifth, but he would have called it the fourth, for the text here given is preceded on the same page of

work,
VOL.

the largest
11.

of

the

diagrams

here

given

the

manuscript by a passage on

whirlpools,

with

T

ASTRONOMY.
146

[876.

Br.

M.

<!

876.

'che tanHo quato il sole state spechio sperico, ab6 bia a risplendere, ?se gia d'esso spechio esso spechio *non fusse odate o globulc^to; 12 10 Vedi qui il so'Me allumina re la luna, l6 e tan'Ho quato es so s'Jpecchio spcri^co, I7 tato ne l8 fa spledere; sole ne uede, che della Qui si concludera che cio e acqua simile a quella degluna "'splende 2I li nostri mari, e cosl inodata, cio "che di lei non splende sone isole e ter^ra
jpossibile dello allumina

e

is impossible that the side of a sphemirror, illuminated by the sun, should reflect its radiance unless this mirror were undulating or filled with bubbles. You see here the sun which lights up the moon, a spherical mirror, and all of its surface,

It

rical

which faces the sun

is

rendered radiant.

Whence
shines in the
seas,

it

may be concluded that what moon is water like that of our

ferma.

and in waves as that is; and that portion which does not shine consists of islands and terra firma.

2

Questa dimostratione

di

tanti

corpi

2 sperici interposti infra 1'ochio Se '1 sole e fatta per mostrare che, siccome in ciascuno d'essi 26 corpi si uede il simulacro del sole, cosl si puo vedere esso simulacro in cia-

2

?scuna globosita dell'onde del mare;

come

28 in molti di questi sperici si uedono molti soli, cosl in molte onde si uedono molti

molta 2 9distanzia, ciascu lustro per se, si fanno gradi all' ochio e, cosl faciedo ciascu^ na onda, si uengono a conlustri,
li

quali

in

This diagram, of several spherical bodies interposed between the eye and the sun, is given to show that, just as the reflection of the sun is seen in each of these bodies, in the same way that image may be seen in each curve of the waves of the sea ; and as in these many spheres many reflections of the sun are seen, so in many waves there are many images, each of which at a great distance
is

much

this

happens with

magnified to the eye. each wave,

And,
the

as

spaces

876.

i.

he

[chcllol spechio].
14.

2.

ij.

echio.

cho

ettan.

consperico possa] chettan. 4. spericho ta. 6. rissplendere. 20. acqui . . acquella de. 21. ecco. 22. 19. che co che.

7.

ga.

8.

fussi

odate o globbule.
25.

etter.
. .

24.

sperichi.
.

sole [no]
. .

efiatta per mosstrarc [come]
lusstri.

che
.

si

come
.

in ciasscuno.
.

26.

po

.

.

in ca.
.

27. globbosita
31.

mare

c

me.

28.

uede

uede
che-

29. ciasscu lusstro
.

.

fa

grande

ciasscu.

30. lesspati

.

infrallonde.

cagone.

32. elle

pane onbro.

33.

ttale

.

none e

.

.

in esc.

the diagram belonging to

it

also

reproduced

here.

sentence.
also

The

reflection

of the

sun in water

is

The words
cate
that

della

mia prospettiva
to

may

therefore indi-

the

diagram

the

preceding

chapter

discussed in the Theoretical part of the on Painting; see Vol. I, No. 206, 207.
876.

Book
dia-

treating on a heterogeneal subject is to be excluded. It is a further difficulty that this diagram belongs 10 and not to the preceding properly to lines 9

In

the

original,
is

at

letter

A

in
at

the
o

gram

"Sole" (the sun)

written,

and

(the eye).

8;;. 878.]

THE EARTH AS A PLANET.

147

sumare gli spati interposti infra 1' onde, 3* e per questa tal cagione e' pare tutto vn sole continuato nelli molti soli s^spechiati nelle molte onde, e le parti onbrose miste colle spetie luminose 33 fan che tale splendore non e lucido come quel del sole in
esse

ode spechia^to.

interposed between the waves are concealed; and, for this reason, it looks as though the many suns mirrored in the many waves were but one continuous sun; and the shadows, mixed up with the luminous images, render this radiance less brilliant than that of the sun mirrored in these waves.
'

F. 77 6]

877.
il

Questa avra inazi a se 2 onbra e lumi. 3 Li stremi della luna sara piu alluminati e si dimostre 4 ran piu luminosi,

trattato

de

This will have before
light

it

the treatise

on

and shade.

The edges in the moon will be most strongly lighted
light,

and

reflect

most
no-

perche appare se
Smita
dell'

in

quelli no le

non
so-

because, there,

ode

delle

sue

thing will be visible but the tops of the waves of
the water [5].

acque.

W. X]
II

878.
sole

parira

The sun will

ap-

maggiore nell' acmovente e qua
2 odeggiate che nella ferma: esemplo

pear larger in movwater or on ing waves than in still
water; an example
is

del

lume
le

visto so3

the light reflected

pra

corde

del

monocordo.

on the strings of a monochord.

877. i. ara

.

.

asse.

2.

ellumi.

3.

dimoste.

4.

apare.

878.

r.

magiore

.

.

odegiato.

2.

essenplo

.

.

chorde.

877. 5.

I

have thought
detailed

produce the

unnecessary to reexplanation of the theory of
it

reflection

on waves contained

in the

passage which

follows this.

II.

THE
5")

SUN.

879.

LAUDE DEL
2

SOLE.
If
(as

IN PRAISE OF THE SUN.

The question
aL^of'Ihe
apparent
1*

6

""suL'
(879-884).

le stelle sanza razzi (come a vedcr^lc per un piccolo foro fatto c Na strema P ata da ^ a sottile aguglia, e questo posto quasi a toccare 1'ochio), 5 tu uedrai esse stelle essere tanto minime c jie nu i6i a cosa p are essere minore, e uera-

Se guarderai

you look

at the stars, cutting off the rays

si

fa

may be done by looking through a very small hole made with the extreme point of
a very fine needle, placed so as almost to touch the eye), you will see those stars so minute that it would seem as though nothing could be smaller; it is in fact their great distance which is the reason of their diminution, for many of them are very many times larger than the star which is the earth with water. Now reflect what this our star must look like at such a distance, and then conboth sider how many stars might be added between those stars in longitude and latitude which are scattered over the darkened sky. But I cannot forbear to condemn many of the ancients, who said that the sun was no larger
than
it

mete la luga di 7 statia le mente diminuire, ancorache

fa
8

ragionevol-

moltevisono
;

che son moltissime volte maggiori che la ora pensa 'Stella cioe la terra coll' acqua I0 quel che par rebbe essa nostra stella in tata distantia, e conside"ra poi, quate stelle I2 si metterebbero e per longitudine e la tiinfra esse stelle, le quali sono semitudine

posso

na'^te per esso spatio tenebroso; mai fare z +ch'io non biasimi molti
quelli antichi, li non avea altra
l6

no
di

quali disse'Sro che

'1

sole

gradezza che quella che mostra, Tfra quali fu Epicure, e credo che caua'^si tale ragione da vn lume posto in questa nostra a l8 ria, equidistate al cetro; chi lo uede, non lo uede mai di^minuito
di

appears;

among

these

was Epicurus,

gradezza
i.

in

nessuna distatia; e
3.

le

ragi-

he founded his reason on the effects of a light placed in our atmosphere equidistant from the centre of the earth. Any one looking at it never sees it diminished in size at whatever distance; and the rea-

and

I believe that

879.

lalde.

2.

ra/i.

picholo.

4.

acuchia ecque posto
9.

nc anchora che.
chel sole
. .

8.

magore
16.

chella.

coe
Ifra.

.

.

aq"a"

gradeza.

mostra

[alia]

18.

attocare. 6. lugha dis. 7. statin dnlloro ragionevolc diminuire clla. che pa. n. metterebbe e per 15. no 14. quali disc. elle. noluede. 19. minuto gradeza inessuna
. .
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

879882. What Leonardo says of Epicurus who according to LEWIS, The Astronomy of the
ancients,

lestial

and MADLER,

Gcschichte

der Himmelskunde,

phenomena , he probably derived from Book of Diogenes Laertius, whose Vitae Philosofhorum was not printed in Greek till 1533, but the Latin

X

did not devote

much

attention to the study of ce-

translation appeared in 1475.

88o. 88

1.]

THE SUN.

149

F.

880. sons of
for
its

oni della sua grandezza e virtu le riser uo nel Z 4 libro; ma be mi maraviglio che Socrate biasi^masse questo tal corpo, e che dicesse quello esse 4 re a similitudine di pietra infocata, e certo, chi si' oppose di tal errore poco pecco; Ma io vorrei 6 avere

size

and power

I

shall

reserve

vocabuli che mi seruissero a biasimare quel?li che vogliono laudare piu lo adorare li omini che 8 tal sole, no uededo nell' uniuerso corpo 9di maggiore magnitudine e virtu di I0 suo lume allumina tutti li corpi quello; e '1 lj celesti che per l'u ni verso si copartono; I2 tutte 1'anime discedono da lui, perch e il caldo ch' e in nelli animali viui vie dall' aniJ3 me, e nessuno altro caldo ne lume e nelP u I4 niverso, come mostrero nel 4 libro, e cier^to costoro che anno voluto adorare

But I wonder greatly that Socrates [2] should have depreciated that solar body, saying that it was of the nature of incandescent stone, and the one who opposed him as to that error was not far wrong. But I only wish I had words to serve me to blame those
4.

Book

who

are fain to extol the worship of men more than that of the sun; for in the whole universe there is nowhere to be seen a body of greater magnitude and power than the sun. Its light gives light to all the celestial bodies which are
it

distributed throughout the universe; and from descends all vital force, for the heat that is in
is

uomimi per i dei l6 come Giove Saturno Marte e simili anno fatto gra^dissimo errore, vededo che ancorache 1' omo fus l8 se grande quato il nostro modo, che parrebbe simple a vna minima stella, la qual pare vn puto 20 nell' uni verso, e ancora vedendo essi omini
mortali

e

2I

putridi e corruttibili
23 e Marcello esso sole.
2

nelle

lor

sepolture. 22 Luspera(?)

*lauda

co

m

comes from the soul [vital spark] ; no other centre of heat and light in the universe as will be shown in Book 4 and certainly those who have chosen to worship men as gods as Jove, Saturn, Mars and the like have fallen into the gravest error, seeing that even if a man were as large as our earth, he would look no bigger than a little star which appears but as a speck in the universe; and seeing again that these men are mortal, and putrid and corrupt in their sepulchres. Marcellus [23] and many others praise
living beings

and there

;

25 olti

altri

26

the sun.

F.

881.

Forse Epicuro vide le obre delle colonne 2 ripercosse nelli an tiposti muri essere equali
al

diametro della colona ^donde
i.

si

parti

a

Epicurus perhaps saw the shadows cast by columns on the walls in front of them equal in diameter to the columns from which the
erore

880.

grandeza.
9.

3.

massi. .dicessi.

4.

assimilitudine. 5. loponi
.
.

.

.

.

.

laldare.

magore.
16.

n. copartano
Lines 22
3.

disceda dallui.
essimili an.

12. 17.

inelli.

13.

pecho. 6. seruissino abbiasimare que. 7. che vollo honellume enellu. 15. che an 14. mosterro.
. .

mini

.

.

iddei.

gove saturno marte
esendo

che anchorachellomo
22.

fu.

18.

si

grande

.

.

parebe.

19.

stela.

21. pitridi e curuttibili.

26 are written on the -margin.
. .

luspera
8.

(?).
.

24. lalda.
.

881.

i.

ripercose.

2.

diametro.

paralella. 5. gudicare. 6. fussi.

colona

sauide.

n.

fussi

.

..lesstelle. 12.

sarebo.

880.

2.

Socrates;

I

have

little

light to

throw on

Aristotle

who goes

this reference.

Plato's Socrates himself declares

more than one occasion that in his turned his mind to the study of celestial pheno-

on youth he had

says the

same.
first

works was

very fully into the subject complete edition of Aristotele's 9^> but a printed in Venice 1495

A

Latin version of the Books

De
in

Coelo et

Mundo and

mena (MeT^wpa) but not
C. LEWIS,

in his later years (see G.
the ancients,

De
in

Physica

had been printed

Venice as early as

The Astronomy of
Geschichte

MADLER,
Here

der

Hintmelskunde,

page 109; page 41).

23. I
is

1483 (H. MULLER-STRUBING). have no means of identifying
in the margin.
It

and there in Plato's writings we find incidental notes on the sun and other heavenly bodies. Leonardo may very well have known of these, since the Latin version by Ficinus was printed as early as 1491; indeed an undated edition exists which

named

Marcello who may be Nonius Mar-

cellus,

an obscure

Roman Grammarian

of uncertain

date (between the II nd and V th centuries A. C.) the author of the treatise De compendiosa doctrina per litteras ad filium in which he treats de rebus omnibus et quibusdam aliis. This was much read in the middle ages. The editio princeps is dated 1470 (H.

may

very likely have appeared between 1480 90. There is but one passage in Plato, Epinomis he speaks of the physical properties (p. 983) where of the sun and says that it is larger than the earth.

MULLER-STRUBING).
881. In the original the writing is across the

diagram.

ISO

ASTRONOMY.

[882.

obra essendo adunque il coco'rso deldall'suo nascimeto al suo 1'obre
talc
;

paralello

fine,
6

Mi parue da giudicare che
lui

'1

sole an-

cora

fusse frote di tal paralePlo, e per
8

so di tal cosegueza non essere piv gros e no s'avvidc che tal 'diminuitione colonna,

shadows were cast; and the breadth of the shadows being parallel from beginning to end, he thought he might infer that the sun also was directly opposite to this parallel and that consequently its breadth was not greater than that of the column; not perceiving that the diminution in the shadow was

d'obra era insesibile
tia del sole;

I0

per

la

lunga distan-

"se

terra,

le stelle

sole fusse minore della I2 di gra parte del nostro
'1

insensibly slight by reason of the remoteness If the sun were smaller than of the sun.

emisperio sarebbero sa'^za lume; cotro a Epicure che dice, tato e ^grade il sole,

on a great portion of our hemisphere would have no light, which is evidence against Epicurus who says the sun
the earth, the stars
is

quato e'pare.

only as large as

it

appears.

F.

882.

il sole essere tato quato 2 dimostra; a dunque e'pare essere vn pie, e cosl 1'abbiamo a tenere; ^seguirebbe che la luna quad'ella fa oscurare il sole, il so 4 le non 1'avazerebbe di gradezza come e' fa, onde, sendo s la luna minor del sole, essa luna sarebbe meno d'un piede, 6 e per consegueza quando il nostro modo fa oscurare la lu?na, sarebbe minore a un dito del piedi, concio sia se '1 so 8 le e un piede, e la nostra terra fa onbra piramidale in^verso la luna, egli e necessario che sia I0 maggiore il lumi noso, causa della piramide obrosa, che 1'opaco, causa d' essa "piramide.

Dice Epicure
si

esso

Epicurus says the sun is the size it looks. as it looks about a foot across we must consider that to be its size; it would

Hence

follow that
the

when

the

moon

eclipses the sun,

'

sun ought not to appear the larger, as it does. Then, the moon being smaller than the sun, the moon must be less than a foot, and consequently when our world eclipses the moon, it must be less than a foot by a finger's breadth ; inasmuch as if the sun is a foot across, and our earth casts a conical shadow

on the moon, it is inevitable that the luminous cause of the cone of shadow must be larger than the opaque body which casts the
cone of shadow.

88a.

2.

labia

r,o

attcnere.
8.

3.

seguirebe chella.
9.

4.

nollauazerebbe
. .

.

.

\

7.

concosia.

piedi ella.

luna "la" egli

magore.

10.

gradeza chome. caua della.

5.

medun

piedi.

6.

chonsequeza

.

.

osscurar.

883-885.]

THE

SUN.

F. 10 6}

88 3
si

.

Misura quati soli corso suo di 24 ore.
3

metterebbero

;

nel

e voltalo a mezzodl, circulo so ^H orilogi da sole, e metti vna -bacchetta in s mezzo, in modo che la sua 6 lughezza si di rizzi al cetro di tal cerchio, e nota I'on7bra che fa il sole d'essa bacchetta

Fa vn

come

sopra
sara
11

8 circuferentia di tale cerchio, che nbra larga, diciamo tutto a n; ora I0 misura quante volte tale obra entra in

la

9l' O

tale circuferetia di cerchio, e tate vol I2 te

il numero che '1 corpo solare entrera nel ^corso suo in 24 ore; e qui si potra J +vedere, se Epicuro disse, che '1 sole era ^tanto grande quato esso parea che, paI6 rendo il diametro del sole vna misura X 7pedale, e che esso sole entrasse mille 18 volte nel suo corso di 24 ore, egli avreJ 9bbe corso mille piedi, cioe 300 'braccia che 20 e vn sesto di miglio; ora ecco che 21 '1 cor so del sole infra dl e notte sarebbe 22 23 la sesta parte d' u miglio , e questa 2 venerabile lumaca del s6le av -*rebbe caminato 25 braccia per ora.

fia

To measure how many times the diameter of the sun will go into its course in 24 hours. Make a circle and place it to face the south, after the manner of a sundial, and place a rod in the middle in such a way as that its length points to the centre of this circle, and mark the s.hadow cast in the sunshine by this rod on the circumference of the let us say circle, and this shadow will be as broad as from a to n. Now measure how many times this shadow will go into this circumference of a circle, and that will give you the number of times that the solar body will go
Thus its orbit in 24 hours. you may see whether Epicurus was in] saying that the sun was only as large
into

|

[right

it looked; for, as the apparent diameter of the sun is about a foot, and as that sun would go a thousand times into the length of its course in 24 hours, it would have gone a thousand feet, that is 300 braccia, which is the sixth of a mile. Whence it would follow that the course of the sun during the day would be the sixth part of a mile and that this venerable snail, the sun will have travelled 25 braccia an hour.

as

F. o"]

884.
libri

Possidonius copose
del sole.

della gradezza

Posidonius of the sun.

composed books on

the size

G. 34

]

885.
Z

DELLA PROVA CHE 'L SOLE E CAL DO PER NATURA E NO PER VIRTU.
3

OF THE PROOF THAT THE SUN

IS HOT BY NATURE AND NOT BY VIRTUE.

Che

'1

sol sia
si

in se

e no per vir*tu,
883. i. metterebbe.
9. 3.

caldo per natura dimostra manifestamete
dassole
bnchetta.
. .

That the heat of the sun resides in its r j t nature and not in its virtue [or mode of
,
. .

-,,
6- rizi.

f

the nature

f

Sunlight.

mezodi.
12.

4.
il

.

.

5.

mezo

chella.

5.

lugeza.
17.

7. cheffa.

8.

cercio chessara.
19.

largha.
20.

n.

ettate.

n"o"

chel

entera.

13.
22.

ecqui.

16. diamitro.

entrassi.
.

18. egliare.
.

che.
.

miglo ora e che chel corso.

21. serebbela.

minato

la sesta.

23.

che questa

lumacha del sole

coe 300 br a. 24. rebe
.

.

25. br per.

885. i

47 R.

i.

gradeza.

4.

manifestameti.

5.

sprendore.

6.

po.

8.

razi refre.

9. delli.

n.

eldore chellochio nol possa

884. Poseidonius of Apamea, commonly called the Rhodian, because he taught in Rhodes, was a Stoic philosopher, a contemporary and friend of
Cicero's,

Kleomedes, a
title

later

Greek Naturalist

also mentions

this observation of Poseidonius'

without naming the

natural
Trepl

and the author of numerous works on Ouotxoi; Xoyo;, science, among them:

of his work; however, as Kleomedes' Cyclia Theorica was not printed till 1535, Leonardo must have derived his quotation from Strabo. He pro-

x.oay.ou, Tispl jxeTscupoav.

Strabo quotes no doubt from one of his works, when he says that Poseidonius explained how it was that the sun looked larger when it was rising
or setting than during the rest of
its

bably wrote this note in 1508, and as the original Greek was first printed in Venice in 1516, we must

course

(III, p. 135).

suppose him to quote here from the translation by Guarinus Veronensis, which was printed as early as 1471, also at Venice (H. MULLER-STRUBING).

152
del

ASTRONOMY.
solare,

[886. 887.

corpo per Mo splendore fermare 1'ochio vmano, *qual no si pud 8 ?e oltre a di questo manifestissima mcte sua razzi refte'ssi dalli li lo dimostrano
la lor perli quali, qua'do spechi concavi, che cussione sara di tato sp"lendore, I2 1'occhio non lo possa soppo rtare, allora cssa percussione '^avra splendore simile al sole nel 'suo propio sito; e che sia vero, a la sua ^copro'Svo che se tale spechio ca vita tal qual si richiede alia ^generatione l8 nessuna cosa creata di tale razzo, allora
I9 alla caldezza di tale percussione reggera 2I zo e se di razzo reflesso d'alcuno spechio; 22 tu dirai che lo spechio anco ra lui e freddo 2 e gitta i razzi caldi, io Jti rispondo, che 2 2 razzo vie dal sole ed e *il razzo sdello '1 z8 2 a6 to spec chio conca ?vo, passa
2

nel

action] is abundantly proved by the radiance of the solar body on which the human eye

dwell and besides this no less manifestly by the rays reflected from a conwhen they strike the eye cave mirror, which with such splendour that the eye cannot bear them have a brilliancy equal to the sun in

cannot

its

own

by the
cavity

place. And that this is true I prove fact that if the mirror has its con-

collecting

formed exactly as is requisite for the and reflecting of these jrays, no created being could endure the heat that strikes from the reflected rays of such a
mirror.
itself
is

And
cold

if

you argue that the mirror and yet send forth hot rays,

I

should reply that those rays come really

?a traver-

3so

della J'finestra.

from the sun and that it is the ray of the concave mirror after having passed through the window.

W.
Considerations as lo the size of the sun

L. 132*]

886.

II

sole

no

si

move.

The sun does not move.

(836-891).

Ash.

I.

190]

887.
PIV

PRUOVA COME QUATO

SARAI PRESSO

ALLA CAGI 2 ONE DE* RAZZI DEL SOLE , PIV TI PARRA MAGGIORE 1L SOLE 3 SPECHI ATO SUL MARE.
4

PROOF THAT THE NEARER YOU ARE TO THE SOURCE OF THE SOLAR RAYS, THE LARGER WILL THE REFLECTION OF THE SUN FROM THE SEA APPEAR TO YOU.
[4] If it is

Se

il

sole
5

adopera

il

suo splendore col

suo cietro
il

a

fortificare la potetia di tutto

ploys

its

6 che i corpo, e ne ciessario sua razzi, quato piv s' alontanano da lui, piv si uadino 7 apredo se cosl e, tu che sei col ochio presso che spechia il sole, all'acqua 8 vedi una minima parte de' razzi del sole portare sulla superfitie 9 del'acqua la forma d'esso sole e se tu sarai presso spechiato I0 al sole, come sarebbe quado il sole e I mezzodl e '1 mare
:'
,

from the centre that the sun emradiance to intensify the power of its whole mass, it is evident that the
the more its rays extend, widely they will be divided; and this being so, you, whose eye is near the water that mirrors the sun, see but a small portion of the rays of the sun strike the surface of
farther

the

sia

per ponete,

ved"rai

il

sole

spechiarsi su detto

mare

di gradis-

water, and reflecting the form of the sun. But if you were near to the sun as would be the case when the sun is on the meridian and the sea to the westward you would see the sun, mirrored in the

sopo.

12.
.

percussione ar.
.

13. ara.

15.

va chesse tale
28. to [per
il

.

.

alia.

17. razo.

18. regiera.

20.

refresso.

21. essettu

.

.

chello.

22. fredo

razi.

23.

razo.

24. razo.

fo].

Lines 32
36.

47 are

much
(

effaced

and some words remain
>).

doubtful:
38.

32. delle stan (?).

33. cedove.
la.

34.

so

tundu

(?).

35.

si\\\\\\\\\\.

non aqst

aguistera

37.

caldeza ne.

an-

cora

\\U\\\\.

39.

passado per
TO.

40. spera del co.

41. simulacro.

42. alia su.

43.

a cavsa

e.

44. passi

per

ele. 45.

meto

(?) pa.

46. tar si

47. glia.

M6. El
8*7.
.

sol.

razi

.

.

parte

(del

para magiore. sole] de razi

4.
.

splendre.
.

5.

a forzifichato dala
tussarai.
io.

.

.

chorpo.
.
.

6.

razi.
. .

7.

che se chol
12.
razi.

.

.

preso.

8.
. .

vedi

i

.

sula.

9.

esse

sarebe

mezodi

vede.

13.

perco

magiore

886.

This sentence occurs incidentally

among mathematical
I,

notes,

and

is

written in unusually large letters.

887. Lines

4 and

fol.

Compare

Vol.

Nos. 130, 131.

888891.]
sima forma, perche,
al sole-,
I2

THE
essedo tu piu presso

SUN.

153

al puto,

1'ochio tuo, pigliado i razzi presso I3 ne piglia piv, e percio ne resulta
la
,

maggiore spledore, e per questa ca^gione
si

of a very great size; because, as are nearer to the sun, your eye taking in you the rays nearer to the point of radiation takes more of them in, and a great splendour
sea,
is

potrebbe provare che spe I5 chia il sole
fia terra.

mare e quello che no riluna
essere

And in this way it can be the result. proved that the moon must have seas which reflect the sun, and that the parts which do
not shine are land.

splede
Br.

M.

7 8i]

888.
2

3

Togli la misura a mezzo giugnio.

del

sole in

solstitio

Take
stice in

the measure of the sun at the sol-

mid- June.

A. 64 a]

PERCH& IL SOLE PARE MAGGIORE NEL TRA 2 MOTARE CHE DI MEZZO GIORNO CHE CI E PRESSO.
3(3gni corpo
visto per curvo

WHY

THE SUN APPEARS

LARGER WHEN SETTING THAN AT NOON, WHEN IT IS NEAR TO US.
Every
through
object

ch'e

seen

mezzo

a curved meto

4apparisce di maggiore

dium seems
ger
size

be of larit

forma, che non

e.

than

is.

C. A. 234-5; 704*]

890.

Perche 1'ochio e piccolo, esso non puo vedere 2 il sole in simvlacro, se no piccolo ^Se 1'occhio fusse equale al sole, esso
;

vedrebbe
Spiane,
il

^nell'acque,

dato
del

che

le
6

fussi
le

Because the eye is small it can only see image of the sun as of a small size. If the eye were as large as the sun it would see the image of the sun in water of the
the

simulacro

sole

equa

al

same

size

as

the

real
is

body of

the sun,

so

uero corpo del sole.
Tr. 12]

long as the water

smooth.

MODO
2

DI

VEDERE

IL

PASSIONE
Tolli

SOLE ECLISSATO SANZA DELL'OCHIO.

A

METHOD OF SEEING THE SUN ECLIPSED WITHOUT PAIN TO THE EYE.
Take a piece of
pa-

e

falle

busi

vna carta con una

agucchia, e per es^si busi riguarda il sole.

per and pierce holes in and it with a needle, look at the sun through
these holes.

4.

potrebe.
to la.
2.

15. ecquella.
sostitio.
2.
3.

888.

.

[a

me]

stitio

a mezo gugnio.
3. 3.

889.

magiore.
.

megogorno checepresso.
2.

chorpo

..

.

churvo mezo.
4.

4. aparisscie di
.

magiore.

890.
891.

picholo

.

.

po.
2.

dere
.
.

il

.

.

picholo.

Sellochio fussi.

aque

.

chelle.

.

da vedere.

charta

chon aguchia epere.
sun), at

889.

At

A

is

written

sole (the

B

terra (the earth).

U

in.

THE MOON.
Br.

M. 94

8g2.

DELLA LUNA.
2

OP THE MOON.
3

Volendo
.

io trattare della essentia della

On
of the

the

l

u na

luminosity
(8oa-ooi).

e neciessario in prima

moon prospcttiva r

f
;

.... delli

spechi piani, cocaui e co-

....
,

descriuere la
.

the

As I propose to treat of moon, it is necessary that

the nature of
first

I

should

describe the
plane,
is

uessi

'

e
si

pnma

che cosa e razzo lummoso,

,

perspective of mirrors, whether concave or convex; and first what

piega per varie nature $di mezzi; dove il razzo riflesso e piu potete, Dipoi
e

come

meant by a luminous ray, and how it is by various kinds of media; then, when a reflected ray is most powerful, whether
refracted

o

nell'esser 1'angolo

6

della incidentia acuto

retto o ottuso, o nelle couessita o piano o 7 c6cavita, o da corpo deso e trasparete; Oltre a-questo, 8 come li razzi solari, che

the angle of incidence is acute, right, or obtuse, or from a convex, a plane, or a concave surface; or from an opaque or a transparent body. Besides this, how it is that the solar rays which fall on the waves of the
sea,

when

percuotono 1'onde marine,

si

dimostrano

al

are

seen by the eye of the same

899.

2.
.

tr.ict.ire.
.

3.

desscriuere

.

.

presspectiva

.

.

cochaui e chouissi

[e che].
.
.

4.

chosa errazzo
7.

.

.

chotne

.

.

piegha.
.

5.
.

mezi

refresso cppitt potete o nell esser lato.
.

6.
.

achuta retta o hottusa ho
9.

pioni ho.
. .

chochavita adda chorpo
. .

ettras-

parete

.

addiquesto.
ti. frcsso
.
.

8.

(home
. .

li

razi

.

perchotano.

llochio
.

.

.

largheza

aghol

soma.
. .

io. orizote

.

.

macha
15.

chettalc.

fighura

chosseghuc.

12. disstatia

.

largheza achora.

13.

nosstro

dimosstri parallel.!.

he

892.

In the diagram

Leonardo wrote

sole at

the place

marked

A.

893-]
9 1'ochio

THE MOON.

155

in tanta larghezza nell'agolo dell'ochio quanto nell' ultima somma I0 dell' ode maca che all'orizzote, e per questo no tale splendore solare ri^flesso dall'ode marittirne no sia di figura piramidale e per
I2 consegue za

in

ogni grado di distatia non
I3 in-

acquisti

quato
ralello.
a

gradi di larghezza acorache al nostro vedere si dimostri
lievissimo

width at the angle nearest to the eye, as at the highest line of the waves on the horizon; but notwithstanding this the solar rays reflected from the waves of the sea assume the pyramidal form and consequently, at each degree of distance increase proportionally in size, although to our sight, they appear as
parallel.
i
st
.

pa-

Nothing that has very

little

weight

is

^i 1Nessu
l6
;

^e opaco;!
X

2 a 1fNessu piu lieve sta
sito
22
2

7sotto al

me
ai

opaque.
2 Nothing that is excessively weight can remain beneath that which is heavier. dly As to whether the moon is situated 3 in the centre of its elements or not. And, if it has no proper place of its own, like the earth, in the midst of its elements, why does it not fall to the centre of our elements [2 6] ? And, if the moon is not in the centre of its own elements and yet does not fall, it must then be lighter than any other element. And, if the moon is lighter than the other elements why is it opaque and not transparent?
.

dly .

lieve 1
a l8 3 liSe la luna a sua ele 20 meti o no;
21 23

^in mezzo

e s'ella
la

non a
nelli

sito

me

terra

sua

particulare co4elemeti, per26

che no ca 2 sde menti?

al

cientro de' nostri

ele-

2 ?E se la luna non e 28 in mezzo alii sua eleme 2 9ti e no discede, 3 aduque ella e piu 3 1 lieve che altro eleme" 32 to; 34 33 E se la luna e piu Iie ve che altro

elemeto, per 3 Sche e solida e no traspare. 36 lDelle cose di varie gradezze che,
37 si mostrano eposte in varie distatie, fia da distatia a tal quali, proportione dista 38 tia, qual fia da magnitudine a mag-

When objects of various sizes , being placed at various distances, look of equal size, there must be the same relative proportion in the distances as in the magnitudes of the
objects.

nitudine. II

F. 93 a]

893.
SE ELLA E PULITA E
.

BELLA LUNA E
2

OF THE MOON AND WHETHER
AND SPHERICAL.

IT

IS

POLISHED

SPERICA.
II

simulacro del sole in lei e potetee in piccola parte della su*a superfitie; E la prova vedrai a torSre vna palla d'oro brunito, posta ne! 6 le tene-

men 3 te luminoso ed

bre,

con vn lume da lei remoto, ?il quale ancorache esso allumini circa 8 la meta d' essa

palla, 1'ochio

non

lo uede, se

no

9 in

I0 parte della sua superfitie, e tut to

il

piccola resto

di tal

superfitie

spechia le tenebre

"che

la circudano, e per questo in lei solo appaI2 risce il simulacro del lume e tutto il re I3 sto

rimane da tal

invisibile,

stando

1'ochio

remo^to

palla; Questo medesimo interue"Srrebbe nella superfitie della luna, essendo l6 po lita, lustra e densa, come son corpi

The image of the sun in the moon is powerfully luminous, and is only on a small And the proof may portion of its surface. be seen by taking a ball of burnished gold and placing it in the dark with a light at some distance from it; and then, although it will illuminate about half of the ball, the eye will perceive its reflection only in a small part of its surface, and all the rest of the surface reflects the darkness which surrounds it; so that it is only in that spot that the image of the rest remains invisible, light is seen, and all the the eye being at a distance from the ball. The same thing would happen on the surface of the

moon

if it

were polished, lustrous and opabodies with a reflecting surface.
cha.
25.

che spe T 7chiano;
oppacho.
29. 18. sella
. .

que, like
assito. 20.

all

onno.
. .

21. essella.

22. partichulare cho.
. .

24.
36.

nosstri.
.
.

27. essella.

28.

imezzo.

dissciede.

30. eppiu.

33. essella

eppiu.

35. solita

trasspare.

delle chose

gradezze [chessendo] posste.

37. disstatia adissta.

893.

i.

esselle.

2.

illei.

3.

picliola.
15. rebe.

4.

attor.

6.
.

dallei.
.

8.

noluede.

9.

pichola
21.
ini.

.

.

ettu.

n.

chella circuda

.

.

illei

.

.

apa.
po.

12. ettutto.

14. dattal.

16. lusstra

chesspe.

19. settu.

24. pa.

27. cheffa.

30. col inel si.

34.

26.

was not

The problem here propounded by Leonardo satisfactorily answered till Newton in 1682

formulated the law of universal attraction and gravitation. Compare No. 902, lines 5 15.

I

56

ASTRONOMY.
18

[8 94

.

895.

Prova tu ''come, se tu *stessi nella a "luna oin una "Stella, *Ma nostra nerra 2 6 che fa la ti jjar'Jra far Pu' fitio col so ?le 'Muna;
a

Show how, moon or on a
reflect the

you were standing on the star, our earth would seem to
if

sun as the
that the

moon

does.

E

^ 5 vn J'del sole nel "mare no 34p U 6 parere 8 6 sole co- me pare in u^no spechio pi3 ano.

prova

Jcome

in

nel

si^'mulacro
the
as

And show
it

sea cannot

image of the sun in appear one and undivided,

appears in a perfectly plane mirror.

Ath.

I.

io<)

894.
1'onbre
si

Come
*

si

distatia, in.ii Jsi

prvova

nel'

cofondono per iQnga obra della luna che

How
as
is

shadows shown by
is

the

are lost at great distances, shadow side of the

vede.

moon which

never seen.

Br.

M. 280]

895-

O
e

la

luna a lume da se

lume da se,

2 o no; s'ell' a per^che non risplende sanza

Paiuto del sole? s'ella s n on a lume da se, ne6 cies sita la fa spe-

Either the moon has intrinsic luminosity or not. If it has, why does it not shine without the aid of the sun? But if it has not
it

chio sperico; ?e se ella e spechio, non e prova 8 to

any light in itself must of necessity be a spherical mirror ; and if it
a mirror, is it not proved in Peris

prospettiua Hche '1 sinVulacro d'unoobbietto Iumi 10 noso no sara mai equale
alia

in

spective

that

the

image of a luminous object will never be equal to
the extent of sur-

"parte

di

quello

che

specchio da esso lu'

minoso e ^illuminate ?He secosl
e,

face of the reflecting body that it
illuminates ? And if
it

come 'Jmostra
do'^de
uie

is

be thus [13], as here shown at
s in the figure,

qui la figura in r
s,

r

whence comes so
great an extent of radiance as that of the full moon as we see it, at the
fifteenth

tanta quantita di splendo'Sre che a
il

plenilunio,

noi

che ve l6 diamo

ma

nella quinta decidella '7 luna?

day

of

the

moon?

J5.

vn

sole.

36. pare nti
2.

37.

no spechio.
onno.

38.

anano.

894. 895.

i.

chofondono.
Olla
. .

dela.
2. 3.

i.

allume dasse.
.
.

risplde.

4.

essella.

6.

dasse.

8.

essello spechio.

9.

prosspecdva.

13.

parte "di

quello spechio" che

he.

13. esse.

894.
95-

Compare
13-

also Vol.
in the

I,

Nos. 175

179.

diagram, Leonardo wrote "sole" (the sun), and at or our earth). Compare also the text of No. 876.

At A,

B

"luna o noi terra" (the

moon

896.]

THE MOON.

157

Br.

M.

896.

DECLA LUNA.
se, se no tanto 1'allumina, 3 della qual luminosita tanto ne vediamo e quella che vede noi; ^E la sua quato notte ricieve tanto di spledore, quato e quello che li preSstano le nostre acque nel del sole , che in refletterli il simulacro 6 tutte quelle che vedono il sole e la luna,
2

OF THE MOON.
The moon has no light in itself; but so much of it as faces, the sun is illuminated, and of that illumined portion we see so much And the moon's night as faces the earth. receives just as much light as is lent it by our
waters as they reflect the image of the sun, which is mirrored in all those waters which
are
side

La

luna

non a
il

lume da

quato

ne

vede

sole

on the side towards the sun.

The

out-

La pelle over superfitie delspechia; 1' acqua, di che si copone il mare della luna e il 8 mare della nostra terra, e senpre rugoso, 9o poco o assai, o piu, o meno, e tale rugosita e cavsa di dila I0 tare 1'innumerabili simulacri del sole, che nei colli e cocavita e la 1 Hi e froti delle innumerabili rughe si spechiano, cioe in tati vari siti di ciascuna 12 ruga quato son vari li siti che anno li ochi che le vedono, jl che ac^cadere no potrebbe, se la spera dell' acqua, che I gra parte di se veste la ^luna fusse d'uniforme spericita, perche allora il simulacro del I5 sole sarebbe uno a ciascuno occhio, e la sua reflessione sarebbe particuI6 lare e senpre sarebbe spledore sperico,
si
1

waters forming the of the seas of our is little or much, globe always ruffled or more or less and this roughness causes an extension of the numberless images of the sun which are repeated in the ridges and hollows, the sides and fronts of the innu-

or surface of the seas of the moon and

merable waves;
different

that

is

to

say in as
as

many
eyes

spots on each wave
positions
to

our

find

different

view them from.

This could not happen, if the aqueous sphere which covers a great part of the moon were uniformly spherical, for then the images of the sun would be one to each spectator,

and

its

reflections

would be separate and

come manifestame

7te ci assegnano le palle dorate, poste nelle sommita delli alti edil8 se tali palle dorate fussino rugose fiti; o globuleti come son le mo^re, frutti neri conposti di minute globosita rotonde, allora

1

Ma

ciascuna delle parti d'essa

20

globosita, ve-

independent and its radiance would always appear circular; as is plainly to be seen in the gilt balls placed on the tops of high buildings. But if those gilt balls were rugged or composed of several little balls, like mulberries, which are a black fruit composed of minute round globules, then each portion of
these
little

dute dal sole e dall'ochio, mostrera a esso ochio il lustro 2I gienerato dal simulacro d'esso sole, e cosl in u medesimo corpo si ue 22 drebbero molti minimi soli, li quali spesse so le volte che per lunga distatia 2 3si uniscono e paiono cotinuati; E !1 lustro
della lunanuova e piu lucido e piu potete che quado e in plenilunio, e questo si ca2s vsa perche 1' angolo della incidetia e molto 26 piu ottuso nella luna nuo va che nella
24

balls,

when seen

in

the

sun,

would display to the eye the lustre resulting from the reflection of the sun, and thus, in one and the same body many tiny suns would be seen; and these often combine at a long distance and appear as one. The lustre of the new moon is brighter and stronger, than when the moon is full; and the reason of
this
is

that

the

angle of incidence
in the full

obtuse in the

new than

is more moon, in

vecchia, doue e 1'onde della nelle lor ualli

angoli sono acutissimi; ?luna spechiano il sole cosl come nelli colli, e li lati 28 restano oscuri ma ne' lati della luna li fondi dell'onde non 2 9 vedono il sole, ma
tali
2
;

which the angles [of incidence and reflection] are highly acute. The waves of the moon therefore mirror the sun in the hollows of the waves as well as on the ridges, and the sides remain in shadow. But at the sides

896. 2. dasse,

3.
7.

vedano
dichessi

.

.

ecquella
.

.

.

vede.
8. [la

4.

Ella

.

.

chelli

pres.
.

5.

nosstre acque
. .

.

.

refretterli.
9.

6.

vedano
.
.

.

.

elluna

si

sspechia.

.

luna edel.

nostra luna] mare

.

nosstra
ti

essenpre rughoso.

oppocho
fussi.

oppiu omeno
.
.

ettale rughosita e chausa.

10. ine cholli e
ali
. .

chochavita
13.

ellati.
.

n.
.

effrote
.
.

"delle inumerabili" rughe sisspechiano
.

cias-

scuna.

12.

rugha
ella

.

.

che

chelle vedano.
. .

chadere
essenpre

sella
.

cuno ochio"

.

.

refressione

partichu.
. .

16.

.

achq"a" spericho chome.

,

vesste.

14.

luno
18.

15.
. .

uno "accias
rughose o
2i.chosi

17.

asegnia.

ssettali
.

globbuleti chome.

19.
22.

"neri" chonposti
.

"rotonde" allora ciasscuna "delle parte".
23.
.

20. globbosita
. .

.

mossterra.
24.
. .

nun

.

.

chorpo.
. .

derebbe
25.

.

lungha
26.
. .

disstatia.
.

vnisschono eppaiano chotinuati
angholi
.

eppiu cido epiu.
27.

pleniunnio
cholli
elli.

ecquesto

cha.

langholo.
29.

vechia

tale
. .

.

achutissimi
. .

ellonde.

chosi

.

.

chome
.

28. resstano osschuri.

vedano

massolo vede

quessto.

30. choll

ettal.

31. elluminose chosi

.

infussi

venghano.

1

58

ASTRONOMY.
e per e piu

[896.

uedono le cime d'esse ode, simuHacri son piu ran questo li
solo
misti

coll'onbre delle valli,

e

tal mistiorie

J'delle spetie

sieme

infuse,

vengono

obrose e luminose, cosl inall'oJ'chio co poco

nelli stremi sara piv oscure per spledore, e curuita de' lati di tale ode inessere ^la

of the moon the hollows of the waves do not catch the sunlight, but only their crests; and thus the images are fewer and more mixed up with the shadows in the hollows; and this intermingling of the shaded and illuminated spots comes to the eye with a mitigated splendour, so that the edges will be darker, because the curves of the sides

suffitiete

a

riflettere

all'ochio

li

riJ'cievuti
riflette
li

of the waves are insufficient to

reflect to the

eye

the

rays

that

fall

upon them.

Now

razzi;

La

luna nova per natura
piu

the

3Srazzi

solari

inverse

1'ochio

per

tali

rays

new moon naturally reflects the solar more directly towards the eye from the

ode streme, ^ 6 che per nessuno altro loco, come mostra la figura delta luna che 37percuotedo con razzi a nell'onda b riflette
in

crests of the

as

is

shown by
a
strike

rays

waves than from any other part, the form of the moon, whose the waves b and are "reflected

b d, dou' e situa^to 1'ochio d\

E

questo

accadere no puo nel plenilunio dove ^ 9 il razzo solare, stando all'occidete, percuote 1'onde streme della *luna alPoriete dal n
in in,

e non

riflette

inverso 1'oc^'chio occi-

detale,

ma
2

risalta aU'oriete,

poco piegado

razzo solare, e cosi della incidetia e grossissimo. 1' angolo La luna e corpo opa 44 co e solido, e se
la rettitu*

dine d'esso

eye being situated at d. This cannot happen at the full moon, when the solar rays, being in the west, fall on the extreme waters of the moon to the East from n to m, and are not reflected to the eye in the West, but are thrown back eastwards, with but slight deflection from the and course of the solar ray; straight thus the angle of incidence is very wide
in the line b d, the

indeed.

per
fusse

lo

a^Sversario
6

ella ella

no

traspa* rente, ricieverebbe 47 il
* 8 I1

The moon is an opaque and solid body and on the contrary, it if, were transparent, it would
not
receive
the
light

lume

of

del sole.

the sun.

rossume over tudell'o^vo sta sin mezzo al suo als'bume sanza discedere S2 d'alcuna is^v lieve o partc, ed 6 54 albume e piu grave o equale d' esso
orlo
;

The yellow or yolk of an egg remains in the middle of. the albumen, without moving on either
side
s' elli
;

now

it is

either lighter
it;

e

or heavier than this albumen, or equal to
it

if

piu lisseve egli doverebbe surgie5 re sopra tutto I' albume e "fermarsi in cotatto del-

6

is lighter,

it

ought to
in

rise

above

all

the

albumen and stop

contact with the shell

32.

cho pocho
locho
.
.

.

.

osschure.
la

3;.

churuita
37.

.

.

arefrettere.

34.

razza da qual chosa la luna
refrette.
41. 38.

.

.

refrette.
. .

35.
j|

razi o.
43.

.

.

tale.

36.

mosstra

fighura.

pcrcho tendo cho razi b e
40. refrette.
[in in

Ecquesto achadere
in.
la

dove

39.

razo

solare [que] perchote stando allocidete perchote lonte.
44.

pocho pieghado.
50. [volte] 58.

42. chosi langholo.
51.

chorpo.

cho cssolido

esse.

45. e

fussi.

46.

cno.
55.

49. sta

a!

piu

delle).

dissciedere.

.52.

dalchuna.
59.

53. grcve

"o equale"

desso.

54.

essclli.

eve

edovere vwirgie.

57.

chotratto.

[sua

scho] scho'rza.

hovo

896.

48-64.

Compare No.

861.

897-]
s 8 la

THE MOON.
scorza
d'es 59 so

159
if it is heavier, it ought to sink, equal, it might just as well be of the ends, as in the middle or

uovo,

e

s'elli

e piu

of the egg; and

60

6l grave doverebbe di sciedere, e s'egli e 62 6 le cosl potrebbe stare 3nell'v delli equa 64 me in mezzo o stremi, co disotto; 6 5L'mvmerabili simulacri 66 che dalle in-

and
at

if it is

Sola 68 ri razzi,

ma 6 ?re reflettono li esse onde percos 6 9si, son causa di re7dere cotinuato e larghissi 7I mo
numerabili

onde del
in

spledore sopra la superfitie

?2

del mare.

one below [54]. The innumerable images of the solar rays reflected from the innumerable waves of the sea, as they fall upon those waves, are what cause us to see the very broad and continuous radiance on the surface of the sea.

Br.

M.

104 a]

8 97
si

.

[Come no
2

puo spechiare

il

sole nel

corpo

della luna, essendo spechio colmo,

That the sun could not be mirrored in the body of the moon, which is a convex mirror,

esselli.

60.

dis.

61.

esselli.

62. chosi.

63.

cho.

64.

dissotto.

66.

cheddalle.

67.

refrettano dalli.
}

68.

razi

.

.

perchos.

69. se

son quelli chausa.
3.

70.

chotinuato ellarghissi.
4.

897.

i.

po.

chettanto

.

.

nalumina.

nesspechi.

5.

avessi la superfitie che atta asspechiare.

6.

cheffussi.

7.

emmosso

dal-

897.

In the original diagrams

sole

is

written at the

place

marked A; luna

at

C,

and

terra

at

the

two spots marked B.

i6o
in

ASTRONOMY.
sol

[8 9 8.

moJdo che tanto quanto esso
tal
6

ne

in such a

way

as that so

much of its
sun,

surface

allumina,

g&

tanto essa luna ne specchia, se luna snon avesse la superfitie alta
di

as

is

flect

illuminated by the the sun unless the

moon

should rehad a sur-

a specchiare,
superfitie

che fusse rugosa, a vso mare, ?quando in parte

di

e

in face adapted to reflect it like the surface of the sea ridges 4

waves and

when

its

sur-

mossa

dal uento]dell'
I0

face

is

moved by

the wind.

'[L'onde
11

acqua crescono

9

il

simu-

lacro della cosa

in lei specchiata]. linia

The waves in water multiply the image of the object reflected in it.
each by its own cone does [14]. These are 2 figures one different from the other; one with undulating water and the other with smooth water.

I2 Quest' onde fanno per o gni

a

These waves

reflect light

,

similitu'^dine della spoglia del' 4 la pina. l6 sQueste son 2 figure sicche faraile
'7 coll' acqua acqua piana. 20 che per alcuna distantia 'InpossibiPe il "simulacro del sple, "fatto nella supera -*del corpo sperico, occupi 24 la meta fitie

line,

as the surface of the

fir

Tuna
>8

di versa

dall'

altra,

ondeggiante e

coll'

It is impossible that at any distance the image of the sun cast on the surface of a spherical body should occupy the half of

d'esso sperico;
2s

the sphere.

Qui
26

tu ai a provare,

come

la terra fa

tutti

questi
27

medesimi

ofiti

inverse la luna

luna inverse la terra; luce la luna col suo lume riflesso come 2 9fa il sole, perche il lume della luna non piglia *i\ lume del sole continue in nel^'la superfitie, ma in su colmi e cayi del^le onde delle acque, e per esser tal sole nella 33 luna cofusamente spechiato per le mi^stioni delle onbre, che sono infra 6 J5 1' onde che lustrano, percio non e 3 il suo lume lucido e chiaro 37 CO m'e '1 sole. 3 8 Terra infra la luna in qulta decima e
la
28

che

No

Here you must prove that the earth proall the same effects with regard to the moon, as the moon with regard to the earth. The moon, with its reflected light, does
duces
not shine like the sun, because the light of the moon is not a continuous reflection of that of the sun on its whole surface, but only on the crests and hollows of the waves of its waters; and thus the sun being confusedly reflected, from the admixture of the

shadows
its

that lie

light is
[3 8]

between the lustrous waves, not pure and clear as the sun is.
earth between the
.

The

il

sole;

&Qm

[\

so le e nel levante e la luna
qulta decima;
4

fifteenth

in

ponente

in

luna infra
4I

sun

is

moon on the and the sun [3 9] Here the day in the East and the moon on the
day
in the

fifteenth

West.

la terra in qulta la

decima e

il

sole;

Qui e

[40] The

moon

luna che a

il

sole per ponete e la terra

per levate.

between the earth and the sun. [41] Here it is the moon which has the sun to the West and the earth to the East.
fifteenth [day]

on the

A. 64 a]

898.

CHE COSA
2

E LA LUNA.

WHAT
is

SORT OF THING THE MOON

is.

La
-J

luna non e
atta

bene
luce
1*

luminosa per se , ma a ricievere la natura della
dello

a similitudine
altro
4

acqua o

corpo lucido

spechio e dele crescie nel,

Poriete
pianeti

e occidete

come
si

il

sole

e

gli altri

;

E
8.

la

ragione

e

che ogni corpo
12. assimilitu. 23.
.

The moon is not of itself luminous, but highly fitted to assimilate the character of light after the manner of a mirror, or of water, or of any other reflecting body; and it grows larger in the East and in the West, And like the sun and the other planets. the reason is that every luminous body looks
spoglia de siche.
28.
ella
16. fara le

ucncto.
18.

acq"a" cresscano.
ax.
.

xo. illei.

13.

luna disspersi.
34.
.

17.

acqua [ondosa]
lusstrano pero.
41. ella per-

ondegiante dallacq"a".
.

siimularcro.

ochupi.

refresso.

32.

acq"e".
40.

chessono.
.

35.
il

38. infralla

decima

il

tole.

39.

Ogni

el

.

"po"nente

luna illeuante.

infralla

decima

sole.

Icufuc ella terra per ponete.

898.

i.

choia

ella. 2.

none.

3. assimilitudine

.

.

acq"a"

.

.

cho'Vpo

.

.

ecresscie.

4.

chome

.

.

chorpo.

5.

cresscie Chiaro

.

.

14.

See the diagram
39.
in the

p.

145.

40. 41.
898.

38.

tween B and B. one referred to

This refers to the small diagram placed be-

This

Refers to the diagram below the others. text has already been published by

See the diagram below the
preceding note.

LlBRl:

Histoire des Sciences, III, pp. 224, 225.

8 99-]

THE MOON.
s

161

luminoso tana piv

quato
;

piv

.

s'

allonsi

cresce

Chiaro

puo

copredere

che
.

ogni pia-

neta e ste! 6 la
ci

e piv lontano
,

da noi nel ponete che quadoe sopra capo circa 3 500, per la pruova se 7 gniata da parte
,

proportion as it is reeasy to understand that every planet and star is farther from us when in the West than when it is overhead, by about 3500 miles, as is prolarger in

mote.

It is

ved on the margin [7], and
see the sun or

if

you

e se uedi spechiare- il sole o la luna nelF acqua che ti sia vicina, 8 paratti in detta

acqua della gradezza che
in cielo;
9
ti

E

pare
se

t'allontanera i- vno

miglio

parra

mirrored in the water near to you, it looks to you of the same size in the water as in the sky. But if you recede tothe distance of a mile, it will look 100
if

moon

maggiore i oo volte,
10

e se lo vedrai
I

spechiare

mare
il

times larger; and you see the sun reflected in the sea

nel tramotare

sole

spechiadi

to-ti- parra grade- piv

10

miglia, per^che occupera in detta spechiatione piv di 10 miglia

sunset, its image would look you more than 10 miles long; because that reflected image extends over more than 10 miles
at

to

e se tu fussi I2 dov'e parrebbe ti esso sole spechiarsi in tato mare quato egli^n'allumina alia giornata e la terra parrebbe infra detta
di

marina

,

la luna

,

aqua come pajono scure che sono in
la

le

^macchie

luna , quale stado in terra si dimostra ta'sle omini, qual agli farebbe agli omini che abitassino nella luna il nostro l6 monnella

And if you could stand where the moon is, the sun would look to you, as if it were reflected from all the sea that it illuminates by day; and the land amid the water would appear just like the dark spots that are on the moon, which, when looked at from our earth, appears to men the same as our earth would- apof sea. pear to any
in the

men who might

dwell

do apputo.

moon.

DELLA QUALITA BELLA LUNA.
18

OF THE NATURE OF THE MOON.

La

minata

al

luna quado e tutta lunostro vedere, noi ve-

When
ed up
full

the

moon

is

entirely light-

to

our

diamo
allora
tati

tutto

il suo ^giorno, e per riflessione de' razzi

owing

daylight; to the reflection of the so-

see its sight, we and at that time,
fall

del sole,

percossi in lei e risal20 l'ocieano suo ci meno vmidita, e quato me gitta e luce piv noce.

lar rays

which

on

it

and are

a noi,

thrown

off towards us, its ocean casts off less moisture towards us ;
light
it it

and the less more injurious

gives

the

is.

Leic. 30 a]

899.

DELLA LUNA.
2 Dico che non avendo la luna lume da se, essendo luminonecessario che tale sa, egl' e lume 3 sia causato da altri.

OF THE MOON,
I

say that as the

moon

has no

light in itself and yet is luminous, it is inevitable but that its light
is

caused by some other body.
.
.

chopledere
nera.
. .

.

.

esste. 6.

da "ndi"
. .

.

.

chapo

'.

circha. 7. esse
. .

oluna

.

.

chetti. 8.

acq"a"

.

.

gradeza chetti
.

.

.

Essettalonta12.

9.

parira magiore
13.

essello vederai
.
.

mare
. .

[il

sole].

10. [spe]

nel

.

.

para.

n. ochopera
. .

.

essettu.
. .

parebbeti
15.

inquato.
16.

nalumina
19.

ellatera parebe
razi
.

achva chome pare.
illei.

14.

mache schure chessono
2.

inella

qual.
3. sie

farebe

alia.

acputo.

refressione

.

perchossi

8gg.

dicho

dasse

.

.

chettale.

chausato.

Line
VOL.

7 refers to the first
11.

diagram.

A

=

sole (the

sun),

B

=

terra (the earth),

C

=

luna (the moon).

X

162

ASTRONOMY.

[900902.

goo.
i

DELLA LUNA.
Tutte le cotradizioni dell' auersario a che nella luna non e acqua.
All there
is

OF THE MOON.

my

opponent's arguments to say that
in the

dir

no water

moon.

Leic.

901.

Andrea da Imola, Risposta a maestro che disse come H razzi solari riflessi dal convesso si confondono corpo dello spechio 2 e si consumano in brieue spatio, e che per al tutto la parte luminosa questo si negaua
della luna

e per

non essere di natu'ra consequenza non essere

di spechio, nato tale

dalla innvmenabile moltitudine del1'onde di quel 4 mare, il quale io proponeuo essere quella parte della luna che s' allumi-

lume

Maestro Andrea da Imola, who solar rays reflected from a convex mirror are mingled and lost at a short distance; whereby it is altogether denied that the luminous side of the moon is of the nature of a mirror, and that consequently the light is not produced by the innumerable multitude of the waves of that sea, which I declared to be the portion of the moon which is illuminated by the solar

Answer
that

to

said

the

nava per
s

li

razzi solari;
il

sia la corpo del sole, luna, b sia 1'ochio, che in su la basa c n vede spechia 6 re il corpo del cateto c n

o

p

sia

ens
e
'

rays.

m

del sole infra
fa

li

equali angoli c

//,

1

simile

remouendosi 1'ochio da b
2

in a.

be the body of the sun, en s the the eye which, above the base c n of the cathetus c n tn, sees the body of the sun reflected at equal angles en; and the same again on moving the eye from b to a.
Let

op

moon, and b

Leic.

a]

Q02.

DELLA LUNA.
H'Nessun denso e piv
lieue

OF THE MOON.
che
la
1'aria.

No

solid

body

is

less

heavy than the

at-

mosphere.

^Avendo
della
Explanation
of the lumen
i .

noi

provato

come
e

parte
that

Having proved
the
it

luna
il
i

spechia
lette Io
|

cinereum

in

the moon.

splendore da lui se { a e ac q ua fu sse sanza ode, ch' ella 5 piccola si dimostrerebbe, ma di splendore quasi simile al sole; Al presente bisognia provare, se essa luna e corpo grave o lieve, confessando che inperoche se fusse grave, dalla terra in su in ogni grado d'altez?za di cociosiache leuita, s'acquista gradi P acqua e piu lieue che la terra, e Paria che 1' acqua, c'l foco che 1'aria, e cosl
;

i

risplende corpo del sole, j j
i

che

acqua, che 4 la quale ci rifr^ ncevuto h. come,

that the part of the moon shines consists of water, which mirrors

body of the sun and reflects the radiance it; and that, if these waters were devoid of waves, it would appear
receives from
small, but of a radiance almost like the sun ; [5] It must now be shown whether the
is a heavy or a light body: for, if it were a heavy body admitting that at every grade of distance from the earth greater levity must prevail, so that water is lighter than the earth, and air than water, and fire than air and so on successively it would seem

moon

seguitando successiuamete, e'parrebbe che, se la luna auesse densita com' ella a, ch' ella auesse gravita, e avedo 9 gravita che Io
900.
901.
2.

8

that if the
it

moon had density as it really has, would have weight, and having weight,
it

that

could not be sustained in the space

acqu"a".
. .

i. raii

refressi
.
.

.

.

chonvesso
lochio di.
. .

.

.

confondeano.

2.

essi.

3.

disspechio e per chonsegucnza

.

.

inumerabile.

4.

chessa-

luminava
got.
2.

razi
3.

.

.

chcllaria.

chome
.
.

rissplcndc.
.

4. refrette

.

.

dallui ricevuti
.
.

.

.

ssettale
.

acq"a"
.
.

fussi

.

.

chel.
.
.

5.

pichola

.

.

dimoster-

"r"ebe.

6. ollicve
. .

chcssella auessi

chella chellacq"a" concosiachellacq"a" piv . chomclla cfiella auessi avdo. 9. chello nolla potessi sosstenere ouessa
.
. .
.

fussi

dalte. 7.

focho chellaria.
.
.

8.

eparebe

.

.

.

.

.

chon

auessi a disscendere.

900.

The

down

in

objections are very minutely noted the manuscript, but they hardly seem to
large diagram

902.

i!

On
-

the

margin are the words

tola ro~

mantina,
is

have a place here.
901.

some
that

ferro stagnato (tinned iron); romantina special kind of sheet-iron no longer known
tola

The

on the margin of page

by

name.

161 belongs to this chapter.

902.]

THE MOON.
ove essa si troua, non
la

163

spatio,

where
that
it

it

is,

and consequently

potesse sostenere, e per conseI0 gueza avessea discendere inverso il centre dell' universe,
e congiugnersi colla terra, e se no lei, al maco le sue zi acque aues sino a cadere e di se e cadere inspogliarla verse il cetro e lasciar di se la luna spogliata e sanza lu-

fall towards the centre of the universe and become united to the earth; or if not the moon itself, at least its waters would fall away and

would

be lost from towards the
the

it,

and descend

moon

leaving without any and so

centre ,

seguitando quel che di lei la ragione ci promette, egli e manifesto segno che tal luna e vestita de'sua ^ elemeti, cioe acqua,
stro;
aria e foco,

I2

ode,

no

devoid of lustre. But as this does not happen, as might in reason be expected, it is a
manifest sign that the moon is surrounded by its own elements:
that
fire;
is

to

e cosi in

se,

per

and thus
itself,

say water, air and is, of itself and

se

si

come

sostenga in quello spatio fa la nostra ter^ra coi
in quest' altro spa-

by

suspended

in

that

sua elemeti

tio, e che tale ofitio faccino le cose gravi ne' sua elemexs

ti,

qual fanno

1'

altre

cose

gravi nelli elemeti nostri. 16 Quando 1' ochio in oriete

part of space, as our earth with its element is in this part of space; and that heavy bodies act in the midst of its elements just as other heavy bodies do in ours [15].

When
East
the
sun,

the

eye
to

is

in

the
in

luna in occidente viciria al tramotato sole, esso J 7 la vede colla sua parte onbrosa circundata da parte lula
la parte e superiore deriua dal sole, e la parte inferiore deriva dallo oceano occidentale, il qual ^ancora lui riceue

vede

and sees the

moon
the
its

West near
it

setting

sees

it

with

shaded

minosa, del quale lume
l8

laterale

portion surrounded by luminous and the lateral and portions upper portion of this light is derived from the sun, and the lower portion from the ocean
;

in

the

West,

which receives

li

razzi solari e
20

li

riflette

nelli

inferior!

mari della luna, e an-

the solar rays and reflects them on the lower waters of the

cora

la tutta parte per della luna da tanto obrosa di splendore, qual'e quel che da la luna alia terra nella

moon, and indeed affords part of the moon that is shadow as much radiance
the

the
in

as
to-

moon

gives the earth at midit

mez 2I zanotte,

e

percio

no

night.
tally

Therefore

is

not

resta integralmete scura, e di

qui a alcuno creduto, che la

"luna abbia in parte lume da se oltre a quel che gli e dato dal sole, il quale lume
diriua
delli
2

dalla
nostri

ati ^detta

2

causa

mari
si

alluminati

dal sole.

dark, and. hence some have believed that the moon must in parts have a light of its own besides that which is given it by the sun ; and this light is due, as has been said, to the abovementioned cause, that our seas are illuminated by the sun.

*Ancora

potrebbe dire
that

Again,
the

it

che'l

cerchio dello splendore
esse

circle

might be said of radiance
13. cc

.

.

macho,

n. chadere

.

.

ellasscia

.

.

spoglata essanza lus.

12.

ragon

.

.

"segno"

chettal.

15.

Leonardo's

This passage would certainly seem to establish claim to be regarded as the original

discoverer of the cause

new

moon

(lumen

dnereum).

of the ashy colour of the His observations

164

ASTRONOMY.
fa la luna,

[902.

che

quand'el'e col sole in 'Socci-

dente,

quando
nel
2

dirivassc dal sole integralmente , essa col sole e coll' ochio e situata

a6

modo che qui disopra si dimostra. ?Alcuni potrebbero dire che
elemcto
della luna,
piil lume del sole, come no a8stra spera dell' aria,

shown by the moon when it and the sun both in the West is wholly borrowed from the sun, when it, and the sun, and the eye are situated as is shown above.
are

1'aria,

gliando
fa
la

fusse quella che

finisce
al

il

cer-

chio
luna.

luminoso

corpo

della
la

'Alcuni an creduto che

luna abbia alquanto di lume da se, la quale ope3nione e falsa, perche 1'anno fondata sopra quel chiarore che si uede in mezzo ali 3'corni quando la luna e nova
alii

la

quale

confini
al
si

3*e

dello splcndore pare oscura, del campo confine della oscurita
chiara,
di

pare
33

che molti

credono

essere

vn cerchio

nasce perche quella parte d'esso campo, che termina colla parte luminosa della luna, per tal 3^paragoHe di splendore si dimonstra piv oscura che non e, e quella parte di

di circundare, luminati dal sole terminano dore; e questa varieta di
35

nouo splendore, che finisca doue le punte de' corni 34 a lil

loro

splen-

campo

3 sopra, doue pare vn pezzo di cerchio luminoso d'uniforme larghezza, nasce che la essendo piu chiara che luna, quiui 3 8 il mezzo over il campo, oue essa si troua; pel parago di tale oscurita si dimostra in tale confine piv lu^minosa che non e, la qual luminosita in tal tenpo nasce dal nostro oceano colli altri mediterrani 4 che in quel tepo e alluminato dal sole che gia e tramotato, in modo che il mare allora fa tale ofitio alia 4I parte oscura della luna, qual fa la luna in qulta decima a noi,
7

Some might say that the air surrounding the moon as an element, catches the light of the sun as our atmosphere does, and that it is this which completes the luminous circle on the body of the moon. Some have thought that the moon has a light of its own, but this opinion is false, because they have founded it on that dim light seen between the homes of the new moon, which looks dark where it is close to the bright part, while against the darkness of the background it looks so light that many have taken it to be a ring of new' radiance completing the circle where the tips of the horns illuminated by the sun cease to shine [3 4]. And this difference of background arises from the fact that the portion of that background which is conterminous with the bright part of the moon, by comparison with that brightness looks darker than it is; while at the upper part, where a portion of the luminous circle is to be seen of uniform width, the result is that the

moon, being brighter there than the medium or background on which it is seen by comparison with that darkness it looks more luminous at that edge than it is. And that brightness at such a time itself is derived from our ocean and other inland-seas. These are, at that time, illuminated by the sun which is already setting in such a way as that the sea then fulfils the same function to the dark side of the moon as the moon at its fifteenth day does to us when the
.

chuni potrebono
.

.

.

chellaria
31.

.

.

piglando ilume. 28. fussi
. .

.

finissi.

29.

alchuni
. .

.

.

chella

.

.

dasse.
.
.

30. effalsa

.

.

fondato

.

chessi

.

.

mezo.
. .

quandella

il

quale

alii

.

.

osscuro.
.

32. osscurita
.

molte credano
37.

33. finissca di circhundare. 38.

34. ecquesta

chanpo.

39. nassce

canpo nassce. 35. chettermina. 36. hosscura occcano coli mediterani. 40. ga.
.
. . .

nonne ecquella.
osscura
.
.

pezo

.

.

largeza nassce.
.

mezo over
.

41.

annoi qnadel

.

ettal.

42.

dacqucl pocho

.

however,

having

hitherto

remained

unknown

to

one about the seasons
fess

in

the

moon which

I

con-

astronomers, Moestlin and Kepler have been credited with the discoveries which they made independently a century later. Some disconnected notes treat of the same subject in

"La

not to have seen in the original manuscript: luna ha ogni niese un verno e una state, e ha

luna cinta

7igb an d 7i 9 b : "Perche la alluminata dal sole in ponente, tra maggior- splendore in mezzo a tal cerchio, che quando
della parte
essa eclissava il sole.
il sole ella

MS.

C. A. 239 b ;

maggiori freddi e maggiori caldi, e i- suoi equinozii son piu freddi de' nostri" 23. 24. The larger of the two diagrams reproduced

above stands between these two
one
is

lines,

and the smaller

sketched

in the

margin. At the spot marked

A

Questo accade perche <//' eclissare ombrava il nostro oceano, il qual caso non

Ofcade essendo in ponente, quando il sole alluma esso n oceano. The editors of the "Saggio" who first published this

Leonardo wrote corpo solare (solar body) in the larger diagram and Sole (sun) in the smaller one. At C luna (moon) is written and at B terra (the earth).
34.

See

PI.

CVIII, No.

5.

passage

(page

12)

add another

short

903. 904-]

THE MOON.

I6 5

il sol'e tramotato, e tal proportione e da quel poco lume che a la parte oscura della luna alia chiarezza della parte alluminata, qual e dalla 43 Se uoi vedere 44qiianto la parte 45 on-

quando
}2

And the small amount of light sun is set. which the dark side of the moon receives
bears the
that side

same proportion

to

the

light
.

of

.

.

.

brosa

della

luna

^6

sia

piu

chiara

che'l

4?canpo, ove tal luna si ^truova, occupa col49la mano, o con altro sobietto piu distate s all'ocbio, la parte luS 2 minosa della
luna.

which is illuminated, as that [42]. If you want to see how much brighter the shaded portion of the moon is than the background on which it is seen, conceal the luminous portion of the moon with your
. .

hand or with some other more
ject.

distant ob-

F. 84 a]

90S-

MACULE BELLA LUNA.
2

THE
the are

SPOTS ON THE MOON.
spots

a

modo

Alcuni dissero leuarsi da essa vapori di ^nugoli e interporrsi infra la
li

luna e

ochi no^stri;

il

che, se cosl fusse,

Some have said that vapours rise from On the moon, after the manner of clouds and interposed between the moon and our
But,
if this

^L

macule saresbbero stabili ne di siti ne di figura, e vedendo la 6 luna in diuersi aspetti, ancor che tal macule 7 no fossero variate, esse muterebbero figura come 8 fa quella cosa che si vede per piu
tali

mai

eyes.

would

were the case, these spots permanent, either as to position or form; and, seeing the moon from various aspects, even if these spots did
never

be

not

move

versi.

jects

they would change in form, as obdo which are seen from different sides.

F. 84 1>\

904.

DELLE MACHIE BELLA LUNA.
2

OF THE

SPOTS ON THE MOON.

Altri dissero

che

la luna era

conposta

di parti piu

una parte
5

transparent}, come se fusse a modo 4 d' alabastro e

$o

me

Others say that the moon is composed of more or less transparent parts; as though

one part were something
others
like

like alabaster

,

alcuna altra a

modo

di
'1

cristallo

o vetro,
il

che ne seguirebbe che sua razzi 6 nella parte

sole, feredo colli

me

transparete,

lume rimarrebbe in 7superfitie, e cosl la 8 parte piu densa resterebbe allu minata, e la parte transparete mostrerebbe le 9onbre
delle profondita sue oscure, e cosl si copo10 ne la qualita della luna; e questa opini-

one e "piaciuta a molti
a Aristotele, e
I2

filosofi,

e

massime

pure perche ne' di^versi aspetti, che si trovano spesso la luna e il so^le alii nostri occhi,
noi

ella e falsa opinione,

its rays follow from on the less transparent portions, the light would remain on the surface, and so the denser part would be illuminated, and the transparent portions would display the shadow of their darker depths; and this is their account of the structure and nature of the moon. And this opinion has found favour with many philosophers, and particularly with for, in Aristotle, and yet it is a false view the various phases and frequent changes of the moon and sun to our eyes, we should

or glass. It crystal this that the sun casting

and would

vedremmo

variare tal ma^cule, e

quando

spots vary, at one time looking dark and at another light: they would be dark when the sun is in the West and the
see these

alia

.

.

osscura
3.

.

.

ciareza.

48. ochupi.
. .

49.
.

chon.
4.

50. distate fussi
.

ochu.
5.

51. pi all.

903.

2.

disse.

interprsi

infralla

elli

.

nos.

.

tal.

bon

stabili.

6.

chettal.

7.

fusi

variate

.

.

muterebo.

8. chessi.

904.

2.

chella
osscure.
.
.

.

.

parte.

3.

transsparenti

.

.

fussi.
.

5.
.

cene

.

.

coli.

6.

rimarebbe.
12.

7.
. .

resterrebbe.

8.

ella

.

.

mosterrebbe.

9.

10.

ecquesto openione.
14.

n. piacuta
ecquando
.

massime

aristotie e.

puere
16.

trauano

esso.

vederem.

15.

.

farebono osscure ecquando.

oppennione perche inne de. 13. asspetti in o. mezo. 18. transparete 17. ella
. .

42.

Here the

text

breaks

off; lines

43

52

are written on the margin.

166
l6

ASTRONOMY.

[905.

farebbono oscure, e quado chi are; scure e in oc^cidete il sole si farebbono, quado luna nel mezzo del celo, che allora le e la l8 cocauita transparcti piglicrebbono 1'onbre in"sino alle sommita de' labbri di tal co20 cauita tras pareti, perche il sole no potrebbe "sua razzi dentro alle boche li
si

"le quali parrebbono chiare 2 Jdoue la luna in oriete nel plenilunio, alPoccidc'He; allora il sole il sole guarda 2
di tali cocauita,

l>enetrare

alluminerebbe insino ne' f6 sdi di tali transno generadosi 26 onbre, la paretie, e cosl, 2 ?le ci mostrerebbe in tal tenpo luna non machie, e cosl ora piv ora meno, predette 2 *secondo le mutatio del sol dalla luna e
della Iu 2() na dai lochi nostri,

middle of the sky; for then the hollows would be in shadow as transparent far as the tops of the edges of those transparent hollows, because the sun could not then fling his rays into the mouth of the at full however, moon, hollows," which would be seen in bright light, at which time the moon is in the East and faces the sun in the West; then the sun would illuminate even the lowest depths of these transparent places and thus, as there would be no
in the

moon

shadows cast, the moon at these times would not show us the spots in question; and so it would be, now more and now
according to the changes in the position of the sun to the moon, and of the moon to our eyes, as I have said above.
less,

come

di

sopra

dissi.

F. 85

]

90S-

DELLE MACULE DELLA LUNA.
e detto che le macule della luna in essa luna, 3 da essere in se di uaria rarita e desita, il che se cosl fusse, *nell'eclissi della luna i razzi solan penetrebbono per s a lcuna parte della predetta 6 rarita, e, no si ueden do tale efifetto, detta e falsa; opinione 7 Altri dicono che la superfitie della luna, esscndo tersa 8 e pulita, che essa, a similitudine di spechio, riceue in 9 S e la similiI0 e tudine della terra; Questa openione falsa, conciosiache la terra, scoperta dal1'acqua, per diuer"si aspetti a diuerse I2 e alfigure; adunque, quando la luna altre machie, 1' oriete, essa specchierebbe che quando essa ci e di sopra, o quado essa e in occidete; pero I4 le machie della
2

OF THE
It

SPOTS

ON THE MOON.

Si

son create

has been asserted, that the spots on the result from the moon being of varying thinness or density but if this were so, when there is an eclipse of the moon the solar

moon

;

would pierce through the portions which But as we do were thin as is alleged [5]. not see this effect the opinion must be false. Others say that the surface of the moon is smooth and polished and that, like a mirror, in itself the image of our earth. it reflects This view is also false, inasmuch as the land, where it is not covered with water,
rays

Hence presents various aspects and forms. when the moon is in the East it would reflect different spots from those it would show when it is above us or in the West;

now

the

spots

on the moon,

as

they

are

luna, lunio,

come
J

si

uede nel
si

pleni-

5mai moto da lei
;

uariano nel fatto nel nostro

emi' 6 sperio 2 a ragione e, che la cosa specchia^ta nella convessita piglia piccola parte d' es l8 so spechio, com'e provato in prospettiua; 3 a ragione ^li e, che nel 20 della plenilunio la luna vede solo il mezzo

seen at full moon, never vary in the course of its motion over our hemisphere. A second reason is that an object reflected in a convex body takes up but a small portion of that body, as is pro-

ved
third
it

in

perspective

[i 8].
is

The
full,

reason

is

that

when

the

moon

only

faces

half the

hemisphere of the

piglierebcno.
905.
2.
7.

19.

somita dclabri.
3.

21. razi.
.

22.

parebono.
4.

23. ocide.

24. alora.
5.

26.
il

mosterebbe.

28. ella lu.
. .

Esii detto chclle.

rareu

.

chosi fussi.

razi

.

.

peneterrebono.
. .

rareta

ce no.
12.

6. to tale

oppenione
13.

effalsa.

dicano chella.
il

8. assimilitudine

disspechio.
16.

10.
.

concosiache
spechi.
17.

acq"a".
. .

n.

asspecti.
18.

spechierebe.

ocquado
.

oci-

dete

che.

14.

plenilunio che.

he chella

.

pichola

de.

ragone.

19.

mezo.

21.

locean

.

rsplen-

Edissi. This word, as it seems to 9<>53 5me, here means eclipses of the sun; and the sense of the passage, as 1 understand it, is that by the

tween the
pierced,

sun

and the

earth must

appear as
the

if

say like a sieve. This alludes to 18. come e pravato.

we may

accom-

foregoing hypothesis tUe modn,

when

it

comes be-

panying diagram.

906908.]

THE MOON.
illuminated earth, on which only the and other waters reflect bright light,
the

167

spera della terra alluminata, nella quale 2I l'oceano colle altre acque risplendono, e 22 fa macule in esso splendore, e la terra cosl si uedrebbe 23 la meta della nostra
2 terra cinta dallo splendo ^re del mare alluminato dal sole, e nella luna tal 2 s similitudine sarebbe minima parte d'essa luna;

ocean
while

land

thus

spots half of our earth

makes

on that brightness; would be seen girt

26

4

a

e che la cosa splendida

nell'aP'tra
fa
2

splendida;

non adunque

si
il

spechia mare,

28 sole, pigliando splendo re dal la luna, e' no si potrebbe in

siccome
spespecchiar
il

lei

9chiare

tal

terra,

che

ancora

non

vi si

del sole e

vedesse 3 particularmete di ciascuna ste! 3I la a

corpo
op-

lei

round with the brightness of the sea lighted up by the sun, and in the moon this reflection would be the .smallest part of that moon. Fourthly, a radiant body cannot be reflected from another equally radiant; therefore the sea, since it borrows its brightness from the sun, as the moon- does could not cause the earth to be reflected in it, nor indeed could the body of the sun be seen reflected in it, nor indeed any star opposite
,

posta.

to

it.

Br.

M.

19 a]

9O6.

Se

terrai

osseruate

le

particule

delle

machie della luna, 2 tu troverai in quelle spesse uolte gran varieta, e di questo $6 E fatto pruova io medesimo disegnadole nasce da nuvo^li che si leuano dalquesto
'

;

F acque d'essa luna, li quali s'interpongoSno infra '1 sole e essa acqua, e colla loro onbra tolgo 6 no i razzi del sole a tale acqua, onde essa acqua viene a ri^manere oscura,

per non potere spechiare

il

corpo solare.

details of the spots of observation you will often find great variation in them, and this I myself have proved by drawing them. And this is caused by the clouds that rise from the waters in the moon, which come between the sun and those waters, and by their shadow deprive these waters of the sun's rays. Thus those waters remain dark, not being able to reflect the solar body.

'

If

you keep the

the

moon under

Leic. 5 a]

907.
le

Come
riate
6

mac 2 chie
7

della luna
fu s ro,

da *quel che gia

3 son vacausa del per

How
varied

the

spots

on the moon must have
by

corso delle sue

acque.

they formerly were, reason of the course of its waters.

from what

C. A. 341(5; 1055*1]

908.

DE'CIERCHI DELLA LUNA.

OF HALOS ROUND THE MOON.
,

Jo truouo che quelli cierchi li quali par che di notte circudino la luna di uarie gradezze e grossezze, 3 sono causati da uarie qualita di grossezze d' umori, i quali in varie altezze infra la luna e li ochi 4nostri sono situati E quel cierchio maggiore e me rosso ed e nella prima parte piu bassa
;

2

I

night
sizes,

have found, that the circles which at On the halo> seem to surround the moon, of various moons and degrees of density are caused by

di detti

s

umori,

il

secondo minore e piv
perch' e visto

alto,

e pare piv rosso,

per

various gradations in the densities of the vapours which exist at different altitudes between the moon and our eyes. And of these halos the largest and least red is caused by the lowest of these vapours; the second, smaller one, is higher up, and looks redder because it is

dano

elli.
.

24.
.

aluminato.

25.
.

luna
.

*

c.

26. 4

he chella

.

.

splendita no

si

.

.

27. splendita

.

.

piglando.

28.

si

come

fa

la

luna e no
906.
i.

illei.

29. speciar
3.
. .

vedessi.
. .

30. sole di ciasscuna.

31. allei opposita.
4.

Setterrai.
6.

2.
.

troverrai.
.

offatto
7.

"disegnadole" Ecquesto nassce da nugho.

chessi

.

.

sinterponga.

5.

cholla

.

.

tolgho. 907. 4. ga.

razi

attale

arri.

osscura.

908.

2.

circhudino

.

.

gradeze e rosseza.

3.

chausati

.

.

grosseze

domori

.

.

alteze

infralla

.

.

elli.

4. nosstri

.

.

Ecquel

.

.

i68
cosi
6

ASTRONOMY.
quanto
piv
alti

[909. 910.

2

umori-je

sieno,

minori c piv rossi apparirano, perche infra 1'ochio e quello fia piv solidi umori, ?e per

questo

si

pruova che doue apparisce magH e piv

giore rossore

somma

d'

umori.

And so on, as seen through two vapours. are higher they will appear smaller and they redder, because, between the eye and them, there is thicker vapour. Whence it is proved that where they are seen to be reddest, the vapours are most dense.

w.

xx vn

909.
|

Come
2

tu vuoi prouare, la luna mostrarsi

If

you want
larger

to

prove

why

the

moon

1'orizzonte;

almaggiore che essa non e, giugnendo nu torrai vn ochiale colmo da

appears

una

superfitie

opposita, e

ticni

e concauo dalla superfitie 5 1'ochio dal concavo, e
fori
6

than it is, when it reaches the horizon; take a lens which is highly convex on one surface and concave on the opposite, and place the concave side next the eye, and look at the object beyond the

guarda 1'obbietto
uessa,
8

e cosl

?avrai
si

fatto

della superfitie convn vero simile

ah" aria, che

include in^fra la spera

del

convex surface; by this means you will have produced an exact imitation of the atmosphere included beneath the sphere of fire and outside that

II concaua foco e de^'lla acqua, la quale aria e I2 conuessa diuerso il foco. diuerso la terra e

of water; for this

atmosphere
the
earth,

is

concave on the side next convex towards the fire.

and

C. A. 187*; 561 a]

9 JO

Fa

ochiali

da vedere

2

la

luna grande.

Construct glasses to see the
nified.

moon mag-

magiore
riscie
volli

.

.

edella prima.
. .

5.

omori

.

.

sechondo

.

.

vissto

.

.

omori e chosi.

6. infrallochio

ecquello

.

.

solidomori.

7.

apa-

magiore
.
.

domori.
2.

909.

i.

mosstrare.
.

magore
12.

.

.

gngnendo.

4.

conchauo

.

.

ettieni.

6.

chonuessa e chosi.

7.

arai.

8.

chessi.

9.

fralla

.

focho chede.

focho.

See the Introduction, p. 136, Fracastoro his work Homocentres: "Per dua spirilla ocularia si yuis perspiciat, alteri altero superposito, ma910.

quaedam
pinqua
c.

specilla ocularia

ays

in

ea quis out
ilia

fiunt tantae dtnsitatis, ut si per lunam, aut aliud siderum spectel adeo proiudicet, ut ne turres ifsas excedanl" (sect. II
,

jora multo

et

propinquiora videbil

omnia.

Quin

imo

8 and sect.

Ill,

c.

23).

VI.

THE STARS.
5*1

911.
le stelle di
2

Veggonsi
la

notte e

no

di di,

The
day,

stars are visible

by night and not by o n

the light
t

per esser noi sotto

la

grossezza

dell' aria,

quale e piena d' infinite particu3le d'umidita, le quali, ciascuna per se quado e percossa ^dalli razzi del sole, rendono splen-

dore, e cosl 1'inSnvmerabili spledori occupano esse stelle, e se 6 tale aria no fusse, il celo

senpre

ci

mostrerebbe

7

le

stelle

nelle

sua

beneath the dense atmosphere, which is full of innumerable particles of moisture, each of which independently, when the rays of the sun fall upon it, reflects a radiance, and so these numberless bright particles conceal the stars; and if it were not for this atmosphere the sky would
always display the stars against
its

because

we

are

L (911913).
le
!
_

tenebre.

darkness.

57
-

912.

LE STELLE ANNO LUME DAL SOLE O

WHETHER THE

DA
Dicono gando 3che
avessino
^il
2

SE.

THE SUN OR

STARS HAVE THEIR LIGHT FROM IN THEMSELVES.

il lume da se, alleVenere e Mercuric non lume da se, quado essa s' inter-

di

auere

se

spochio nostro e '1 sole, esse oscurerebbero tan 6 to d'esso sole, quato esse ne coprono al ochio ^ nostro E quest' e 8 come 1'onbroso, falso, perch' e prouato posto nel luminoso, e cinto e coper9to tutto da razzi lateral! del rimanete di tal lu I0 minoso, e cosl resta inuisibile, come si

pone

infra

Some say that they shine of themselves, alledging that if Venus and Mercury had not a light of their own, when they come between our eye and the sun' they would darken so much of the sun as they could cover from
our eye. But this is false, for it is proved that a dark object against a luminous body is enveloped and entirely concealed by the lateral rays of the rest of that luminous body

;

and so remains

invisible.

As may be seen
.

gix. r. vegasi lesselle.

2.

grosseza.

3.
.

ciasscuna .
.

.

rende.

4. cossi.

5.

ochupano

.

.

esse.
4.

6. fussi

.

mosterrebbe.
.
.

7. lesstelle.

QH.

i.

a lume.

2.

dicano di havere
12. iluga.

dasse.

3.

uenere e merchurio non auessi.
15.

illume

dasse

infral.

5.

oscurerebo.

6.

coprano.

9. razi.

13.

ochupano.

acade.

16.

esieno

.

.

non

o.

18. nosstro.

Lines 19 and 20 are written

911.
starlight.

See Vol.

I,

No. 296, which also refers to

1.

34 &c.)

it

is

clear that

Leonardo was familiar with

the

phenomena of

Irradiation.

912.

From
11.

this

and other remarks (see No. 902,

VOL.

ASTRONOMY.
i

[913.

;o
il

di"mostra: quando

sole e veduto per la

when
trees

in ra"mificatione delle piate sanza foghe essi rami non occupano luga di'Jstantia, 4 d'esso sole alii ochi nostri parte al' cuna
;

the sun is seen through the boughs of bare of their leaves, at some distance the branches do not conceal any portion of The same thing the sun from our eye.

simile 'accade a' predetti pianeti, li quali jl ancora l6 che da se sieno sanza luce, eglino non oc^cupano, com' detto, parte alcuna

del sole

l8

aH'ochio nostro.

happens with the above mentioned planets which, though they have no light of their own, do not as has been said conceal any part of the sun from our eye[i8].

SECONDA "PROVA.

SECOND ARGUMENT.

"Dicono le stelle lucidissime "quato piu
e che,
se,

notte parere so superiori, 2 da se esse no auessino lume
nella
ci
-3

Some
up;

say that the stars appear most brilliant

at night in proportion as they are higher

che 1'ombra che
2

fa

la terra,
'1

che
ver-

s'interpone

fra

loro

e

sole,

rebbe a scurarle, non vede'Sdo esse, n sedo vedute dal corpo solare; Ma *6 che questi non anno considerate, 2 1'onbra piramidale de ?lla terra non

that if they had no light of own, the shadow of the earth which comes between -them and the sun, would darken them, since they would not face nor be faced by the solar body. But those have not considered persons
their

and

that

the

conical

shadow of the earth

aggiugne infra troppe stelle, "quelle ch'ella aggiugne, la piramide e tanto dimi 2 9nuita, che poco occupa del corpo della stella; e '1 ri3manete
alluminato dal sole.

e

in

cannot reach many of the stars; and even as to those it does reach, the cone is so much diminished that it covers
e
very
rest
little
is

of the

star's

mass, and

all

the

illuminated by the sun.

F. 6o*l

913
li

Perched
2
J

in oriete

che sopra

pianeti appariscono maggiori di noi, che dovrebbe

Why
East

the

than

essere

il

contrario,

essendo 4 35<X) miglia p u vicini a noi, essen-

do
celo,

5

nel

mezzo

del
al-

che essendo
li

6 I'o rizz6te.

?Tutti
elemeti,
8

gradi

delli

donde passa9

no

le spetie de' corpi

celesti,

all'ochio,

che vengono sono I0 equali,

e

li

angoli,

"donde
linia

li

penetra

"la

ce-

trale di tali spetie, sono I 3inequali, e la di--

planets appear larger in the they do overhead, whereas the contrary should be the case, as they are 3500 miles nearer to us when in mid sky than when on the horizon. All the degrees of the elements , through which the images of the celestial bodiejs pass to reach the eye, are equal curves and the angles by which the central line of those images passes through them, are

stantia

maggiore, come mostra 1' eccesso a b so is pra a d, e per
la

14

unequal angles [13]; and the distance is greater, as is shown by the excess of a b beyond a d; and the enlargement of these on the horizon is shown by
th

9

a

del 7
l6

la

grannell'

dezza

d'essi corpi celesti

orizzonte e

celestial

provata.
on ffu margin.
24. le

the 9 th

bodies of the

7

.

20. pruoua. at. Dicano. 22. superiore e chesselle no auesino. chessinterpone. 23. che obra cheffa verebe asscurare. 25. nessedo. 26. nona 28. chellagugnie ettanto. stelle ege. chellonbra. 27. nonagugne 29. ochu pa. 30. aluminato.
. . .
.

.

.

.

.

913.

i.

aparisca magori.
ii.

2.

douerebbe.
li.

5.

mczo.

6. rizote,

7.

gradi

|

"delli

elemeti".
.

9.

vengano.
15.

10. cului

elli

angoli [della

luna).

(contra le di] donde

12. tale.

13. nequali ella.

14.

magore

.

ecesso.

grandeza.

16. orizontc.

913. 1. 13. inequali, here and elsewhere does not mean each other, but angles which are not right angles.

unequal in the sense of not being equal to

914916.]

THE STARS.

TIME.

171

Br.

M. 279^]

914.

Per uedere
il

tetto e mo^stra alia
'1

e

moto

natura delli pi aneti apri basa vn sol pia 4 neta, reflesso da stale basa dira la
la

2

To

see

the

real

nature

of the planets

6 comples sione del predetto pianeta, ?ma fa che tal basa no ne 8 veda piu d'uno per

open the covering and note at the base [4] one single planet, and the reflected movement of this base will show the nature of the said
planet;

observations " thestars>

uolta.

but arrange that the base only one at the time.

may

face

E.

915.

Tullius de Diuinatione
fuisse

2

ait

Astrologiam
^bellu
that

3adinuenta
s

ante

trojanum

Cicero says in [his book] has Astrol gy been

Qumgentis septua ginta milibus anorum.
57000.

hundred seventy Trojan war.

Divinatione On history of five no practised ^y?" thousand years before the

De

57000.

Br.

M. 173^

(igoi)]

9l6.

Benche
le

il

tenpo

sia

annumerato

infra

continue 2 quatita, esso, per essere inuisibile e sanza corpo, non cade integral-

la 3geometrica potentia, la quale per figure e corpi d'infinita varieta, *come continue nelle cose uisibili e corporee far si uede; Ma sol co' sua primi s cioe col punto e colla principi si couiene

mete sotto

lo diuide

,

6 punto nel tempo e da essere al suo instante, e la linia a equiparato similitudine colla Iughez7za d'una quantita d'un tempo, e siccome i puti so principio

linia-;

jl

e fine della predet 8 ta linia

,

cosl

li

instanti

Although time is included in the class of Of time and Continuous Quantities, being indivisible and^^jSj* immaterial, it does not come entirely under the. head of Geometry, which represents its divisions by means of figures and bodies of infinite variety, such as are seen to be continuous in their visible and material properties. But only with its first principles does it agree, that is with the Point and the Line the point may be compared to an instant of time, and the line may be likened to the length of a certain quantity of time, and just as a line begins and terminates in a point, so such a space of time.
;

914. 4. refresso.
916. i.
. .

5.

compless.
3.

8.

duna.
|

anvmerato

infralle
.

geometricha
.

"potentia"
7.

.

.

diuide

.

.

chorpi
. .

difinita.

4. uisibile
. .

.

.

farsi

e

uede Massol.
. .

5.
.

coe

cholla. 6. Ella

.

"a"

.

cholla luggez.

"duna quantita" dun

essicome

effine.

8. instancti

prcipio

.

Esse.

914.

4.

basa.

This probably alludes to some

in-

ex natali die minime

strument, perhaps the Camera obscura. The statement that CICERO, 915.
ascribes

De

Divin.

esse credendum." He then quotes the condemnatory verdict of other philosophers as to the teaching of the Chaldaeans but says nothing

discovery of astrology to a period 57000 years before the Trojan war I believe to be According to ERNESTI, Clavis Ciquite erroneous.
the
ceroniana,

as to the antiquity and origin of astronomy. CICERO 16 that Aratus was further notes De oratore I,
"ignartts astrologies" but that is
all.

So

far as I

know

CH.

G.

SCHULZ
:

(Lexic.

Cicer.)

and the

edition of De Divin. by GlESE the word Astrologia occurs only twice in CICERO De Divin. II, 42. Ad Chaldtzoruin monstra veniamus, de quibus Eudoxus, Platonis
auditor,
in
astrologia judicio
sic

word occurs nowhere else in CICERO; and the word Astronomia he does not seem to have used at
the
all.

(H. MULLER-STRUBING.)
916.

This passage

is

repeated word for word on
this is ac-

doctissimorum

hominum

facile princeps,

opinatur (id quod scriptum reliquit):
et

page I9o b of the same manuscript and counted for by the text in Vol. I, No. 4.
also No.

Compare

Chaldais

in

prcedictione

in

notatione

cujusque vita

1216.

172
so
terminc e

ASTRONOMY.
dato
begins

918.

principle di qualuche e se 'la linia e diuisibile di tenpo; spatio in Ifinito, lo spatio d'u tenpo di tal diuiI0 e se le parti diuise sione non e alieno, della linia sono proportionabili infra se, ancora le parti del tenpo "sarano proportionabili infra loro.

and terminates
a
line
is

in

an

instant.

And
the

whereas

infinitely

divisible,

divisibility

of a space of time is of the same nature; and as the divisions of the line may bear a certain proportion to each other, so

may

the divisions of time.

Br.

M.

i;<5-]

917.

Scriui la qualita dalla Jgeometrica.

del

2

tenpo, separata

Describe the nature of Time as distinguished from the Geometrical definitions.

Br.

M. 1910]

9 l8

Fa che vn ora sia diui'sa in 3000 parti, e Jquesto farai coll'oriolo ^alleggeredo o
aggravado
sil

Divide an hour into 3000 parts, and this you can do with a clock by making the

cotrapeso.

pendulum

lighter or heavier.

io.

CMelle parte.
seperata.
3.

n.

infralloro.

917.

2.

gcomctricha.

918. 3. cquesto.

4,

allegeredo o agravado.

XVI.

Physical Geography.
Leonardo's researches as
time,
to

the structure of the earth
the Spaniards

when

the extended

voyages of

special interest in geographical questions in Italy,

and sea were made at a and Portuguese had also excited a and particularly in Tuscany. Still, it
to the structure
like,

need scarcely surprise us
his time.

to

find that in deeper questions, as

the primitive state of the earth's surface,

and

the

he was far in
is

of the globe, advance of

The number of passages which
like

treat

of such matters

relatively considerable;

almost all Leonardo's

scientific

notes they deal partly with theoretical
his theoretical views

and partly

of a copied manuscript volume by an early transcriber, but without any acknowledgment of the source whence they were derived. This copy is now in the Library of the Barberini palace at Rome and was published under the title: "De moto e micollected

with practical questions.
in

Some of

the motion

of water were

sura dell' acqua," by

FRANCESCO CARDINAL!, Bologna
titles:

1828.

In

this

work

the texts
Libr.
It.

are arranged under the following

Libr.
dell'

Del moto
Libr.

dell 'acqua;

Libr.

III.

DelPonda
Libr. VI.

Delia spera acqua; Libr. IV.
I.

dell'

acqua;

Dei

retrosi d'

acqua;

V. Dell 'acqua cadente;

Delle

rotture

fatte

dall'

acqua;

Libr.

VII

Delle cose portate dall 'acqua; Libr. VIII. Dell'oncia dell' acqua e delle canne; Libr. IX. De molini e d'altri ordigni d' acqua.

The large number of isolated observations scattered through the manuscripts, accounts for our so frequently finding notes of new schemes for the arrangement of those relating to water and its motions, particularly in the Codex Atlanticus: I have printed several of these plans as an introduction to the Physical Geography, and I have
actually

arranged the

texts in accordance

with the clue afforded by one of them which

is undoubtedly one of the latest notes The text referring to the subject (No. 920). given as No. 930 which is also taken from a late note-book of Leonardo's, served as a basis for the arrangement of the first of the seven books or sections , bearing the
title:

Of

the

Nature of Water (Dell'acque

in se).

74

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

any part of this undertaking to print the passages which it has also been necessary to exclude those practical refer to purely physical principles, ivith indications given in 920, ought to come in as researches which, in accordance mention here that Leonardo as it seems Books 14 and 15. / can only incidentally

As I kavt

not

made

it

13,

me, especially in his youth devoted a great deal of attention to the construction of This is proved by a number of drawings of very careful and minute execution, mills.
to

which are
siderations

to be

found

in the

Codex Atlanticus. Nor was

it

possible to include his con-

and so forth (No. 920, but those passages in which the structure of a canal is directly IO, 12); connected with notices ofparticular places will be found duly inserted under section XVII
on the regulation of rivers, the making of canals

Books

II

and

(Topographical notes). In Vol. I, No. 5 the text refers to canal-making in general. On one point only can the collection of passages included under the general heading

of Physical Geography claim to be complete. When comparing and sorting the materials for this work I took particular care not to exclude or omit any text in which a geographical name was mentioned even incidentally, since in all such researches the chief
as it appeared to me, attached to the question whether these acute observaon the various local characteristics of mountains, rivers or seas, had been made by tions Leonardo himself and on the spot. It is self-evident that the ftw general and somewhat ,
interest,

superficial observations on the Rhine and the Danube, on England and Flanders, must have been obtained from maps or from some informants, and in the case of Flanders Leonardo himself acknowledges this (see No. 1008)+ But that most of the other and more

exact observations were made, on the spot, by Leonardo himself, may be safely assumed from their method and the style in which he writes of them; and we should bear it in

mind
only

that in all investigations, of whatever kind, experience is always spoken of as the basis on which he relies. Incidentally, as in No. 984, lie thinks it necessary to

allude to the total absence of all recorded observations.

INTRODUCTION.
Leic. 5 a]

919.

Quest! libri contegono in ne' primi della natura dell' acqua in se ne' 3 S ua moti, li 111 r altn contegono delle 4 cose tatte dai sua 6 5 che mv tano il mondo di centre e corsi,
i
'

2

These books contain

in

the
'

the nature of water itself in /-i r the others treat of the effects of

Of

11

its its

beginning schemes for motions the arrangeot the
: :

ment

currents,

materials

which change the world
its

in

its

centre

and

di figura.

shape.

Leic. 156]

920.
DlUISIO DEL LIBRO.
DIVISIONS OF THE BOOK.
1

Libro p
libro 2 libro 3
5

delFacque
del mare, delle uene,

in se,

2

3

libro

4

libro 5 libro 6 delli obbietti, libro 7 delle ghiaje, libro 8
10

de' fiumi; delle nature de' fodi,

4
5

6
7

libro

9
10
11

della superfitie del' acqua, delle cose che in quella

8
9

of of of of of of of of of

water in
the sea.

itself.

subterranean rivers.
rivers.

the nature of the abyss.
the obstacles.
gravels. the surface of water. the things placed

son messe;
libro
libro
libro

therein.

de' ripari de' fiumi,
delli condotti,

12 de' canali, libro 13 delli strumeti volti dalF acqua, js libro 14 del far motare 1'acque,
libro

15 delle cose

cosumate dalFacque.

Book 10 of the repairing of rivers. Book ii of conduits. Book 12 of canals. Book 13 of machines turned by water. Book 14 of raising water. Book 15 of matters worn away by water.

919
gso.

.1.

cotegano.
giare.

3

cotegano.
.

4.

dae sua.
10. quella. 16. dell

8.

9. delle

.

acq"a".

cose

.

.

acq"e".

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[921-925.

Ute. 9-1

Q2I.
First
shall

2 che tratti de' Farai prima un libro e '1 2 lochi Joccupati dall'acque 'dolci, e '1 6 3 come, per la pardalM' acque salse, 8 nostre parti son di quelle,' queste ?tita e I0 per consequeza piv 'fatte piv lieui, "remosse dal cen"tro del modo.

you

make a book

treating of

places occupied by fresh waters, and the second by salt waters, and the third, how by the disappearance of these, our parts of the

world were made lighter and in consequence more remote from the centre of the world.

r-

Ml

922.
First

Descriui in prima tuttal'acquainciascuno * suo moto, di poi descriui tutti li sua fondi e le lor materie, senpre aMegando le proe fia bu'ono positioni delle predette acque, ordine, che altrimeti 1' opera sarebbe cofusa.
s

write

of

all

water,
all

in
its

motions; then describe their various materials,

each of its bottoms and

always referring to the propositions concerning the said waters; and let the order be good, for otherwise the
will be confused. Describe all the forms taken by water from its greatest to its smallest wave, and

work

Descriui tutte le figure che fa 1'acqua
6

dalla sua

maggiore

alia

sua minore onda

e

le lor

cause.

their causes.

F.

Ma]

Libro 9 de' surgimenti accidentali delT acqua.

Book

9,

of accidental risings of water.

F. 90*]

924.

ORDINE DEL
2

LIBRO.

THE ORDER OF THE
Place
at

BOOK.

Poni nel principio ci6 che pu6 fare vn
can

the

beginning

what

a

river

fiume.

effect.

Br.

M. 35*]

9
li

Libro d'abbattere
2

eserciti

col'

impeto

de' diluui fatti dall'acque disgorgate,

Libro che
li

1'

acque coducino a saluaal-

book of driving back armies by the force of a flood made by releasing waters. book showing how the waters safely

A

A

mento
3

legniami tagliati ne' moti, Libro delle barche condotte contro

bring

down timber

A book A

cut in the mountains. of boats driven against the impetus
raising large

1'inpeto de' fiumi,

of rivers.

Libro dell' alzare li gran ponti col senplice accrescimeto dell' acque, 5 Libro del riparare all'inpeto de' fiumi che le citta da quelli no sie percosse.
*

book of

bridges

higher.

Simply by the swelling of the waters. A book of guarding against the impetus of rivers so that towns may not be damaged

by them.
gai.
i. i.

p"a" vn
scriui in

libr.

3.
. .

ochupati.

7.
.
.

quele.

8. parte.
2.

939.

p"a"

lacq"a"

ciasscuno.

dcsscriui

.

.

elle.

4. altremeti.

5.

cheffa lacq"a".

6.

magore

.

.

elle.

913.

acq"".
co che po.
lint it

924. 2.

9S. The head of tack
discorghatc.
2.

marked by
. .

tht

litter
4.

d which

u

crosted out.
5.

i.

d.ibatter

.

.

chol inpito
.
.

.

.

dilumi

.

.

dellacq'V

chellacquc

assaluamento.

acresscimeto.

chelle cita dacquelli

percossi.

\

926. 927-J

INTRODUCTION.

177

Br.

M.

35 3]

926.
de'

Libro della dispositio seruatio dell'argine sue,
2

fiumi

a co-

Libro
la

delli

e

fia

terra

monti, che si spiccherano, sotto il nostro emisperio

book of the ordering of rivers so as to preserve their banks. A book of the mountains, which would stand forth and become land, if our hemisphere were to be uncovered by. the water. A book of the earth carried down by the waters to fill up the great abyss of the seas. A book of the ways in which a tempest may of itself clear out filled up sea-ports. A book of the shores of rivers and of
their

A

scoperta dall'acqua, 3 Libro del terreno portato dal'acqua a riepiere la gra profondita de' pelaghi, 4 Libro de' modi che la fortuna per se
li riepiuti porti del mare, Libro dell'argine de' fiumi e lor permanentia, 6 Libro del fare che li fiumi con lor corso

netti
s

A
A

permanency. book of how

to deal with rivers, so

tegin netti

li

fondi loro

per

le

citta

dode

passano,
7

that they may keep their bottom scoured their own flow near the cities they pass.

by

Libro del fare o rifondare Libro
di

li

ponti sopra

book of how

to

make or

to

repair
rivers.

li

fiumi,
8

ripari

che
fiumi

farsi

debbo

alii

the foundations for bridges book of the repairs

over the

A

muri
qua,
9

e argini

de'

percossi

dall'ac-

be made

in walls

which ought to and banks of rivers where

the water strikes them.

Libro del generare li colli dalP arena o ghiaja sopra le gran profondita dell' acque.

A book of the formation of hills of sand or gravel at great depths in water.

Br.

M.

122 a]

927.
al

L'acqua da principio
2

moto

suo,

Water
motion.

gives

the

first

impetus

to

its

Libro liuellamenti

d'

acque per diuersi
li

modi, 3 Libro del discostare

fiumi dai lochi

book of the levelling of waters by various means. A book of diverting rivers from places
where they do mischief.

A

da loro
4

offesi,

Libro

del

dirizzar

li

fiumi che occu-

A

book of guiding book
of

rivers

which occupy
several

pano superchio terreno, 5 Libro del diuidere

too
li

fiumi

in

molti

A

much ground.
parting rivers into

rami e farli guadabili, 6 Libro dell' acque che co diuersi moti
passa pe' pelaghi loro, 7 Libro del profondare li letti alii fiumi co uari corsi d' acque, 8 Libro di disporre li fiumi I modo che li piccoli pricipj de' sua danni non accrescino,
9

branches and making them fordable. A book of the waters which with various
currents pass through seas. book of deepening the beds of rivers by means of currents of water.

A

Libro

de'

uari

moti

dell'

acque

che

passan per diuerse figure di canali, 10 Libro del fare che li piccoli fiumi non pieghino il maggiore percosso dalle loro
acque,

book of controlling rivers so that the beginnings of mischief, caused by them, may not increase. A book of the various movements of waters passing through channels of different forms. A book of preventing small rivers from
little

A

diverting

the

larger

one

into

which

their

waters run.
si

"Libro
trouar
fitie

che della maggior bassezza possa nella correte della super-

A
rivers.

book of the lowest
in

level

which can
surface of

be found

the current

of the

de' fiumi,

926. 2. chessi spich[a] erano effia la terra "sotto

il
.

nostro emisperio" scoperta dellacqua.
.

3. 7.

tere.

4.

perse

nettili riepiuti
8.

porta
ghi-

del mare.

5.

ellor

premanentia.

6. chelli

collor

.

.

teginetti

.

.

fondi

"lor".

orrifondare.

cheffarsi.

9.

ara
937.

.

.

acq"e".
dobliquita Lacq"a".
5.

i. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\gi to

2

13.
7.

Each
. .

line is

headed by an L, meaning Libro.
8.

3.
. .

discosstare

.

.

dalloro. 4. diri9.

zar

.

.

ce ochupan.

effarli.
. .

6.

cho.

cho

chorsi.

di

sporre

.

.

chelli
.

picholi

accresscino.

acq"e"

.

.

chanali.

10. chelli picholi

magore perchosso.

n. dalla maggor basseza

.

corete.

12. pellalte.

VOL.

11.

Z

I

78

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
"Libro

[

9 28.

dell' engine de' fiumi die versa cime de' monti, per 1'alte 'J Libro della uarieta de' moti dell'acque

A book of the origin of rivers which flow from the high tops of mountains. A book of the various motions of waters in
their rivers.

ne' lor fiumi.

Br.

M.

]

928.
[i]

[i] nauilio,

Delia inequalita della concauita del

Of

inequality

in

the

concavity of a

della curuita [i] Libro della inequalita de' lati de' nauili, del sito del 3[iJ Libro della inequalita

A book of the inequality in the curve [i] of the sides of ships. A book of the inequality in the position [i]
of the
tiller.

ship.

timone,
[i]
s

Libro della inequalita della carena

[i]

A

book of

the inequality in the

keel

de' nauili,
[2]

of ships.
delli

Libro della uarieta
si

spiraculi ne'

donde 1'acqua
6

uersa,

[3]

Libro

insieme
7

coll' aria

dell'acqua inclusa e sua moti,
del

vasi

[4] Libro le cicognole,
8

moto

dell'acqua

per

A book of various forms of apertures [2] by which water flows out. A book of water contained in vessels [3] with air, and of its movements. of the motion of water through [4] A book
a syphon.

Libro delli scontri e concorsi dell'acque venute da diuersi aspetti, 9 [6] Libro delle varie figure delli argini
[5]

A book of the meetings and union [5] of waters coming from different directions. A book of the various forms of the [6]
banks through which
[7]

traversati dalli fiumi, 10 [7] Libro delle uarie seccbe generate sotto le chiuse de' fiumi, 11 [8] Libro delle torture e pieghameti
delle correti de' fiumi, "[9] Libro de' uari
siti

A

book of

rivers pass. the various forms of shoals

formed under the
[8]

sluices of rivers.

donde

si

de'

trar 1'acqua de' fiumi, I3 [io] Libro delle figure fiumi e lor permanetia,

dell'argini de'

14 [n] Libro dell'acqua cadente perpedicularmente sopra diuersi obbietti, '5 [12] Libro del corso dell'acqua inpe-

windings and meanderings of the currents of rivers. A book of the various places whence [9] the waters of rivers are derived. the configuration of the [10] A book of shores of rivers and of their permanency. [u] A book of the perpendicular fall of water on various objects. -. of water when [12] Abook of the course
it

Abook of the

dito in diuersi
16

siti,

[12] Libro delle uarie figure delli ob-

bietti
I7

che impediscono

il

corso del acque,

[i3J Libro delle concauita e globosita fatte dal fondo Ttorno a vari obbietti,
18

impeded in various places. A book of the various forms of the obstacles which impede the course of waters. and globosity [13] A book of the concavity formed round various objects at the bottom.
is

[12]

[14]
gabili

Libro del condurre li canali navisopra o sotto li fiumi che Piterse-

[14]

Abook

of conducting navigable canals
rivers

above or beneath the
them.

which intersect

gano,
[15] Libro delli terreni che beono le acque de' canali e lor ripari, 20 [i6] Libro della creatio de' corsi de' fiumi che votano il letto de' fiumi riepiuti
di terreno.
19

which absorb [15] A book of the soils water in canals and of repairing them. 1 Abook of creating currents for rivers, [ 6] which quit
with
soil.

their beds, [and] for rivers

choked

4.

charena.

5.

spirachuli

.

.

lacq"a".

6. essua.

7.

cicognuolc.
lacque.
13.

8.

acq"e"

.

.

di

.

.

asspetti.
.

9.

delle

.

.

traversate

alii.

10.

secche

[fatte
15.

sotto] generate,

n.

chorreti.
.

u.
.

fighure dellargine
18.

.

ellor premanetia.
.

14.
.

chadende per.

pedchulare.

chellrersegano.

acq"a". 19. beano

16.
. .

chenpedisscano
chanali ellor.

aeq"e".

17. globbosita.

condure

.

navichabili

ossotto

.

.

928.

I.

Tte
7.

first

line of this

passage was added subsequently, evidently as a correction of the follow-

ing line.

cutgnoU, see No. 966,

n,

17.

929-]

INTRODUCTION.

179

A.

gag.

COMI'CIAMETO DEL TRATTATO DEL' ACQUA.

THE BEGINNING OF THE
By
world
is

TREATISE ON WATER.
has been called the
General
trodui
in-

L'omo e detto-da li antiqui modo minore e cierto la ditione d'esso-nome e bene collocata, 3i m p e ro-che, sicchomeF omo e coposto di terra acqua -, aria e foco-, questo corpo della terra 4 e il simiglante-; se 1'omo a in se ossi, soste2
-, -,

the ancients
in miniature;

man
and

certainly this name well bestowed, because, inasmuch as man

is

his

as

composed of earth, water, air and fire, body resembles that of the earth; and man has in him bones the supports and
flesh,

nitori e
i

armadura
Ssostenitori

della

carne

-,

jl

modo

a

framework of his

the world has

its

rocks

terra; se 1'omo a in se il lago del sangue, doue cresciee discrescie il pcJmo 6 ne nello alitare -, jl corpo della terra a il suo oceano mare -, il quale ancora lui crescie ^ e discrescie ogni sei ore per lo alitare del modo se dal detto lago di sangue diriuano ve 8 ne -, che
sassi,

della

the supports of the earth; as man has in him a pool of blood in which the lungs rise and fall in. breathing, so the body of the earth

has
falls

its

ocean

tide

which likewise

rises

and

;

si

similmete

vanno ramificado per lo corpo vmano -, il mare oceano enpie 9il corpo della terra d' infinite vene d' acqua; mancano
al
I0

no
di

ui

corpo della terra i nerui, sono -, perche i nervi sono
del

i

quali
al

every six hours, as if the world breathed; as in that pool of blood veins have their origin, which ramify all over the human body, so likewise the ocean sea fills the body of the The earth with infinite springs of water. of the earth lacks sinews and this is, body because the sinews are made expressely for

fatti

proposito

movimeto
JI

-,

e

il

modo sendo

non accade movimeto e, no accadedo movimeto, i nervino ui sono neciessari Ma I tutte ISTaltre
perpetua
stabilita,
;

movements and, the world being perpetually stable, no movement takes place, and no movement taking place, muscles are not necessary.

But in

all

other points

they

are

much

alike.

cose

sono

molto

simili.

929.

i.

acq"a".
.

2.
.

cholochata.
.

3.
5.
.

impero

.

chessi
. .

.

chome
6.

.

.

lomo

.

osso

charne.
.

ssisotenitori
.

lacho.
.
.

tera

choposto di tera acq"a" occicano . anchora
. .

.

.

effocho
cresscie.

.

.

chorpo

.

.

tera.
8.

4. sel-

.

.

.

.

7.
.

diriua ve.
.

chessi

vano ramifichado

.

chorpo

[C] similmete

occieano.

9.

dacq"a" mancha

.

.

tera.

n. achade

achadedo.

12. chose.

OF THE NATURE OF WATER.
E.

]

930.

ORDINE DEL PRIMO LIBRO DELLE ACQUE.
'Difinisci

THE ORDER OF THE
Define
first

FIRST
is

BOOK ON WATER.
are situated

prima che cosa e altezza e

what

meant by height and
elements

The

.i

-i.

bassezza

anzi

come so

situati ^li elemeti

depth;

also

how

the

Book

1'u'dentro all'altro; Di poi che cosa e gravita de 4 sa e che e gravita liquida, ma prima che cosa e in se gravista e leuita Di poi descrivi perche 1'acqua si move e perche
;

one inside another. Then, what is ^meant by solid weight and by liquid weight; but first what weight and lightness are in themselves. Then describe why water moves, and why its motion ceases; then why it becomes slower or more rapid; besides this,

ter^mina il moto suo, poi perche si fa piu tarda o velocie, oltre 7 a questo come ella senpre disciede, essendo in cofine d'ari*a come 1'acqua si leua piu bassa di lei in aria mediante 9il calore del sole e poi
j

E
;

10

ricade in pioggia ancora perche e se surgie dalle cime de' monti

1'

4'

nessuna vena piu alta "che 1' mare pud uersare acqua piu alta che la I2 d' esso oceano E come tutta superfitie
di
;

acqua acqua oceano

acqua che torna all' oceano e piu alta '^della spera dell' acqua e come 1'acqua
1'
|

e piu alta ^che le acque settetrionali ed e piu alta sotto il corpo del sole 'Sche in nessuna parte del circulo equinotiale come si speri l6 meta sotto il calore dello stizzo infocato, 1'acqua che mediate tale stizzo bolle e 1'acqua circustate al cietro di tal bol' 8 lore senpre
delli

mari equinotiali
,

being in contact with air. And how water rises in the air by means of the heat of the sun, and then falls again in rain; again, why water springs forth from the tops of mountains; and if the water of any spring higher than the ocean can pour forth water higher than the surface of that ocean. And how all the water that returns to the ocean the sphere of waters. And is higher than how the waters of the equatorial seas are higher than the waters of the North, and higher beneath the body of the sun than in any part of the equatorial circle ; for experiment shows that under the heat of a burning brand the water near the brand boils, and the water
it

how

always

falls,

the air but lower than the

surrounding

this ebullition

always sinks with

930.

i.

p"o"
.

libro.
9.

2.

p"a" che chosa he
. .

.

.

ebbasseza.
.

3.

chosa.

4.

chosa.
. .

5.

elleuita.

7.

addi questo

chomelU
.

.

.

cotino.
occic-

8.

chome.
.

chalore
. .

eppoi richade
. .

.

anchora.

10. dellc

cime
.

essellacqua.
. .

n. chclloccieano

.

cbella.
15.

12.

ano
.

chome
.
.

chettorna
16.

.

circhulo

iiisperi.

accieano eppiu. 13. [desso] della . chome ecquinotiali eppiu. chalore . infochato. 17. talle . ellacqua circhustate. 18. dissciende
. .

14. chelle.
.

incssuna

.

circhulare e chome.

931

933-]

OF THE NATURE OF WATER.
a circular eddy. lower

181

disciende con onda circulare e come 1' acque ^settetrionali Son piv basse che li altri mari e tato piu, qua 20 to esse son piv fredde, insin che si convertono in ghiaccio.

And how
than
the

North are

the waters of the other seas, and

more so as they become colder, until are converted into ice.

they

C 266

(4)]

CHE COSA
2

E ACQUA.

OF WHAT

IS

WATER.
water
is

Acqua

codo

me

e infra i quatro elemeti il segrave e di seconda volubilita.

Among

the

four

elements

the

Definitions

second both

in weight

and

in instability.

(931-932).

1.2

24* and

1}

932.

PRINCIPIO DEL LIBRO DELL' ACQUE.

THE

BEGINNING OF THE BOOK ON WATER.

la'rga

Pelago e detto quello, il quale a figura j & ^e profoda; 4 ne l quale 1' acque stanno con poco moto.
_

-

!.,

Sea is the name given to that water which is wide and deep, in which the waters have not much motion.

Leic. 34 6]

933-

Li centri della spericita dell'acqua sono

due
e

della vniuersale acqua, 1' altro 2 l'vniversale e quello, il particulare;
:

1'

uno e

The centres of the sphere of water are or the surtwo, one universal and common to all water, ^aterhlrdathe other particular. The universal one istin to the
that

quale serue a tutte 1' acque sanza moto; che sono in se in gra quatita, 3 come canali,
fossi,

motion,
rivers,

which is which

common

to all waters

not in

(933-936).

exist in great

quantities.

As

viuai,

fonti,

pozzi, fiumi morti, laghi,

paduli, stagni e mari, li quali, ancorache sieno di uarie altezze ciascuno per se, ano
li

canals, ditches, ponds, fountains, wells, dead lakes, stagnant pools and seas, which, although they are at various, levels, have

al

termini delle lor superfitie equi^distanti centro del mondo, come sono i laghi

posti nelle cime delli alti moti come sopra s Pietra Pana e Lago della Sibilla a Norcia,

e tutti
fiumi,

li

laghi che

da principio a grandi

come Tesino 6 dal Lago Maggiore, Adda dal lago di Como, Mincio dal lago di Garda e Reno dal lago di Costan?tia e di Coira e dal lago di Lucerne, e come
|

il

Tigron, il quale passa per la Minore Asia, 8 con seco 1' acqua di 3 quale ne porta
il

dopo 1' altro, di uarie altezze, piv alto e Munace, el mezzano e Pallas 9e '1 piu basso e Triton; ancora el Nilo diriua da 3 altissimi paduli in Etipaduli, 1'un
de' quali

opia.
20. chessi
2.
.

each in itself the limits of their superficies equally distant from the centre of the earth, such as lakes placed at the tops of high mounnear Pietra Pana and tains; as the lake the lake of the Sybil near Norcia; and all the lakes that give rise to great rivers, as the Ticino from Lago Maggiore, .the Adda from the lake of Como, the Mincio from the lake of Garda, the Rhine from the lakes of Constance and of Chur, and from the lake of Lucerne, like the Tigris which passes through Asia Minor carrying with it the waters of three lakes, one above the other at different heights of which the highest is Munace, the middle one Pallas, and the lowest Triton; the Nile again flows from three very high lakes in Ethiopia.

19. chelli

.

.

ettato.

chonvertano in diaccio.
.

931. 933.

i.
i.

chosa

.

.

sechodo.
.
.

grieve
.

.

sechonda.
.

933. 2. pellago
.

.

.

affigura.
.

Lli centri
.

fiumi

.

quali
ettutti.
.

attutte lacque chessono. 3. cannali fossi "viuai fonti acq"a" partichulare. 2. deluniversale "ancorche sieno di uarie alteze ciascun per se" ano. 4. distante illaghi. 5. pietra pana ellago
.
. . . .

pozi'
sibilla

a norca
lacho
.

6.
. .

[adda da] dal

.

.

magore
quane

.

.

lagho
8.

.

.

como

[adice]
.

"menzo"
.

dal lagho
.

.

.

erreno
9. di.

.

.

gostan.

7.

eurio

Trigon

minore africha

il

ne.

consecholacq"a"

alteze

.

mezano

he.

932.

Only the beginning of
the remainder consists

this

passage

is

here

given,

of definitions which

the Etruscan city near Viterbo, there can be no doubt that by 'Lago della Sibilla! a name not known else-

have no direct bearing on the subject. 933- 5- Pietra Pana, a mountain near Florence. If for Norcia, we may read Norchia, the remains of

where,
Lago
di

so

far

as

I

can learn

Leonardo meant
7).

Vico (Lacus Ciminus,

Aen.

182

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[934- 935-

A.

934-

DEL
*D
il

CIETRO DELL OCIEANO

MARE.

OF THE CENTRE OF THE OCEAN.
The
the
true

cietro

centre- vero
in

quale si Ma se tu volessi trovare forma rotoda elemeto della terra questo il cietro dello e cotenuto per equidistate spatio dalla e no dalla mare dell' oceano superfitie
;
, ,

della spera dell'acqua e il della rotodita del nostro modo, copone J infra acqua e terra

centre of the sphere of waters is centre of the globe of our world,

sequidistante superfitie della- terra perche chiaro si comprende questa palla della 6 avere niente di perfetta rototerra non in quella parte dou' e mare dita , se non
,

is composed of water and earth, having the shape of a sphere. But, if you want to find the centre of the element of the earth, this is placed at a point equidistant from the surface of the ocean, and not equidistant from the surface of the earth; for it is evident that this globe of earth has

which

nowhere any perfect rotundity, excepting in places where the sea is, or marshes or other
still

o paduli o altre acque mor 7 te, e qualunque parte d'essa terra che escie fori
d'esso mare, s'allontana
dal suo- cietro.

waters.

And

every

part of the
is

earth

that rises

above the water

farther

from

the centre.

E. 4*1

935
2

DEL MARE CHE MUTA

IL

PESO DELLA TERRA.

OF THE SEA WHICH CHANGES THE WEIGHT OF
THE EARTH.

3 Li nichi, ostrighe e altri simili animali, <che nascono nelli fanghi marini, ci testifiscano la mutatio della terra intorno al

The

shells, oysters,

and other

similar ani-

6
7

elemeti; pruovasi cosl: senpre corrono con torbidu8 me, tinto dalla terra, che per lor si leua mediate la co^fregatio delle sue acque sopra I0 il fondo e nelle sue riue, e tal cosumaticietro
de'

nostri

mals, which originate in sea-mud, bear witness "to the changes of the earth round the centre of our elements. This is proved

Li fiumi

reali

always run turbid, being coloured by the earth, which is stirred by the friction of their waters at the bottom and on
their shores; and this of the strata made

thus: Great rivers

one scopre
di

le fronti de'

quelli

nichi,

che

salse li coprivano, I4 gradi erano ri coperti di tenpo dalli fanghi di uarie grossez'Sze o condotti al mare dalli fiumi co diluvi di diverse gra l6 dezze; e cosl tali faghi furono composti in tata altezza, che dal fondo si '^scopriua all' aria; Ora questi tali fondi sono in tata l8 altezza che son fatti colli, o alti moti, e li fiumi, ^consuma^tori de' lati "d'essi monti, "scoprono **\\ gradi d'es^si nichi, e co 2 5sl il Ieni 26 ficato lato *? della terra 28 al cotinuo 2 9s'inalza, e *]i antipcP'di s'accosta^no piu al -"tietro del Jmondo, 35 e li anti^chi fondi del 37 mare son fatti * 8 gioghi di monti.

"del fango marine, li scierono, qua^do 1' acque
tali

gradi "fatti a' suoli stan nella superfitie quali in tal sito na-

e questi in tenpo

which lie and which were produced there when the salt waters covered them; and these strata were covered over again from time to time,
of various thickness, or carried down by the rivers and floods of more or less extent; and thus these layers of mud became raised to such a height, that they came up from the bottom to the air. At the present time these bottoms are so high that they form hills or high mountains, and the rivers, which wear away the sides of these mountains, uncover the strata of these shells, and thus the softened side of the earth continually rises and the antipodes sink closer to the centre of the earth, and the ancient bottoms of the seas
with
to the sea

wearing disturbs the face by the layers of shells, on the surface of the marine mud,

mud

have become mountain ridges.

934.

i.

eccicono.
4.

a.

dellacq"a"

.

.

retodita
.

.

.

nosstro
.

.

.

qualle

.

.

chopone.

3.
.

acq"a" ecterra
.

.

.

retoda Massettu
. .

.

.

elle-

meto.
7.

quessio e thotenuto
. .

.

equidissunte

.

occieano.

5.

equidisstanto

chonplende questa
8.

nona.

6.

retodita.

ecqualumque
4.

terra esscie.
.

935- 3- osstrighe.

nasschano
. .

.

tessti.

5.

chano.
.

6.
.

nosstri.
. .

7.

senpre [stanno] cor! torbidi.
'

mediate la
12.

terra.
.

9. fre-

ghatio
13.

.

.

accque
.
.

nelle sine.
ri.

10. rive ettal

sconpre
16.

fronte.

n. assuoli
. .

.

.

chesstan.
17. quessti.

fangho
18.

.

nasscicrono.
. .

ecquessti

era

14. grosse.

15. indotti. 26. fichato.

faghi conpossti

alteza.

alteza

clli

fiumi.

22.

scoprano.

24.

echo.

25. si

[1]

illeni.

29. el sacossta.

Lines 19

38 are written OH the margin.

936

938.]

OF THE NATURE OF WATER.

183

Leic. 10 i]

936.
la terra
2

colla sua gravoglia, che mai la spera dell'acqua no si superfitie .della dalla sua equidistatia col centre del partira

Faccia mutatio
quate

Let
it

the
in

earth
its

make whatever changes
the the

vezza,

farsi

may

modo.
Leic. 35,5]

sphere of equal distance world.

weight, waters can

surface

of the
in
its

never

vary

from

centre

of

the

937-

SE LA TERRA & ME CHE L'ACQUA.
Dicono alcuni esser vero, che la terra, ch'e scoperta dalle acque, sia molto rninore che quella che da esse acqu' e
3 2

WHETHER THE EARTH
Some
.

is

LESS

THAN THE WATER.
,
,
.

assert that
.

it is

true that the earth,

which

Ma che considerando la coperta; grossezza di 7000 miglia di diametro, che a essa terra, e' si puo concludere 1'acqua essere di *poca profondita.
Leic. 36

not covered by water is portion of much less than that covered by wa- ^aete " assth J But considering the size of 7000 of the Dearth ter. (937- 938)miles in diameter which is that of this earth, we may conclude the water to be of small depth.
is

,

Of the pro-

938.

BELLA TERRA
2

IN SE.

OF THE EARTH.
The great elevations of the peaks of the mountains above the sphere of the water may have resulted from this that: a very

la
il

spera

L' alzarsi tanto le cime de' monti sopra dell' acqua puo esser diriuato, perche loco grandissimo 3 della terra, il quale

era ripieno d' acqua, cioe la grandissima

large portion of the earth

which was
water
that

filled
is

with

cauerna, douette caassai della sua dere volta inuerso il centro del mondo, trovandosi

to

say
fal-

the vast cavern the earth

inside

may have

mediante il ispiccata corso deslle uene che
al

no

continuo consumail loco donde pas6

a vast part of its vault towards the centre of the earth, being pierced by means of the course of the springs
len
in

sano.

which continually wear

Profondameto di paesi 7 come nel Mare Morto di So 8 ria cioe Sodoma e Gomorra.
9

away the place where they
in Syria, that
is

pass.

Sinking in of countries like the

Dead Sea Sodom and Gomorrah.

E necessario che 1'acqua

sia piu

che

la terra,

e la parte scoperta del
.

mare no

It is of necessity that there should be more water than land, and the visible portion of

936. i. facia

.

graveza.

2.

dellacq"a".
2.

937.
938.

i. 2.

Sella

.

.

chellacq"a".
.

dicano

.

.

chella.

3.
5.

groseza
iloco.
8.

.

.

diamitro

.

.

po con chludere lacqua per
9.

essere.
.

4.

pocha.
. .

lasspera
.

.

ilocho.

3.

coe.

4. isspichata.

coe soddoma e gamora.

chellacq"a"

.

chella terra ella

dell

.

dimosstra.

938.

The small sketch below on

the left,

is

placed in the original close to the text referring to the

Dead

Sea.

184
dimostra, onde bisognia acqua sia dentro alia terra,
lo

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
;

[939- 940.

che I0 molta sanza quella ch'e infusa nella bassa aria e che scorre

"per

li

fiumi e uene.

so that there must the sea does not show this be a great deal of water inside the earth, besides that which rises into the lower air an d which flows through rivers and springs.

939-

FIGURA

D' ELEMETI.

THE
Of
as

FIGURES

Off

THE ELEMENTS.

The theory contro

'Delia figura delli elemeti, e prima a chi nega ^I'opinione di Platone, ofpuio. dicono che se essi elemeti vestis'sero che 1'un 1'altro, colle figure che mette Platone, che si caJvserebbe vacuo infra 1* uno e 1* al-

against those

the figures of the elements; and first who deny the opinions of

non e vero, e *'qui lo provo, ma bisognia proporre alcuna co^clusione; 8 on Erimae neciessario che nessuno ele mento, che veste 1'u 1'altro, sia d'equ 1 grossezza
tro; e
in tu9tta la

sua quantitk infra
I0

la

parte che

ueste
uestita
la

e
;

quel

la

ch'e

Noi uediamo dell' acqua ma^nifestamete essere
spera
la di uarie grossezze dalsua "superfitie al

Plato, and who say that if the elements in-" elude one another in the forms attributed to them by Plato they would cause a vacuum one within the other. I say it is not true, and I here prove it, but first I desire to propound some conclusions. It is not necessary that the elements which include each other should be of corresponding magnitude in all the parts, of that which includes and of that which is included. We see that the sphere of the waters

fondo, e che, no che essa vestisse I3 la terra

varies conspicuously in mass from the surface to

quando
goli terra

fusse di figura

cuba cioe

di 8 anla

come ^vole

Platone,

essa veste

che a innumerabili 'Sangoli di scogli

coperti dall' acqua e varie globosita e col6 cavita, e non si genera vacuo infra 1' ac-

qua e
spera
valli

la

terra;

Ancora
^insieme

1'aria
colli

veste

la

dell' acqua

che superano essa spera,

monti e e no l8 ri-

mane vacuo

infra la terra e 1'aria, sicche, chi disse ^generarsi vacuo, ebbe tristo discorso.
20

the bottom, and that, far from investing the earth when that was in the form of a cube that is of 8 angles as Plato will have it, that it invests the earth which has innumerable angles of rock covered by the water and various prominences and concavities, and yet no vacuum is generated between the earth and water; again, the air invests the sphere of waters together with the mountains and valleys, which rise above that sphere, and no vacuum remains between the earth and the air, so that any one who says a vacuum is

A

Plato

si

rispode che la superfitie

"delle figure che avrebbero li elemeti, 22 che lui pone, non potrebbero sta 2 -*re.

generated, speaks foolishly. But to Plato I would reply that the surface of the figures which according to him
the elements

would have, could not
.

exist.

A. 58*]
-

940.
2

COME -LA TERRA NON E TODA, E, NON ESSENDO TODA, NO PUO AVER COMVNE
-

PROVES HOW THE EARTH IS NOT GLOBULAR AND NOT BEING GLOBULAR CANNOT HAVE A

CETRO.
i vediamo il Nilo partirsi dallemeridiane regioni-e rigare diuerse pro4 inverse settentrione per proresThTvinciej corredo

COMMON CENTRE.

That the

slope of the
land.

We see the Nile come from Southern regions and traverse various provinces, running towards the North for a distance of
.
.

939.

i.

p"a" cootro
6.

ere.
13.

. . dicano chesse . vessti. ellaltro ilenone niegha. 3. lopenione 4. sm lulaltro cholle. 5. vserebe . sna p"a". 8. grosseza. 10. lasspera dellacq"a". xx. grosseze. 12. vestissi [il cubo] 9. infralla . ecquel. quande fussi . . cubo *'cee di 8 angoli" come. 14. esse . . inunbili. 15. acq"a". 16. cavita "e non sigenera vacuo
.

.

.

infra lacqua ella terra"

Ancora

laria

che veste.

17.

cholli.

18.

ellaria

siche.

20.

chella.

21.

arebo.

22.

chellui

.

.

potrebono.
940.
i.

chome

.

.

tera

.

.

po avr chomune.

3.

vedemo

.

.

delle

.

.

choredo.

4.

settantrione

.

.

isspatio

.

.

miglia "e vessare

94I-]
di

OF THE NATURE OF WATER.
3000
miglia
e

I8 5

ispatio

versare

nelle

mediterrane ode ai liti d'Egitto, e se noi vogliamo dare a questo di calo quelle s dieci braccia per miglio le quali comvnalmete si concede alia vniversalita del corso de' fiumi, 6 noi troveremo il Nilo avere il suo fine piv basso che '1 pricipio
,

3000 miles and flow into the Mediterranean by the shores of Egypt; and if we will give
to

this

a

fall

usually allowed to
general,
its

of ten braccia a mile, as is the course of rivers in

?Ancora vediamo il Reno, miglia dieci e Danvbio partirsi dalle germaniche parti, quasi cietro 8 d'Evropa e 1'uno a Oriete, 1'altro a settetrione e P ultimoa meridiani mari fa suo corso; 9 se tu cosiderai bene tutto, vedrai le pianvre d' Europa I0 fare vno cocorso molto piv elevato che no sono 1'alte cime de' marittimi moti; or pesa, quato le loro cime TI si trovanopiv alte che liti marini.
;

Rodano

-

we shall find that the Nile must mouth ten miles lower than its source. Again, we see the Rhine, the Rhone and the Danube starting from the German parts, almost the -centre of Europe, and having a
have
course one to the East,
North,
the other
to

,

to

the
seas.

,

and
you

the

last

Southern

,

consider all this you will see of Europe in their aggregate are much higher than the high peaks of the maritime mountains; think then how
if

And

that

the

plains

much
shores.

their

tops

must be

above

the

sea

A.

55-5]

941.

DEL CALDO CHE NEL MODO
2

E.

Dov'e-vita
si

11

lore
3

vitale, quiui

e calore , e dou'e-cae mouimeto d'umori;
si

Where
vital heat

there
is,

is life
is

there

is

heat,

and where
vapour.

Theory of
th
e

there

movement

of

n

uede Questo pruova, inperoche effetto che il caldo dello elemeto
foco
,

per
del

senpre tira a se 4 li umidi vapori e i folte nebbie e spessi nuvoli quali spiccano da' mari e altri paduli e fiumi e vmide s valli, e quelle tirado a poco a poco insino alia fredda regione quella prima 6 perche-il caldo e vmido parte si ferma, no si affa col freddo e secco onde ferma
, ;

This is proved, inasmuch as we see that the element of fire by its heat always draws to itself damp vapours and thick mists as

of wlter within the

opaque clouds, which well as lakes and rivers
these being

it raises from seas as and damp valleys; and

drawn by degrees as far as the cold region, the first portion stops, because heat and moisture cannot exist with cold
the

la

prima parte

11

assetta 1'altre

7

parti,
,

e

si fa aggiugniedosi parte co parte e spesso sono spesse e oscure nvbole 8 remosse e portate da veti d' Una -in altra regione; dove per la densita loro fanno si 9 che cadono co spessa spessa gravezza, e se '1 caldo del sole s' aggivgnie pioggia elemeto I0 del foco , i alia potetia dello nvuoli fieno -tirati piv alti e trovano piv

cosl,

and dryness; and where the first portion stops rest settle, and thus one portion after another thick and dark being added
,

;

clouds are formed. They are often wafted about and borne by the winds from one
region to another, where by their density they become so heavy that they fall in thick rain; and if the heat of the sun is added to the power of the element of fire, the clouds are drawn up higher still and find a greater degree of cold, in which they form ice and Now the same heat fall in storms of hail. which holds up so great a weight of water as is seen to rain from the clouds, draws them from below upwards, from the foot of the mountains, and leads and holds them within the summits of the mountains, and
these, finding

;

freddo, in nel quale
11

si
;

ghiacciano e cavsasi

d' acqua si gra peso uede I2 piovere de' nvvoli, sveglie P acque di basso in alto dalle base delle motagnie, e coduciele, e tienle ^detrotrole quali alle cime delle motagnie,
, ,

tepestosa gradine che tiene caldo
si

Ora quel medesimo

come

,

vado qualche
14

causa

i

fessura, al fiumi.
ode a
liti
. .

continue vsciedo,

some

fissure,

issue continuously

and cause
. .

rivers.
.

nelle mediterane

e se
.

degitto acquessto di cholo qualle.
7.

5.
.

dieci br
.

.

quale chomvnemete
.

.

.

chonciede.
chosiderai

6.
.

no
be

trovrremo

.

.

precipio
.

diecip.
.

vedemo
10.
.

.

.

delle.

8.

elluno

assettatrione

.

chorso.

9.

settu

verai [levr] le
941.
i.
.

.

deropia
|

.

chochorso.
.
.

cime.
.

chaldo.
asse.
.

2.

vita

"li" e chalore

quiue
.

domori [Esse
. .

1

chaldo move lumido
5.
. .

"il

freddo lo ferma".
.
.

3.

chaldo
[i]

.

.

focho
chal-

4. elTolte
. .

nebie esspessi nuboli
. .

.

spicha de
7.

effiumi.

quele

.

.

apocho apocho
.

freda regione

e.

6.
8.

do

.

chol

essecho
9.

li

assetta laltre.

chosi agiugnedo
.

cho

.

.

osschure

.

esspesso
fredo inel

sono
.

[portale].

fano

graueza.
ii.
. .

chadano choispessa piogia esselchaldo chome. 12. nvboli [tiene] disuelle chaldo chettiene
.

.

sagivgnie.
.

10.

focho

.

.

.

diacciano e chavsasi.
13.

.

.

delle

motagnie e choducie

le ettielle.

motagnie

le

quali

li

chontinui vssciedo.
II.

14.

chausano

i

fiumi.

VOL.

AA

[86

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[942. 943.

942.

OF THE

DlL MARE CHE A
*

MOLTI

*SENPLICI PAR PIU
LIT1.

TQ B

SEA, WHICH TO MANY FOOLS APPEARS HIGHER TH AN THE EARTH WHICH FORMS
ITS

ALTO JCHE LA TERRA CHE GLI FA

SHORE.

e vna pianvra, donde corre vn 6 Th reuuve fiume al mare, la qual pianu ra a per tere h e per'che in vero essa o f mine esso mare; tmf a * the' <a 10 e nel sito dell' et err a scoperta no the lh seco'slfusse, il fiume *und qualita,-perche, jo non avrebbe mo to~,onde, moven-

d

s

f

1

b d is a plain through which a river flows to the sea; this plain ends at the sea, and since in fact the dry land that is unlevel is not perfectly for, were, the river would have no motion as the river does move, this place is a slope rather than a plain;

covered
it

if

l)-

dosi, questo sito "a piutosto da essere detto spiagg"ia che pianvra; e cosl essa pia^nura d b termina in tal

modo

spera dell'acqua che, in continua rettitudine Ib essa entrerebbe sotto il mare, e in b a, 7di qui nasce che '1 mar a c b pare piu
'*colla

chi la produ'Scesse

this plain d b so ends where sphere of water begins that if it were extended in a continuous line to b a it would go down beneath the sea, whence it follows that the sea a c b looks higher than the dry land.

hence
the

che la terra discoperta. 20 Naturalmete nes^suna parte della terra 2I mai 22 piu bassa l'acqua fia discoperta da che la 2 3superfitie della ** spera d'essa acqua.
alto
l8

Obviously no portions of dry land left uncovered by water can ever be lower than
the surface of the watery sphere.

A.

943-

D'ALCUNI CHE DICONO L*ACQUA ESSERE ALTA CHE LA TERRA SCOPERTA.
2

PIV

OF CERTAIN PERSONS WHO SAY THE WATERS WERE HIGHER THAN THE DRY LAND.
Certainly
I

Cierto

non poca ammiratione -mi da
fatta

wonder not a
is

little

at

the

la

comvne opinione
,

cotro

al

uero

common

opinion which

dallo vniversale

3 cocorso de' givditi delli omini e 'questo e che tutti s'accordano che la superfitie del mare 4 sia piv alta che 1'altissime cime delle motagnie allegado molte vane e puerili ragioni, 5 cotro
,

but held by the judgment of men.

contrary to truth, universal consent of the

And

this is that all are

agreed that the surface of the sea is higher than the highest peaks of the mountains;

n'allegher6 solo vna senplie e brieve ragione Noi vediamo chiaro che b se si toglie via 1'argine al mare , che lui vestira la terra e faralla di perfetta rotodita; ?or cosidera quata terra si leuerebbe a fare che 1'ode marine
ai quali

io

;

,

and they allege many vain and childish reasons, against which I will allege only one simple and short reason: We see plainly that if we could remove the shores of the sea, it would invest the whole earth and make it
a perfect sphere.
earth

Now, consider how much
to enable the

would be carried away

il coprissino modo; aduque ci6, che si alto che la riua del leuasse, sarebbe piv

8

mare.

waves of the sea to cover the world; therefore that which would be carried away must be higher than the sea-shore.

94*.

2.

senpici par pu.

3. chella

.

.

chclli.

4.

a d e vna.
is

5.

lacqual.

6. essesso.

9. fussi

.

.

arebbe.

14.

dellacq"a".

15. cessi.

16. enterebbe.

17. nassce.

On

Ote

margin

written:

cella tera
di scoperta.

LtHft te
943.
i.

24 are olio written
. .

on ike margin.

18. nc.
.

22. chella.
.

24.

acq"a".
fatto chotra.
6. 3.
.

dichanu lac<j"a" chella. 2. pocha amiratione tutti sachordnno chella. 4. chellaltissime
.

chomvne oppenione
5.

chochorso
.

.

.

ecquesto e cheteflaralla
.

.

ragione.
.

nalegero

.

.

vedemo.
8.

tolglie
.

chellui

vesstira

.

rcJodita.

7.

chOsidera |vn p.cha]

.

.

affare chellode

.

choprissino.

chessi leuassi

.

chella.

944- 945-1

OF THE NATURE OF WATER.
944-

I8 7

A.

5 6a]

OPINIONE D'ALCUNI-CHE DICONO CHE L'AC2 QUA D* ALCUNI MARI E PIV ALTA CHE LE PIV ALTE SOMMITA DE' MOTI, 3 E PERO SIA SOSPITA L'ACQUA A ESSE SOMITA.
si movera da loco a loco bassezza-non la tira; E per corso Snaturale no potra mai ritornare a altezza simile al primo loco, do 6 ve nel uscire de'moti si mostro
4

THE OPINION OF SOME PERSONS WHO SAY THAT THE WATER OF SOME SEAS IS HIGHER THAN THE HIGHEST SUMMITS OF MOUNTAINS; AND NEVERTHELESS THE WATER "wAS FORCED UP TO
THESE SUMMITS.

L' acqua no
la

se

Water would not move from place to if it were not that it seeks the lowest level and by a natural consequence it never
place

al

cielo

;

E
tu
,

quella
7

parte
falsa
es-

can return to a height like that of the place where it first on from the mountain issuing

del

mare
si

,

che

co

came

to light.

And

that por-

imaginatione
sere
alta

diciesti

tion of the sea which, in

your

che
8

uersaua

per le cime de li alti moti, per tati seculi sarebbe cosumata e uersata per 1' uscita d'esse 9 dtagnie; Tu puoi bene pesare che tato tepo che Tigris ed Eufrates

m

vain imagining, you say was so high that it flowed over the summits of the high mountains, for so many centuries would be

swallowed^up and poured out again through the issue from
all

these mountains. You can well imagine that the time that Tigris and Euphrates

A. 566]

945-

anno versato per le sommita de' moti Armeni che si puo credere che tutta F acqua dell' ocieano * sia moltissime volte or non crepassata per dette bocche di tu che '1 Nilo abbi messo piv 3 acquaal presente tutto lo ele1 mare che non e meto dell' acqua ? cierto si; e se detta acqua 4 fusse caduta fori di questo corpo della terra questa machina sarebbe gia lugo tepo Sstata saza acqua, siche si puo cocludere che F acqua vadi dai fiumi al mare e dal mare 6 ai fivmi, senpre cosl raggirado e voltadosi, e che tutto il mare fivmi sieno passati per la bocca del e
, ;

have flowed from the summits of the mountains of Armenia, it must be believed that all the water of the ocean has passed very many times through these mouths. And do you not believe that the Nile must have sent more water into the sea than at present exists of all the element of water?

,

i

Nilo infinite volte.

And if all this water Undoubtedly, yes. fallen away from this body of the earth, this terrestrial machine would long since have been without water. Whence we may conclude that the water goes from the rivers to the sea, and from the sea to the rivers, thus constantly circulating and returning, and that all the sea and the rivers have passed through the mouth of the Nile an infinite number of times
had
[che alchu]
.

944.

I.

Openione dalchuni che dichano chellacqua dalchuni.
.
.

2. alta

chelle
7.

.

.

somita.
.

4.
8.

Lacq"a"
tate

.

.

dalocho alsarebe cho

locho sella basseza

chorso.

5.
.

alteza
.

.

.

locho.
.

6.

usscire

.

Ecquella.

cho

.

dicievi.

sechuli

sumata
945.
i.

.

.

lusscita.

9.
si
. .

moti ermini che
.
.

motagnia che po
. .

chettato

.

chettigris.
2.

|

"tutta"llacq"a".
5.

boche

.

.

abi.
.

3.

imare
.
.

.

.

e "al

presete"
. .

tutto

.

.

esse.
last

4.

fussi

chaduta

chorpo

tera

.

.

sarebe.

chochiudere.

6.

ragirado

.

chettutto

sia

pasato

bocha; the

two words

infinite volte

are written on

tlie

margin.

945. Moti Armeni, Ermini in the original, in M. RAVAISSON'S transcript "monti ernini \le loro ruine?]". He renders this "Le Tigre et I' Euphrate se sont deverses

IrminiaK].

M.
in
his

RAVAISSON
translation

also

deviates

from the

par

les

destructives ?\

sommeli- des monlagnes \avec leurs eaux Leonardo always on peut cro re" &c.
:
:

following passage: "Or tu ne crois pas que le Nil ait mis plus d'eau dans la mer qdil tfy en a a present dans tout V element de I'eau. II est certain que si cette eau etait
original

of the

writes Ermini, Erminia, for Armeni, Armenia (Arabic

tombed &c.

V

II.

ON THE OCEAN.
G. 48*)

946.

PERCH
'Dicie
Refutation n

L'ACQUA

fc

SALSA.

WHY WATER

IS

SALT.

suo libro, al 103 Plinio nel 2 che 1'acqua del mare e salata perdel sole secca I'umisdo e u> che M'ardore iheory' 6 the saltncss succia, e questo al mare, che molto of the sea quello da sapore di sale; 7 Ma questo (946 947)- s'allarga, no si cociede, perche se la salsedine 8 del mare avesse cavsa dallo ardore del sole, 'e' non e dubbio che tanto maggiormente li
ca'pitolo,

Pliny says in his second book, chapter 103, that the water of the sea is salt because the heat of the sun dries up the moisture

e paduli sarebbonopiu insalati, quato "le loro acque son manco mobili e di 13 minore profondita, e la esperiezia ci mo'^stra il contrario; tali paduli ci mostra
laghi, stagni
14

I0

le loro

acque essere

al

tutto

sal'Ssedine; Ancora s'assegnia nel medesimo l6 capitolo che tal

private di da Plinio salsedine

up; and this gives to the wide the savour of salt. But this cannot be admitted, because if the saltness of the sea were caused by the heat of the sun, there can be no doubt that lakes, be so much pools and marshes would the more salt, as their waters have less motion and are of less depth but experience shows us, on the contrary, that these lakes have their waters quite free from salt.

and drinks

it

stretching sea

;

Again
chapter

it

is

stated
this

by Pliny

in

the

same

that

saltness

might

originate,

946.

i.

essalsa.
6.

2.

a 103 capitoli. j.chellacqua
|

.

.

essalata. 4.
.

[li

razi solarij

Lardore

.

.

ecquesto.

sallargha. .sale

[Qui|. 7.
le
.
.

Macquesto
. .

.sella. 8. avessi
12. ella
. .

chausa dello.
mos.
|

9. chelli

secha "abrozre e (?)'\lumi. 5. ecquello "tanto magiormente" laghi. -10. [dove
. .

lacquej sarebbono.

n.
16.

|le]

mancho

eddi.

.

.

13.

in

chontrario
porte.

.

.

mosstra.

14.

tucto.

15.

Acora

sasegnia [nel me).

chapitolo chettal.

17. nassciere

leuato

"ne ogni"

18. dolcie

[dellacq"a"

ressta lasspra]

946.

See PLINY,

Hist. Nat. II,
ft

Salts ardore slccatur liquor:

CIII [C]. Itaque hoc use masculum sidus
out quia exhausto inde
vis

simum mare XV. stadiorum Fabianus
trecentis

tradit.

Alii

n

Ponto coadverso Coraxorum gentis (vacant Ba!)ea Ponti)
fere a continents stadiis

acctpimui, tarrens cuncta sorbensque. (cp. CIV.) Sic mart
late pattnti

immensam
(cp.

altitudinem

saporem

incoqtti salis,

dulci tfnuique,

quod facillime trahat

ignea,

omne

ideo summa aequorum aqua dulciorem profundam; hanc esse veriorem causam, quant quod mare terrae sudor sit aeterttits: out quia

atperiui crassiusque linquatur:

[CIII]) Mirabilius id faciunt aquae dulces, juxta mare, ut fistulis emicanles. nee aquarunt natura a miraculis
repertis.

marts tradunt, vadis nunquam

CVI

Nam

cessat.

Dulces
et

Ideo

mart invehuntur, leviores haud dubie. marinae, quarum nalura gravior, magis inQiiaedam vero
et dulces

plurimum ex
ttatura
ticiit

arido misctatur

illi

vapore: aut quia terrae
.

vecla sustinent.

inter se super-

mcdiaitas aquas inficiat

.

(cp.

CV)

:

a/tis-

meant

alitis.

947-]
J

ON THE OCEAN.
because

189

7potrebbe nasciere, perche, leuatone ogni dolce e sottile I9 parte, la qual facilmete il caldo a se ti 20 ra, rimane la parte piu
l8
2I aspra e piu grossa, e per questo 1'acqua, che e nella su 22 perfitie, e piu dolcie che nel fodo; 23 a questa si cotradice colle medesime 24 sopradette ragioni, cioe che il medesimo ac 2 5caderebbe alii paduli e.altre 26 acque che per il ca! do s'asciugano; Acora fu detto che 27 la salsedine del mare e sudore della terra; 28 a questo si rispode che tutte le uene dell' acque 2 ?che penetrano la terra, sarebbono insalate Ma 3 si coclude la salsedine del mare esser nata 3 1 dalle molte vene d'acqua le quali nel 6 34penetrare la ter^sra trovano $ \Q mini37ere del sale, e 3 8 quelle in parte 39 si soluono e por4ta seco all' o^cieano e li altri 42 mari, d'643de mai Kli nuvo 44 li, seminatori is d' elli fiumi If ^\o leuano; ed e'sarebbe 47 salato il ma^re alii nostri te"49pi che piu mai per 5 alcun altro te^po fusse, e se 52 1' auersario si dis^cesse, che il tenpo per 6 54 infinite- secchereb ss be over cogielereb5 be in sa S7 le, a questo s s si risponde, il mare che 59tal sale si re 6o de alia terra 6l colla liberatione 62 d' essa terra, che 6 3 s' inalza col suo 64 acquistato sale, 65 e li fiumi lo rendo;

all the sweet and subtle portions which the heat attracts easily being taken away, the

bitter and coarser part will remain, and thus the water on the surface is fresher than at the bottom [22]; but this is contradicted

more

by the same reason given above, which is, that the same thing would happen in marshes and other waters, which are dried up by the heat. Again, it has been said that the
saltness

of

the

sea

is

the

sweat

of the

earth; to this it may be answered that all the springs of water which penetrate through the earth, would then be salt. But the con-

clusion is, that the saltness of the sea must proceed from the many springs of water which, as they penetrate into the earth, find mines
salt and these they dissolve in part, and carry with them to the ocean and the other seas, whence the clouds, the begetters of And the sea never carry it up. rivers,

of

would be salter in our times than ever it was at any time; and if the adversary were to say that in infinite time the sea would
dry up or congeal into
salt,

to to

this I ans-

wer

that this

salt

is

restored

the earth

by the which

setting free of that part of the earth rises out of the sea with the salt it
it

has acquired, and the rivers return
earth under the sea.

to the

66

no

alia

somersa

terra.

G. 49*]

947-

4

Terza e vlti 2 ma ragione di3remo, il sale essere in tutte s le cose create 6 e questo
8

say

le acque passage per tutte e calcium delle cose I2 bruciate, e le J 3orine di qua I4 luche anima I5 le e le 1<5 l8 super fluita usci^te de' lor cor pi e le 20 couertono 2I le corterre, ^nelle quali si
c'

I7.segniano

le ci I0 eneri

rutioni
2

22

di tutte le cose.
2

3Ma a dire meglio, essendo modo eterno, egli e neciessario

dato *che

il

li

sua popoli sieno acora loro eterni; ode 25 eternalmete fu e sarebbe la spetie vmana cosu 26 matricie del sale; e se tutta la massa

reason we will created things; and this we learn from water passed over the ashes and cinders of burnt things; and the urine of every animal, and the superfluities issuing from their bodies, and the earth into which all things are converted by corruption. to put it better, But, given that the world is everlasting, it must be admitted that its population will also be eternal; hence the human species has eternally been and would be consumers of salt; and if all the mass of the earth were to be turned into salt, it

For

the

third
is

and

last

that

salt

in

all

essottile.

19.

chaldo

asseti.

20.

asspra.

22.

fodo

|[

contro.
28.

23.

acquessta
. .

si

cotraddicie

cholle.

25.

chaderebbe

.

.

chal.

26.

sassciughano Achora fuddetto.
quel che.43.

27. essudore. di socto-^f 35.

acquessto
[le ve].

chettutte.
36.

Lines 32
5]
le.

66 are written on the margin.

32. Tf finiscie

33.
(li

macha

trovano
46.
59.

[ne del

40.

secho

alloc.

41. elli. 51.

42.

mari
esse.

[dove] do.
53. ciessi.

de mai

nuvo.

45. delli fiumi)

mai.

no leuano ede "sare".
sare.
61. cholla.

48. nosstri.
. .

50. alchu.

fussi

54. sechere.
.
.

55. cogielere.
5.

57. acquesto.
7.

65. elli

reda.

66. somersa.

947.

3.

direno
17.
is
.

sale es.

chose.

6.

ecquessto.

vssci.

de de.

18. elle.

19. nelle.

segnia [lecho]. 10. enere e chalci. n. ne. 12. elle. 15. elle. 16. fruita 20. couertano. Lines i 27 are written on the margin along the text no 1201 under
,

which

the text
.

of

lines 23
25.

39, parallel with the lines 40
.
.

60.
.

23.
.

essendo
26.

|

"dato"

il

modo
27.

"etterno",

egli.

24. chelli

.

.

achora

%

ecterni.

etternalmete

essarebbe lasspetie

cosu.

essettutta.

bassterebbe.

28.

chonfessare
|

o

22.

Compare No.

948.

190
della terra fas'?si sale,

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[948. 949.

non basterebbe alii 8 cosa ci bisognia vmani, per la qual * o che la spetie del sale 9 sia confessare, o che quella eterna Isieme col modo, 3mora e rinasca insieme cogli omini d'essa
cibi

would not suffice for all human food [27]; whence we are forced to admit, either that the species of salt must be everlasting like the world, or that it dies and is born again But as expelike the men who devour it.
rience teaches us that it does not die, as is evident by fire, which does not consume water which becomes salt in proit, and by to the quantity dissolved in it, and portion

di jl voratori;

non quel manife^sta,
iif

se la esperieza c'insegnia avere morte come per il foco si

Ma

il qual 1'acqua che di tato

non
si

la

cosuma, e per

di quato ella evaporado l'a-qua, sempre sale resta nella prima quatita, ^deve il vmani che in orina, passare per li corpi MO sudore, o altre superfluita fia ritrovato, e ques^to e il sale che ogni anno si porta

J*sala

in se

ne

risolue,

when

it

is

evaporated the

salt

always remains

in the original quantity

it

must pass through

alle citta;

aduque
li

dov'e piscia;
salati;

cavasi il sale de' lochi, so porci e li veti marini
39
'

men either in the urine or the other excretions where it is found again; and as much salt is thus got rid of as is carried every year into towns; therefore
the bodies of

sweat or

pioggia pene tratrice terra sia que lla, ch'e sotto 4 5 a lli della fonda 46 meti delle cit^ta e popoli, 48 e sia s per li meati del la terra requella che s'da la salsedi 52 ne leuata dal s>mare, e
la
44

Diremo che

42

che

54 la

tutti 57

mutatio ssdel mare, sta5 6 to sopra H monti, lo Ia s8 sci per le
in essi

ritrovate

monti ecc.

dug in places where there is urine. Sea hogs and sea winds are salt. We will say that the rains which penetrate the earth are what is under the foundations of cities with their inhabitants, and are what restore through the internal passages of the earth the saltness taken from the sea; and that the change in the place of the sea, which has been over all the mountains, caused it to be left it there in the mines found in those mountains,&c.
salt is

Leic. 21 1\

94 8.

The

teristics

characof *ea water

(948. 949).

L'acque de' mari sua 6 era profondita.

-*

salati

son dolci nelle

The

waters

of the

salt

sea are fresh at

the greatest depths.

G. 38*)

949PE 2 NETRA INFRA LA TERRA.

COME L'OCEANO NO

THAT THE OCEAN DOES NOT PENETRATE UNDER
THE EARTH.

L'oceano no penetra infra la terra, e que 4 sto c'insegniano le molte e varie vene
d'acque
dolsci,
le

quali

in

diuersi

lochi
alia
di-

d'esso oceano sua superfitie;

6 pene trano dal fondo Ancora il me 7 desimo 8

The ocean does not penetrate under the and this we learn from the many and various springs of fresh water which, in many parts of the ocean make their way up from The same thing the bottom to the surface.
earth,
is

pozzi fatti dopo lo spa tio d'u miglio remoti dal detto ocieano, 9li quali I0 s'enpiano d'acqua dolcie, e questo ac cade dolcie e piu sottile che 1'acperche 1'acqua "qua salata, e per cosegueza piu penetrali

mostrano

farther

proved by wells dug beyond the

of a mile from the said ocean, which fill with fresh water; and -this happens because the fresh water is lighter than salt water and consequently more penedistance
trating.

I2

tiva.
'J

o

la

Qual pesa piu, '*o 1'acqua ghiac'Sciata no I6 ghiacciata?
29. etterna
.
.

or

Which weighs most, water when when not frozen?
31.

frozen

chella.
.
.

chol

.

.

checquella.

30. rinassca

.

.

chogli.

Massella essperieza.

32. focho.

33. nolla. 35.

sepre

ressta.

36.

ne vale passare.
46. delli ci.
3.

37. ritrorato

ecq"a".

38. oni.

39. pisscia.

40. direno chelle.

41.

piogie.

42. tratrici.

43. sien.

44. Ha.
2.
.

48. sic quella che.
.
.

49. de.
.

60. nessi.
4.

949. loccieano.

infralla.
.

loccicano
8.

infralla

.

ecques.
9.

cinsegnia
10.

.

.

euuarie.
.

5.

occieano "pe"

nene.

7.

dimosLines
choiro.

strano
13

li

pozi

losspa.

miglio

[li

quali] remoti.
15.

ecquessto.
16.

chade
17.

.

chellac.
18.

n. piu
20.

[soct]

penetra.
.

16 are written

<m the margin.

14. diac.

olla.

diacciata.

dole.

chella.

chellacquat

.

947.

1.

27.

That

is,

on the supposition that

salt,

once consumed, disappears for ever.

950952.]
PlU

ON THE OCEAN.

191

PENETRA L'ACQUA DOLCE COTRO l8 ALL'ACQUA SALSA, CHE LA SALSA COTRO AL I9 LA
DOLCIE.
20

FRESH WATER PENETRATES MORE AGAINST SALT

WATER THAN SALT WATER AGAINST FRESH
WATER.

Che 1'acqua
2I

dolcie penetri piu

cotro
salt

That fresh water penetrates more against
water,

qua salsa, che essa salsa cotro alia 22 lo manifesta vna sottil tela ascidolcie, ci
all'ac

than

salt

water against fresh

is

utta e 2 3vechia, pendente con equal bassezza 2 4colli sua oppositi stremi nelle due varie 2 s acque, delle quali le lor superfitie 2<3 d' equal bassezza, e allor si vedra elesie var 2 9si in alto infra essa pezza tanto piu

proved by a thin cloth dry and old, hanging with the two opposite ends equally low in the two different waters, the surfaces of which are at an equal level; and it will then be seen how much higher the fresh
water will
salt;

rise in this piece

of linen than the
fresh lighter than

1'acqua

che la salsa, quanto dolcie e piu Mieve che essa salsa.
dolcie,

28

la

by

so

much

is

the

the salt.

C. A. 157 b; 466^]

950.

Tutti
in

li

mari
so

mediterrani

e

li

2

golfi

All
seas, the sea.

inland
are

seas

d'essi mari

fatti

da fi3vmi che versano

made by

and the gulfs of those On rivers which flow into

mof

the for-

mare.

<95-

951)-

C. A. 83

;

240,5]

951-

Qui
2

RENDE RAGIONE DELLI EFFETTI FATTI .DALLE ACQUE NEL PROPOSITO SITO.
SI

HERE THE REASON is GIVEN OF THE EFFECTS PRODUCED BY THE WATERS IN THE ABOVE MENTIONED PLACE.
All the lakes and all the gulfs of the sea all inland seas are due to rivers which distribute their waters into them, and from im-

Tutti
li

li

laghi e tutti

li

golfi

del

mare
dalli

e

tutti

mari mediterrani nascono

and

che in quelli spa^dono le loro acque, e dalli impedimeti della loro declinatione 4nel Mare Mediterrano, diuisore d' Africa dall'Europa, e dell'Europa dall'Asia, mediate il Nilo e Tanai che in shij versano le loro acque; Si domada, quale inpedifiumi,

pediments in their downfall into the Mediterranean which divides Africa from Europe and Europe from Asia by means of the Nile and the Don which pour their waters into it. It is asked what impediment is great en-

meto

e maggiore a proibire
si

il

sue acque, che no
Ash.'
III.

renda

all'

corso delle oceano.

ough

to

stop

the

course

of

the

waters

which do not reach the ocean.

25 a]

952-

DE
2

ONDA.
del

OF WAVES.
mare
sea

L'onda

A
,

Wave
,

Of
n

the

"
r a*ments of the sea on the land and vice versa

senpre ruina 3dinanti

always
of
that

breaks in
its

alia

sua basa,

e

front

base, (952954)-

quella

paHte del
trovera

col-

and

portion

of

mo

si

the crest will

then be
before

piu lowest

bassa che sprima era
piu alta.
21. dolcie cie.
28. chella
.
.

which

was
22. assciuta eo.

highest.
in 27. si [eleua]
. .

23.

pendente

[cholli]

chon.

24. cholli.

26.

vedra

me

eleua "r".

tantu.

he

piu.

950.
951.

i. i.

elli.

2.

gholfi.
. .

effect! .. delle. 2. ettuttili gholfi
il.

etti ttutti

.

.

nasschano.

3.

Dano

le

.

.

ed dalli la pedimeu.

4.

mediterano

.

.

et

che
952. 2.

5.

domade

.

.

occieano.
3.

Londa

[delle] del.

ecquella.

4.

cholmo.

5.

alta sara poi piu has.

952.
Trattatn,

The page of FRANCESCO DI GIOROIO'S on which Leonardo has written this remark,

contains

some notes on

the construction of dams>

harbours &c.

192

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[953-957-

Lac. tot]

953le

del ma're al continvo inuerso il mezzo del acquistano terreno Come li scogli e promontori 3d e mare;

Come
al

riue

acquire

'

continvo ruinano e si consumano; mediterrani scopriranno i lor fondi e sol riserberanno il canale al all' aria vi metta, il qualc maggior fiume, che dentro correra all'oceano e iui uerseSra le sue di tutti i fiumi, acque insieme con quelle che co seco s' accopagnano.

mari

That the shores of the sea constantly more soil towards the middle of the sea; that the rocks and promontories of the sea are constantly being ruined and worn
away;
that

Come

the

Mediterranean seas

will

in

i

time discover their bottom to the air, and all that will be left will be the channel of the greatest river that enters it; and this will run to the ocean and pour its waters into that with those of all the rivers that are its tributaries.

Leic. 27

954il

Come
secca
ch'elli
il

fiume del Po
nel
2

in

brieve tenpo

mare Adriano

medesimo modo

asseccd gra parte di Lonbardia.

How the river Pb, in a short time might dry up the Adriatic sea in the same way as it has dried up a large part of Lombardy.

C. A. 162^;
2

955-

The ebb and
ftow

thc

uSe
(955-960)

fa

IDove e maggior quatita d'acqua, quivi maggior flusso e riflusso; e '1 ^contrario nolle acque strette.l *Guarda se '1 mare e nella sorha crenel

Where
there
is

there is a larger quantity of water, a greater flow and ebb, but the con-

trary in

narrow waters.
is

scieHe quado la luna emi 6 sphero.

mezzo

del tuo

Look whether the flow when the moon

sea is at its greatest half way over our

hemisphere [on the meridian].

Leic

956.

o sole, overo e machina; Come

e riflusso nasce dalla luna 2 I'ali tare di questa terrestre il flusso e riflusso e vario in diuersi paesi e mari.

Se

'1

flusso

Whether the
the are

moon

flow and ebb are caused by or the sun, or are the breathing of

this terrestrial

machine. That the flow and ebb
in

different

different countries

and

seas.

Leic. 50)

957.
delli

Libro 9
crea
nel

flusso e riflusso;
Gibiltar, e

scontri de' fiumi e lor e la medesima 2 causa lo
dello stretto
le

Book
flow
sea,

mare per causa

di

9 of the meeting of rivers and their and .ebb. The cause is the same in the where it is caused by the straits of Gi-

ancora accade per
mezo

uoragini.

braltar.

And again
. .

it

is

caused by whirlpools.
cosecho

953- 2 -

acquisstano

.

.

.

.

Hscogli.

3.

essi

chonsumano Come

e

scopiranno

.

.

essol.

4.

magor.

5.

sacopagnano.
954.
i.
i.

secha.

2.

assecho.
2.

953. 936.
957.

he magior.

frusso e refrusso.
2.

4.
.

gharda.
.

5.

mezo.

i.
f.

frusso e refrusso nassce.
isscontri
.

tereste

frusso e refrusso.
2.

.

ellor frusso e refrusso ella.

chausa

.

.

strett[i]

o di gibiltar

.

.

achade

.

.

voraginc.

956.

i.

Allusion

may here be made

to the

my-

thological explanation of the ebb and flow given in the Edda. Utgardloki says to Thor (Gylfaginning 48): "When thou wert drinking out of the

the sea, which thou sawest not; but when thou shalt go to the sea, thou shalt see how much thou hast drunk out of
it.

And

that

men now

call

the ebb tide."

hom, and

it

seemed

to

thee that

it

was slow

in

Several passages in various manuscripts treat of the ebb and flow. In collecting them I have been

emptying a wonder

befell,

which

I

should not have

guided by the rule only

to transcribe those

which

believed possible: the other end of the horn lay in

named some

particular spot.

958.]

ON THE OCEAN.

193

Leic. 66}

958-

DEL
2

FLUSSO E RIFLUSSO.

OF THE FLOW AND

EBB.

mari anno il lor flusso e rimedesimo tempo, ma pare variarsi, perche li giorni no co^minciano in vn medesimo tenpo in tutto 1'universo, cociosiache, quado nel nostro emisperio e mezzo 4 giorno nelP opposite emisperio e
Tutti
li

flusso in v

All seas have their flow and ebb in the same period, but they seem to vary because the days do not begin at the same time

throughout the universe ; in such wise as that when it is midday in our hemisphere, it is

,

mezzanotte

congiuntioni orietali dell' uno e del' altro emispeSrio comincia la notte che corre dirieto al giorno, e nelle congiutioni occidentali d' essi emisperi comincia 6 il giorno che seguita la notte dalla sua opposita parte adunque e conchiuso che, ancora che '1 7detto accrescimeto e diminvitione delle altezze de' mari sien
, ;

e

nelle

midnight in the opposite hemisphere; and at boundary of the two hemispheres the night begins which follows on the day, and at the Western boundary of these hemithe Eastern

spheres begins the day, which follows the Hence it is night from the opposite side. to be inferred that the above mentioned swelling
height of the seas, although they place in one and the same space of time, are seen to vary from the above mentioned causes. The waters are then withdrawn into the fissures which start from the depths of the sea and which ramify inside the body of the earth, corresponding to the sources of rivers, which are constantly taking from the bottom of the sea the water which has flowed into it. sea of water is
in

and diminution

the

take

fatte in

vn

8

medesimo tenpo,

essi
;

variarsi per le gia dette cagioni que somerse le acque 9 nelle
al

mostrano sono adunuene partite

dai fondi de' mari, le quali ramificano dentro I0 al nacorpo della terra, e rispondono
,

scimento de' fiumi quali al continvo tolgono dal fondo il mare al mare andato; e tolto innvme^rabili volte nella superfitie un mare al mare E se tu volessi che la
i
; ,

A

luna,

apparendo

all'orientale

parte

I2

del

incessantly being drawn off from the surface of the sea. And if you should think that the moon,
rising at the Eastern end of the Mediterranean sea must there begin to attract to herself the waters of the sea, it would follow that we must at once see the effect of it at the Eastern end of that sea. Again, as the Mediter-

Mare Mediterrano, comiciasse ad
se
1'

attrarre

a
al

acque del mare, ne seguirebbe che mediate 13 se ne vedrebbe la sperieza
fine orietale di tal

in-

essendo

il

mare predetto; Ancora Mar Medi I4 terrano circa alia

ottava parte della circuferenza della spera dell acqua, per essere lui 'Slungo 3 mila miglia, e '1 flusso e riflusso no fa se no 4 volte in 24 ore, e' no s'accorderebbe tale I6 effetto col tenpo d'esse 24 ore, se esso Mare Mediterra no fusse lungo semila miglia, x perche ? se lo spogliameto di tanto mare avesse a passare per lo stretto di Gibiltar nel correr dietro l8 alla luna, e' sarebbe si grade il corso delle acque per tale stretto, e s'alzerebbe in tata altezza, T 9che dopo esso stretto farebbe tal corso, che per molte miglia infra 1'oceano farebbe inodatione e
bolli 20 menti

about the eighth part of the cirof the aqueous sphere, being 3000 miles long, while the flow and ebb only occur 4 times in 24 hours, these results would not agree with the time of 24 hours, this unless Mediterranean sea were six thousand miles in length; because if such a superabundance of water had to pass through the straits of Gibraltar in running behind the moon, the rush of the \vater through that
is
.

ranean sea cumference

grandissimi, per la qual cosa sarebbe inpossibile passarui, e dopo questo subito l'ocea 2I no rederebbe colla medesima
furia F

would be so great, and would rise such a height, that beyond the straits it would for many miles rush so violently into the ocean to cause floods and as tremendous seething, so that it would be This agitated impossible to pass through.
strait

to

acque

ricevute,

donde esso

le riceve

;

ocean would afterwards return the waters

it

958.

i.

frusso e refrusso.
.

2.
.
.

frusso e refrusso nv

.

.

gorni no cho5.

3.
.

mincano.
.
.

3.

concosia

.

.

nosstro
. .

.

.

mez.

4.

gorno
.
.

.

.

oposito
sita.
.
.

.

mezanotte
.

conguntioni
dellellalteze

.

.

emisspe.

cominca
.
.

7.

acresscimeto
10.
. .

.

de mari ancora chelle
. .

comica. 6. gorno congutioni ocidentali gorno oponvn. 8. mostra somerse. 9. defondi ramifichano chagoni
.

.

.

.

.

rispondano.

nasscimento
Essettu
.
.

De
15.

tolgano
.
.

'-del

fondo"
12.

superfitie"
14.

umare
.

chella

aparendo.
. .

rendano] il mediterano comicassi
[e
.

.

andato "e tolto" invmerabili volte "nella
.

.

asse.
16.
.

13. lassperieza

.

.

mare "predetto".
17. sello
. .

terano circha
.
.

.

acqu"a".
sarebe
.

lungho

frusso

e
.

refrusso
. .

.

.

sacorderebe.
21.

meditera fussi lungho.
.

avessi

dirie.

18.

.

essalzerebe.

19.

hesso

.

infrall

ebbolli.

rederebbe

riceve

.

.

echoche.

22.

passerebe

.

.

VOL.

ii.

BB

194

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[959-

ecco che aduque mai si "passerebbe per e la sperieza mostra che tale stretto-, ora vi si passa, saluo che quado il d'ogni uento ''vie per la linia della correte, allora riflusso forte s'aumeta-; II mare non il 2 stretti che anno vscita alza 1'acqua nelli ma ben s'ingorga e si ritarda dinati a a con furioso moto s poi ristora quelli , onde del suo ritardameto insino al fin il tempo del suo moto riflesso.

had received with equal fury to the place they had come from, so that no one ever could pass through those straits. Now experience shows that at every hour they are passed in safety, but when the wind sets in the same direction as the current, the strong ebb increases [23]. The
sea does not raise the water that has issued from the straits, but it checks them and this retards the tide; then it makes up with furious haste for the time it has lost until the

end of the ebb movement.
Leic. ,3-)

959jl

Come
2

flusso e riflusso

non e generale,

perche in riuiera di Genova non fa niete, a Vinegia due braccia, tra la Inghilterra e Fiandra fa 18 braccia; 3 Come per lo
stretto
di
Sicilia
la

That the flow and ebb are not general; on the shore at Genoa there is none, at Venice two braccia, between England and Flanders 18 braccia. That in the straits of
for
Sicily
all

correte

e gradissima,

the

current

is

very

strong

because

perchd di H passa tutte 1'acque de' fiumi che uersa 4 nel Mare Adriatico.

the waters from the rivers that flow into

the Adriatic pass there.

Leic. 35

\

960.
occidentali
,

Nelle parti Fiandra,
circa
in
il

appresso

alia

mare cresce e maca ogni 6 ore 20 braccia, 2 e 22 quado la luna

suo fauore, ma le 20 braccia e il suo ordinario, il quale ordinario manifestamete si uede >non essere per cavsa della luna; Questa varieta del crescere e discrescere
accadere per le ringorgationi delle acque, le quali son condotte nel Mare Mediterrano da quella quantita de' fiu s mi dell' Africa Asia ed Evropa, che in esso mare versano le loro acque, le quali per lo stretto di Gibiltar infra Abila
del
4

In the West, near to Flanders, the sea and decreases every 6 hours about 20 braccia, and 22 when the moon is in its favour; but 20 braccia is the general rule,
rises

and
the

this rule,

as
its

moon

for

mare ogni 6 ore pu6

the increase and 6 hours may arise from the the

is evident, cannot have cause. This variation in decrease of the sea every
it

damming up of
into

waters,

which

are

poured

the

Mediterranean by the quantity of rivers from Africa, Asia and Europe, which flow into that sea, and the waters which are given to it by ocean those rivers; it pours them to the

ella

.

.

ora usi passa.
25.

23. refrus.so
.
.

.

.

lacq"a".

24. vsscita [ne in quelli]

ma ben
3.

siningorgha "essiritarda

.

.

acquelli

onde

poi con.
9S9i.
i.

tenpo [chechej del
2.
.
.

refresso.
. .

frusso e rcfrusso.

genva

.

.

uinegia due br tralla ingilterra

18 br.

cicilia lacorete.
3.

4. adriatico.

960.

parte

hoccidentale
ore po.

cressce "e

macha

.

.

circha

20 bra.

2.

20 br quale "ordinario".
africha
.

chavsa

.

.

cressciere e dis.
.

cretscere

4.

achadere

.

.

mediterano da "quella".

5.

.

versano "le loro acque"

le

abile e calpe.

958. 23. In attempting to get out of the Mediterranean, vessels are sometimes detained for a considerable time; not merely by the causes mentioned by Leonardo but by the constant current flowing

nardo accounts for
all

this

by the southward flow of

the Italian rivers
is

nation

at

along the coasts, the explaleast based on a correct observation;

namely

that a steady current flows

southwards along

eastwards
Gibraltar.

through

the

middle

of

the

straits

of

959-

A

the coast of Calabria and another northwards, along the shores of Sicily; he seems to infer, from the
direction
is

few more recent data

may be given here
tide

of the
it.

fust,

that the tide in the Adriatic

to facilitate comparison. In the Adriatic the rises 2 and '/ feet, at Terracina l/4 . In the
lish
1

caused by
960.
5.

channel between Calais and Kent
In the straits
2
'

it

rises
it

8 to 20 feet

of Messina
in

Engfrom rises no

Abila, Lat. Abyla, Gr. 'Ap<iATj, Calpe,
I,at.

now Surra

Ximiera near Ceuta;

Calpe. Gr. KdtXTti],

now
lars

Gibraltar.

more than

/2 feet,

and that only
all

but the current

is

the

stormy weather, When Leostronger.

names of the

rocks,

Leonardo here uses the ancient which were known as the Pil-

of Hercules.

96o.]

ON THE OCEAN.
6

195

e Calpe

promotori rende all'occeano le acque che da essi fiumi li son date, jl quale oceano, astendendosi 7 infra le isole d'ln-

through the straits of Gibraltar, between Abila and Calpe [5]. That ocean extends to the island of England and others farther North, and it

ghilterra e 1'altre piu settetrionali, si uiene a ringorgare e tenere in collo per diuersi
8

golfi,
si

li

quali,

essendo

tali

mari discostati-

colla lor superfitie dal centre del

modo

,

anno

acquistato peso, il quale, 9poiche supera la potentia dell'avenimeto delle acque che lo cavsauano, essa acqua ripiglia im I0 peto in contrario al suo avenimeto, e
fa

dammed up and kept high in various gulfs. These, being seas of which the surface is remote from the centre of the earth, have acquired a weight, which as it is greater than the force of the incoming waters which cause it, gives this water an impetus
becomes
in the contrary direction to that in which it came and it is borne back to meet the waters

1'

impeto contro alii stretti, che acque e massime fa "contra lo

li

davano

stretto di

Gibiltar, il quale per alquato spatio di tenpo rima ringorgato e viene a riseruarsi tut I2 te 1' acque che di novo in tal tenpo li so date dalli gia detti fiumi, e questa mi pare una T 3si potrebbe assegnare delle ragioni che della causa d'esso flusso e riflusso, come nella 21 a del 4* della mia teori^ca e provato.

and this it does coming out of the straits most against the straits of Gibraltar; these, so long as this goes on, remain dammed up and all the water which is poured out meanwhile by the aforementioned rivers, is pent up [in the Mediterranean]; and this might be assigned as the cause of its flow and ebb, as is shown in the 2i st of the
;

4

th

of

my
.
.

theory.

6.
.

asslendendosi.
ripiglia e.
10.
14.

7. infralle

isola digilterra ellaltre
.

.

.

settatrionali
ta

ettenere.
.

8.
.

cholla
.

.

.del mo
.
.

' .

ano.
. .

9.

chello

.

peto

.

inpito

.

.

chelli.

12.

.lacq"a"

.

ga

detti

ecquesti

chausa

frusso e

refrusso

comi.

cha

e.

in.

SUBTERRANEAN WATER COURSES.
C. A. 157 <*; 4664]

961.
2

Theory of
the
circulation of the

Gradissimi fiumi corrono

sotto terra.

Very large

rivers flow

under ground.

waters
(961. 962).

Leic. 310]

962.
s'a a

Qui

Imagina

2

re

la

terra

1

segata

pel mez*zo,- e vedrannosi Me profondita 6 del mare e della' ? terra; 8 le uene si partono 9 da' fondi de' ma I0 ri e tessono la "terra, e si Ieua l2 no alia sommita ^de'moti, e riuer^sano per li fiumi e 'Sritor-

This is meant to represent the earth cut through in the middle, showing the depths of the sea and of the earth the waters start from the bottom of the seas,
;

and
they
rivers

ramifying
rise

through
the

the

earth

to

mountains,

summits of the back by the flowing
to

nano

al

ma l6 re.

and returning

the sea.

Leic. xi 6]

observationsl'infime

Raggirasi 1' acqua con cotinvo moto dalprofondita de' mari alle altissime S f de' moti, non osseruando 2 la natura 'ik.. k!^t.? somita '. menypotnedelle cose gram, e in questo caso fanno
(963-969).

.

come il sangue delli animali, che sempre si 3moue dal mare del core e scorre alia
somita delle loro teste, e quiui roponsi le una vena rotta nel uene, come si uede naso, che tutto il sangue da basso si leua

waters circulate with constant motion utmost depths of the sea to the summits of the mountains, not obeying highest the nature of heavy matter; and in this case it acts as does the blood of animals which

The

from

the

'

is

and flows
it is

always moving from the sea of the heart to the top of their heads; and here
that veins burst as

a vein bursts in the nose, that

one may see when all the blood

961.

i.

cori.
uedrassi.
7.
2.

969.

4.
i.

[e

come].
.
.

8. parta.
3.

10. cttessano.

ix. essi.

963.

Rogirasi.

fa

animati.

move

[dal lago]

"dal mare" del

.

.

tesste

.

.

e chi quiui ropasi.

4.

chettutto

.

.

alteza

963.

The

greater part of this passage has been given as No. 849 in the section on Anatomy.

964966.]
alia

SUBTERRANEAN WATER COURSES.
della

I

97

altezza

rotta

vena;

s

Quando
terra,

from below
vein.

rises

to

the

level

of the burst

1'acqua escie della rotta
6

vena

della

essa osserua la natura dell'altre
gravi
bassi.

che
7

1'

aria,
8

Vaiio

le

cose piv onde senpre cerca i lochi uene scorredo con Ifinita

the water rushes out of a burst vein in the earth it obeys the nature of other things heavier than the air, whence it always

When

seeks

the

lowest

traverse

the

[7] These waters places. body of the earth with infinite

ramificatione pel corpo della terra.

ramifications.

Br.

M.

233,5]

964.

Quella cavsa, che
le spetie de' corpi

move

li

umori

in tutte
j

The same cause which
n

animati e che co quelle soccorrea ogni lesione, 2 move 1'acqua dal1 mfima profodita del mare alia soma altezza de' moti, 3 e come 1'acqua si leua dalle
*

eve ry

species
inj

of animal
is

which eye

humours body and by ai so moves repaired
stirs

the

the waters from the utmost de P th of the sea
to the greatest heights.

inferior! parti della vite all'alte tagliature.

Br.

M.

236,5]

umore

L' acqua e proprio quella che per vitale 2 di questa arida terra e dedicata e ^ quella cavsa che la move per le sue rami 4 ficate vene cotro al natural corso dele proprio quella che mo 6 ve sle cose gravi
,
,

property of water that it conhuman of this arid earth; and the cause which moves it through its ramified veins , against the natural course of
It
is

the

stitutes

the

vital

heavy matters,

is

the

li

umori
7

in tutte le spetie de'

moves
which

the

same property which humours in every speBut that
our

corpi

animati;

soma ami 8 ratio
planti,

quella, con de' sua contem-

Ma

cies of animal body.

crowns

wonder

in

daH'infima

pro^fondita

somita all' altissime moti si leua, e per le rotte vene ver 'sando al basso mare ritorna, e di novo I2 con celerita sormota, e all' -atidetto de^sceso ritorna-, cosl
del
10

mare

de'

contemplating it is, that it rises from the utmost depths of the sea to the highest tops of the

1

dalle
alle

parti
-,

intri I4 siche

al-

1'esteriori

cosl

dalle

infime

I5 superiori, voltado quado cosl insieme con naturale cor l5 so ruina l8 co ^cotinua revolutione, per cogiunta, li terrestri meati si ua raggirado.
,

and flowing from opened veins returns to the low seas; then once more, and with extreme swiftness, it mounts again and returns by the same thus rising from the descent, to the and inside outside,
mountains,
the

going round from the from whence it est,

lowest to the highrushes down in a natural course. Thus by these two movements combined in a constant circulation, it travels through the veins of the earth.

G.

7

o]
L'

966.

SE

ACQUA PUO MOTARE DAL MARE
CIME BELLI MONTI.

2

ALLE

WHETHER WATER

RISES

FROM THE SEA TO THE

TOPS OF MOUNTAINS.
4

3 II

mare oceano no puo penetrare
cime de' moti che con
grave chellaria
.

dalle

radici alle

lui

Scon-

The water of the ocean cannot make its way from the bases to the tops of the mountains

.

.

ve "ne".
socore
. .

5.

esscie.
2. 2.

6.

.

.

cercha.
3.

964. 965.

i.
i.

lesione.
.

frofodita

.

alteza.

come
4.

[il

lacq"a"

.

omore.
|

quessta
dall.

.

.

dedichata.
12.

chotro
celerita

sangue] lacq"a". . de. 5. chose.
. .

4.

tagliature de.
6.

here the text breaks
7.

off.

omori
15.

.

.

lesspetie.
17.

che chosoma ami.

8.

contenplanti

"e che"
.

10. rocte.

cono

3is.

13.

scienso.

cho.

cotinua revoluitione siua

[ragirado].
966.
i.

18. teresti

.

ragirado.

sellacq"a" motare.

3.

occieano.

4.

radicie

.

.

collui.

5.

sul

si

leua quato la seccita.

6.

Esse.

7.

cheppienetra.

198
finano,
6
7

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[967.

ma

solo

si

del

mote ne

tira;

leua quado la secchita E se per 1'aversario la

8

dalla cima del monte pioggia, che penetra sua, che col mare confinano, disce'de e mollifica la spiaggia opposta
alle radici

del
si

come M fa

me lo desimo monte

la cicogniola

e tira al continuo, che versa per il

suo lato piu lu"go, fusse quella che tira in alto 1' acqua del 'Jmare; come se s n fusse la pelle del ma're, e la pioggia discende dalla cima del mo 'He a allo n da vn lato e dall'altro lato di' 6 scede da a allo w, sanza dubbio que' 7 sto sarebbe il modo dello stillare a l8 come si fa per la canna ^ feltro o
detta

qua che a
da! 2I li
lato
22

cico'9gniola, e senpre 1'ac20 monte il mollificato

^
in

which bound it, but only so much rises as the dryness of the mountain attracts. And if, on the contrary, the rain, which penetrates from the summit of the mountain to the base, which is the boundary of the sea; descends and softens the slope opposite to the said mountain and constantly draws the water, like a syphon [n] which pours through it must be this which its longest side, draws up the water of the sea; thus if sn were the surface of the sea, and the rain descends from the top of the mountain a to n on one side, and on the other sides it descends from a to m, without a doubt this would occur after the

per la gran pioggia, che discende

due oppositi
piu

lati,

tirerebbe a se

al

insieme 2 } coll' acqua del mare perpetuamete se il fusse piu lugo che lato del mote **a 1'altro a n, il che essere 25 no puo, perche nessuna parte di terra che no 26 sia somersa dall'oceano sara piu bassa 2 ?d'esso
lugo
-

la

pioggia

a n

,

m

oceano

ecc.

happens through the tubes called syphons [17]. And at all times the water which has softened the mountain, by the great rain which runs down the two opposite sides, would constantly attract the rain a , on its longest side together with the water from the sea, if that side of the mountain a m were longer than the other a #; but this cannot be, because no part of the earth which is not submerged by the ocean can be lower than that ocean.
as

n

manner of
s

distilling

through

felt,

or

A. 55*1

967.
DEL' ACQUA SOPRA

DELLE VENE
2

LE CIME DELLE

OF
It

SPRINGS OF

WATER ON THE TOPS OF

MOTAGNIE.

MOUNTAINS.
quite evident that the whole surface when there is no storm is at equal distance from the centre of the
is

Chiaro apparisce che tutta la superdelPocieano quado non a fortuna e di pan distatia 3 al cietro della terra e che le cime delle motagnie sono tanto piv lontane da esso ''cietro quato elle s'alzano
fitie
, , ,

of the ocean

an

earth, and that the tops of the mountains are farther from this centre in proportion as

sopra

alia superfitie

d'

esso

mare

;

Adu-

they

rise

above
if

the

surface

of that sea;

corpo della s terra non avesse similitudine coll' omo, sarebbe inpossibile che 6 1' acqua del mare, essendo tato piv bassa che le motagnie ch' ella potesse di sua

que

se'l

therefore

the

,

natura
nie ;
della
7

salire

alle

sommita
il

d'

esse motag-

Onde
,

e da credere
dell'

gione

che tiene

che quella casangue nella somita
8

testa
1'

omo,

quella

medesima
de' monti.

tenga
8.

acqua
.
.

nella

sommita
9.

not like that that the waters of the sea being so much lower than the mountains could by their nature rise up to the summits of these mountains. Hence it is to be believed that the same cause which keeps the blood at the top of the head in man keeps the water at the summits of the mountains.
chome
disciende
. .

body of the earth were of man, it would be impossible

chol

chonfin.1 disscie.
ullato.
16.

mollifiche.
.
.

10. cttira. 17.

12.

gho
.
.

fussi
18.

.

.

chettira.
. .

13.

.

.

fusse.
19.
.

14. ella

.

.

alia.

15.

da

disciede
ai.

dubbio che.
il

aflfeltro.

chome

lla

channa
sellatto.

[decta],
24.

essenpre
.

mollifi-

chato.

20.

cheddissciede.
27. occieano.

asse

lato.

22.

lugho

chollacq"a".

23.

fussi

lugho

chellaltro.

26. occieano.

967.

i.
.

acq"a".
.

2.
.

aparisscie
.

.

.

chella "tutu".
7.

3.

tera e chclle
.

.

.

motagni "e"
. .

.

.

esso
8.

[mare].

4.

sopa

.

.

chorpo.

5.

tera

avessi

.

choll

.

chellacqua.

chccquella chagione

chettiene

somita.

lacq"a".

966.

n,

17.
I.

Cicognola,

Syphon.

See VoL

I,

blood,

PL XXIV, No.
967. 968.

was
conception of the rising of the

This

which has given rise to the comparison, recognised as erroneous by Leonardo himself at a later period. It must be remembered that

968.

SUBTERRANEAN WATER COURSES.

199

A.

5 6a]

968.

DELLA COFERMATIONE PERCHE L'ACQUA E
NELLE
2

IN

SOMITA DE'MOTI.

CONFIRMATION OF WHY THE WATER GOES TO THE TOPS OF MOUNTAINS.

Dico
il

che

siccome
nelle

il

naturale
alia

calore

tiene

sague

uene

sommita

.sangue
e,
s

dell'omo, 3 e quado lo omo e morto, esso freddo si riduce 4 ne' lochi bassi ,

I say that just as the natural heat of the blood in the veins keeps it in the head of man, for when the man is dead the

cold

quado
,

il

sole

riscalda

moltiplica

omori
dolori

e sopraviene che forzado le uene 6 gienera spesso di testa che similemete le uene
,

omo, tato sangue con
,

la testa all'

blood sinks to the lower parts and the sun is hot on the head of a man the blood increases and rises so much, with

when

vanno ramificado 1 per
e

il

corpo
,

della

terra

per

lo

per tutto il per le uene

naturale calore, ch' e sparso coti 8 nete corpo 1'aqua staeleuate alPalte cime de' moti;
,

other humours, that by pressure in the veins often caused; in pains in the head are the same way veins ramify through the body of the earth, and by the natural heat

che passasi per uno acqua condotto mvrato nel corpo d' essa motagI0 come cosa morta non uscira dalla nia, sua prima bassezza perche non e "ri,

E queNa

which is distributed throughout the containing body, the water is raised through the veins
to

the

tops of mountains.

And

this

water,

which passes through a closed conduit inside the body of the mountain like a dead thing, cannot come forth from its low place unless
it

calore della prima vena ancora il calore 12 dell'elemeto del fuoco e il giorno il caldo del sole anno potetia disuegliere ^I'umidita -de' bassi lochi de' moti e tirare in alto nel medesimo modo ch'ella ^tira.i nvvoli e sueglie la loro vmidita dal letto del mare.
scaldata
;

dal

uitale

time.

-

,

,

the vital heat of the spring Again, the heat of the element of fire and, by day, the heat of the sun, have power to draw forth the moisture of the low parts of
is

warmed by

the mountains

and
it

to

draw them up,

in the

same way
their

draws the clouds and collects moisture from the bed of the sea.
as

Leic.

us]

969.

Come molte vene d' acqua salata si trovano fortemete distanti dal 2 mare, e questo potrebbe accadere, perche tal uena passasse
per qualche miniera di sale come quella d' Ungheria, che si caua 3 il sale per le grandissime cave, come quasi cavano le pietre.

That many springs of salt water are found at great distances from the sea; this might happen because such springs pass through some mine of salt, like that in Hungary where salt is hewn out of vast caverns, just as stone is hewn.

968.

i.

chofermatioae

.

.

lacq"a".
4. bassi

2.

dicho chessichome

.

.

chalore

tie "il
[il

sague" leuene
5.
. .

.

ala somita.

3.

[cho] e
. .

"lo"
zado.
i

omo
6.

.

.

fredo.

[chosi]
7.

echauado
. .

il

.

.

risschalda
.

n] la.

molti pricha essopraviene
choti.
8.

quado [esso] chon cheffor.

.

vano ramifichado.
.

locho'rpo

tera

.

chalori chessparso
. .

chorpo
.

.

.

chondotto
focho
trova
.

.

chorpo.
.

10.

chorae chosa
.

.

.

vsscira della
13. lochi

basseza

.

none.

u.

rischaldata

.

Ecque. 9. per chalore anchora il chalore.
.

elleuate

.

12.

.

.

chaldo
distante

sole a
.

dissuegliere.

"de moti"
.

ettirare.
. .

14. nvboli essueglie
3.

.

.

delletto.

969.

i.

.

.

da.

2.

ecquesto

.

.

achadere

.

passasi

chessi.

quasi caua.

the MS. A, from which these passages are taken, was written about twenty years earlier than the MS. Leic. (Nos. 963 and 849) and twenty-five years before the MS. W. An. IV. There is, in the original a sketch with No. 968 which is not reproduced. It represents a hill of the same shape, as that shown at No. 982. There

are veins, or branched streams, on the side of the
hill,

like those

on the

skull

PL CVIII/No.

4.

969.

out

of

great mine of Wieliczka in Galicia, which a million cwt. of rock-salt are

The

annually

dug
East,

out,

extends

for

West
South.

to

and

1150

metres from

3000 metres from North to

IV.

OF RIVERS.
Lcic.

970.

DELLE DIRIUATIONI
2

DE'FIUMI.

OF THE
The body of

ORIGIN OF RIVERS.
the earth, like the bodies of

on

the

II corpo della terra, a similitudine de' way corpi deli animali, e tessuto di ramification! oV di uene, le quali son tutte insieme cogiunte,

are

e son constituite a nvtrimento e viuificatione d'essa terra e de' sua creati partono dalle profondita del mare, e a quelle dopo
j
;

animals, is intersected with ramifications of waters which are all in connection and are constituted to give nutriment and life to the

molta revolutio+ne anno a tornare per li fiumi creati dalle alte rotture d'esse uene; e se tu volessi dire, le pioSve il uerno o
la

These come from earth and to its creatures. the depth of the sea and, after many revoluto return to it by the rivers tions, have
created

and

if

by the bursting of these you chose to say that the

springs;
rains

of

resolutione della neue Testate causa del nascimento de' fiumi, e'

essere
si ti

po-

the winter or the melting of the snows in summer were the cause of the birth of rivers,
in

trebbe allegare

fiumi, che anno origine ne' paesi focosi dell' Africa, nella quale non
li

6

piove e meno nevica, perche il superchio ?caldo senpre risolue in aria tutti li nuvoli, che da ueti in la son sospinti; e se tu dicessi

could mention the rivers which originate the torrid countries of Africa, where it never rains and still less snows because the
I

intense

che

Luglio e

uono il meto del sole

che ue 8 gono grossi il son delle nevi che si risolAgosto, Maggio e '1 Giugnio per 1' appressatali

fiumi,

heat always melts into air all the clouds which are borne thither by the winds. And if you chose to say that such rivers, as
increase in July and August,

'1

come from

the

alle

ne^ui delle

montagnie
poi

di Scitia, e che tali resolutioni si riducono in certe valli e fanno laghi, doue en-

trano per
970.
i.

le

I0

vene e caue sotterane,
.
.

le

June from the sun's approach to the snows on the mountains of Scythiafp], and that such meltings come down into certain valleys and form lakes, into which they enter by springs and subter-

snows which melt

in

May and

assimi

.

.

ettessudi di ramifichatione

cogunte.

3. consstit
.

ite

"a nvtrimento" e
5. olla
.
.
.

viuifichatione
.

.

.

terra
.

4l
|

e

de

sua

creati" essi

partano delle
. .

.

.

acquelle.
7.

4.
.

ano attornare
.

.

e,settu.
.

lastate
. .

.

chausa

.

.

nassciinento
.
.

.

portrebbe.
. .

6. fochosi africha
.

nevicha.
.

chaldo
9.

nvoli

.

.

ilia

.

sosspinte
.

essettu

chcttali.
.

8.
.

gano

ellagosto

chessi^
.

.

lapressamcto
.

.

.

mago

.

gugnio.

disscitia

.

.

riduchano

.

eflano lagh.

10. riescano

effalso inperochelle

.

las.

II. chellorigine

.

concosia chclla.

970.

9.

Scythia

means here,

as

in

Ancient Geography, the whole of the Northern part of Asia as

far as India.

.

972.]

OF RIVERS.

2O I

quali riescono poi all' origine del Nilo, questo e falso, inperoche e piv bassa la "Scitia che F origine del Nilo, conciosiache la Scitia

ranean caves to issue forth again at the sources of the Nile, this is false; because Scythia is lower than the sources of the Nile,
and, besides, Scythia is only 400 miles from the Black sea and the sources of the Nile are 3000 miles distant from the sea of Egypt into which its waters flow.

e presso al mare di Poto a 400 miglia, I2 e F origine del Nilo e remote 3000 dal mare d' Egitto, ove versa le sue miglia

acque.

Leic. 5

971.
The 9, of the meeting of rivers and of e The cause is the same ebb and flow. in the sea, where it is caused by the straits of Gibraltar; and again it is caused by whirltheir

Libro 9 delli scontri de' fiumi e lor e riflusso, e la medesima 2 causa lo crea nel mare per causa dello stretto e ancora accade per le di Gibilterra,
flusso

Book

tide

in

uoragini

;

pools.
[3] If

3Se due fiumi insieme si scontrano per vna medesima linia, la qual sia retta, poi
2 angoli retti 4pigliano insieme lor e' seguira il flusso e riflusso ora a F uno fiume, ora all' altro, avanti s che sieno vniti e massime, se F uscita nella loro vnitione no sara piv veloce, che quad' era disinfra

a

straight

two rivers meet together to form and then below two right line,
their

angles

take

course together,

the flow

corso

,

and ebb

now

in

happen now in one river and the other above their confluence, and
will

principally if the outlet for their united volume is no swifter than when they were separate.

6

uniti;

Qui accadono 4

casi.

Here occur 4

instances.

Leic. 15 a]

972.
il

Quando
acque
nel

fiume minore versa
il

le

sue

When

a

smaller

river

pours

its

waters On

the aite-

maggiore, quale maggiore 2 opposita riua, allora il corso del fiume minore pieghera suo corso inverse il Fauenimeto del fiume 3 e questo maggiore
corra
dall'
;

into a larger one, from the opposite

and

that larger one flows "ed'Tn thT c S f direction, the course of "^s b the smaller river will their coni

bend up against the approach of the larger river; and this happens
because, when the larger river fills up all its

(

^-^.

accade perche, quando esso maggiore fiume
suo
enpie d'acqua tutto il 4 letto, e' gll viene a
fare
ritroso

sotto

la

bocca
F acqua
il

di tal fiume,

e

bed with water, it makes an eddy in front of the mouth of the other river, and so carries the water
poured
river
in

cosl spingnie

co seco
dal

versata
;

with
its

by the smaller its own.
waters
into

fisvme minore

Quando

When
pours
the
at the
will

the smaller river

fiume minore versa le sue acque nel fiume 6 maggiore, il quale abbia la corrente alia foce del minore, allora si le sue acque piegheranno inverse la

larger

one, which

runs across the current

mouth of the smaller river, its waters bend with the downward movement of

fu7ga del fiume maggiore.
frusso e refrusso
5.

the larger river.

971. i. isscontri
4.

.

.

ellor

alta.
.

2.

chausa

.

.

strett

[i]

o di gibiltar

.

.

achade

.

.

uoragine.

3.

retta

e

poi.

piglino

.

.

refrusso.

chessieno

.

lusscita nedella.

6.

achade 4 chasi.
.

973.

i.

magore
. .

il

magor

letto el.

acchade equal "magore" corra "dall oposita riua" [remoto dalla sua]. 2. piegera. 3. magore ecquesto bocha. 5. magore. 6. minor (fiume] allora piegeranno. 7. magore. 4. affare retroso .
. .
.

.

971.

The
3

first

two
as

lines

of this

already been

near line

given of this

No. 957.
the

passage have In the margin,
text

972.

written at the

In the original sketches the word Arno is spot here marked A, at R. Rifredi,

passage,

given

as

and

at

M. Mn^none.

No. 919

is

written.

VOL. a.

cc

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[973975-

Uic. i6J]

973le

allor li angoli acuti, che si genera nelle congiuntioni de' sua rami, si (anno piv cor^ti nelli lor lati e piu lor punte, come sia la grossi nelle

Quando

piene de' fiumi so 'diminuite

-,

When

a

the fulness of rivers is diminished, then the acute angles formed at the junction of their branches become shorter at the sides and wider at the point; like the current a n and the current

corrente

an,
si

quali in-//, quando

Me

corrente d n, congiunghino insieme nelle sue fiume il

e

la

d
is

n,

which unite

in

n when the river

I say, that at its greatest fulness. when it is in this condition if, be-

che predetta dispositione se d n avanti la piena era piv basso che a ;/, che nel tempo della piena 6 d n sara pie di rena e fango, il quale nel calare delle acque d n portera uia il fango e rimar^rk col fondo basso, e '1 canale a n, trovandosi alto, scolera le sue acque nel basso d n e consumera tutta 8 la e , punta del renaio b c cosl rimarra 1'angolo a c d
snella
,

gran piene;

dico

che,

quando

sia

fore

than ness

the fullest time, at the

an,

d

mud.

lower time of fuln will be full of sand and When the water d n falls, it

d n was

away the mud and remain with a lower bottom, and the channel a n finding itself the higher, will fling its waters into the lower, d n, and will wash away all the point of the sand-spit b n c, and thus
will carry

the angle

a

c

d

will

remain

piv grosso
d,

che 1'angolo a n
piu corti,

e di

lati

come

larger than the angle and the sides shorter, as I said before.

and

sprima
G. 48-]

dissi.

974-

AQUA.

WATER.

DEL MOTO
4

D'U SUBITO ENPITO FATTO 3 DA FIUME SOPRA IL SUO LETTO ASCIUTTO.

UN

OF THE MOVEMENT OF A SUDDEN RUSH MADE
BY A RIVER IN
ITS

BED PREVIOUSLY DRY.

tardo o velocie il corso 5 data dallo isboccato lago al dell'acqua, secco fivme, qua 6 to esso fiume fia piu largo o piv stretto, over ? piu piano o cupo in un loco che in un altro, 8 per quel che e proposto: il flusso e ri^flusso del mare che dallo oceano entra nel Me I0 diterraneo Mare e de' fiumi, che giostrano "con lui, alzano tanto piu o meno le loro acque, I2 quanto tal mare e piv o meno stretto.
e piu

Tanto

In proportion as the current of the water given forth by the draining of the lake is slow or rapid in the dry river bed, so will this river be wider or narrower, or shallower or deeper in one place than another, according to this proposition: the flow and ebb of the sea which enters the Mediterranean from the ocean, and of the rivers which meet and struggle with it, will raise their waters more or less in proportion as the sea is wider or narrower.

c. A. y>tb\

9752

whirlpool*.

d'

Voragine, cioe caverne, acque pre^cipitose.

cioe

residui
is

to say

Whirlpools, that is to say caverns; that places left by precipitated waters.

973-

*

conguntione.
8.
.

3.

corente

.

.

ella

corcnte.

4.

congunghino

.

.

dicho.

5.

predecta disspositione chesse.

6.

eflTango

.

.

rima.
974.
j.

cori riraara lanolo
.

.

.

groso.
.

da u

assciucto.
8.

4.

eppiu
.

.

chorpo
9.

.

.

acq"a".
.

5.

isbochato lagho
occieano.
10.

.

.

secho.

6.
. .

largho

.

.

strecto.
xi.

7.

ochupo nu
12.

locho che inu.
.
.

propossto

.

e re.

frusso

.

dello

mediterano

giosstrano.

cho.

eppiu

strecto.

975. 2.

coe

residii.

3. cipitosa.

973.
rella";

Above

the

first

sketch

we

find,

in

the original, this note:
to

"Sofira

il

pott rubaeonU alia

toiri-

and by the second, -which represents a pier of a bridge, 974. In the margin is a sketch of a river which winds so as

"Sotto I'ospedal del

form islands.

976-978-]

OF RIVERS.

203

G.

976.

DELLA VIBRATIONE DELLA TERRA.
delle acque, sicome che son fatti infra ^I'aria e la terra, son quelli che al continue scosumano e
2

OF THE VIBRATION OF THE EARTH.
The subterranean channels of
those
waters, like On
the ahe-

Li corsi sotterranei

3

quelli

profondano
Leic. 66}

li

letti

de! 6 li lor corsi.

between the air and the'^SeSof rivers earth, are those which unceasingly wear and deepen the beds of their currents. away
exist
-

which

977-

II

fiume che esce de' moti pone gran

A

river

that

flows

from

mountains The
t

origin

quatita di sassi grossi in nel suo ghiareto, 2 i con parte de' quali fatti sono ancora sua angoli e lati, e nel processo del corso conduce pietre minori con angoli piv cosumati, cioe le gra 3 pietre fa minori, e piv oltre po ghiaia grossa, e poi minvta e rena grossa, e poi minvta, dipoi seguita precede 4 litta grossa, e poi piv sottile, e cosl seguedo giugne al mare 1'acqua turba
,

deposits a great quantity of large stones ini n its bed, which still have some of the'ir angles (977and sides, and in the course of its flow it carries down smaller stones with the angles

ve r"
9? 8 )-

rena scarica sopra rigurgitameto dell' ode salse, e segue la litta di tanta sottilita che par di natura d'acqua, la qual non si ferb ma sopra de' marl liti, ma ritorna indietro coll'acqua per la sua leuita, perch' e nata di foglie marcie e d'altre cose leuissime, si 7 che, essendo quasi, com'e detto, di natura d'acqua, essa poi in tenpo di bonaccia si scarica e si ferma sopra del 8 fondo del mare, ove per la sua sottilita si condensa e resiste all'onde che sopra vi passano per la sua lubricita, e 9qui stanno i nichi e quest' e terra bianca da
di
litta;

rena e di

la

de' slid marini per

il

more worn; that is to say the large stones become smaller. And farther on it deposits coarse gravel and then smaller, and as it proceeds this becomes coarse sand and then finer, and going on thus the water, turbid with sand and gravel, joins the sea; and the sand settles on the sea-shores, being cast up by the salt waves; and there results the sand of so fine a nature as to seem almost like water, and it will not stop on the shores of the sea but returns by reason of
originally
its lightness, because it was formed of rotten leaves and other things. Still, being almost >as was

said

very light of the nature of water itself, it afterwards, when the weather is calm, settles and becomes solid at the bottom of the sea,

far boccali.

where by its fineness it becomes compact and by its smoothness resists the waves which glide over it; and in this shells are found; and this is white earth, fit for pottery.

Leic. 31 b\

978.
1'uscite dell' acque dal
li

Tutte

mare porta co seco

sassi del

monte nel monte in

es 2 so mare, e per la inodatione dell' acque marine contro alii sua monti, esse pietre era ributta^te inverso il mote, e nell'adare e nel ritornare indietro delle acque al mare,
pietre insieme co queMa tornavano, e nel ritornare li angoli loro insieme si percuoteano, e come parte men Sresistente alle percosse si cosumavano e facean le pietre sanza angoli, in figu 6 ra rotonda -, come ne'
le
liti

dell'

Elsa

si

piv grosse, che
976.
i.

manco

dimostra, e quelle rimaneva sara remosse ? dal lor
so

the torrents of water flowing from mountains to the sea carry with them the stones from the hills to the sea, and by the influx of the sea- water towards the mountains; these stones were thrown back towards the mountains, and as the waters rose and retired, the stones were tossed about by it and in rolling, their angles hit together; then as the parts, which least resisted the blows, were worn off, the stones ceased to be angular and became round in form, as may be seen on the banks of the Elsa. And those remained larger which were less removed

All

the

viberatio.
. .

2.

supterrani
2.
.

[e
. .

super accquelli].
agoli
.
.

3.

fatti infral.
. .

4.

ella.

6. chorsi.
.

977. i. essce

inel.
.

ellati
. .

coe.
6.

3.

grosa e po
collo

e

.

ricitrameto

lita

dachq"a".
secho
6.

indirieta

per

.

grosa prociede. 4. lita marce. 7. bonacca
.

.

gugne

.

.

lita

.

.

scaricha.
.

.

.

scaricha

essi.

9.

ecquest

5. per biancha

daffar bochali.
978.
i.

lusscite dellacq"e"

.

.

.

.

in

e.

2.

rebutta.
liti

3.

mode "e
si

nelladare"

e

.

.

indirieto.
.
.

4.

toravano
7.

.

.

perchoteano.
8.

5.

perchose

.

.

effacean.

ritonda

"come ne

dellebba

dimosstra" ecquella rimane

mancho.

nasscimeto.

locho

2O4
nascimeto;

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
e cosl quella si facea minore, 8 rimouea dal predet to loco, in
ella si

[978.

modo
in

che piv si che nel procedere
minvta, e
;

couerte in

ghiaja

poi in
'1

rena 'e in vltimo
si

from their native spot; and they became smaller, the farther they were carried from that place, so that in the process they were converted into small pebbles and then into
sand and at last into mud. After the sea had receded from the mountains the brine left by the sea with other humours of the
earth

fango

dipoi che
,

mare

discosta dalli

predetti

monti

la

salsedine
della

lascia'ta
terra a

dal
fatta

mare con altro umore vna collegatione a essa ghiaja e
la

made a
this

rena, che
s'

and

verted

concretion of these pebbles sand, so that the pebbles were coninto rock and the sand into tufa.

"ghiaja

in

sasso e la rena in tufo
di

convertita;

uede 1'esenplo "in Adda all'uscire de' monti di Como e in Tesino, Adige, Oglio dall' alpi de' Tedequesto
si

E

schi,

e

il

si

intorno a

'mile d' Arno dal monte Albano Mote Lupo e Capraia, doue li
1

of this we see an example in the Adda where it issues from the mountains of Como and in the Ticino, the Adige and the Oglio coming from the German Alps, and in the Arno at Monte Albano [13], near Monte Lupo and Capraia where the rocks, which are very large, are all of conglomerated pebbles of
various kinds and colours.

And

sassi grandissimi

son

tutti

I4

di

ghiaia co-

gelata di diuerse pietre e colori.

.

.

procedere in
giara
. .

ft

.

.

giara.
.

9.

fangho

.

.

disscosste

.

.

lasscia.

10. ta del

.

.

altromore
alpi
.

.

.

aflTatto

.

.

giara
si
.

errena chella.
.

ii.

ella

.

chonvcrtita.

12.

inada

.

.

adice oglio

e

adriano

dell

.

tedesci

el

ij.

darno

del.

14. cholori.

978.

13.

At the foot of Monte Albano
is

lies

Vinci, the birth place of Leonardo.

Opposite, on the other

bank of the Arno,

Monte Lupo

.

V.

ON MOUNTAINS.
C. A. 157 6; 466 a]

979-

c m numi;"|

11

Li

moti

son

fatti

dalli

cor

2

si

de'
de'

Mountains are made by the currents of The formationofmounrivers.
.

tains

sULi moti son
fiumi. U

disfatti

dalli

cor^si

Mountains are destroyed by the currents
of
rivers.

^979

9 8 3>-

Leic. 10 a]
2

980.

Come le radici settentrionali di qualunche alpe non sono ancora petrificate e questo si vede ma^nifestamente doue i fiumi, che le tagliano, corrano inverse set;

That the Northern bases of some Alps
are not yet petrified. And this is plainly to be seen where the rivers, which cut through

tentrione, li quali taglia * nell' altezze de' moti le falde delle pietre viue, e nell'congiugniersi colle pianure le predette falde 5 son tutte di terra da fare boccali come
,

si

dimostra

in

Val

di

Lamona

al

fiume

Lamona
fargli le
uisi

nel 6 l'uscire
li

del

Mote Appenino
segati
7

predette cose nelle sue rive;
fiumi

Come
li

anno

tutti

e di-

grand' alpi 1'uno dalPaltro, e questo si manifesta per lo ordine delle 8 pietre faldate, che dalla sommita del
delle

menbri

monte
de'

insino al fiume si vedono le corrispodenze delle falde essere- 9cosl da 1'un
lati

del

fiume

come

dall'altro;

Come

them, flow towards the North; where they cut through the strata in the living stone in the higher parts of the mountains; and, where they join the plains, these strata are all of potter's clay; as is to be seen in the valley of Lamona where the river Lamona, as it issues from the Appenines, does these things on its banks. That the rivers have all cut and divided the mountains of the great Alps one from the other. This is visible in the order of the stratified rocks, because from the summits of the banks, down to the river the correspondence of the strata in the rocks is visible on either side of the river. That the

979. 3. dissfacti

.

.

chor.
. .

980.

2.

radice
.
.

.

.

petrifichate ecquesto. 3. chelle
fare al.
6.

chorrane

.

.

settantrione.
. .

4.

alteze
8.

.

.

congugnersi cholle.
. .

5. daflfare

bochtutti

ali

lumona

lusscire

.

.

farli

.

.

fiumi an.

7.

alpe

ecquesto.

somita

vede

.

.

conrisspodenze.

9.

979.

Compare

789.

206
le pietre faldate de'
10

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
monti
son
tutti
i

[981983.

gradi per de' fanghi posati Tun sopra le diuerse le inodationi de' fiumi; Come son create grossezze delle faldedel'Me pietre inondationi de' fiumi, cioe magda diuerse o minore. giore ondatione
1'altro

stratified

stones of the mountains are all of clay, deposited one above the other layers by the various floods of the rivers. That the different size of the strata is caused by the
difference in the floods
that
is

to say greater

or lesser floods.

981.

Le sommita
*I
dita
lati

de'

monti per
de'
6

2

lungo tenpo

senpre s'i'nalzano;
oppositi
ualli,

The summits of time rise constantly. The

mountains
opposite

for a

long
the

mdsti
profon-

sides

of

senpre s'auicinano;
delle

le

Me

quali

son

sopra la *spera dell'acqua, per 10 9 s'aptenpo senpre lungo del ce M tro al propinquano

mountains always approach each other below; the depths of the valleys which are above the sphere of the waters are in the course of
time constantly getting nearer to the centre of the world. In an equal period, the valleys sink much more than the mountains rise.

mondo
12

;

In equal
i

si

profondano
16

le ua! 14 li

tepo molto pi'^v che non

s'alzano
7

mo'sti;
de'
I9 la

Le base
Quanto
2I

monti senpre
ualle

The bases of
pro fonda,
20

the

mountains

si

fanno piv strette;
l8

piv

si

si consu eue tenpo.

piv

ma

ne' sua

lati

in

22

piu bri-

always come closer together. In proportion as the valleys become deeper, the more quickly are their sides worn away.

Br.

M. 30*]

982.

In

ogni

concauita
si

delle
tro-

In every concavity at the

cime de' monti senpre
ver 2 anno
li

summit of the mountains we
shall always find the divisions

piegameti

delle

falde delle pietre.

of the strata in the rocks.

C. A. 124 1; 3830]

983.

DEL MARE CHE
2

CIGNE LA TERRA.

OF THE SEA WHICH ENCIRCLES THE EARTH.
I find that of old, the state of the earth

Jo truovo il sito della terra essere ab antico nelle sue pianure tutto 3 occupato e coperto dall'acque salse ecc.

was that its plains were hidden by salt water.

all

covered up and

e gradi.

10.
7.

gosseze.
la 5.
8.

it.

coe magore
9.

.

.

ominore.
17. strecte.

981.
983.

i.

somita.

acq"a".

senpre [sabb].

20.

consu.

21.

made

sua.

2.
i.

ra

li.

983.

ce cignie.

2.

abbanticho

.

.

tucto.

3.

ochupato e choperto.

983. This passage has already been published by Dr. M. JORDAN: Das Malerbuch da L. da Vinci,

f-^ipng

1873,

P-

86.

However,

his

reading of the

text differs

from mine.

9.84-]

ON MOUNTAINS.

2O7

Leic. 31 a]

984.
2

Perche molto so
che
le Iette 4 re,

piv antiche le

3

cose

non e maravisglia, se alii nostri 6 giorni non appari?sce scrittura deI0 8 9 lli predetti ma ri essere occupa tori di jl I2 e se pure alcuna ^scrittura tanti pa esi;
le guerre, 1'incedi, li diluvi delapparia, j l6 1'acque sle mutationi delle lingue e delle I7 anno cosumato l8 leggi ogni antichita, ma Z 9a noi bastano le testi 20 monianze delle co2I
2

I4

se

nate

nelle
2

acque

"salse

ritrouarsi

ancient than xheauthorie our day, no study Jf th e 01 records exist of these seas having covered so ^g'elrth many countries; and if, moreover, some records had existed, war and conflagrations, the deluge of waters, the changes of languages and of laws have consumed every thing ancient. But sufficient for us is the testimony of things created in the salt waters, and found again in high mountains far from

Since things are
it

much more
if,

letters,

is

no marvel

in

3nelli

aid moti,

+lontani dalli mari 2 sd'allora.

the seas.

984. 3. chelle.
tioni.

6.

gorni non aparis.
19. basta.

7.

sciptura del.

9.

ocupa.

n.

[esi essettu].

12. esse.

15. "li

diluui

dellacque"

le

muta-

16. legi.

20.

monatie.

26. talor.

VI.

GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.
Leic. 3 a]

985.

jn prima a braccia provare, 2 d'altura no ui furo portati dal diluuio, perche si uedono a u medesimo liuello, e si vedono auazare assai moti sopra 3 e sso liuello, e a dimadare se '1 diluvio fu per piogga o per ringorgameto di mare, e poi In questa tua

opera tu
nichi

ai

In this work you have

first

to

prove

that

come

li

in

mille

the shells at a thousand braccia of elevation

were not carried there by the deluge, because they are seen to be all at one level, and many mountains are seen to be above that the deluge level; and to inquire whether was caused by rain or by the swelling of
the sea; and then you must show how, neither by rain nor by swelling of the rivers, nor by the overflow of this sea, could the
shells being heavy objects be floated up the mountains by the sea, nor have carried there by the rivers against the course of their waters.

a mostrare, che ne per pioggia che ini fiumi, ne per rigonfiameto d'esso mare li nichi, come cosa 5 grave, non sono sospinti dal mare alii moti, ne tirati a se dalli fiumi cotro al corso delle 6 loro
ai
4

grossi

;

acque.

C. A. 1520; 452 a]

9 86.
DUBITATIONE.

A
the

DOUBTFUL POINT.

Doubt* he a
dehiVe

Mouesi qui vn dubbio e questo e, se venuto al tenpo di Noe, fu vni4 versale o no; E qui parra di no, per le
'1

2

3

diluvio,

arises, and that is: whether deluge, which happened at the time of Noah, was universal or not. And it would

Here a doubt

985.

i.

quessta
.

.

.

br daltura.
6.

2.

perchessi uedano

.

.

e uedesi.

4.

mosstrare

.

.

piogga chengrossi

.

.

chome.

5.

sosspinti

.

.

asse
986.
2.

.

chorso.
4.

ecquesso.

accq"e". onno. 5. chessi

.

.

abbian

nella bibbia.

6.

chonpossto.

7.

node

.

.

pio.

8.

chettal

piogg.

g. ghomiti.

The passages, here given from the MS. have hitherto remained unknown. Some preliminary notes on the subject are to be found in
985.
Leic.,

that

is

not

repeated

here more clearly and

fully.

I.IHRI, Histoire des

Sciences

218

221, has
it

printed

mathematiques Iff, pages 80* and 8o b , the text of

F

MS.

F

fuller

So3 and 8o b ; but as compared with the treatment here given, they are, it seems to
interest.

therefore

seemed desirable
it

to

give

my

reasons

for not inserting

in this

work.

me, of secondary

They contain nothing

98;-]
s

GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.
;

209

ragioni che si assegnieranno Noi abbiamo 6 che il predetto diluvio fu bibbia, conposto di 40 7 dl e 40 notti di continua e vniversa piog 8 gia, e che tal pioggia alzo
nella
al piu alto mote delse cosl fu, che la pioggia fusse vniver^sale, ella vestl di se la nostra I2 ter ra di figura sperica; la supern I3 tie

seem

We

have

not, for the reasons it in the Bible

now
that

to

be given:
deluge

this

died 9gomiti sopra

l'univer I0 so;

E

E

40 days and 40 nights of incessant and universal rain, and that this rain rose to ten cubits above the highest mountains in the And if it had been that the rain world. was universal, it would have covered our And globe which is spherical in form.
lasted
this

sperica in ogni sua parte equalmen^te distante dal cietro della sva spe is ra, onde la l6 nel modo spera del'acqua, trovandosi della detta conditione, elli e ^inpossibile, che 1'acqua sopra di lei si mova, l8 perch e J 1'acqua in se non si move, s'ella non 'disciede;

spherical
part, the

surface

is

equally
the

distant in
its

every

from the centre of
sphere
of

addunque 1'acqua
si

di tanto dilu 20 vio

come si parti, moto? e s'ella
ella

se qui e provato,
parti, allo insu? e qui

non a 2I ver
22

come

si

non adava

se mosse, ne macano 2 ^

the same conditions, it possible that the water upon it should move, because water, in itself, does not move therefore how could the unless it falls; waters of such a deluge depart, if it is proved that it has no motion? and if it departed how could it move unless it went

hence under

waters

sphere; being is im-

le ragio naturali, ode bisognia per soccor2< *so di tal dvbitatione chiamare il mira2

upwards?

Here, then, natural reasons are

5colo per

fu

26 tale aiuto, o dire che dal calore del sole. vaporata

acqua

wanting; hence to remove this doubt it is necessary to call in a miracle to aid us, or else to say that all this water was evaporated by the heat of the sun.

Leic. 86}

987.

DEL
2

DILUUIO E DE'NICHI MARINI.
li

OF THE DELUGE AND OF MARINE
cori-

SHELLS.
That marine
shells

Se

tu dirai che

nichi,

che per

li

fini
si

d' Italia

lontano
3

dalli

mari

in tata altezza

tempi, siano stati per causa del diluuio che 11 li lascio, io ti rispodo che, credendo tu che Hal diluvio

ueggono

alii

nostri

superasse
scrisse chi
s

il

piv alto

monte 7
tali

cubiti,

come

li

misuro,
liti

nichi

che senpre
e'

stanno

vicini ai

del mare,

doueano

restare sopra tali motagnie, e no si poco 6 sopra le radi ci de' monti per tutto a vna

medesima
dirai che,
vicini alii

altezza a suoli a suoli;

E

to say that the shells which be seen within the confines of Italy ' .1 now, in our days, tar from the sea and at such heights, had been brought there by the deluge which left them there, I should answer that if you believe that this deluge rose 7 cubits above the highest mountains as he who measured it has written these shells, which always live near the sea-shore, should have been left on the mountains; and not such a little way from the foot of the mountains; nor all at one level, nor in layers upon layers. And if you were to say that If

you were
,

are

to

re

could

not go up the mountains<

se tu

these

shells
to

are
in

essendo
liti

tali

7

nichi vaghi di stare

near
as
it

the

margin

marini e che, crescedo in tata 8 altezza, che li nichi si partirono da esso lor primo sito e seguitarono 1' accrescimeto
delle

rose
first

desirous of remaining of the sea, and that, the shells height, quitted

their

home,
the

and

followed
to
their

the

in-

crease

of

waters

up

highest
is

acque insino
si

alia

lor

9soma
il

level; to this I answer, that the cockle

an

altezza,

Qui

risponde che, sendo

nichio anima-

of not more rapid movement than the snail is out of water, or even somewhat

animal

io.

chosi
. .

.

.

chella piggia fussi.
20.

12.

fighura spericha Ella.
. .

13.

spericha nogni.
23.

14. disstante al. 25.

16. chonditione.
.

17. chel.

lacqua

mov "a".
2.

chome.

21. essella

chome,

22.

ecquimaca.

sochor.

cholo [per sochorso] per

oddire.

26. chalar.

987.

I.

8 del.
diluio

settu

.

.

chelli
.

.

.

luntano dali
5.
aliti

.

.

alteza

4.
7.

superassi
.
.

.

chessenpre.
8.

del
.
.

si uegghano. mare doueano
.

3.
.

nosstri tenpi sia stato
. .

.

.

chausa
. .

.

.

lasscio

.

.

rispode.

pocho

li

radi.

6.

ce de

assuoli
. .

assuoli Essettu.
io. chessi

cresscedo
11.

alteza chelli.

partirano

lor

p"o"

sito

essejuitorno lacresscimeto.

9. alteza

che^sendo.

VOL.

DL>

2IO
le di

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
non

[987.

I2 braccia; adunque questo co tale moto no sari caminato dal mare Adriano insino in Moferrato di Lon'^bardia, che v'e 250

veloce moto, che si sia la lumaca, fori dell'acqua, e qualche cosa piu solco tarda perche no nota, a"zi si fa vn mediante i lati di tal solco ove per F arena dl dalle 3 alle 4. il s'appoggia, caminerk
piii

slower; because it does not swim, on the in the sand by contrary it makes a furrow means of its sides, and in this furrow it will

in 40 giorni, chi tenne coto d'esso tenpo; e

n>iglia di distantia,

come
essi

disse se tu dici

day from 3 to 4 braccia; therefore creature, with so slow a motion, could not have travelled from the Adriatic sea as far as Monferrato in Lombardy [13], which is 250 miles distance, in 40 days; which he has said who took account of the time.
travel each
this

And

per la non si reggono, se no sopra lor gravezza no mi 'Sconcedi, coil suo fondo-; e se questo fessami al meno ch'elli aueano a' rimanere nelle cime de' piv alti moti e ne' laghi che

che

I4

l'onde ve

li

portarono,

you say that the waves carried them by their gravity they could not move, And if you will excepting at the bottom.
if

there,

serrano, come lago di e '1 Maggiore, e di Fiesole, e di Perugia e simili; l8 '/E se tu dirai che li nichi son porvoti e morti, io dico tati dair onde, essedo che, dove andauano li morti, poco si rimoveuano da'uiui, e in que'^ste m'ontagnie
in'fra
li

moti

si

Lario

o

di

Como,

confess at least that they at the summits of the highest mountains, in the lakes which are enclosed among the mountains, like the lakes of Lario, or of Como and il Maggiore [i 6]

not grant

me

this,

would have

to

stay

and of

Fiesole,
if

and of Perugia, and

others.

uiui che si cognoscono sono trovati tutti 20 in che sono colli gusci appaiati, e scno vn filo doue non e nessun de' morti, e poco piv alto e trovato doue eran gittati dall'o^de tutti li morti colle loro scorze separate, apresso a dove li fiumi cascavano in "mare in gra profondita; come Arno, che cadea dalla Gonfolina apresso a 2 Mote
i
-'

you should say that the shells were carried by the waves, being empty and dead, I say that where the dead' went they were not far removed from the living; for in these mountains living ones are found, which
are recognisable by the shells being in pairs ; and they are in a layer where there are no dead ones; and a little higher up they are

And

Lupo e quiui lasciaua la ghiaja, la quale ancor si uede, che si e insieme ricogielata e di pie 24 tre di uari paesi nature e colori e durezze se n'e fatto vna sola congelatione,
e poco piu oltre la congelatione dell'are 2 5na fatta tufo, dou'ella s'agiraua inverse s' Castel Fioretino, piu oltre si scaricava il 26 nel quale abitavano i nichi, il quale fango, s'inalzava a gradi, secondo che le piene d'Arno torbido 2 ?in quel mare versauano, e di tempo in tenpo s'inalzaua il fondo al

found, where they were thrown by the waves, all the dead ones with their shells separated, near to where the rivers fell into the sea, to a great depth; like the Arno which fell from the Gonfolina near to Monte Lupo [23],

where it left a deposit of gravel which may and which has agglomerated; still be seen, and of stones of various districts, natures, and colours and hardness, making one single
conglomerate. And a little beyond the sandstone conglomerate a tufa has been formed, where it turned towards Castel Florentine;
farther on, the mud
shells lived, and to the levels at

a gradi 28 producea essi mostra nel taglio di Colle 2 Gonzoli, dirupato dal flume d'Arno, 9che il suo piede consuma, nel qual taglio si

mare,

jl

quale
si

nichi,

come

was deposited in which the which rose in layers according which the turbid Arno flowed And from time to time the into that sea. bottom of the sea was raised, depositing these shells in layers, as may be seen in
the cutting
4 br.
.

at

Colle

Gonzoli, laid
. .

open by
ij.

.

.

lumacha
. .

.

.

ecqualche

.

.

tarda.

n. solcho
.

.

.

sapogia chaminera
15.
. .

.

.

12.
.

chaminato
.

i

moferato.

gorni

.

.

tcnc
18.

essettu di che.
.

14.
.

portorono

.

regano.

cedi.

16.

fralli
. .

.

magore

pertiga.
.

17.

Ksse

tu dirai dirai chcllc.
. .

Yano.

andaua 21. cholle essono. 20. in vnn chasscacholli gussci pocho. pocho. 19. cognoscano . chadea delta Golfolina. 23. giara chesse insieme gra ricogielata. 24. nari "paesi" nature "e colorie dureze" se ne fatto . chelle scharichava il fangho. 26. abitava invero chastel gongelatione pocho. 25. seffatto
dicho
.
. .

22.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

987.
hills

13.

Monferrato di Lombardia.
is

of

Monferrato

in

Monferrato belonged, in Marchese di Mantova.
1

The range of Piedmont, and Casale di Leonardo's time, to the

the words in the

Magore
water;
long.

e di Como."

MS. are: "Come Lago In the MS. after

di Lario o'l
line

16

we

come upon

a digression treating of the weight of It is II lines this has here been omitted.

6.

Lago

di

Lario.

Lacus Larius was the name
to the lake
slip

given,

by the Romans
it

of Como.

It

is

evident that

is

here a

of the pen since the

23. Monte Lupo, compare 970, 13; Empoli and Florence.

it

is

between

9 88.]

GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.
predetti gradi de' azzureggiante, e ui si trova
li

211

uedono manifestamete
nichi in

3fango

di uarie cose marine;

E

si

e alzata la terra

^emisperio per tanto piu che no solea, per quato ella si fece piu lieue che le manca 32 rono per il delle acque,
del nostro
taglio di Calpe e d'Abila, e altrettanto piv s'e alzata, perche il peso dell' acque, che
di qui ma.33carono, s' aggiunsero alia terra se li nichi fusvolta all'altro emisperio, sero stati 34 portati dal Torbido diluuio,

E

Arno which is wearing away the base of it; which cutting the said layers of shells are very plainly to be seen in clay of a bluish colour, and various marine objects are found there. And if the earth of our hemisphere is indeed raised by so much higher than it used to be, it must .have become by so much lighter by the waters which it lost through the rift between Gibraltar and Ceuta; and all the more the higher it rose, because the weight of the waters which were thus lost would be
the
in

added

essi si

sarebbero misti, separatamente Pun
infra
'1

dal'altro,

fango e
alii

non 3 5con ordinati
si

gradi a suoli,

come

nostri tenpi

vede.

deluge they would have been mixed up, and separated from each other amidst the mud, and not in regular steps and layers
as

And if muddy
we

to the earth in the other hemisphere. the shells had been carried by the

see

them now

in

our time.

Leic. ga]

988.

Di quelli che dicono che i nichi sono per molto spatio e nati remoti dalli mari 2 per la natura del sito e de' cieli, che dispone e influiscie tal loco a simile creatione
rispondera che, se no potrebbe accadere in vna sola linia, se no animali di medesima sorte e eta, e non il uechio col 4 gio vane, e no alcun col coperchio e 1'altro essere sanza sua .copritura, e no Funo esser rotto e Paltro intero, Se no 1'uno ripieno di rena marina e rottame minvto e 6 grosso d'altri nichi dentro alii nichi interi, son rimasti aperti, e no le boche de' che li granchi sanza il rimanete del suo tutto, e
si

As to those who say that shells existed The marine for a long time and were born at a distance ^St produfrom the sea. from the nature of the place , ced ? vva y
which can influence a to them it place to produce such creatures may be answered: such an influence could not place the animals all on one line, except those of the same sort and age; and not the old with the young, nor some with an operculum and others without their operculum, nor some broken and others whole, nor some filled with sea-sand and large and small fragments of other shells inside the whole shells which remained open; nor the claws of
ot

and

,-.

'

-

.

the

_

from the sea.

cycles,

d'animali-;a costor

tale influetia 3d'animali

crabs

without

the

rest

of

their

bodies;

ni?chi d'altre spetie appiccati con loro in forma d'animale che sopra di quelli si

non

li

8 mouesse, perche ancora resta il uestigio del suo andamento sopra la scorza che lui gia, a uso di tarlo sopra il legname, ando

9 no si troverebbero infra loro ossa e denti di pescie, li quali alcuni dimandano saette e altri lingue di ser I0 penti,

cosumado;

nor the shells of other species stuck on to them like animals which have moved about on them; since the traces of their track still remain, on the outside, after the manner of worms in the wood which they ate into. Nor would there be found among them the bones and teeth of fish which some call arrows and others serpents' tongues, nor would so many

plane.
tro.

2.7.

quell

.

.

versaua.
. .

28. deripato.

29.
.

piede
.

.

.

taglo

si
. .

vede.

30.

31.
. .

emissperio
futtino.

mancho.
portadi
. .

32.

perl

calpe dattile
misti
.
.

perche[la]

Essi alzato nossfangho azuregantc il. emissperio 33. chorono sagunsono
.

.

.

.

.

.

Esselli

34.
2.

essi
.

saren

.

.

fangho

enno.
. .

35. assuoli.

98].

i.

dicano che michi.
4.

infruisscie

.

locho assimile
. .

risodera chesse
. .

infruetia.
. .

3.
7.

po achadere
12.

.

.

enone
.

il

.

.

col
las-

go.

ellaltro esere colla
9.

sua

.

.

ellaltro. 6. chelli
.
.

rimassti

rimane dal

e
.

none.
.

colloro apichati

.

mouessi.
alteza
.

8.
.

scorza chellui ga.

troverrainfrallaro

pesscie.

10.

troverra.

n. auebe

.

.

stano

elle cose.

sariano

.

.

ga a

Scilla argued against I. 988. vana Speculazione, Napoli 1670.

this

hypothesis,

which

was

still

accepted

in

his

days;

see:

La

212

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[

9 88.

e no si troverebbero tanti mebri di diuersi animali insieme vniti se 11 da liti marini no fussino, "e '1 diluuio U no gli gittati avrebbe perche le cose gravi piii
portati,

portions of various animals be found all together if they had not been thrown on the And the deluge cannot have sea shore.
carried them there, because things that are heavier than water do not float on the water. But these things could not be at so great a height if they had not been carried there by the water, such a thing being impossible from their weight. In places where the valleys have not been filled with salt sea water shells are

del'acqua no stanno a galla sopra 1'acqua, e le cose pre"dette no sariano in tanta altezza, se gia a nuoto ivi sopra dell' acque la qual cosa e inpossiportate non furono,

non

quiui

mai non si '*vedono, come manifesto si uede nella gran valle d'Arno di sopra alia Gonfolina, sasso per antico vnito 'Scon Monte Albano in forma d'ali

"bile per la lor gravezza; Dove le uallate ricievono le acque salse del mare,
nichi

tissimo
tal
fiu

quale tenea ringorgato che prima che versasse l6 il nel mare, quale era dopo ai piedi di tal sasso, conponea 2 grandi laghi, de' quali il primo e, dove oggi si uede fiorire la citta di Fiore^ze insieme con Prato e Pistoia, e
argine,
in
il

me

modo

Monte Albano seguiva
insin

il

resto dell' argine

doue oggi e posto Serravalle-; dal Va; d'Arno l8 di sopra insino Arezzo si creava vno secondo lago, il quale nell'atidetto lago versaua le sue acque, ^chiuso circa dove oggi si uede Girone, e occupaua

40 miglia

tutta la detti valle di sopra per ispatio di 20 di lughezza; questa valle riceue

sopra il suo fondo tutta la terra portata dall'acqua da quella intorbidata, la quale 2I anccra si uede a' piedi di Prato Magno restare altissima, doue li fiumi no 1'anno consumata, e infra essa terra si uedono le 22 pro fonde segature de' fiumi che quiui son passati, li quali discedono dal gra mote di Prato Magno, nelle quali 2 segature no si uede vestigio alcuno di nichi e di terra
'

marina; questo lago
di Perugia;
2

si

congiugnea col lago

be seen; as is plainly visible in the great valley of the Arno above Gonfolina; a rock formerly united to Monte Albano, in the form of a very high bank which kept the river pent up, in such a way that before flow into the sea, which was afterit could wards at its foot, it formed two great lakes ; of which the first was where we now see the city of Florence together with Prato and It followed the Pistoia, and Monte Albano. rest of its bank as far as where Serravalle now stands. From the Val d'Arno upwards, as far as Arezzo, another lake was formed, which discharged its waters into the former It was closed at about the spot where lake. now we see Girone, and occupied the whole of that valley above for a distance of 40 miles in length. This valley received on its bottom all the soil brought down by the And this is still to be seen turbid waters. it there lies at the foot of Prato Magno; where the rivers have not worn very high Across this land are to it be away. seen the deep cuts of the rivers that have passed there, falling from the great mountain of Prato Magno; in these cuts there are no vestiges of any shells or of maThis lake was joined with that of rine soil.
never
to

Perugia [2 3].
di nichi si

+Gran somma

uede doue

li

fiumi versano in mare, perche in tali siti T acque non so 2 Sno tante salse per la mistion dell'acque dolci che con quelle s'uni'1 -, e segnio di cio si vede doue per antico li Mo z6 nti Appenini versauano li lor fiumi nel mare Adriano, li quali in gran

scono

A great quantity of shells are to be seen where the rivers flow into the sea, because on such shores the waters are not so salt owing to the admixture of the fresh water, which Evidence of this is to be is poured into it.
seen where, of old, the Appenines poured their for there in into the Adriatic sea; most places great quantities of shells are to
rivers

di nichi

2 parte mostrano infra li moti gra ? somma insieme coll azzurigno terrenodi mare,

be

found,

among

the mountains,

together

note
. .

.

.

inposi.

13.

graveza.
16.
.

14.
.

vidone
.

.

.

vale.

15.
si

"con monte albano"
uide "fruire"
. .

in

forma

.

.

daltissima argine
.
.

(il

versassi nel ma.

apiedi
.

il

p"o"e dove ogi
atidetto.
.
.

la.

17.

ze "insieme con" prato
.

il

quale) tenea re"ito" ogi
.
.

.

.

ualdarno.
al

18.
.

arezo
.

lagho

.

.

19.

chircha

.

.

"tissima"

no

Ian.
24.

22. si

uede

disscedano.
.

23.
.

20 tera porta dallacquedi. 21. acora ochupaua. 20. di lugeza alchuno terra (azurigma come] "marina" questo congugnea
. .

.

.

collacho di

peruga.

soma.

25.

suniscano

.

dicosi

.

anticho.

26. nti

appenini

.

.

moti.

27.

chollazurigno tere

.

.

23.

See

PI.

CXIII.

GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.
li sassi, che di tal loco si cauano, son pieni di nichi; 28 I1 medesimo si conoscie auere fatto Arno, quando cadea dal sasso della Gonfolina nel mare, 2 9che dopo quella non troppo basso si trovaua, perche a quelli tempi superaua 1'altezza di San Miniato al Tedesco, 3 perche nelle somme

213

e tutti

altezze
di

nichi
si

non
non

quello si uedono le ripe piene e ostriche dentro alle sue mvra; distesero li nr'chi inverse Val di
di

and all the rocks bluish marine clay; which are torn off in such places are full of shells. The same may be observed to have been done by the Arno when it fell from the rock of Gonfolina into the sea, which was not so very far below; for at that time it was higher than the top of San Miniato al Tedesco, since at the highest summit of this the shores may be seen full of shells and
with

Nievole, perche 1'ncque dolci d'Arno in la
si

astendeano;
li

Come
mare per
uerso
la

nichi

no

si

diluuio, perche terra veniuano,

^partirono dal che di acora che esse
1'acque,

tirassino

il mare 33Jnverso la terra,' esse era quelle che percuoteano il suo fondo, perche 1'acqua, che viene diuerso la terra, a J 4 piu corso che quella del mare, e per coseguenza e piv potente, entra sotto 1'altra acqua del mare 35 e rimove il fondo e accompagnia con seco tutte le cose mobili

The shells did not oysters within its flanks. extend towards Val di Nievole, because the fresh waters of the Arno did not extend so far. That the shells were not carried away from the sea by the deluge, because the waters which came from the earth although they drew the sea towards the earth, were those which struck its depths; because the water which goes down from the earth, has a stronger current than that of the sea, and
in

enters

che
36

in

quella trova,

come son

i

predetti

nichi e altre simili cose, e quanto 1' acqua, che vie di terra, e piv torbida che quella

consequence is more powerful, and it beneath the sea water and stirs the depths and carries with it all sorts of movable objects which are to be found in the earth, such as the above-mentioned shells and other
similar things. And in proportion as the water which comes from the land is muddier than sea water it is stronger and heavier than this ; therefore I see no way of getting the said shells so far in land, unless they had

del mare, ta^/to piv

si

fa

potente e grave
ci

che quella; adunque
di tirare
i

io

no

vedo modo

8 predetti nichi tanto in3 fra terra, se quiui nati no fussino; se tu mi dicessi,

flume Loira, che passa per la Francia, 39rielPaccrescimeto del mare si copre piv di ottanta miglia di paese, perche e loco di gra pia 4 nvra, e '1 mare s'alza circa braccia 20, e nichi si uengono a trovare in tal pianvra, disco^sta dal mare essa 80 miglia, qui si rispode che '1 flusso e reflusso ne' nostri mediterrani ^rnari no fanno tanta varieta, perche in Genovese no uaria nvlla, a Vinegia poco, in A^frica poco, e dove poco varia, poco occupa di
il

been born

there.

If

you were

to tell

me

that

the river Loire [3 8], which traverses France, covers when the sea rises more than eighty

miles of country, because it is a district of vast plains, and the sea rises about 20 braccia, and shells are found in this plain at the di-

stance of 80 miles from the sea; here I answer that the flow and ebb in our Mediterranean Sea does not vary so much; for at Genoa it does not rise at all, and at Venice but little,
little in Africa; and where it varies covers but little of the country. The course of the water of a river always rises higher in a place where the current is impeded; it behaves as it does where it is reduced in width to pass under the arches of a bridge.

and very
little
it

paese

;

Senpre
il

la

correte

dell' acqua
li

de'

fiumi

44s'inoda sopra del loco doue

e inpedito

corso

;

ancora doue essa
45
li

si

ristrignie

per

passare sotto

archi de' ponti.

ettutti.

28. conosscie
30.

.

.

fatto
.
.

[il

ual dnrno]
. .

arno
. .

.

.

chadea del
31.

.

.

golfolina.

29.

tropo
. .

.

.

acquelli tenpi
32.

.

.

lalteza di

saminiato.

some

alteze

uede

osstrighe

distesono.
33.
.

nievole per
terra
. .

lacque

asstendeano.
.

partiro
a.
|

del

.

.

lache che diuerso terra veniuano al mare ancora e esse.
cquella
.

inverso
.

peroteano
36.

.

vie diuerso
.
.

tera

34.

chei

.

acq"a"
. .

.

.

35.

aconpagnia consecho
38. fiatterra 41. sto
.

.

.

mobile
.

son e prede.

ecquanto
.

checquella.
40.

37.

adunque
20 e
. .

no

ci

vego

e

predetti.
.
.

.

.

settu
.

.

era
. .

.

.

franca.
. .

39. acresscimeto

.

ellocho.

circha br
42. nola
.

.

uengano
43.

attrorare
. .

discos.
.

dal
.

.

esse

risspode

frusso e refrusso
. .

.

.

medi

terani.

pocho.

pocho

pocho

.

pocho schupa

correte.

44.

locho douele

corso

.
|

anchora.

38.

Leonardo has written Era instead of Loera or Loira

perhaps under the mistaken idea that Lo was

an

article.

214

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[989:

Uic. 9 'I

,989.

CONFUTATIONS CH'E CONTRO COLOR CHE DIPER MOLTE GIORCONO, I NICHI ESSER PORTATI NATE DISTANTI DALLI MARI PER CAUSA DEL DILUUIO 'TANT'ALTO CHE SUPERASSE TALE
ALTEZ/A.

A CONFUTATION OF THOSE WHO SAY THAT SHELLS MAY HAVE BEEN CARRIED TO A DISTANCE OF MANY DAYS' JOURNEY FROM THE SEA BY THE DELUGE, WHICH WAS SO HIGH AS TO BE ABOVE THOSE HEIGHTS.
I say that the deluge could not carry objects, native to the sea, up to the mountains, unless the sea had already increased so as to create inundations as high up as those places; and

non pote portare mare alii moti, se gia il mare gonfiando no creasse inodazione *in3Dico che
il

diluuio

le cose nate dal

la qual gonfiaalii lochi sopradetti, tione accadere no pu6, perche si darebbe sriemvacuo, e se tu diciessi 1'aria quiui

sino

this increase
it

could not have occurred because

noi abbiamo concluso il grave pierebbe non si sostenere sopra il lieue, onde per 6 neciessita si c6 clude, esso diluuio essere cavsato dall'acque piovane, e se cosl e, 7 e no tutte esse acque corrono al mare, e se elle corcorre il mare alle montagnie,
,

rono
lito

al

mare,

del mare,
dicessi,

tu
9

esse spingono li nichi dal 8 se e no le tirano a se; alzo per 1'acque '1 mare poiche

E

piovane,
gia

port6

essi

nichi

a tale

altezza,

abbiamo detto che le cose piv gravi delFacqua no nota sopra di lei, ma stano I0 rimovono se nei fondi, dalle quali no si no per cavsa di percussio d' onda E se tu
,
;

would cause a vacuum; and if you were to say that the air would rush in there, we have already concluded that what is heavy cannot remain above what is light, whence of necessity we must conclude that this deluge was caused by rain water, so that all these waters ran to the sea, and the sea did not run up the mountains; and as they ran to the sea, they thrust the shells from the shore of the sea and did not draw them to wards themselves. And if you were then to say that the sea, raised by the rain water, had carried these shells
such a height, we have already said that things heavier than water cannot rise upon and do it, but remain at the bottom of it,
to

dirai
alti,

gra fondo al moto di sopra, la qual cosa I2 si manifesta per lo intorbidare del mare dal
terreno
tolto

portassino in tali lochi noi abbiamo "prouato che 1'onde nelle profondita tornano in contrario nel

che 1'onde

le

not

move
if

And

unless by the impact of the waves. you were to say that the waves had

vicino

alii

liti;

Muovesi

la

cosa piv lieue che 1'^acqua insieme colla sua onda, ed e lasciata nel piv alto sito
della riva dalla piv alta

them to such high spots, we have proved that the waves in a great depth move in a contrary direction at the bottom to the motion at the top, and this is shown by the turbidity of the sea from the earth washed down near its shores. Anything which is
carried
lighter than the water

cosa
dalla

suo

onda; Muouesi la sospinta ^piu grave che 1'acqua sua oda nella superfitie e dal fondo e per queste due conclusion!, che ai
,

and

is

left

moves with the waves, on the highest level of the highest

lochi 'Ssua-sara provate a pieno, noi concludiamo che 1'onda superfitiale no puo portare nichi, per essere piu grievi che
16

margin of the waves. Anything which is heavier than the water moves, suspended in it, between the surface and the bottom; and from these two conclusions, which will be

1'acqua;

amply proved in their place, we infer that the waves of the surface cannot convey shells,
since they are heavier than water. If the deluge had to carry shells three hundred and four hundred miles from the
it would have carried them mixed with various other natural objects heaped together; and we see at such distances oysters all

'7Quando
tare
li

il

diluuio auesse avto a por-

quattro cento mil8 glia distanti dalli mari, esso li avrebbe portati misti con diuerse nature insieme J ammontati, e noi vediamo in 9tal distantie 1'ostriche tutte insteme, e le conchilie, e li pesci calamai, e tutti li altri nichi, che stanno insieme a congre 20 gatione, essere
nichi

trecento e

sea,

together, and sea-snails, and cuttlefish, and all the other shells which congregate together,

989.

i.
.
.

dicano

.

.

gornate
. .

.

.

chausa.

2.

tantalta
5.

.

.

superassi.
.
.

j.
.
.

Dicho che diluuio no po
greve.
. .

|

"te"

.

.

cose "nate" del
7. csselle
.

.

.

creassi
.

achadere
8.

po
.

.

.

dare vachuo.
attale

rienpierebe
. .

abia
.

6.

esse chosi

.

.

corrano.
10.

corrano
Essettu
.

.

del

lito.

asse

Esse
.

.

alteza.

9. abia
. .

chelle

.

grav

stano in fondo delle
.

removano
.

.

.

.

abia.

ii. chellonde
llond.i
.

.

provondita.
auesse.

12. del tere
18.

chella.

13.
.

.

po.

17.

disstanti

.

.

arebbe

.

lassciata. acq"a" chou amotati. . 19.
.
.

14.

chellacqua
.
.

sospinte

.

.

e del.
.
.

15.

che-

losstriche

elli

conchili

elli

chalamai

990.]

GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.
all

215

tari trovarsi

se noi troviamo 1'ostriche insieme apparetate gradissime, infra le quali assai vedi

E

trovati tutti insieme morti, e li nichi soledistant! 1'uno dall'altro, come 2I tutto il giorno vediamo; ne' liti marittimi

be found together and dead; and the found wide apart from each other, as we may see them on sea-shores every
to
solitary shells are

day.

And

if

we

find oysters of very large shells

joined together and

among them

very

many

che anno ancora il coperchio congiunlo, a significare chequi furono lasciate dal mare, che ancor viveano quando fu 2 3tagliato lo stretto di Gibilterra; Vedesi
quelle
in

22

nelle

montagnie

di

Parma
24

moltitudini di nichi e coralli

e Piacetia le intarlati, an-

have the covering attached, indicating that they were left hereby the sea, and strait of Gibraltar the still living when was cut through; there are to be seen, in the mountains of Parma and Piacenza, a multitude of 'shells and corals, full of holes,
which
still

cora appiccati alii sassi, de' quali, quand' io facevo il gra cavallo di Milano, me ne fu 2 portato vn gra sacco ne 5lla mia fabbrica da certi villani, che in tal loco furo trovati, fralli quali ve n'era assai delli conseruati

I

and still sticking to the rocks was making the great horse large sack full was brought

there.

When
a
in

for Milan ,
to

me

my

workshop by certain peasants; these were found in that place and among them were

prima bota; Truovasi sotto terra e sotto li profondi cavamenti de' lastroni li legniami
26

nella

many preserved in their first freshness. Under ground, and under the foundations
of buildings, timbers are found of wrought beams and already black. Such were found in my time in those diggings at Castel Fiorentino. And these had been in that deep place before
the

delle traui lauorati, fatti gia neri, li qua 27 ll furo trovati a mio tenpo in quel di Castel
28 dall'Arno gittata che quiui copriva, fusse abbannel mare, donata in tant' altezza, e che le pianvre del Casentino fussi tanto abbassate 2 9dal terre che anno al continue di 11 sgonberato;

Fioretino e questi v'erano prima che la
,

in
litta

tal

loco profondo

sand carried by the Arno into the sea,

then covering the plain, had heen raised to such a height; and before the plains of Casentino had been so much lowered, by the earth being constantly carried down from them.

3E
crea3
2

se

tu

dicessi,

tali

31

nichi

essere

ti

e creano a c63 tinvo in simili lochi

per
6
38

la

natura del

34 S ito

e

de'

cieli,

che

qui3 vi influisce,

questa

37 tale

openione non

you were to say that these created, and were continually being created in such places by the nature of the spot, and of the heavens which might
[30]
if

And

shells

were

sta in cervelli di trop39po discorso, perche 4I del loro accre4 qui vi s'envmera li anni

scimento

42

sulle loro scorze,
44
i

e se ne

43

V e-

dono piccoli e gradi, quali sanza cibo no 5 scerebbero e non si cibarebbero sa 46 za cre^
moto, e quivi mouere no
si

have some influence there, such an opinion cannot exist in a brain of much reason; because here are the years of their growth, numbered on their shells, and there are large and small ones to be seen which could not have grown without food, and could not have fed without motion #nd here they could
not

po 4 ?teano.

move [47].

Leic. io a]

9QO
2

Come
si

nelle falde, infra 1'una
li

e 1'altra

That

trovano ancora

andameti

delli lonbrici,

che caminavano infra esse ^quado non erano

ancora asciutte;
rini

Come

tutti

li

fanghi
4

ma-

found the traces of the worms which crawled upon them when they were not yet dry. And all marine clays still contain shells, and the shells are petrithere are
fied From their together with the clay. firmness and unity some persons will have it that these animals were carried up to
.

in the drifts, still to be

among one and

another,

ritengono ancora de' nichi
il

ed e

petri-

ficato

nichio
20.
elli
.
.

insieme col fango;
.

della
Esse

ettutti.
.

trovare

.

lunoall.
.
.

21.

gorno
.

.

.

.

losstriche

.

.

aparetadi gradissimi infralle quale.
.

22.

anchora

.

.

.

congunto ne nefu

assignificare

lassciate
.
.

.

ancoravveano.
bota.

23. losstretto di gibiltar

.

inelle

.

.

moltitudinede.
.

24. apichati

.

.

sachone.

25. fabricha

nella p".i"
.

26.
.
.

essotto

.

.

ga

neri.

27. ecquesti

.

profondor

"o"no

.

.

chella litagitta. 28. copria fussi abondata
33. nvo.
36. infruisscie. 47. trono.
. .

.

alteza
tro.

e
41.

chelle

tante

abassate.

29. del.

37.

none.

38. di

deloro acresscimento.

42. sule.

.sgonbera 30. essettu. 31. niche. 45. bono e non si 43. vede picoli.
uogliano chettal.

ciboro.

990.

2.

infralluna allaltra

trova anchora.

3.

neuera

.

.

asscutta

.

.

fangh

.

.

ritengano.

4.

essenplicita

.

.

989.

30

47.

These

lines arc written in the margin.

2l6
stoltitia

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[990.

e senplicita di quelli, che uogliono che taMi animali fussino alii lochi distanti dai mari portati dal diluvio; Come altra 6 affermano la natura, o i setta d'ignoranti
cell

places remote from the sea by the deluge. Another sect of ignorant persons declare that Nature or Heaven created them in these
places by celestial influences, as if in these places we did not also find the bones of fishes which have taken a long rime to grow;
if, we could not count, in the shells of cockles and snails, the years and months of their life, as we do in the horns of bulls and oxen, and in the branches of plants that have never been cut in any part. Besides, having proved by these signs the length of their lives, it is evident, and it must be admitted, that these animals could not live without moving to fetch their food; and we find in them no instrument for penetrating the earth or the rock where we find them enclosed. But how could we find in a large snail shell the fragments and portions of many other sorts of shells, of various sorts, if they had not been thrown there, when dead, by the waves of the sea like the other light objects which it throws on the earth?

auerli

in

tali

lochi
7

creati

per

Iflussi

celesti,

come
de'

in

lughezza di 1'ossa pesci come nelle scorze de' nichi e lumatenpo, 8 che no si potcsse annvmerare li anni o i mesi della lor uita, come nelle corna de' buoi e de' castroni e nella ramificatione decile piante, che no furo mai tagliate in alcuna parte; E auendo con tali segni diI0 esmostrato e la lunghezza della lor uita ecco bisognio confessare, sere manifesta, che tali animali no uiuino sanza moto per
cercare "il loro cibo e in loro
;

quelli cresciuti

no
co

si

trovassino

and as

non

si

uede

strumeto da penetrare la terra e '1 sasso, I2 Ma in che modo ove si trovano rinchiusi in vna gra lumaca i si potrebbe trovare
rottami e parte di molt'altre sorti di nichi na^ture, se ad essa, sopra de' liti marini gia morta, non. li fussino state gittate dalle onde del mare, come dell'al'nre cose lieui, che esso gitta a terra? Perche tanto rottame e nichi interi fra si truova falda e falda di pie'Stra, se gia quella sodi uarie

pra del

lito

no fusse stata ricoperta da una

terra rigittata dal mare, la qual poi si uenne l6 se '1 diluvio predetto li pc trificando? auesse in tali siti dal mare portato, tu trove-

E

resti essi nichi in nel termi' 7 ne

falda, e

d'una sola non al termine di moke; deuonsi a l8 ni, che poi annvmerare le uernate delli '1 mare mvltiplicaua le falde dell' arena e fango, portatoli da fiumi vicini, e ch'elli
liti

do we find so many fragments and shells between layer and layer of stone, if this had not formerly been covered on the shore by a layer of earth thrown up by the sea, and which was afterwards petrified? And if the deluge before mentioned had carried them to these parts of the sea, you might find these shells at the boundary of one drift but not at the boundary between many We must also account for the winters drifts.

Why

whole

of the years during which the sea multiplied the drifts of sand and mud brought down by
the neighbouring rivers, by washing down the shores; and if you chose to say that there were several deluges to produce these
rifts

sua, e se '9tu volessi dire, che piv diluui fussino stati a produrre tali falde e nichi infra loro, e' bisognierebbe, 20 che ancora tu affermassi ogni ano essere

scaricava in sui

and the

shells

among

them, you would

Ancora infra li tal diluuio accaduto; rot 2I tami di tal nichi si presume in tal sito
vn
essere spiaggia di mare, doue tutti i nichi son gittati rotti e diuisi e no 22 mai appaiati,

also have to affirm that such a deluge took Again, among the fragplace every year.

ments of these
that
in

shells,

it

must be presumed

come infra '1 mare viui si trovano con due gusci, che fan coperchio 1'uno all'altro;

E infra 2 ^le falde della riuiera e de' liti marittimi son trovati de' rottami; dentro 2 alii termini delle pietre son trovati *rari e appaiati de' gusci, come quelli che furo lasciati dal mare sotterrati viui dentro al

E

fango,

il

2

qual

5poi

si

secc6 e col tenpo

petrified.
5. fossi inali
.

those places there were sea coasts, where all the shells were thrown up, broken, and divided, and never in pairs, since they are found alive in the sea, with two valves, each serving as a lid to the other ; and in the drifts of rivers, and on the shores of the sea they are found in fragments. And within the limits of the separate strata of rocks they are found, few in number and in pairs like those which were left by the sea, buried alive in the mud, which subsequently dried up and, in time, was petrified.
lugeza
.
.

.

diluio

.

I frussi. 7. trovassi

.

.

crcssciuti

.

.

pote. 8. anvmerare
.

.

.

casstroni

.

.

del. 9. sign! dimostro

o

la

lungeza.
.

10. ecci

bisognia chettali. n.illor nosi.
etso
.

12.
.

nvna gra lumacha
16. trifichando
.

.

altre sotte. 13. ture e essa
. .

sopa de

.

.

morta
.

nolli
incl.

.

comella.

14.
.

.

atterra.

15. fussi

.

uno.

Essel diluio
ani]
. .

auessi

.

.

troverresti

hessi

.

17.

none

.

di
.

[qualunche falda] "di
insu lid
.

moke"
.

deuensi po anvmerare
20.

[li
.

le

uernate.
[e

18. del

[fango]

"larena

eff-

angho"

portatoli

.

.

.

esset.

19.
.

ennichi infralloro.
iniralle.

ongni

.

tatal
. .

acaduto

che

tenessi]

Ancora
.

infralii.

ai.spiagia.

22. apaiati

.

gussci cheffan

24. apaiati di gussci

lassciati sollcrati.

25.

secho

.

petrificho.

99I-993-]

GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.

Leic.

991.

E se tu vuoi dire che tale diluuio fu quello che porto tali nichi fuor de' mari cetinaia di miglia questo no puo acca 2 dere, essendo stato esso diluuio per cause di pioggie, perche naturalmente le pioggie spingono i fiumi insieme colle cose da loro 3portate inuerso il mare, e no tirano inverso de' moti le cose morte dai liti marittimi e setu dicessi che'l diluvio poi s'a! 4 zo colle sue acque sopra de' moti, il moto del mare fu si tardo col camino suo contro al corso de' fiumi, che non avrebbe 5 sopra di se tenvto a noto le cose piv gravi di lui,
,

And

if

you choose

to

say

that

it

was

the deluge which carried these shells away from the sea for hundreds of miles, this cannot

.,

have happened, since that deluge was caused by rain; because rain naturally forces the rivers to rush towards the sea with all the things they carry with them, and not to bear the dead things of the sea shores to the mountains. And if you choose to say that
the deluge

afterwards

rose

with

its

waters

e se pur 1'auesse sostenute,
lare
1'

esso nel cadiversi
6

avrebbe
li

lasciate

in

lochi

seminate;
li

Ma come
quali esser

coralli,

accomoderemo noi inverse Mote Ferrato
si

di

Lonbardia

tuttoMl

trovati

above the mountains, the movement of the sea must have been so sluggish in its rise against the currents of the rivers, that it could not have carried, floating upon it, things heavier than itself; and even if it had supported them, in its receding it would have left them strewn But how are we to about, in various spots. account for the corals which are found every
towards Monte Ferrato in Lombardy, with the holes of the worms in them, sticking to rocks left uncovered by the currents of rivers? These rocks are all covered with stocks and families of oysters, which as we know, never move, but always remain with one of their halves stuck to a rock, and the other they open to feed themselves on the animalcules that swim in the water, which,

intarlati

dalle

alii appiccati correti de' fiumi?

scogli , scoperti e li detti scogli

day

8 e famiglie coperti di parentadi le quali noi sappiamo che no si movono, ma sta senpre appiccate col' u de' gusci al sasso, e Paltro apro^no per

sono

tutti

d'ostriche,

cibarsi d' animaluzzi
li

,

che nota per
trovar

1'

acque,

quali,

credendo

bona

diuentano cibo del I0 si trova 1' arena
la
IT

predetto mista coll' aliga
1'

pastura, nichio; non

mache

rina essersi petrificata, poiche

aliga,

ramezzaua, venne meno; e di questo scopre tutto il giorno il Po nelle ruine delle sue ripe.

hoping to find good feeding ground, become the food of these shells. We do not find that the sand mixed with seaweed has been petrified, because the weed which was mingled with it has shrunk away, and this the Po shows us every day in the debris of its banks.

Leic. 20 a]

992.

sono trovate 1'ossa 2 de' gra e le ostriche e coralli e altri diuersi pesci "i _ i _ __nichi e chiocciole sopra 1'alte cime de' moti ma^rittimi nel medesimo modo che si trova ne' bassi mari?

Perche

and

1

1

1 f

j_

i _ i

do we find the bones of great fishes and corals and various other in M ,1 r shells and sea-snails on the high summits of mountains by the sea, just as we find them in low seas?

Why

other
bl
'99

oysters
i

i

i

*

_

^ 994*'

ms

Leic. 36

993ai

Tu

ora a provare

come

li

nichi

no

nascono, se no in acque salse, quasi tutte
le sorte,

You now have to prove that the shells cannot have originated if not in salt water, almost all being of that sort; and that
the
shells
in

e che

2

li

nichi di

Lonbardia anno

Lombardy
.

are

at

four levels,

991. i. Essettu volli
.

.

.

chettale
.

.

.

for

.

.

po acha.
5.
.

2.
.

chause

di piogie
. .

.

.

piogie spingano
6.

.

dallor.

3.

morte de
7. ildi
.

liti
.

.

.

esse

.

diluui.

4.

sittardo
.

.

arebe
. .

[te].

esse
.

.

lauesi sosstenvte
e.

larebe lassciate.

acomodereno.

.

"intarlati"
9.

apichati
luzi
.
.

alii

scolgli
10.

.

elli

scolgli
.

parendadi
.

8.

sapiano

.

.

movano

.

.

apichate cholu degussci

.

apra.

danima-

diuenta.

trova egli larena
.

.

cholla

.

poichellaliga chella framezaua.
i.

n. gorno.

993.

2.

pessci elle osstriche

.

cioccole.

993.

nasscano.

3.

chessabochano.

VOL. u.

EE

*

218

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
per tutti, li quali sono e questi ^sono per tutte che sboccano alii mari.
e
cosj

L994-

4

liuelli,

fatti

in piv tepi,

at

le ualli

everywhere, having been made And they all occur in valleys that open towards the seas.
it is

and thus

various

times.

Hr.

M.

156*1

9942
linie

Per

le

de*

nicchi
2

che_la terra per il mare, e fece
luuio
J

il

sdegno primo suolo, poi

s'attufasse

bisognia dire sotto
il

From

di-

fece

il

secondo.

submerged under the sea and so the first layer was made ; and then the deluge made the second.

to say that the

the two lines of shells we are forced earth indignantly

994.

i.

nicch

.

.

chellatcra.

2.

sattu fassi sottollmare

eflfe.

3.

fe

il

sechondo.

994.

This note

is

in the

early writing of about

On the same sheet are the passages 1480. 1470 No. 1217 and 1219. Compare also No. 1339. All the

foregoing chapters are from Manuscripts of about This explains the want of connection and the 1510. contradiction between this and the foregoing texts.

VII.

ON THE ATMOSPHERE.
r\
Leic. 20 a]

995la

Come

chiarezza
li

dell' aria

na 2 scie
il

dal-

1'acqua che

in quella s'e resoluta e fattasi

in Isesibili graniculi,

quali,

preso

lume

That the brightness of the air is occasioned by the water which has dissolved it., , in it self into imperceptible molecules.
. .

Constituents
of th e al
,

mosphere.

del sole dall' op3posita parte, redone la chiin essa aria si dimonstra, e 1'azzurro, che in quella apparisce, nascie * dalle tenebre, che dopo essa aria si na-

These, being lighted
opposite
is

by the sun
the

from the

arezza che

side, reflect

visible in the air;

brightness^which and the azure which is
is

scondono.

it is caused by the darkness that hidden beyond the air. [4]

seen in

Leic. 226]

996.
i

Come
di
ualli

retrosi de' ueti

a certe

2

boche

That the return eddies of wind

at the

on

the mo-

percuotino sopra delle acque e quelle concauino co gra cauameto, e portino ^Pacqua in aria in forma colunnale in color

nugola, e il medesimo vid'io gia fare 4 Vn arenaio d' Arno, nel quale fu sopra concauato 1' arena piu d'una statura d'uomo, e sdi quella fu remossa la ghiaja e gittata
di

in

disparte per
in

1'aria

forma
la

e

crescieva
del moti.

lugo spatio, e parea per di gradissimo canpanile, sommita come i rami di
6

gran pino,
tatto
li

e
retto

si

piegaua ueto che

?poi

nel

con-

passaua sopra

a great hollow, whirl the water into the air in the form of a column, and of the colour of a cloud. And I saw this thing happen on a sand bank in the Arno, where the sand was hollowed out to a greater depth than the stature of a man ; and with it the gravel was whirled round and flung about for a great space; it appeared in the air in the form of a great bell-tower; and the top spread like the branches of a pine tree, and then it bent at the contact of the direct wind, which passed over from the mountains.
in

mouth of certain valleys waters and scoop them out

strike

upon

the

tion of air

(996999).

995.

i.
i.

chiareza.
accerte.

2. sscie
2.

.

.

effattasi
.
.

.

.

presi. 3.
. .

redano

la ciareza
3.

.

.

dimosstra ellazurro
.

.

.

apparissce nasscie
he.
5.

.

.

nasscondano.
6.

996.

percotino
.

ecquelle

chauamento.

colunale

.

vidio cia.

4.

duome

giara e gittatta.

ecres-

scieva lasomita

.

rami

di girapino essi.

995-

4-

Compare

Vol.

I,

No. 300.

220

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

[997-1000.

Lde.
1

997-

L'onda

dell aria fa

il

me'desimo

vfitio
air

The element of
in

fuoco -, che fa 1'onda infra 1' elemeto infra T aria, o 1'onda dcll'a3rena, clell'acqua e sono i lor moti doe terra, infra
del

1'acqua,

water, that

upon a wave of air does on or as water does on a mass of sand is earth; and their motions are in the
fire

acts

the

same way

as

the

in

tal

proportione

qual

e

quella

de'

lor

same

mo'tori infra loro.

proportions as acting upon them.

those

of the

motors

S. K.

M.

Il.a

19*1

998.

DE
Domado,
si
,

MOTO.
uero moto
^

OF MOTION.
2

se
.

'1

de'
*

nuvoli
i t

puo conosciereM -Jper lo moto delle sue 4 e moto 5 del del similemete ombre
sole.

I ask whether the true motion of the clouds can be known by the motion of their _i__i__ _ir *i_ _ _/* iJ _ shadows; and in like manner of the motion of the sun.
i
A.I

H.3

999.

Per
veti.

2

cognosciere

meglio

i

O
IOOO.

To know
of the winds.

better the

direction

Lic. 340]

The globe sia
an organism.

loco doue no vegetatiua e rationale; nascono J e p enne S Opra H UCCelU, 6 si mvtano ogni anno nascono 2 li peli sopra li animali, e ogni anno si mvtano, saluo al-

Nessuna cosa nasce
vita

in

sensitiua,

no

sentient, vegetable

Nothing originates in a spot where there is and rational life feathers
;

;

cuna parte, come
lioni
li

li

peli
;

delle

barbe de'

e gatte e simi-Jli nascono 1' erbe sopra prati e le foglie sopra li alberi, e ogn'ano

in

rinovano; adunque potremo avere anima vegetatiua, e che la sua carne sia la terra, li sua ossi sieno li ordini delle collegationi de'

gra parte
4

si

grow upon birds and are changed every year; hairs grow upon animals and are changed every year, excepting some parts, like the hairs of the beard in lions, cats and their The grass grows in the fields, and like. the leaves on the trees, and every year So that they are, in great part, renewed.

dire,

la terra

we might say

that the earth

has a

spirit

of

growth; that its flesh is the soil, its bones the arrangement and connection of the rocks of

997.

2.

mfrallclemcto
nvvoli spo.
2

.

.

focho
4.

.

cheffa.

3.

coe

.

.

infrallacqua essono

.

.

quele quella delor.

998. 999.

2.
i

j.

obre.

essimile

i.ete.

R.

s.
.

cognosciere.
.

2.

e veti.
(intellettiva) vigitatiua e ra t'onale]
4.

1000.

i.

nance
3.

locho
.

.

.

vita "sensitiua
.

nassce
5.

le

pene

.

.

essi
6.

.

.

nassce.
. .

2.

alchuna

.

.

essimi.

nassce

.

elle

.

potren.

vigitatiua e chella

.

.

collcgatione.

comogano.

occeano

cresscere e dis-

999.

In

connection with this text

I

may here

mention a hygrometer, drawn and probably invented by Leonardo. A facsimile of this is given in VoL I,
p.

pert quando j'<J arrompere U tep<f the air and of knowing when

(Mode of weighing
the
is

weather
written,

will

297 with the note:

'Modi di pesare I'arie tddi

ta-

change); by the sponge "Spugnea" 1000. Compare No. 929.

IOOO.]

ON THE ATMOSPHERE.
which
the

221

di che si compongono le motagnie, il suo tenerume soiio li tufi il suo sangue sono 6 del sangue, le uene delle acque, il lago
,

mountains

are

composed,

its

che sta dintorno alitare e il suo

e il mare oceano, crescere e discrescere del sangue 7pelli polsi, e cosi nella terra e il flusso e riflusso del mare, e '1 caldo 8 ch' e indell' anima del mondo e il fuoco, fuso per la terra, e la residenza dell' anima
al core,
'1

cartilage the tufa, and its blood the springs of water. The pool of blood which lies round the heart is the ocean, and its breathing, and the increase and decrease of the

blood
earth

in

the

pulses,

is

represented in
sea;

the

by the flow and ebb of the

and

vegetativa sono
lochi

li

fochi,

che per
in

diuersi

the heat of the spirit of the world is the fire which pervades the earth, and the seat of the vegetative soul is in the fires, which in

della

9 terra

miniere

di solfi,

bagni, e in e in vulcani, e Mo Gibello
spirano
lochi assai.

di Sicilia,

e

altri

many parts of the earth find vent in baths and mines of sulphur, and in volcanoes, as at Mount in Sicily, and in many other places.
in

scresscere.

7.

frusso e refrusso

.

.

focho.

8. ella

reside dell

.

.

vigitativa.

9.

vulgano

.

.

cicilia.

XVII.

Topographical Notes.
have found their large part of the texts published in this section might perhaps in connection with the foregoing chapters on Physical Geography. But these proper place observations on Physical Geography, of whatever kind they may be, as soon as they are

A

a special interest and importance and particularly as bearing on the whether Leonardo himself made the observations recorded at the places menquestion In a few instances he himself tells tioned or merely noted the statements from hearsay.
localised acquire

In some cases again, although the style and expressions used make it seem highly probable that he has derived his information from others though, as it seems to me, these cases are not very numerous we find, on the other hand, us that he writes at second hand.

among

number of observations, about which it is extremely difficult to form a decided opinion. Of what the Master's life and travels may have been throughout his sixty-seven years of life we know comparatively little; for a long course of time, and particularly from about 1482 to 1486, we do not even know with certainty
these topographical notes a great

that he

was

living in Italy.

Thus,

from a
in

attaches to

add

Leonardo's intimate a group by themselves. knowledge with places, some of which were certainly remote from his native home, are
to

some of the topographical their value to arrange them

notes,

biographical point of view a very great interest and for this reason it seemed that it would

of importance as contributing
nardo's travels.
in

open question as to the extent of Leoa confirmation of the view, that the MSS. find which the Topographical Notes occur are in only a very few instances such diaries as
to decide the still

We

sJiall

in these notes

may have

been in use during a journey.

of his later
as

and

quieter years,

and

reticent as to the authorities

from

These notes are mostly found in the MSS. books is certainly remarkable that Leonardo is very whom he quotes his facts arid observations : For init

stance,

to the Straits

of Gibraltar, the Nile, the Taurus Mountains and the Tigris
that he,

and Euphrates. Is it likely own experience should be
No. 987
991,) sJiould here

who

declared that in all
his

scientific research, his

of have made an exception

the foundation

statements
to this rule

(see

XIX

PhilosopJiy
1

without mentioning

it ?

224

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
instance
in

the equilibrium of the mass of water in the liad at that time attracted Mediterranean Sea a subject which, it may be observed, The acute remarks, in Nos. 985993, the interest and study of hardly any other observer. as it seems to on the presence of shells at the tops of mountains, suffice to prove

As for

the discussion

as

to

methat

it

was

not in his nature to allow himself to

his ralisations, extending beyond the limits of

own

betrayed into wide geneinvestigations, even by such brillibe

ant results of personal study.

Notes, though suggesting very careful and as has been said, afford necessarily indisputable tliorough research, do not however, But it must be granted that in more evidence that that research was Leonardo's own.

Most

of

these

Topographical

than one instance probability

is in

favour of

this idea.

Among

the passages which treat

is places by far the most interesting text is written in the style of a formal report and,

somewhat fully of the topography of Eastern a description of the Taurus Mountains] but as this
in the

original,

is

associated with
it

certain letters

which give us the history of
that connection.
It will be

its

origin,

I have thought

best not to

sever

it

from

found under No.

XXI

(Letters}.

That Florence, and its neighbourhood, where Leonardo spent his early years, should nowhere mentioned except in connection with the projects for canals , which occuth pied his attention for some short time during the first ten years of tJie XVI century, The various passages relating to the construction of canals in need not surprise us.
be

Tuscany, which are put together at the beginning, are immediately followed by those which deal with schemes for canals in Lombardy ; and after these come notes on the North Italy. city and vicinity of Milan as well as on the lakes of

The notes on some towns of Central
in the service

Italy

which Leonardo visited

in

1502,

when

of Cesare Borgia, are reproduced here in the same order as in the note 77iese notes have but book used during these travels (MS. L., Institut de France).
little

interest

in

themselves excepting as suggesting his itinerary.

drawn by Leonardo at tlie time are more valuable names on these maps are not written from right to left, but
districts

The maps of the No. 1054 note). The (see in the usual manner, and

we

possibly for the

are permitted to infer that they were made in obedience to some command, use of Cesare Borgia himself; the fact that they remained nevertheless in Leonardo's hands is not surprising when we remember tlie sudden political

There can be no doubt that these maps, changes and warlike events of the period. which are here published for the first time, are original in the strictest sense of the
word, that
by
tJie

is

to

say drawn
others

from
that

observations of the places themselves;

this

is

proved

fact

among

we find among

his manuscripts not only the finis/ted

themselves but the rough sketches and studies for them. And it would perhaps to point out among the abundant contributions to geographical knowledge published during the XVI*k century, any maps at all approaching these in accuracy

maps

be difficult

and finish.
The
interesting

map of
at

the world, so

far as
in

it

was

then known, wJiich is
Vol.

the Leonardo

MSS.

Windsor

(published

the

'Archaeologia'

among XI) cannot
proved;

be attributed to the Master, as the Marchese Girolamo
it

d'Adda has

sufficiently

has not therefore been reproduced here.

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
Such of Leonardo's observations on places
official travels

225

in Italy as

were made before or after his

as military engineer to Cesarc Borgia, have been arranged in alphabetical order, imder Nos. 1034 1054. The most interesting are those which relate to tJie Alps

and

the Appenines , Nos. 1057

1068.

Most of the passages in which France is mentioned have hitherto remained unknown, as well as those which treat of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, which come at the end of this section. Though these may be regarded as of a more
questionable importance in
their bearing on

which mention places
the

in France, it

prominent place which the
never once alludes
to

the biography of the Master than those must be allowed that they are interesting as showing countries of the East held in his geographical studies.

He

the discovery

of America.

FF

ITALY.
C. A. 45*1;

1001.

CANALE
2

DI FIREZE.

CANAL OF FLORENCE.
tali

Facciasi
il

alle

Chiane

d'Arezzo
1'

cateratte che,

machando acqua

estate in

of
in

..",_.,.
la

Sluices

should
at
,

be made in
,

the
that
,1
.

valley
v

Chiana

Arezzo,

so

when,
1 V

connection with the

canale no rimaga arido; 3 e facciasi esso canale largo in fodo braccia 20 e 30 in bocca, e braccia 2 s per 1' acqua 04-, perche dua d' esse braccia reca 4 alii mvlini e li prati questo bonifichera il e Prato, Pistoia e Pisa insieme paese co Fireze, faranno 1'anno di meglio s dugiee porgieranno le mani to mila ducati e spesa a esso aivtorio, e i Lucchesi il simile, perche il lago di Sesto fia na6 fo lo fare la uia di Prato vicabile; e Pistoia e tagliare Serravalle e uscire

Arno-,

the

,

canal

summer the Arno lacks water, the 111* may not remain dry: and let this canal
at

Arno

*^

,

L>OO^.

be 20 braccia wide

the bottom,

and

at

;

the top 30, and 2 braccia deep, or 4, so that two of these braccia may flow to the mills and the

,

Prato, Pistoia

,

meadows, which will benefit the country and and Pisa, as well as Florence, will gain two hundred thousand ducats a year, and will lend a hand and money to this useful work and the Lucchese the same, for the lake
; ;

.

nel

lago
i

,

sostegni

senpre

si

perche no bisognia conche o qua 7 li no sono eterni, anzi a operarli e sta in esercitio
,

of Sesto will be navigable; I shall direct it to Prato and Pistoia, and cut through Serravalle and make an issue into the lake for there will be no need of locks or supports, which are
;

mantenerli.
8 sappi che se, cauado il canale doue esso e profondo 4 braccia, si da 4 dinari in doppia profondita per braccio quadro si 9 da 6 dinari, se fai 4 I0 braccia e' sono
,

E

not lasting and so will always be giving trouble in working at them and keeping them up. And know that in digging this canal where it is 4 braccia deep, it will cost 4 dinari the square braccio; for twice the depth 6 dinari, if you are making 4 braccia

looi.

2.

alle

chiane darezo
. .

.

.

chateratte

.

.

machando
. .

.

acqua
.
.

\

lastate
.
.

innarno.

3.

effacciasi

.

.

br.
5.

20 ..

boccha
le

e br. 2

.

5

.

per qua
..sessto.
il

dua desse
6. folli fare
. .

br.
.
.

rua

(?)

.

4. elli

quessto
7.

pisstoia

cho

.

.

fia

lano dimeglio.

porgierano
8.
il

ettagliare esscire.
[onsi in
.
.

etterni
si

.

Lines

815
.

br. stands
.

chanale

dopia.
4,

9. dinari

.

7

.

da

il

doppio

perche

quelle
.

always for braccia. sechonde 4 br.
.

mani "esspesa" Essapi chesse chauado
tereno e giassmosso e
13.

poi perche] seffai

10. dellabri

ellaltro.

n.

esse fussi.

12. cresse solo

i

.

bancho

.

.

cresscie.

viene dinari sei

iooi. This passage is illustrated by a slightly sketched map, on which these places are indicated

from West to East:

Pisa,

Luccha, Lago, Seravalle,

Pistoja, Prato, Firenze.

228
solamete 2

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

I

IOO2

IOO4.

banchi -, cioe vno dal fondo fosso -alia superfitie de' labri del fosso del somita del e Paltro da essi labri "alia riva terra che d' in sulla della mote di doppia dell' argine- si leua-; e se fusse esso argine "cresce solo profondita , uno banco, cioe braccia 4 , che crescie meta della la prima spesa, cioe che, dida'^va si dove prima in 2 banchi a 2 disei si viene a dare in 3 nari 4 nari per banco, essendo il fosso in fondo braccia 16; ancora se'l fosso fusse largo
, ,

and there are but 2 banks; that is to say one from the bottom of the trench to the surface of the edges of it, and the other from these edges to the top of the ridge of earth which will be raised on the margin of the bank. And if this bank were of double the depth only the first bank will be increased,
the
first

that

is

4 braccia increased by half
that
is

cost;

4

dinari

were paid

for

to say that if at first 2 banks, for 3 it

would come to 6, at 2 dinari the bank, if the trench measured 16 braccia at the bottom;
again,
if the trench were 16 braccia wide and 4 deep, coming to 4 lire for the work, 4 Milan dinari the square braccio; a trench which was 32 braccia at the bottom would come to 8 dinari the square braccio.

bracciu 16

I4

e profodo
,

4

,

venedo- a
il

4

brac4 per opera che in fondo sara fosso il cio quadro braccia I5 32, verra a stare dinari 8 il braccio quadro.
dinari

L

Milanesi

;

L. ia\

1002.

Dal
1'

muro d'Arno
di

della

2

Giustitia al-

argine d'Ar^no

Sardigna,

dove sono

e braccia S 74OO, cioe e braccia 1400, 7 e'l di la d'Arno e braccia 5500.
*i

muri

alle mulina,
6

migla 2

From the wall of the Arno at [the gate of] la Giustizia to the bank of the Arno at Sardigna where the walls are, to the mills, is 7400 braccia, that is 2 miles and 1400 braccia and beyond the Arno is 5500 braccia.

C. A. 284 a; 865 a]

1003.

Dirizzare
3 s'

Arno

2

di

sotto e

di

sopra;
a

By guiding
treasure
will

the

Arno above and below

auanzera vn tesoro, 'a tanto per stajoro

s

a chi lo vole.

found in each acre of ground by whomsoever will.
be

Br.

M.

273*]

1004.
dalle 2 Casaccie san Niccolo.
si

n muro
porta
di

3dirizza alia

The

wall of the old houses runs towards

the gate of San Nicolo.

.

.

bancho "essendo
gusstitia.
4.

il

fosso in fondo braccia 16" anchora
5.

.

.

fusi largho.

14.

[e al] e profodo..

15.

vena

dinari.

looa.
1003.

2.
i.

e br.
4.

[8000] 7400 coe.

6.

br.

7. br.

dirizare arnno.

attanto pcrisstaioro.

1004.

i.

mro

d-lle.

2.

casace [con].

3.

diriza.

4. nicolo.

1002.
Giustizia

2.

Giustizia.

By

this

the

Porta

della

the

Arno

inside

Florence

be meant; from the XVth to the XVIth centuries it was also commonly known as Porta Guelfa, Porta San Francesco del Renaio, Porta Nuova, and Porta Reale. It was close to the, Arno
to

seems

Four horizontal

lines indicate the

as in two parallel lines. By the bridges.

i. (at the side these measures are stated in figures: Ponte alia Carraja): 230 largho br. 12 e 2 di spoda

opposite to the Porta San Niccol6, which still exists. 1004. By the side of this text there is an indistinct sketch,

14 di pile e a ^pilastri; 2. (at the Ponte S. Trinita): 188 largho br. 15 e 2 di sfode he 28 di pilastri for delle specie e pilastri so 2 ; 3. (at the Ponte vecchio)
e
;

resembling that given under No. 973.
is

pote lung br.

On

the

bank

written

the

word

Casace.

There

then follows in the original a passage of 12 lines in which the consequences of the windings of the
river

the Ponte alle Grazie): 290 ellargo 12 e 2 di spdde e 6 di pili. There is, in MS. W. L. 2I2*> , a sketched plan of

152 e largo;

4. (at

are

discussed.

diagram on the same

equally hasty page represents the shores of

A

larger

but

cholo

Florence, with the following names of gates: .MGhanolini Porta San Fre.fian Saminiato Giorgo

PratoFaenza

GhalloPinti

Giustitia.

iocs
M. 274

loo/.J

CANALS IN TUSCANY.
IOO5
il

229

Br.

]

640 braccia e

muro

2

rotto,
4

e 130 e

il

The ruined
wall

wall

muro rimanete,

3

C ol

mulino

3OO braccia

remaining with
in

a rotto dal Bisarno in 4 anni.

were broken

640 braccia; 130 is the the mill; 300 braccia 4 years by Bisarno.
is

W.

L. 226 a\

IOO6.

in
s

2 sanno, perche Arno non stara mai ca 3 nale perche 4 i fiumi che vi mettono,
;

No

They do not know why
never

the

Arno

will

nella loro entrata

p6 gono

6

terreno, e dalla

8 oppo?sita parte leuano e pieganvi il fiume; I0 96 miglia si fa per Ar no dalla Caprona a Li^vorno, e 12 si fa per li I2 stagni che

remain in a channel. It is because the rivers which flow into it deposit earth where they enter, and wear it away on the
opposite
direction.
side,

bending

the

river
for

in

that

The Arno

flows

6 miles befor

tween

la

Caprona and Leghorn; and

12

s'avazano 32 ^miglia, e 16 dalla Caprona 14 in su, che fa 48 'Sper Arno da Firenze,
avanzasi 16 miglia; a Vico miglia 16, ^e'l canale a 5; l8 da Firenze a Fucechio miglia
l6

through the marshes, which extend 32 miles,

and 1 6 from La Caprona up the river, which makes 48; by the Arno from Florence beyond 1 6 miles; to Vico 16 miles, and the canal is from Florence to Fucechio it is 40 miles 5
;

40 per
Vico,

acqua d'Arno. 20 per Arno Miglia 56
I9
22

by the
2I

river Arno.

da Fireze a

e pel canale di Pistoia 2 3e miglia 2 24 44-adu que e piv corta 12 s miglia per canale che per Arno.

56 miles by the Arno from Florence to Vico by the Pistoia canal it is 44 miles. Thus it is 12 miles shorter by the canal than by the Arno.
;

Leic.

1007.

Cocauita fatta da Mesola,

quado Arno e basso e Mesola grossa.

The eddy made by the Mensola, when the Arno is
low and the Mensola
full.

1005.
1006.

i.

6400 bre.
nonistara.

2.

moro.
mettano.
6.

2.

4.

ga terreno

e dallopo.

10.

caprona

alii.

12.

savaza.

17. ecanale.

19.

acq"a".

24. chorta.

1006.

map washed
Arno;
it

This passage is written by the side of a in Indian ink, of the course of the is evidently a sketch for a completer map.

J

5 O3

a

S

1

7*' ;

Pisa.
luglio
e sono

Spese extraordinarie dieno

Andata di Leonardo al Campo sotto dare a di XXVI di

L.

L VI

sol.

XIII per
vitto

loro

a

Giovanni Piffero;
vetture di
set

These investigations may possibly be connected
with the following documents. Francesco Guidiicci alia Dalla di Firenze. Dal Campo contra Pisa 24 Luglio 1503
(Archivio di Stato, Firenze, Lettere alia Balla; published

per chavalli a

tanti,

asegnia

avere spexi in

spese di

per andare chon Lionardo da

Vinci a livellare
lito

suo.

by

J.

GAVE,
p.

Carteggio inedito

d'Artisti,

Firenze

1840,

Italiano,

Arno in quello di Pisa per levatto del (Published by MILANESI, Archivio Storico Serie III, Tom. XVI.) VASARI asserts (Leo:

Tom. H,

62)

:

Ex

Castris,

Franciscus Ghuiduccius,

24. Jul. 1503. Appresso fu qui hieri con una di V. Signoria Alexandra degli Albizi insieme con Leonardo da

Vinci et certi
ghcrvernatore,

altri,

et

veduto

el

disegno
et

insieme con el
dubii conclusesi

primo ancora, che giovanetto discorresse sopra il fiume d^Arno per metierlo in canale da Pisa a Fiorenza -(ed. SANSONI, IV, 20). The passage above is in some degree illustrated
nardo)
il

fu

doppo

molte discussioni

che Papera fussi molto al proposito, a si veramente Arno volgersi qui, o restarvi con un canale, che almeno vieterebbe che
le colline

come

tucto referiranno loro

da nemici nan potrebbono a bocha V, S.
Stato,

essere offese;

by the map on PI. CXII, where the course of the Arno westward from Empoli is shown. 1007. Mensola is a mountain stream which falls into the Arno about a mile and a half above
Florence.

And, Archivio di
e
1

Firenze,

Libra d' Entrata
e agosto

1

A=Arno, I=Isola, M=Mvgone, P=Pesa, N=Mesola.

Uscita di cassa de' Magnifici Signori di luglio

230

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
1008.

1008-

1010.

Come

il

fiume, che s'a a piegare d'uno

e no in altro loco, debbe essere lusin'gato fare si con uiolenza aspreggiato, e a questo
de' cauare
infra'
1

That the river which is to be turned from one place to another must be coaxed

fiume alquato

Jdi

P es

'

vna piv inati, caia, e poi di sotto gittarne a a in modo e cosl si faccia colla 3" 4 e 5 che M fiume inbocchi col canale'datoli, o che tal mezzo si scosti dal loco da lui dan,

and not treated roughly or with violence; and to do this a sort of floodgate should be made in the river, and then lower down one in front of it and in like manner a third, fourth and fifth, so that the river may
discharge itself into the channel given to it, or that by this means it may be diverted from the place it has damaged, as was done as I was told by Niccol6 di in Flanders Forsore.

per

neggiato,

come
di
si 6

5

fu fatto in Fiadra,

dettomi

da Niccol6

Forzore;

Come
de'

de' vestire di riparo

vn argine
Pisola

dal'acqua, percosso Cocomeri.

come

sotto

How to protect and repair the banks washed by the water, as below the island of Cocomeri.

Fig-

3-

Fig.

2.

?P6te Rubaconte (Fig.
sticci
9

8

e Canigiani (Fig. 2);

i); I0

sotto

il

Bi-

scaiade lt lla Givstitia (Fig. 3); secca 13 a riscotro doue fi'^niscie Pisola de' Coco' 5 meri in mezzo d'Ar l6 no (Fig. 4).
C. A. 3873; ii97<i]

sopra la pe12 a b e vna

Ponte Rubaconte (Fig. i); below [the palaces] Bisticci and Canigiani (Fig. 2). Above the flood gate of la Giustizia (Fig. 3); a b is a sand bank opposite the end of the island of the

Cocomeri

in the

middle of the Arno

(Fig. 4).

lOOQ.

CanaUjnthe

Navilio

di
di

san

Cristoforo

di

Milano

1^). fatto

a dl 3

maggio 1509.

The canal of San made May 3 rd 1509.

Cristofano

at

Milan

F.

1010.

DEL CANALE
*Facedo
diminuisce
il

DI

MARTESANA.
di

OF THE CANAL OF MARTESANA.
e'si

canale
all'

Martesana
la

By making
water of the
its

the

canal
is

of Martesana the

^Pacqua

Adda,

qual

e

Adda

destribuita in mol^ti paesi alseruiti'o de'prati; Ecco vn rime s dio, e questo e di fare molti
1008.
i.
.
.

distribution

over

greatly diminished by many districts for the

irrigation
mezo

of the

fields.

A

remedy

for this

chessa

.

.

locho.

2.

asspreggato e acquessto.
.

4.

inbochi

.

.

si

scossti

dal locho dallui damegato.

5.

nicholo

percossa.
.
.

8. besticci

9.
.

camigagani.

10. pesscaja.

n.

giosstitia.

15.

imezo.

1009. crisstofano
1010.
i.

facto addi
2.

.

maggo.
. .

martigana.

martigana

diminuissce.

3.

imol.

4.

Ecci.

5.

ecquesto

.

.

checq.

6.

beuta datta terra.

8.

nessono

1008.

The course of

the

river

Arno

is

also

in a

note

written
has, as

in
it

red

chalk,
little

discussed in Nos. 987 and 988. 1009. This observation is written above a washed

Leonardo Lodovico
vigable.

seems,

to

MS. H* 17" do with
in

il

Moro's scheme to render
canal

this canal na-

pen and ink drawing which has been published as Tav. VI in the n Saggio. n The editors of that work
explain
the

The

had been made
II

1460 by

Bertonino da 'Novara.
in

Moro

issued

his

degree

drawing

as

"uno Studio di boeche per
is

1493, but Leonardo's notes about this canal were,
1343), written about

estranone d'afyua." 1010. "el nmrilio di Martogantf*

also mentioned

with the exception of one (No. sixteen years later.

IOII.

IOI2.]

CANALS

IN

THE MILANESE.
would be

231

fontanili,

che q 6 uell'acqua,

che e bevuta
a nessuno,

dalla

terra

no

fa

ser^uitio

ne

ancora danno, perche a 8 nessuno e tolta, e facedo tali fontanili, 1'acqua, 9 che prima
era

perduta,

ritorna
alii

di

nouo

a

rifa

I0

to make several little channels, since water drunk up by the earth is of no more use to any one, nor mischief neither, because it is taken from no one; and by making these channels the water which before

the

re

was

seruitio e vtile

ominr.

lost returns again and is serviceable and useful to men.

once more

Leic.

IOII.

Nessuno canale, che esca fori de'fiumi, sara durabile, se 1'acqua del flume, donde 2 nascie, non e integralmete rinchiusa come il canal diMartisana e quel ch'escie diTesino.

No canal which is fed by a river can be permanent if the river .whence it originates is not wholly closed up, like the canal of Martesana which is fed by the Ticino.

C. A. 1391?; 42i(5]

IOI2.

Dal

principio

del

navilio

al

From

mo

the beginning of the canal

2

lino.

to the mill.

Dal pricipio del navilio di Briuio al ^molino del Travaglia e trabochi 2794, s cioe braccia 11176, che son piu di 3 miglia 6 e due terzi, e quiui truovo 'piu alto il
3
7

From the beginning of the canal of Brivio to the mill of Travaglia is
2794 trabochi, that is 11176 bracwhich is more than 3 miles and two thirds; and here the canal
cia,
is

navilio

che

la pelle dell'acqua di

57 braccia higher than the surface

ettolta'effacedo

.

.

lacq"a".
. .

9.

primo.
2.

10.

omini
.

E

.

there
.
.

tfte

text breaks

off.

ion.

i.

chanale^.

.

essca
.
.

sellacqua.
5.

nasscie
6.

.

rinciusa
7.

tessino.
. .

1012. marligana ccquel

esscie.

br. 11176.

ecquini.

chella

dellacq"a'

.

.

br. 57.

8.

chalo.

1012.

The following

are written on the sketches:
navilio

At the place marked
of running water); at

N:

da dacqitiue (canal

of Travaglia); at R: rochetta ssanta maria (small rock of Santa Maria); at A: Adda; at L: Lagho di Lectio
ringorgato alii 3 corni in Adda,

M:

molin del Travaglia (Mill

Concha perpetua (lake

232

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
8

[1013. 1014.

Adda braccia 57, a dare calo per ogni ceto trabochi,

due ode
9e

di

in tal sito

of the water of the Adda, giving a fall of two inches in every hundred trabochi; and

disegniamo
navilio.

torre

la

bocha

I0

del

nostro

at that spot

we propose

to take the

opening

of our canal.

C. A. 233 a; 700 a]

1013.
si

ISe no

ui

da fama che questo

sia

canale pu 2 blico, e'sara necessario pagare il terreno, 3e lo paghera il re col lasciare li dazi d'un ano.

it be not reported there that this be a public canal, it will be necessary to pay for the land; and the king will pay it by remitting the taxes for a year.

If

is

to

43"!

1014.

NAVILIO.
3 largo in fodo bracsi potra dire 4 in e se sara so ma tutto largo braccia 18 s a 4 dinari il quaprofondo 4 braccia 6 costera il miglio cayatura sola dretto
2

CANAL.

J1

navilio

che

sia

The canal which may be 16
at

braccia wide

cia 16

e in bocca

20
,

,

the
is is

,

say
it

bottom and 20 at the top, we may on the average 18 braccia wide, and if

for c
(1014.

nais

,

7

due 900
.

,

braccio,
di

ma

misura

i quadreti di comune se le braccia saranno 9 a vso che ogni I0 4 son 4 di terra

essendo

8

braccia; vate by

,

.

.

4 braccia deep, at 4 dinari the square it will only cost 900 ducats, to excathe mile, if the square braccio is calculated in ordinary braccia; but if the braccia are those used in measuring land, of every 4 are equal to 4%, and by the mile we understand three thousand
;

e x /2 e se il miglio s'i"tede di tre mila braccia comuni, a tornar I2 in braccia- diterra le sua 3000 braccia tor'^nano maco V4 che restano braccia ^2250, che a
,

which
if

these

ordinary braccia; turned into land braccia, J 3000 braccia will lack /4 there remain
at

4

dinari

il

braccio,

mota
il
,

'

5 il

miglio

ducati 675; a 3 dina l6 ri I7 il miglio ducati 5O6V4
di
1

quadretto mota che la cavatura

30
187

mi l8 glia
'/*

di

navilio

mota

ducati

5

4 dinari the braccio ducats a mile. At 3 dinari the square braccio, the mile will amount to 506 V4 ducats so that the excavation of 30 miles of the canal will amount
to
1

2250 braccia, which will amount to 675

5i87

T

/2

ducats.

1013.
1014.

2. 2.

necesario.
chessia.

3.

ello

3. br.

16

.

pagera boccha
. .

lidati.
. .

.

portra

di.

4.

tucto

.

.

br. 18 essessara.
12. br.

5.
.

4 br. a 4

.

di.

6.

chosstera.
13.

7.

quadrecti.

8. br.

masscllebr.
|br.
id.

sarano.

10.

I

/2

M

sseil.

n. mila
due.

br.

di

.

comunitornar.

12.

3000 br.

restano br.

14.

il

due.

17. chella.

18. colasciare

Lecco overflowing at Tre Corni, in Adda, a permanent sluice). Near the second sketch, referring to the sluice near Q: qui la chatena ttalie </'H peso (here the chain is in one At in piece).
of

1013. 3.
It
is

il

re.

Louis XII or Francis

I

of France.

M

hardly possible to doubt that the canals here spoken of were intended to be in the Milanese.

the

lower

sketch:

mo/'

del fravagfia,

nel cavare la

letter

Compare with this passage by Leonardo, to the
deir aequa"
1.

the

rough copy of a
1

"Presuiente dell

Ufficio

contha

U

tereno

of Travaglia,
will

ara ckotrapeso c9 fossa d'acgtia (Mill in digging out the sluice the soil

regolatore

on No. 1350.
12.

See

also

the

note to No. 745,

have as a counterpoise a vessel of water).

-fit

ioi8.J

ITALY.

233

Br.

M.

149 a]

1015.

Per fare

il

piccolo e dalli il grade.

canale, fa prima ^il gra *!' acqua, che colla s r ota fara

2

To make the great canal, first make the smaller one and conduct into it the waters which by a wheel will help to fill the great one.

C. A. 72<5; 211,5]

1016.

UPoni

il

uero mezzo
porta resa
acqua.

di Milano.li

Indicate the centre of Milan.
Notes on
ul

Moforte
giovia

porta vercellina

porta nova strada nova navilio porta cumana barco porta porta sco Anbrogio porta Tesinese torre dell'Imperatore

a

'

Miifn
(1016-1019).

porta Lodovica

1017.

A
Rifosso di Mila 2 no;

The moat of Milan.
Canal
2

3Canale
6

*

largo 2 sbraccia;
7

braccia wide. with
the

Castello

con
9

fossi

ingor-

B

The
full.

castle

moats

gati;
8

Ingorgatione

de' fossi del

The

filling

of the moats of

I0

castello di Mila.

the Castle of Milan.

I.i

1018.

BAGNO.
2 Per iscaldare 1' acqua della stufa della ri 3duchessa torrai 3 parti d' acqua cal da d' acqua fredda. sopra 4 parti

THE
To

BATH.

heat the water for the stove of the
to

Duchess take four parts of cold water
three parts of hot water.

1015.

i i.

5

R.

3-.

picholo.

4.

lachq"a" che cholla.
porta lodovicha.
3.

1016.
1017.

mezo;
co
fossi.

barcho

tore delomperatore

7.

1018.

2.

lacq"a".

torai

.

.

parte

dacq"a"

chal.

4.

dacq"a".

1016.

See

PI.

CIX.

The
its

original sketch
size.

is

here

reduced to about half

town are and following the curved

The gates of the here named, beginning at the right hand

On the sketched Plan of Florence (see No. 1004 note) Leonardo has written on the margin the following names of gates of Milan: Vercelnoticed.
lina

line. In the bird's eye view of Milan below, the cathedral is plainly recognisable in the middle ; to the right is the tower of San

Ticinese
Beatrice
I*-

Ludovica

Romana
Compare

Orientale
too

Nova
11.

Cumana.

No. 1448,

5.

Gottardo.

the Lazzaretto,
left

square, above the number 9147, is which was begun in 1488. On the the group of buildings of the 'Castelld will be

The

1018.

Duchessa di Milano, Beatrice d'Este, wife of
married,
in

1

Ludovico il Moro to whom she was She died in June 1497. 1491.

VOL.

II.

GG

234
L. 15

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
-

[10191021.

1019.
)

I
In
ruco*la

domo
del

alia car-

In the Cathedral at
the pulley of the nail

chiodo

della croce;
3 *
5

of the cross.
Item.

item.

Da

mettere
6

il

To
v r

place the mass
.

corpo v r

nello ....

in the

E.

i

a]

IO2O.

DELLA POTENTIA DEL UACUO
ISTATE.

'GIENERATO IN

OF THE FORCE OF THE VACUUM FORMED
A MOMENT.
I

IN

3Vidi a Milano va saetta percuotere la Credenza da quella parte Sche 6 tardo risguarda tramotana e disciese con moto per esso lato, e inmediate 7 si divise da essa torre, 8 e si ualse d'esso ^muro uno I0 spa tio di 3 braccia per o"gnivo e proI2 fondo due, e 'jquesto muro ^era grosso l6 4 braccia, 15 ed era mura to di sottili e
4

torre della

the

Northern side, and it descended with a slow motion down that side, and then at once parted from that tower and carried with it and tore away from that wall a space of 3 braccia wide and two deep; and this wall was 4 braccia thick and was built of thin and small old
its

saw, tower

at

Milan,

a

thunderbolt

fall

on

della Credenza

on

I7
ti
2

minuti

20

rato dal

matto l8 ni antichi, '9e questo fu uacu 2I o, che la 22 fiama della
24

bricks;

and

this

was dragged out by the
flame of the thunderbolt

vacuum which

the

3

saetta lascio

di se ecc.

had caused, &c.

Leic. 28 a

Remarks on catione (di aric)
n

nomeL
(1021.

P
^n

lo sono gia stato a vedere tal mvltiplie gia 2 sopra a Milano inverso " a S Maggiore vidi vna nvuola in
charucho.
uachuo.
essiulse.
2. 2.

I

have

already

been

to

see

a
I

great
lately

variety (of atmospheric effects).

And

over Milan towards Lago Maggiore

saw a

and near
Milan
1022). 1019. i.

ciodo.

6. 3.

nello s here the text breaks

off.

1020.

i.

isstate.

perchotere.
14.
.
.

4.

dacquella.
18.

5.

rissghuarda motana e
19.
3.

dissciesse.

7.

torre e porto chonsecho.
23. lasscio.
. .

8.

10. 3. br.

13. cquesto.
2.

4 br.

antichi ec.
.

ecquessto.
infochati
. .

20.

uachu.
.
.

21. chella.
.
.

1021.

i.

mvltiplicatione

e

ga.

magore

motaggnia

.

scoli.

razi

ga

orizonte

rossegaua

.

.

.

1019.

On

this

passage AMORETTI

remarks (Melo
con.

morie Storiche chap. IX): NeWanno stesso formare un congegno di carucole e di corde,

veggiamo
cut tras-

observed, wholly unfounded. The MS. L, in which occurs, is of the year 1502, and it is very unlikely that Leonardo was in Milan at that time;
it

portare in piu venerabile e piu sicuro luogo, doe nelr ultima arcata della nave di mezzo dtlla metropolitana, la sacra reliquia del Santo Chiodo, che rvi ancor si venera.

this
is

however would not prevent the remark, which somewhat obscure, from applying to the Cathedral
1020.

at Milan.

Al fol.
sciata

15 del codice segnato Q. R. in
di tal congegno
e

1

6, egli ci

ha

la-

una doppia figura, doe una
alia

di

also

Nos. 751

With reference to buildings at Milan see and 756, and PI. XCV, No. 2 (ex-

qttattro carucole,

una

di tre colle rispettive corde, sog-

Siugnandovi: in
Croce.

Domo

carncola

del

Chiodo della

AMORETTI'S views as to the mark on the MS. and the date when it was written are, it may be

62). p. 52), PI. C (explained on pages 60 See also pages 25, 39 and 40. 1021. di arie is wanting in the original but may safely be inserted in the context, as the formation of clouds is under discussion before this text.

plained on

IO22.

IO23-]

ITALY.

235

grandissima motagnia, piena di perche li razzi del sole, che scogli gia era all'orizzonte che rosseggiava, la tigneano del suo colore, e questa tal nugola * attraeva a se tutti li nvgoli piccoli che intorno li stavano, e la nugola grade no si mouea di suo loco, anzi risseruo nella sua sommita il lume del sole insino a una ora tant'era la sua ime mezzo di notte, mesa gradezza; 6 e infra due ore di notte gienero si gran veto che fu cosa stupeda e inavdita.
di
3

forma

infocati,

cloud in the form of an immense mountain full of rifts of glowing light, because the rays of the sun, which was already close to the horizon and red, tinged the cloud with its own hue. And this cloud attracted to it all the little clouds that were near while the large one did not move from its place; thus it retained on its summit the reflection of the sunlight till an hour and a half after sunset, so immensely large was it; and about two hours after sunset such a violent wind arose, that it was really tremendous and unheard of.

W. XXVIII.]

IO22.

A
A

dl
il

10

di

diciembre

a ore

2

15

fu

On
o'clock

the
a.

io
1

th

fuoco; appicato 3 dl 18 di dicembre 1511 a ore 15 fu fatto questo ^secondo incendio da Suizzeri a Milano Sal luogo detto DCXC.

m.

fire

day of December was set to the place.

at

9

On
o'clock

the
a.

8 th day of
this

December 1511
fire

at

9

m.

second

was kindled by

the Swiss at Milan at the place called

DCXC.

li.

58

]

1023.

Camini del castello
2

di Pauia,

The chimneys of
from
each
to

the castle of

Note on
Pavia.

ano 6 gradi

di busi;

e dalPuno

Pavia have 6 rows of openings and
the

^all'altro

uno

braccio.

other

is

one

braccio.

ecquesta.
ioaa.

4.
2.

asse

.

.

picholi
. .

.

.

locho.
3.

5. soraita 4.

.

.

mezo
5.

.

.

imesu gradeza.

6.

stupete inavldita.

15
-

(R).

apicato
i

fuocho.

Lore.

suizeri.

alloguo dicto.

1023. 2

buse.

3.

br.

1022.

With these two

texts

are in the original side

by

I 2 and 1. 3 5 side) there are sketches
,

(1.

1023.
p. 43 and H4&, 26.

Other notes relating to Pavia occur on Compare No. p. 53 (PI. XCVIII, No. 3).

of

smoke wreaths

in red chalk.

236

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

[IO24I028.

H.t

I024
7*1

'

A
*

di 2 di febraro 3 di scalini 25 i

1494
2

/3

Sforzesca di braccio 1'uno,
alia

2

JgC

braccia 8.

day of February 1494. Sforzesca I drew twenty five steps, 2/3 braccia to each, and 8 braccia wide.
the
2

On

nd

At

H.

38-)

I025
di
2

'

Vignie 1494

Vigevano

a

dl

20

di

marzo

The vineyards of Vigevano on day of March 1494.

the

20 th

H.

i

IO26.
i

a]

Da

serrare

in

chiave

vno

Icastro

2

a

To

lock up a butteris at Vigevano.

Vigievano.
I.eic.

21 a]

1027.

Ancora se la infima parte dell'argine 2 trauersalmete opposto al cor so delle acque fatto in potenti e larghi gradi a uso sara ^ c he nelP abassamento di scala, 1' acque
corso sogliono perpendicularmente cadere dal termine di tale loco in infima sua bassezza e scalzare i fondameti d'esso con argine, non poHran piu discendere colpo di troppa valitudine; e lo esenpio 6 dico fu a me quella scala, onde cadea 1'acqua de'prati della Sforzesca di Vigeuano, sulla quale ui cadea 7 1' acqua correte in 50 braccia d'altezza.
del lor

Again if the lowest part of the bank which lies across the current of the waters is made in deep and wide steps, after the

manner of

stairs, the waters which, in their course usually fall perpendicularly from the top of such a place to the bottom, and wear away the foundations of this bank can no longer descend with a blow of too great a

force;
stairs

and

I find the

example of

this in the

down which
at Sforzesca

the water
at

falls

in

the

Vigevano over which the running water falls for a height of 50
fields

braccia.

Leic. 320)

1028.
2
J

Scala di Vigevano
di
alti

sotto

la

Sforzesca
x

Stair

e lar*ghi 130 3scaglioni, /4 s C ade 1'accio, per la qual 6 consuma niete qua e non nell' ultima e percussione
,

/2

brac-

130 steps,

8 per tale scala e disceso stanto terreno che a I0 ssecco vn padule, cio"e riempl, n'e fat I2 to praterie da

le di

gra profondita.
RR.
.

of Vigevano below La Sforzesca, braccio high and '/2 braccio wide, */4 down which the water falls, so as not to wear away anything at the end of its fall; by these steps so much soil has come down that it has dried up a pool; that is to say it has filled it up and a pool of great depth has been turned into meadows.

1024. ioaj.

'3 i2
i.

ii.
.

alias.

2.

sforzesscha

.

.

schalini.

3.

di br
i.
.

.

.

large br.
2.

vigievine.

ioa6
2.

12
.

R.

asserare.
.

avigievine.
3. 2
.

1097.

sclla

pare

.

.

oposto.
. .

fatti

.

ellarghi
.

disscala
.

lacqua.
. .

delor soglian
6.

.

.

chadere.

4. tale

infima

.

.

basseza e dissalzare
ui

desse.
. .

5.

dissciendere

tropa

.

ello

foame

colla.

pradi

.

.

sforzessca di uigieuine la qual

cadea su.

7.

corete

br. dalteza.

ioa8.

i.
.
.

schala di uigeuine.
co.

2.

sforzessa di [too] 130.
12. di

3.

ellar.

4.

V* br

.

.

5.

chade.

7.

perchussione.

8.

dissceso.

10.

echo

ti. rienpivto essene.

padu.

1024.

lower sketch
1025.

See PL CX, No. 2. The rest of the notes on this page refer to the motion of water. we read: 4 br. (four braccia) and giara (for ghiaja, sand, gravel). On one side there is an effaced sketch in red chalk.

On

the

PL. CX.
"

*-"

-

Duiardin

Imp Exidea

1029.

1030.]

ITALY.

237

Leic. ii 6}

I02Q.
in

Come

d'acqua che
lago di quale fa

molti lochi si trovano ve 2 ne sei ore crescono e sei ore

calano, e io per

me

n'

6 veduto vna

in sul

fonte Pli^niana, la il predetto cresciere e diminuire in modo che, quando uersa, macina due mulini, e quado maca, *cala s * ch'egli e

Como,

detta

son In many places there are streams of NotNorth thc water which swell for SIX hOUrS and ebb Italian lakes I02 9- I0 33)for my part, have ( for six hours ; and I seen one above the lake of Como called
,

,

come guardare
pozzo.

1'acqua

in

vn

profondo

Fonte Pliniana, which increases and ebbs, as I have said, in such a way as to turn the stones of two mills; and when it fails it falls so low that it is like looking at water
in a

deep

pit.

c. A.

1030.

LAGO
e
valle
in

DI

COMO

-

2

VAL DI CHIAUENNA.

LAKE OF COMO.

VALLEY OF CHIAVENNA.

sSu pel lago di

Chiauenna

mette

Como, diuerso la Magnia, doue la Mera fiume esso tlago; qui si truovano mo-

Above the lake of Como towards Germany is the valley of Chiavenna where the river Mera flows into this lake. Here are
barren and very high mountains,
rocks.

tagnie- sterili e altissime- con gradi scogli-; J queste motagnie s]i uccielli d'acqua sono detti maragoni; qui nascono abeti, larici e pini daini, stabecchi, camoz 6 zi e terribili no ci si puo motare se non e a orsi
,
;

Among
the
trees,

these

mountains
called

with huge are to be

found

water-birds

gulls.

Here

grow

,

larches and pines. Deer, wildgoats, chamois, and terrible bears. It is imposfir

4 piedi
7

;

vannoci

i

villani

a'tepi

delle

nevi co gradi ingegni per fare trabocare 8 gli orsi giv per esse-ripe; queste motagnie
strette mettono in mezzo sono il fiume a destra e a sinistra per spatio ?di miglia 20 tutte a detto modo truovasi di miglio in miglio bone osterie su I0 per detto fiume si truovano cadute d'acqua di 400 braccia, 1 1 le quali fanno bel vedere e c' e bo uiuere a 4 soldi per scotto per esso fiume si
,
. ; ;

;

climb them without using hands and feet. there at the time of the snows with great snares to make the bears fall down these rocks. These mountains which very closely approach each other are parted by the river. They are to the right and left for the distance of 20 miles throughout of the same nature. From mile to mile there are good inns. Above on the said river there are waterfalls of 400 braccia
sible to

The peasants go

;

in height,

which are
at

fine to see;

and there

is

coduce

assai

legniame.

4 soldi the reckoning. This river brings down a great deal of timber.

good

living

VAL

SASINA.

VAL
is

SASINA.

Sasina-viene diuerso la Italia.; questa e quasi di simile forma e natura; I4 nascie vi assai e ci sono gra mappello ruine e cadute d'acque.
,

Val Sasina runs down towards Italy; this almost the same form and character. There grow here many mappello and there are great ruins and falls of water [14].
chomo

1039.

i.

imolti
.

.

.

trova.

2. 4.

cresscano essei
chalisi
.
.

.

.

chalano
.

.

.

veduta

.

.

sulago di

.

.

fonte pri.

3.

cressciere

macina piv
larice
.

mulina
1030.
2.

.

macha.
3.

.

lacqua non

.

pozo.
4. truovamotagni cho grade ingiegi
.
.
.

ciauenna.
. .

super., diuer

.

ciauenna
ze
.
.

.

.

"fiume" mette.
.

.

chon. 5-dacquadette
. .

.

.

nasscie
.
.

.

.

eppini

sta

becchechamo.
. .

6.
9.

teribili

.

po..delli.

7.

i

trabochare.
. .

8.

metano

mezo
.
.

.

des-

stra e assinistra
14. nasscievi
.
.

isspatio.
. .

imiglio.

io.

truova chadute
ditrozzo.

br. le quale.

u.

uci bo
.
.

ischotto

per ess
. .

choduce.
18.

ecci gra

ecchadute.

15. valle

16. ellarici.

17. tessta

Voltolina elle

leorme.

sepre

1029.
to this

2.

3.
:

The
it

fountain

is

known by

this

name

day

is

of

flow

Como. The and ebb of the
1030.
1031.

near Torno, on the Eastern shore waters still rise and fall with the
tide

were made in Leonardo's youth; and I should infer from their contents, that they were notes made in
anticipation of a visit to the places here described, and derived from some person (unknown to us) who

as

Pliny

described

it

(Epist. IV, 30; Hist. Nat. II, 206).

From

the

character
that

of the handobservations

had given him an account of them. 14. The meaning of mappello is unknown.

writing

we

may conclude

these

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
VALLE D'INTROZZO.
produce assai abeti e doue Anbrogio Fereri fa pini in testa della 7 venire suo legniame il Valtellina sono le motagnie di Bormio,
l6

[1031.

VALLEY OF INTROZZO.
This valley produces a great quantity of firs, pines and larches; and from here Ambrogio Fereri has his timber brought down; at the head of the Valtellina are the mountains of Bormio, terrible and always covered
with snow;

Questa e land

valle

,

;

I8 e piene sepre terribili scono ermellini.

di

neve; qui na-

marmots

(?)

are found there.

A
20

BELLAGGIO.

BELLAGGIO.
Opposite the castle Bellaggio there is the river Latte, which falls from a height of more than 100 braccia from the source whence
it

riscontro a Bellaggio castello e il 2I Latte el quale cade da alto fiume piv che braccia 100 dalla vena , donde nascie, a piobo nel lago co inestimabile strepito "e romore questa vena versa solamete agosto e settebre.
,

A

springs, perpendicularly, into the lake with

;

an inconceivable roar and noise. This spring flows only in August and September.

VALTELLINA.
^Valtellina-, com'e detto, valle circu2 data d'alti e terribili moti, fa 5vini poteti e fa tanto bestiame che da paee assai 2 sani e concluso nascierui 5piv latte che uino questa e la ualle doue passa Adda, 2 la quale prima corre ?piv che 40 miglia questo fiume fa il pescie per la Magnia 28 del quale vive d'argieto temolo, il quale 29 se ne truova assai per la sua rena J vedere pane questo paese ognivno puo e vino, e'l uino vale al piv uno soldo si\ boccale e la libra della uitella uno soldo, e'l sale 10 dinari, e'l simile il burro, 3ed e la loro libbra 30 ocie e 1'oua uno soldo la
,
;
;

VALTELLINA.
Valtellina, as it is called, is a valley enclosed in high and terrible mountains; it produces much strong wine, and there is so much cattle that the natives conclude that more milk than wine grows there. This is the valley through which the Adda passes, which first runs more than 40 miles through Germany; this river breeds the fish temolo which live on silver, of which much is to be found in its sands. In this country every one can sell bread and wine, and the wine is worth at most one soldo the bottle and a pound of veal one soldo, and salt ten dinari and
butter the same and their pound is 30 ounces, and eggs are one soldo the lot.

,

;

.

soldata.

C. A. 211(5;

1031.

A
2

BORMIO.
.

AT BORMIO.
;

A Bormio sono

i

bagni

sopraComo

otto miglia e la Pliniana, ^ la quale crescie e discrescie ogni 6 ore, e'l suo cresciere fa 4 acqua per 2 mvlina e n'avanza, e'l suo calare fa asciugare la fonte; 5 piu su 2 miglia e Nesso terra, dove cade uno fiume

At Bormio are the baths; About eight miles above Como is the Pliniana, which increases and ebbs every six hours, and its swell supplies water for two mills; and its ebbing makes the spring dry up; two miles higher up there is Nesso, a place where a
river
rift

enpito per una gradissima fessura di mote Queste gite so da 7 fare nel

co grade

6

falls

with

;

in

the

mountain.

mese
che
di

di

si

maggio; truovano

motagnie ^Lecco

sassi scoperti sono le questi paesi di Madello, vicine alle motagnie e di Gravidona inverso Bellini

E

maggior

to

8

in

the

be made in largest bare rocks that are to be found in this part of the country are the mountains of Mandello near to those of Lecco, and

great violence into a vast These excursions are the month of May. And

nascie.

19. abbcllagio.
32.

20

arischontro abbellagio
23. valtolina.
. .

.

chastcllo

.

.

fiume lacci"o"
.

el.

21. nasscic 25. vni

stimabile strepido.

erromore.
26. ella
.

24.

chome

.

.

circhudata

.

etteribili.

a piobo ne gallo cho inibesstiame eflfa . .
. .
. .

paessani
ell
.
.

.

.

nasscicr ui.
31. Ibra
.
.

ada

.

.

chore.

27. pesscio

temere

it.

29.

po

.

.

i

soldo,

jo.

bochale

ella

.

.

!

soldo

burlo.
2.

elloua.

1031. abormi.
!

abormi
7.

.

ella

priniana.
. .

3.

cresscie
.
.

e

disseresscie

ogni

.

.

cresscicrc.
9.

4.

assciugare.

5.

piussu
.
.

.

.

tera

.

.

fin

ne cho.

del

.

.

magio

magior

schoperti chessi truovno.

8. visine.

leche e di gravidonia

mglia allecho

1032.

I033-]
I0

ITALY.
e quelle di

239

zona, a 30 miglia da Lecco,
ualle
di
-,

Chiavenna ma la maggiore e sua quella di Madello, "la quale-a nella basa vna buca diuerso il lago, la quale va sotto I2 2OO scalini-, e qui d'ogni tepo e
ghiaccio

e veto.
IN VALSASINA.

of Gravidona towards Bellinzona, 30 miles from Lecco, and those of the valley of Chiavenna; but the greatest of all is that of Mandello, which has at its base an opening towards the lake, which goes down 200 steps, and there at all times is ice and wind. IN
In Val
Introbbio,
the road which falls
it

VAL

SASINA.

Valsasina infra Vimognio et Ina man destra entrado per uia di I5 Lecco, si trova la Troggia fiume-, che cade da uno sasso altissimo e cadedo entra 16 sotto terra e 11 finisce il fiume 3 miglia -piv la si truovano li edifiti ^dellavena del rame e dello argeto presso a una terra detta Prato Santo Piet.ro, l8 e vene di ferro, e cose fantastiche la Grignia e piv alta motagnia ch'abbino ^questi paesi ed e pelata.
**!

trobbio

,

Sasina, between Vimognio and the right hand, going in by to Lecco, is the river Troggia from a very high rock, and as
to

;

falls

it

goes

underground and the

river

,

3 miles farther we find the of the mines of copper and silver buildings near a place called Pra' Santo Pietro, and

ends

there.

;

mines of iron and curious things. La Grigna is the highest mountain there is in this part,

and

it

is

quite bare.

C. A. 2700:; 821 a]

1032.

II
3

lago

di

Pusiano

di

Segrino e
6

d'Annone

lago
pelle

d'Anone ha

versa in nel lago e di Sala; 5 I1 22 braccia piu alta la

2

della sua acqua che la pelle del? del 1'acqua lago di Lecco, e 20 braccia e piu alto 8 il lago di Pusiano che'l lago d'Anone, 9le quali, giute colle braccia 22 I0 e quest e la magdette, fan braccia 42, giore altezza che abbia la penile del lago I2 di Pusiano sopra la pelle del la go di

Lecco.

The lake of Pusiano flows into the lake of Segrino [3] and of Annone and of Sala. The lake of Annone is 2 2 braccia higher at the surface of its water than the surface of the water of the lake of Lecco, and the lake of Pusiano is 20 braccia higher than the lake of Annone, which added to the afore said 22 braccia make 42 braccia and this is the greatest height of the surface of the lake of Pusiano' above the surface of the lake of Lecco.

G.

1033-

gnate,
in
6
7

Santa Maria nella valle di Ravane' moti Briatia so le pertiche ^di 2 castagne di 9 braccia e di 14 Pu no
100.
s

A

2

Varallo di Ponbia presso a Sesto Tesino sono li cotogni biachi grasopra
di e duri.

A

in the Valley ofRavagnate mountains of Brianza are the rods of chestnuts of 9 braccia and one out of an average of 100 will be 14 braccia. At Varallo di Ponbia near to Sesto on
in the

At Santa Maria

the

Ticino

the

quinces

are

white,

large

and hard.
edavenna malla magiore ecquella. chadedo. chade da i
. . . .
.

o.
5. 8.

ecquelle

.

.

u. busa.
16.
elli

12. schalini

.

.

diaggio.
si

14.

ualsasina

ifra
.
.

.

.

desstra.

leccho
fero
. .

.

.

trosa

.

finissce

.

.

pivlla

truova.

17.

arzeto

prascto petro.

chabbi.
2.

19. edie.

1033.

.

ilago di pusia.

inel lagho.
.

3. di serio e

dano.

5.
.

lagho dano
. .

.

.

br
10.

.

.

alto.

6. chella.

7.

lagho
.

.

.

br.
.
.

eppiu.
Pusia.

.

he

il

lagho.
di lecho.

8.

pusta

.

dano

br. 20.

9.

gute

.

br. 22

br. 42.

ecqueste la magore alteza

.

la pel

2.

gho

1033-

.

maria\\\\o nella.

2.

di

ranvagna
7.

..

briatia. 3.

9 br. e

di 14 [et]

7 (?) lu.

4.

re

(?

no) in 100 di 9 br.

5.

a voral di pon-

bio presso assesto.

6. licatini.

edduri.

1032.

This

text
it.

has
3.

in

the

original

a

slight

1033.
in

sketch to illustrate

The statement about
in

the

the

2. Ravagnate (Leonardo writes Ravagna) Brianza is between Oggiono and Brivio,

lake Segrino is incorrect; it is situated Valle Assina, above the lake of Pusiano.

the

South
avails

of

the

lake

of

Como.

M.

Ravaisson

himself of this note to prove his hypothesis

240

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

[10341039.

L.
2

1034-

Colobaia a Urbino a
t:

dl

30

di luglio

Ownl
Italy, visited

1502.

Pigeon-house at of July 1502.

Urbino,

the

30

th

day

10^1501

(10341054)
L.

1035-

Fatta
bino.

al

mare

ex
di Pio-

Made by
Piombino.

the

sea

at

L. 10 1\

1036.

Acquapendente e a Oruieto.

Acquapendente

is

near Orvieto.

L. 15 6]

1037.
di

Rocca

Cesena.

The rock of Cesena.

L. 19*]

1038.
3

Siena *a b braccia 6 Scale d' Urbino.

4,

*a

c braccia

5

10;

Siena, a b 4 braccia, a c 10 braccia.

Steps at [the castle of] Urbino.

33*1

1039.
di Siena, cioe 2 il modo del sito della dinodatura '"< del

Campana
suo

moto ^e

its

The bell of Siena, that is the manner of movement, and the place of the attachment

battaglio suo.

of the clapper.

1034.

I. i.

du vrbino.
coe.

2.

luglio 1402.

1035. Aquapendente.

1037. rocha.

1038.

2.

l.r.

3. br.

1039.

3. essito.

Leonardo paid two visits to France. Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1881 pag. 528:
that

See

5.

Varallo
is

di Ponbia,

Arona

distinct

about ten miles South of from Varallo the chief town in the
sketch
in

Au
relative

recto

du menu
vallie

feuillet,

on

lit

encore

une note

Val di Sesia.
1034.
this

"nemonti brigatia" ; il me semble qtfil fagit bien des monts de Brianfon, le Brigantio des anciens. Brianfon est sur la route de Lyon en Italie.
a

une

An
in

indistinct

is

introduced with
the

text,

the

original,

which

word

Scolatoro (conduit) is written.

Ce fut par
les

le

mont Visa que passerent, en aout 1515,

troupes franfaises qui aUaient remporter la victoire de

Marignan. Leonard de Vinci, ingenuur de Franfois Ier, comme
il

1035. Below the sketch there are eleven lines of text referring to the motion of waves. 1036. Acquapendente is about lo miles West of

Orvieto,

and

is

to the right in the

map on

PI.

CXIII,

Pavait

ftf

de Louis

XII
et

,

aurait-il lie

pour quelque
qui eut
le vit

near the lake of Bolsena.
the lower sketch. See PL XCIV No. I 1037. The explanation of the upper sketch is given on p. 29.
,

chose dans le
lieu

plan du
1515,
le le

ctlebre passage des Alpes,

en

aout

a

la

suite

duquel on
oit

aceompaipter partout
il

M

ck^valeresque vainqueur ? Aurait-

1038.
1039.

See

PI.

CX
is

No. 3

alors,

jeune roi, de Rome des son avcncment au trone?
appele

par

r artiste

ttait

The

text

compare also No. 765. accompanied by an indistinct
;

sketch.

Du^ard

'

\

4*

v

i

f
'

.v

'..,-

:/;

.'

.:

;

h
I

-

.\t.

>r:::
i
'

-'/-

:...:
..

;

,
'

V."

:-

'

v

x

,

,

..

-

.

-',
Imp Eudes
.

Heli

L. CXI1

1040

1046.]

ITALY.

241

L. 36*]

I0 40-

El dl di Sata Maria Cesena 1502.

mezz'agosto

2

a
at

On St. Mary's day in the middle of August, Cesena, 1502.

L. 40

]

Scale del cote d'Urbino, saluatiche.

Stairs

Urbino,

of the [palace rough.

of the]

Count of

L. 46^]

1042.
di

Alia fiera
31502.

Sco

2

Lorenzo a Cesena,

At the
1502.

fair

of San Lorenzo at Cesena.

L
.

47*]

I043-

Finestre da Cesena.

Windows

at Cesena.

L. 666}

IO 44-

Porto Cesenatico a di 6 di set 2 tenbre 1502, a ore 15; 3 In che modo debbono ^iiscire bastioni
fori

At Porto Cesenatico, on the 6 th of September 1502 at 9 o'clock a. m. The way in which bastions ought to
project

delle

smura
1'argini

delle

6 difendere

di fori,

terre per potere 7 acio no sieno

battuti coll' artiglieria.

beyond the walls of the towers to defend the outer talus; so that they may not be taken by artillery.

L. 6 7 a]

1045.

La

rocca del porto
la

di

Cesena

sta

a

Ce 2 sena per

4

a

di libeccio.

The rock of the harbour of Cesena is four points towards the South West from Cesena.

L. 72 a]

1046.
In Romagna, the realm of all stupidity, vehicles with four wheels are used, of which tne two front are small and two high

In Romagnia, capo d'ogni grossezza d'ingegno, vsano i carri di 4 rote, de qua3 li n'ario 2 dinanzi basse e due alte dirieto, la qual cosa e in gran disSfauore 6 rote dinanzi si di moto, perche in sulle scarica piv peso, che 7 in su quelle dirieto, delli come mostrai 8 nella prima del 5
2

O

O

m

l

elemeti.

ones are behind; an arrangement which is very unfavourable to the motion, because on the fore wheels more weight is laid than on those behind, as I showed in the first of the 5 th on "Elements".

1040.
1045.

i. i.

mezagossto.
rocha.
2.

2.
.

[4]
.

502.

1044. 4. vsscire basstioni

.

.

delle.
7.

pla

libecco.

1046.

i.

grosseza.

2.

rote equa.

mostai.

1040.
1041.

See

PI.

CX, No.
is

4.

1043.

There are four more

lines of text

which
this

The

text

accompanied

by

a

slight

refer to a slightly sketched diagram.

sketch.

10441

An

indistinct

sketch,

accompanies

passage.

VOL.

ii.

HH

242

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

[10471050.

L. 77

1047.
2

Uve
3 II

portate

a Ciesena;
cavatori
de'
fossi

numero

de'

e
is

Thus grapes are carried at Cesena. The number of the diggers of the ditches
[arranged] pyramidically.

piramidale.

i..

760}

1048.

UFassi vn armonia colle diuerse cadute

M'acqua,
3

Rimini;

come vedesti come vedesti a

alia

fonte

di

dl

8

d'agosto

There might be a harmony of the different of water as