1.

2 Characteristics of wastewaters
Municipal wastewater is mainly comprised of water (99.9%) together with relatively small concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids. Among the organic substances present in sewage are carbohydrates, lignin, fats, soaps, synthetic detergents, proteins and their decomposition products, as well as various natural and synthetic organic chemicals from the process industries. Table 1 shows the levels of the major constituents of strong, medium and weak domestic wastewaters. In arid and semi-arid countries, water use is often fairly low and sewage tends to be very strong, as indicated in Table 2 for Amman, Jordan, where water consumption is 90 l/d per person. Table 1: MAJOR CONSTITUENTS OF TYPICAL DOMESTIC WASTEWATER Constituent Concentration, mg/l Strong Medium Weak Total solids 1200 700 350 1 Dissolved solids (TDS) 850 500 250 Suspended solids 350 200 100 Nitrogen (as N) 85 40 20 Phosphorus (as P) 20 10 6 1 Chloride 100 50 30 Alkalinity (as CaCO3) 200 100 50 Grease 150 100 50 2 BOD5 300 200 100 1 The amounts of TDS and chloride should be increased by the concentrations of these constituents in the carriage water.
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BOD5 is the biochemical oxygen demand at 20°C over 5 days and is a measure of the biodegradable organic matter in the wastewater. Source: UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (1985) Municipal wastewater also contains a variety of inorganic substances from domestic and industrial sources (see Table 3), including a number of potentially toxic elements such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Even if toxic materials are not present in concentrations likely to affect humans, they might well be at phytotoxic levels, which would limit their agricultural use. However, from the point of view of health, a very important consideration in agricultural use of wastewater, the contaminants of greatest concern are the pathogenic micro- and macro-organisms. Pathogenic viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths may be present in raw municipal wastewater at the levels indicated in Table 4 and will survive in the environment for long periods, as summarized in Table 5. Pathogenic bacteria will be present in wastewater at much

1 9. with their numbers usually being given in the form of faecal coliforms (FC)/100 ml of wastewater.30 2.lower levels than the coliform group of bacteria.00 mg/l 138 me/I 1.10 mg/l 8.60 mg/l 205 me/I 1. which are much easier to identify and enumerate (as total coliforms/100ml).10 dS/m 1.20 mg/l 96 me/I 1.80 mg/l 35 me/I 62.00 mg/l 320 me/I 35.8 me/l 24.60 mg/l 2.80 7. EGYPT Constituent EC pH SAR Na2+ Ca2+ Mg K+ ClSO42CO3 HCO3NH4+ NO3 P Alexandria Giza Unit Concentration Unit Concentration dS/m 3.50 .50 mg/l 128 me/I 3. Escherichia coli are the most widely adopted indicator of faecal pollution and they can also be isolated and identified fairly simply.10 me/I 6.50 mg/l 10. Table 2: AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF WASTEWATER IN AMMAN. JORDAN Constituent Concentration mg/l Dissolved solids (TDS) 1170 Suspended solids 900 Nitrogen (as N) 150 Phosphorus (as P) 25 Alkalinity (as CaCO3) 850 Sulphate (as SO4) 90 BOD5 770 1 COD 1830 1 TOC 220 1 COD is chemical oxygen demand 2 TOC is total organic carbon Source: Al-Salem (1987) Table 3: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTEWATERS IN ALEXANDRIA AND GIZA.7 7.

20 mg/l Cu mg/l 1. Shigella spp. coli 4 Anglostoma duedenale and Necator americanus 1 Source: Feachem et al.and coxsackieviruses 3 Includes enterotoxigenic. enteroinvasive and enteropathogenic E.10 mg/l Zn mg/l 0.80 mg/l Source: Abdel-Ghaffar et al. (1988) 0. nightsoil and In fresh water and sludge sewage <100 (<20) <120 (<50) In the soil <100 On crops Viruses Enteroviruses <60 . Vibrio cholerae Protozoa: Helminths: Entamoeba histolytica Ascaris Lumbricoides Hookworms4 Schistosoma mansoni Taenia saginata Trichuris trichiura 4500 600 32 1 10 120 ? Uncertain Based on 100 lpcd of municipal sewage and 90% inactivation of excreted pathogens 2 Includes polio-. echo.4 Table 4: POSSIBLE LEVELS OF PATHOGENS IN WASTEWATER Type of pathogen Viruses: Bacteria: Possible concentration per litre in municipal wastewater1 5000 ? 7000 7000 1000 Enteroviruses2 Pathogenic E. coli3 Salmonella spp.Mn mg/l 0.4 1.7 0. (1983) Table 5: SURVIVAL OF EXCRETED PATHOGENS (at 20-30°C) Type of pathogen Survival times in days In faeces.

2%20characteristics%20of%20wastewaters What is Wastewater? Wastewater is sewage. sewage varies regionally and from home to home based on such factors as the number and type of water-using fixtures and appliances. Some areas in the U. their ages. it actually is used to describe all types of wastewater generated from every room in a house.. Nonresidential wastewater Nonresidential wastewater in small communities is generated by such diverse sources as offices. and institutional entities. the number of occupants.org/docrep/T0551E/t0551e03. including Arizona (Direct Reuse of Reclaimed Water Rule. businesses. household water shares many similar characteristics overall. However.(<20) Bacteria Faecal Coliforms <90 (<50) Salmonella spp.htm#1. such as the types of foods they eat. Blackwater and graywater have different characteristics. schools.S. hospitals. (1983) <60 (<30) <60 (<30) <30 (<10) <30 (<10) <30 (<15) <30 (<15) Many Months <70 (<20) <70 (<20) <20 (<10) <20 (<10) <20 (<10) (<15)* <30 (<15) <30 (<15) <10 (<5) < 5 (<2) <10 (< 2) <10 (< 2) Many <60 (<30) Months http://www. Stormwater is a nonresidential source and . <60 (<30) Shigella spp. Table 1 lists the composition of typical residential untreated wastewater. but both contain pollutants and disease-causing agents that require treatment. department stores.S. restaurants. manufacturers. and even their habits. when compared to the variety of wastewater flows generated by different nonresidential sources. stormwater. and water that has been used for various purposes around the community. <30 (<10) Vibrio cholerae <30 (<5) Protozoa <30 (<15) Entamoeba histolytica <30 (<15) cysts Helminths Many Ascaris lunbricoides Months eggs * Figures in brackets show the usual survival time. industrial..fao. permit the use of innovative systems that safely recycle household graywater for reuse in toilets or for irrigation to conserve water and reduce the flow to treatment systems. wastewater can harm public health and the environment. In the U. Unless properly treated. effective 01/16/01). Most communities generate wastewater from both residential and nonresidential sources Residential wastewater Although the word sewage usually brings toilets to mind. and other commercial. Source: Feachem et al. farms. There are two types of domestic sewage: blackwater (wastewater from toilets) and graywater (wastewater from all sources except toilets).

many industries produce wastewater high in chemical and biological pollutants that can overburden onsite and community systems. For this reason. Some are toxic to animals and humans and may accumulate in the environment. Laundaries differ from many other nonresidential sources because they produce high volumes of wastewater containing lint fibers. and inflow and infiltration from cracked pipes and leaky manhole covers. Dairy farms and breweries are good examples -communities may require these types of nonresidential sources to provide their own treatment or preliminary treatment to protect community systems and public health. stormwater. communities need to assess each source individually or compare similar types of nonresidential sources to ensure that adequate treatment is provided. and recreation areas often vary seasonally as well. Wastewater from some nonresidential sources also may require additional treatment steps. hotels. stormwater should be collected separately to prevent the flooding of treatment plants during wet weather. calcium. but usually at higher volumes and at different peak hours. are . For example. cadmium. but can be present in large enough quantities to endanger public health and the environment.carries trash and other pollutants from streets. lead. drain. biodegradable organics. by adding grease traps to septic tanks. In addition. for example. or sewer can be found in wastewater. Trash and other large solids from storm sewers often are removed by screens. such as sodium. Large amounts of many inorganic substances can contaminate soil and water. and zinc are common in wastewater from both residential and nonresidential sources. For example. The wastewater components that most wastewater facilities are designed to remove are suspended solids. Because practically anything that can be flushed down a toilet. It may be necessary to provide pretreatment of oil and grease from restaurants or to collect it prior to treatment. even household sewage contains many potential pollutants. extra treatment steps are often required to remove inorganic materials from industrial wastewater sources. Most inorganic substances are relatively stable and cannot be broken down easily by organisms in wastewater. Restaurants typically generate a lot of oil and grease. and compounds. potassium. Inorganics Inorganic minerals. nickel. public restrooms may generate wastewater with some characteristics similar to sewage. The volume and pattern of wastewater flows from rental properties. metals. magnesium. for example. Heavy metals. and pathogenic organisms. which are discharged with many types of industrial wastewaters. as well as pesticides and fertilizers from yards and fields. What is in Wastewater? Wastewater is mostly water by weight. Because of the variety of nonresidential wastewater characteristics. Other materials make up only a small portion of wastewater. They can originate from a variety of sources in the community including industrial and commercial sources. copper.

therefore. Nitrate is also the species of nitrogen for which a limit has been set for drinking water (10 mg/L) due to blue baby syndrome. Nitrate is readily available to plants and is considered the limiting nutrient (the nutrient that keeps the biotic system in balance) for primary productivity in salt waters. ammonia (NH4+). and are decomposed by aerobic bacteria. Backwash from water softeners contains high calcium chloride concentrations which will increase the conductivity. The oxygen depletion can reduce the populations of indigenous fish and other oxygen-consuming organisms. it is extremely toxic to most fish and other aquatic species. At pH levels above 9. Because nitrate. Also. All of these forms are biochemically interconvertible. Organic nitrogen is not readily available to plants. respectively -. The dissolved oxygen in the water body becomes depleted when the aquatic plants die. duckweed). o organic nitrogen is nitrogen bound to carbon.. nitrite (NO2-). potential long-term health effects of ingesting small amounts of some inorganic substances over an extended period of time are possible. it will not bind to soil which is also negatively charged.S. so there normally is an excess of available nutrients in treated wastewater. depending on the pH of the water. nitrate (NO3-). + o ammonia exists in water as either the ammonium ion (NH4 ) or ammonia gas (NH3). It is the principle nitrogen constituent in feces. rooted aquatic vegetation. Nitrogen in drinking water may contribute to miscarriages and is the cause of a serious illness in infants called methemoglobinemia or "blue baby syndrome. Organisms only require small amounts of nutrients in biological treatment. is a negative ion.g.3. o nitrite is not usually observed in water sources because it is readily converted to nitrate by bacterial processes. The conductivity of domestic wastewater may be near that of the local water supply. In severe cases. ammonia gas is the predominate form. however. Inorganic ions in solution contribute to the conductivity (e.nutrients that promote plant growth. the nutrient enrichment of water bodies causing excessive growth of aquatic plants (algae. cyanobacteria. nitrites are oxidized by chlorine and can.."  nitrogen – Nitrogen forms that are important in wastewater include organic nitrogen. excess nitrogen and phosphorous can result in eutrophication. in solution. Organic nitrogen also includes urea (H2NCONH2) which is the principal compound in urine. nitrate passes through soil to groundwater which is why regulatory agencies may be requiring some onsite systems to provide nitrogen reduction in the effluent. it needs bacterial conversion to nitrate before it is available for plants. and nitrogen gas (N2). the ammonium ion is the predominant . Although acute poisonings from heavy metals in drinking water are rare in the U. fall to the bottom. Nutrients from wastewater have also been linked to ocean "red tides" that poison fish and cause illness in humans. Nutrients Wastewater often contains large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of nitrate and phosphate.difficult to remove by conventional treatment methods. Therefore.3. o nitrate is the the most oxidized species of nitrogen. the ability to carry an electrical current) of the wastewater. and at pH levels below 9. an important consideration in the design of onsite systems along coastal areas. although not necessarily. increase the chlorine dosage requirements and the cost of disinfection.

detergents. Ammonia. Ammonia is usually present in surface water and is due to the chemical oxidation of urea and anerobic processes. and other related constituents found in wastewater. although the practice of adding phosphate to cleaning agents has been vastly reduced since the 1980s. oxygen. nitrogen. foods. Many organics are proteins. However. and petroleum are not quickly broken down by bacteria and can cause pollution in receiving environments. Most of the organically-bound phophate in wastewater is from excretia and food residue. limestone added to the soil absorption system can stop the phosphate from migrating to the water body (Burks and Minnis. or synthetic organic compounds. cosmetics. and other materials causing foul odors and attracting flies and mosquitoes and other disease vectors. 1994). the grease cannot quickly separate from the water. Organic compounds normally are some combination of carbon. They also can trap trash.form. Petroleum-based waste oils used for motors and industry are considered hazardous waste and should be collected and disposed of separately from wastewater. paper products. to form calcium phosphate. The grease can clog the gravel and soil pores ruining the drainage system. animals. and from agricultural. a positive ion. ammonia is not readily leached from the soil. or fats and are biodegradable. If the wastewater is warm and greasy. Plants can readily use the ammonia form of nitrogen. plants. Both possibilities can result in significant costs to homeowners and are the reasons why grease traps are manditory for restaurants and food service facilities. Phosphorus is usually the limiting nutrient in freshwater surface waters and is the principal cause of eutrophication in surface water bodies. When large amounts of oils and greases are discharged to receiving waters from community systems. and they may float to the surface and harden. Excessive grease also adds to the septic tank scum layer. such as limestone. If a subsurface effluent distribution sytem is close to a sensitive water body. Organic Matter Organic materials are found everywhere in the environment. Fatty organic materials from animals. carbohydrates. They are composed of the carbonbased chemicals that are the building blocks of most living things. they increase BOD levels. phosphate rapidly combines with other naturally-occuring chemicals. commercial. Oil and grease Oil and grease is the term given to the combination of fats. Organic materials in wastewater originate from plants. binds to soil which is negatively charged. causing aesthetically unpleasing conditions. which means they can be consumed and broken . and enter wastewater in human wastes. In some cases. organically-bound phosphate. requiring more frequent tank pumping. too much oil and grease causes septic conditions in ponds and lakes by preventing oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the water. so the grease flows through the septic tank and into the soil where it solidifies upon cooling. and industrial sources. and other phosphorus/oxygen forms. therefore. Some cleaning agents still contain phosphate. vegetables. waxes. oils. hydrogen.  phosphorus – Phosphorus also exists in wastewater in many forms and includes soluable orthophosphate ion (PO4-3). and other elements.

Some illnesses can be spread by animals and insects that come in contact with wastewater. they kill or contaminate fish. and dysentery. Item#SFPLNL06. 3) of Pipeline. and oceans because organisms use dissolved oxygen in the water to break down the wastes. 800-624-8301. However. They also can clog soil absorption fields in onsite systems. Insesticides and herbicides are toxic to humans. farms. and overall degradation of water quality. even biodegradable materials can cause pollution. The solids must be significantly reduced by treatment or they can increase BOD levels when discharged to receiving waters and provide places for microorganisms to escape disinfection. which can complicate treatment efforts. certain synthetic organics are highly toxic. Benzene and toluene are two toxic organic compounds found in some solvents. For a detailed discussion of the health risks associated with wastewater. Other likely sources in communities include hospitals. refer to the Summer 1996 issue (vol. The amount of oxygen organisms need to break down wastes in wastewater is referred to as the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and is one of the measurements used to assess overall wastewater strength. posing an additional challenge for treatment. Even municipal drinking water sources are not completely immune to health risks from wastewater pathogens. Some organic compounds are more stable than others and cannot be quickly broken down by organisms. fish. This is true of many synthetic organic compounds developed for agriculture and industry. Drinking water treatment efforts can become over-whelmed when water resources are heavily polluted by wastewater. streams. In addition. Outbreaks of these diseases can occur as a result of drinking water from wells polluted by wastewater. and bacteria also are present in wastewater and enter from almost anywhere in the community. wastewater treatment is as important to public health as drinking water treatment. They also can damage processes in treatment plants. For example. This can reduce or deplete the supply of oxygen in the water needed by aquatic life. odors. 7. and food processing plants. cholera. For this reason. Solids Solid materials in wastewater can consist of organic and/or inorganic materials and organisms. National Small Flows Clearinghouse.down by organisms. resulting in fish kills. or recreational activities in polluted waters. pesticides. Gastroenteritis can result from a variety of pathogens in wastewater. eating contaminated fish.S. Pathogens Many disease-causing viruses. making them unfit to eat. too much organic matter in wastewater can be devastating to receiving waters. In fact. These pathogens often originate from people and animals who are infected with or are carriers of a disease. Some illnesses from wastewater-related sources are relatively common. no. typhoid. The amount of solids in the . and other products. Large amounts of biodegradable materials are dangerous to lakes. graywater and blackwater from typical homes contain enough pathogens to pose a risk to public health. and cases of illnesses caused by the parasitic protozoa Giardia lambia and Cryptosporidium are not unusual in the U. New synthetic organic compounds are being developed all the time. In receiving waters. schools. Other important wastewaterrelated diseases include hepatitis A. parasites. polio. and aquatic plants and often are disposed of improperly in drains or carried in stormwater.

M. suspended. Excessive amounts of dissolved solids in wastewater can have adverse effects on the environment. it includes the total suspended soilds and total dissolved solids. are difficult to remove by conventional treatment. such as heavy metals. Madison. or dissolved) that is left after igniting a dried sample. • fixed solids – The term applied for the residue (total. when passed through a filter. settle out from the rest of the wastewater stream during the preliminary stages of treatment. Some dissolved materials are consumed by microorganisms in wastewater. Ltd. Other suspended solids and dissolved solids are treated by biological processes or chemical precipitation. • dissolved solids – The portion of wastewater that. so it is essential to understand the distinction amongst the various types. Small particles of certain wastewater materials can dissolve like salt in water. organic material makes up a biologically active layer of sludge that aids in treatment. 1994. B. Proper solids analysis is important for the control of biological and physical wastewater treatment processes and assess compliance with effluent quality limits. • setteable solids – Certain substances. Knowing the amount of setteable solids in the wastewater provides information on how much sludge will be created in the septic tank. WI: Hogarth House. but others. Minnis. or they will clog soil absorption systems or reduce the effectiveness of disinfection systems. Dissolved solids such as metals and chloride can only be removed by distillation or reverse osmosis. grit. does not remain on the filter. The weight loss on ignition is called volatile solids. Each type of solids is processed differently.D. Suspended solids in wastewater must be treated. Source: Burks. • suspended solids – The portion of wastewater that. Constituent Unit Range Typical . Materials that resist settling may remain suspended in wastewater. and heavier organic and inorganic materials. such as sand. • total solids – The term applied to the residue left after evaporation. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems. remains on the filter. On the bottom of settling tanks and ponds. and M. when passed through a filter. Composition of Typical Residential Untreated Wastewater. Setteable and some suspended solids are usually removed by filtration or settling.wastewater affects the septic tank size and the frequency for pumping out the septic tank. Some dissolved solids may pass through an onsite wastewater treatment system intact. Table 1.

Total Solids mg/L 3001200 250850 150550 100300 100400 30100 70300 50200 100400 100400 2001.000 700 Dissolved mg/L 500 Fixed mg/L 150 Volatile mg/L 150 Suspended mg/L 220 Fixed mg/L 70 Volatile mg/L 150 Setteable mg/L 100 BOD5 mg/L 250 TOC mg/L 250 COD mg/L 500 Total Nitrogen Organic mg/L 15-90 40 mg/L 5-40 25 .

cefns.htm#in .Ammonia Nitrite Nitrate Total Phosphorous Organic Inorganic Chloride Sulfate mg/L mg/L mg/L 10-50 0 0 25 0 0 mg/L 5-20 12 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L 1-5 5-15 30-85 20-60 50200 50150 106108 100400 2 10 50 15 Alkalinity mg/L 100 Grease mg/L 100 Total Coliform colonies/100 mL 107 VOCs µg/L 250 http://www.edu/Projects/WDP/resources/Characteristics.nau.

D-35423 Lich 4 The number may be replaced by the strain designation .00 Appendix 5. 10% skim milk (Difco 0032-17) or 10% skim milk with 5% sodium glutamate may be used.00 Appendix 5. frozen and exposed to a vacuum. size no. Roeko. After Catalogues drying the bacteria are stored under vacuum in glass vials. Preparation of cultures Cultures are grown aerobically or anaerobically in culture media as listed in the Catalogue of Strains or in the Accession Form and usually harvested during active growth.1 a flow chart of the freeze-drying procedure is shown. Collections PROCEDURE Guidelines Search Web Site Contacts FAQ Site Map Mirrors 2. Suspending medium The suspension media used for freeze-drying are available in the collections. 1 Dental rolls Art. D-89122 Langenau 2 Celluron Zahnwatterollen. Routinely. size no. Before use the vials are labelled with the 4 appropriate collection number and the month and year of preservation. 2 for 44 mm x 11 mm vials) and are sterilized at 121°C for 20 minutes together with a 3 sterilization control indicator (ATI Steam-Clox) . Preparation of vials Flat bottomed glass vials (43/44 x 11 mm or 43 x 10 mm) are washed with a detergent. Sporeformers may require special harvesting times. Browse In M/1998/3. 3. Paul Hartmann AG.00 Appendix 5. 1 for 43 mm x 10 mm vials. D-89522 Heidenheim 3 Biologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft GmbH.LABORATORY PROCEDURES FOR MICROORGANISMS Appendix M/1998/3.2 has to be used. No. For catalogues recording each step of the preservation procedure and viability checks protocol form M/1998/3. 100001. The sterile vials are stored at room temperature. Bacteria are Search suspended in a suitable protective medium.08 Home Description PRESERVATION OF BACTERIA BY FREEZE-DRYING (1) INTRODUCTION In the freeze-drying process water is removed from the frozen sample. 40 mm 1 2 in length.08. Aerobic bacteria are grown on agar slants or plates or in liquid culture and are harvested by washing off with suspension medium or by 1. The vials are plugged (cotton wool plugs for dentists.08. then rinsed in tap water and finally in purified water (ion exchange).

5. the vials are covered with glass wool slightly compressed to a layer 1-2 cm deep.3 When cool the vials are attached to the manifold of the freeze-drying . close the air-admittance and condenser drain valve of the freeze-drying machine and turn on the refrigerator and the vacuum pump. Filling vials The harvested culture is mixed with suspension medium.5 Remove the vials from the drying chamber. Cultures are harvested under air by centrifugation in screw.2 ml of cell suspension.5 ml Combitip.1 mbar or less.2 To protect the cotton wool from heat during constriction.2 Freeze the vials at -20°C for 30 min. 25 x 142 for liquid cultures) under anaerobic conditions or on plates in special incubation bags with an oxygen binding system (Merck Anaerocult IS). 6.centrifugation. Continue primary freeze-drying overnight. Freezing of suspensions and primary drying 5. Anaerobic bacteria may be grown in screw-capped bottles. 5. Note: Primary drying is not complete if not all ice has disappeared or if the vials removed from the chamber are still cold. are filled with 0. the system may be flooded with nitrogen gas. Secondary drying 6. The vials are placed in outer glass tubes containing silica. as prepared above. 5. 5. serum bottles or tubes (Balch type). The outer tubes are constricted just above the glass wool. 6.capped tubes or by washing off plates with suspension medium. With anaerobes. 5. Filling is carried out under aerobic conditions using a calibrated Pasteur pipette or an Eppendorf Multipette 4780 with 2. The vacuum has dropped to 0.1 The projecting parts of the cotton-wool plugs of the vials are cut off. An equal volume is used to inoculate a fresh culture tube for viability determination. 4.1 About 30 min before use. 6.4 Close the valve connection with the vacuum pump and allow air to enter slowly the drying chamber via the air admittance valve.3 Transfer the vials to the drying chamber of the freeze-drying machine and apply vacuum. Allow the condenser (cold trap) to cool down to -40°C to -50°C and allow the pump to warm up for about 30 min. The vials. Hungate tubes or Bellco Anaerobic Culture Tubes with butyl stoppers (18 x 124 for roll tubes. This material will shrink soon after removal from the drying chamber and should be discarded.

CBS and BCCM. 6. 6. Last revised on January 2012. This work cannot be reproduced in whole or in part without the express written permission of the CABRI consortium. the tubes are flame-sealed at the middle of the constriction. Site maintained by Paolo Romano. 17 May 1998 Page layout by CERDIC Copyright CABRI. search .machine for secondary drying at least for 2 hours or overnight.4 At a vacuum of at least 0. 1998 © The CABRI Consortium 1999-2012.html Aerobic organism From Wikipedia. Viability testing The viability or the colony forming units of the strain are tested before and after the preservation step and. depending from the strain. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.cabri. Guidelines prepared for CABRI by DSMZ. 7. For documentation of viability form M/1998/3.1 mbar.org/guidelines/micro-organisms/M300Ap508.00 Appendix 5.2 is used.5 The ampoules are stored at +8°C or below in the dark. http://www.08. in certain intervals during the storage period.

and they are evenly spread along the test tube. but as lack of oxygen does not hurt them. they can be found all along the test tube. but also have anaerobic methods of energy production. Contents      1 Types 2 Glucose 3 Diversity 4 References 5 See also Types  Obligate aerobes require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration.Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in a liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. Aerotolerant organisms can survive in the presence of oxygen. but they are anaerobic because they do not use it as a terminal electron acceptor. 4: Microaerophiles gather at the upper part of the test tube but not at the top. An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. Microaerophiles are organisms that may use oxygen. 3: Facultative bacteria gather mostly at the top. Facultative anaerobes can use oxygen.[1] Facultative anaerobes grow and survive in an oxygenated environment and so do aerotolerant anaerobes. since aerobic respiration is the most beneficial one. They require oxygen but at a low concentration. but only at low concentrations. 5: Aerotolerant bacteria are not affected at all by oxygen. 2: Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at the bottom to avoid oxygen. In a process known as cellular respiration. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 38 ADP + 38 phosphate → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP .    Glucose A good example would be the oxidation of glucose (a monosaccharide) in aerobic respiration. these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) in order to obtain energy.

for the whole organism this cannot be sustained for long. 2009 Tami Port 2 Comments Join the Conversation . and humans are therefore obligate aerobes. also means obligatory exposure to high levels of oxidative stress.[clarification needed] Being an obligate aerobe. and several bacteria are obligate aerobes. which require oxygen. although advantageous from the energetical point of view. This equation is a summary of what actually happens in three series of biochemical reactions: glycolysis. the Krebs cycle. Most anaerobic organisms are bacteria. Diversity Almost all animals. Their Metabolism and Relationship with Oxygen   Jul 15. However. and oxidative phosphorylation. Individual human cells are also facultative anaerobes: they switch to lactic acid fermentation if oxygen is not available. ^ "aerobe" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary See also Difference between Aerobic & Anaerobic Bacteria Microbes. References 1. most fungi. which can develop in the presence of oxygen but does not require it. Yeast is an example of a facultative anaerobe.Notice that oxygen is used during the oxidation of glucose and water is produced.

Metabolism of Anaerobic Microbes There are many types of microbes (bacteria and fungi) that are able live in the absence of oxygen. but cannot do so as efficiently as aerobes. The toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus causes the illness "staphylococcal intoxication". For more information see Staph Infection Pictures from CDC . These microbes are called anaerobes. Aerobes produce catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) for this purpose. Their Metabolism and Relationship with Oxygen | Suite101. Staphylococcal Infections Picture & text from CDC/PHIL. the specific role that oxygen plays in maintaining life is not easily understood. cells ranging from those that make up to human body to tiny single-celled bacteria. How do microbes that live under conditions of low or no O2 metabolize food? Although breathing is essential to life. cultured on an agar plate for drug sensitivity test in an anaerobic environment. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Staphylococcus aureus. Read more at Suite101: Difference between Aerobic & Anaerobic Bacteria: Microbes. Aerobes and Oxygen Detoxification Organisms that are able to use O2 for metabolism are called aerobes. vomiting. or they are not able to make enough of these enzymes to be able to live at normal levels of atmospheric oxygen. it must be able to manufacture specific enzymes that detoxify oxygen waste products. Symptoms of this intoxication include nausea.Clostridium botulinum and Obligate Anaerobe . and diarrhea.Public Health Image Ligrary #1979 Oxygen is required for cells to break down organic molecules in the most energy-efficient way. so that every possible bit of energy is extracted for use in running the cell. Oxygen can actually be rather toxic.com/article/difference-between-aerobic-anaerobic-bacteria-a132294#ixzz22BIEbEWM ---------------- Aerobic bacteria. Basically. and for a cell to be able to use molecular oxygen. oxygen allows food molecules to be completely broken down. They are still able to break down food molecules in the absence of O2. These organisms either do not have the enzymes required to detoxify oxygen waste. in organisms that are able to use it.com http://suite101.

.   4 years ago Report Abuse zircaliu. .What is freeze-dried bacteria? Im trying to make yogurt and it asks for 2 tablespoons freeze-dried bacteria..

yogurt is made by the action of bacteria on milk. you might want to look at your local health foods store. If you want to find them. the bacteria will start to grow (and turn your milk into yogurt).Chosen by Asker As you probably know.Best Answer . . Freeze-drying is a convenient way to preserve bacteria for future use. When water and nutrients are added.

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