STRENGTHENING THE MIND WITH WISDOM

BY AUNG SAN SAYADAW BHADDANTA SADHAMMAKITISARA

"1ST. DRAFT" February 2, 2007

Contents Foreword 4 7

STRENGTHENING THE MIND WITH WISDOM

Four types of audience 7 Two Paths 7 Two types of meditation 8 Qualities of a meditator 8 Ten types of obstructions 9 Unmindful people 9 Dying before accomplishment of life’s goal 9 Be mindful 10 Don’t contend with growth from eating rice 10 Valuable and expensive 11 Discard traditional practice 11 The tears of Yaw Minister 12 Qualities of a meditation teacher 13 Three types of approaches 13 I let you go once 14 Don t keep on revolving in samsarã 14 Kamma guided by wisdom 15 Three types of sankhåra 15 You are still being tied down 16 The practice of Vipassanå 17 Balanced Wisdom 18 Preliminary preparations 18 Anonymous donor 19 Think about it 19 Honest and straight forward Buddha 20 Example of a jute bale carrier 20 Views of kamma and wisdom 21 Do not continue to carry the jute bale 22 Practice of wisdom leads to Buddha’s enlightenment Value varies according to circumstances 23

 

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Three types of knowledge 23 Samatha leads to Jhåna – Vipassanå achieves wisdom 24 Samatha observes conventional truth – Vipassanå observes ultimate truth 24 Paramattha and Paññatti 25 Three levels of truth 25 Those afraid of conventional truth 25 Different types of conventional truth 26 Basics of Vipassanå 27 Know the difference between pain and body 27 Being mindful of a single meditation object is samatha Being mindful of more distinct meditation object is vipassanå 29 Practice to overcome vedanå 30 Cheating yourself 30 Don’t lose your meditation object 31 Impermanence is the Dhamma that exist 31 Don’t miss the opportunity 32 Four big snakes 33 Earth, water, heat and wind elements 34 Must find the enemy 34 Be victorious 35 Bringing back the wandering mind to the meditation object is samatha; being mind ful of the distinct meditation object is vipassanå 36 Be aware of the life supporting mind 38 Mind is more distinct than matter 38 Wish to see carrying the gold pot 39 Let us join a course 39 Give preference to Cittanupassanå 39 Not knowing how to dress 46 Six inner guests 47 Being not unoccupied – is wasting one’s life 49 Only the house owner is left 52 Let us join a course 53

Foreword I had countless opportunities for listening to “Samatha and Vipassanå” discourses give n by our benefactor Aung San Sayadaw during meditation retreats and Dhamma talks . “The discourses given by me are not my own. They are the words of wisdom of my b

enefactor Mogok Sayadaw. I am simply paying tribute to his wisdom.” Such acknowled gement and emphasis made by Aung San Sayadaw whenever he gives a Dhamma talk sho w the tremendous respect and honor he had for his teacher. This booklet is published for the benefit of those who have been practicing Vipa ssanå meditation so that they will have a better understanding about Samatha and V ipassanå. This discourse is based on the Cittånupassanå Dhamma talk given by Mogok Say adaw. It is supplemented with Aung San Sayadaw’s experiential wisdom achieved thro ugh meditation practice. Although Aung San Sayadaw mentions that the discourses given are those of Mogok Sayadaw’s wisdom and words, they could have never become his own without learning and putting them into practice. If he were merely deliv ering Mogok Sayadaw’s discourses, it would have ended there and then immediately a fter the discourses were given. To reiterate Mogok Sayadaw, it is akin to “turning off the lights at the end of the festival” or “forgetting them after listening to t he discourses”. As mentioned earlier, Sayadaw has great respect and honor for his mentor. He the refore listened attentively to his teacher’s instructions and practiced systematic ally. This is one of the reasons many people come and listen to his Dhamma talks . No matter how many days the Dhamma talks are given, the Dhamma hall is always crowded with the audience. Sayadaw also put in a lot of effort in giving the Dha mma talks. Thus, the longer days the Dhamma talks take palce, the more the crowd is getting thronged. The same is true with Sayadaw’s meditation retreats. Wheneve r the schedules of meditation retreats by Aung San Sayadaw are announced, yogis usually rush to Sayadaw’s center in Insein (Mogok Vipassanå Sub-center-77, Tawya-tat -u Monastery, Aung San Myo). Several yogis leave behind their daily businesses u nattended for a while. A meditation retreat with well over a thousand yogis, which is common at Sayadaw’s center, is seldom seen elsewhere. Hence there is something unusual going on her e. I am making this statement simply to present the facts. I am not glorifying S ayadaw out of a mere emotion as his close disciple. I also would like to let the people know that Sayadaw is not merely like a messenger who just passes Mogok S ayadaw’s discourses [by rote and repetition] on to others. Gradually, therefore, I have come to realize that there is no way of achieving such a success to that e xtent without having Dhamma qualities and personal experiences. Sayadaw leads a very simple life without pride and ostentation. Whenever a disci ple makes a request to him, he always tries to fulfill his/her wishes. On the ot her hand, he has immense Metta for all and thus gets along with every one. He is also well mannered and skilful in the area of communicating with the people. Th ese also portray how immense Sayadaw’s Dhamma qualities are. These I have observed and witnessed. In this way, carrying on his teacher’s Dhamma legacy, and suppleme nting it with his personal Dhamma qualities, Aung San Sayadaw usually delivers a series of Samatha and Vipassanå discourses on every Dhamma occasion. There are many Yogis who do not clearly understand what Samatha and Vipassanå trul y are despite their claims that they are practicing Vipassanå meditation. I must a dmit that I myself was once like one of them. Things, however, have become clear er to me only after listening to Sayadaw’s discourses. For this reason alone, Saya daw has become one of my benefactors. I acknowledge all as my benefactors who ha ve steered me to the path of knowledge and wisdom, who have helped me straighten that path more, and who have let me firmly hold onto the already straightened p ath all the more, who have encouraged me to gather momentum yet more on the path that is already firmly held and who have helped me walk closer to the goal thro ugh the path that has already gained a greater momentum. I have thus coined the phrase “Aung San Sayadaw, my benefactor” and addressed it from the outset of my Fore word. Vipassanå and Samatha practices look similar to one another if no clear distinctio

n is made known. One would therefore still be reborn within the thirty-one plan es of existence if one is, in fact, practicing Samatha thinking that he/she is p ursuing Vipassanå. Moreover, a Samatha practitioner’s traits and propensity could oc cur to and could overwhelm a Vipassanå practitioner and thus the latter might unkn owingly be cultivating Samatha. This nature of Dhamma, therefore, is subtle and profound. And, one will be at a loss if one doesn’t understand a transition from Samatha to Vipassanå. Yet more, one will get no where if one gets confused with regard how Vi passanå practice is pursued. In this way, one will still be reborn within the thir ty-one realms of existence after facing death when the time is due. Such is a he art wrenching indeed. All these teaching and preaching in details can be found i n this booklet of Sayadaw. However, if one wishes to know more about it, one nee ds to listen and read Mogok Sayadaw’s discourses on Cittånupassanå, contemplating thir teen types of Citta and practicing Samatha and Vipassanå meditation (Dated on Augu st 22, 1961 and printed and published by Mogok Vipassanå Headquarters). After list ening to and reading those discourses attentively and thoroughly, one will be ab le to make an introspection towards one’s own khanda and find out the answer for o neself. Then only, I believe, will one be able know the distinction and have a c lear understanding. I have listed the differences between Samatha and Vipassanå me ditations based on the discourses given by Sayadaw as follows: 1. Samatha leads to attainment of Jhåna. It is Åneñjåbhi Samkhåra. One will still be within the confines of the thirty one planes of existence. Vipassanå leads to attainment of Maggañåna. One will not be reborn in the thirty one p lanes of existence. It is beyond samsåra. It is Lokuttarå Dhamma. 2. Samatha makes use of the conventional truth. It is within the field of S amuti Sacca. Vipassanå observes the ultimate truth. It is within the field of Paramattha sacca. 3. Samatha practice focuses on a single object of meditation. Vipassanå practice is to be aware of and mindful of whatever is distinct. 4. In Samatha, one needs to bring back and redirect mindfulness to the obje ct of meditation whenever one’s mind wanders away. Vipassanå is to watch and observe mental and physical phenomena with awareness. 5. Samatha practice can only subdue defilements temporarily. Vipassanå practice eradicates the defilements permanently. 6. Samatha practice does not lead to the attainment of Maggañåna. Only Vipassanå practice leads to the discernment of Maggañåna. I presume that the above should suffice as Foreword for this book. In fact, I sh ould not have a heart to pen such an introductory statement as it precedes Sayad aw’s series of Dhamma discourses. However, since it was assigned by Sayadaw himsel f and as a Yogi writer among his disciples, I have no choice but to contribute t his Foreword. Sayadaw also made a request to choose an appropriate title for th is booklet. Thus, I have given the title as “Strengthening the Mind” for the word Sa matha and “With Wisdom” for the term Vipassanå, hence the title “Strengthening the Mind with Wisdom”. May each of you be able to enjoy Bliss of Nibbåna (Santisukha) with penetrative wi sdom under the guidance of Sayadaw after nurturing and cultivating calm and stre ngthened mind. With Metta, Mya Than San

Jhåyaìha bhikkhave må pamådattha. Dveme Vitkka Sutta) Four types of audiences There are four types of audiences who liste n to Buddha’s discourses. 2000 ) Dhamma talk by sharing Buddha’s wo rd of encouragement with the sangha and yogis who came from far and near to join the 78th meditation session conducted here at Mogok Vipassanå sub-center 77. Aung San Myo. Tawy a tat-u monastery. ayaÿ vo anusåsani (MN-1:167.STRENGTHENING THE MIND WITH WISDOM I wish to commence today’s ( March ……. Altho . Sangha audience addressed as bhikkhu Female sangha audience addressed as bhikkhuní Male audience addressed as upasaka Female audience addressed as upasika In giving discourses Buddha generally addressed as “bhikkhave” – meaning sangha. må pacchå vipatisårino ahuvatìha.

approach a qualified meditation teacher 3. Qualities of a meditator For those who wish to practice sama tha and vipassanå meditation they should possess the following qualities.. the purpose of having interviews is to ensure that you are meditating in a proper w ay. He always addressed as sangha simply because it is the most important type of audience out of the four and one should remember that it is m eant for every one. 1. The path of vipassanå yånikå by practicing paññå. According to Buddha’s teaching samatha is described as: sametíti samatho – it is known as samatha because it makes the mind calm and tranqui l and suppresses the kilesas. Thus. Also the meaning of kammatthåna is: Kammattha – means bhavana practice thåna – means meditation object Thus. Buddha also addressed as bhikkhave to all those practicing the three stages of d evelopment viz. the meditation practice also varies. This is extremely important. purification of sila 2. må pamådatìha – don’t be unmindful må pacchå vipaìisårino ahuvatìha – don’t regret. sila.ugh it is addressed in this manner. you all are also incl uded in the bhikkhave category as well. 1. The path of samatha yånikå by practicing Jhåna. nívaranånaÿ samaììhena – it also suppresses the nivãranas and thus known as samatha.. You might be thinking th at you are practicing vipassanå meditation but. They are known as samatha yånikå and vipassanå yånikå. Two paths The final goal of all Buddhists is the attainment of Nibbåna. since you all are meditating here because of being afraid of samsåra. 2. worry and be sad only when one is about to die ayaÿ vo anusåsaní – this is the teaching for you all You all are meditating samatha and vipassanå and I will continue to talk about it today. Although it is not possibl e to interview each and every one of you meditating at this Mogok center. samådhi and paññå in order to be free from samsåra. Two types of meditation Depending upon the choice of samatha yånikå p ath or vipassanå yånikå path. if it turns out to be samatha. The two types of me ditation are samatha meditation and vipassanå meditation. The Buddha urged to pra ctice samatha and vipassanå meditation. Jhåyaìha – meaning to practice samatha and vipassanå meditation. be able to overcome ten types of major obstructions . kindly regard that this Dhamma talk will be doing a similar job for it. samatha and vipassanå. please remember that it is about different meditation objects in practicin g bhåvanå. Thus. There are two paths leading to Nibbåna. there are two paths that lead to Nibbåna by making use of two meditation met hods viz. the cessation of sufferings. After all. you will not achieve Nibbåna. Buddha’s intention was meant for all the four types of audiences. As yogis you have many weak points and defects.

Dying before accomplishing life’s goal In carr ying out community work there are times when things are accomplished smoothly. one keeps on givi ng excuses such as being busy and occupied with other matters. Simply because one is immersed in all these ac tivities. 5. If one is not satisfied about oneself. it goes on one after another for months and years. Otherwise. one never ponders when one will have to face death. idhi palibodha. 6. one needs to question as to how many times Dosa occur every day. åbådha palibodha – being sick or not feeling well 9. W hen one does not achieve the way it wanted to be. gantha palibodha – being engaged in learning 10. if one knows the benefits and values that one gets by performing dana. During the course of meditation yogis gener ally face different kinds of obstructions. he w on’t occupy himself with all these. it is Dosa If one is not satisfied about others. Ten types of obstructions (Dasa palibodha) The meaning of palibodha is obstruction. obse rving sila and practicing samatha and vipassanå meditation regularly every day. låbha palibodha – having attachment upon the donations. As one continues to be occupied with lobha and dosa.4. When one is totally occupied 30 days a month attending to family needs. This is t he doctrine of Paticcasamupåda – the Law of Dependent Origination. gaùa palibodha – having sectarian beliefs 5. kula palibodha – having attachment upon the devotees and colleagues 3. months and years will pass by and gets older. and trie d to relieved himself from all the sufferings. it will not be possible to meditate properly. addhåna palibodha – traveling around 7. business matters and social activities.possessing super powers When one is meditating it is necessary to be free from all the above obstruction s. be able to learn the right type of mediation suitable to one’s background to choose a suitable place to meditate be able to overcome ten types of minor obstructions It is necessary to possess all the above qualities if one wishes to meditate. and eventually maki . it is also Dosa Thus. Si nce they are easily understandable I will not be elaborating about them. åvåsa palibodha – not having proper place to meditate 2. who pities himself. Distu rbed mind falls under the classification of Dosa. They cause delay in your progress. Unmindful people må pamådatìha – Don’t be unmindful. days. In this way one gets older just by doing comm unity work. th at person is regarded as having sati (mindfulness). Howe ver. These people aged by doing works for others only. And if instead. If only one had the opportunity to think about it. the mind gets disturbed. ñati palibodha – having attachment upon relatives 8. that person is regarded as being unmindful. gifts and financial matters 4. Imagine the countless number o f times that is happening every day although one might not harm others physicall y. but it is your own. This law is not a bout others. kamma palibodha – having attachment upon on going works 6. Th e ten types of obstructions are: 1. Un-satisfactoriness also falls under Dosa.

Out of 30 days in a month. doing only community w ork will lead to hell. 2. One needs to reali ze this fact of life. dosa and moha so much so that they are unable to do other things. Valuable & Expensive . the rea son that I taught five kinds of wisdom from the beginning. You will notice that Christians attend churches on Sund ays. they spent the remaining 26 days doing community work. one for your own benefit and the other for the benefit of the community. However. Observing these precepts is for your own benefit and theref ore should do it with great respect. the growth resulting from eating rice. Don’t contend with growth from eating rice Although doing work for your own benefit w ill lead to Nibbåna. it is not worth having the opportunity to be born as a human being. Age never gets younger. The growth that I wish you all to have is growth in wisdom. your growth resulted from eating rice as Myanmar has abundant of it. one should que stion how many times one was able to observe eight or nine precepts. one will face a lot of difficulties. All of you need to be aware of this fact. “ You all have not benefited as you should. Thus. He pointed out that generally we spent 26 days a month doing community work. it is necessary to try your utmost to do. Muslims go to the mosque on Fridays and they take it seriously based on the ir own religious beliefs. Only when o ne observe these precepts four times a month. Instead. 4. 3. you will get older. Our great Sayadaw said that there are two types of work. Here we need to compare the established rules and standards of different religio us beliefs in the world. one can say that 26 days were spen t doing community work. In the Dhammapada it is mentioned t hat there is no one who were able to lead a happy and peaceful life by accomplis hing the projects that they were involved in. one never had the opportunity to think and realize about having to face death on e day. If one cannot observe those precept s for 14. Thus. If one cannot obse rve eight or nine precepts 4 days a month. Be Mindful Out of having four uposada days in a month. It is pointless to be proud of and have ego. Since tomorrow will be New Year. kammassakatå sammådiììhi ñåna nåma rúpa paricchedañåna paccaya pariggha ñåna lakkhaña ñåna 5. 1. death took place befo re they were able to complete their project. even if they can set aside 4 days to observe eight or nine pre cepts. isn’t it shameful for a Buddhist if one cannot observe eight or nine prec epts 4 times a week. one will be doing community work 30 days a mo nth. 15 days a year. You are merely eating good meals and grow.ng short and long term plans without ever thinking about death. 70 years old. Every day people are busy with community work and are overwhelmed with lo bha. Otherwise. This is the weakness of Buddhists. This will lead to undesirable place. Our benefactor Sayadaw said to upasaka Kywe and U Hla Bu – “ although you are about 60. The work done during the remaining 26 days is for others. Working for one’s own benefit will leads to Nibbåna. majority of people are unable to do it. because of avijjã or moha. They continue to plan one project after another and finally when they die. magga ñåna These are the five kinds of wisdom that I have taught. However.

There was no meditation ce nters like we have today and no teachers to teach and thus they never had the op portunity to meditate. For those who are practicing Vipassanå meditation. Although there are individuals practicing patipa tti practice in those days. or because of its plausib ility. One simply cannot continue to maintain the traditional belief that has been handed down from past generations. Only when one is rich with wisdom the n one becomes valuable old man or woman. if one merely gains body weigh t instead of gaining wisdom. then people rega rd them as valuable old men and old women. Discard traditional practice Going back to the practice of samatha vipass anå. This is extremely important to remember. There were a few people who have developed saÿvegañåna but sinc e there were no teachers and therefore no meditators. the Buddha said: Jhåyaìha bhikkhave må pamådatìha. or whatever that has been handed down from past generations. It is not necessary for me to elaborate on it but remember this for your general knowledge. Don t believe it is true because you were told from young. majority of the people have to be contended by going to the monasteries and observing eight precepts etc. In those days people give preference in performing Dana and thus one will see many things in Mandalay donated by the King. Thus try to grow wisdom instead of contending with t he growth by eating rice. it is necessary to discard traditional practice for those who choose to pract ice vipassanå. or what is common opinion. He was a very learned minister. or when eating or while walking or sitt ing. The tears of Yaw Minister In order to substantiate the fact that there we re no teachers in those days who were able to tell about Yaw Minister U Pho Hlai ng of Yadanabon period. Thus. they were unable to furthe r develop the Dhamma that they possess. It is uccåra passåva kamme sampajåna kåri hoti. Even when one goes to toilet one needs to continuously apply wisdom. må pacchå vipaìisårino ahuvatìha. then it is merely the result of eating rice. If a person growth is not accomplished with wisdom.When we talk about nåma rúpa parriccheda ñåna. ayaÿ vo anusåsaní. or because he claims to be a Buddha. If one ge ts older by one day. extremely good in writin g and served two kings namely King Mindon and King Thibaw. However. må vipaìisarino – The meaning of this being don t feel unhappy about it because I have n t said so. then the value achieved will be only in gaining bo dy weight. don t be misled by others. If one looks back the period about (100) years ago it will be around Konbaung period or King Mindon rule. or merely by deduction or inference. the Buddha said. or because you have heard about it or because of the accepted beliefs. This is the Buddha s teaching for you all. or whatever t he scripture say. by one month or by one year with magganga. In Kesamutti Sutta. Wisdom is nothing else but magganga. or because he claims to be a monk. But if one dies just by merely eating rice one will be reborn in the papaya plan es. If one passes away with full of wisdom one can either attain nibbåna or to the goo d planes of existences. his ministers and virtuous persons including those of the Fifth Buddhist council. He wrote Utubhojana s           . one need s to apply wisdom even when dressing up.

" The discourse given by Ledi Sayadaw was about Vipassanå meditation which is the essence of Dhamma. Only on the third day he greeted th e monk by asking "what business do you have?" Ashin Ñåna replied that he wish to learn the technique of writing. the minister started to cry and said. one will lose the oppo rtunity to be free from samsara. that was how the future Ledi Sa yadaw Ashin Ñåna and U Pho Hlaing became intimate with one another. The King himself observed precepts occasion ally and gave priority in performing Dana. We have different periods such as Dana period. the Queen built monast eries and the ministers built bridges. If such kind of teacher is unavailable one should s eek to learn from a person who had the experience of learning from a qualified t eacher. he st arted to cry. Råjadhamma saÿgaha and Aloÿkåra nissaya scriptures. If one practice with an unqualified teacher. Since our forefathers have to be contended with the traditional practice of perf orming Dana. For the first two days U Pho Hlaing ignored the young monk wi thout speaking and occupied himself reading. 6. 3. be affectionate be respectable be praise worthy be able to advise respect other people s advice not to encourage in doing unsuitable things be able to teach sacca and paticca samuppãda Dhamma Apart from the above qualities he must be able to explain in his own language ab out vipassanå based on Pãîi atìhakatìhå. you all are fortunate to be Mogok Sayadaw s disciples. 5.aÿgaha. Being the case. when the learned minister heard about the Vipassanå discourses. As every one of you are aware of Ledi Sayadaw wrote more than (100) Dipani on Vipa ssanå meditation. There is a ver se about this. The reason why U Pho Hlaing cried when the future Ledi Sayadaw A shin Ñåna gave the Dhamma discourse was because the King only had the opportunity to Dhamma discourses on Dana and Sila. The following are the qualities of a qualified meditation teacher. That was how U Pho Hlaing taught him how to write. When Ledi Sayada w gave Dhamma discourses. Qualities of a meditation teacher Although this is the period where peop le practice samatha and vipassanå bhåvanå. U Pho Hlaing told the young monk to read and learn Kathåvutìhu scriptures. It is vastly different from the practice of Vipassanå. 7. 1. it is important to find a qualified meditat ion teacher. 4. 2. During Ava period. the f ture Ledi Sayadaw wanted to learn how to write these scriptures from U Pho Hlain g and visited him. today s yogis are very fortunate to be born as human beings during the Vipa ssanå period. "the King didn t have the opportunity to listen to such Dhamma discourses. He was ab         . To cut the story short. where priority is given for perfo rming Dana. The King built pagodas. people compete wit h one another in performing Dana. As a young monk Ashin Ñåna. One gets poor if there is less Dana Life is shortened if there is less Sila There will be unhappiness if there is less Bhåvanå One will miss Nibbåna if there is less Vipassanå Compare to the period where people were deprived of the opportunity to attain Ni bånna. One of the outstanding examples of perfor ming Dana during Ava period is the brick monastery donated by Mei Nu.

It is important to understand this and by understandi ng it you become a more knowledgeable Buddhist.le to explain clearly the contents on the Pãîi and atìhakatìhå so that lay persons can eas ily understand them. This will assist in freeing from Vivììa vaììaÿ. Since we are discussing about kusala kamma here. they will get confused as it will be difficult for them to understand that performing kamma. it is as if one is wishing to be an animal. They die performing kamma practice. If those without having Vipassanå ñåna hear these words. because of saving other s life. People with such l evel of knowledge will not make a wish like "May I be freed ten times because I freed you once. Practice of Jhåna 3. Practice of Kamma 2. I was talking about performing such kamma actions." When one saved the life of others. In this way the performance of good deeds will res ult in freeing oneself from saósåra. Practice of Wisdom In our traditional practice we have been taught to perform Dana which is the pra ctice of Kamma. Therefore those who die performin g kamma will result in jåti. Making wishes with s uch kind of knowledge will result in jåti (new life) and won t be a pleasant one a s it will end with unpleasant death. Since the fish were kept in containers. when I said about discarding the traditional beliefs. some of the m may die and by freeing them in the water. Because of having contentment with kam ma actions. normally one generally makes wishes such as "May I be freed ten time s because I freed you once. Don t keep on revolving in saósåra This is the result of having bel ieves only in kamma actions. you will see "kamma paccaya jåti". If you look at the doctrine of pat icca samuppãda. This is because Buddhists heavily rely o n the Law of Kamma. It will lso assist in performing the action with Vivaììa nissita (gain release from conseque       . Yogis need to know the value of vipassanå ñåna as one come across such opportunity only when a Buddha appears. Tomorrow will be the Myanmar New Year and people will be perfor ming the "freeing the fish" ceremony throughout the country." Luckily his wish is limited to ten times instead of wishing "May I be freed whenever I get caught. Thus. I let you go once Traditionally we buy small fish and free them in the l akes and rivers. This is kusa la kamma and will definitely bear a good resultant. One needs to think seriously ab out it. one will accrue a lot of good deeds (kusala) by saving their lives while the fish will enjoy happiness. Three types of approaches For Buddhists there are three types of ap proaches: 1. Although the practice of kamma is good . which is a good action resulted in an unpleasant death. Tipitaka Mingun Sayadaw once praised "If only Buddha is aro und U Wimala (Mogok Sayadaw) will be honoured for being able to translate Pãîi into Myanmar. It is a good tradit ion and I am happy about it. The proper way to focus your mind in performing such action is that may I be freed from the confines of kilesa and a ttain Nibbåna just like the fish being freed from living in a confined space and e njoying freely in open water. one will be reborn and start a new life. We are at the level of Kammassakatå sammådiììhi where one beliefs that g ood action brings good resultant and bad action brings bad resultant. old age and death which resulted from it are unpleasant. Buddhists strongly belief in this form of Kamma practice and carried out throughout the wh ole life. Because of kamma one gets jåti fol lowed by jarå (old age) and marana (death)." If one makes a wish in this man ner. one will definitely benefit equal resultant without having to wish for. He is such kind of a teacher.

whenever kusala is performed with the guidance of wisdom. Thus." Kamma guided by wisdom Thus. However. When kamma ceased to exist i. Ten kasina objects       . such a s avijjå and tahùå similar to the fish being freed from living in a confine space. when kamma is guided by wisdom. They are: (meritorious deeds) (demeritorious deeds) (Samatha meditation in order to attain higher planes of Brahma loka) Kammavacara kusala such as performing dana and observing sila are Puññåbhi Sankhåra. I can assure you that you will benefit the relative resultants. kam ma ceased to exist. This type of kusala can be performed only during Buddha sasana. if one makes wishes for fu ture births. However. it is like performing kusala at the time when Buddha sasana doesn t exist. Thus. Perf orming good deeds (kusala) guided by wisdom is known as ñånasaÿ payutta kusala. When one doesn t know how to perform kusala guided with wisdom during Buddha sa sana. Instead." Th is clearly shows that you wish to be freed from saósåra and such good deeds are to b e performed with this kind of understanding. It is explai ned as jarå nirodho nibbånam. Just like Sayadaw used to say the type of kusala where money is being spent and people got tired at the end of it. You need to practice samatha meditation and there are forty ways to do. when one performs kamma action by freeing fish. whenever one performs kamma action. Apuññåbhi Sankhåra 3. Aku sala actions such as killing. jåti ceases also.e. Anañcåbhi Sankhåra 1. the reason for me to teach so that you wi ll become more knowledgeable. you may be pretty or ugly. wisdom guidance is necessary when doing kamma actions. As an examp le. it is more beneficial and will not go to hell when one dies. One is in a jumble. In order not to have death as the resultant. Thus.nces of past misdeeds) and enjoy lokuttara happiness (santisukha). when you are freeing the fish tomorrow y ou should focus your mind as "may I be freed from the confines of kilesa. stealing are Apuññåbhi Sankhåra. one should utilize wisdom. This is the qualification of th e knowledgeable Buddhists. Whatever type of kusal a that you all do between the surface of the earth and the sky above. jhåna kusala are Anañcåbhi Sankhåra. Puññåbhi Sankhåra 2. Nibbåna is nothing but where there are no old age. Therefore. kamma bhava nirodhå jåti nirodho – meaning once kamma ceases. they all have to conclud e with death in the end. I am urging to perform kusala actions with the guidance of wisdom. Three types of Sankhåra When we talk about kamma practice and Jhåna pract of Sankhåra in paticcasamuppãda. normally the benefit one gets from doing kamma actions is death. one value depreciates. If one doesn t learn and be knowledgeable. ice. You should c arefully take note of the fact that I am not saying not to do kusala and this is extremely important issue for us in giving Dhamma talks. Once you are reborn as the produc t of these khandas. it will result with more khandas. there are three types 1. there is no more jarå and marana. marana nirodho nibbånam. Once jåti ceases. As mentioned earlier those practicing jhåna are following t he path of samatha yåníka and they practice the following forty types of samatha med itation. whether it be constructing pagodas or monasteries. make use of the wisdom. This is becau se of void of attå when kusala was performed without interpreting as "he was saved by me. disease and death. Jhåna (absorption) practice . It is also known as tihetuka kusala as well as gaining release from consequences of pa st misdeeds (vaììa).

phala-ñåna or vipassanå ñåna and because of the jhåna Samadhi they lead to v     . Durin g the time of future Buddha hermit mentioned in Mudulakkhaùa Jåtaka and that of Ashi n Devadatta s Ceylon (now known as Sri Lanka) period there were many monks who h ave the ability to fly through the air. but it is not reliable. Asubha saññå kammaììhåna Thus. it is anañcåbhi sankhåra paccaya (Brahma) viññånam. Thus being reborn in the Brahma planes is like being tied down. Thus one cannot depend on kamma practice and jhåna practice at all as they are sti ll within the Dukkha field. when those having such jhånic powers come into contact with visabhåga år ammaùa. the jhåna attained by the hermits are not relate d to magga-ñåna.2. Buddhånussati kammaììhåna 2. Mettå kammaììhåna 4. Even those who have attained such stage can lose their status. Before the enlightenment of the Buddha. The practice of jhåna and abhiñña existed before the enlightenment of the Buddha and t here were evidences such as that of Devila hermit. Even those from the Brahma planes can be reborn as humans. 7. The attachment to the lower planes of existence is like an iron string and that of the Brahma loka is like a gold string. devas or in lower planes of existences and unable to pass beyond samsåra. 3. However. 5. Rupa. Ten kinds of Foulness (Asubha) Ten Recollections of Anussati Four Illimibles (Appanaññå) One Perception (saññå) One Analysis (vavtthåna) Four immaterial states (Arúpa) I will not go into detail about these forty types of meditation and instead give a brief explanation. Thus. Maranassati kammaììhåna 3. preventing the sun rays to penetr ate. The practice of Vipassanå Having Samadhi one will have the pow er to fly through the air or dive into the earth. Out of those the following four types are known as Sabbaììha kammaììhåna or Caturårakkha kam maììhåna. You are still being tied down The goal of samatha or the ultimate achievem ent is the attachment of jhåna abhiñña (higher knowledge of jhåna) and reborn in the Bra hma planes. What need to be done is to achieve wisdom by the pra ctice of viipassanå meditation. arúpa and viññåna in Section 2 of the paticcasamuppãda wheel diagram and falls under dukkha sacca c lassification. Their aim at that time was to attain Brahma ñåna. Brahma viññånam is not free from dukkha. the practi ce of one perception (saññå) and one analysis (vavatthåna) cannot achieve jhåna. It can only suppre ss temporarily with lokiñåna vijjå. One can develop deep concentrationclose to jhåna only. In t erms of sankhåra. Out of those forty types of meditation apart from the prac tice of kayagatåsati and Ånåpånasati under the Ten Recollections of Anussati. 6. 4. the root cause. 1. so much so that they were unable to dry the rice as the whole sky was covered by them. the cycle of rebirth. By attainment of Loki jhåna and abhiñña one will still be withi n the samsåra and the highest achievement will be to be reborn in Brahma loka. by practicing one type of meditation out of either forty types of meditati on or those thirty that leads to jhåna. Achieving it doesn t amount to attainment of Lokkutara vijañåna whi ch has the ability to totally eradicate avijjå. they lost their powers. one will attain jhåna. This is samatha. The practice of all the rem aining thirty types of meditation can achieve jhåna.

there will be effect. if one wishes to practice vipassanå meditation directly comprehend the an icca. Similarly. Balanced wisdom Therefore in practicing vipassanå meditation when one wishes to check the progress. t his is vipassanå.ous micchå diììhi. This is how samatha and vipassanå meditation can be practiced jointly. samatha yåníka and vipassanå yåníka and if one is merely contended with samatha practice it will n ot be possible to attain nibbåna. In practicing vipassanå one needs to contemplate and observe on the present moment only and not the past and the future. by observing the paticcasammupãda chart before practicing vipassanå. when hearing. Only when one practices meditation. Before practicing meditation one wa sn t aware about the wandering mind. pre liminary preparations known as pubbahicca need to be done. They a   . Thus. To make use of the wi sdom balance we have the doctrine of paticcasamupãda chart to refer to. ob serve the nose consciousness. As said earlier there are two paths for Buddhists to attain nibbåna viz. observe the mind cons ciousness. observe or contemplate the e ye consciousness. Sama dhi without paññå will not lead to Dhamma. Then what is vipassanå? Aniccådi vividhåkårena sankhåre passati ti vipassanå Observation of sankhåra dhamma through various modes such as anicca (impermanence) etc. when thinking. khanda paticcasammupãda and samsåra paticcasammupãd a with the use of the chart. observe the tongue consciousness. observe the body consciousness. If one observes sila without paññå. It is much easier to practice vi passanå if one has proper samatha base. then decide on one type of meditation out of the forty types of meditation that was explained earlier. observe the ear consciousness. when eating. whe n dressing. As mentioned during t he commencement of the Dhamma talk. You cannot do vipassanå without practicing and needs to develop samatha meditation first. it was able to experience how the mind wanders all over. It can als o be made use to check about one self. passadi – with wisdom.. one make use of these samådhi in vipassanå practice observing nãma and rúpa dha mma or the jhåna itself if one has achieved the jhåna state. In order that you will not be practicing along the wrong path I have been teachi ng paticcasammupãda about your life. One should not keep on wandering. Thus one achieves nåma rúpa paricchedañåna which is the knowledge of knowing that there is no person or being but only nåma and rúpa and paccaya pariggha ñåna which is the know ledge of cause and effect. If the choice is to base on the samatha path. One will come to understand that when the re is a cause. As one develops stronger concentration obtaining upacåra samådhi (upacåra means neighborh ood and refers to concentration that touches the fringes of full absorption – jhåna) and appanå samådhi (mind remains fixed as its object without hindrances or discursi veness). when smelling. is vipassanå. When seeing. the reason to discard th e traditional practice in order to be on the right path. and anattå characteristics of nåma rúpa and make use of the khanika Sama dhi that resulted from it to practice vipassanå meditation. dukkha. when there is no cause there will be no eff ect. Thus. one is required to get rid of all the obstru ctions known as plibodha and carry out the preliminary preparation works. Visesataw – seeing through various modes. it may not be strong. Preliminary Preparations When one wishes to practice vipassanå. However. the samatha practice serves as the suppor ting foundation for the development of vipassanå. one should carefully make use of the wisdom b alance instead of the general opinion expressed by others.

she requested the Bo ard of Trustees to send a multi-tiered tiffin carrier instead of the monk s beg ging bowl since she doesn t want those people of her own religion to know that s he is making such offerings to the Buddhist monks. There may also be other religious leaders who dare not change th eir beliefs although they accept the Buddha s Dhamma. it is not easy to discard the accepted tradition. Even governor Påyåsiråjañña had difficulty in discarding the accepted belief of the commun ity. Her situation is not that bad compared to governor Påyåsiråjañña w ho also was in a similar situation. Thus. he explained to Buddha that whene ver he meets the Buddha he will take off his head dress and this will be equival ent to his bowing down. Thus. The Buddha cautioned him to think very seriously in decidi                 . However. Similarly. So metimes they are reluctant to discard them due to social duties and business obl igations. During the time of Buddha there was a Brahmin by the name of Soùadaùda who respect h im. Think about it Once upon a time there was a wealthy man by the name of U pali. Anonymous Donor I wish to relate about an article that I rea d in one of the Dhamma magazine. the lady placed her offerings in the t iffin carrier in order that people of her own religion will not be aware of her activities.re: - select appropriate place and time pay respect to the Buddha observe the triple gem and moral precepts radiate loving kindness request the meditation master to teach vipassanå meditation select appropriate posture to sit keep your goal to attain magga and phala After carrying out all the necessary preliminary preparation works to do vipassa nå meditation one is required to discard all the accepted traditional practice. He liked and accepted Gotama Buddha s teachings. As exhorted by Niganèa. If he openly worships the Buddha it will affect his business. he went to the Buddha and challenged his teachings. Thus. he then had the opportunity to discuss with the B uddha and found out that Buddha s teachings were acceptable to him. This is because he dare not revolt against the society since it will affect his busi ness and prosperity. it is possible to have such kind of person in ou r present time. He belongs to Niganèa gaùèa Nåtaputta. It is about a lady belonging to other religion who was delighted to see the communal offering of various articles and provision s as well as drawing lots to decide either recipient or the gift in a religious offering to Buddhist monks. In such cases the Buddha never insist them to do so. it was difficult for him to revolt against the society. I am talking about these i n order to illustrate the difficulty in discarding the traditional practice. He told the Buddha that he had taken refuge in the Triple Gem and to accept him as one of hi s upasaka (disciple). when he lowered down the whip that has been placed on the carriage. To cut the story short she came and registered to of fer for a monk in such kind of religious ceremony. Although she belief in the Buddha s teaching she was not in a position to revolt against her community. there was the governor o f Påyåsi town by the name of Påyåsiråjañña. leader of one sect. Also. because the whole socie ty was practicing the traditional beliefs handed down from past generations. He also likes Buddha s Dhamma as well. it will be an indication of giving respect to the Buddha. It was explained in Soùadaùda Sutta in Silakkhandaha Påîi. When he was leaving he told Buddha th at he is a well known Gaùåcariya Gaùapåmokkha. lthough he realized that the Buddha s teaching is right.

knowledgeable and able to give novel and unusu al talks. They arrived at an old village and found some jute on a h illock. Ev entually. The p rofessor was teaching comparative religious studies and came across Kålåma Sutta in the Pitika. Example of jute bale carrier Generally it is difficult to discard tradi tional beliefs. then accep t them and follow them. One day the chieftain Påyåsiråjañña went to pay respect to Ashin Kumara Kassapa in order t hat he can ask about Natthikavåda that he beliefs in. Two friends were discussing to go to a certain village with the hope of getting something for trading. The professor was very impressed and glad with the advice given by the Buddha. In the Kålåma Sutta Buddha said. Since the chieftain was strongly attached to Natthika beliefs. Sayadaw was glad and took pride in him as a person full with p aramis and having the right understanding. And only when you know for yourselves with your o wn wisdom after analyzing that certain things are wholesome and good. he was very well known as an aged Arahat throughout Setab ya town. there was a chieftain by the name of Påyåsiråjañña. Honest & Straight forward Buddha For general knowledge sake Sayadaw wanted to tell about a western professor working in one of the Asian university. Furthermore. At that time Ashin Kumara Kassapa was residing in the Yindike forest. He was very wise. nor by hearsay. the Sayadaw wanted the meditators to revere and respect Buddha s attitude (consideration) for others. Once upon a time. nor by tradition. If a person cannot discard it. Buddha told the general to reco nsider his request to become his disciple instead of welcoming him. Dear Kalamas: Don t believe because it is handed down by the authority of religious texts. They decided to gather them and made into jute bales so that each of the         . he will be like a person carrying the jute bale. The monk explained about Sarana Barika which happens to be the last of the (14) examples. Generally people will gladly welcome those who reque sted to become his disciple but the Buddha told him to reconsider instead. So al so in the case of the general of King Bimmisara. The Buddha never insisted his discipl es to belief in him or his teachings but to analyze with the use of one s wisdom and accept it. Payasi Sutta in order for him to discard his old beliefs. north of Setabya town in the Kawsala State. both he and his wife became Buddhists and observe eight precepts throu ghout their life. Here. H e commented that Buddha was very honest and the attitude he had was extremely di fficult for the religious leaders to have. He strongly beliefs that: • there is no past life • there is no opapåtika satta • there is no resultant from kusala (good action) and akusala (bad action) He strongly upholds this belief which is known as Natthikavåda. However. The professor said that the Buddha is very honest and straight forward and continue learning the Pitaka. it is necessary to discard the traditional beliefs when one practice vipassanå meditation. This is the noble quality of the Buddha which is far superior then that of the leaders of ot her sects. He doesn t encourage in blind faith.ng to change from one religion to another since he was a wealthy and prominent m ember of his sect. The monk explained to him by giving (14) examples as mentioned in Mahåvagga Påîi.

This is the direct reference from Payasi Sutta. Since he was an intelligen t person. those of the father and mother side traditions. How many of the meditators here are carrying the jute bale. they left it in front of the Buddha the whole day . he knew that gold is much more valuable than silver and decided to exc hange with gold even though it was tiresome for him to carry the silver wares th us far. it will be very va luable. The reason for the Buddha to a ttain enlightenment is not to be merely contended with kamma practice. or silver or gold as he was so attached to what he already had. When he saw the silver cups. This is like carrying the jute bale. The one who exchanges with gold was becau se he saw it from the wisdom view point. The chieftain was very pleased and immediately became a Buddhist. there was not much o f value and decided to exchange with gold and became rich when he got back to hi s village. Along the way. But the one with the wisdom think properly and reali zed that although what he possessed was of a larger amount.           . he was happy with larger quantity that he possessed and refused to exchange wi th gold of lesser quantity. he continued carrying the jute bale since the start of the journey as he didn t want to part with it and upon arrival to his village. For the one who based his view on kamma . he saw gold cups. Ordinary Bu ddhists are merely contended with kamma practice. I have just explained about the difference between kamma and wisdom. Even if they offer food. he left behind his brass cups as silver is more valuable and lighter. At a certain place on their way home. Views of kamma & wisdom Because of lack of wisdom. He c onsidered that gold was of less quantity compared to what he possessed. If one cannot discard the traditional practice it is similar to the one who carrie d the jute bale. There are many types of traditional practice. You need to progress to achieve wisdom. h is parents. the wife and children as well as the relatives didn t bother to look . you need to have qualifications to be a Buddhist. when they came across brass cups and pots. He told his fr iend to go ahead and exchange if he so desire to do so. Mahåvagga Påîi. The gold has more value even though the quantity may be less than silver . People sometimes do not even remember to offer food and flower to the Bu ddha. If one remembers that much for the Buddha. you are like the jute bale carrier. The reason being that he is not an intelligent person. Finally. the one who was c arrying the fabrics exchanged again although the other continue to carry his jut e bale. If one is unable to do so and continue to be cont ended with kamma practice. For the one who lacked in wisdom. they saw some fabrics made out of woven yarn and the friend who was carrying the jute bal e decided not to exchange as he doesn t want to leave behind the jute bale. they found some cotton yarn. This was how one looked from kamma view point. Do not continue to carry the jute bale Thus. Dígha Nikåya. To c ut the story short. As for the other friend. practice and the community similar to the one who carrie d the jute bale as mentioned in the example. The other friend said he had packed the jute bale and carried for a long distanc e already and is not interested to exchange with the cotton yarn. Ashin Kumara Kassapa explained to the chieftain that he wasn t able to overcome the traditional belief. he didn t exchange with brass. where one respectfully worships by of fering lights etc. He thus became the owner of gold cups. One of them s aid. let us packed these cotton yard and carries them instead of the jute bale.m can carry back. he only views it from kamma side an d kept up and maintained the tradition. then one will not become a true Buddhist. If one cannot discard what you have in seeing the gold.

It will be like trash in your hous e. shining and beautiful. Value varies according to circumstance Now that we have illustrated the examples of the jute bale and the gold. how many         . if the meditators are merely co ntended with dana. He meditated under Åîåra Kålåm and Udaka Råmaputta and reached the fourth jhåna. • Wisdom can totally get rid of kilesa (defilements) whereas sila and Samadhi assi sted in achieving wisdom • The practice of sila eradicates Vítikkama kilesa (transgressing defilements) only and not other kilesa. One can get it only when Bud dha appears. Only when he beca me Prince Siddhattha. or the way the mother knows. Both of them were reborn as formless Brahmas and therefore missed the opportunity to listen to Buddha s first sermon. and samatha which are kamma and jhåna practice and do not proceed to vipassanå practice. The practice of jhåna existed even before the Bud dha attains enlightenment. Now that you see the gold cups. Viññåùa knowledge – Knowledge gain by the practice (patipatti). Formless Brahmas have nama khanda only without the physical body and therefore cannot listen Dhamma. one can eradicates those transgressing kilesa. but came to know that both of them had passed away. Thus. However.You all are very fortunate to have the opportunity to know the teachings of the Buddha which is similar to the gold cups. the practice of vipassanå is that of wisdom. However. This doesn t mean that practicing dana. the practice of samatha (concentration meditation) leads to jhåna. when Buddha attained enlightenment he wanted to pay back his gratitude to both of them who taught him the practice of jhåna by giving the first sermon. Both Åîåra and Udaka als ed the fourth jhåna and was reborn as formless Brahmas. you have lost the opportunity. 2. Thus. when one indulges in the practice of wisdom it is the same as if the Buddha is still there. By observing sila. By performing dana. but does not know the value.) • The practice of Wisdom eradicates Anusaya kilesa (existing defilements. 1. he practiced to gain super natural knowledge. why do you wish to continue carrying the jute bale. However. Thus. they are indeed valuable in their respective situation. By practicing Samadhi (samatha) one achi eves tranquility and thus eradicates the arousing kilesa. he fulfilled the Dana para mi (perfection of charity) and Sila parami (moral perfection). Both practices existed before the enlig htenment of the Buddha. vipassanå is similar to gold cups. Three types of knowledge In the practice of wisdom there are three types of kn owledge.) • The practice of Samadhi eradicates Pariyuììthåna kilesa (arousing defilements. sila and samatha are not valuable. you are now able to come to know such Dhamma which is ava ilable only when Buddha appears. Observing sila and performing dana are kamma practice. which is the act of giving. Jute. they don t know the quality of gold. One knows that gold is yellow. They know the value of it. Practice of wisdom leads to Buddha s enlightenment Because of the cumulative results of p ast meritorious deeds. eradicates lobha (greed) akusala. Before he became a Buddha. They have their own values.) If one can get rid of it then one is free from all kilesa. sila. Sañña knowledge – Knowing the theory (pariyatti) or the way the children knows . brass and gold all have values of their own.

It is penetrating wisdom. beings. When the cosmos chemist and scientist based their findings with what they see th rough the naked eyes. one needs to carry out the preliminary requisites before doing vipassanå meditation. To have kilesa draught. one cannot achieve vipassanå ñåna or magga ñåna with the use of magnifying glasses. the meditator wil l not be able to eradicate the avijjå within. because of its changing characteristic. Uùhepåpi ruppati – changes because of heat. However. If not one gets running nose or start to cough which shows how changes take place in the body. whether you are eating or walking you are do ing with wisdom. if one is exposed to sun. silver and other things. it will result in kamma kha nda plant. Vipassanå can eradicate akusala by tadanga pahåna or vikkhabhana pahåna and magga kusa la can eradicate by samuccheda pahåna. Vipassanå practice is led by wisdom. To eradicate avijjå one needs to have vipassanå samadiììhi. * When the akusala seeds are showered with Diììhi (wrong belief) rain it will resul t in Apåya khanda plant. H ardness. let us talk about samatha and vipassa nå separately. Samatha observes conventional truth – Vipassanå observes ultimate truth Samatha meditation observes the conventional tru th whereas vipassanå observes the ultimate truth. Thus. I have already explained the forty types of samatha meditation to achiev e jhåna. Similarly. it will result in Rúpa and Arúpa khanda plants. only the vipassanå storm can blow away the avijå (wrong b eliefs) rain clouds. gold. This is how changes are taking place in the body. The cause of the plant sprouting from the seed is due to rain. They are different. The physical body is ca lled Ruppatiti rupaó. before attaining Magga-ñåna. Similarly. Samatha leads to Jhåna – Vipassanå achieves Wisdom Remember that one achieve jhåna by practicing s amatha. * If the seeds of kamma kusala gets kamma thãna rain. Only when the light of vipassanå ñåna shines. Out of those forty one can chose either one or to or three types dependin g on one s own inherent nature. it may not necessarily be correct. They need to depend on magnifying glasses and their eyes.e. * If the seeds of Rúpa and Arúpa gets Rúpa and Arúpa rain. So long as one is seeing the physical aspe ct of Mg Phyu or Ma Ni. Thus one needs to take cold medi cation or rub some balm to take care of the changing body. i. If one takes a shower to co ol down then one gets fever. the element   . softness is the characteristics of Pathavi (earth element). Thus. only Pativeda ñåna can eradicate the kiles a.carrats etc. the darkness of moha will disappear. Vipassanå practice is through wisdom. Sítenåpi ruppati – changes because of coldness. Since there are three types of knowledge. Kamma and jhåna lead the samatha practice. By the practice of vipassanå one will gain wisdom. It eradicates all the wrong beliefs. thãna an d diììhi are the causes for the akusala and kusala seeds to sprout into plants. one starts to sweat because of heat. It is the knowledge one possess from practicin g vipassanå and 3. Paññå knowledge – Pativeda ñåna. One needs to wear wa rm clothing during cold weather. to see with right view . Ther efore if avijjå (moha) rain clouds are present in the beings it will definitely ra in.

nibbåna (cessation of sufferings) Since you are hearing what you haven t heard before. The reason for calling conventional truth a s sacca is because of telling lies (musavadå). Paramattha and Paññatti As per Ledi Sayadaw s verse. They are: 1. it will still bear bad results. 2. Thus. One won t have good resultant because of doing it on the so called auspicious day. Paramattha-sacca (ultimate truth) is something that really exists. If one eats pa lm sugar on a so called bad day. One need not be afraid of the so called bad day and instead should be afraid of akusala (doing immoral things). conventional truth is called sammuti-sacca. the palm sugar will still have the sweet taste.of cohesion with the characteristics of cohesiveness and fluidity is Apo (water element) etc. citta (consciousness) 2. rúpa (matter having the characteristic of change of state) 4. They are Atta paññatti and Sadha paññatti. Paramatth a is something that really exists. Those afraid of Conventional Truth As per old Sayadaw s saying mentioned above. Different types of Conventional Truths There are two kinds of conventional truths. Thus.             . 3. you have already benefited from this. Sammuti-sacca Paramattha-sacca Ariya-sacca Sammuti-sacca is conventional truth.." That is a definite way to know the di fference. old Sayadaws have said "Sammuti is something that does not exist whereas P aramattha is something that really exist. are the rúpa paramatha followed by nåma paramatha were taught in gen eral and not in detail. As stated abo ve there are four of them viz. paramattha is something that really exist whereas sammuti is labeling things or objects for convenience. cetasika (mental factors or mental concomitants) 3. However.. thinking tha t they do exist and thus afraid of some auspicious days are dependable. In the Paramattha sense there is no such thing as water buffalo or cow. cetasika. these are part of Abhidhamma and therefore it is highly technical and requires time to teach properly. Ordinary people are having trouble with conventional truths. If one performs meritorious deeds. Three Levels of Truth The (3) levels of truths are: 1. It is indeed correct to call as water buffalo as it d oesn t amount to telling lies. These ar e mere labeling of the days by the fortune teller or astrologers. for convenience we have named them as water buffalo and cow. whereas conventional truth is mere labeling t hings. rúpa and nibbåna. cetasika. Thus. citta. it will still be hot and if one chooses to eat on the so called auspicious day it will be the same. definitely there will be good resultant. Out of these two there are six different kinds of Atta paññatti based on Abhidhamma. rúpa and nibbån a are the four paramatha. citta. Ordinary people have accepted these traditional beliefs and think that conventio nal truth do exist and are afraid of it. If one eats chili on the so called bad day. The re is no such thing as it doesn t bear good resultant because of the so called b ad day of the week. I will now touch upon this in gen eral. Even if one does immoral things on the so ca lled auspicious day of the week.

night indicating the time period is under this category. Magga sacca are Ariya sacca. When Bu ddha attained enlightenment. 4. Otherwi se I will have to explain till the sunrises. 6. Jåti paññatti (men. the real happiness that he enjoyed is known as Niro     . Nirodha sacca. celestial beings and animals are conventional truth for different being is known as Jåti paññatti. Saùìåna paññatti (conventional truth of from) All the natural masses such as earth. Vijjåmånena avijjåmåna paññatti There is ultimate truth and there isn t. Akãsa paññatti The spaces between physical cells are under this ca tegory.) Human. Vijjåmåna paññatti Names of the ultimate truths. 6. Avijjåmåna paññatti There is no characteristic of ultimate truth and thus it is conventional truth. Nimitta paññatti Elucidation of masses such as Parikamma nimitta. 2. I have left out Ariya-sacca when I was explaining the three levels of sacca. women are conventional truth for people. 1. Mixed c onventional truth. west etc. 3. Disåkåla paññatti East. horse cart. 4. I will explain to you in general as it is impossible to dealt in detail. Samúha paññatti All those life less objects such as house. Dukkha sacca. Sammuti sacca. Similarly Sadha paññatti has six categories. bullock cart are under this category. 3.. These are the six category of Atta paññatti. Avijjåmånena avijjåmåna paññatti Conventional truth consisting of those two which are not included in the ultimate truth. 2. Avijjåmånena vijjåmåna paññatti There isn t ultimate truth and there is. 5. Mixed a nd conventional truth. I am trying to explain the differences because samatha observe the conventional truths and vipassanå observe the ultimate truth.1. Vijjåmånena vijjåmåna paññatti Conventional truth consisting of two mixed ultima te truths. indicating the directions and m orning. ka thaing nimitta are under this category. mount ain is under this category. 5.

you will have paññå known as sampajañña and this is not vipassanå paññå yet. observe the itchy sensation on your hands. If one keeps the mind on the t ip of the nostril. Thus our benefactor Mogok Sayadaw menti oned in his Dhamma talk the importance to know Pticcasanuppãda and the main cause of Nåma Rúpa (mind and body) before practicing vipassanå meditation. Head. there is only Paramattha. This is really beneficial for the yogi. if your h ands are itchy. khanti 4. one will experience and progress on the following Dhamma. In this world there is no person. If one is aware of the differe nt object of meditation with sati. incorrect cause. However. If one knows the nature of mind and body and the cause of it. Basics of Vipassanå When one practice vipassanå meditation it is neces sary to know about mind and matter in general theoretically. the legs and hand. one has benefited from the Buddha Sasana. observe it. Do not force t o bring back the wandering mind but continue to observe the original object of m editation. I. This Ariya sacca is what Buddha discovered.         . sati 5. waist. In order to know and remember easily he has composed a verse starting with "Two main factors and four sacca" etc. Also. the middle path that he practiced to achieve this is known as Magga s acca. leg. which is the out-breath and in-breath. women. the world is Dukkha sacca and the cause of it. Be aware of the wandering mind. are all nåma paññatti. an d anattå. living crea ture. There is only sankhåra dhamma and it is the result of the law of cause and effect. Merely observe all these sensations with the ir respective names and is known as Nåma paññatti.dha sacca. As one observes the out-breath as out-breath and in-breath as in-breath. dukkha. It is more like hi paññå .e. craving is known as Sammuti sacca. Men. So long as one doesn t experience the characteristics of anicca. hand. mind wi ll wander around. víriya 3. This is important. If a person reached the stage of Súla Sotåpanna . Know the difference pain and body When we do vipassanå meditation we make use of th e body. Paññå When one is observing the out-breath and the in-breath while breathing. etc. saddhå 2. if you feel aching sensation in t he legs observe it. that person is kno wn as Súla Sotåpanna or Kalyåna Puthujana. mind and khanda (body) and one needs to clearly understan d this. it doesn t happen becau se of Visamahetuka i. when one is doing vipassanå meditation one is not to observe the he ad or the waist but the khanda. observe the head. As one observes the in-breath and out-breath. placing your right hand over your left palm with eyes and mouth closed. As one breathes. if you feel cold sensation on the body observe it. If yo u feel warmness on the head. The main purpose of observing the in-breath and out-breath is to get Samadhi (co ncentration). you. It is also necessar y to know the cause of it as well. One will not be reborn in hell and i s assured of being born in three pleasant planes of existences (sugati) and thus known as Niyatagati. As per the teacher s instruction you sit with your legs parallel to one another. you are practicing meditation. It is not because of Ahetuka belief whereby the accepted norm is things happens without any cause. 1. i. observing the in-breath and out-breath. one hasn t reached the vipassanå paññå yet. if there is tingling sensation on your face. together with sati.e. one may feel the warmness in the head.

the answer was that the head was very warm. the place where it ex ists is hadaya-vatthu. Mind is name.) Thus. which is rúpa paramattha. Similarly. Rúpa is paramattha whereas head. noting the awareness of the touch sensation of the in-breath an d out-breath. the fingers and toes are conve ntional truth whereas the cold sensation is the element of fire. When a yogi was asked about the medit ation. one should observe the sensation or khanda and not on the waist which is the conventional truth. Thus. There are 52 cetasika. although mind is the nåma paññatti. After observing in that manne mind and matter it becomes vipassanå ñåna. you have to observe the parama ttha dhamma when practicing vipassanå and paññatti for samatha meditation. Although I h ave already explained what paramattha is I wish to repeat so tat you will rememb er properly. tingling sensation on the hand etc.. leg and hand are con ventional truths. Observing those natural phenomena i is the correct way. One needs to be aware of the pain sensation instead of the wais t. When one has pain in the leg. 28 for rúpa. Head is nothing else but the conventional truth and the warm sensation is the element of fire. Being mindful of a single meditation object is Samatha – Being mindful of more dis tinct meditation object is vipassanå Since being mindful of a single object of medita tion is samatha. Then one understands that waist is conventional truth. is not the case as one is observing two meditation objects. it is the physi cal ultimate truth. waist. it exist in hadaya-vatthu (physical base that exist in th e blood of the heart. Thus. one needs to observe the four elements instead of the eye. and observes the body instead of the sensation it is not sampajañña. These four are the paramattha dhamma group. in practicing vipassanå one needs to observe paramattha dhamma. This is because sati (concen tration) is not strong yet. The st iffness is the pathavi (earth element) dhåtu and instead of the waist one will be observing the earth element. Eye is paññatti (conventional truth) and the four dhåtu (elements) are paramattha dham ma. To be . Knowing the nature of the pain sensation in this way is called knowing the ul timate truth without the conventional truth. One needs to observe the paramattha when doing vipassanå meditation. ear is paññatti whereas the four dhåtu are paramattha. If one has col d sensations on the type of the fingers and toes. Thus. These four elements are rúpa khanda which is paramattha. There are 89 citta and when elaborated there are 121. When one is experiencing ac hing pain in the waist as if a wedge has been inserted. the stiffness and stress sensations are paramttha (ultimate truth). However. the s known as Assamoha sampajañña and r if one realizes the existence of on the body one should observe those instead body etc. and the meditator should continue practicing ånåpåna Whatever natural phenomena happens of the place such as the head. Tounge is paññatti whereas the four dhåtu are paramattha. and lastly nibbåna.When there is pain in the waist one needs to know that waist and pain are two se parate entities. Sometimes it is alright to mention out of necessity. Nose is paññatti whereas the four dhåtu are paramattha. It is essential to observe the warm and cold sensations and understand rúpa (body). Body is paññatti whereas the four dhåtu are paramattha.

they try to continue meditating without cha nging the posture. Those types of sensations are not to be afraid of as they occur not because of d isease and are not extraordinary type but ordinary normal type of sensations. With a concentrated mind one can be aw are of those far away or those of very tiny. Cheating yourself When you experience extreme sensations such as pain. What goes in is the in-breath an d what goes out is the out-breath and you are only being aware of single object of meditation which is air. if one experienced such type of sensations it is important to meditate with a strong concentration to overcome it. When there is pain at the knee. one cannot stand the pain any more. At that time one changed the attention to the tip of the nose. However. noting the in-bre ath and the out-breath. t he meditator brought it back to where it wanted. Ho wever. However. the sensations appear once again. aching etc. Although one is suppose to be practicing vipassanå. Instead of being aware of the pain at the place where it occurs. It is very important to note this as some may say that they are doing vipassanå meditation although th ey are practicing samatha meditation. However if one is able to meditate with a co ncentrated mind. even t hough one may be meditating for the whole hour and observe only on the in-breath and out-breath. As one continues to be aware of the in-breath and out-br eath. since the teacher instructed them not to change the meditation posture in order for them to realiz e Dukkha Vedanå (suffering sensation). it is now back to practicing samatha m editation. tingling. However. sati(concentration) becomes stronger and benefits the vipassanå meditation practice. tingling. As one breathes slowly. piercing the flesh with a sharp knife. Buddha explained about Anattå. the mind is fixed on the nostril. This is merely cheating yoursel f. Noting "in" and "out" is merely paññati. or at the thigh. You need to be careful about this. I am trying to correct the right way to me ditate both vipassanå and samatha. they cannot bear them. all of them disappear. aching etc. T he heavy breathing creates noise and instead of being attentive on the pain. During that period the meditator can experience an unbearable sensation suc h as a strong pressure on the chest.continuously aware of the touch sensation resulting from the in-breath and out-b reath is viapassanå meditation. Thu s. the mind doesn t stay in one place. If one is not aware of those sensations and stop meditating. or a t the waist... one is able to experience these form of sensations only with a concentrat ed mind resulting from proper meditation. if one is not aware of the touch sensatio n and instead only on the incoming-breath and outgoing-breath. One should not give up but meditate with plenty of effort and all the sensations will disappear totally forever. like insects crawling all over etc. Practice to overcome vedanå When one has a concentrated mind. the pain doesn t goes away. the pain still exists and breathes heavily. Actually one should continue to be aware of th e pain sensation instead of going back to the in-breath and out-breath. almost invisible consciousness. Only when one becomes aware of the touch sensation (ph usana).     . even though they try not to move the body. but the meditator ma kes it as Attå. If one stops without meditating. then one is practicing samatha meditation. The awareness of touch sensation is not included and thus it is samatha meditation practice. enjoying real p eace and tranquility. these type of sensations will come back wheneve r one has strong concentration. then one is pract icing samatha meditation. Since samatha meditation is to be aware of on a single meditation object. one will not be even aware of sensations like pain. as mind is fixed in one pl ace.

just like a friend. Then we establish the concentration by observing the in-breath and out-breath. observe the pain with a conce ntrated mind and eventually the pain will subside. Don t miss the opportunity Vipassanå is to observe what is distinct. Being aware of the in. Not knowing the dukkha sacca is avijjå. Impermanence is the Dhamma that exist When one knows because of a sense object. if the pain still ex ists. Experiencing impermanence is not something that doesn t exist. he changed his attention to a nother place. d ukkha vedanå and anicca dhamma disappeared. one will experience tha t these dukkha vedadnå are impermanent. Anicca is nothing but Duk kha Dhamma. then one achieved the vijjå ñåna. Buddha teaches you to experience Annatå and Anicca. Actually. When it becomes unbearable and changed the posture. one will experience dukkha. stiffness and try to bear it patiently at firs t. This covers the five magga practice. When one experience pain. Thus. However. when one practices vipassanå in depth it is very subtle. vijjå is having the right knowledge. It is experiencing something that really exists. Don t lose your meditation object As one maintained the awareness of the mind that wanted to change as well as the whole changing process. Mahn-Le Sayadaw composed a verse: Being unbearable is Dukkha sacca. It is mere ly revealing its natural characteristic. When one realizes th e truth based on the five magga. one should try and be patient by not changing the post ure. is the magga practice. One should continue to be fully aware of the pain where it occurs until it subsides. Yadanniccam tam dukkham. Being aware of the natural characteristics as it is.A meditator was suffering from an extreme pain in a particular place. one can ch ange the posture slowly. This impermanence is nothing but suffering which is Dukkha. change to Ånåpåna meditation. Thus. However. but as he was determined to continue meditating for an hour. When changing. Avijjå will result in being tortured.breath and out-breath for an hour continuously. Kno wing the dukkha sacca is vijjå. ensuring not to lose the object of meditation. one should first take note of the mind t hat wanted to change. Then instruction was given by the Say         . the pain subsided. aching. It is no t necessary to change. Thus. This is not the correct way to meditate. stiffness and try to bear it patiently. Then what is observing that is distinct? This is important as we are beginning the pr actice. and then to be aware of every aspect of the changing proce ss. All the sufferings of pain and aches are unbearable dukkha. If one thinks a friend a s an enemy it is like suffering twice. One does not have any control over it but to mer ely observe the natural characteristics of it without trying to change. All one needs to do is observe the impe rmanence nature of it. being intolerable is also Dukkha sacca. it is samatha practice. When one meditate for one hour without changing th e posture. Avijjå is the real enemy. samatha is to fix your attention on one meditation object. We have to do the preliminary requisites such as offering the body to th e Buddha and sharing the meritorious deeds. Anicca means impermanence. avijjå is not knowing the true nature of things. all the dukkha dhamma. aching. To explain how one lost the benefit. that Dh amma will safe him. If the pain still exists. To know the truth about Dukkha s acca is vijjå ñåna. When one experien ce pain. there is no object of meditation any more and lost the benefit. if one cannot bear the pain any more. If any kind of unbearable pain occurs on the body. one needs to depend on vijjå ñåna whi ch sees the truth.

o ne cannot have eye-consciousness. In observing one should not associate with you. one will experience similar sensations in different parts of the body like th e legs. aching in the knee and many other type of sensations. As the body touches repeatedly with the floor. Then one realized and experienced that the pain from one place differs from that of the other and that is Satipatthåna bhåvanå. At that time the meditator will have a lot of anxiety. aching and stiffness. we have. just observe the most distinct sensation. nor be in a hurry or in a flurry but instead. Thus the reason to remind not to have anxiety. Then the meditator will not know wh at to observe. warmness on the calves. thigh. When one is able to observe the body with wisdom. should be constantly aware of the meditation object. As I have told you in the morning. That is vipassanå ñåna. sensat ions will appear in other parts of the body. One may experience throbbing sensation on the he ad. I should like to remind the vipassanå meditators not to have anxiety. During that time one will experience that the body doesn t stay still for even a second and is always changing. Thu s. This expl anation is based on ñåta pariññå (full understanding or comprehension of the known). pain. Satipatthån Satipatthåna bhåvanå End of Satipatthåna bhåvanå These are the three types. If one is too anxious during that time. decide upon the nearest sensation and observe continuously. If one i s observing the pain in the knee and if it disappeared then move on to another a rea. It is not vipassanå ñåna yet. Out of those many sensat ions. one needs to concentrate and observe one s ow n body and only then will experience the continuous changing nature. one will expe rience the ear consciousness. One will definitely come across one sensation or the o ther. As for the body as soon as one sits. When one is experiencing stiffness. As the eyes are closed. Whether the rest of the sensation disappear or not is not your concern. pain and aching all at the same time. beings. This is the vipassanå meditation practice metho         . women. As one is observing on this area. and knee. When a pot full of sesame seeds are heated it will start popping up all over sim ilar to a meditator experiencing the nåma and rúpa happening within the body natural ly. Ignoring all the external objects. one will never have such kind of experience. Then one needs to observe t hose distinct sensations. stiffness in the waist. If the pain in other area i s more distinct then observe that. one won t know which one to observe. One needs to continuously observe without interruptio n. nor be in a hurry or in a flurry. When one doesn t observe properly. Then one fully understands that it is not I or you or beings that is suffering the pa in but only the nåma and rúpa. To be able to know and experience nåma and rúpa as nåma and rúpa is vijjå ñåna. waist. The reason being as one meditates one will observe that the whole body i s changing just like the sesame seeds popping up in the pot. when there is pa in in the knee. but instead understand as the pain of nåma and rúpa. cold. making use of the samúha paññatt i. In practici ng vipassanå. Since one cannot close the ears. As an example. one needs to be aware of what is distinct. because of the changing nature. men. "Kåyañca paticca phoììabbañca uppajjati kåya viññåùam" because it touches the floor below one experience the body consciousness. If not continue observing the pain in the knee. obs erve the pain sensation first. one wil l experience heat.adaw to observe for about 20 to 30 minutes. observe that sensation. I .

stiffnes s and you have seen death due to it. There are new diseases in the world which are related to heat ele ment like HIV. These are the nearest changes that are ta king place. but it is inside your own body. heat and wind element The nature of earth element is hardness. you will realize that they are the one who will kill you. In other words you have caught these four big snakes and taking good c are of them. Earth. If the earth element is in excess one will die just like being bitte n by the earth element snake.d and the rule to follow. the process of changing is also anicca. Water element has the characteristic of flu idity and cohesiveness. Four big snakes When you are to observe the most distinct meditati on object. There are deaths due to excessive heat element. The changes taking place is in rúpa. In the Asívisopama Sutta the four elements are described as four big snakes. Must find the enemy When you become aware of the changing nat ure of the elements while you are meditating. One should have the sense of apprehension in realizing the dangers when observing the body in a proper manner. Before you meditate you were not v ery clear as to which one it is. These a re some examples of death due to having excessive wind element. You are searching the killer. Thus. In the present da y you will find people who die because of stroke or high blood pressure. one will become aware that it is all the time impermanent. As you start me ditating and observe yourself you will experience distinct things. One will face death if there is excessive fire ele ment. deat h will not be caused by others but by one of these four elements. The four elements are like the big f our snakes. water. it is the death of these four elements. Knowing those changes is nåma. You have been taught t important thing in this world for human b     . observing t he distinct meditation object is the practice of vipassanå. Thus you need to understand that those who are capable of killing you by biting are within your body. Now you know who is the enemy and who is your friend. We are doing the most eings. having these four elements within your body. the meditator is anxious. The nature of nåma is anicca. vipassanå meditation teaches you the meditation course I mentioned that We are carrying out a serious practice he art of dying. If however. Thus if one car efully observe the nature of changing. AIDs and TB etc. Don t think that you are enjoying live freely but instead living together with t he enemy. you will be aware of the changing nature again and again. may I ask as to who is going to kill you now. on life and death. Sítenåpi ruppati uùhenåpi ruppati It changes due to cold or due to heat. Thus. As you meditate. Basically th ere are four essential elements in matter. then you should be careful abou t it. Similarly with having excessive water and wind elements. You have come across people dying because of excessive d ischarging of urine and frequent bowel motion. At the start of you do not come here as a picnic outing. They are always changing continuously . Thus. When a person dies. You should decide that they are the one who is going to kill you. he won t know w hat to observe. These f our snakes are not in the zoo nor in the basket of the snake charmer. They are the result of excessive heat or cold wh ich is the heat element. As soon as you meditate you will realize that o ne of the four elements will kill you. It is just like asking you t o see your own death. to observe your own death. In order not to get lost with the meditation object. you are to start with the one that is nearest to you.

the male will win. the male and female skin will appear to be the same although they are not. they gave up and die whether they are reborn either in the human plane. but you may do so when you get back to your house. Because of this. For the male. It is not necessary to be aware of all the four elements. Don t try out here. element of hardnes s and softness. the wind element rises above. However. Otherwise you will have to suffer. element of mot ion generally lead for the female and thus they should take care of it. This should be easy for you to understand. If one ke eps on observing them one is bound to see the changing nature of these elements. viz. If one doesn t have the opportunity to listen to such Dhamma talk. Knowing whos e the enemy that will kill you. element of hea t and cold mostly leads the group. fem ale. For the male. one will not find. it is necessa ry to understand the male and female dhatu element. and so also with that of the leader for the four elements. the kamma resultant differs. This is because of the domina nce of heat element in male and wind element in female. This is your real enemy. They also go to hell as well. Be victorious When you meditate you will come to know the enemy that will kill you as well as. To give as an example it is similar aware of the primary enemy element killer. Budhha and the arahats achieved victory and thus exclaimed "jitam me – conquered" and attained nibbåna. For the male. If the mal e and female are to race. male are faster and female are s lower. This is because of having different elements as group leaders. male are faster and mor e alert compared to female. For ordinary persons. Then you will come to know that this is going to be your killer. it may o r may not happen in that manner. when they meditate they w ill be more aware of the behaviors pertaining to wind element. element of motion and element of heat and c old. the meditators are very fortunate today and instead of giving up will achieve victory. whose your friend from whom you can get help. they are more delicate and refined. Only when one obs erves through ñåna (wisdom). Therefore. one will realize that the skin within one square inch i s not the same. In plain language. sankhåra pacca ya viññåna" . you have to act first before the enemy can do any thing to you. for the female since the wind element is th e group leader. If you are late then you will have to take the consequences. the deva plane or the brahma plane. If you become aware of these four primary elements. Dhatu elements are all physical matter. You will find th e group leader element. In order to be       . The way the body i s established is not the same. person or beings when meditating and instead will be observing these four p rimary elements. Only when you act fir st you will be victorious.Having realized that you will be facing one of the four elements. since heat element is the group leader. However. I would like to ur ge the meditators not to give up. To be victorious one needs to practice being that one is experiencing and who will be the meditating for a day or for two days or for ome the conqueror. since the element of heat and cold leads the four element. Some may say that they are the same even though they are not. Since you have different elements as group leaders. However. No two p ersons are alike and this is in general terms only. For that reason. It is necessary to continue a month or for a year until you bec meditation practice you will be vic to a football match. they should be more aware of the movements when they meditate. but to be victorious. Since wind element is the group leader for the female. Just compare the skin and yo u will see the difference between male and female. element of cohesion. Don t let it go out of your sight. observe them more caref ully. meditate on that particular primary element. As you continue with your torious. Because of "Avijjå paccaya sankhåra. male.

dressing clothes. upon experienci ng the heat sensation. Just observe and be aware of it. that person will go to hell since he wasn t able to overpower the enemies. Similarly. running ar ound here and there. one will be always victorious. For those who keep up with their meditation practice. one does not have defilements arising from seeing. Having awareness is the meditation practice. Thus. one will achieve victory. This is o         . the situa tion will not change when one faces death. Because of having anger th e gati nimitta one will have is hell by having visions of a black dog pulling or the burning fires. Simil arly. eating or any type of action. Otherwise. Being a meditator. one doesn t have eye-consciou sness. the meditators who ha ve maintained the practice will be able to overcome suffering when nearing death . One needs to practice in order to overpower them. The meaning of bringing back the wandering m ind to the meditation object is that observing the in-breath and out-breath is s amatha. The meditators need to h ave awareness when walking or sitting or eating or dressing and that is how one practice meditation. The calf is then tied to a post like the tip of the nostril . Take note of this fact as we more things to talk about. hearing. In the same manner. and had been compared with four big snakes as an example. one need not bring back the wandering mind. When the min d is not fixed on the meditation object. I will now explain about these two. One will eventually have to face death and will be at its mercy. one becomes aware of the impermanence nature of it. it will still be under the boat" and also "though the mountain may be huge it will still be lying under the feet". the four primary elements will succeed i n killing. T his is how a meditator practices to compete in a race. As one practices and repeatedly note the changing nature as anicca. when one experiences the cold sensation the impermanence nature of it is n oted. Those who practice with good coaches win games in football matches. Upon death. It will be similar to the situations where "no matter how big the waves may be . You will be competing wit h the death. This is th e samatha practice. If one is not accustomed to the magg a practice. one will have anger because of suffering. One is necess ary to be aware of seeing things. Based on this example. Whenever the mind wanders one needs to bring back to the nostril. it is similar to those foo tball players who have the ability to kick the ball into the goal. those who have been trained by coaches using wrong method will lose. Similarly. The four primary elements that one is experiencing are the enemies. it becomes a wandering mind. one will have to suffer because of having diseases. "As one cannot see. The meditation teacher explains that the mind is like a calf. Bringing back the wandering mind to the meditation object is samatha Being mindful of the distinct meditation object if vipassanå. If one is being able to overpower it because of practicing meditation. Bringing back the wandering mind is samatha meditati on and vipassanå is merely observing with awareness. the mind thinks about something outside. Thus. For example." Take note of thi s. Since one is meditating wi th the eyes closed and in control of other senses. the impermanence natur e of the four elements is suddenly experienced through the wisdom and one is abl e to face smilingly. if one doesn t hear. If one doesn t keep up with the practice. As for the vipassanå meditation.come a selected player you need to practice a lot by joining camps and being tra ined by good coaches. anicca . there is no arising of defilements. Being able to overpower it at all tim es. Even when one is lying down one needs to have awareness. in vipassanå meditation one is to observe and be aware of the distinct medit ation object. there is no arising of defilements at all.

This is what has been happening. then one starts to worry. if on e needs to tidy up things. if you are a trader. The characteristic of vipassanå meditation is awareness. All these were happening in the wandering mind and in a happy mood. When one has ear. then one tidy them up. Then it becomes samatha meditation. Leave aside about the visitors and let us talk about the hosts. Suddenly one was startled for the loss of the me ditation object and begins noting the in-breath and out-breath. one can hear. all these thoughts are happening immediately. if one needs to scold. Then . That is how your mind wanders back to your home. although other people may not know a bout your wandering mind. vipassanå meditators should just observe with awareness. Then you realized t hat you will need to go and inform Sayadaw to go back as people are already info rming him. For those with f amily. if one needs to shout. tomorrow is the New Year. then one starts scolding. it starts to think about those that have been seen before or tho se that have been heard before. When one has eye. will they be able to com e and pick up. By the time one realized. the mind wanders back to the house. it is alright. I have given you the paper for you to refer as I don t have time to teach today.       . then cook. However. Since vipassanå is like a gold cup and samatha is like a jute bale. Thus. These are some of the weaknesses of the med itators. It is about practicing cittånupassåna. one loses the object of meditation and immediately starts noting the in-b reath and out-breath. The mind that wish to exhale. Suddenly on e realized that one is meditating and decided to start the meditation by observi ng the in-breath and the out-breath. Even while you are meditating now for an hour. then one starts shouting. In ordinary circumstances. you need to bring it back to the meditation object. Similar to this example. Then y ou continue thinking. most of the medi tators in Myanmar. it is a great pity since it is like exchanging the gold cup with the jute bale. Although one is practicing vipassanå meditation. and very natural to happen and should not let it happen. when they loss the meditation object. In cittånupassåna method there are five visitors from outside and six visitors from inside with two hosts. start looking around the house. goes back to their orig inal meditation object instead of observing with awareness when the mind wanders . will need to ask them to come and pick up with the car. Be aware of the life supporting mind I have taught you the proper way to medi tate. When the mind starts to w ander. what shall we observe when meditating. it changes back to samatha practi ce. what time will I be going back. I am trying to correct it. because of the wandering mind. The two mind of the hosts are also kn own as life supporting mind. if you are wo rking for a company. The mind continued to wande r as before and was like a dream. it may wander back to the trading business. Bu t when it happens while you are meditating. and i f there is something to worry. one can see. One doesn t benefit from ownin g the gold cup as it was exchanged with the jute bale. it is like shouldering the jute bale again and again. eat and take a nap. I am not trying to complain abo ut it as it is a natural phenomena. how many times have your mind been back to your home? Just ask yourself. In a way it can be said that I have checked your meditation practice. the mind may wander back to the office. Then it either loses it or not being aware of it and durin g that period there is no aching or pain sensations. If you are an office worker. It doesn t stop there. it may wander back to the company. it may have been ten minutes or half an hour later.ne part of it. Although there is no arising of defilements through the eyes as they were closed.

It will reappear again. Since it merely calm s down there is no assurance. It is not necessary to meditate but just to test it. These are the mind of the two h sts. Samatha merely calms down the kileså. Based on what Sayadawgyi had said. Then it amounts to carrying the gold pot continuously. it dissolves. there is no twitching of eyelids. Thus. Whether the mind is more distinct or not one can test i n out. In terms of vipassanå. but with full of sati. being aware of the a rising and dissolution is vipassanå ñåùa. If one achieves vipassanå ñåùa one will have assurance for this life. you exhale it. the primary vipassanå ñåùa meditation object should be the mind that desire to inhale and exhale. it won t be stiff and no foul smell. be aware of the mind consciousness. Being aware of it is vipassanå ñåùa. being aware of the in-breath and out-breath is to observe the body. when one dies. the mind consciousness that wishes to exhale and inhale occu rs. The mind that desires to exhale become so obvious that you are aware of it and as it arises. You cannot stay without doing it.   . it is more of a general statement. What then are the benefits? There will be no moaning. it is to observe the mind. the reason to say that the mind that desire to exhale is very distinct. Just be aware of the mind consciousness that wishes to exhale and inhale. Thus. Based on the hadaya-vatthu. No matter how one loses the object of meditation. When one is being instructed to be awa re of the mind that wishes to exhale and inhale. D o not get mix up these two kinds of mind with that of the awareness of in-breath and out-breath. Try to inhale and se e whether you can stay without exhaling. Instead of observing and being aware of the mind that desire to exhale and inhale. Kåyañca paticca phoììabbañca uppajjati kåya viññåùam What we are talking is about the mind that wishes to exhale and inhale. these two kinds of mind exist. Obse rve it with awareness. Although one may be talking or giving a sermon. Based on Abhidhamma. Vipassanå has assurance. Samatha calms down the kileså (for a while only) Vipassanå eradicates kileså. I n vipassanå mind consciousness is more distinct than matter. Mind is more distinct than matter As you observe. No w that you cannot hold the breath any more. One can observe that ñåùa now or at any time. the physical base (vathu) of consciousness is "hadaya-vatthu" which is like a cupped hand full with veins (or is commonly known as heart). This is very important. You might not readily accept this immediately.The mind that wish to inhale. Do not take note of the in-breath and out-breath any more. it is arising and dissolving. Wish to see you carrying the gold pot Many meditators are doing the wrong way here. the mind that desire to exhale and inhale. I will explain another point to show the difference between samatha and vipassanå. Howe ver. the mind that desires to inhale become very obvious and you cannot stay without inhaling. they fi xed their mind on the touch of the in-breath and out-breath and thus it is like shouldering the jute bale again. The mind that desire to inhale arises and then dissolves. if one meditates the incorrect method it is like shouldering the jute bale and meditating the proper method is like ca rrying the gold pot. Again. When one says that matter is more distinct. The desire to inhale as well as the arising and dissoluti on of that mind continuously. knowing the hour and day.

Specifically speaking there are six places to observe. The reason why I have been telling this repeatedly is because you might lose you r sati and then lose this valuable opportunity. Please understand that you have very good pårami and kamma. As a token of gratitude I wish to explain ab out the meditation object and the wisdom with which to observe. Paticcasamuppåda is not easily un derstandable as it is complicated with deep meanings. I am trying to g eneralize it.and these are the benefits of vipassanå. there won t be any assurance when one dies. The four kinds of Satipatthåna Dhamma are: Contemplation of the body is kåyånupassåna satipatthåna Contemplation of Feeling is vedanånupassåna satipatthåna Contemplation of Consciousness is cittånupassåna satipatt håna Contemplation of the Mind-objects is dhammånupassåna sati patthåna In theory there are four kinds of anupassåna. In explaining about the meditation object in vipassanå meditation. It is because "Gambira Dur anubawdå". There is no nee d to look around in other places. Thus the reason to choose the practice o f cittånupassåna out of the four methods from the Satipatthåna Sutta (The four foundat ion of Mindfulness). one needs to set aside the community works and do your own work by joining a course. daughter and son. These six places are saîåyata na (6 bases of mental activity). If one continues to keep on working for the wife. I hope that you now know where to observe. which is not easily available an d obtained only by putting in a lot of effort. You nee d to judge with your own wisdom as you practice. D on t go around observing in the Dhamma hall or in the book but within the frame work of your body. It will be a great loss if you mi ss this opportunity due to negligible thing. the aim is to g et rid of diììhi first. They are: Kåyånupassåna Vedanånupassåna Cittånupassåna       . You should feel very fortunate to have the opportunity to know and prac tice this vast and complicated paticcasamuppåda in order to be free from saósåra (roun d of birth). When I mentioned to observe within the frame work of your body. meaning six different places to observe. I have alre ady explained generally about these six places in khanda paticcasamuppåda. Give preference to cittånupassanå In paticcasamuppåda there are six kinds of medita tion objects. Just observe and be aware of all the happenings through all those six senses. As you can see from the diagram they are: eye base ear base nose base tongue base body base mind base These are the six places that one can practice vipassanå meditation. Since one will have assura nce until one achieves vipassanå ñåùa. In teaching about the meditation objects our Sayadaw explain s that diììhi generally occurs in the mind. One needs to observe within one s own body. Let us join a course To have assurance for your own life one needs to set asid e the community work. Because of this I have been stressi ng the importance of it repeatedly.

This is the practice of Kåyånupassåna satipatthåna. then one is observing the body. If one experiences con sciousness. These are sukha v edana and dukkha vedanå. We know that the snake is dangerous and if it bites we will die. It always arises and dissolves. This is dukkha sacca. whether it be vedanå or the consciousness. Nature is sacca. feeling the cold due to wind. ear consciousness occurs. Thus. eating is also dukkha sacca. The example is about a child without knowledge and a wise grown up person. One feels pleasant when the cold wind blows while it is w arm. one will not be attac hed any more. Feeling the pain of various degree. If one experi ences vedanå. The reason that we dare not touch is because we are afraid of the snake. every thing arises and dissolves.Dhammånupassåna Thus. However. Those who possess wisdom or have less diììhi observe in that manner. when one observes heat. all these practices are linked toget her. Under this main heading we have sub-headings. Contemplation of Feelings is Vedanånupassåna satipatthåna. vedanånupassåna and cittånup ssåna. out of the four anupassåna. when one touches. nose consc iousness occurs. eating also a rises and dissolves. it is the practice of vedanånupassåna. it is the practice of cittånupassåna. when one taste. When you observe the ear consci ousness. this is dukkha. Similarly. Since the child is still crawling around he doesn t know anything. We are afraid o         . When the desire to have coolness arises during the warm period. however you move also is dukkha and thus blinking als o is dukkha. The child thought that it is a toy and was not afraid of the snake at all. These are the six kinds of meditation objects. One will be experiencing like that all the time. Thus. Our Sayadaw said t hat it is like observing sacca. The example I wish to give is the one that was taught by my teache r. the mind thinks and plans. we have covered kåyånupassåna. Whatever you observe. tongue consciousness occurs. whatever you do it is dukkha. Assuming that a hu ge dangerous viper snake with white stripes was in front of the child. When one sees. when one hears. This is the main head ing for it. Whatever may be one is experiencing the sensations. its characteristics. These are six kinds of con sciousness. kåyånupassåna means contemplation of the body. it also arises and dissolves and thus is dukkha sacca. When you observe the heat sensation. it also arises and dissolves. Thus . forget about tou ching. hear ing also arises and dissolves. As for me I won t even dare to look it. eye consciousne ss occurs. body consciousness occurs. it also arises and dissolves and thus is dukkha sacca. then one is observing the body. smelling is also dukkha sacca. I have already explained about the consciousness. Observing those sensations i s known as Vedanånupassåna. If one experi ences heat. dressing is als o dukkha sacca. when one smells. Hearing is also dukkha sa cca. All these are dukkha sacca. when one ob serves cold. Dhammånupassåna is contemplating the nature. If one realizes dukkha sacca as dukkha sacca. you won t even dare to touch it. Since he doesn t know anything he though t it as a toy instead of being afraid he even wanted to pull and bite it. He was feeling very happy to have it in front of him. there is not hing permanent. one will e xperience very pleasant feelings as soon as the cool air passes through. smelling also arises and dissolves. Whatever you do is dukkha. Same with observing the movements a s well as the pain as one is observing the body. If tha t snake was in front of you all who are like my relatives and parents. Selecting and observi ng them is known as Cittånupassåna. In terms of sacca. and the heat sensation. Heat sensation is rúpa dhamma.

this is happening to you. hearing. To experience the arising and dissolu tion of the rúpa and nåma. then one will be able to experience the patthåna khandha of co-arising and co-dissolution. vedanå is al ready included. it encompasses all the four. one dare not l ook or touch it. If one realizes dukkha sacca as dukkha sacca. we already know ahead the d anger we will have to face. However it is not advisable to prac tice that way thinking it is good and appropriate. As an example. one needs to observe within one s own body. look at or touch it similar t o the snake. vipåka vatta dukkha sacca is one kind and present moment paticcasamuppåda dukkha sacca is another kind. This is because he was aware of the condition of the meditators. You dare not touch it with full courage. So don t think any more and just f ollow Sayadaw s advice by practicing cittånupassåna. This i                   . the body you know possess is vipåka vatta (the round of results) dukkha sacca. hearing is the prese nt moment dukkha sacca. It is Sahajåta (compatible). Yet. Death is dukkha sacca.. Since you all haven t realized this way you all liked it and attached to it. will you d are to look at it again. If one observes cittå. You will not be free from inner danger merely by reciting. cittå is also included. you dare not look and touch it. arising and dissolving. disliking wisdom. with wisdom and realizing dukkha sacca as dukkha sacca. It means that it arises together and dissolves together. Forget about touching. The arising and dissolution is dukkha sacca. This is just explaining by giving an example. Rúpa benefits from rúpa and cittå benefits from cittå. Even if you dare not look at it. What I meant to say is that one can obser ve anything from the four anupassåna and as long as if one realizes dukkha sacca a s dukkha sacca. By reciting Sahajåta-paccaya you will be free from external danger. At that time you have no choice and will have to hold it in spite of being afraid. Although the meditation met hod is correct but due to lack of wisdom. Observing seeing. eating etc. we even dare not l ook at the snake. The wisdom of those born after 2500 years of the passing away of the Buddha is not that sharp any more and thus it will be the same for my yogis as well. This is known as nibbidå ñåna . This is because of our knowledge. all are dukkha sacca. It will work for the external dangers. our Sayadaw urged to meditate cittånupassåna. we don t want to hear about it. Cittå does not happen by itself. If it is not suitable for you . They are Aññamañña paccaya. The nåma and rúpa resulting from seeing. smelling. Whatever one is observing. He didn t beat around the bush and suggested to meditate cittånupassåna only. As one experi ences the arising and dissolution phenomena. To be able to get connecte d with one another in that manner. As if that snake was crawling in front of you. We don t want to see it. Say supposing that you have no choice but need to touch it due to certain circumsta nces. You all are reciting the patthåna desanå. Citta-ja rúpa (mind-produced corporeality) appears because of cit tå. I f one observes the body it is dukkha sacca. It is patthåna connection. One will be able to assess your own wisdom. One is facing it bec ause there is no choice. one will not be successful. Sahajåta-paccaya. If you obser ve vedanå. since your eyes are op en you will see it. Thus. he understood this problem very well and thus advice the meditators to practice cittånupassåna. But the essential nature of it is to observe one s own body. If one r ealizes dukkha sacca. and being afraid one trembles and started to sweat. one dare not hear the voice. One needs to have less kileså and sharp wisdom to o bserve sacca. wisdom will not be realized. we al so dare not touch it. Since our Sayadaw excel both in pariyatti as well as patipatti. To reflect this example as a subject of compa rison with your own life. Aññamañña paccaya means mutuality condition.f the dukkha of dying. Because we are afraid of this duk kha sacca we dare not touch the snake. Whe n he advice to meditate cittånupassåna he taught about the meditation object. Is this because we don t know any thing or because of the knowledge we have. you have been thre atened with an order that you will be killed if you do not touch with a sword pi nned against you from the back. It happens togethe r with the body. Thi s is just pertaining to your own body.

In teaching cittånupassåna I will talk about: 1. In vipassanå meditation practice there is no such word as "guest". every time one chews there occur the five khanda. talking. However. it is at the ear 3. it is impossible to pay back the debt o f gratitude to our great teacher who had chosen easily understandable words to e xplain the difficult Dhamma. 10 after the second. if you chew once. I have already taught that every time a consciousness takes place. Thus. it sounded more of a theor y. goin g. coming. Then. and was replaced for the third time and was dissolved. In life. Gues t come and visit when they have some reason for it and went back after the job i s done. the five khanda dissolved. Since I have explained about the inner guest and external guest in plain Myanmar language. You then put th e spoon into your mouth and the consciousness of putting takes place and that is also five khanda. it is at the nose 4. every Myanmar understands the meaning of it. it       . body consciousness it occurs on the body Now that I have explained where the consciousness occurs. ear consciousness where does the ear consciousness occurs. there will be the house owner. In teaching cittånupassåna. Sayadaw even differentiate the word guest into two types by mentioning o ne as inner guest and the other as external guest. If you calculate arithmetically. Thus.s necessary to teach this. In the forty ty pes of samatha meditation also this word doesn t exist. you have five khanda. Then after the first chewing. if you chew twice. external guest inner guest house owner The terms that will be used are like visiting the house. As an example. Don t calculate l ike arithmetic. 2. they do not stay there permanently. Thus. and seeking advice. again five khanda are there. He ensured that the correct meaning is properly preserved in usin g the appropriate Myanmar language. five khanda takes pla ce also. it is at the tongue 5. it is at the eye 2. the body consciousness occurs and that is also five khanda. As an example let us talk about the tongue taste. As one touches the sp oon. there will be five khanda after the first chewing. leaving the house. For every mouthful one needs to chew many times. external guest are not very close and may come and visit once a m onth or once a week. our benefactor Sayadaw made use this as a m etaphor in teaching his disciples. eat together and may sleep also. Inner guest are like family member s. you know where it is. he made used of the Myanmar word "guest". It is not that frequent. Sayadaw studied the Påîi thoroughly and used the Mynamar words by pointing out th e respective Påîi. Using the word cittånupassåna. I will now teach cittånupassåna. they may come any time. It doesn t exist in any book or any literary works. 15 after the third and so on. tongue consciousness where does it occurs. conversing. 3. five khanda are there. Here. and was replaced for the second time and was dissolved again. if there is guest. However. The guest is not the house owner and the house owner is not the gu est. There are five external guests: 1. every time one has consciousness. eye consciousness where does the eye consciousness occurs. nose consciousness where does the nose consciousness occurs. you have understood it. By using the word guest.

the first five khanda is no more there. Having the enjoyment f           . The cloth touching the body is phassa. Some of the yogis reported that they do note when eating like "I have fini shed eating one plate. When the cloth was placed on the body and feeling the softness and s moothness is vedanå. placing the rice in the hands. Let us continue with the awareness of consciousness. In arithmetic one will get an answer when solving a question but it might not be practical to apply. when chewing for the third time. when bringing towards you. the meaning bein g that one likes the cloth and wear it In normal language it will be said that I wear it since I liked the cloth. it developed to upådåna (clingin g). This is just a general overall experience. This might be like telling you in advance. It won t be easy for those Dhamma servers feeding this type of yogi. You won t know what consciousness I am talking about. It belongs to lobha category. It is in num ber 3 grid. In practicing vipassa nå. There is no such thing as having excessive sati. one will not get established in Dhamma with that type of experience. This is the difference between the practical appl ication and arithmetical calculation. However. In vipassanå. when one dresses you will have the dressing consciousness. You should not miss noting every step of the conscious ness. three plates. one cannot think like arithmetic . I am reminding every day to keep on noting for every mouthful of your food. upådåna and kamm a. If one missed noting it the proces s of "vedanå paccaya taùhå" takes place. During that course I will check individually. They are not noting e very mouthful of the food but instead by the number of plates. illustrating the occurrence of taùhå. At first you may not be able to note very rapidly. Say supposing a very soft. I won t tell you how many times you need to keep on noting. We will be having a special course. Don t miss noting. When one is chewing for the second time the first five khanda is no more there." What they have been reporting is not wrong but not noting in detail and not fast enough. based on paticcasamuppåda. Thus. While dressing taùhå is already taking place. Here. Today you continue to practice yourself. This is just trying to expla in the importance of noting systematically with regards to eating consciousness at the time of eating. Since it keeps on dissolving. you are not supposed to multiply the five khanda with the number of times that you chew. I am instructing forcefully to keep noting properly in order to improve your sati . One will be able to note once as one chews. Similarly. kamma occurred. Keep on noting every step of your consciousness starting from the time you hold it. Once taùhå takes place. Taùhå is nothing but lobha (g reed). chewing it and then swallow down. Start ing from today try and note carefully and in detail from the time you put the fo od into your mouth. the number of times you chew and swallow it. Once upådåna is developed it progressed to kamma. I haven t explained the meaning of the awareness of consciousness and thus I wil l elaborate further. once it arises. Talking a bout it is much slower as one need to experience much more rapidly. In terms of sacca. it will not be possible for 5 people to di g 6" wide hole simultaneously.is not that way. Kamma (action) is with regard to dressing the cloth. For example. it should take only one minute for 5 people to dig. one is wearing the cloth with samudaya-sacca. smooth. and swallowing. chewing. Because of lobha. it just dissolves and it happens in that manner al l the time. For e xample. This is satipatthåna. When one is chewing for the second time. do it more rapidly and note till you swallow it. when stirring it. Then note again for th e second time as one chews another time. the second khanda is no more there. two plates. Try and memorize starting from the time you hold the spoon. This is arithmetically. and tender cloth is placed on the body. if a person will take 15 minutes to dig a ho le measuring 6" wide by 1" deep. When experiencing the softness and smoothness take note of it. Thus kamma occurred because of taùhå.

Since you wear a dress in that manner. However. Kamma-bhava paccaya jåti. one dresses up because one has them and thus what is the necessity to care about others. Being the case it is necessary to teach how to dres s up also. kamma paccaya jåti. eating and drinking not becaus e I cannot stand it. However. This hap pens because you do not practice satipaììhåna. you will be reborn in the ghost realm. if one doesn t know how to dress up one will be reborn as a ghost. even if one dres ses up because one has them. Wearing it is kamma-bhava. Thus . So. being attached to the dress is taùhå. The beginning of it starts from the eye. observe the ear consciousnes s. and when you pass by the goldsmith shops you see gold and silver jew elry. I am very happy to see my disciples being beautif ul and wealthy. This is how yogi can get to hell. If one really thinks about it. To be obsesse d with the cloth is upådåna. After you hav e stitched it you wear the dress. see the number of time s you will be visiting hell. Therefore. This is how paticcasamuppåda is continuously happening wi thin you. Because of "Kåyañca phoììabba uppajjati kåya viññåùam" onc dress up. just imagine that because you went shopping. This is eye paticcasamuppåda. Once you get back to your house. You don t need to care ab out others. looking from paticcasamuppåda point of view. Being "Kamma bava pacc aya jåti". It is correct. one will be reborn as ghost (Peta) because of not knowing how to dress up. You have already accumulated many tickets. the touch is phassa. Then you found something to your liking. Dress up that way. the price wasn t right and pretended to walk away. Because of such kamma. You all should be careful when going shopping. your path is directly heading towards it.           . Once you bought it is the act of kamma. Thus. and because "Kamma bava paccaya jåti". One sh ould be really afraid of. That is not that important. There are no parents who do not wish to see their chil dren look beautiful and healthy. However. After dressing they l ook this way and that way and feel happy about it. when you hear. The way the parents taught the children how to dress is wear the top and bottom matching so as to look good. It is nothing else but t he path to hell. You saw it and ended buying. the design you wish to have and w anted to buy. Then you were proud of being able to wear suc h a dress and this måna is nothing but in the same category as dosa and will lead to hell. As you walk by the shops you looked around. Otherwise you won t even wear the dress and instead discard it. If you behave in this manner.rom liking the cloth is vedanå. Not knowing how to dress When one dress with lobha one will be rebo rn in ghost realm (Peta-jåti). This is the natural behavior of ordinary lay persons. What I am teaching now is cittånupassåna. every time one is dressing it is like looking towards ghost realm (hell). when you see things. enjoying the soft tenderness of the cloth is ved anå. you will be reborn in t he ghost realm (Peta-jåti). you still will be reborn in the ghost realm. You see clothes when you pass by the clothi ng section. I am not trying to tell all these because I am not satisfied or jealous about it. looking from paticcasamuppåda point of view. Becaus e of the urge by upådåna. Since y ou like it and being so obsessed with it you wear the dress. being obsessed to the dress is upådåna. you are worried that someone might buy the one you that li ke and you won t get it. You are wearing it since you like i t as it is valuable and something to boast about. I am just worried about you going to hell. If one look from the point of awareness of consciousness. The children also tried to dress up themselves to be elegant and beautiful. For the parents also they feel satisfied when the child ren are dressed properly. the eye also can send you to hell. you stitch the dress and wear it. the way to observe in order not to go to hell is to observe the eye consciousness. Eventually upådåna overpowered you and bought it quickly at the price that was quoted earlier. I am not commenting about the way you do shopping. Having attachment on the cloth is taùhå.

The answer is that you need to obser ve it by not accepting. consciousness of hardnes s when it is hard. are we going to accept the consciousness that wil l lead to the realm of ghost or observe it. I have taugh t you to understand those under the heading of "awareness of consciousness. not to wan der about visiting the house. Now let us move on. It is "vedanå paccaya taùhå. This is very important for yogis and in order to avoid it you now know who the five external guests are. From the eye the seeing consciousness arises From the ear the hearing consciousness arises From the nose the smelling consciousness arises From the tongue the taste consciousness arises Body is where the consciousness arises. one comes into contact wit h the mattress and the bed and the respective consciousness arises. observe it. If you change from left side to right side. As for the lobha. Six inner guests Next we have (6) inner guests." Whe n you go into detail. Observe that consciousness. lobha arises When one smells. you have the consciousness of cold during cold time. observe the eating consciousn ess. otherwise we will have no time. when dosa arises because you do not like. Just be aware of the con sciousness arising at that moment. Dosa consciousness also arises in the     . it is connected with all. Lobha will lead yo u to the realm of ghost. Thus. because it is soft and comfortable one lik es it. dosa and moha are the akusala consciousness and they are the inner guests. Lobha consciousness Dosa consciousness Moha consciousness These are (3) akusala consciousness and they are quite clear. consc iousness of smooth and soft when it is smooth and soft. when one goes to bed. the touch consciousness arises. When you want to have it whenever you see . when you dress up. lobha arises It is connected to all. lobha arises When one hears. They are the five external guests. Thus. when you sit. It is not at all connected with any one. As for the eye consciousness. When one sees. It arises in ever y situation and circumstances. it is domanassa vedanå. The consciousne ss of touch. lobha arises When one eats. that is lobha. You cannot make friends with enemies as you won t benefi t from them. when one hears.when you eat. Thus. lobha arises When one dresses. and observe the consciousness arising out of it. lobha is the enemy. one doesn t like it and falls into dosa category and in terms o f vedanå. You need to observe it. observe the consciousnes s of dressing. For example. Keep the mind with in the frame work of your body and observe the touching consciousness that arise s with the mat or the mattress. When one sees. Before going to bed I have to remind you not to talk. Similarly. they are quite close and fri endly with every one. As "kamma paccaya jåti". the resul tant kamma will lead to nothing else but hell. the consciousness of heat. I have just explained that lobha. it arises. For example." Then followed by upådåna and amma. be aware of the in-breath and the out-breath. It is all by itself. Then one sits on the floor and because it is hard one feels the pain. it is not connected. the monastery and other places. This is the way to observe the external guest s. when one sits on a sofa. As soon as you touch. the consciousness of cold. observe the consciousness of sitting. Whe n there is pain. Th en you put on the blanket. Once every thing settles down.

it will lead to hell . one will no t even notice who went by. whenever one sees and is not mindful. You are l ike walking along the rim of a frying pan (hell). Lobha will lead you to the realm of g host. I am not trying to exaggerate with these words. So also when dosa arises. lobha arises. if awareness is present. If one is a ble to see the ultimate reality. the eye. it is dosa. If one dislike. dressing and touching. Dosa will lead to hell. dosa arises in smelling. Thus . then moha arises. when moha arises. Thus. a flower existed resulting from its own natural phenomena." If one is walking and lack awareness. it is because of lack of awareness. yogis should practice vipassanå when seeing.same manner. dosa arises in eating. There is a proverb "If one has no awa reness. eating. not being able to see things that really exist is moha. it leads to the realm of ghost. it is moh a Thus. It is known as "Sabbåkusala sådhårana cetasika. If you are off balance you wil l fall into the frying pan. In Abhidhamma it is called moha but in Sutta it is used as avijjå. when one doesn t know. moha arises. dosa arises dressing or sleeping." It is responsible for all akusala consciousness. If one knocks against a huge body. it is moha. you will be reborn as an animal. then it is hearing with moha. When one dies with do sa. will it be possible for lobha. then lobha and dosa won t arise. dosa arises. J ust look. it is moha If one does not know when one hears. one will be reborn in the realm of animal. One do es not need to like it or dislike it. Based on paticcasamuppåda. if one is full of awareness. nose. During that situation you meet with good teachers an d they urged and assisted you not to fall into the frying pan. In order not to be rebo rn as an animal. Moha is also avijjå. dosa ari ses When one dies with lobha. it is moh a If one does not know when one dresses. moha is present when lobha arises. Thus. one will know who w ent by. The reason why one is unable to see is because of not being attentive. hearing. moha will arise. when one dies with avijjå. Consc iousness is always there. Thus. Nothing can safe you from it. dosa and moha not to arise. Since one or the other is happe ning it is none other than the frying pan. Same with d osa. As an example. one can even see the minute particle. whenever one hears and is not mindful of. If one does not know when one sees. eats. it won t ha ppen. B ut. one will definitely be reborn in the animal realm. Lo bha arises for not knowing the ultimate reality of the sense object. if one is not mindful when seeing. If one is not mindful of what exist. Then lobha arises.         . It is basically composed of the four great essentials. one will be able to see very small things with full awareness. If one is not mindful. it leads to hell. They are all the same. tongue and body. Since they c ome in contact. ear. Moha will lead you to the realm of animal. moha is the inability to see the ultimate reality. dresses and do ev erything with moha. Being not occupied . one will not even see a cave. If you are not aware of it. it is moha If one does not knows when one smells. if one sees. Moha is avijjå dhamma. In Abhidha mma. When When When When When one one one one one is is is is is not not not not not satisfied satisfied satisfied satisfied satisfied in seeing. If one was able to see. Thu s.is wasting one s life Out of the six sense objects and six doors. Thus. However. dosa arises in hearing. then it is seeing with mo ha. hears. these five are always active. Due to moha one is unable to see the ultimate reality of it and exp eriences the beauty. When one stum bles or trip it is due to lack of awareness. But. Whenever one sees and unable to be a ware of the ultimate reality. It will not even permit to be a bit off balance as one will fall down as soon as it happens. It is the normal course of action. If one dislikes.

if one says that one is free today. If he is against the doctrine he will go to h ell when he dies. it is still far away from Nibbåna. one should try to avoid it. or the wish to offer food. these are all meditation objects. Similarly. every time one hears. if it is a bad. the resultant will be bad. when dosa arises there are five khanda. for yogis. one will be in hell. meditation object 2. tha t is not a problem. and without rest. Now that you are here at the meditation center. then one will be against the doctrine. when one dresses there are five khanda. Here. but get ting closer comparatively. you have: 1. If one performs g ood actions. The others are: alobha consciousness adosa consciousness amoha consciousness Based on the Patthåna Desanå. Then one will be heading for hell. the resultant will be good. Thus. when one sees there are five khand a. then tha t person is against the doctrine. It is "Idam me puññam nibbånas sa paccayo hotú". Simply because one is not occupied one is merely wasting one s life. The reason being there are six h etu (causes): lobha hetu dosa hetu moha hetu alobha hetu adosa hetu amoha hetu Here I am teaching about the meditation object in citånupassåna.Thus. I am now explaining this part. it is still far away. wishing to do this and that. it is e xtremely important in the interpretation of it. is wasting one s life and amounts to living against th e doctrine. Being the case. you wish to perfo rm charity. Compared to those who are not meditating. there are five k handa. One will have to open five covers to achieve Nibbåna. when one smells there are five khanda. There are about four more stages to go. you are get ting closer. However. then it is wasting one s life. Having the consciousness to perform charity or giving away is Alobha citta. when lobha arises there are five khanda. One should be aware of one s own path. all these consciousness are kusala citta. The path that one will take is very straight forward. However. Lobha means wanting it or wish to possess it or own it. donate a monastery. If the path is a good one.       . However. Citånupassåna is the me ditation object. The first cover I will open up is. If one summarizes the Tipitaka. If one says that one is not occupied and there is nothing to do. If one is not mindful and therefore is not occupied. knowledge of mindfulness Five Magga is the knowledge of mundfulness. is there such a time when you are not occupied. It will be of great help to achieve Nibbåna. They are n ot akusala citta. The traditional Buddhists have already been trained to have su ch form of consciousness because they were taught about kamma. People who are not mindful are not occ upied. dosa c onsciousness and moha consciousness. Alobha is to give away o r not wanting it. If you are free and resting then you are living a gainst the doctrine. when one eats there are five khanda. it will be said as amoha consciousness. I hope that y ou understand the meaning now. If one is not occupied and then dies. if one performs bad actions. construct a pagoda. Five khanda is the meditation object . being not occupied. I have mentioned those that need to be avoided and they are lobha consciousness. You sho uld practice continuously without any free time. One needs to open four more covers. when there is moha there are five khanda. For the five khanda meditation objects. it is necessary to be aware of all those consciousness that arises with sa ti (mindfulness) and viriya (effort).   Thus.

Amoha is vijjå. Here. jarå and maraùa follows. They are nothing else but kusala citta. Mogok is not advising to discard dana but instead explaining the virtues of it. Jåti is the resultant of kamma. Thus. If thought mind is amoha citta it is vijjå. When the consciousness to perform dana arises as the medit ation object. and thus when kamma ceased to exist. For those who do not know gold. jåti nirodho". The answer is to perform with wisdom. Change the brass with gold and you will become rich. perform charity arises. th ey readily accepted it. The consciousness to give charity. give and distribute. whenever the consciousness to radiate metta (adosa) arises. upon achieving th is type of ñåùa. I am teaching you so as to be free from death. when the alobha citta arises due to your wish to perform d ana. Jarå and maraùa mean getting old and sick and then dies. Metta practice is samatha. If I explain to you without clearly defining the differ ence between kamma and ñåùa. whenever your consciousness to perform charity or giving away arises. Then you need to practice not to get jåti. kamma citta.Thus. The dana performed by yogis is not free from death. you can offer together with your body. In Pali. " Hey. That is not amoha citta. in teaching how to meditate so as to be free from death. Therefore. This is because of kusala ñåùa. make use of your mindfulness wisdom and the kamma will not bear any resulta nt. Then. I am not saying that it is not good. The practice of metta is included in the forty types of meditation advised by the Buddha. shall we discard this kamma or perform with wisdom. Thus. you need to meditate. If you wish to have gold don t b e contended with brass. Adosa means the consciousness that arises when one is radiating loving kindness (metta bhåvanå). whenever kamma arises. Because of this isn t it d. Yogis don t want these and wish t o be free from them. That is why we should revere Mogok Sayadaw s ñåùa. Since he hasn t seen the gold previously. This is what the traditi onal Buddhists already possess or belief in. I would like to ask the yo gis which one they wish to have. Sometimes. Thus. This is similar to getting the gold p ot. Whenever the consciousness to give. here t               . that gold price is much more than the brass. Vijjå is magga-sacca. it will becom e vijjå citta. gold or brass. So me people accused that Mogok is teaching to discard dana. to give away. to distribute may arise. Dukkha is still there. I don t mean to say that kamma citta is of no value. What I am teaching now is not the wisdom of mindfulness but about t he meditation object. Sim ilar to this example. Once you make use of the mindfulness wisdom. both the gold and brass pots have si milar colour. This alone will not prevent from dy ing. Here I wish to remind all of you in a very intimate manner like my parents. Avijjå is sammuti-sacca. make use o f the mindfulness wisdom. having full of saddhå (faith ). Make use of the (5) magga ñåùa. kamma is like brass and knowledge is like gold. the difference in values. Åneñjåbhi sankhåra paccaya brahmå viññåna. he accepted t he brass as gold. Is it because something good is still left or is it because it is not the end of it. then you will be commenting that I am discarding dana. Once he sees the gold. As an example. When practicing vipassanå such consciousness may arise. I am merely saying that one will still die. and once you get jåti. it is "kamma bhava nirodha. The benefit of not having jåti anymore is because of the use of mindfulness wisdom . if it is amoha. all the kusala will become the type of kusala that will not result in jåt i. Being samatha it is åneñjåbhi sankhåra . make use of the mindfulness wisdom. Thus. practice vipassanå meditation. make use of the mindfulness wisdom to empty all the good thin gs. he knows the difference between gold a nd brass. then perform charity. the brass pot is even brighter than the gold. it doesn t result in jåti at all. the first cover to open is kammakatha sammå-ditthi. Let me try and explain a bit f aster. distribute. when they see the brass and told them that it is gold. This is merely an example. In order not to ha ve jåti. t hen make use of the mindfulness wisdom. he then decided to take gold instead of brass.

whenever a citta arises we have 5 khanda. only the house owner wi ll be left behind. if one continues to have awareness of the consciousness to inhal e and exhale. This is in the field of ñåùa. Thus. It is not happening here. then you wi ll achieve vipassanå ñåùa. we have 13 types of meditation objects and 5 magga are the mindf ulness wisdom. I am trying to explain in order for you to test out only but not to hold your brea th or stay without breathing as part of your meditation practice. That consciousness is the house owner cit ta and therefore apart from the sleeping time and that of bhavanga (continuity o f sub-consciousness). it is always there. That is the vipassanå meditation object. What you have been instructed to be aware of is the consciousness to inhale and exhale. then do not breathe in after you have exhaled. 5+6+2 adds up to 13. the consci ousness to inhale and exhale arises from the hadaya-vatthu. If you are meditatin g here in this manner and be able to eradicate lobha. If you wish to experience the consciousness that arises d epending on the hadaya-vatthu which resulted from inhaling and exhaling. 5 khanda are the meditation objects and 5 magga a re the mindfulness wisdom. Thus. They being guests. Here y ou are only aware of the in-breath and out-breath. What consciousne ss will arise. let us proceed as I have insufficient time and I wo n t be able to cover all. it is there and you also know it. The consciousness to exhale will arise one after another. we have five external guests and six inner guests. just breathe normally. When the guests left only the owner of the house will be lef t behind. However. You wil l reach to a stage where you want to exhale and changes to a state where you can not hold your breath any more and being aware of those different consciousness. These 13 are nothing else but meditation objects. Although I have explained as 13 types of citta. So yogis. a new consciousness arises as soon as the first one get dissolv ed. However if you ask whether it is not th ere or whether you don t know. the consciousness of not bei ng able to hold the breath any longer arises. If you are able to be aware of the consciousness to inhale and exhale. If the y have done with their business they left the house. The things that I have just explained. the consciousness to exhale and inhale is just like the house owner who has to be there and therefore is known a s the house owner citta. Then what consciousness will arises? The consciousness to inhale will then arises and should be aware of it. Many consciousness arises and one is to be aware of all of them. Look here. At first one will be aware of the consciousness that wants to exhale. N ow that we mention the thought mind. then just observe them directly and you will notice that each and every consciousness is different. This is our daw s ñåùa.his is the thought mind. then one will continue to experience the dissolution. are there any things that you don t understand what I have taugh t so far? If you understand." Here. it is the thinking mind. Then one nee ds to find this citta. They are the mediation objects in practicing satip aììhån nupassåna. t his is additional. I am not explaining any thing extra here. One cannot say that consciousness is here or there. The consciousness to inhale and exhale arises depending on the hadayavatthu (heart as physical base of mental life). they only come when there is a need to do so. we have only the awareness of consciousness (citta). Then. After you have exhaled don t breathe in yet. After that you breathe in and that stop breathing for a moment. This is according to our Sayadaw s method. The consciousness to inhale and the consciousness to exhale a re the house owner. Then the consciousness to breathe will arise. These consciousness are arising on e after another. So. Being the case. Thus. Earlier there is no thought mind included. When you medit ate. Manañca paìicca dhamme ca uppajjati mano viññåùaÿ means that we are putting the mano viññåùa citta here. Both the meditation objects and mindfulness wisdom ar             . leading to a state where one really wants to exhale it. Thus. Only the house owner is left Thus. If you continue to be aware of the thought mind such as alobh a and adosa and experience the dissolution then you also have achieved vipassanå ñåùa. dosa and moha.

moha are abundant They are the three great fires May the Dhamma that will lead to Nibbāna Be there always as long as the world exist…… Sadhu ! Sadhu ! Sadhu ! Translated by Tin Htoon         . dosa. Only when one achieves vipa ssanå ñåùa.ises and dissolved and thus it is the duty of the yogi to meditate to achieve ma gga. To get this ñåùa it is necessary to set aside the communi y work and carry out one s own work by joining a meditation course. Human. one needs to set aside the community works. It is already six o clock and let us conclude this dhamma talk and radiate metta . devas and brahma of this universe The true dhamma of the Buddha Having respect and practicing more May they all attain Nibbāna Lobha. If one still has to take care of one s o wn wife and children one will not get the assurance. one will be assured of. Let us join a course In order to have assurance for one s own life you.