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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Patancheru, Medak

- R Srikanth

(M.Tech), B.E Asst Professor Mechanical Department

LABORATORY MANUAL

Department of Mechanical Engineering

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PREFACE

The problems, man encountered in the fields of water supply, irrigation, navigation and water power resulted in the development of Fluid Mechanics. Some two hundred years ago man kinds centuries of experience with the flow of water began to crystallize in scientific form. Two distinct schools of thought gradually evolved in the treatment of fluid mechanics. One, commonly known as Classical Hydrodynamics, which deals with theoretical aspect of the fluid flow assuming that shearing stresses are non-existent in the fluids (i.e. ideal fluid concept). The other is known as Hydraulics. It deals with the practical aspects of fluid flow which has been developed from experimental findings and is therefore, more of Empirical Nature. These lab sessions are intended to make the students understand the different methods of flow rates in pipe flow and open channel flows, conversion of hydraulic energy possessed by the water in running turbines and how pumps are used to increase the hydraulic energy of the water etc. The Laboratory for Engineering Fluid Mechanics/Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machineries complements the learning experience of the lecture. Laboratory exercises provide opportunities for direct study of fluid behavior. All of the laboratory experiments reinforce material presented during lecture. Some of the experiments will also expose material that is not presented during lecture. You are responsible for the union of the laboratory and lecture experience, not their intersection. Use the laboratory as a chance to enhance your understanding of fluid statics and dynamics. The following Learning Objectives for the laboratory will guide you in taking an active role in your education. 1. Gain familiarity with physical manifestations of fluid mechanics. You will perform experiments dealing with the basic fluid properties: Viscosity and Pressure. a. Static Fluid Forces. b. Dynamic Fluid Forces. c. The relation between pressure and velocity in a flowing fluid. These experiments will give you first hand experience with fluid behavior. As a result of performing these experiments you should be able to recognize the effects of fluid pressure and to relate measurements of pressure to velocity in a moving fluid. In addition to learning about fluid behavior, you should be able to recognize the physical Equipment in the laboratory and explain the basic operating principles of the equipment. You should learn how to operate the equipment properly and safely. 2. Develop and reinforce measurements skills. You should know how to read gauges, manometers, flow meters, spring scales, and balance scales. You should be able to time events with a stopwatch. You should strive to measure quantities with the maximum precision of the instruments provided in the laboratory. 3. Develop and reinforce skills in documenting observations. You should develop goo habits in the organization and recording of raw data in a notebook, and take care to document the data such that it can be analyzed at a later time. You should

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sketch the physical apparatus used in the experiment. In doing so, pay special attention to the specific mechanical and operational details that enable the apparatus to achieve the purpose for which it was designed. You should be able to list and describe the steps used to obtain the desired measurements. You should be able to identify whether any actions were taken to improve the outcome of the experiment. Likewise, you should e able to identify any actions that may have contributed to undesirable outcomes. 4. Develop skills at writing laboratory reports. You will create reports to document your measurements in the laboratory. You will use a writing style and format that is common to technical documentation used in Civil and Mechanical Engineering. Your reports should be complete, yet concise. By writing the report, you should develop a clear understanding of the laboratory exercise, and communicate that understanding in your written words.

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CONTENTS

S. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 Name of the Experiment Impact of Jets on Vanes Determination of Friction factor in Flow Through Pipes Determination of Coefficient of contraction Calibration of Venturi meter Calibration of Orifice Meter Performance Test on Single Stage Centrifugal Pump Performance Test on Multi Stage Centrifugal Pump Performance Test on Reciprocating Pump Performance Test on Pelton Wheel Performance Test on Kaplan Turbine Page No 6 10 15 18 22 26 30 34 38

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Experiment No. 1

Aim: To determine the actual force and compare it with the theoretical force for stationary vanes of different shapes viz. Hemi-spherical, Flat plate and inclined plate. Apparatus: 1. Sump Tank for storing water for constant supply. 2. Measuring Tank with Piezometer to measure water level. 3. Mono block motor with a valve in the discharge pipe for controlling flow. 4. Nozzle of suitable diameter. 5. Leak proof Nozzle housing with transparent watch glass. 6. Flat and Hemispherical Vanes mounted on rod connected with a Weight Balance. 7. Stop Watch to measure time. Theory: When the jet of water is directed to hit the vane of any particular shape, the force is exerted on it by the fluid. This force is large in magnitude, acts for a short duration and is termed as Impact Force. The magnitude of the force exerted on the Plate/Vane depends on the velocity of jet, shape of Vane, Fluid Density and Area of cross section of the jet. More importantly, it also depends on whether the vane is moving or stationary. In our present case, we are concerned about the force exerted on the Stationary Plates/Vanes. The following are the theoretical formulae for different shapes of vane, based on flow rate. 1) Flat Plate : Ft = A V2 2) Flat Plate inclined at angle from horizontal: Ft = A V2 cos 3) Hemi Spherical: Ft = 2 A V2 4) Curved Plate with angle of deflection 180-: Ft = A V2 (1 + cos)

Where A Area of jet in m2 Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 V Velocity of jet in m/sec Ft The theoretical force acting in the direction of jet.

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Observation Table:

Type of Vane

1b.2 1b.3

Formulae:

Q=

A=

A tank x t

d2 4

Fa =

W + WP 9.81 1000

Where, Atank Area of Measuring Tank (0.3 X 0.3 m2) x Height of water considered in meter (from the table above) d - Nozzle Diameter (8 mm or 0.008 m) Ft Theoretical Force Fa Actual Force (from the spring balance) Density of water = 1000 Kg/m3 A Area of nozzle V Velocity of jet W Spring balance reading in grams WP Mass of the plates (For Flat Vane: 225 and for Curved Vane: 175) Calculation Table: S No 1a.1 1a.2 1a.3 1b.1 1b.2 1b.3 Q V = Q/A Ft Fa

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Procedure: 1. Fix the suitable Vane and Nozzle in the nozzle housing. 2. Make sure the low end of suction pipe is submerged in the Sump Tank. 3. Open the control valve fully and start the pump. 4. Note down the reading in Weight balance. 5. Measure the time taken for x cm height of water collection in measuring tank. 6. Repeat the procedure by changing the control valve position for different spring balance readings. 7. Repeat the procedure for another Vane or Nozzle.

Precautions: 1. Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180 V. 2. Ensure the electrical neutral & earth connections are given correctly. 3. Frequently (at least once in three months) grease / oil the rotating parts. 4. Ensure that the moving parts are oiled regularly and that they are operated at least some time every week to avoid clogging. 5. Ensure there are no leakages in the piping and nozzle housing. Conclusion: The actual Force is observed to be slightly differed than theoretical because of frictional losses and reduction of velocity due to gravity.

Applications: The force of impact calculated in this experiment is useful in determining the work done and torque exerted by the jet of water on moving vanes in turbines.

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Experiment No. 2

Aim: To determine the coefficient of friction for different type of pipes.

The Apparatus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Theory: Any Fluid flowing through a pipe experiences resistance from the walls of the pipe due to shear forces or in simple terms - Viscosity. The amount of loss depends on the Velocity of flow and area of contact between the pipe and fluid particles. It also depends upon the type of flow, i.e. Laminar or Turbulent. This frictional resistance causes loss of pressure in the direction of flow. Sump Tank storing water for constant supply. Measuring Tank with Piezometer to check water level. A mono block pump with a valve in discharge pipe to control flow rate. Two pipes with Diameters 15 mm (GI pipe) and 20 mm (GI pipe) for friction loss calculation. A differential manometer to measure pressure difference at two points in the pipes. Stop Watch to measure time for rise of water.

The Drop of head can be calculated by using the Darcy-Weisbach Formula: 4.f.L.V 2 hf = 2.d.g From the above formula coefficient of friction of friction will be h .2.d.g f= f 4.L.V 2 Where, hf Drop of head (got from the manometer difference). f Coefficient of Friction L Length of pipe (1 meter) V Velocity of flow, g Acceleration due to gravity, 9.8m/s2 d Diameter of the pipe The value of coefficient of friction is not constant and depends upon roughness of pipe inside surface and Reynolds number. Any oil content in water also affects its value. Repeat the same procedure for other pipes.

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Type of Pipe

S No a.1

Formulae:

Q=

Atank x t

hf =

V= Q A

SHg Sw

-1 h

f=

hf .2.d.g 4.L.V 2

Where, Atank Area of Measuring Tank (0.3 X 0.3 m2) x Height of water considered in m(from the table above) t Time taken for x cm of water collection. hf head loss due to friction in pipe d Pipe Diameter g acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) L Length of the pipe in meters V Velocity of water flow Result Table: A For D=20mm A=_________ S No a.1 a.2 a.3 b.1 For D=15mm A=_________ b.2 b.3 Q V = Q/A f faverage

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Experimental Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Make sure the water in sump Tank is free of any oil content. Open all the outlet valves and start the pump. Except the outlet valve of the pipe to be tested, close all other valves. Remove all the air bubbles from manometer and connecting pipes. Adjust the flow at suitable rate. Note down the manometric readings. Note down the time t for height x cm of water collection in Measuring Tank. Change the flow rate and take similar readings. Repeat the procedure for other pipes.

Note: While measuring the heads, slight variation may occur due to voltage changes, valves etc. in such cases, average readings may by taken.) Precautions: 1. Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180 V. 2. Ensure the electrical neutral & earth connections are given correctly. 3. Frequently (at least once in three months) grease / oil the rotating parts. 4. Ensure that the apparatus is operated at least some time every week to avoid clogging. 5. Ensure there are no leakages in the piping and Measuring Tank.

Conclusions: 1. Loss of head due to friction is proportional to length of pipe and square of velocity. 2. Loss of head is inversely proportional to inside diameter of pipe. 3. Average value of coefficient of friction, f for a. 15 mm GI pipe : _________ b. 20 mm GI pipe: _________

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Experiment No. 3

Aim: To determine the coefficient of contraction for a sudden enlargement of given pipes.

The Apparatus Sump Tank storing water for constant supply. Measuring Tank with Piezometer to check water level. A mono block pump with a valve in discharge pipe to control flow rate. A pipe with Sudden Contraction from 25 mm to 15mm diameter. It is provided with valve to allow or stop water flow. 5. A differential manometer to measure pressure difference between two points. 6. Stop Watch to measure time. Theory: Whenever there is a sudden contraction in a pipe there is a loss of pressure head. This Drop of head can be calculated by using the following formula: 1. 2. 3. 4.

1 1 CC It is possible to measure the head loss directly using manometer. However it is difficult to attach orifice meters wherever this loss needs to be calculated. But we can calculate it with the above formula in case we know the Coefficient of contraction which is constant for a given fluid. The formula for Cc becomes hc = V2 2.g

2

CC =

1 2.g.h c V2

2

OR CC =

V2

2 2

+1

(2.g.h c + V2 )

Where, hc Drop of head (got from the manometer difference). V2 Velocity of flow after contraction, g Acceleration due to gravity, 9.8m/s2 Cc Coefficient of contraction

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S No 1 2 3

Formulae:

Qa =

Atank x t

S Hg hc = S - 1 (h1 - h 2 ) w 2

A2 = 4 Qa V2 = A2

(d 2 )

Where, Atank Area of Measuring Tank (0.3 X 0.3 m2) x Rise of water level for which time is measured(from the table above) t Time taken for x cm of water collection. hc head loss due to sudden contraction in pipe d2 Pipe Diameter after contraction (15mm or 0.015m) g acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) V2 Velocity of water flow after contraction A2 Area of smaller pipe Result Table: S No 1 2 3 Average of CC = _________ hc Q V2 Cc

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Experimental Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Make sure the water in sump Tank is free of any oil content. Open all the outlet valves and start the pump. Except the outlet valve of the pipe to be tested, close all other valves. Remove all the air bubbles from manometer and connecting pipes. Adjust the flow at suitable rate. Note down the manometric readings. Note down the time t for height x cm of water collection in measuring tank. Change the flow rate and take similar readings. Repeat the procedure for other pipes.

Note: While measuring the heads, slight variation may occur due to voltage changes, valves etc. in such cases, average readings may by taken.) Precautions: 1. Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180 V. 2. Ensure the electrical neutral & earth connections are given correctly. 3. Frequently (at least once in three months) grease / oil the rotating parts. 4. Ensure that the apparatus is operated at least some time every week to avoid clogging. 5. Ensure there are no leakages in the piping and Measuring Tank.

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Experiment No. 4

CALIBRATION OF VENTURIMETER

Aim: To find the Coefficient of Discharge for the given Venturimeter and hence to calibrate it. Apparatus Required: 1. Sump Tank storing water for constant supply. 2. Measuring Tank with Piezometer to measure water level. 3. A mono block pump with a valve in discharge pipe to control discharge. 4. The discharge pipe from pump gets divided into two pipes one holding a Venturimeter and another holding an Orifice meter. Valves are provided at the ends to stop or allow discharge. 5. A differential manometer to measure pressure difference between two points. 6. Stop Watch to measure time. Theory: A Venturimeter is a device which is used for measuring the rate of flow of fluid through pipe line. The pressure difference due to reduced cross-sectional area is proportional to Water Discharge. So, if we know the coefficient of Discharge we can determine the Water Discharge just by measuring the pressure difference in the throat and inlet. A Venturimeter consists of, 1. An inlet section followed by a Convergent Cone, 2. A Cylindrical Throat and 3. A gradually Divergent Cone.

Q th = a1a 2 2gH

(a

2 1

a2 ) 2

m 3 /Sec

where, a1 area of pipe or inlet section of Venturimeter a2 area of throat of Venturimeter g acceleration due to gravity, (9.81 m/s2) H the head difference between inlet and throat of Venturimeter. Co - efficient of Discharge is the ratio of Actual discharge to the theoretical discharge as given by the equation:

Cd = Qa Actual discharge = Theoretical discharge Q th

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Q th = a1a 2 2gH

Manometer Reading h1 h2 h = h1 h2

(a

2 1

a2 ) 2

m 3 /Sec

where, =________(D2 / 4) m2 a1 area of inlet section of Venturimeter D Diameter of pipe a2 area of throat of Venturimeter =_______(d2 / 4) m2 d Diameter of the throat g acceleration due to gravity, (9.81 m/s2) H the head difference between inlet and throat of Venturimeter. Substituting the values of a1, a2 & g, the formula reduces to: Qth = 662.84 x 10-6 x H 2) Actual Discharge: A x Q a = tank t where, x Height of water considered t Time taken for the x height of water discharge 3) Co - efficient of Discharge: Qa Actual discharge Cd = = Theoretical discharge Q th Calculation Table: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Qa Qth Cd (Qa/Qth)

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Procedure: All the necessary instrumentations along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just enough to follow the instructions below: 1. Make sure the water in sump Tank is free of any oil content. 2. Open all the outlet valves and start the pump. 3. Open the outlet valve of the Venturimeter and close the valve of orifice meter. 4. Remove all the air bubbles from manometer and connecting pipes. 5. Adjust the flow at suitable rate. 6. Note down the manometric readings. 7. Close the gate valve of measuring tank & determine the timet for height x cm of water collection in measuring tank. 8. Change the flow rate and take similar readings.

Precautions: 1. Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180 V. 2. Do not forget to give electrical neutral & earth connections correctly. 3. Frequently (at least once in three months) grease / oil the rotating parts. 4. Initially, put clean water free from foreign material, and change once in three months. 5. At least every week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent clogging of the moving parts.

Result /Conclusion: The average co-efficient of discharge was calculated and found out to be _______. Applications: They are found in many applications where the discharge and velocity of the fluid are important, and form the basis of devices like a carburetor. Venturimeter is also used to measure the velocity of a fluid, by measuring pressure changes from one point to another along the Venturimeter. Placing a liquid in a U-shaped tube and connecting the ends of the tubes to both ends of a Venturimeter is all that is needed. When the fluid flows though the Venturimeter the pressure in the two ends of the tube will differ, forcing the liquid to the "low pressure" side. The amount of that move can be calibrated to the speed of the fluid flow.

Questions: 1. What is the main aim of the experiment? 2. What is the working principle of a Venturimeter? 3. What are the sections of a Venturimeter? 4. What are the losses on account of flow through a Venturimeter? 5. What is the normal co-efficient of discharge in a Venturimeter? 6. What are the precautions to be taken while performing the experiment?

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Experiment No: 5

CALIBRATION OF ORIFICEMETER

Aim: To find coefficient of Discharge and hence Calibrate Orifice meter. Apparatus Required: 1. Sump Tank storing water for constant supply. 2. Measuring Tank with Piezometer to measure water level. 3. A mono block pump with a valve in discharge pipe to control discharge. 4. The discharge pipe from pump gets divided into two pipes one holding a Venturimeter and another holding an Orifice meter. Valves are provided at the ends to stop or allow discharge. 5. A differential manometer to measure pressure difference between two points. 6. Stop Watch to measure time.

Theory: An ORIFICE METER is another simple device used for measuring the discharge through pipes. Orifice meter also works on the same principle as that of Venturimeter i.e., by reducing the crosssectional area of the flow passage, a pressure difference between the two sections before and after orifice is obtained and the measurement of the pressure difference enables the determination of the discharge through the pipe. However, an orifice meter is a cheaper arrangement for discharge measurement through pipes and its installation requires a smaller length as compared with Venturimeter. As such where the space is limited, the orifice meter may be used for the measurement of discharge through pipes. A Orifice meter consists of, 1. An inlet section followed by a Sudden Contraction, 2. A sudden enlargement to the same diameter as inlet.

Q th = a1a 2 2gH

be

(a

2 1

2 2

m 3 /Sec

where, a1 area of inlet section of Venturimeter a2 area of throat of Venturimeter g acceleration due to gravity, (9.81 m/s2) H the head difference between the point just before orifice and at Vena Contracta. Co - efficient of Discharge is the ratio of Actual discharge to the theoretical discharge as given by the equation:

Cd = Qa Actual discharge = Theoretical discharge Q th

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Observation Table: Manometer Reading h1 h2 h = h1 h2 Time for x=____ cm water discharge t (Sec)

S No 1 2 3 4 5 6

Qth = a1a2 2gH

(a

2 1

a2 2

m3 /Sec

where, =________(D2 / 4) m2 a1 area of inlet section of Venturimeter D Diameter of pipe a2 area of throat of Venturimeter =_______(d2 / 4) m2 d Diameter of the throat g acceleration due to gravity, (9.81 m/s2) H the head difference between inlet and throat of Venturimeter. Substituting the values of a1, a2 & g, the formula reduces to: Qth = 610.67 x 10-6 x H 2) Actual Discharge: A x Q a = tank t where, x Height of water considered t Time taken for the x height of water discharge 3) Co - efficient of Discharge: Qa Actual discharge Cd = = Theoretical discharge Q th s Result Table: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Qa Qth Cd (Qa/Qth)

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Procedure: All the necessary instrumentations along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just enough to follow the instructions below: 1. Make sure the water in sump Tank is free of any oil content. 2. Open all the outlet valves and start the pump. 3. Open the outlet valve of the orifice meter and close the valve of Venturimeter. 4. Remove all the air bubbles from manometer and connecting pipes. 5. Adjust the flow at suitable rate. 6. Note down the manometric readings. 7. Close the gate valve of measuring tank & determine the timet for height x cm of water collection in measuring tank. 8. Change the flow rate and take similar readings. 9. Repeat the procedure for other pipes.

Precautions: 1. Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180 V. 2. Do not forget to give electrical neutral & earth connections correctly. 3. There is no danger of water being not there in the sump tank, since the measuring tank is fitted with overflow pipe. 4. Frequently (at least once in three months) grease / oil the rotating parts. 5. Initially, put clean water free from foreign material, and change once in three months. 6. At least every week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent clogging of the moving parts. Result /Conclusion: The average co-efficient of discharge was calculated and found out to be _______. Applications: They are found in many applications where the discharge and velocity of the fluid are important. Orificemeter is also used to measure the velocity of a fluid, by measuring pressure changes from one point to another along the orificemeter. Placing a liquid in a U-shaped tube and connecting the ends of the tubes to both ends of an orificemeter is all that is needed. When the fluid flows though the orificemeter the pressure in the two ends of the tube will differ, forcing the liquid to the "low pressure" side. The amount of that move can be calibrated to the speed of the fluid flow. Questions: 1. What is the main aim of the experiment? 2. What is the working principle of an orificemeter? 3. What are the sections of an orificemeter? 4. What are the losses on account of flow through an orificemeter? 5. What is the normal co-efficient of discharge in an orificemeter? 6. What are the precautions to be taken while performing the experiment?

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Experiment No. 6

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Aim: To find the overall efficiency of a Centrifugal Pump and plot the following characteristics. a. Hydraulic Efficiency (h) Vs Discharge b. Overall Efficiency (o) Vs Discharge Apparatus Required: Centrifugal pump test rig, Stop Watch. The present Pump Test Rig is a self contained unit operated on Closed Circuit (Recirculation) Basis. The Centrifugal Pump, AC Motor, Sump Tank, Collecting Tank, Control Panel are mounted on rigid frame work with anti-vibration mounts and arranged with the following provisions: 1. For conducting the experiments at three speeds using AC Motor. 2. To measure overall input power to the AC motor using Energy Meter. 3. For recording the Pressure & vacuum. 4. For recording the speed using Digital RPM Indicator. 5. For changing the pressure (Delivery Head) and Vacuum (Suction Head) by operating the valves. 6. For measuring the discharge by Collecting Tank-Level Gauge provision. 7. For recirculation of water back to the sump tank by overflow provision. Theory: In general, a pump may be defined as a mechanical device which, when interposed in a pipe line, converts the mechanical energy supplied to it from some external source into hydraulic energy, thus resulting in the flow of liquid from lower potential to higher potential. The pumps are of major concern to most Engineers and Technicians. The types of pump vary in principle and design. The selection of the pump for any particular application is to be done by understanding their characteristics. The most commonly used pumps for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes are; Centrifugal, Piston, Axial Flow (Stage pumps), Air Jet, Diaphragm and Turbine pumps. Most of these pumps fall into the main class, namely, Rotodynamic, Reciprocating (Positive Displacement), Fluid (Air) operated pumps. In centrifugal pump the liquid is made to rotate in a closed chamber (Volute Casing), thus resulting in the continuous flow. These pumps compared to Reciprocating Pumps are simple in construction, more suitable for handling viscous, turbid (muddy) liquids. But, their hydraulic heads per stage at low flow rates is limited, and hence not suitable for very high heads compared to Reciprocating Pumps of same capacity. But, still in most cases, this is the only type of pump which is being widely used for agricultural purposes.

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Observation Table: Time taken for 50 lit (10cm of tank) water Discharge, t (sec)

S No

hs =

3. Total Head: ht = hd + hs + 2m of water 4. Discharge: A x Q a = tank m3/s t 5. Water power (or Output Power)

WP =

.Q.h t kW 1000

Where, Specific Weight of water = 9810 N/m3. Q Discharge (m3/sec). ht Total head (m) 6. Electrical Input Let time required for 10 rev. of energy meter disc be te-Sec. Electrical Input Power, IP

IP =

n 3600 kW EC te

Taking motor efficiency as 75% we have Input Shaft Power, SP = IP x 0.75 7. Hydraulic Efficiency 8. Overall efficiency

h =

Result Table S No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8106464676

WP 100 % SP

o =

WP 100 % IP

ht

WP

IP

SP

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Procedure: All the necessary instrumentations along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just enough to follow the instructions below 1. Fill in the Sump Tank with clean water. 2. Open the priming nipple plug (at the top of pump) and pour water into it filling it up to the nipple 3. Close the discharge valve. 4. Start the pump. As discharge valve is closed, no discharge will be observed, but discharge pressure will be indicated. This is called Shut off head of the pump. 5. Slowly open the discharge valve, so that small discharge is observed. 6. Note down discharge head, suction vacuum, time required for 10 lit water discharge and 10 revolutions of energy meter disc. 7. Note down the observations at different valve openings. 8. Repeat the steps 3 to 7 for different speeds. Different speeds can be obtained by changing the position of motor and belt for different pulley configurations. Graphs: 1. Main characteristics Plot the graphs of discharge vs total head and overall efficiency at different speeds. Precautions: 1. Priming is must before starting the pump. Pump should never be run empty. 2. Use clean water in the sump tank. 3. Use all the controls and switches carefully. 4. Do not disturb the pressure gauge connections. Result /Conclusion: The overall efficiency for different speeds were calculated and graphs plotted. Applications: The most commonly used pumps for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes are; Centrifugal pumps. These pumps fall into the main class, namely, Rotodynamic pumps. Questions: 1. What is meant by a Roto-dynamic machine? 2. What is meant by priming of a pump? 3. What energy is converted in a pump? 4. What types of fluids are pumped by centrifugal pumps? 5. What are the pumping characteristics of a centrifugal pump? 6. What is meant by efficiency of a pump?

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Experiment No: 7

Aim: To find the overall efficiency of a Centrifugal Pump and plot the following characteristics. c. Hydraulic Efficiency (h) Vs Discharge d. Overall Efficiency (o) Vs Discharge Apparatus Required: Multi-Stage Centrifugal pump test rig, Stop Watch.

Introduction: Centrifugal pumps are basically Roto-Dynamic Pumps, which develop Dynamic Pressures for Liquids. In Centrifugal pumps, liquid in Impeller is made to rotate by external force, so that it is thrown away from the Center of Rotation. As constant supply of fluid is needed at the center of rotation, its supply can be taken from higher level. Normally, head produced by a single impeller depends upon the peripheral speed of the impeller. In order to produce higher heads, either rotational speed or diameter of the impeller has to be increased, which increases stresses in the material of impellers. Hence, two pumps in series can be used to produce higher heads. Now, this method is replaced by multistage pumps. In multistage pumps, two or more impellers are arranged on a single shaft so that liquid discharged by first stage impeller at certain head passes to the next stage impeller, where the head is increased till the liquid finally enters into delivery pipe. The unit consists of a two stage centrifugal pump driven by a 3-phase induction motor. An energy meter provided measures electrical input to the motor and a measuring tank provided enables to measure the discharge of the pump. A gate performance of the pump can be estimated at various heads.

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Observation Table: Discharge Pressure, Pd (kg/cm2) Time for ___ lit water (___cm of tank) discharge, tm (sec) Time for n=___rev of Energy meter, te (sec)

S No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Formulae:

hs =

3. Total Head: ht = hd + hs + 2m of water 4. Discharge: A x Q a = tank m3/s t 5. Water power (or Output Power)

WP =

W.Q.h t kW 1000

Where, W Specific Weight of water = 9810 N/m3. Q Discharge (m3/sec). ht Total head (m)

6. Electrical Input Let time required for 10 rev. of energy meter disc be te-Sec. Electrical Input Power, IP

IP =

n 3600 kW EC te

Taking motor efficiency as 75% we have Input Shaft Power, SP = IP x 0.75 7. Hydraulic Efficiency 8. Overall efficiency

WP h = 100 % SP

Result Table S No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ht Q WP IP

o =

WP 100 % IP

SP

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Procedure: 1. Make sure the Sump tank is filled with water. 2. If the pump doesnt start discharging water, open the Priming Nipple and pour water till the casing is fully filled. 3. Open the discharge valve fully. 4. Start the pump. As the discharge valve is closed, no discharge will be observed, but the pressure gauge shows some reading. This is called shut off head of the pump. 5. Now slowly open the discharge valve, so the small discharge is observed. 6. Note down the discharge head (by pressure gauge on discharge pipe) and suction vacuum. 7. Note down time required for 25 ltr water collection in measuring tank. 8. Note down the time required for 10 revolutions of energy meter. 9. Repeat the procedure by varying the discharge valve opening, and fill up the observation table. Graphs: Operating characteristics Plot the graph of discharge vs total head, overall efficiency From the operating characteristics, it is noted that a. Shut off head of pump ( head at zero discharge) is .m b. Maximum efficiency occurs at the discharge of .. m3/sec & is c. Maximum power input to pump is kW d. Maximum discharge of pump is .. m3/sec. Precautions: 1. Priming is must before starting the pump. Pump should never be run empty. 2. Observe the direction of rotation of pump. If it is reverse, interchange any two of the 3 connections of motor. 3. Use clean water in the sump tank. 4. Use all the controls and switches carefully. 5. Do not disturb the pressure gauge connections. 6. Drain all the water after completion of experiment.

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S No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Experiment No: 8

RECIPROCATING PUMP

Aim: To find the overall efficiency of a Reciprocating Pump and plot the following characteristics. a. Hydraulic Efficiency (h) Vs Discharge b. Overall Efficiency (o) Vs Discharge Apparatus Required: Reciprocating pump test rig, stop watch. The present Reciprocating Pump Test Rig is a self-contained unit operated on Closed Circuit (Recirculation) Basis. The main components are singe acting Single Cylinder Reciprocating Pump, AC Motor, Sump Tank, Collecting Tank, control Panel are mounted on rigid frame work with anti-vibration mounts and arranged with the following provisions: 1. Stepped Cone Pulley arrangement to run pump at 3 different speeds and AC Motor. 2. To measure the input horse power to the pump using energy meter reading. 3. To measure the speed in rpm of the motor and the pump, separately. 4. To measure the delivery and suction heads using pressure and vacuum gauges separately. (The delivery head pressure tapping is connected, upstream of delivery valve, and that of the suction tapping downstream of suction valve). 5. To change the head and flow rate using control valves. 6. To measure the discharge using collecting tank fitted with tank level indicator. Specifications: Reciprocating Pump

: 30 cm core, stroke length 20mm, double acting with air vessel on discharge side suction 19mm, discharge 12.7mm. AC Motor : AC Motor, 1 HP, speed variations controlled by a stepped cone pulley. Measuring (Metering) Tank : 400mm x 400mm x 450mm height provided with gauge tbe and swiveling joint in piping for diverting the flow into measuring tank r sump tank. Sump tank : 600mm x 900mm x 600mm height. Measurements Pressure gauge : 0-7 Kg/cm2 for discharge pressure. Vacuum gauge : 0-760 mm Hg suction vacuum 3 Ph Energy meter for motor input measurements.

Theory: In general, a pump may be defined as a mechanical device which, when interposed in a pipe line, converts the mechanical energy supplied to it from some external source into hydraulic energy, thus resulting in the flow of liquid from lower potential to higher potential. The pumps are of major concern to most Engineers and Technicians. The types of pump vary in principle and design. The selection of the pump for any particular application is to be done by understanding their characteristics. The most commonly used pumps for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes are: Centrifugal, Piston, Axial Flow (Stage pumps), Air Jet, Diaphragm and Turbine pumps. Most of these pumps fall into the main class, namely, Rotodynamic, Reciprocating (Positive Displacement), Fluid (Air) operated pumps.

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Calculations: 1. Volume per stroke: =/4 x D2 x L x 2 = 28.27 cc/stroke = 2.827x10-5 m3/stroke 2. Theoretical discharge,

Qt =

2.82x10 -5 xNp 60

m3/sec Where, hd Discharge head in m of water. Pd Discharge pressure in Kg/cm2. hs Suction head in m of water. Ps Suction pressure in m of Hg

5. Total head assuming loss of head as 3 m. ht = hs + hd + 3 m. 6. Actual discharge A x Q a = tank t 7. Output power of pump

Pw =

W.Q.h t 1000

Where, W Specific Weight of water = 9810 N/m3. Q Discharge (m3/sec). ht Total head (m) Where, n No of revolutions considered. te Time taken by energy meter. Ec Energy meter constant

n 3600 IP = te Ec

Cd =

10. Slip

Qa Qt Q t - Qa x100 Qt

Slip =

11. Graphs Plot the graph of head vs Discharge, Efficiency of the pump. Result Table S No ht Q WP IP

SP

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Procedure: All the necessary instrumentation along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just enough to follow the instructions below: 1. Fill in the sump tank with clean water. 2. Full up the air vessel for about 2/3rd capacity. 3. Open the gate valve in the discharge pipe of the pump fully. 4. Close the gate valve and drain valve of the measuring tank. 5. Check nut bolts & the driving belt or proper tightening. 6. Divert the outlet pipe into funnel and slowly increase the pump speed, slightly close the discharge valve. Note down the various readings in the observations table. Repeat the procedure for different gate valve openings. Take care that discharge pressure does not rise above 4 Kg/cm2. 7. Change the speed and take readings for different gate valve openings. Repeat the procedure for different speeds and complete the observation table. Precautions: 1. Operate all the controls gently. 2. Never allow to rise the discharge pressure above 4kg/cm2 3. Always use clean water for experiment. 4. Before starting the pump ensure that discharge valve is opened fully. Result /Conclusion: The overall efficiency for different speeds were calculated and graphs plotted. 1. For default belt position, the overall efficiency was found out to be _________. Applications: 1. To drill oil from deep wells. 2. To pump any liquid which is free from debris. Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What is the main aim of the experiment? What is meant by a positive displacement pump? What types of fluids are pumped by Reciprocating pumps? What are the pumping characteristics of a Reciprocating pump? What is the normal efficiency of a Reciprocating pump? What are the normal precautions to be taken when operating a pump? What is the function of air vessel?

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Experiment No: 9 PELTON WHEEL TURBINE Aim: To determine the performance characteristics of Pelton wheel turbine under constant head and constant speed. Apparatus Required: Pelton wheel turbine test rig. Construction: The actual experimental set-up consists of a Sump Tank, Centrifugal pump, Delivery pipe and Turbine unit arranged in such a way that the whole unit works as re-circulating water system. The centrifugal pump set supplies water from the sump tank to the turbine through a Venturimeter. The flow rate can be changed by control valve. The water after impinging on the turbine unit falls back into the Sump Tank. The loading of the turbine is achieved by rope brake drum connected to spring balances. The turbine speed is measured with a Tachometer, head on the turbine is measured with pressure gauge and the discharge rate is calculated with the help of Pressure readings at Venturimeter. Supply Pump / Motor Capacity Mean Dia. of runner No. of buckets Dia. Of Nozzle Runaway Speed Max Head Loading Provision Theory: Hydro-Power is one of major cheap source of power available on earth, and hence it is widely used for generation of electric power world wide. Water stored in the Dam contains potential energy. This is utilized to run turbine, which then drives a generator. The output from the generator can be transmitted to the areas of electric power requirement. Turbines are basically of two types, viz. Impulse turbines and Reaction turbines. In impulse turbines, water coming from high head acquires high velocity. The high velocity water jet strikes the buckets of the turbine runner and makes it to rotate by impact force. In reaction turbine, total head of water is partly converted into velocity head as it approaches turbine runner and it fills the runner and pressure of water gradually changes as it flows through runner. In impulse turbine, the only turbine used now-a-days is Pelton Wheel Turbine. In reaction turbines, Francis Turbine and Kaplan Turbine are the examples. The Pelton wheel turbine consists of a runner mounted over the main shaft. Runner consists of buckets fitted to the disc. The buckets have a shape of double ellipsoidal cups. The runner is encased in a casing provided with a Perspex window for viewing the turbine. A nozzle fitted in the side of casing directs the water jet over the 'Splitter' or center ridge of the buckets. A spear operates inside the nozzle to control the water flow. On the other side of the shaft, a rope brake is mounted for loading the turbine. Impulse turbines convert all the energy of Water into Kinetic Energy at the nozzle. The jet impinges on the turbine's curved blades and gets diverted (by about 160o). The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. All the Pressure/Potential Energy is converted to kinetic energy by the nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades, and the turbine doesn't require a housing for operation. Newton's second law lets us calculate transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications, but the discharge used is less. 8106464676 : 15 hp, 3 ph, 440V, 50 Hz AC. : 280 mm : 20 : 30 mm : ________ : ________ : Brake Drum (radius : 30 cm) : Venturimeter with gauges for Flow Rate

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Observation Table: Table I Constant Speed Characteristics Method : By keeping Butterfly Valve position fully open and changing the spear valve position to get constant speed. Spear Head over N in Pressure P F1 F2 valve the notch h Remarks rpm in kg/cm2 kgf kgf position in meters

Table II Constant Head Characteristics Method: 1) Spear rod at fixed position 2) Butterfly Valve fully open & 3) Change Brake Drum load Turbine speed N in rpm Pressure P in kg / cm2 Head over notch (flow rate), h in m F1 kgf F2 kgf Remarks

CALCULATIONS: Table I Constant Speed Characteristics Turbine Net head Discharge Speed on Turbine (flow rate) N rpm H m. Q m3/sec

HPhyd

BHP

% tur

% of Full Load

Remarks

Table - II Constant Head Characteristics Turbine Net head Discharge Speed N on Turbine (flow rate) Q in rpm H m. in m3/Sec

HPhyd

BHP

% tur

Remarks

Unit quantities under unit head (Calculations based on Table of Calculations II) Net head on unit speed unit power unit discharge pu qu turbine h m. nu

specific speed ns

% tur

remarks

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Procedure: 1. Make sure the connections are properly done: Motor unit connected to 3 ph, 440V, 30A, electrical supply, with neutral and earth connections and ensure the correct direction of pump-motor unit. 2. Keep the Butterfly valve and spear valve closed. 3. Keep the Brake Drum loading at minimum. 4. Press the green button of the supply pump starter. Now the pump picks-up the full speed and becomes operational. 5. Slowly, open the spear valve so that the turbine rotor picks up the speed and attains maximum at full opening of the valve. a) To obtain constant speed characteristics: 1. Keep the Butterfly valve opening at maximum 2. For different Brake Drum loads on the turbine, change the spear rod setting, between maximum and minimum so that the speed is held constant. 3. Tabulate the results as per Table - I . 4. The above readings are utilized for drawing constant speed characteristics Viz., b. Percentage of full load V/s efficiency. c. Efficiency and BHP V/s discharge characteristics. b) To obtain constant head characteristics: 1. Keep the spear rod setting and Butterfly Valve setting at maximum., 2. For different Brake load, note down the speed, Head over notch and tabulate the results as given in Table II. c) To obtain run-away speed characteristics: 1. Keep the load on the brake , zero. 2. Keep spear rod and Butterfly Valve at maximum . Note: Run away speed is also influenced by the tightening in gland packing of the turbine shaft. More the tightness, less the run away speed. d) Performance under unit head Unit quantities: In order to predict the behavior of a turbine working under varying conditions and to facilitate comparison between the performances of the turbines of the same type but having different outputs and speeds and working under different heads, it is often convenient to express the test results in terms of certain unit quantities. From the output of a turbine corresponding to different working heads (Table of Calculations II) it is possible to compute the output which would be developed if the head was reduced to unit (say 1 m..); the speed being adjustable so that the efficiency remains unaffected.

c. Unit Discharge,

a. Unit Speed,

Nu =

Qu =

Q H

d. Specific Speed, The specific speed of any turbine is the speed in rpm of a turbine geometrically similar to the actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding conditions it will develop 1 metric horse power when working under unit head (i.e., 1 meter.). The specific speed is usually computed for the operating conditions corresponding to the maximum efficiency.

Nu =

N P H5/4

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Calculations: 1. Net/Working head on the Turbine: H=10 x P Where, P Pressure gauge reading (Kg/cm2) 2. Discharge (Flow rate)of water through the Turbine, C xA xA 2xgxH m3/sec Qt = d 1 2 2 2 A1 - A2 Where, Cd -Coefficient of Discharge for Venturimerter = 0.9

g Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) H Pressure head (Calculated above) 3. Hydraulic Power (Input to the Turbine):

HP =

W.Q.H 1000

Where, W Specific Weight of water = 9810 N/m3. Q Discharge (m3/sec). H Total head (m) 4. Brake Power (Output from the turbine),

BP =

D N g (F1 60

F2 )

Where, F1 and F2 are the spring balance readings in kgf D Diameter of the Brake Drum (30 cm) 5. Turbine Efficiency (Output from the turbine),

=

a. b. c.

BP 100 HP

Unit Speed, Nu = N/ H Unit power, Pu = BHP/H3/2 Unit Discharge, Qu = Q/ H

7. Specific speed,

Nu =

N BP H5/4

Graph: Constant head characteristics 1. Unit discharge (Qu) vs. Unit speed (Nu). 2. Unit power (Pu) vs. Unit speed (Nu). 3. Percentage efficiency (%) vs. Unit speed (Nu). Constant speed characteristics 1.Percentage efficiency (%) vs. percentage full load.

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Precautions: 1. Do not start pump set if the supply voltage is less than 300 V (phase to phase voltage). 2. Do not forget to give electrical earth and neutral connections correctly. Otherwise, the RPM indicator gets burnt if connections are wrong. 3. Frequently, at least once in three months, grease all visual moving parts. 4. Initially, fill-in the tank with clean water free from foreign material. Change the water every six months. 5. At least every week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent any clogging of the moving parts. 6. To start and stop the supply pump, always keep gate valve closed. 7. It is recommended to keep spear rod setting at close position before starting the turbine. This is to prevent racing of the propeller shaft without load. 8. In case of any major faults, please write to manufacturer, and do not attempt to repair.

Result /Conclusion: The unit head and other quantities were calculated from the knowledge of constant head characteristics and the curves were drawn. Similarly the constant speed characteristics were calculated and the percentage efficiency vs. percentage full load was drawn. Questions: 1. On what principle the Pelton wheel turbine works? 2. What is the shape of buckets in Pelton wheel turbine? 3. What is the clearance angle of the buckets? State why it is not 1800? 4. Define unit quantities and specific speed. 5. Why multiple jets are used in Pelton wheel turbine?

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