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**Improvement Based on Boost + Dual-Level
**

Four-Leg Inverter

Jing Li

1

, Fang Zhuo

1

, Xianwei Wang

1

, Lin Wang

1

, Song Ni

2

1

School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China

2

Jiangsu Linyang Electronics Co., Ltd., China

Abstract-Comparing single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic

(PV) system with power quality improvement, in this paper, a

high-capacity three-phase four-wire grid-connected PV system

based on Boost converter + dual-level four-leg inverter is

proposed, which not only allows a wide range of input voltage, but

also compensates unbalance current of the local load comparing

three-phase three-wire PV system. This paper explains the control

principle of each power stage of the system and the unified control

strategy of combination of PV grid-connected generation and

active filtering in detail, and then the Bode plots of open loop gain

for current loop and voltage loop are shown to indicate stability of

the unified control according to the system equivalent model.

Simulation results on MATLAB/Simulink are presented to

demonstrate practicability of the unified control strategy.

Applying proposed topology and control method to a 100kVA

grid-connected PV system based on FPGA+DSP controller, the

experimental results are given to verify correctness of the whole

system.

I. INTRODUCTION

With conventional energy of the world is depleting gradually,

solar energy has been paid more attention because it is

renewable, cleaning, etc

[1]. And grid-connected photovoltaic

(PV) system can reduce investment outlay because it does not

need battery to store energy; it became a hot subject by now.

Moreover, the increasing use of power electronic devices and

nonlinear loads is known to cause serious problems in electric

power systems. Therefore, the technology that combines PV

grid-connected generation and active filtering is proposed and

develops rapidly [2].

So far, a lot of research on PV grid-connected system with

power quality improvement has been done

[3, 4, 5, 6]. However,

there are not many studies on the two-stage high-power such

system. In this paper, a novel high capacity grid-connected PV

system based on Boost converter +dual-level four-leg inverter

is proposed, which not only allows a wide range of input

voltage, but also is able to compensate unbalance current of the

local load. Both of PV grid-connected generation and active

filtering need to keep DC bus stable and the key of unified

control is generating the uniform current reference accurately.

This paper explains the control algorithm of each power stage

and the unified control strategy for combination of two

functions in detail. In addition, the unified control strategy can

suppress circulating current of dual-level inverter efficiently.

Then the system equivalent model is analyzed to indicate

stability of the unified control. Simulation results on

MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results of a 100kVA

grid-connected PV system with proposed topology and control

method based on FPGA+DSP controller are presented to

demonstrate correctness of the whole system.

II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND UNIFIED CONTROL

STRATEGY

The main circuit of the system is shown in Fig.1, which is

made up of PV arrays, Boost converter, dual-level four-leg

voltage source inverter, LCL filter and frequency transformer

which is not shown in Fig.1. In this system, a third- order LCL

filter [7] is used to attenuate the high-frequency ripple of the

current caused by switching action, and the inductor at the grid

side is the leakage inductor of frequency transformer. In

addition, R in Fig.1 is damping resistor to suppress the resonant

peak caused by resonant of LCL filter.

The two-stage topology makes the roles of each power stage

played in the system are more clearly: the former stage, Boost

converter, not only to achieve maximum power point tracking

(MPPT) [8] control, but also to keep the output voltage of PV

arrays stable, and the latter stage, dual-level four-leg inverter,

is in charge of grid-connected generating and active filtering.

Comparing three-phase grid-connected inverter and active

power filter, it can be seen that they have same topology and

similar control strategy. So, it is possible to realize both of the

two functions at the same time by a unified control strategy.

When system feeds active power to grid, the PWM inverter

generates active current with the same frequency and phase as

source voltage; when system suppresses the harmonics

introduced by unbalanced or nonlinear load, the PWM inverter

generates compensation current with the same value but

reversed phase as load harmonic current [9]. And from the

reference [9] knows that MPPT and harmonic suppression have

no affect each other. Therefore, to achieve combination of two

functions just needs to add the two current references directly.

Fig.1 presented the unified control diagram.

9¯8!+?++3¯¯¯909$?¯.00 嘋?009 Tlll TllMC?009 436

Fig.1 Main Circuit and Unified Control Diagram of System

A. Control of Boost Converter

In this paper, adjusting the output voltage of PV arrays

through Boost converter control so that MPPT can be

obtained. Because Boost converter connected to PV arrays, it

always works in continuous current mode then the inductor

current ripple can be reduced by using a large input inductor.

Accordingly, the output capacitor of PV arrays for filter can

be selected a small one to avoid the introduction of a large

capacitor and some problems caused by large capacitor [10].

The relationship between input and output voltage of Boost

converter is (1), whereU

dc

, U

pv

and D are the DC link voltage,

PV arrays output voltage and duty cycle, respectively. In this

system, U

dc

must be keeping at reference value, which is an

invariant. Therefore, there is a fixed relationship

betweenU

pv

and D . If perturb and observe method

P&O

[11] is adopted, the Boost converter realize MPPT as follows:

When MPPT algorithm detects that it needs to

increaseU

pv

, D should be reduced; when MPPT algorithm

detects that it needs to decreaseU

pv

, D should be increased.

In other words, by regulating the value of D it can adjust the

PV arrays output voltage.

/(1 ) U U D

pv

dc

= − (1)

However, D must in a certain range of value. Because

large D means low maximum power point voltage of PV array,

this will reduce the efficiency of Boost converter and system.

B. Control of Inverter-Unified Control Strategy

In this paper, four-leg inverter is adopted because it is able

to control the neutral current directly comparing with

three-leg inverter with split dc link capacitor. To control the

system

[12], the unified control strategy employs two closed

loop of external DC bus voltage loop and inner inductor

current loop. In current loop, the feedback is the inductor

current at the inverter side.

Both of grid-connected generation and active filtering need

stability control of DC bus when the system realizes unified

control of two functions., it is the precondition of a stable

system, especially for harmonic suppression, fluctuations of

DC bus may result in under or over compensation.

First of all, the principle of DC bus keep stable is shown in

Fig.2, its essential is that regulating the value of fundamental

active current injected in inverter can maintain DC bus

voltage at reference value. When DC bus voltage is lower

than what it should be, it reduces the fundamental active

current injected in inverter

in

i as well as

dc

i will increase, so

does DC bus voltage is higher than what it should be. So that

the regulator output of voltage loop can be the reference of

active component of fundamental current. The DC bus control

is one part of MPPT, only the DC bus is stable the output

voltage of PV arrays can be kept at the maximum power point

voltage.

The system works in unified control mode during sunny

day, when the PV arrays offer active current to DC bus; the

system operates in active filtering mode automatically during

cloudy day or night, when the source supplies active current

to DC bus. From described above it is can be seen that the

energy of the system is bidirectional flow [13].

PLL

e

MPPT

PWM

MPPT

U

pv

i

pv

u

pv

i

in

i dc

i

d

*

dc

U

dc

U

Fig.2 DC Link Voltage Control of PWM Inverter

In the next place, the uniform current reference generation

is elaborated. As already mentioned above, the uniform

current reference can be obtained by adding harmonic

1 SPWM

2 SPWM

2 SPWM

1 SPWM

PWM

MPPT

MPPT

U

PV

i

PV

u

d

PV Arrays

dc

U

*

dc

U

+

−

PI

2 inv

i

1 inv

i

Dynamic

Current

Control

Dynamic

Current

Control

Refenence

Current

Calculation

Harmonic

Current

Detection

PLL

la

i

lb

i

lc

i

ln

i

Unbal anced

L o a d

sn

i

sc

i

sb

i

sa

i

437

compensation current reference to fundamental active current

reference directly. Inside the two left dashed border in Fig.3 is

how to get the current reference of fundamental active and

harmonic compensation separately: the former current

reference for three phase can be got by the regulator output of

external voltage loop multiplies to fundamental positive

sequence voltage

PLL

e , they are

*

pa

i ,

*

pb

i ,

*

pc

i and the active

component of neutral current reference is zero; the

compensation current reference can be got by harmonic

detection algorithm, which are

ca

i ,

cb

i ,

cc

i and

cn

i . Then the

current reference for three phase and neutral line are equal

to

*

pa

i ,

*

pb

i ,

*

pc

i and 0 add

ca

i ,

cb

i ,

cc

i and

cn

i .

As each four legs have separate current tracking reference

for two inverters [14] in the system, so, the unified control

strategy used in this paper can prevent the circulating current

[15] between the PWM inverters effectively. The right dashed

border in Fig.3 is the current sharing control of two modules.

In this paper, improved Time-domain based Transform

Algorithm [16] (TTA) is used to calculate harmonic current.

Its transform matrix and inverse transform matrix showed in

the dashed border of harmonic detection part in Fig.3.

III. ANALYSIS ON SYSTEM EQUIVALENT MODEL

In order to analyze stability of the control strategy,

equivalent model of the system must be known, it is shown in

Fig.4. The current loop is inside the dash line, while the

voltage loop is out of it. P regulator k

p

, which is inner loop

regulator, is used to guarantee speediness of current tracking;

PI regulator (1 1/ ) k T s

v v

+ , the external loop regulator, is used

to realize no err tracking of DC bus voltage. To guarantee

system stability, bandwidth of current loop should be larger

than that of voltage loop.

Transfer function of inductor current to inverter port

voltage is (2), where i

c

is feedback current, U is inverter port

voltage,

1

L , C and

2

L are LCL filters, R is damping resistor.

2

1

( ) 1

2

( )

( )

3 2 1 2 ( ) 0

1 2

1 2

L Cs CRs

i s

c

G s

L L

U s L L

e s

s

Cs CRs s

L L

+ +

= =

+

=

+ +

+

(2)

PWM converter is taken as a proportion regulator, which is

(3) [17], where

i

e is output of current loop regulator,

dc

U is

DC bus voltage,

T

U is peak value of triangle carrier.

( )

( ) 2

U

U s

dc

k

pwm

e s U

i T

= = (3)

The ratio coefficient from AC to DC is (4), Where

s

e is

rms of source voltage, I

dc

is inverter’s input current.

( )

3

( )

I s

e

dc s

k

dc

i s U

c

dc

= = (4)

Source voltage

s

e can be seen as disturbance to current loop,

so does the output current I

PV

of PV arrays to voltage loop.

Disturbance could be neglected by proper design of control

loop. And according to transfer functions above, open loop

gain of both current loop and voltage loop can be got.

In this paper, current and voltage unit feedback are used.

Other parameters are shown as following.

2 2

sin[ ( )]

3

l

k n

N

π π

−

2 2

cos[ ( )]

3

l

k n

N

π π

−

2

cos( ) n

N

π

2

sin( ) n

N

π

abc

U

labc

i

2 2

sin( )

3

l

n

N

π π

−

2 2

cos( )

3

l

n

N

π π

−

dc

U

1

2

ca

i

cb

i

cc

i

cn

i

PLL

Cos −

Sin

*

dc

U

PI

*

pa

i

*

pc

i

*

pb

i

0

+ −

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

1 abcn

i

*

2 abcn

i

1 inv

i

2 inv

i

+

+

−

−

P

P

1 SPWM

2 SPWM

LPF

Fig.3 Frame of Uniform Current Reference Generation

ref

u

dc

u

1

(1 )

v

v

k

T s

− +

*

p

i

*

ref

i

*

h q

i

+

pwm

k

s

e

i f

k

c

i 1

dc

sC

dc

u

vf

k

PLL

e

p

k

( ) G s dc

k

PV

I

U i

e

dc

I

( ) Gs ′

CurrentLoop

+

−

+

+

+

−

−

+

+

−

Fig.4 Frame of System Equivalent Model

438

0.5

1

L mH = , 0.185

2

L mH = , 1

T

U V = , 750

dc

U V = ,

50 C F μ = ,.

4

10 C F

dc

μ = , 0.008 k

p

= , 7.04 k

v

= , 0.01 T

v

= ,

10 f kHz

s

= .Through discussing above, bode plots of open loop

gain for current loop and voltage loop can be got, which are

shown in Fig.5 and Fig.6. It is can be seen that: with proper

regulator references, the control strategy will not only make

the system stable but also a better dynamic property.

0

20

40

60

80

M

a

g

n

it

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

-90

-60

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

Fig.5 Bode Plot of Current Loop with Open Loop Gain

-100

-50

0

50

100

M

a

g

n

it

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

-180

-150

-120

-90

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Fig.6 Bode Plot of Voltage Loop with Open Loop Gain

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

System model is established on MATLAB/Simulink.

Simulation parameters are set as following: light intensity of

PV arrays is

2

2000 / W m , temperature is 25 C

, output power,

output voltage and output current at maximum power point

are100kW , 570V and 175A . Non-linear unbalance load is a

three-phase diode rectifier with resistance and inductance load,

a single phase diode rectifier is added between phase A and

neutral line, the resistance and inductance

are 20 L H

l

μ = , 10 R

l

= Ω .

P&O is used for MPPT here. Step change of D is 0.01.

Simulation results are shown in Fig.7, they are tracking

waveforms of maximum power point power, maximum power

point voltage and current respectively, tracking results are

better.

In this paper, reactive power, harmonic and unbalance

current are all compensated. Simulation results of unified

control are shown in Fig.8. Fig.8(a) are waveforms of

grid-connected current with the same frequency and phase as

source voltage, source and load current of phase A, neutral

line current of grid and load respectively, the red waves are

source currents. Source current is almost sinusoidal and

neutral line current is near zero after compensation. Fig.8(b)

are three phase load current, three phase source current and

three phase current of one PWM inverter respectively. The

FFT analysis shows that THD reduced from 26.5% to 3.21%,

compensation results are well. Moreover, power flowing into

the grid and consumed by the load are just the same as the

output power of two inverter groups. So power generation and

harmonic control are decoupling.

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

All the experimental results use the same parameters

mentioned above. Fig.9 presents the current of PWM inverter

for phase A. Fig.10 shows the neutral current of PWM

inverter. In these figures, the red wave is synchronous signal

and the line in the bottle is FFT analysis results, which

indicate that the current of phase A is made up of fundamental

current, 5

rd

and 7

rd

harmonics, the neutral current contains 3

rd

harmonics only. The experiment results show that the PWM

inverter can supply and track fundamental active current and

harmonic at the same time, that is to say, the system can

realize unified control.

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

0

800

400

Voltage of PV

V

p

v

/

V

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

0

100

200

Current of PV

t/s

I

p

v

/

A

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

0

75

150

Power of PV

P

p

v

/

k

W

Fig.7 Simulation Results of MPPT

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

-400

0

400

V

s

/

V

,

I

s

/

A

Source Voltage and Source Current(a)

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

-180

0

180

I

s

a

,

I

l

a

/

A

Source Current and Load Current(a)

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

-50

0

50

t/s

I

s

n

,

I

l

n

/

A

Neutral Current

(a)

439

0 0.05 0.10 0.15

-100

0

100

I

l

/

A

Load Current

0 0.05 0.10 0.15

-180

0

180

I

s

/

A

Source Current

0 0.05 0.10 0.15

-180

0

180

t/s

I

i

n

v

/

A

Inverter-1 Current

(b)

Fig.8 Simulation Results of System Unified Control

t 10 / ms div

5

/

A

d

i

v

2

0

/

V

d

i

v

V

I

/ synchronous signal source voltage

( ) current of PWM inverter Phase A

FFT analysis

Fig.9 Current of PWM Inverter for Phase A

t 10 / ms div

5

/

A

d

i

v

2

0

/

V

d

i

v

V

I

/ synchronous signal source voltage FFT analysis

neutral current

Fig.10 Neutral Current of PWM Inverter

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper proposed a grid-connected PV system with

power quality improvement, based on boost + two-level

four-leg inverter. Especially, it is suitable to sunny areas

requiring high power output and power quality improvement

urgently. This article first elaborated on unified control

strategy of PV power generation and active power filter as

well as uniform current reference generation. Theoretical

analysis, simulation results on MATLAB/Simulink and part

of experiment results presented to verify the whole system

and its control strategy are correct.

In the future, we still keep studying and doing experiments

on this system. Therefore, more overall experimental results

of this system will be illustrated in following paper.

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440

respectively.2 DC Link Voltage Control of PWM Inverter In the next place. The relationship between input and output voltage of Boost converter is (1). When DC bus voltage is lower than what it should be.1 Main Circuit and Unified Control Diagram of System A. From described above it is can be seen that the energy of the system is bidirectional flow [13]. As already mentioned above. only the DC bus is stable the output voltage of PV arrays can be kept at the maximum power point voltage. the unified control strategy employs two closed loop of external DC bus voltage loop and inner inductor current loop. it reduces the fundamental active current injected in inverter iin as well as idc will increase. it always works in continuous current mode then the inductor current ripple can be reduced by using a large input inductor. fluctuations of DC bus may result in under or over compensation. PV arrays output voltage and duty cycle. when the PV arrays offer active current to DC bus. The system works in unified control mode during sunny day. when the source supplies active current to DC bus. which is an invariant. the principle of DC bus keep stable is shown in Fig. the system operates in active filtering mode automatically during cloudy day or night.. there is a fixed relationship between U pv and D . Therefore. D should be reduced. by regulating the value of D it can adjust the PV arrays output voltage. the feedback is the inductor current at the inverter side. Control of Inverter-Unified Control Strategy In this paper. adjusting the output voltage of PV arrays through Boost converter control so that MPPT can be obtained. To control the system [12]. U dc must be keeping at reference value. Because large D means low maximum power point voltage of PV array. the output capacitor of PV arrays for filter can be selected a small one to avoid the introduction of a large capacitor and some problems caused by large capacitor [10]. In this system. i pv i dc iin i pv upv U MPPT d U dc PWM Udc* ePLL MPPT Fig. First of all. the Boost converter realize MPPT as follows: When MPPT algorithm detects that it needs to increase U pv . B. where U dc . U dc = U pv /(1 − D ) (1) However. In current loop. Both of grid-connected generation and active filtering need stability control of DC bus when the system realizes unified control of two functions.2. the uniform current reference can be obtained by adding harmonic 437 . Accordingly. In other words. so does DC bus voltage is higher than what it should be. especially for harmonic suppression. its essential is that regulating the value of fundamental active current injected in inverter can maintain DC bus voltage at reference value. it is the precondition of a stable system. this will reduce the efficiency of Boost converter and system. If perturb and observe method P&O [11] is adopted. Because Boost converter connected to PV arrays.isa isb isc isn PV Arrays SPWM1 U n ba lan c ed L oad iPV uPV d ila ilb ilc iln iinv1 iinv 2 PLL Dynamic Current Control MPPT UMPPT SPWM 2 SPWM1 PWM Udc* Dynamic Current Control SPWM 2 Refenence Current Calculation Harmonic Current Detection Udc − + PI Fig. four-leg inverter is adopted because it is able to control the neutral current directly comparing with three-leg inverter with split dc link capacitor. So that the regulator output of voltage loop can be the reference of active component of fundamental current. when MPPT algorithm detects that it needs to decrease U pv . D must in a certain range of value. U pv and D are the DC link voltage. the uniform current reference generation is elaborated. Control of Boost Converter In this paper. The DC bus control is one part of MPPT. D should be increased.

P regulator k p . icc and icn . To guarantee system stability.3 is the current sharing control of two modules. i pc * and the active component of neutral current reference is zero. Other parameters are shown as following.3 is how to get the current reference of fundamental active and harmonic compensation separately: the former current reference for three phase can be got by the regulator output of external voltage loop multiplies to fundamental positive sequence voltage ePLL . is used to guarantee speediness of current tracking. the compensation current reference can be got by harmonic detection algorithm. current and voltage unit feedback are used. I dc is inverter’s input current. the external loop regulator. they are i pa* . icc and icn . i pb* . which is (3) [17]. Inside the two left dashed border in Fig. U is inverter port voltage. The right dashed border in Fig. i (s) 1 G (s) = c = U ( s ) e ( s )=0 L + L 1 2 s L Cs 2 + CRs + 1 2 LL 1 2 Cs3 + CRs 2 + s L +L 1 2 (2) PWM converter is taken as a proportion regulator.4. C and L2 are LCL filters. ANALYSIS ON SYSTEM EQUIVALENT MODEL PI regulator kv (1 + 1/ Tv s ) . The current loop is inside the dash line. Then the current reference for three phase and neutral line are equal to i pa* .3 Frame of Uniform Current Reference Generation ePLL uref + 1 −kv (1 + ) Tv s − CurrentLoop es ih + q* * + i p + iref * + − ′ G(s) kp I PV ei k pwm U + − G(s) ic k dc I dc+ − 1 u dc sCdc udc k if k vf Fig. open loop gain of both current loop and voltage loop can be got. so does the output current I PV of PV arrays to voltage loop. the unified control strategy used in this paper can prevent the circulating current [15] between the PWM inverters effectively.3. As each four legs have separate current tracking reference for two inverters [14] in the system. In this paper. Where es is rms of source voltage. which are ica . Its transform matrix and inverse transform matrix showed in the dashed border of harmonic detection part in Fig.compensation current reference to fundamental active current reference directly. i pa* U abc PLL S in − Cos PI i pb* i pc* ilabc 2π 2lπ n− )] N 3 2π 2lπ cos[ k ( n − )] N 3 2π sin( n) N 2π cos( n) N sin[ k ( 2π 2lπ sin( ) n− N 3 LPF cos( 2π 2lπ n− ) N 3 ic c icn ic a ++ icb + + ++ + + 0 − 1 iinv1 * 2 iabcn 2 + * iabcn1+ P SPWM1 iinv 2 − P SPWM 2 Fig. bandwidth of current loop should be larger than that of voltage loop.4 Frame of System Equivalent Model 438 . Transfer function of inductor current to inverter port voltage is (2). it is shown in Fig. k pwm = U (s) ei ( s ) = U dc 2U T (3) The ratio coefficient from AC to DC is (4). where ei is output of current loop regulator. icb . which is inner loop regulator. U dc is DC bus voltage. where ic is feedback current. equivalent model of the system must be known. I ( s ) 3es kdc = dc = ic ( s ) U dc (4) In order to analyze stability of the control strategy. * U dc − Udc + Source voltage es can be seen as disturbance to current loop. improved Time-domain based Transform Algorithm [16] (TTA) is used to calculate harmonic current. while the voltage loop is out of it. III. And according to transfer functions above. i pb* . L1 . Disturbance could be neglected by proper design of control loop. In this paper. so. is used to realize no err tracking of DC bus voltage. R is damping resistor. U T is peak value of triangle carrier. icb . i pc * and 0 add ica .

04 0. U dc = 750V 4 Cdc = 10 μ F . harmonic and unbalance current are all compensated. Rl = 10Ω . Fig.08 Voltage of PV 0. source and load current of phase A.08 Current of PV 0.02 0.6. So power generation and harmonic control are decoupling. Bode Diagram 80 Magnitude (dB) 60 40 20 0 f s = 10kHz . It is can be seen that: with proper regulator references.02 0.06 0.5mH C = 50 μ F .5 Bode Plot of Current Loop with Open Loop Gain Bode Diagram 100 Magnitude (dB) 50 0 -50 -100 -90 Phase (deg) All the experimental results use the same parameters mentioned above. output power. which are shown in Fig. In these figures. Simulation parameters are set as following: light intensity of PV arrays is 2000W / m 2 .08 0. three phase source current and three phase current of one PWM inverter respectively. 5rd and 7rd harmonics. they are tracking waveforms of maximum power point power. maximum power point voltage and current respectively.16 -120 -150 -180 Frequency (rad/sec) Fig. 570V and 175A . SIMULATION RESULTS Fig. the resistance and inductance are Ll = 20 μ H .10 shows the neutral current of PWM inverter. Simulation results are shown in Fig. Tv = 0. Moreover.10 Neutral Current 50 0 -50 0 0.12 0.5 and Fig.01 . Source current is almost sinusoidal and neutral line current is near zero after compensation.04 t/s 0.06 0.7. k p = 0.12 0.10 (a) 439 . . Fig. the system can realize unified control. kv = 7.Through In this paper. Isn. the red waves are source currents.04 0.16 0 0.008 . output voltage and output current at maximum power point are 100kW .08 0.. V. . Power of PV Ppv/kW 150 75 0 800 400 0 200 100 0 0 0.01.6 Bode Plot of Voltage Loop with Open Loop Gain IV. a single phase diode rectifier is added between phase A and neutral line.21%. U T = 1V .8(b) are three phase load current.12 0. Fig. temperature is 25 C .Iln/A System model is established on MATLAB/Simulink.02 0.8(a) are waveforms of grid-connected current with the same frequency and phase as source voltage. bode plots of open loop gain for current loop and voltage loop can be got.04 0.7 Simulation Results of MPPT Source Voltage and Source Current(a) Vs/V. the red wave is synchronous signal and the line in the bottle is FFT analysis results.8.04 . Non-linear unbalance load is a three-phase diode rectifier with resistance and inductance load. neutral line current of grid and load respectively. the neutral current contains 3rd harmonics only. L2 = 0.L1 = 0. compensation results are well. The FFT analysis shows that THD reduced from 26. discussing above. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Phase (deg) -60 -90 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) Fig. power flowing into the grid and consumed by the load are just the same as the output power of two inverter groups.04 0.08 t/s 0.Ila/A 180 0 -180 0 0.9 presents the current of PWM inverter for phase A. Simulation results of unified control are shown in Fig.06 0.5% to 3.185mH . Fig.08 0.04 0. Step change of D is 0. which indicate that the current of phase A is made up of fundamental current.10 P&O is used for MPPT here. The experiment results show that the PWM inverter can supply and track fundamental active current and harmonic at the same time.16 0 0. tracking results are better. that is to say. the control strategy will not only make the system stable but also a better dynamic property.Is/A 400 0 -400 0 0. reactive power. Ipv/A 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Vpv/V Source Current and Load Current(a) Isa.

4.05 Source Current 180 0 -180 Is/A 0. Theoretical analysis. Power Electronics. Longhui Wu. No. 41. December 2007. 1. Photo-Voltaic Power is One of the Best Renewable Energies. pp. more overall experimental results [17] 440 .12. Tsai-Fu Wu. Haining Wang. Hasan Ali. Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking System using Boost Converter. Huajun Yu. Vol. Ching-Ming Lai. pp. Ming Ding. The Grid-connected PV Inverter Based on Boost Converter Control System Design. Study on Pwm Control Strategy of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Generation System. Vol. Vol. 20. A Two-loop Control Strategy of PV Inverter with LCL Filter.15 of this system will be illustrated in following paper. Vol. No.9 Current of PWM Inverter for Phase A [9] [10] I 20V / div V 5A / div [11] neutral current [12] [13] FFT analysis synchronous signal / source voltage [14] t 10ms / div Fig.10 0. Vol. 3562-3565. Giovanni Spagnuolo. it is suitable to sunny areas requiring high power output and power quality improvement urgently. Guowei Zhang. SICE Annual Conference. July 2007.10 0. Vol. Gyeong-Hun Kim. 2007. June 2005. Power Supply Technologies and Applications. Modeling of Circulating Currents for Grid-Connected Parallel Three-Phase Inverters.15 [4] (b) Fig. pp. Power System Technology.05 0. Chih-Lung Shen. 0 0. Junmin Pan.59-65. In the future. Renxian Cao. Vol. pp. Power Electronics. pp. Nicola Femia. Li Kong. Guorong Zhang. 2008. Bo Chen. 6. IEEE. Photovoltaic Grid Connected Power Conditioner System. Simulation Analysis of Output Features and the Maximum Power Point Tracking of PV cells. No. 2007. 9. Mohd. Vol. Haining Wang. Wanjun Lei. Yu-Ling Juan. No. 72-76. pp. Optimization of Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Method. No. REFERENCES [1] [2] Dan Di. 31. Korea. Vol. No. IEEE. October. 23. Application of Improved TTA in SVG with Three-phase Four-wire Power System. 21. Unitive Control of PV Grid Connected Generation and Reactive Compensation. 42. pp. pp. August 2008. simulation results on MATLAB/Simulink and part of experiment results presented to verify the whole system and its control strategy are correct. Computer Simulation. Ming Ding. 25 . Guorong Zhang. September 2005. 29-31.Load Current Il/A 100 0 -100 0 0. Yi-Hung Liao. Guorong Zhang. Vol. Ching-Tsai Pan. Xi’an: Xi’an Jiaotong University. pp. 12-16. Pengbo Zhang. Fang Zhuo. IEEE Transactions on Industry Application. Shicheng Zheng. Minwon Park. Zhaoan Wang. Longhui Wu. Lusheng Ge.phase inverter system for PV power injection and active power filtering with nonlinear inductor consideration. No. China. Hongyu Li. Japan. Vol. 2. Junmin Pan. No. Jinjun Yin. pp. pp. Automation of Electric Power Systems. Tieliang Zhang. 9. December 2004. Fang Zhuo. 72-75. we still keep studying and doing experiments on this system. Hyo-Ryong Seo. 75-79. 4. CONCLUSION [16] This paper proposed a grid-connected PV system with power quality improvement. Proceeding of International Conference on Electrical Machines and System. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Aprl. No. Shengli Huang. Especially. Combined Control of Active Power Filter and PV Grid Connected Generation. 5. July 2005. pp. 61-66. July/August 2005. Jianhui Su. Hung-Shou Nien. 38. Massimo Vitelli.10 0. 20. No. 27.10 Neutral Current of PWM Inverter [15] VI. 8. January 2007. Seoul. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. Zhaoan Wang. 9. Automation of Electric Power Systems. Composite Control Method of Active Power Filter and its Application in Grid-connected PV System [D]. Xing Zhang. pp. 13. No. Study on the Main Circuit of High Capacity Active Power Filter with Multiple Configuration. 12-15. 2008. Hong Zhao. 248-252. Shanxu Duan. A single. Yuntang Rao. Proceedings of the CSEE.05 t/s 0. 55-57. June 2004. Giovanni Petrone. 41. In-keun Yu.15 [3] Inverter-1 Current Iinv/A 180 0 -180 0 0. Member. 22. Haining Wang. Tsung-Ming Chen. A study on the Performance Analysis of the Grid-Connected PV-AF System. Automation of Electric Power Sysrems. Therefore. Vol. based on boost + two-level four-leg inverter. January 2006. 963-973. Po Xu. 31. September 2008. This article first elaborated on unified control strategy of PV power generation and active power filter as well as uniform current reference generation. August 2006. Transactions of China Electrotechnical Society.8 Simulation Results of System Unified Control [5] I 20V / div V 5 A / div current of PWM inverter ( Phase A) [6] [7] FFT analysis [8] synchronous signal / source voltage t 10ms / div Fig. Central China Electric Power. Jui-Yang Chang. No. Member. 28. No. Vol. Uniform Control Method of Gird-connected Generation and Active Power Filtering. Chongwei Zhang. Peizhen Wang. Fei Liu. Jianhui Su. Jianhui Su. 3. Yan Zhou.1075-1083.

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