D Fergamon

Zoológica Scrípta, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 269-301. 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd © 1995 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0300-3256/95 $9.50+0.00 0300-3256(95)00014-3

The articulation of annelids
GREG W. ROUSE and KRISTIAN FAUCHALD
Accepted 12 September 1995

Rouse. G.W. & Fauchald. K. 1995. The articulation of annelids. •Zool. Scr. 24: 269-301. The aim of this paper is to assess the monophylyof the Annelida. Also, recent cladistic analyses of metazoan taxa, using a variety of data, have shown incongruities with regards to annelids and associated taxa that should be resolved. The Platyhelminlhes is selected as the taxon to root our minimal length trees and polarise our characters in a parsimony analysis: ingroup taxa being MoUusca, Nemertea, Sipuneula, Echiura, Pogonophora, Vestimentifera, Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and the groups most commonly regarded as true 'annelids', the Clitellata and Polychaeta. We use 13 characters and a total of 33 slates. This results in 18 minimal length trees of 23 steps. The consensus tree has the topology (Platyhelminthes (Nemertea (Sipuneula Mollusca (Echiura (Polychaeta (Vestimentifera Pogonophora) Clitellata (Euarthropoda Onyehophora)))))). The name Articúlala is applied to the Clitellata, Euarthropoda, Onyehophora. Pogonophora, Polychaeta, and Vestimentifera. The Vestimentifera is the sister group to, or more likely a clade within, the frenulate pogonophores, and the name Pogonophora is retained for this group. In half of the 18 minimal length trees, the traditionally formulated Annelida, i.e. Polychaeta and Clitellata, is paraphyletic if the Pogonophora are excluded. In the remaining minimal length trees, a monophyietic Annelida cannot be formulated. The name Annelida should not be used unless relationships within the Articúlala are resolved to show it is a monophyletie taxon. The taxon name Articu'ata, originally formulated to include the Annelida and Arthropoda by Cuvier, is defined as the clade stemming from the first ancestor to show repetition of homologous body structures derived by teloblastie growth with a pygidial growth zone (segmentation) and longitudinal muscles broken into bands. The Articulata is considered, on current evidence, to consist of four monophyletie groups; the Arthropoda, Clitellata, Polychaeta, and Pogonophora, though the latter group maybe a clade of polychaetes. If this is shown, the Pogonophora should revert to the original family name Lamellisabellidae Uschakov, 19.33. An indented classification reflective of the cladistic pattern is provided. Other recent hypotheses about metazoan systematics are analysed. Greg W. Rouse. School of Biological Sciences AOS. University of Sydney. N.S.W. 2006. Australia. E-mail: gregr([vhio. usyd.edu.au Krislian Fauchald, Department of Invertebrate Zoology. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 20560. U.S.A.

•i r ; 1 »

•When / use a word.' Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, it means iust what I choose it to mean • neither more nor less.' 'The question is,' said Alice, whether you can make words mean so many different things.'(Carroll 1872:124). The phylum Annelida to which the Polychaeta and several other groups of worms belong, isdifficult toclassifyintoclassesandorders(Day 1967: ]m The evolutionary relationships between the annelid classes are relatively clear in outUnc', ahhough the detailed phyiogeny of these worms presents little more than a series of unsolved, and probablv insoluble problems (Clark 1969- 44) '

Introduction The use of cladistic methodology has recently been applied to questions about the phylogenetic relationships among metazoan taxa, using morphology (Brusca & Brusca 1990; Schräm 1991; Eernisseeía/. 1992; Backeljau et al. 1993; Scheltema 1993; Schräm & Ellis 1994), molecular sequence data (Turbeville et al. 1992; Halanych et al. 1995; Winnepenninckx et al. 1995), or combined data sets (Wheeler et al. 1993). While the use of methods with

repeatable results is long overdue in metazoan system^. , , ... i , • , • e atlCS, these papers have rehed OH morphological informatlon, phylogenetlc hypotheses, and a taxonomic system developed over more than 15Ü years. This has contributed tO distinct problems in these recent papers. • • ^, ,, L • i ^-c j Some of the problem areas can be identified as: 1. Unquestioned assumptions of homology (or nonhomology) often influenced by varying traditions in usage of morphological names (i.e. terminology influence); ^ i i .• • i .• r u ^ • i i ^' Lack ot consideration tor character independence; 3. Unquestioned assumptions of monophyly by basing analyses on a given Linnean taxonomic level (e.g. class, phylum); 4, Errors in scoring (Schräm 1991, see Backeljau el al. 1993;Eernissei'/fl/. 1992). Examplesof each these types of errors will be discussed in this paper. While the consequences of these problems may have led to dubious conclusions, the data used by the authors cited above are available, allowing the opportunity for further analysis. Interestingly, while trees with differing topologies have been presented (compare Eernisse et al. 1992 with Wheeler et al. 1993), few, if any, suggestions of changes in classification have been made. Zoológica Scripta 24

269

270

G. W. Rouse and K. Fauchald lished, we then intend to assess the relationship amongst polychaete taxa (using the 'family' level), the Clitellata, Pogonophora, Vestimentifera, and Arthropoda (Fauchald & Rouse in prep.; Rouse & Fauchald in prep.). This paper is structured such that we provide a justification for the selection of taxa and characters used. Thirteen morphological characters were used for a cladistic parsimony analysis of the following taxa: Clitellata, Euarthropoda, Nemertea, Mollusca, Sipuncula, Echiura, Platyhelminthes, Pogonophora, Polychaeta, Onychophora, and Vestimentifera. The resulting trees and transformation series are discussed, and the implications for the monophyly of various taxa are assessed. We then present a naming system more reflective of the cladistic pattern. Finally, we assess some recent hypotheses on the systematic position of annelids and associated taxa.

As an example of the current flux in ideas about metazoan relationships, the placement of the Annelida is illustrative. Brusca & Brusca (1990) suggested the following topology; (Arthropoda (Annelida (Pogonophora Vestimentifera))), though they could not identify a synapomorphy for the Annelida. Schräm (1991) suggested that the Pogonophora were the sister group to the Arthropoda (= Onychophora and Euarthropoda) and this clade was the sister group to the Annelida, though the methods and conclusions have been criticised (Eernisse etal. 1992; Backeljau et al. 1993; but see Schräm & Ellis 1994). Eernisse etal. (1992) proposed that the Annelida was the sister group to the Pogonophora and that this clade was the sister group to the Mollusca. They found that a clade consisting of the Onychophora, Kinorhyncha, Tardigrada, and Euarthropoda was the sister group to the Nematoda, with previously proposed synapomorphies for arthropods and annelids being homoplasies. Wheeler et al. (1993) found the Euarthropoda and Onychophora to be the sister group to the Annelida, whilst using the Mollusca to root their trees; a hypothesis that is certainly most commonly favoured among metazoan systematists (see reviews in Eernisse et al. 1992; Wheeler et al. 1993). Schräm & Ellis (1994), in re-analysing and correcting Schram's (1991) data, show the following topology; (Pogonophora (Annelida (Mollusca (Sipuncula Echiura)))). The 'arthropods' are then the sister group to this clade. The cladistic hypotheses of Brusca & Brusca (1990), Eernisse etal. (1992), Wheeler ei «/. (1993), and Schräm & Ellis (1994) will be assessed in the discussion. Through most of this century, the Annelida has been split into two main groups; polychaetes and clitellates, with myzostomids being given class status by some workers (e.g. Jägersten 1940; Prenant 1959), or that of a family within the Polychaeta (Hartman 1969; Schroeder & Hermans 1975; Pettibone 1982). In addition, several small groups have been regarded as families with uncertain affinities within the Annelida, or 'associated' with the Annelida. Virtually all opinions about the classification of annelids, with the exception of clitellates (e.g. Brinkhurst & Nemec 1987; Jamieson 1988fl), have been based either on pre-evolutionary notions, evolutionary systematics (see Mayr 1969), or merely a philosophy of using classifications as identificatory systems only. This paper is the first in a two part exercise. In a forthcoming analysis, we examine the relationships amongst the families of the Polychaeta (Fauchald & Rouse in prep.; Rouse & Fauchald in prep.). However, no synapomorphy for the members of the taxon Polychaeta has been demonstrated, and determining ingroup and outgroup taxa for an assessment of relationships within this group is difficult. Thus, we were obliged to consider a possibly paraphylctic Polychaeta in relation to the Clitellata and the Myzostomida. This then led us to the issue of the monophyly of the Annelida itself and to assess the relationship of taxa usually associated with annelids; the Pogonophora, Vestimentifera (Gardiner & Jones 1993; Southward 1993), and Arthropoda (Wheeler et al. 1993). This raised the issue of outgroup considerations for the assemblage, and to perform a relatively 'coarse' analysis of the relationships among the major protestóme groups. With an appropriate outgroup estabZoológica Scripta 24

Methods
Taxa included in the analysis Major taxa considered in this analysis show spiral cleavage, mouth opening from the blastoporc, and with mesoderm almost always derived from the 4d micromere, or are considered as having a modification of these features. The ingroup taxa comprise organisms most usually viewed as protostomes: Nemertea, Mollusca. Sipuncula, Echiura, Polychaeta, Pogonophora, Vestimentifera, Clitellata. Onychophora. and Euarthropoda. The outgroup is the Platyhelminthes. Platyhelminthes. Three groups, the free-living 'turbellarians". the parasitic trematodcs, and the ccstodes have traditionally been considered platyhclminths. Recent schemes have considerably revised their relationships and taxonomic status. For example, the Turbellaria is no longer regarded as a monophyletic taxon (Ehlers 1985a. h). Trematodes and ccstodes, usually considered separate classes, have features presumed to be related to their parasitic existence (Hyman 1940; Noble & Noble 1971; Brusca & Brusca 1990), and arc now considered derived platyhclminth taxa (Ehlers I98.'!ö, h). Platyhelminth monophyly has been questioned (Smith et al. 198.5), and relations within the group as well as with other groups arc still under debate (Ax 1985; Ehlers 1985a, h\ Rieger 1985; Smith & Tyler 1985). A synapomorphy proposed by Ehlers for the Platyhelminthes is the absence of mitosis in differentiated epidermal and somatic cells. For the purposes of this study, the Platyhelminthes serves as an outgroup on the basis of the lack of a complete digestive system and absence of a coelom. Scoring for the taxon is based on the 'turbellarian' grade (Ehlers 1985a, b). Onychophora and Euarthropoda (= Arthropoda). Oneof only two nonvertebrate classes used by Linnc (1758), the Insccta was divided into seven classes, six of which contained insects only. The seventh, Insccta Áptera, included wingless insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods (Linnc 1758: 344). Cuvicr(1812: 73) recognized the Articulataasa distinct 'embrachement' among animals. The group was diagnosed by the presence of segments, a circumoesophageal nerve ring, and a double ventral nerve chord with ganglia (Cuvier 1817: .509-510). The Articúlala included four classes; annelids, crustaceans, arachnids, and insects, with no hierarchical arrangement amongst them. Von Siebold (1848) fused the three non-annelid articulate classes, Crustacea, Arachnida. and Insccta into a single group and gave this assemblage the name Arthropoda. This corresponded to the Insccta of Linné (1758) and Lamarck's (1815: 457) diagram showing the insects, arachnids and crustaceans (including barnacles) as a separate lineage from the annelids. Siebold (1848) did not refer to the Articulata, and in fact resurrected the Linnean concept of Vermes by placing annelids with other worm-like groups. Grube (1850) erected the Onychophora. containing Peripatus. as an order of the Annelida. The validity of the taxon Arthropoda has been debated since soon after its diagnosis by Siebold (1848), initially due to arguments about the placement of the Onychophora (see Tiegs & Mantón 1958 for a review). More recently, arguments that the Arthropoda is polyphyletic and should be split into the Uniramia, Chelieerata, and Crustacea have been presented (Tiegs i& Mantón 1958; Mantón 1964, 1977; Anderson 1973; Mantón & Anderson 1979) and rejected (Wcygoldt 1979; Wheeler e/a/. 1993). We consider here the Onychophora to be the sister group to the

Articulation of annelids
usually accepted 'arthropods" (Euarthropoda). and evidence concerning the monophyly of those taxa can be found in Brusca & Brusca (I WO) and Wheeler Pi «/. (1993). A suggestion by Ballard era/. (1992), based on 12S rRNA sequence data, that the Onychophora are not the sister group to the Euarthropoda but fall within this cladc has been criticised (Wagele & Stanjek 1995). While recent studies using both molecular sequence and morphological data have supported the monophyly of the Arthropoda, the number of taxa from within the supposed sister group, the annelids, has been surprisingly small (Ballard el cil. 1992; Eernisse et al. 1992; Wheeler el iil. 1993). The assumption in these analyses appears to have been thai the Annelida is monophyletic and that a single species of polychacte and one or two clitellates is adequate to represent the •clade". We perceive that this bias is due, in part, to the recent stable taxonomic status of "class" for the polychaetes. In reality, polychactcs arc a diverse group that has yet to be shown to be monophyletic, and may yet be shown to include such "high-level taxa" as the clitellates and arthropods. In our opinion, the limited number of annelid taxa studied in molecular studies to date leaves the monophyly of the Annelida open to question. The status of the Onychophora and euarthropods has important implications for the question "what is an annelid'.'" Assuming arthropods arc monophyletic, their relationship with annelids can be one of three possibilities: ( 1 ) They could be the sister group to the Annelida. This is a common hypothesis, and the name Articúlala is often used for the group (sec Eernisse el al. 1992); (2) Alternatively, arthropods may not be the sister group, or even closely related, to the Annelida (see Eernisse el al. 1992; Halanych el al. 1995; Winnepenninckx el al. 1995); (3) The third possibility is that arthropods have a sister group within the Annelida. Previous explicit formulations in regard to option (3) have been presented by Anderson (1973), Sawyer (1984, 1986) and Jamieson (1986, 1987a). All three authors accepted the possibility of arthropod polyphyly and discussed the annelids mainly with reference to the Uniramia, proposing a (Clitellata-I-Uniramia) relationship. Sawyer (1984, 1986) was more explicit and proposed that the Uniramia are the sister group to the Hirudinea, though many of his arguments arc ad hoc. Jamieson (1986) reviewed the evidence and presented arguments, largely based on sperm ultrastructure and embryology, for a ((Clitellata Onychophora) (Myriapoda Hcxapoda)) hypothesis (sec below. Character 13). Jamieson (1987a) also discussed other hypotheses with regard to the Annelida (= Polychacta and Clitellata) and Uniramia being monophyletic or paraphyletic. These will be assessed in the light of our results (see Discussion) We have included both the Onychophora and the Euarthropoda in our analysis. The apomorphics supporting the monophyly of the Onychophora and Euarthropoda, respectively, are extensive (Wheeler et al. 1993). The Onychophora are usually considered to be the most plesiomorphic arthropod clade (Wheeler et al. 1993) and show many features that are 'annelid"-like (Brusca & Brusca 1990: 668). Including the Onychophora and Euarthropoda does present some problems using our character set. For instance, among arthropods, only a few crustaceans show any elements of spiral cleavage, and no arthropod can be said to derive mesoderm from the 4d micromere (Anderson 1973). Also, their cuticle structure and circulatory system are markedly different from other taxa in the analysis. This has resulted in the Onychophora and Euarthropoda being given unique slates for characters 1, 8, and 12 (see below). However, for most characters, we could score the onychophorans and euarthropods on homology assessments that did not require additional 'arthropod' states. As Wheeler el al. (1993: 3) state in supporting arguments against the polyphyletic origin of arthropods: 'degree of apomorphy is no argument against homology (Hennig 1966), it may simply be that a great deal has happened since the taxa diverged'. Clilellala. The Clitellata is considered monophyletic based on the common presence of a clitellum, the organisation of the reproductive system, and sperm ultrastructure (Michaelsen 1928; Jamieson 1981; Ferraguti 1984; Sawyer 1984; Purschke el al. 1993). The clitellates are most often divided into two groups; the Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, and are considered as subclasses or classes (Brusca & Brusca 1990: 387). The Hirudinea (leeches) are considered by some to be a monophyletic taxon comprised of true leeches, branchiobdellids, and acanthobdcllids (Sawyer 1986; Brusca & Brusca 1990:388). Others suggest these three groups are not exclusive sister taxa (Brinkhurst & Gelder 1989; Holt 1989). Purschke etal. (1993) summarised the evidence for considering all three leech groups as clitellates, but concluded that while the acanthobdcllids and true leeches ('Euhirudinea") arc sister taxa, the branchiobdellids very likely evolved independently from a different oligochacte" ancestor, so that the similarities between these and the true leeches represent convergences. The problem is irrelevant in the current context as all authors agree that the Iccch-like taxa and the 'oligochaetes' belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Clitellata. The Oligochaeta is paraphyletic if the Hirudinea (or the three leechlike groups) are the sister group to one cladc or another within the oligochaetes, as seems to be the prevailing opinion (Michaelsen 1928;

271

Brinkhurst & Nemec 1987; Erscus 1987; Jamieson elal. 1987; Jamieson 1988a). When a specific sister group to the Hirudinea is agreed upon, they will lose their high taxonomic rank. The taxon name for the clade including the leeches could reasonably be the Oligochaeta or Clitellata; the former is suggested by Jamieson el al. (1987). However, even though Oligochaeta is an older name (Grube 1850) than Clitellata (Michaelsen 1928), the latter was explicitly formulated to include the Hirudinea, and hence follows the priority principle for phylogenetic taxon names of de Queiroz & Gauthier (1990, 1992). The Clitellata, when first erected by Michaclsen (1928), included aeolosomatids, hirudineans, and oligochaetes. TTie former are no longer considered members of the Chtellata (e.g. Bunke 1988 and references therein, sec also below). The name Euclitellata was coined by Jamieson (1983) for the clitellates after studying the anatomy of questid polychactcs. He concluded that there is no homology between the clitellum of questids and that of clitellates, but that the latter should have a new name. We prefer to retain the name Clitellata for this group since it is older and is essentially the same taxon concept. No particular group of polychaetes has been identified as a sister group to the Clitellata. The aeolosomatids, and the morphologically similar potamodrilids, are discussed below. Echiura. The echiurids were originally considered members of the same group as the annelids (Cuvier 1817; Lamarck 1818). They were grouped with the sipunculids and priapulids in the Gephyrea by Quatrefages (1847), a group subsequently eliminated by Sedgewick (1898). Sedgewick considered echiurids as a group of annelids but Newby (1940) proposed a separate phylum, Echiura. based on a detailed embryologieal study of Urechis caupo. His proposal has been generally accepted (Stephen & Edmonds 1972: 343). Echiurids are triploblastic, eoclomate metazoans; the digestive tract is straight; segmentation is regarded as absent (Newby 1940). Two apomorphics identifying the Echiura are the flattened or grooved proboscis, formed from the prostomium, and the presence of anal sacs (sec Pilger 1993 for a review). Mollusca. While Linné (1758) included molluscs in at least three of his subgroups of "Vermes, Cuvier (1795«, b) and Lamarck (1801) separated molluscs from worms. Most members of the Mollusca were 'correctly' placed by Cuvier; however, he also included various other groups such as brachiopods, barnacles, serpulid polychaetes, and tunieates that we do not accept today. The recognition of serpulids as polychaetes was fully acknowledged after the middle of the 19th century (Morch 1863). Molluscs are triploblastic spiralians; their plesiomorphic coelomate condition appears to be established (Reynolds el al. 1993; Morse & Reynolds in press). At least one group, the monoplacophorans, has serially repeated organs but other molluscan taxa do not show these features (Brusca & Brusca 1990), and segmentation or serial repetition does not appear to be plesiomorphic for the clade. A mantle and radula arc present in most, but not all, molluscs; the radula, for example, is absent in the Bivalvia, but otherwise these structures arc synapomorphics for the clade (see Eernisse et al. 1992). Nemerlea. Nemerteans are coelomate and triploblastic with spiral cleavage. The coclom is limited to the rhynchocoel and circulatory system (Turbeville 1986). Nemerteans are regarded as unsegmented, though serial repetition of gonads can occur (Brusca & Brusca 1990). When included at all, recent morphological analyses have placed the Nemertea as the sister group to the clade that includes the Mollusca and Annelida (Brusca & Brusca 1990; Schräm 1991 ; Eernisse elal. 1992). Turbeville el al. (1992). using 18S rRNA data, found nemerteans to be a member of the cladc including molluscs, sipunculids, and annelids, but could not reliably resolve relationships among these groups. Pogonophora. The Pogonophora (and Vestimcntifera) are of some significance in the history of metazoan classification. The various controversies surrounding the systematic placement and taxonomic status of these organisms can be linked to a combination of incomplete observations and differing philosophies, and continues to this date (Southward 1993; Gardiner & Jones 1993; Ivanov 1994). Caullery (1914a, h, 1948) described Sihoglinum weberi as a new kind of invertebrate because of its lack of a digestive tract, though he felt that the tube bore some resemblance to that of the hemichordatc Khabdopleiira. Caullery also compared the anterior region of the body to that of Balanoglo.ssus. another hemichordatc. Uschakov (1933) described a similar species, Lamelli.sabella zachsi. as an aberrant sabellid polychacte in a new sub-family, Lamellisabellidac (sic). Johansson (1937, 1939) placed Lamelli.'iahella in a separate class, Pogonophora (first spelled Pogonofora), but not placed in any phylum, based on extensive investigations of Uschakov's material of L. zachsi. Uschakov (1940) followed Johansson's (1937) suggestion in accepting the non-polychaete affinities Zoológica Scripla 24

certainly suggested the possible presence of a circumoesophageal ring. he concluded that Lamellisahella could not be a polychaete. pogonophores were in fact still oligomerous. related to annelids. Liwanow & Porfirjewa (1967) and van der Land & N0rrevang ( 1975) maintained that the posterior end was truly segmented. and additional confusing terminology was proposed to resolve the issue. the opisthosoma was the metasoma with superficial segmentation. posterior end may be linked. He also agreed with Webb that. and illustrated by Ivanov ( 1960. However. 'annelids' have a dorsal brain (or cephalic ganglion) connected by a circumoesophageal ring to a double ventral nerve cord (Dales 1963). with its dense endodcrmal mass (Southward 1980) and two rings of cilia is now usually interpreted as a modified form of 'trochophore' (Southward 1988. having three distinct body regions or 'segments' (see review by Webb 1969ft). In reality. Ulrich appeared unaware of Sihoglinum. W. 1963). pogonophores must be deutcrostomes. the opisthosoma. Recent studies of larval development also indicate that the nerve cord is in fact ventral (Southward 1988. however. 1973) maintained asimilar view. despite the presence of the 'segmented' opisthosoma. Deutcrostomes have a single nerve cord located dorsal to the digestive tract (Brusca & Brusca 1990). Ampharetidae. placing the Pogonophora as one of five Stämme ( = phyla) within the taxon Archicoelomata. arguing (erroneously. and degree of fusion Zoológica Scripta 24 . Ivanov (1956) and Jagcrsten (1956) rejected her statements. much of the argument about the deuterostome position of pogonophores became irrelevant. the various conflicting historical viewpoints were presented. Liwanow & Porfirjewa (1967) had argued for a relationship of the Pogonophora with sedentary polychaetes. based on statements made by Caullcry ( 1914«. the three first segments were thought to be formed simultaneously. the intraepidermal position of the nerve cord. The lecithotrophic pogonophoran larva. h) demonstrated that this was the case. 1990). 1976. suggesting an anterior ring-like nerve cord configuration and the double nature of the cord in some parts of the body. mesosoma. Bakke 1990. Schroeder & Hermans 1975: 164 review the history of the concept). from diploblastic to triploblastic to coelomate. Subsequently. 18). cannot be supported by more critical examination of the observations on which it was based. and the heteronomy concept developed into a theory identifying two different kinds of segmentation (Ivanov 1928. and mctasoma (Ivanov 1970. Webb (1969/)) presented a hypothesis suggesting that the Polyehacta was a paraphylctic assemblage. clearly showed an annelid relationship for the Pogonophora. presumably with subsequent losses in other taxa. After the discovery of the missing posterior end of pogonophores. that segmentation in annelids has two different forms. and were demonstrated to be present in phoronids (Zimmer 1980). Ivanov (1988) accepted that cleavage is spiral and that several other features showed similarities with of the taxon. 1954) reviewed the taxonomic history of pogonophores and argued against a deuterostome relationship. the Pogonophora. divided into agonadal and gonadal regions. I975ü. The species that brood larvae have large yolky eggs and the early cleavage patterns have been interpreted both as 'modified' radial cleavage (Ivanov 1975«. As noted above. that the Pogonophora should still be regarded as a phylum. pogonophores were regarded as protostomes showing spiral cleavage. Ivanov 1956. Similar studies of nereidid development are warranted. At a conference on the systematic position of the Pogonophora. to the theory of heleronomy. and development has been described for several species. Ivanov (1954) described several new pogonophores and placed the group 'between" the cntcropneusts and ptcrobranchs. ft). Pearse (1949) listed the Pogonophora. see George & Southward 1973) that uncini develop differently. these segments were found also in cchinodcrm larvae (Gislen 1930). The maintenance of a belief in the tripartite nature of the pogonophoran body in the face of the discovery of the segmented. one of them homologous to the deuterostome condition. and platelets were analogues brought about by a similar. Ivanov (1951) compared Sihoglinum and Lamellisabella and was the first to recognise that the two genera must belong to the same taxon. and. along with the 'lophophorates' and hemichordatcs. chaetaebearing. chactognaths. the nerve eord was dorsal. he reiterated that pogonophores were deutcrostomes and gave them a new name Brachiata. ft). the observation on nereidids and scrpulids was taken to be a general condition. Rouse and K. 1980. 1993). After this discovery. copied as Fig. He described the posterior end as having superficial segmentation with chaetae arranged in longitudinal rows. contradict this observation. 1948).fiordicum. Hartman (1951. and mctamerie segmentation (Liwanow & Porfirjewa 1967. Normally. This strand of tissue running anteriorly through the brain. and had nothing that resembled true metamerism (Ulrich 1950). pogonophores were often interpreted as being tripartite or oligomerous. i. Jägersten concluded that the nerve cord is ventral. h: van der Land & N0rrevang 1975). and fuses in the middle of the mesosoma. or 'modified' spiral cleavage (N0rrevang 1970a. The major premise of the heteronomy theory. ft) had already concluded that pogonophores were clearly protostomes. Ivanov (1956) denied the homology of the 'platelets' in pogonophores with the uncini of some polychaetes. after a study of the embryology of a species of Sihoglinum and review of the evidence. 11 in Johansson 1968). 1965) found the previously 'missing' posterior end but regarded it as the end of the metasoma with secondary segmentation. The dorso-ventral orientation of pogonophores was still unsettled. He recognised that the mouth and anus were unknown (Ulrich 1950: 5 and 7). emphasising the similarities among pogonophores and their supposed deuterostome affiliation. published in 1975 (several papers have been quoted here). However. c. Webb (1964«. along with the presence of chaetae. while the segmented opisthosoma made the body appear polymerous. a very long mesosoma. Gravely (1909: 620) himself stated that 'the simultaneous appearance of a small number of "primary" segments is almost certainly a secondary type of development derived from a condition such as that found in Ophryolrocha'. segments all form sequentially. Annelid embryos with a large yolk content often have cleavage patterns that arc not obviously spiral (Anderson 1973). since it lacked a ventral nerve cord. a ventral nerve cord.g. Interestingly. d) concluded that. Ivanov (1964. despite the elevation of this taxon to phylum rank by Bcklcmishcv (1944). He suggested a clade comprised of pogonophores. Johansson (1968: 8) accepted Webb's new interpretation. but assumed that a digestive tract was present (Ulrich 1950: 10). N0rrevang 1970«. h. composed of protosoma. with the status of phylum (Ivanov 1955). representing the remnants of a gut (see below). and described the hitherto missing posterior end of Sihoglinum ekmani and S. ft). and the body was tripartite. and Ulrich (1950) independently came to a similar conclusion. The reason for this emphasis lies in a long tradition of interpreting the hcmichordatc body as consisting of three segments (summarised in Hyman 1959). yielding a short protosoma. Alternatively. Jägersten (1956: 225) also noted that the anteriormost part of the nerve cord is double. Jägersten (1956) alluded to the likelihood that pogonophores studied to that date were incomplete. but did not seem to be aware of the Pogonophora. polychaetes such as sabellids and terebcllids. suggesting that the group might be a polyphyletic assemblage from various polychaete groups such as the Sabellidae. He regarded what had previously been called the metasoma as a second region of the mesosoma containing gonads. In many polychaetes. Despite these similarities. Ivanov I960 and others) with subsequent radiation of 'higher' taxa (see Ivanov 1975«: Fig. as a separate phylum among the deutcrostomes. ft. tubicolous lifestyle. Ivanov (1988. 1989) continued to support an isolated position for the group. Many pogonophores brood larvae. containing also the lophophoratcs. Goodrich (1945: 126) Anderson (1959. This eladc was then the sister group to remaining polychaetes. Jägersten (1956) regarded the pogonophoran nervous system as including a ventral double cord. The heteronomy theory was used to argue that the coelom originated once. Bakke 1975. Orrhage ( 1973¿) refuted Webb's (1969ft) hypothesis but did not discuss the systematic position of the Pogonophora. Note that neither author considered Sihoglinum. The absence of an obvious gut. demonstrated progressive evolution (Beklemishev 1952. Dawydoff (1948) regarded Sihoglinum as related to the hemichordatcs.272 G. in part. This finding can be traced to Gravely ( 1909).e. Jagcrsten (1956) accepted platelets as homologous with chactac. and eehinoderms. and a short. a circumoesophageal connective. 1959. Segrove 1941 . further debate on the systematic position of the pogonophores ensued. Some authors felt they were deutcrostomes and hence embryos had radial cleavage. confirmed by Jägersten (1956: 224). Webb (1964«. Interestingly. for example nereidids and scrpulids. the argument that pogonophores have radial cleavage may have been an interpretation based on expectation. in contrast to Ivanov (1959) who argued that the entire system was dorsal and single. Schroeder & Hermans 1975) until Grant (1981) and Marsden & Anderson (1981) demonstrated that the first three pairs of chaetal sacs form sequentially in the serpulid Galeolaria caespitosa. Significantly. apparently with reference to Lamellisabella only. clear drawings by Ivanov (1959). segmented opisthosoma (= metasoma). Johansson 1968). see also Nielsen 1987 for interpretation of ciliary bands in larvae). and was accepted and supported by polychaete workers (e. but used the similar structure of brachiopod chaetae to argue for a previous wide distribution of chaetae in the Metazoa. with the discovery that all previous specimens had been incomplete by Webb (1964a. Fauchald along the length of the eord allowed some workers to interpret the nerve eord in pogonophores as being dorsal and single (Beklemishev 1944. A strand of tissue running through the brain of pogonophores was first illustrated by Caullcry (1914a. N0rrcvang (197()ft) did maintain. In Sihoglinum ekmani. and he noted that in other polychaete clades. cntcropneusts. he compared Lamellisabella to various terebellomorph polychaetes and accepted the similarities in reduction of septa and in the development of anterior ncphridia. />. An idealised series of developmental stages. Traditional metazoan dorso-ventral orientation generally follows from the positional relationship between the digestive tract and nervous system. N0rrevang (1970a. and Terebellidae.

created a new subclass. recognising the Aeolosomatidae only. we assume that the Polychaeta. Hatschek (1893. Mollusca clade (Schräm & Ellis 1994). Polychaela. 273 with tjie Pogonophora the sister group to this clade. 1980) are considered in this section because of their uncertain affinity.g. Interestingly. and new family. related taxa were found near geothcrmal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean and elsewhere. This position was supported by Kasprzak (1984) and Brinkhurst & Nemec (1987).). only Kojima etal. and their position will not be considered further in this paper. 1992). most closely related to the Polychaeta. Lamellibrachiidae. the Oligoehaeta and Hirudinca (see Brusca & Brusca 1990). were described by Jones (1981a. and phcnetic and parsimony methods on 28S rDNA (Williams et al. 1991. These very large animals. Bunke's (1967. which he called the Vestimentifera because this was the most familiar name. 'Mollusques'. Though no synapomorphy has been demonstrated for the group to date. 1988) detailed descriptions clearly demonstrate that nuchal organs are present in both taxa. In studies identifying the taxon Articúlala in cladistic terms by Ax (1984. Taxa excluded from the analysis As well as major groups. The possibility that recognition of the Vestimentifera results in a paraphyletic Pogonophora seems very likely (see Discussion). or missing parapodia. Southward 1988. Reynolds & Cook 1976). while the monophyly of the Annelida has rarely been questioned. 1995). along with the Trochozoa. polychaetes and clitcllates. 1989) and elongation factor-1 alpha amino acid sequence data (Kojima et al. a separate phylum was erected for the Obturata by Jones (1985/>). and this has been subsequently widely accepted (Hyman 1959. and the subphylum Perviata contains the Frenulata. (1987). long listed among the clitcllates (Michaelsen 1928. Jones (1981a) added to the classification of the Pogonophora by erecting two subphyla. Chaetognatha. and 'Polypes' (mainly coclenterates). However. and the digestive tract is U-shaped and attached by a set of muscles to the base of the introvert. Crustacés'. and ventral pharyngeal structures of similar morphology. or worms). including poorly developed. 1993) and 18SrRNA(Winnepenninckx era/. Arthropoda (Schräm 1991) or an Annelida. but he maintained that the Pogonophora are one of five coclomate 'supcrphyla'. the Polychaeta. 1987a) have suggested that an arthropod assemblage may have a sister group within the Annelida. They also tended to be obviously ciliated as adults. Subsequently. Webb (1969a) described a new pogonophoran species. The leeches were listed among the Vers extérieurs without distinct external organs. we maintain the Vestimentifera and Pogonophora as separate taxa. 424). 1994) presently agree that the Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are protostomes related to the Annelida. considered a synonym of the Pogonophora by Ivanov 1963). in a variety of patterns (Goodrich 1912. Sipuncula. The issues of the monophyly of the Polychaeta. the Annelida was not identified by synapomorphy. latinised Annélides to Annelida (Lamarck 1818). and development of the body segments from a pygidial growth zone. The history of the group will be reviewed in detail elsewhere (Fauchald & Rouse in prep. (1993: 450) suggested that the frenulatc pogonophores and the vestimentiferans 'are not particularly close' but did not comment on the possible sister-group relationships. from slope depths off San Diego. Annelida has been the name most often used for the group. vestimcntiferans as they were called. Vestimenlifera. The name Annclides was derived from the Latin annulas. Southward & Coates 1989. Sipuncula. What needs to be assessed is the relationship of these taxa with the 'annelids' and the implications this has for a taxonomy intended to reflect phylogcnctic relationships. 'Vers' was divided into 'Vers extérieurs' and 'Vers intestins" by Lamarck (1801: 315). early larvae resemble trochophorcs. Echiura. in forthcoming papers (Fauchald & Rouse in prep. have been excluded from that taxon (Brinkhurst 1971 . presumably of the Annelida. Lamarck (1802. The correct form is Annulata and the group was periodicially referred to as such (Grübe 1850: 281. The subphylum Obturata contains the class Afrenulata. 1993). Lamarck ( 1801: 33-35) erected the group 'Animaux sans vertèbres' and separated it into seven classes. meaning a little ring. 1988). The features identifying this taxon are now regarded as convergences. The consequences of this suggested pattern are discussed below. 'Radicres" (cchinoderms and sipunculids). In the present analysis. Sedgewick ( 1898) raised the sipunculids to the level of phylum. They preferred to maintain these two new annelid classes as separate.g. and a systematic analysis at the family level. Hartmann-Schröder 1971. and Deutcrostomia. thus separating the arthropods into three distinct groups. Based on sperm ultrastructure. Lobatocerebridae Ricger. Bunke (1967) removed the genus Potumodrilus from the Aeolosomatidae and erected the Potamodrilidae. Archiannelida. is retractable. we used the two commonly accepted groups of annelids. Brusca & Brusca (1990) also did not show a synapomorphy for the members of the Annelida. 'Insectes". Eernissc ef a/. Afrenulata. 1809) applied the name 'Annélides' to the first section of the Vers extérieurs. Lamellibrachia barhami. are considered. Stephen & Edmonds 1972). Annelida. have suggested a close relationship of vestimentiferans and pogonophores to annelids or echiurans.Articulation of annelids polychaetes. (1993) and Winncpcnninckx et al. with the latter sometimes formulated as two separate classes. see also Jamieson 1988a). Webb assigned this new species to a new class. 'Vers' (= Vermes. The status of the Annelida is briefly reviewed here to provide support for our decision to doubt the monophyly of this taxon. Originally considered among the Vermes Intestina by Linné (1767). which is consistent with Jones' (1985a) statements based on morphology and anatomy. In this analysis. Van der Land & N0rrevang (1975: 98) discussed relations among annelids. Eemisse etal. Stephcnson 1930. Schräm 1991). 1989. 'Arachnides". incorrectly. Jamieson 1986. the sipunculids were related to the Holothuria by both Lamarck ( 1816) and Cuvicr (1817). it has also not been demonstrated convincingly. Vestimenlifera. Carey et al. and concluded that both the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera were classes of the Annelida. involves several ad hoc assumptions. Jamieson (I987fc. Timm (1981). and new order Aeolosomatida (see also Timm 1987). The phylum status of vestimentiferans has either been rejected (e. 1986. among these molecular studies. we include in here a proposed synapomorphy. certain taxa that have been assigned the status of family (e. Southward (1988) and Ivanov (1994) considered recognition of the phylum Vestimentifera untenable. Rouse & Fauchald in prep.. those with organes extérieurs". sipunculids. Fauchald & Rouse. He used the presence or absence of 'organes extérieurs" to divide the former into two unnamed groups.. and annelids. Aphanoneura. Phcnetic analyses of haemoglobin amino acid sequence data (Suzuki et al. presence of chaetae. new order. the presence of nuchal organs (Brusca & Brusca 1990. Fauchald 1977. Tentaculata. in spite of the many similarities between the two groups. Malmgren 1867). pogonophores. obs). 4). the form of the various coclomic cavities in the Vestimenlifera was so different from the Pogonophora that the taxonomic status of phylum was warranted. and Ashworth (1912) provides a review of the subsequent placement of. Pettibonc 1982) is a monophyletic assemblage. The anterior end of the adults. using haemoglobin morphology. sec also Hatschek 1878/)) created the class Archiannelida for a group of small polychaetes. Sipunculids arc triploblastic coelomates with no segmentation (Stephen & Edmonds 1972). However. but may develop into elaborate teleplanic forms before settling (Rice 1981. The archiannelids were presumed primitive with a simple body-structure. Jones argued that. As outlined in the intiuduction. even though they recognised similarities between them. however. This. Most authors (but see Ivanov 1988. Williams et al. The aeolosomatids. (1995) included a range of metazoan taxa. Sawyer 1984. as separate taxa. and vestimentiferans. As discussed above. Lamarck later. Recent cladistic morphological studies of members of the Metazoa have accepted the taxonomic status of the Pogonophora as a phylum when placing them as the sister group to the Annelida (Brusca & Brusca 1990: 882. suggested that Vestimentifera and Annelida are most closely related to one another. Scheltema (1993) regarded the Sipuncula as sister group to the Mollusca. and classification within. the vestimentiferans must belong in the Pogonophora. Day 1967.). based on the presence of a ventral nerve cord and circumoesophageal ring. pcrs.g. This suggests that the groups should be considered in relation to polychaetes. 1987) and Weygoldt (1986). the introvert. Southward (1988) indicated that her uncertainty about placing the pogonophores was because of missing cmbryological evidence. 1988/)) proposed that the Pogonophora (including vestimentiferans) may have a 'special relationship with the proto-clitellates rather than with polychaetes" (Jamieson 1988/. 1989. He assigned all previously described pogonophores to the class Frcnulata. many of which Zoológica Scripta 24 . though its membership and taxonomic rank have varied (see Ashworth 1912). Aeolosomatidae and Potamodrilidae. 1992: Fig.g. the Annelida is now usually said to include the taxa Polychaeta and Clitellata. With this in mind. Terwilliger fí a/. though Southward (1991) considered the Pogonophora as a class. Southward (1988) suggested that pogonophores be reduced to a class of the Annelida or be assigned to the phylum Brachiata erected by Ivanov (1955. comprising those taxa usually regarded as such (e. h). or not considered by workers (e. California. molluscs. Grube (1850) erected the Appcndiculata Polychaeta as an order of the Annelida. Later. other authors (Anderson 1973. Westhcide 1985). in reference to the presence of segments. and only three taxa were considered.

We donot refertoarchiannelids in our present analysis. W. and used other cytological evidence for placing the family among the annelids. 1992). It is curious that. argued for their position within the Chaetopoda (= Polychaeta). Another small worm described by Rieger ( 1991fl). though they have few macroscopic 'annelid' features. This opinion was based largely on similarities in sperm structure. there has not been a suggestion that deuterostomc or pseudococlomate taxa are closely related to "annelid" taxa.3) found the tentaculatc arms of the pterobranch hemichordate. Rouse and K. arc needed to clarify the position of lophophorate taxa. or internalised chaetae that support parapodial structures. Histriobdellids are currently considered modified eunicemorphs (Fauchald 1977). 1905). Brusca & Brusca (1990) summarise the argument as to why brachiopods and other lophophorates arc now viewed as deuterostomes. This loss of information. Myzostomida. that they arc the most plesiomorphic members of the clitellate clade. though a more useful comparison would have been with polychaete lateral organs (Fage 1906). All of these features support the view that myzostomids fall well within the polychaetes. pulchra has not been considered in this study. Some workers place the dcuterostomcs as the sister group to a (variously formulated) protostome clade (e. for the most part. Gustus & Cloney 1972. (1995) led them to suggest that lophophorates such as brachiopods. Eeckhaut & Jangoux 1993). Aciculae. or ignored altogether in polychaete texts (Day 1967. and also considered the myzostomids to have a coelom. a feature of many polychaetes with a muscular axial pharynx. Brusca & Brusca 1990. and as a separate systematic heading in Zoological Record as late as volume 125 (issued in December 1989). The parapodia of myzostomids can also be interpreted as representing the neuropodial rami. here defined as lobes that are supported by musculature. a multistate character will sacrifice the information for the more general hierarchical level. Von Graff (1877. Prenant (1959) gave an overview of myzostomid structure and biology and reviewed most of the history of the group. Fauchald 1974. However. but left the position of the family undetermined.274 G. Mattei & Marchand (1987) put forward the suggestion that the Myzostomida and Acanthocephala arc sister taxa. the use of the character 'chaetae' with two states. Stummer-Traunfcls (1903) compared the myzostome nervous system to that of the crustaceans. 1836). 1899. Kozloff 1987. Annelida. and it appears that structures previously called nephridia by Jägersten (1940) arc in fact coelomoducts. 1992. Jägersten 1940. The group was also the subject of some debate during the last century. 1973a. Kato 1952). Siebold (1848) placed them within the Chaetopoda (i. are a paraphyletic group (Winncpcnninckx et al. Van der Hocvcn (1856) placed them in the Crustacea. If a further character based on types of chaetae is added. including all relevant taxa. and that a sister group relationship amongst polychaetes with a muscularised axial pharynx should be assessed. This issue will be studied in another publication. The Archiannelida is now considered polyphylctic and most of the archiannelidan families have been proposed as belonging to clades including larger-bodied taxa (e. the range of taxa included was not comprehensive. and the eversible pharynx to that in platyhelminths. Purschkc 1988). and they are not included in this analysis. absence/presence coding is advocated by Pleijel (in press). Hartmann-Schröder 1971. Fauchald 1977. Fauchald 1977) or as a class of annelids (e. However. Schroeder & Hermans 1975. Halanych el al. Further studies at the morphological and molecular level. Dales 1963. The first scientist to describe a Zoológica Scripta 24 . alternatively. The use of multistate characters has been advocated by Maddison (1993). Clark 1969: 41^14. Lovcn (1840. Eernisse el al. absent or present. Here we use characters that arc. largely because of conflicting assessments about their morphology. 'lophophorate' and "pseudococlomate" taxa in relation to the "protostomcs" is unclear (see review by Eernisse el at. Recently. and a posterior tail with an anus. then a '?' is usually added to the matrix for taxa for which the character is inappropriate. It may well be that spiralians. and Diesing (1858) considered them leeches. (1995) went so far as to name a clade. Pettibone 1982). The body regions are separated by septa. The features of the parapodia of myzostomids that resemble those of certain polychaetes include the presence of aciculac (Jägersten 1936). Rieger (1988: 378-379) discussed the relations among the lobatocerebrids and various groups. Orrhagc 1971. myzostomids have been explicitly treated as a family or order of polychaetes (Hartman 1969.g. this problem. the taxon Archiannelida is still used by some authors (Bailey-Brock 1987. Rieger (1980) reported the nephridia to be metamerically arranged. Hence. Parapodia. phoronids and bryozoans. using 18S rDNA sequences. in seeking the systematic placement of lophophorate taxa. Jamieson el al. This implies that the absence of so many other annelid features in Lobatocerebrum arc losses. Descriptions of development in myzostomids show that they have spiral cleavage and teloblastic growth with segments added sequentially at the posterior end (Beard 1884. similar to that seen in polychaetes and. Rieger (1991ft) described the sperm of the lobatocerebrids as having an acrosomal tube and mitochondrial derivatives between the centriolcs and the nucleus. Storch & Welsch 1972. can be addressed by using a FIG/FOG approach with a scries of analyses at different hierarchical levels (Watrous & Wheeler 1981). Hence. Maddison 1993). molluscs. phoronids. Other evidence has clearly indicated that myzostomes are a group of annelids. the former present only in clitellates (Ferraguti 1983. for the lophophorates. is that a feature at a more general level may be absent or present. (1988) and Halanych elal. 1884) grouped the Tardigrada. The position of 'deuterostomc". Nielsen 1994). Fauchald myzostome. Characters The nature of current computer programs for cladistic analysis restricts the use of characters that are nested hierarchically. regarded them as trematodes. Lobatocerebrum was originally described as an annelid (Rieger 1980).' In the meantime. Eeckhaut el al. but exhibits some informative variation at a less general level. 1991 . Halanych et al. (1995) did not include hcmichordates such as ptcrobranchs in their analysis. Jenneriapulchra. though it deserves further study. Leuckart (1827. are clearly present in most polychaetes and myzostomids (Beard 1884. and resolving their position is beyond the scope of this study. and bryozoans fall well within the protostome clade. and probably polychaetes. are found in cunicimorph. as outlined by Pleijel (1995). Parapodia and chaetae are absent. Halanych (199. Deuleroslomes and ¡ophophorales. Maddison (1993: 580) states "Perhaps the eventual solution will be to write new algorithms for computer programs that will allow the characters to be coded independently but that will consider interactions between characters. protodrilids and saccocirrids with spioniforms. The structures of the sperm represent potential synapomorphies for lobatocerebrids and clitellates. with a resulting loss of information. Minichcv & Bubko 1993). Molecular sequence data. Lingulatidae. presented by Field eta!. the main body. and annelids. The Lobatocerebridae require further investigation. Eibye-Jacobsen & Kristenscn 1994). 1987). Westheide 1985. In a review of how to deal with missing data and inappropriate characters. possibly related to the clitellates (but sec Brinkhurst 1982: 1044).e. or. Beard (1884) described successive addition of parapodia and chaetae in myzostomid larvae. Pietsch & Wcstheide (1987) demonstrated that myzostomids have serially repeated pairs of protonephridia. and the "archiannelidan' families will be considered elsewhere. and protonephridia are present.g. 1994). 1995). though this does present linkage problems in terms of weighting features which can be broken into many discrete characters. though it is limited to the ducts and branches of the male and female reproductive systems (Jägersten 1940). While admitting that the position of the Acanthocephala is uncertain and deserves closer investigation (see Conway Morris & Crompton (1982) for a comprehensive review of ideas on acanthocephalan phylogeny). when (or if) it is recognised by workers. including annelids and acoclomatc phyla. as used in this paper. In the latter part of this century. This eversible axial pharynx is also seen in myzostomids (Jägersten 1940. does not logically allow for further characters to identify clades based on the nature of the chaetae in the same analysis. Eeckhaut & Jangoux (1993) described the serially repeated lateral sensory organs of myzostomes and compared them with polychaete nuchal organs. The body consists of a prc-oral rostrum. The digestive tract is complete. J. the taxa so scored will be assigned a state for the type of chaetae that may be meaningless (Platnick el al.g. Polychaeta) but also looked on them as a 'link' to the Trematoda. Jägersten (1936) showed that myzostomid chaetae are similar to those seen in polychaetes. is also of interest. and dinophilids arc also associated with this group (Wcsthcidc 1985. which usually support chaetae. We also did not include lophophorate taxa in our analysis. also 1842) as tardigrades. Purschke & Jouin 1988). Alternatively. and myzostomes into the Stechclopoda. Orrhagc 1974. Mattei & Marchand's paper appears to be an instance of emphasising one suite of characters to the exclusion of all other evidence. arguably independent and binary. George & Southward 1973). Lophotrochozoa. Lobatocerebridae and Jenneria. to be homologous with lophophores of brachiopods. Brusca & Brusca 1990). However. as did Wheeler (1898. and phyllodocimorph taxa (Fauchald 1977). but have carefully considered several are related to the small size of specimens (Hermans 1969. and they are not considered further in this study. and Pogonophora (Gupta & Little 1970. It is well known that the chaetae of brachiopods show striking similarities with those of the Echiura. and should form the phylum Prococlomata. Rhabdopleura normani. derived mostly from circular muscles. In spite of these developments. amphinomid. Clark (1978) even suggested that there was little evidence to retain them within the Annelida.

Brusca & Brusca 1990. In the latter group. A gut in /. and the eggs are small and secondarily yolkless (Anderson 1973). 1981. A complete gut with an anus (state 1) is present in all members of the ingroup. 5. Ecrnisse elal. In pogonophores and vcstimentifcrans. The cross patterns are formed by different blastomercs. the holoblastic spiral cleavage seen in crustacean embryos such as barnacles is not regarded as homologous to that seen in other taxa (Anderson 1973). Taxa in the analysis have mcsoderm derived from the 4d blastomcre. We used a binary character with the states: 0. Reynolds cl al. Echiurids and sipunculids have open coelomic spaces (Stephen & Edmonds 1972). and the pcrieardial cavity of molluscs. Scheltema 1993). Wheeler et al. However. Members of the Euarthropoda that do not show mcroblastic cleavage arc limited to a few groups such as the Xiphosura. it appears that this is associated with viviparity. 1981. Since there are no data on cleavage in the Vestimentifera. and we accept this hypothesis here. except in a few. The characters arc those normally invoked in discussions of relationships among "protostomcs' (Brusca & Brusca 1990. 7. We have used a binary character with the states: 0. We have used a binary character with the states: 0. The nerve ring connects the dorsal cephalic ganglion (or brain) at or near the anterior end to the rest of the nervous system. clitellatcs (Necdham 1990). Circumoesophageal nerve ring present. we do not regard this condition as homologous with the condition found in other taxa (see Ax 1984. derived from a mesentoblast. (1995) have also shown that the sub-cuticular bacteria of/. and various crustaceans (Anderson 1973). Southward (1988) and Jones & Gardiner (1988. 3. Brusca & Brusca (1990: 885-886) define segmentation as the 'repetition of homologous body structures derived by teloblastic growth'. clitellates (Anderson 1973). Pogonophores and vcstimentifcrans have a gut lumen that is largely occluded by an expanded gut wall filled with bacteria (state 1). the nutrition of pogonophores had been the subject of some debate (Ivanov 1955. Gardiner & Jones 1993. The history of the interpretation of the nerve ring in pogonophores was discussed above. and a symbiotic association was evident. Spiral cleavage with radiate or 'molluscan' cross. We have used a binary character to describe the digestive tract. A digestive tract with mouth and anus. Since pogonophorc arc known to have holoblastic spiral cleavage. Coelom present. Where holoblastic 'spiral' cleavage occurs. but this does not influence our scoring. Spiral cleavage with interradiate or 'annelid' cross. Scheltema 1993). Spiral cleavage with cross absent. they were allowed to have either state 0. a nerve ring is present. No studies of early cleavage in the Vestimentifera have been performed. but these taxa can be regarded as schizocoelous coclomates (Southward 1988. 1. but despite this. The nature of the coelom in the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera is the subject of some debate (see Southward 1988). Embryonic cross formation. In any case. as coelomic in nature (Turbeville & Ruppert 1985. Bakke 1990). Coetom. homology assessments amongst these forms are difficult to make. A schizocoelic coelom is formed when solid mesodermal clusters. The eggs of pogonophores and vcstimentifcrans do not contain bacteria.Articulation of annelids multistate characters where binary coding would have been misleading or erroneous. 1992). Small polychaetcs often lack a complete coelomic lining (Fransen 1980). a complete digestive tract has not been recognised during development of any pogonophore. There are different final forms that the schizocoelic coelom can take. It was determined that the trophosome of the vestimentiferan Riftia contains masses of chemoautotrophic bacteria (Cavanaugh et al. In euarthropods with mcroblastic cleavage. anus absent. as in some crustaceans. certain cells derived from the first and second quartet can form transitory crossshaped patterns centred at the apical end of the embryo (Salvini-Plawen 1988. with the platyhelminths having the state 0. 1. hollow out and develop coelomic spaces within (Brusca & Brusca 1990). They suggested that bacteria probably enter through this transient digestive tract. even if it may be lost in the adults (e. All other taxa in the analysis have a permanent gut lumen (state 0). The absence of a coelom in platyhelminths may or may not be secondary (Smith & Tyler 1985). and that the trophosome is a thickened gut wall. Salvini-Plawen (1985. but see Ecrnisse ei al. 4. which is developed as a few (one to four) longitudinal nerve trunks. with the cross formed by the blastomcre cells 1 a""-l d"'. we consider the plesiomorphic polychacte condition to be coelomate. Excretion. Protoncphridia Zoológica Scripta 24 . I. mostly parasitic. and wc have coded them with a unique state for this character. Wheeler ei al. 351) has noted a small lumen in the trophosome of pogonophores.g. Where cleavage is total. Segmentation present. so how they entered the juveniles became an issue of considerable interest. While in some platyhelminths. is present in all spiralians. 2. some other cheUcerates. This also involves a posterior growth zone from which the body segments arise (Anderson 1973). 1. Southward (1993: 349. 1989) demonstrated the presence of a temporary mouth and anus. cestodes and Acanthocephala) and the Platyhclminthes. The occlusion of the coelom in some members of the Hirudinea and replacement with a haemocoel is regarded as a secondary phenomenon (Fernandez el al. Characters and states arc shown in Appendix I. Morse & Reynolds in press). and certain moUuscan clades. The nutrition of pogonophores was found to be the same as in the vcstimentifcrans (Southward et al. as well as a lumen in the area of the future trophosome. Cavanaugh 1985). Sources for character data for each taxon arc shown in Appendix III. This is found in all taxa in the analysis except the Platyhclminthes and Nemertea (see Brusca & Brusca 1990). In studies of juveniles of the vcstimentifcrans Ridgeia and Riftia. 0. However. 6. 2. the segmented condition found in polychaetcs (Anderson 1973). 3. Coelom absent. Circumoesophageal nerve ring absent: 1. Gut lumen. It is difficult to directly compare onychophoran and cuarthropod early embryos with those of taxa showing spiral cleavage. 1992). Richards et al. groups (e. Southward 1982). 1993.g. it is not yet possible to determine what form of 'cross' is present. 1. Vestimentifera and Pogonophora). 1994). an ontogcnetic derivative of the endoderm (Schroeder & Hermans 1975). and it has been shown that a transitory gut passes though the brain in vcstimentifcrans (Gardiner & Jones 1993). Nine of the characters arc binary characters. an anal pore (or pores) is present (Hyman 1951a). vcstimentifcrans (Jones & Gardiner 1989. Anderson (1973) has shown that the mcsoderm does not arise from 4d. with the information content of the presence of the coelom being lost. The result of a multistate character on the schizocoelic coelom could reasonably be a series of autapomorphies. 1991. 1982) though this may have been in reference to the absence of a gut lumen. but it surrounds the rhynchocoel (Turbeville 1991). collapsing the lumen. The occurrence of apparently symbiotic bacteria beneath the cuticle in the tubificid clitellates of the genera//lamWrilus and Olavius (sec Erscus 1984). but Flügel & Callsen-Cenic (1992) demonstrated the transitory presence of an anus and a short posterior gut lumen in the larvae of a species of Sihoglinum. We do not accept such a view. though this has yet to be demonstrated for the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera. 1993. Polychaetcs (Salvini-Plawen 1988). Segmentation. they were scored with a '?'. A schizocoelic metameric coelom forms in the onychophoran and cuarthropod embryo but is restricted in the adults to the gonads and parts of the excretory system (Anderson 1973. Southward & Southward 1966). Jamieson 1992). as do most clitellates (Cook 1971 . Wc do not regard the serial repetition of ncphridia and/or gonads that can occur in some nemerteans and molluscs (Brusca & Brusca 1990) as homologous with segmentation. and molluscs and sipunculids show a cross formed by blastomere cells la'"-ld'' (Meglitsch 1972. 1988) rejected the use of this feature for phylogenetic inference because of its absence in any form in such taxa as the 'Turbellaria'. Brusca & Brusca 1990. The characters under study arc discussed in detail to determine whether they can be multistate or should be binary. A total of 13 characters were used. Mcroblastic or other non-spiral cleavage. Segmentation absent. leukodermatiLS are more closely related to those occurring on a ncmatode than to those of the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila. mouth and digestive tract present. Digestive tract. or its positional equivalent in the case of the Onychophora (Anderson 1973). there is no way of tracing cell lineages compared with those 275 showing spiral cleavage. Smith & Ruppert 1988). with a total of 33 character states. 1993. Wc have therefore used a binary character based on the nature of the gut. and echiurids (Newby 1940) show one form. Given the absence in the adult of a distinct gut lumen. Jamieson 1981 ). leiikodermatus and O. 1993). 1987). 1992). Nemertea. a very different situation to Inanidrilus and Olavius spp. is not regarded as homologous to the condition seen in the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera. While studies on cleavage of pogonophores now indicate that cleavage is spiral and complete (Ivanov 1988. Gardiner & Jones 1993) and arthropods (Anderson 1973) is regarded as homologous by most authors (Brusca & Brusca 1990. alhidus is said to be absent (Giere 1981 . the endoderm is voluminous and filled with bacteria to form the trophosome. or 2. Ncphridia are primarily excretory in function and cctodermal in origin (Goodrich 1945. Turbeville 1986. since an endodermal strand does appear to be present in both species (Giere 1981. leading to a uniform blastoderm around a yolk mass. Circumoesophageal nerve ring. pogonophores (Southward 1993). Onychophorans (and many euarthropods) have cleavage that is meroblastic. During spiral cleavage. Jagcrsten 1956. and it should be noted that Scheltema (1993) has indicated the existence of a cross in each of the major molluscan clades. Storch & Ruhbcrg 1993. Wc treat this character as multistate with four states. Dubilierpiu/. So far. Four characters are multistate. We recognise the nemertean rhynchocoel and lateral vessels.

We acknowledge that the state 'metanephridia' is linked to having a coelom and so cannot occur in acoelomate taxa such as platyhclminths. Fernández et al. sec discussion in Glasby 1993). or vestimentiferans. but these small taxa are unlikely to represent the plesiomorphic polychacte condition (Fauehald & Rouse in prep. we gave them a separate state for this character. Fauchald 1984. 3. admittedly. we left this as a binary character with the states: 0. van der Land & Nwrrcvang (1975) mention a pair of anterior metanephridia with a single median dorsal opening to the exterior.276 G. Chaetae (setae) are bundles of chitinous. Adult sipunculids (Stephen & Edmonds 1972. the ultrastructure of these organs has been studied by Smith & Ruppert (1988). 1977. Chaetae. a cuticle can be defined as an external non-living layer secreted by the epidermis (Brusca & Brusca 1990). there are a dorsal and a ventral pair of chactac in each segment (Southward 1993). these were not seen in a similar study by George & Southward (1973). They are produced by a microvillar border of invaginated epidermal cells (O'Clair & Cloney 1974. may be homologous to nuchal organs. 1991. 1. or cephalic organ (Stephen & Edmonds 1972. Based on this data. Rice 1993) innervated from the front of the brain (Rice 1993). and similar sensory structures. W. Rice 1993). Sipuncula (Storch 1984. Reynolds et al. Wcstheidc 1985). 8. 1984. onychophorans (Storch & Ruhberg 1993) and euarthropods (Meglitsch 1972. Rieger et al. where microvilli and a glycocalyx may be present but there is no collagenous matrix (Rieger Zoológica Scripta 24 . 1. innervated from the posterior part of the brain (Mill 1978. or even form complete rings (Jamieson 1992). though they may absent. though Gardiner & Jones (1993) questioned whether the spaces into which the ducts open are coelomie. Nuchal organs have not been reported for the pogonophores.1945). The cephalic organ is also single. Storch 1988). but we do not consider them to be homologous with the arthropod cuticle. Wcygoldt 1986. Specht 1988). Turbeville 1991). we will accept Southward's (1980) designation of protoncphridia as present in pogonophores. found these structures to have an appearance like flame cells. Brusca & Brusca 1990). Wheeler et al.) and arc absent in clitcllates (Jamieson 19880). Polychaetes have been found to have both protoncphridia and metanephridia (Goodrich 1945. many groups have single. Cuticle present (with a large alpha chitin component). matrix). Polychacta (Richards 1978. They are present in nearly all polychaetes (Fauchald & Rouse in prep. In the vestimentiferans Lamellibrachia barhami and L. mixonephridia) structurally similar to those of sabellid and serpulid polychaetes (Orrhagc 1980). The structure and distribution of nephridia were discussed by Goodrich (1895. we used a multistate character. usually ventrally located. 1993). Storch & Welsch 1972. In pogonophores. Pilger 1993). and have sister groups with metanephridia. the cuticle does not contain collagen fibres but has two layers with a large chitinous (alpha chitin) component (Wcygoldt 1986. Storch & Schlötzer-Schrehardt 1988. Rouse and K. since the word 'metanephridia' has not been mentioned for these taxa.ye (Grégoire 1972). The Mollusca show a fibrous cuticle but the protein component is unique and called conchin (Brusca & Brusca 1990). Chaetae absent . Nuchal organs present. Smith & Ruppert 1988). In the Onychophora and other arthropods. though as it turns out they arc only present in some of the taxa scored with a collagenous cuticle. Chactac present. Each nephridium opens to a coelomie space. but in some sipunculids. Wheeler eí a/. I. Jamieson 1981). Sipunculids are here considered as not having nuchal organs. In polychaetes. In the Echiura. however. The nephridia of Siphonohrachia lauensis could be interpreted as metanephridia (Southward 1993: 353) whilst those of Oligohrachia gracilis and Siboglinum spp. Gardiner & Jones 1993). The description by Smith & Ruppert (1988) of mollusean excretory organs as being metanephridial is based on a functional interpretation rather than structural aspects. and in the opisthosoma. cuticle. Specht (1988) additionally regarded them as cuticular structures that develop within epidermal follicles. with the states: 0. Brusca & Brusca 1990. Southward (1988). and that they had a mesodermal origin (contra Brusca & Brusca 1990). Wheeler et al. 1992. Chaetal ultrastructure is similar in cases examined to date (Orrhagc 1971 . clitcllatcs (Cook 1971. 1993) have metanephridial derivatives only. However. preliminary analysis indicates that a collagenous cuticle is present (Storch 1984.g. Owing to the uncertainty about the homology of chaetal distribution patterns. Fauchald 1974. this assertion has yet to be properly assessed. With reference to the taxa discussed here. No structures homologous with nuchal organs are present in either molluscs or echiurids (Brusca & Brusca 1990. Such a cuticle is absent in the Platyhelminthes and Nemertea. 2. and the differences were rejected as trivial by Southward (1993). see Smith & Ruppert 1988).. Mollusean excretory system. Onychophorans and euarthropods have no epidermal cilia (Weygoldt 1986. All taxa included in this analysis show the presence of outer circular muscle layers and inner longitudinal arc closed by a terminal cell. George & Southward 1973. In the Echiura. Pogonophora (Southward 1993). Storch & Ruhberg 1993. Cuticle present (with fibrous. Longitudinal muscle bands. Brusca & Brusca 1990. The hetcroncmcrtcan cephalic grooves resemble nuchal organs positionally and possibly structurally (see overview in Hyman 1951a). The presence of dorsal and ventral bundles of chactac has been considered a synapomorphy for the Annelida (Wheeler et al. Platyhelminths (Ricgcr et al. Secondly.). 10. we coded them as unknown (?) since their absence has yet to be demonstrated. (1993) suggested that coelomie ultrafiltration is the plesiomorphic state for the Mollusca and described podocytes in aplacophorans which are always found in metanephridial systems (Smith & Ruppert 1988). Menon & Arp 1991). Adult protoncphridia present. 1984. sensory structures. Salvini-Plawcn (1988) argued that the excretory organs of molluscs showed no homology with metanephridia. The ventral hooks of echiurids are chactac (Orrhagc 1971. Nuchal organs are ciliated. paired ventral chaetae are present anteriorly and one or more rings of chaetae may be present posteriorly (Pilger 1993). In the Vestimcntifcra. 1993). For this study. This form of cuticle is found in the Clitellata (Richards 1978. 1. Cuticle. lending support to a nephridial interpretation. a pair of cephalic tubes leads to the exterior (Hyman 1959: 615. Firstly. chaetae are only present in the opisthosoma and form a row on each side of most segments (Gardiner & Jones 1993). there arc typically four equatorial bundles of chactac.e. 1993). Rice 1993) and Vestimcntifcra (Gaill etal. Pisionidae. Rieger (1984: 389) regards a cuticle as the fibrous and/ or granular materials which arc associated with the outer surface of the epidermis. We used a binary character for nuchal organs with the states: 0. Cuticle present (with conehin). and Nephtyidae (Goodrich 1945) all belong to a derived clade of the Polychacta. and regarded the excretory ducts with a single exit dorsally as coelomoduets. Nuchal organs. although a detailed description has yet to appear. 2. segmentai chaetal bundles (Fauchald 1977). Southward's (1993) discussion of the fine structure of the excretory system in several pogonophores is difficult to interpret in terms of assigning the states metanephridia or protoncphridia. Pilger 1993). collagenous. Nuchal organs absent. many taxa with protoncphridia are extremely small. We view them here as metanephridial derivatives (i. but this is not associated with the cuticle per . 647). the relations among these clades arc unresolved. Jamieson 1992). //. 1991 . or metanephridial systems and Hmited coelomie spaces (onychophorans and euarthropods). Pilger 1993). the epidermal bristles found in some sipunculids arc structurally completely different and are not chaetae (Rice 1973). and we were interested in the transformation of this character and the assumption that protoncphridia arc homologous. Turbeville ( 1991 ) regards the nemertean cerebral organs to be unique to the group. Pogonophores have an anterior pair of protoncphridia according to Southward (1980). We regard metanephridia to be the plesiomorphic polychaetc state. We regard chaetae as being independent of the type of cuticle present. since there is at present little evidence for a metanephridial homologue in the mollusean excretory system. but have yet to be investigated in detail. While Orrhagc (1973a) found some ultrastructural differences between pogonophoran and annelid chaetae. While many authors have assumed that paired dorsal and ventral bundles of chaetae represent the plesiomorphic polychaetc condition (e. and metanephridia open into a coclomic cavity (Bartolomaeus & Ax 1992). 1993) and hence cannot have nuchal organs. For the purposes of this study. Richards 1978). Jamieson 1992). However. in a study on the development of vestimentiferans. Within the clitcllates. and thus can be classified as metanephridial. thin-walled cylinders held together by sclerotinizcd protein. and protoncphridia may be secondarily derived in this instance (Rouse & Fauehald in prep. Chactac also have a large chitin component (beta chitin) and are cuticular (Richards 1978. many coelomatcs have protoncphridia as adults (many polychaetes. Cuticle with glycocalyx only. luymesi. Jones (1985fl) and Gardiner & Jones (1993) studied other vestimentiferans. larger polychaetc taxa with protoncphridia such as the Glyceridae. paired. These. cephalic grooves arc here regarded as being more similar to the sensory structures of some flatworms than to those of polychaetes. The claws of onychophorans and setae of euarthropods (Brusca & Brusca 1990) are not considered homologous with chaetae. Molluscs can also produce large quantities of chitin. The structure termed a nuchal organ in this group is a single external lobe (sometimes subdivided). 9. Gustus & Cloney 1972. 1991) and nemertcans (Turbeville 1991) have protoncphridia only. two girdles of chaetae may completely encircle the trunk region. The nature of this cuticle can be such that microvilli are present and secrete a network of fibres (in part collagenous where identified to date). Adult metanephridia or 'derivatives' present. appear to be protonephridial (Southward 1993: 354-5). echiurids (Stephen & Edmonds 1972. We used a multistate character with the states: 0. Chaetae arc thought to have been lost in leeches (Purschke et al. Phyllodocidae.

1991). II. This anchoring apparatus then abuts the sperm nucleus. rather than the sipunculids (Figs IB.Articulation of annelids muscle layers (Brusca & Brusca 1990) with a few exceptions in some of the groups.e. and it is here assumed to be the plesiomorphic state for the taxon. Cladogram construction 111 12. However. 7. IE. Polychaeta (Storch 1968). Vestimentifera (Gardiner & Jones 1993). 1. 1993). 1991). 2E. Thus. We used a binary character with the states: 0. the longitudinal muscles are divided into many distinct bands (Brusca & Brusca 1990. Brusca & Brusca 1990. The Onychophora. open with chambered heart: 3. and MULPARS was activated. were sister group to the (Polychaeta (Pogonophora Vestimentifera)) (Figs 2G. although the coelom functions as a circulatory system. 2B. Essentially it is a primary body cavity lined with an extracellular matrix rather than cells (Bartolomaeus 1988. IF). Nixon & Carpenter 1993).g. Mollusca. 2H). Multistate characters were treated as unordered (non-additive). MacClade assesses all possible transformations (i. 21). but we assume this to be a loss. Cladistic analyses were performed using PAUP 3. but Figs 19 and 20 in Jones (1985a) suggest that bands are present ventrally at least. Circulatory system absent. 2H. we have coded the Ncmcrtca as absent for this character. Onychophora. 2A. A blood vascular system is usually regarded as a remnant of the blastococl. IE. or are larger polychaete taxa with protonephridia. Alternative transformations that appear in the other tree topologies are discussed in the text and shown in Fig. We have incorporated this character in a large data set as a test of Jamieson's (1986. ID. Storch & Ruhberg 1993. II). in six other minimal length trees. Most coclomate taxa possess a closed vascular system (Ruppert & Carle 1983). i. Embryonic cross formation". Euarthropoda. Open circulatory systems have some discrete vessels. Pogonophora. transformations for all characters in the analysis are shown in Figs 4-6. a consistency index (CI) of 0. Pogonophora (Southward. They had a length of 23 steps. Ncmcrtca. a muscular ostiatc heart and some short vessels (Brusca & Brusca 1990. and Polychaeta (Figs 2D. 3. Ingroup taxa are the Clitellata. Storch & Ruhberg 1993) and Euarthropoda (Brusca & Brusca 1990. both 'Delayed' transformations and 'Accelerated' transformations). The position of mitochondria in spermatozoa of metazoans is usually around the centrioles anchoring the axonemc (e. and Vestimentifera. 21). It is thought to be derived from coelomic components (Turbeville 1986. a number of leeches show a limited circulatory system (Brusca & Brusca 1990). and we used one here based on sperm ultrastructure. Longitudinal muscle sheets present. 21). Results The exhaustive search option found 18 minimum length trees (Figs lA-lF. Pogonophora (Southward 1993). Zero-length branches were collapsed. Wheeler i>r al. IC. The Clitellata were either the sister group to the (Onychophora Euarthropoda) (Figs lA. there are three basic tree topologies before considering the taxa that are the main object of study. Echiura.87 (with uninformative characters removed CI = 0. ID. Mitochondria in sperm. virtually alone amongst the Metazoa. open with ostiate heart. Circulatory system. Rice 1993) but we do not regard this as homologous to the large discrete bundles seen in other taxa. 1987a) used this as evidence to support the hypothesis that the Clitellata are the sister group to the Onychophora. . Reynolds et al. 1. Onychophora (Mantón 1967. 1. the Sipuncula were the sister group to the clade. usually cither 4 or 5. and the spacious coelom fulfils the functions of gas exchange and fluid transport (Rice 1993). were uninformative. 1993). it is not considered homologous to the arthropod system. Sperm mitochondrial interpolation absent. and this clade was the sister group to (Echiura (Polychaeta (Vestimentifera Pogonophora) Clitellata (Onychophora Euarthropoda))). Polychaeta. 2B. IH. formed a polytomy with the Polychaeta and (Clitellata (Euarthropoda Onychophora)) (Figs ID. and other arthropods. The strict consensus tree is shown in Fig. and the data matrix is presented in Appendix 11. 2G). 2A-2F). 'Coelom' and 5. have an open circulatory system comprised of a haemocoel. Sipuncula. with all ingroup taxa having the state 'present'. and the heart itself is chambered rather than ostiate (Brusca & Brusca 1990). and this clade was then the sister group to the (Euarthropoda Onychophora) (Figs IG. IB. such as the Glyceridae. (Echiura (Polychaeta (Vestimentifera Pogonophora) Clitellata (Onychophora Euarthropoda))). In taxa such as the Platyhelminthes (Rieger ei al. Sperm ultrastructure has been used to provide systematic characters in a variety of taxa (e. but the blood and the body cavity fluid are the same. Similarly. Pilger 1993. There is no evidence for any form of circulatory system in the Platyhelminthes (Rieger el al. Bartolomaeus 1988) and this is not homologous with a closed circulatory system. Bartolomaeus 1994). We have chosen the Platyhelminthes to root the most parsimonious trees and polarise the characters used (Maddison etal. lA. Jamieson (1986. Zoológica Scripta 24 13. or formed a polytomy with the (Euarthropoda Onychophora).765. These taxa belong to a derived clade of the Polychaeta (Rouse & Fauchald in prep. or were part of the three types of polytomies as stated in (2). IC. 2. 2C. and Phyllodocidae (Smith 1992). 2F). the Pogonophora were scored with 0. In the Mollusca. Circulatory system present. 'Digestive tract'. We have used a binary character with the states: 0. Analysis of character state distributions and optimisations were performed using PAUP and MacClade 3. IF). Blood vascular systems can be cither viewed as closed or open. show the interpolation of a group of mitochondria between the anchoring apparatus and the sperm nucleus.01 (Maddison & Maddison 1992). Within the Clitellata. the longitudinal muscles form sheets. IF. In the Sipuncula. 2A. The nemertean "circulatory' system is an autapomorphy.g. We used a multistate character for the circulatory system with the states: 0. Sipuncula (Rice 1993). 2C. In six minimal length trees (Figs lA.1 (Swofford 1993). 1984. this clade then being sister group to the Echiura. in polychaetes Jamieson & Rouse 1989). IE. Clitellata.e. unlike the arthropods. the Mollusca were the sister group to this clade. In the Clitellata (Avel 1959). as postulated by Bartolomaeus (1988). but this is unlikely tobe the plesiomorphic condition fortheclade. For character 1. The Echiura (Pilger 1993). with the former having blood contained in discrete vessels that are separate from the coclom. Thus. there is no circulatory system. IB. Ncmcrtca (Turbcvillc 1991). 2F. Ruppert & Carle 1983). Polychaetes where circulatory system is limited or absent are either very small. It is usually argued that this condition is associated with a reduced coclom (Hyman 1951«. There are 13 characters. Sperm mitochondrial interpolation present. the principal body cavity is also a haemocoel. in the remaining six minimal length trees (Figs IC. Based on the topology represented on Fig. formed a polytomy with Clitellata and Polychaeta. Circulatory system present. 2E. and unknown character states were coded as a '?'. 3. IG. 2D. the molluscs and sipunculids were the sister taxa. using the consensus tree topology. Our aim in this paper has been to use characters that arc as arguably independent as possible.1. There were three areas of instability among the 18 trees: 1. The clade (Pogonophora Vestimentifera) was either the sister group to the Polychaeta (Figs lA. The organization of vestimentiferan musculature has not been fully reported. Tree searches were performed using the exhaustive search command. 1993). 1991. Echiura (Pilger 1993). 1. Circulatory system present. 2G. Wheeler et al. with equal weights. and Clitellata (Jamieson 1992) have a closed circulatory system. Jamieson (1986) noted that Onychophora and clitcllates.). The heart is surrounded by a coelomic remnant. or 2 using the OR separator '/' since they do not have the arthropod state 3 (meroblastic cleavage). Longitudinal muscle bands present. In a few members of the Sipuncula and Echiura.85) and a rescaled CI of 0. Most polychaetes have a closed circulatory system (Gardiner 1992). 2H. Pisionidae. and hence there is an open circulatory system (Brusca & Brusca 1990. 1993) the longitudinal muscles form a number of discrete bands. IH. Jamieson 1987a). 2. 1987«) hypothesis. and Mollusca (Brusca & Brusca 1990). closed. Characters 2. a circulatory system is absent in the echiurid Urechis caiipo (Pilger 1993). or it develops in regions that have replaced the blastocoel. a haemocoel is present (Ruppert & Carle 1983).

An annelid cross is present in the Echiura. 4A shows the grade Platyhelminthes and Nemertea with the cross absent (state 1). 4B (= tree shown in Fig.g. The Articulata is comprised of the following taxa: Arthopoda (= Euarthropoda and Onychophora). 21). 4A). Polychaeta.87 rooted using the Platyhelminthes. Either the plesiomorphic condition for all ingroup taxa. II. 7A (which is the tree shown in Fig. Clitellata. For these trees. is assigned to the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera in all optimizations. J. Coelom. In the six minimal length trees where the Sipuncula are sister group to the Mollusca (Figs IC. lA). shows the presence of a schizocoelic coelom to be a synapomorphy for the . Fig. changing to the molluscan cross (state 1) for the mollusc and sipunculid grade. 2C. with lengths of 23 steps and Cl of 0. The transformation series in Fig. except the Nemertea. Character state transformations Cleavage patterns. the presence of the molluscan cross (state 1) is the only synapomorphy supporting this topology. as suggested by the equivocal region on the branch between the Nemertea and (Mollusca Sipuncula) in transformation series shown in Fig. W. Nine of the minimal length trees (18) resulting from our search. in the context of the available evidence from other characters. Figure 4A is representative of the transformation (with a length of three steps) for cleavage patterns found in 12 of the 18 topologies. 2F. Rouse and K. there are two possible alternative transformation series Zoológica Scripta 24 for this character. and Polychaeta. The presence of the molluscan cross then allows for the Mollusca and Sipuncula to be sister taxa. IC). The meroblastic cleavage condition (state 3) is a synapomorphy for the Onychophora Euarthropoda and is derived from the 'annelid' cross (state 2) in all minimal length trees (e. Fauchald Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula Mollusca Nemcrtea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula Mollusca Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula Mollusca Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea f/g. Pogonophora (including vcstimentiferans). and Clitellata and. and all other minimal length trees. The transformation (one step) for the coelomic character in Fig. is the absence of a cross (state 0).278 G. or the plesiomorphic condition is the 'annelid' cross (state 2). IF.

Pogonophora. The remaining nine of minimal length trees resulting from our search ingroup taxa and hence is uninformative in terms of resolving relationships amongst them (Fig. 4D and in all other topologies. Polychaeta. and Vestimentifera. and Echiura show the plesiomorphic condition. The grade Platyhelminthes. Sipuncula. 4B). Strict consensus tree of the 18 minimal length trees. The presence of a circumoesophageal ring (one step) identifies the clade Mollusca. body unsegmented (Fig. Onychophora. The complete nature of the digestive tract (one step) is a synapomorphy for the ingroup taxa in Zoológica Scripla 24 . Nemertea. 3. Mollusca. Circumoesophageal ring. 2. Echiura. Digestive system. Clitellata. Polychaeta. • Platyhelminthes • Onychophora k Euarthropoda • Clitellata p Pogonophora h Vestimentifera k Polychaeta k Echiura h Mollusca hSipuncula kNemertea Fig. the presence of segmentation (one step) is a synapomorphy grouping the Clitellata. 4C). Segmentation.Articulation of annelids Platyhclminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula MoUusca Nemertca Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea 279 Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula Mollusca Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda ClitellaU Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes p Onychophora k Euarthropoda I ClitellaU p Pogonophora I Vestimentifera I Polychaeta I Echiura I Sipuncula I Mollusca I Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Fig. Euarthropoda. Pogonophora. Onychophora. Euarthropoda. In all minimal length trees. Sipuncula. and Vestimentifera in Fig.

Nephridia. Excretion). Rouse and K. Found in all minimal length trees this is the only possible transformation for the coclomic character. 4E) and hence is uninformative in terms of resolving relationships amongst them.g. Though uninformative for resolving relationships amongst the ingroup. or independently of it from a protonephridial condition. . see above. Fauchald Cleavage pattern I I Cross absent Molluscan cross Annelid cross MeroblastiCy nPlatyhelminlhes • Onychophora •Euarthropoda •Clitellata 7Pogonophora •pVestimenlifera • Polychaeta •Echiura nSipuncula • Mollusca oNemertea •Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda DPlatyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata iPogonophora iVestimentifera iPolychaeta lEchiura iSipuncula iMoUusca iNemertea Segmentation I I Absent ^^1 Present ClitellaU Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta oEchiura oSipuncula laMolIusca oNemertea •Platyhelminthes •Onychophora • Euarthropoda • Clitellata • Pogonophora iVestimentifera iPolychaeta •Platyhelminthes •Onychophora •Euarthropoda •Clitellata •Pogonophora •Vestimentifera •Polychaeta •Echiura iSipuncula •Mollusca •Nemertea Nerve ring Absent Present •Echiura • Sipuncula •Mollusca oNemertea Fig. Occlusion of the gut lumen (one step) is a synapomorphy for the pogonophores and vestimentiferans in all tree topologies (e. Note. 5B. with a reversal to this condition occurring in the Pogonophora (somewhat Zoológica Scripta 24 questionably. 2A. ID. there are three possible transformations of this character on the branch indicated as equivocal in Fig. The molluscan condition could have been derived from a metanephridial condition. Found in all minimal length trees this is the only possible transformation for the segmentation character.•C. 4. IG. This is a synapomorphy for the members of the Articulata. For the six tree topologies shown in Figs lA. or 2) and vestimcntifcrans (scored with a '?') are indicated by a "?' to show this uncertainty. pogonophores (scored with 0. Transformation series for the character based on embryonic cleavage found in 12 of the 18 minimal length trees. 5A). Fig. W. In all minimal length trees this is the only possible transformation for the nature of the digestive tract. the presence of a coelom is a synapomorphy for them as a whole. • all minimal length trees (e. and 2G. Transformation series for the other six trees are discussed with reference to Fig. The only possible transformation for the circumoesophagcal nerve ring. protonephridia occur in the grade Platyhelminthes and Nemertea.g. 1. Transformations of the first five characters used in our analysis onto the minimal length tree shown in Fig.•E. 1 A. Found in all minimal length trees. The 'equivocar branch below the ingroup outgroup node is irrelevant. The third possible alternative for the topology shown in Fig. and all other optimizations. The "equivocal' branch below the ingroup outgroup node is irrelevant.•D.•A. In all topologies. Though uninformative for resolving relationships amongst the ingroup the presence of a complete gut (even if only transiently in Pogonophora and Vestimentifera) is a synapomorphy for them as a whole. Character 7. 2D.280 G.•B. The character transformation involves four steps in all minimal length trees. Fig. 7A. They arc given the state for the annelid cross in this.

In the transformation series shown in Fig. This is a result of coding the latter two taxa as unknown ('?') for this character. and IF have the Clitellata as the sister group to the (Onychophora Euarthropoda). the transformation series is basically the same as that shown in Fig. When nuchal organs are allowed for in polychaetes only. The transformation series for this character has a length of two steps in all minimal length trees. In the tree topologies shown in Figs lA. Euarthropoda. the moliuscan nephridial system is also derived from the metanephridial condition. 2B. ID. Figure 7C shows this transformation for the tree shown in Fig. IE. Polychaeta. Sipuncula. and 21. Echiura. Euarthropoda. ostiate heart circulatory system' in arthropods. and2G. once in the Echiura and again for the Clitellata. II. This transformation series also implies that the arthropod taxa never lost chaetae. This clade is only supported by the transformation series where the apomorphic state for this character (state 1. An example is shown in Fig. 7B that corresponds to the transformation seen in Figs IB. there is the appearance of the 'open. and Vestimentifera. IG. Polychaeta. 2B. IB. 2A. The characZoologica Scripta 24 . and 2G. and Vestimentifera. chambered heart circulatory system' for the Mollusca and to the 'closed circulatory system' at the node uniting the Echiura and segmented taxa. Pogonophora. or the 'collagenous cuticle" state (seen in the Clitellata. Polychaeta. the moliuscan 'cuticle with conchin' could have been derived from the 'cuticle collagenous' state. Longitudinal muscles bands. IC. In the trees in Figs 1B. IH. lA). the topologies in Figs ID-II and 2D-2F are seen. but there are various equally parsimonious transformations of this character among the three tree basic topologies. Pogonophora. at the node joining the Echiura and segmented taxa (Clitellata. Fig. IE is shown in Fig. In most minimal length trees (Figs 1A-IF. and Polychaeta results in the topology shown in half of the 18 minimal length trees. 2H. IF. The six trees shown in Figs lA. Mitochondria in sperm. Polychaeta. and 2H. 6B with the 'open circulatory system' for the molluscs derived from the 'circulation absent' state. This clade is only supported by a transformation series where chaetae appear twice independently. 2C. Onychophora. In the trees shown in Figs IG. 1G. Figs lA. Polychaeta.Articulation of annelids 5B is that the metanephridial state (seen in the Clitellata. IH. 2E. lA is shown in Fig. and Vestimentifera (e. 2E.2A. 1 A. 2D. 2F. 2C. chaetae appear once. IC. 21). 2B. 'cuticle with collagen' appears at the node joining the Sipuncula with all other ingroup taxa (except Nemertea). In the 12 other tree topologies. Subsequently. 1H. IB. chambered heart circulatory system'. 'cuticle with glycocalyx only' occurs in the grade Flatyhelminthes and Nemertea. with the Mollusca as the sister group to the variously arranged Clitellata. 21). 2G. In the 12 remaining tree topologies. 2C. 5E. ID. and Vestimentifera) is derived from the moliuscan condition. IE. and 2H. the moliuscan 'cuticle with conchin' condition unequivocally arises from the 'cuticle with collagen' condition. This transformation series has a length of two steps in all tree topologies. IE. the plesiomorphic state 'circulatory system absent' transforms to the 'open. the transformation series for the character circulatory system takes four steps. 6B. This transformation is shown in Fig. Allowing the presence of nuchal organs to be a synapomorphy for the Pogonophora. Chaetae are subsequently lost in the arthropod clade. 2H. IF. The presence of 'Longitudinal muscle bands' is a synapomorphy for the Clitellata. For example the transformation series for nuchal organs for the tree shown in Fig. the moliuscan nephridial condition unequivocally arises from the metanephridial condition. from a 'cuticle absent' condition. 2A-2F). there are three possible transformations of this character at the node above the branch indicated as equivocal in Fig. 1E. IH. Echiura. in all cases. this transformation occurs in the trees shown in Figs ID. The character transformation involves three steps in all minimal length trees. 21). The transformation of this character for the tree shown in Fig. II. As well as the tree shown here (= Fig. 'mitochondria between the sperm nucleus and anchoring apparatus') appears at the node grouping the clitellates with the arthropods. there is only one possible transformation series for the circulatory system character that supports this basic topology. and 21. This transformation series has the 'closed circulatory system' being derived from the moliuscan open. Onychophora. IF. In the topologies shown in Figs IB.g. Pogonophora. When this character is not included in the analysis then nine minimal length trees of length 22 are obtained with the same topology as Figs ID-II and 2D-2F. II. 2E. Vestimentifera. and (Pogonophora Vestimentifera) clade. 2D. the Clitellata. Echiura. 7E which has the tree topology found in Fig. Circulatory system. Onychophora. Chaetae. and Vestimentifera) is derived from the molluscan condition. 2A. Onychophora. 5D for the tree shown in Fig. 281 Polychaeta. 2H. Pogonophora. In the trees where the Mollusca are the sister group to the Sipuncula (Figs IC. Sipuncula. 2E. 2G. Onychophora. Polychaeta. Cuticle. The ambiguity in transformation series (one step in all cases) for nuchal organs allows for some of the variability in the topologies appearing for the members of the clade Clitellata. 2F. In all minimal length trees. 6A). and (Pogonophora Vestimentifera) form a clade. Euarthropoda. though there is some variability among topologies. In the minimal length trees where the MoUusca are the sister group to the Sipuncula (Figs IC. In the six minimal length trees with the Mollusca as sister group to the Sipuncula (Figs IC. 2F. Pogonophora and Polychaeta). 5C. the arthropod condition 'cuticle chitinous' is derived from the 'cuticle collagenous' condition. 7D. Euarthropoda. This character has a length of two steps but has differing transformations depending on the tree topology. and 2H. 2B. 2C. Nuchal organs. II. In all topologies. An example of this transformation is seen in Fig. Euarthropoda. However. the 'cuticle with conchin' condition is also derived from the 'cuticle with collagen' condition.

7F) is shown for the tree in Fig. such as that shown in Fig.•D. There are several possible transformations for the excretory character. 7B.•C. Fauchald Excretion Gut Lumen I I Present ^^1 Absen •Platyhelminthes aOnychophora aEuarthropoda •Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera •Polychaeta oEchiura oSipuncula •Mollusca •Nemertea •Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda I I Protonephridia ^^1 Metanephridia HH Periocardioducts I equivocal •Platyhelminthes Onychophora Euatthropoda Clitellata inPogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula Mollusca aNemertea Cuticle I I Glycocalyx Conchin Collagenous Chitinous equivocal Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Sipuncula Mollusca aNemertea •Platyhelminthes •Onychophora •Euarthropoda •Clitellata •Pogonophora •Vestimentifera •Polychaeta •Echiura la Platyhelminthes • Onychophora • Euarthropoda •Clitellata 7 Pogonophora 7 Vestimentifera •Polychaeta Chaetae I I Absent ^^1 Present Nuchal Organs I I Absent ^^1 Present !• Echiura [•Sipuncula • Mollusca •Nemertea •Sipuncula •Mollusca •Nemertea Fig. There are several possible transformations for the cuticle character. 5. The presence of nuchal organs in pogonophores and vestimentiferans was allowed for in this ease and this is the only synapomorphy with the Polychaeta. When nuchal organs are 'allowed' to he absent in the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera the remaining topologies. The alternative transformations are explained in the text. Zoológica Scripta 24 Discussion Present transformation series and implications While the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera were coded as uncertain ('0/1/2') and unknown ('?'). in the minimal length trees. 7D occur.•H. One of the transformation series for the character based on chaetae found in the minimal length trees. in all minimal length trees. 28. Another possible transformation series is shown in Fig. IH. depending on the topology of the minimal length trees. A reversal subsequently occurs for the arthropods. W. Rouse and K. This is a synapomorphy for the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera. The presence of a cuticle with chitin is a synapomorphy for the Onychophora and Euarthropoda. In this case the state chaetae present' appears at the node joining Echiura and Articúlala. and with reference to Fig. for the character based on gut lumen. The only possible transformation for the character based on nuchal organs that would generate the topology is shown here (and trees in Figs IB. IC. In the remaining 12 minimal length trees. Transformations of characters 6-10 on the minimal length tree shown in Fig. 1 A. the state 'mitochondria between the sperm nucleus and anchoring apparatus' appears independently in the clitellates and onychophorans. for .•E. depending on the tree topology.282 G. 2C. ter subsequently reverses to state '0" for the euarthropods (Fig. respectively. The node showing variation in transformations is the one above the branch indicated by 'equivocal" shading. 2H. An example of this transformation (Fig. The only possible transformation. the protonephridia of the Pogonophora is a reversal. Note taxa optimized as being present for this character but arc coded as unknown are indicated by a '?'. IC.•A. and 21). That there are alternative transformations for this tree at the node joining the molluscs with the other ingroup taxa (except nemertcans) is suggested by the equivocal shading on the branch (see explanation in the text). 2A. However. 6C). 2G.

The only possible transformation. One of several transformation series for the character based on circulation. as discussed in the section Taxa included. The limited coelomic spaces in arthropods. The meroblastic cleavage found in most onychophorans and euarthropods means that the issue of the presence or absence of a cross is inapplicable. Both exhibit schizocelic coelom formation (Southward 1988.Articulation of annelids Longitudinal Muscles I I Sheets i^H Bands Circulation • Platyhelminlhes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophoia Veslimentifera Polychaeta oEchiura •Sipuncula •MoUusca •Nemertea 283 •Platyhelminthes •Onychophora •Euarthropoda •Clitellata Pogonophora Veslimentifera •Polychaeta Echiura •Sipuncula MoUusca •Nemertea I I Absent Closed Open. These species may have embryos with cleavage patterns that could be revealing in terms of the 'cross' pattern. and vestimentiferans. Two character states. the other available evidence in our matrix predicts that the annelid cross pattern will be found in these taxa. molluscs. the early cleavage of the embryo character. 1994). Ostiate •Platyhelminthes Onychophora Mitochondria between sperm nucleus and centriole I I Absent ^Hi Present •Euarthropoda ClitellaU laPogonophora DVestimentifera laPolychaeta 6C •Echiura •Sipuncula •MoUusca •Nemertea Fig. presumably after fertilization in the adult tube (Carey et al.•A. chambered heart circulatory system' for the MoUusca and to the 'closed circulatory system' at node uniting the Echiura and segmented taxa. This is a synapomorphy for members of the Articúlala. The debate about the nature of the coelom in the pogonophores and vestimentiferans (Jones 1985fl. This Clitellata/Arthropoda clade (also in Figs IB. the possibility that the platyhelminths have lost the coelom has been discussed and rejected by Smith & Tyler (1985) and is not of relevance to this paper. It has been observed that some vestimentiferans release eggs that are 100/¿m in diameter. The plesiomorphic state 'circulatory system absent' transforms to the 'open. in the minimal length trees. pogonophores. 1989.•C. polychaetes. 7F). Gardiner & Jones 1993. lA. IC.•B. the derived state appears independently in the clitellates and onychophorans. depending tree topology. a condition similar to that in sipunculids. Chambered Open. echiurids. and clitellates. for the character based on longitudinal muscle. IF) is only supported by the transformation series where the apomorphic state for this character (state 1. Descriptions of segment development in pogonophores. clearly show that they were correctly scored the same condition as in 'annelids' (Southward 1988. Anderson (1973) has determined other similarities in the embryology of clitellates and onychophorans that deserve further investigation. One of the transformation series occurring among the minimal length trees for the character based on sperm mitochondria. In the other 12 trees (see Fig. and any potential homology of these 'reductions' is unclear. Alternative transformation scries are discussed in the text and one is shown in Fig. Subsequently. Van Dover 1994). Some pogonophores are also presumed to have planktonic larvae (Southward 1988). 1973). Transformations of characters U-13 on the minimal length tree shown in Fig. ostiate heart circulatory system' in arthropods. larvae are lecithotrophic. 1994) resulting in a spacious coelom. and this can obscure early cleavage patterns (Anderson. clitellates. 7E. 'mitochondria between the sperm nucleus and anchoring apparatus') appears at the node grouping the clitellates with the arthropods. IE. Subsequently. It should be noted that in these two taxa. polychaetes. This grouping of arthropod and 'annelid-like' taxa is essentially similar to that of the Articulata proposed by Zoológica Scripta 24 . confusion arises over whether pogonophores have spiral or radial cleavage. and nemerteans may represent reductions (see Brusca & Brusca 1990). but this issue is not a focus of this paper. 1989. a reversal occurs for the cuarthropods. Southward & Coates. there is the appearance of the 'open. 6. ID. Gardiner & Jones 1993. group the arthropods. and vestimentiferans. For the character based on the coelom. Hence. Southward 1988) was also not relevant to the scoring for these taxa. the presence of segmentation and the presence of longitudinal muscle bands.

284 G. since podocytes are always associated with a metanephridial system (Smith & RupExcretion laPlatyhelminthes •Onychophora •Euarthropoda •Clitellata 7 Pogonophora 7 Vestimentifera •Polychaeta •Echiura nSipuncula nMollusca •Nemertea Cuvier (1812). (1993) of podocytes in the Aplacophora lends support to the hypothesis that there is a link between the molluscan system and metanephridia. Other recent authors (e. The evidence for this conclusion is discussed in detail below (see Discussion: Recent hypotheses with imCleavage pattern i i Cross absent Molluscan cross Annelid cross Meroblastic equivocal i i Protonephridia ^^1 Metanephridia ^^H Periocardioducts oPIatyhelminthes Onychophora Euarthropoda Clitellata •Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura Mollusca Sipuncula •Nemertea inPlatyhelminthes inOnychophora [•Euarthropoda Clitellata Pogonophora Vestimentifera Polychaeta Echiura ¡•Mollusca DSipuncuIa •Nemertea Nuchal Organs I I Absent ^^1 Present [•Platyhelminthes •Onychophora •Euarthropoda •Clitellata 7 Pogonophora 7 Vestimentifera •Polychaeta •Echiura [•Mollusca •Sipuncula [•Nemertea Circulation I I Absent Closed Open. the Vestimentifera are clearly closer to the Pogonophora than to any other group. and it is a name we accept for this ciade (see below) . Our results suggest that protonephridia have appeared more than once. Ax 1984. W. The finding by Reynolds ei «/. Fauchald plications for articulate systematics: Evolutionary systematics). Chambered Open. Ostiate laPlatyhelminthes •Onychophora • Euarthropoda •Clitellata •Pogonophora mVestimentifera •Polychaeta •Echiura •Mollusca •Sipuncula •Nemertea Fig. a result that has support from various authors (see Smith & Ruppert 1988). Weygoldt 1986) have maintained the use of Articulata. Until more information is available on molluscs. Mitochondria between sperm nucleus and centriole I I Absent ^^1 Present •Platyhelminthes Onychophora •Euarthropoda Clitellata •Pogonophora •Vestimentifera •Polychaeta •Echiura •Mollusca •Sipuncula •Nemertea Zoológica Scripta 24 .1987.g. However. The absence of a gut lumen was the only synapomorphy for the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera in this analysis. Pogonophora is the older name for the combined group and is here accepted as valid. cannot be maintained. little can be resolved regarding the various transformation for the excretory system we found. Rouse and K. 7. and the proposition that the former should be regarded as a phylum (Jones 1985Í)).

ID.Articulation of annelids pert 1988).•A. The proposal by Brusca & Brusca (1990) of the (Annelida (Pogonophora Vestimentifera)) clade being supported by the presence of serially repeated chaetae is consistent with this scenario. Jamieson (1987«) argued that the transformation series for a character equivalent to our character 13 had to be homoplastic. IE) showing transformation series for nuchal organs when the absence of nuchal organs is allowed for in pogonophores and vestimentiferans. and vestimentiferans (also for Figs IG. 2. Subsequently. and 11 other minimal length trees (Figs lF-11. or the 'annelid' cross (state 2). IB. Tree (same as Fig. with 'interpolation of mitochondria between the sperm nucleus and anchoring apparatus' arising independently in Fig. supported only by the derived state in character 13 (interpolation of mitochondria between the sperm nucleus and anchoring apparatus) appearing at the Clitellata/'arthropod' node. in the case of the ((Pogonophora.•B. Zoológica Scripta 24 .g. Note. Complete sectioning of the anterior ends of these organisms. a reversal occurs in Euarthropoda (e. Vestimentifera) Clitellata Polychaeta) clade.•E. mainly using sperm structure. This hypothesis.g. 2H) showing transformation series for the character based on chaetae. as indicated by a '?' at the terminal branch. Jamieson (1987a. echiurids. IH. Tree (same as Fig. It follows from this result that serially repeated chaetae are contingent on segmentation. and arose after.''. If the nephridial character is altered to make the molluscs have the metanephridial state. 1993 for shared features in addition to the three synapomorphies and the loss of chaetae implied by our results). pogonophores and vestimentiferans.•D.•C. This requires the independent development of arthropod features in onychophorans (see Wheeler et al. This is the only possible transformation series that supports a clade comprised of clitellates. Either of these allow the molluscan cross to be a synapomorphy for the Sipuncula and Mollusea. can be the absence of a cross (state 0). except the Nemertea. 2A-2G. as in sabellid and serpulid polychaetes (see Orrhage 1980). 2E) showing the only possible transformation series for circulatory system that supports this basic topology (also occurs tor Figs. The topologies in Figs ID.Storch 1979). 1993) are not supported by our results. The remaining trees show chaetae appearing once for the grade Echiura. were actually scored with a '?'. and vestimentiferans.g. There arc two possible alternative transformation series. 1B) showing transformation series for the excretory system character. 6C. 2G. lA). Halanych et al. Gustus & Cloney 1972. Note. This should be compared with Fig. IFII and 2D-2F arc also seen when these two taxa are allocated the state absent for this character. 2H). IC. 28. Fig. For this topology. pogonophores and vestimentiferans. is required to determine the presence or absence of nuchal organs. 1995). However. 6C).2F. 1I. 7. the homoplastic presence of chaetae identifies a clade containing the clitellates.•F. IE. Brusca & Brusca 1990) since chaetae are a symplesiomorphy with the Echiura. clitellates. with the Onychophora closer to the Clitellata than to any 'arthropod'. Previous coding suggests that there is a cuticle type unique to 'annelids' (e. The two alternative transformations for the chaetal character have major implications for the status of the taxa in the Articulata (see below). IE. instead of their unique state. polychaetes. IF). and Vestimentifera before being lost in the arthropods. the differences being our inclusion of the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera and considering the Euarthropoda instead of just the myriapods and hexapods. . Clitellata. Wheeler et al. arc indicated by a ?'. This creates difficulty in identifying a clade based on serially repeated chaetae (e. Polychaeta.e. 21) the Mollusea and Sipuncula form a clade."iB there is only one possible transformation series for this topology. Jamieson (1986. Allowing for the presence of nuchal organs gave rise to the nine minimal length trees with the (Pogonophora Vestimentifera) being the sister group to the Polychaeta. pogonophores. The presence of the molluscan cross is the only synapomorphy supporting this topology. Pogonophora. Further investigation is needed in this regard. we find it of interest that analysis of molecular sequence data has 285 suggested a protostome relationship for brachiopods (Field etal.. the number and topology of the resulting minimal length trees are unchanged in the analysis. The plesiomorphic condition for all ingroup taxa. was not seen in our minimal length trees and would require an additional three steps. chaetae appeared subsequent to the appearance of segmentation. IB. Tree (same as Fig. This transformation series has the 'closed circulatory system' being derived from the molluscan 'open circulatory system. In this. The various transformation series for the cuticle character all show that the state 'collagenous cuticle' is found in a grade containing the sipunculids.g. presented the topology ((CHtellata Onychophora) (Myriapoda Hexapoda)). or loss of such features (and reappearance of chaetae) in clitellates. IH. However.5A) also discussed a tree that is essentially similar to several of our minimal length trees with the clitellates and arthropods as sister taxa (e. polychaetes. This requires the homoplastic appearance of chaetae and that arthropods did not share an ancestor with 'annelids' that had chaetae. the evolution of chaetae. Orrhage 1973fl. In contrast to Fig. especially larvae and juveniles. i. and segmentation merely repeats them. Tree (same as Fig. In six of the minimal length trees. Further evidence supporting a sister group relationship of this taxon with a group within the Polychaeta is discussed below. Pogonophoran and vestimentiferan taxa may have nuchal organs since these structures can be small and difficuh to locate. polychaetes. Tree (same as Fig. The transformation series where chaetae appear once and are lost in arthropods suggests that segmentation is independent of. pogonophores and vestimentiferans. In this tree (and Figs IF. The suggestion that chaetae evolved twice means that. Tree (same as Fig. chambered heart'. 21). 1987ö) accepted the possibility of arthropod polyphyly and. 1988.. II. 21) the state 'mitochondria between the sperm nucleus and anchoring apparatus' appears independently in the clitellates and onychophorans. the Clitellata and Arthropoda formed a clade (Figs lA. nephridial. Alternative minimal length tree topologies to the one shown in Figs 4-6 used to show some of the different transformation series for six of the characters. pogonophore. Salvini-Plawen (1988) has argued that the molluscan excretory system is mesodermal rather than ectodermal. The only other taxa which has been proposed to have true chaetae are the brachiopods and juvenile cephalopods (Storch & Welsch 1972. We did not attempt any detailed assessment of other morphological features of the Brachiopoda. Fig. IC) showing transformation scries for embryonic cleavage (character 1).35. allocated the state "annelid cross' though actually scored with a ". In six minimal length trees. IH) showing the only possible transformation series for the character based on sperm morphology. Fig.2C.

The monophyly of the Arthropoda. Fig. Classification within the Articulata is somewhat problematic given the various tree topologies involved. Our findings are such that a reversal to the plesiomorphic state in the euarthropods is necessary in order to support the clitellate/arthropod clade in the first place. to replace it. Clitellata. CHtellata. and Polychaeta is accepted for the present discussion (but see below regarding the Polychaeta and Pogonophora). Classifications Various authors (e. the name Articulata should apply to this clade and the name Annelida should be eliminated. 21). The homoplastic occurrence of the derived state for this sperm character only appears in our minimal length trees when the clitellates are not the sister group to the arthropods (e. and Polychaeta formed a polytomy in three minimal length trees (Figs 2D. Annelida and Arthropoda. and hence the name will revert to the original family name. though they may be shown to belong within the Polychaeta (sec text). since the Clitellata and Polychaeta never form an exclusive clade without them (Figs IG. to three of the minimal length trees (Figs 2D. we provide an alternative (Fig. Sundberg & Pleijel 1994) have discussed the flaws in the presently used Linnean system and suggested taxonomic systems. and we avoid discussion of the Linnean categories where possible. ( 1993). is not challenged by any of our results. 2G. traditional Linnean categories which more accurately reflects the consensus tree topology for all taxa included in the analysis (Fig. and Pogonophora. applying a particular taxonomic level to a clade. It is clear that the Linnean categories are too limited to adequately represent the hierarchical nature of the relationships amongst taxa with reference to cladistic pattern (or phylogeny) (Sundberg & Pleijel 1994). The reasons for the elevation of the Vestimentifera to the . and 2. this classification seems to be the most appropriate solution. segmentation (i. However. (Jamieson 1987a: 35). The name Annelida should only be retained if the (Pogonophora Vestimentifera) are included in this taxon. 2A. 2C. IC. Eernisse et al.g. 2. as seen in our Fig. based on the results of Wheeler et al. Pogonophora and Polychaeta. As outlined in the introduction. 2F). 8) to the Zoológica Scripta 24 Platy helminthes No Name Nemertea No Name Mollusca Sipuncula No Name Echiura Articulata Pogonophora Clitellata Arthropoda Onychophora Euarthropoda Polychaeta Fig. II. These factors clearly suggest that the name Annelida should not be used until the relationships amongst the Articulata clades are more resolved. the Vestimentifera were found to be the sister group to the Pogonophora in all minimal length trees. 2B. 2E. He rejected the reversal of this condition for the 'arthropod' taxa. longitudinal musculature broken into bands. the traditional 'annelids'. 6F). Polychaeta. The Arthropoda. phylum. 5C. 1973). de Oueiroz & Gauthier 1992. The status of the Arthropoda. repetition of homologous body structures derived by teloblastic growth). This can have various undesirable consequences (see Sundberg & Pleijel 1994).286 G. The relationships amongst these groups arc unresolved. The finding that the Clitellata are possibly the sister group to the Arthropoda does raise the issue of a potential new name being required for this clade. 2H. Hence. based on the cladistic pattern. Indented classification of the taxa included in this analysis. Pogonophora (including Vestimentifera). The consensus tree corresponds. Using the indented system developed by Nelson (1972. 8. the name Articulata should apply as the name of an 'annelid'/ arthropod clade since this represents the first name that was ever used for this particular group (Cuvier 1812) and continues today (Ax 1984. and stated 'reversal to sperm in which the midpiece is penetrated by the axoneme. and minimally they should revert to being a group under the name Pogonophora (the older name). The clitellates were the sister group to the arthropods in a number of minimal length trees (Figs lA. We choose here to apply an apomorphy-based definition (de Oueiroz & Gauthier 1992) of the taxon name Articulata. Clitellata.1994. IB. The name Pogonophora should be used for the Pogonophora and Vestmentifera. we are most concerned with the concept of the taxon Annelida and associated taxa. e.g. According to the naming principles outlined by de Oueiroz & Gauthier (1990. The name Annelida is not used because of uncertainty over whether it refers to a monophylctic group. (Pogonophora Vestimentifera). Articúlala. The monophyly of the Euarthropoda was assumed in this analysis. 2F). For this reason. The Articulata is comprised of the following clades: Arthropoda. as in insects. cannot be reasonably or parsimoniously envisaged'. 2). are more closely related to each other than to any of the other articulate taxa. One way of classifying the taxa within the Articulata is to use the consensus tree topology (Fig. 1992: 465). Clitellata. Rouse and K. Fauchald clitellates and onychophorans. 1992). In this study. Under these circumstances the taxon Annelida is also not monophylctic. IH. Pogonophora. Until relationships amongst these taxa are more resolved. W. There is nothing in our results that suggests that the Polychaeta and Clitellata. IF) resulting in a paraphyletic 'Annelida' by exclusion of arthropods. The issue of most importance is to attempt to use taxon names for clades only and we re-assess taxon names included in this study that result in paraphyly. 2E. This gives four taxa of equal rank: Arthropoda. Lamellisabellidae. comprising the Onychophora and the Euarthropoda. there are several additional complications involved in retaining the name Annelida: 1. the name Articulata refers to the clade stemming from the first ancestor to show: 1.e. ID. is often a matter of personal preference or tradition.g. IE. Maintenance of the former group at the level of phylum contains no information. 2). If this topology is supported in future analyses. and Polychaeta. with respect to the Articulata.

and structure of the head appendages. If this result is supported in further analyses. the status of the clade Pogonophora. For instance. chaetal types. Liwanow& Porfirjewa. Jones (1985a) argued that the frenulate and vestimentiferan Pogonophora and Annelida (interpreted here as Polychaeta and Clitellata) share 287 a common ancestor that had schizocoely. Jones (1985a) found difficulty in relating the vestimentiferans 'closely' with annelids. i. (1967). Southward 1993). In forthcoming studies (Fauchald & Rouse in prep. Recent hypotheses with implications for articulate systematics Evolutionary systematics. nephridial distribution. The names Obtúrala and Perviata. used a symplesiomorphy as an argument for erecting a separate phylum. Potential synapomorphies between the Pogonophora and this clade include. is schizocoelous and the second 'segment' bore 'branchiae'. coined by Jones (1981ö). and hence also justified their status as a separate phylum (Jones 1985è. we consider the Pogonophora as a clade of the Articúlala with the same rank as Arlhropoda. and thus (Jones 19856). This emphasis on differences in septation and development of the mesenteries in separating the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera was. similar coelomic spaces are known in polychaetes (Anderson 1959.). however. Studies of larval development (Bakke 1980. Evolutionary systematics\ With reference to classification within what we will now refer to as the Pogonophora (= Pogonophora and Vestimentifera). 1994. both of which never occur in annelids. Frenulata. should be altered. 1981. He argued that the first 'segment'. Peristomial appendages. the LamellisabeHidae. In dismissing this argument it should first be noted that the obturaculum is actually derived from the 'second' segment (Southward 1988. and van der Land & N0rrevang (1975). Also. Jones (1985a. and the tentacular apparatus of the vestimentiferans. that recognition of the Vestimentifera at the same hierarchical level as the Frenulata results in the latter group being paraphyletic. the opisthosoma (Gardiner & Jones 1993. In proposing the topology (Frenulata (Vestimentifera Annelida)). the obturaculum. and the name of the clade itself. Webb (1969a) described Lamellibrachia harhami and erected the pogonophoran class Afrenulata and order Vestimentifera to contain this new species. we have identified at least eight other potential synapomorphies for vestimentiferans and frenulates. and that the segmented condition in the opisthosoma of the frenulate Pogonophora arose independently of the other taxa. as in frenulates and vestimentiferans.e. Southward 1988) indicate the cephalic lobe and tentacular apparatus in frenulates. those arising from behind the prototroch. Rouse & Fauchald in prep. 1985a) was equivocal as to whether these spaces really are coelomic. h) ignored a number of features that frenulate and vestimentiferan Pogonophora share. Cladistic analysis of the relationships amongst taxa within the Pogonophora is warranted. the Pogonophora (and Vestimentifera) was the sister group to the Polychaeta. These include: 1. The class Frenulata was erected by Webb (1969«) for the non-vestimentiferan Pogonophora. The issue of pogonophores belonging in the Polychaeta has been raised by Uschakov (1933). Jones (1985a) did not consider the implications of this possible loss of mesenteries in the frenulate pogonophores. We also believe difficulties disappear when Jones' (1985a) first two 'segments' are interpreted.Articulation of annelids status of phylum by Jones (]985h) are discussed in the section 'Recent hypotheses with implications for articulate systematics. this hypothesis can only be interpreted to indicate that the mesenteries giving these paired coeloms in the Vestimentifera and Annelida are a symplesiomorphy. Southward (1993: 332) discusses one group of frenulates. since Southward (1975) demonstrated that they are later lost in the pogonophores such as Sihoglinum fiordicum. not as segments. The presence of a posterior. which is based on the presence of a bridle. Under these circumstances then the whole pogonophoran clade should revert to the original family name erected by Uschakov (1933). This name is usually used for the clade and the name Obturata can be considered obsolete. In any case such features of the pogonophores do not contraindícate a relationship between pogonophores and 'annelids'. such as Southward (1991). at present. 1989. With reference to the schizocoelous nature of the pogonophoran head. Zoológica Scripta 24 . mesenteries are present in early stages in both groups. Other authors. have also made suggestions which should be considered in a taxonomic revision of the group. internal septation. the Sclerolinidae. Given Jones' (1985a) claim that the vestimentiferans are more closely related to the Annelida than to the frenulates. In addition to the synapomorphy used in this analysis. based on the collapse of the gut lumen and reliance on chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrition in a trophosome (Cavanaugh et al. Southward (1988) reassessed Jones' division of the vestimentiferan body plan and found it to be identical to that of other pogonophores. in any case. It is very likely. were added as pogonophoran sub-phyla containing the classes Afrenulata and Frenulata. Hartman (1954). giving rise to segments with the coelom divided by median mesenteries. We predict that the Pogonophora will be found to fall within the Polychaeta. 1966). Southward et al. 1981). close to the sabellid/ terebellid clade of polychaetes. As pointed out by Southward (1988). Jones (1981/). Jones & Gardiner 1988.. Polychaeta and Clitellala. clearly segmented region. Ivanov 1989). erroneous. correspond to the prostomium and peristomium of annelids. While. The name Perviata refers to the absence of an obturaculum and we recommend the use of Webb's ( 1969fl) older term. as possibly being a 'link with the Obturata (Vestimentifera)'. and was applied by Jones (1985/?) at the phylum level. several options are available. It should be noted that in half of the minimal length trees found in this analysis. 1988). respectively. the possibility that this makes the Polychaeta paraphyletic must be taken seriously. but as presegmental. Vestimentifera became commonly used after van der Land & N0rrevang (1975) nominated this name for use at the class level. are common in polychaetes (see Rouse & Fitzhugh 1994). we critically examine the possibility that the Pogonophora falls within the Polychaeta. because of the nature of the first two 'segments' in the former.

(1992) (see Table I). and is not a feature known in any polychaetes. With regard to the latter. and anterior spiralling of the nucleus (Franzén 1973. Gonopores opening at the anterior end of the 'trunk segment' (Ivanov 1961. Gardiner & Jones 1985. as was indicated for character numbers 5-8 in the matrix. 59. Jones & Gardiner 1985. Further examples are discussed below. a character linked to segmentation. Various features of spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure can possibly be considered synapomorphies. 58. 54 (and 56). W. h and elsewhere). Eernisse et al. but the analysis by Eernisse et al.g. (1992: Fig. 61. (1992) suffered from many coding errors. A single pair of anterior nephridia for excretory purposes only (Gardiner & Jones 1993. as should metamerism. Schräm 1991 . Brusca & Brusca (1990: 882. particularly in the nature of the characters and scoring. 5. Winnepenninckxeia/. for example. and 64 refer to the same condition. Southward 1988). 57. based on the presence of teloblastic segmentation.'s (1992) analysis that are of 2. reducing the support for the clade to the presence of serially repeated chaetae. Given that Brusca & Brusca (1990) did not have the Annelida identified by synapomorphy. 1993. Chaetae with a unique dentition pattern. The first difference is that they place the Pogonophora (including vestimentiferans) as the sister group to the Annelida (i. First. 4) showed a topology that is somewhat similar to our results. along with the reasons for such ordering. 4. developing from behind the prototroch (Southward 1988. Rouse and K. 3. The characters based on the nature of the cuticle described below also show a similar form of linkage. (1992) argued for a distinction between metamerism and serial repetition of organ systems in their coding. Webb 1977. Note the trunk chaetae are only in larvae and juveniles of vestimentiferans (Southward 1988. Bakke 1990). in the sense that. this should have been made explicit. 55. if an organism is metameric. not absent. just worded differently. The trunic chaetae of the Frenulata are the same as the opisthosomal chaetae of the Vestimentifera (George & Southward 1973. e. We will here discuss in detail a few of the nodes and characters in Eernisse et a/. in the Nemertea) but could have been coded as a single character. The presence of chaetae in the Echiura was not considered by Brusca & Brusca (1990).g. are linked to the condition of metamerism. all taxa coded as having metamerism in the first place will have additional character states unjustifiably grouping them together. 2G-2I). Eernisse. some hypotheses about the relationships of metazoan groups have been postulated in a cladistic framework (Brusca & Brusca 1990. Secondly. character 99 protonephridia: these are present in Nemertea. i. At least one extremely elongate 'trunk' segment forming much of the body. Jones 1981a. Thus. The implications of the hypothesis by Jones ( 1985fl) can be seen when the characters outlined in the above paragraph are incorporated into his topology (Frenulata (Vestimentifera Annelida)). Often a topology is presented. 1989). the emphasis of one supposedly 'important' character. metamerism. Schräm 1991. Jones & Gardiner 1989). Fauchald Pogonophora and Vestimentifera were identified as a clade on the basis of the opisthosoma. Southward 1993). Eernisse et al.e. A tube formed with a large chitinous component is found in vestimenterans (Webb 1971) and frenulates (see Southward 1971). called branchial filaments by Jones (1981a.e. Cladistic hypotheses. Orrhage 1973a. If the coding of Eernisse et al. since the two annelid classes would form a polytomy with the Pogonophora. They also propose an interesting hypothesis that the Annelida is only distantly related to a monophyletic Arthropoda. (1992). Southward & Coates. coelomic formation and mesenteries. A large amount of information can be contained within a cladogram. characters 9.g. 8. characters 15. There is often variability in the distribution of organ systems in metameric taxa. Eernisse et al. These include the spiralling of mitochondria around the nucleus. Recently. and some general conclusions are drawn without going into great detail about the character transformations (e. Fig. for the taxa included in both analyses. Parsimony suggests that we must reject this hypothesis. 6. The Zoológica Scripta 24 . the transformation series for each of these characters implies that 'annelids' have lost the features outlined above. Reconsideration of the Brusca & Brusca'a (1990) chaetal character for the echiurans. 'annelids' (clitellates and polychaetes) and Pogonophora would probably result in a polytomy for the articulates.288 G. Hence. it would have to be scored as having the apomorphic state for all these characters. Ivanov (1989) and Seiivanova (1989) have demonstrated the homology of the head appendages between both groups. (1992) represents an attempt at additive binary coding (a form of ordering characters). The synapomorphies supporting the (Annelida (Pogonophora Vestimentifera)) were the presence of serially repeated chaetae and 'the unique annelidan head'. there are some problems associated with the study. what is metamerism? Serial repetition without metamerism occurs (e. or palps. Two forms of linkage are present in Eernisse et al. Jones & Gardiner 1989). but without serial repetition. results in an extraordinary hypothesis for the evolution of polychaetes and clitellates. This clade was then the sister group to the Arthropoda (sensu lato). Wheeler ef a/. similar to our consensus tree. An additional problem is character linkage leading to differential character weighting. Jones & Gardiner 1989. particularly when the analysis is as large as that undertaken by Eernisse et al. (1992) was at a hierarchical level ('class' 'phylum') where this information could not be utilised. Jones 19816. longer than the ((Frenulata Vestimentifera) Annelida) hypothesis. Polychaeta Clitellata). This issue is complex and was briefly discussed above in the Methods section (see also Pleijel in press). 1993. In addition to being numerous steps. 1995). 1) showed the Annelida as a sister group to a Vestimentifera/Pogonophora clade. Schräm & Ellis 1994). 7. et ai 1992. However. Backeljau et al. Head appendages. with chaetae at the posterior end (Southward 1988). The Echiura have the same head construction as the Annelida in terms of having a prostomium and peristomium (Newby 1940). the topology shown by them is not inconsistent with six of our trees (Figs lG-11.

'lost' in many taxa Homoplasy. Schizocoelous metamerism 63. i. i. also in 'annelids' Unequivocal. (1992) matrix. In character 12. Miscorc for polychaetcs and clitellates Linked character. yet were not scored with ecdysis present in the Eernisse el al. Coelomic septa 65. 61. (1992: Appendix 2). character coding) become hidden in the complexity of the tree topology. is relevant to this discussion since it is related to the formation of a micromere cross. This left character 82 (Ecdysis present) as the only non-homoplastic synapomorphy supporting node 4. and either reverse in 'arthropods' or also appear in 'annelids' (Dales 1963). Mis-scored Same as 9.e. no cross of either kind has been reported in these groups. see text Homoplasy. Echiura. Serially repeated muscle bundles 57. The scoring Zoológica Scripta 24 . and Tardigrada (see Table I).'s (1992) analysis was that the Nematoda are the sister group to a clade comprised of the Onychophora. Serially repeated gonads 61. Homoplasy. while not appearing to identify any clades. 289 State Present Present Absent Absent Present Present State Present Present Present Present Absent State Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present relevance to this paper. Homoplasy. Internal fertihsation Characters supporting node 9 ('Spiralians') 11. olfactory fossae Characters supporting node 16 (Annelida Pogonophora) 9. Character names are paraphrased Characters supporting node 4 (Nematoda 'arthropods') 23. present in 'annelids' etc. Homoplasy. Serially repeated muscle bundles 56.58. Mis-score. which was based on the nature of the 'cross' during cleavage (radiate or interradiate). all other taxa were thus scored with a '?' as in the Cnidaria. can be taken at face value and the implications for the initial homology hypotheses (i. information used in our present analysis. Orthogon Characters supporting node 17 (Clitellata Polychaeta) 47. Mis-score for Pogon. (1992: Appendix 2) presented in support of the monophyly of a clade of spiralian taxa (excluding arthropods). Eernisse et al. and Polychaeta. Character 12 of Eernisse et al. Subcutaneous neural plexus State Present Present Present Present Present Comment Homoplasy. were correctly coded with a '?'. but this was not explained.e. Only the eight taxa scored with a cross present in character 11 were scored with 'radiate' (0) or 'interradiate' (1) for character 12. Mis-score for Pogon. Ventrum ciliated 74. 4. 'Endon' (Bcklemishcv 1969) 112. see text Comment Mis-scored. Kinorhyncha. Mis-score for Pogon. a cross with a radiate pattern. Homoplasy. Serially arranged ncphridia 58. Linked. Mis-score for Pogon. 4 of Eernisse et al.g. in 'arthropods'. Polyplacophora. Linked. Four of the five synapomorphies supporting this node were homoplastic. as in many of the groups scored with this feature present. Heart(s)/dorsal blood vessel 103. Teloblastic segmentation 15.64. 104. The potentially most significant hypothesis in Eernisse et al. Replicate of 54. Table I shows the six synapomorphies Eernisse et al. ( 1992). Other relevant taxa were scored with '?'. stated that a dash '-' in the matrix represented the same state as in the outgroup taxon. Euarthropoda. The scoring of a cross present in flatworm taxa was incorrect. Conchífera. e. The various characters with stales unequivocally supporting four of the nodes in Fig. Character 12 is linked to character 11 (absence or presence of a cross). mis-score for Priapulida? Homoplasy. Metamerism in muscles. a micromere cross is not discernible in members with lecithotrophic development. Rhabditomorpha. Same as 9. at node 9 in their Fig. the remainder had a '-'. 64. SalviniPlawen (1985. see text Comment Same as 61. 57. Cuticle 76. the Cnidaria (the taxon used to root the tree) were scored with a question mark. plesiomorphic. for the Clitellata is somewhat dubious (see Jamieson 1992: 296). Periodic ecdysis 119. reverses in 'arthropods" Homoplasy.59. preoral. Mis-score for Pogon. Presumably. in 'arthropods'. Paired. mis-scored for Echiura Comment Homoplasy.Articulation of annelids Table I. Paired ventral nerve bundles 54. Sipun- cula. reverses in 'arthropods' Homoplasy. Our concern is that cladistic hypotheses. etc. since. 1988) clearly stated that a cross is absent. Chitin in cuticle 110. also scored clitellates. Serially repeated respiratory surf. Serially repeated nerve ganglia 82. Branchioauricular sinuses 64. The Acoelomorpha and Rhabditophora were scored as having the same state as the molluscan taxa and the Sipuncula. 59. poor character interpretation Mis-scored. These are summarised in Table I. The Onychophora. In some 'arthropods' Linked to coelom and metamerism Homoplasy. As discussed for character 11. Micromere cross 32. Pseudococlom 28. For example. though the scoring of internal fertilization (character 119) as present. Mis-score Pogon.? Linked. an initial homology hypothesis open to some debate. and some euarthropod taxa. also errors in subsidiary character Homoplasy. Metamcric coclom 62. Character 11 (Cleavage micromeres form cross) had the following taxa scored with the state present: Acoelomorpha. Mitosis absent in epidermis 55.e. also in 'arthropods' Homoplasy. the Priapulida also show ecdysis (Shapeero 1961). such as the arthropods not being closely related to the annelids. in some 'arthropods' Linkcd-54 ( + 56). nerves.

such as those based on the coelom. Polychaeta. As discussed above. seems dubious. 'Endon. nonliving external layer(s) containing protein) transforms to the state 'absent' below node 9 but subsequently reverses for the clade comprising the Sipuncula. located close to a cerebral ganglion. and polychaetes. found in some polychaetes and conchiferans. Thus. and pogonophores were scored as absent for character 78 after having been scored as present for character 74. it can be argued that there was mis-scoring of '?' for the outgroup taxon is an appropriate way for dealing with such inapphcable characters (see Methods). 62. In fact. Synapomorphies hypothesised by Eernisse etal. this linkage problem is present throughout the paper. Character 32 (ciliated ventral surface in adult) subsequently reversed to the absent condition in the Sipuncula. the Rhabditophora and the Acoelomorpha were both scored absent for character 13. Sipuncula. we will briefly examine the implications of the analysis by Eernisse et al. continuously secreted. Nearly all spiralian taxa (Pogonophora. Polyplacophora. (1992) for the Polychaeta and Clitellata (node 17 of Fig. even though this is a component of their tubes. with the exception of character 62 (coelomic septa). which is subsidiary to segmentation and the presence of a coelom.e. An endon was otherwise scored as present in the Acoelomorpha. especially given the wide distribution of statocysts in the Metazoa. Echiura. and Clitellata were not scored as having chitin since it is present in all chaetae (George & Southward 1973). Echiura. was a character based on Beklemishev (1969). Interestingly. for consistency. This character presumably referred to the condition found in some flatworm taxa where a single statocyst. The Acoelomorpha were scored as absent for any mesoderm-contributing cells in characters 5-8. (1992: 329) specifically did not score the Phoronida as having chitin. clitellates. (1992) for the Annelida and Pogonophora. and Pogonophora. This character was also scored as being present in all four molluscan taxa. (1992) is required. which are absent in the Echiura.' While not refuting the hypothesis proposed by Eernisse et al. All of the characters listed. and two molluscan groups) were scored with a question mark for this character. 4) are listed in Table I. were often scored with a 0 rather than N. the polychaetes. and Pogonophora. were not given an N for the Cnidaria. as well as ectoderm and endoderm. this methodology was inconsistently applied since characters such as 61. Also. the scoring of chitin as present in pogonophores cannot have been based on its presence in their tubes. Fauchald lemishev. cellular secretion of chitinous proteins (Character 77). (1992). Presumably this character referred to the nuchal organs of polychaetes. triploblastic tissue organisation. a diffuse neural plexus) reverses to absent. George & Southward 1973). We interpret the condition triploblastic to mean mesoderm present. and are unknown in Pogonophora (see above. Nemertea. Character 112 of Eernisse etal. cuticular covering of entire external body surface (Character 78). 'arthropod' taxa. particularly with regards to the initial homology hypotheses and the influence of linked (nonindependent) characters. (1992). or absent in the case of clitellates. and tardigrades were scored as having no cuticle (Character 74). but why the Echiura were scored as present for this feature is not apparent in the quoted sources (this character also reverses in the arthropods and associated taxa). node 16). A detailed analysis of all characters used in Eernisse et al. Character 110 of Eernisse et al. and 98. Character 74 (cuticle. Leaving aside the larger issue of the relationships of arthropods and spiralian taxa. which was listed as an unequivocal synapomorphy for the clade through reversal. This can have the effect of grouping taxa on synapomorphies based on inappropriate absences as well as grouping via loss (homoplasy). Furthermore. Eernisse et al. though the Pogonophora were scored with this as present. nemerteans. and sclerotinisation of cuticle (Character 79). and as polymorphic in the Rhabditomorpha. (1992) did for supposedly inapplicable characters for the Cnidaria. However. the structure is single. Annelida. clitellates. The gnathostomulids were scored as having an endon. That the state found in flatworm taxa should be scored as homologous to the paired statocysts that lie away from the brain. Vestimentifera. Vestimentifera. Methods Characters). was called the 'endon' by BekZoologica Scripta 24 . presumably on the basis of chitin being a component in the tube or chaetae (Southward 1971. Conchífera. and Polychaeta. (1992) 'Paired olfactory fossae of preoral lobes' was also based on the ideas of Beklemishev (1969). Eernisse et al. Echiura. This does then raise the question as to why the Echiura. With reference to the cuticle characters in general. Character 76 (chitinous proteins in cuticle) transforms below node 9 to the absent condition. hence scoring them as absent for triploblasty was inappropriate. this was not indicated with an N (admittedly equivalent for the computer to a '?') as Eernisse et al. Beklemishev (1969: 161) specifically stated that such a structure is absent in the Amphineura (a taxon that includes the Polyplacophora). Rouse and K. which relate to a coelomate condition. though Beklemishev (1969: 158) specifically states 'No certain homologues of cerebral olfactory fossae are known in molluscs. The nemerteans and nematodes were scored with question marks for this character. medial cerebral ganglion with adjacent aboral statocyst organ'.290 G. not paired in the Sipuncula (Hyman 1959). and probably erroneous for the Rhabditophora (see Brusca & Brusca 1990). Table I shows the character states supporting the Pogonophora (including vestimentiferans) as sister group to the Annelida (i. scored this character as present in these taxa. Beklemishev (1969: 157) regarded the cephalic olfactory fossae of 'turbellarians' to be 'astonishingly similar' to those of nematodes. Character 103 (orthogon. For instance. and then scored as having chitinous proteins invested in the cuticle (Character 76). it seems incongruous that the Onychophora. the problems raised here cast doubt on the strength of any conclusions drawn from their analysis. Ingroup taxa for which many characters were inappropriate. As has already been discussed several of these characters are repetitive or linked. are scored the same way in the 'arthropods' (or given a '?'). it is absent (Ax 1987: 261). to properly assess the overall topology of their cladograms. W. which was also scored as present. Annelida. With reference to the scoring of the Pogonophora. but a 0.

59? Varies in "annelids'. some of the proposed synapomorphies cannot be supported because of insufficient sampling of taxa. have gonads limited to a few or single segments only. is in fact present in many polychaetes (Meyer 1888. Arthropoda. Their morphological analysis. 56. When the morphological and molecular data were combined. 1. 60. We have not attempted a re-analysis after making corrections for the above errors. (1993). all clitellates. For characters 47 and 104.57. However. Antennae and palps Order in fate maps Tcloblastic segmentation Schizocoelic metamerism Acronal protoccrcbrum Double ventral nerve cord Longitudinal muscle bundles Coclomoducts Dorsal blood vessel Comment Homology of pre-oral appendages uncertain Symplesiomorphy with Sipuncula and Echiura Agrees with our results Linked to 58 Linked to 58. and some polychaetes. the monophyly of the Articulata. 1993: Fig 5. so polychaetes and clitellates cannot be unequivocally scored with this character. It is clear that there is no justification for suggesting that the clitellates and polychaetes are more closely related to one another than either is to the Pogonophora sensu lato. repeated as character 56) are present in pogonophores (Southward 1975: 70. Annelid nephridial system or poor interpretation for all characters that grouped the Polychaeta and Clitellata as sister taxa. as discussed above with reference to the Eernisse et al. and Arthropoda. these structures may not be segmentally arranged. Zoológica Scripta 24 . rooted using molluscs. hence the scoring should be the same for all three groups. (1992). Limulus and arachnids. This conclusion was based on a parsimony analysis of combined morphological and molecular sequence data. given these problematic characters from Eernisse et al. let alone homologous (Gardiner 1988). 58. and two clitellates were used as 'annelids'). 55.) and the nature of the pogonophoran gonoducts has not been fully investigated. These are summarised in Table II. the condition found in pogonophores. respectively. nothing. except for pycnogonids. 64. pogonophores have paired nerve bundles (Jägcrsten 1956. 63. With reference to character 57. 61. Similarly. (1993:10) state that this character was coded deliberately to bias against arthropod monophyly. Serially repeated respiratory structures (character 58) are not present in all polychaetes. More or less diffuse nerve nets are present cutaneously or subcutaneously in all three groups (Southward 1971). We will limit our discussion here to the characters that were included as indicating monophyly of the Articulata and the Annelida. (1993) that cast doubts on the their support for annelid monophyly. we are left with no synapomorphies for the Clitellata and Polychaeta. 291 Annelida synapomorphies 7. with state 1 being found in polychaetes and onychophorans and state 2 in all euarthropods. it is likely that the arthropods could move back as at least the sister group with the 'annelids'. Thus. postoral antennae.59. also 1993) as well as in other annelids.): 50. Wheeler ei a/. While most polychaetes have gonads present in many segments (character 59). see also Appendix III) as do polychaetes and clitellates. Longitudinal muscle bundles 10. Antennae and palps. Also. unless one is willing to make ad hoc assumptions about the plesiomorphic condition for each 'clade". Synapomorphies supporting the eludes Articulata and Annelida in the morphological analysis of Wheeler et al.Articulation of annelids Table II. Fauchald & Rouse in prep. using 100 characters. they do not have branchioauricular sinuses with ctenidial pores. as occurs in many polychaetes (Goodrich 1945).58. 59. Character 63 was mis-scored for the polychaetes and clitellates. 62. 2. comprise specific organ-systems that follow from the nature of segmentation. The resulting transformation series has four steps. not distinct from Echiura Same as 62? Also present in Onychophora No unique 'annelid" system. Pogonophoran gonads are present in only a single segment. there are some problems with linkage of the morphological characters in the analyses by Wheeler et al. Annelida. Characters 54. Possible symplesiomorphy? Agrees with our results Symplesiomorphy? Symplesiomorphy? Comment Symplesiomorpy. Serially repeated transverse muscles (character 54. An analysis by Wheeler et al. All characters are discussed more fully in the text Articulata synapomorphies 50. the Annelida cannot be identified separately from the Pogonophora. The proposed morphological synapomorphies for the Articulata were (character numbers are from Wheeler et al. that was the sister group to a monophyletic Annelida (Glycera a polychaete. It is interesting to note that the separate molecular sequence data analyses for loci of I8S rDNA and Polyubiquitin (both separately and combined) did not support monophyly of the Annelida. a single pair of anterior excretory nephridia (Southward 1993). and only the combined molecular sequence data supported the monophyly of the Arthropoda.'s (1992) analysis. Annelida and Arthropoda was also supported. and are absent in most clitellates (Cook 1971 ) . Annelid head 9. This was an unordered multistate character with the states 0. Ubiquitin molecular sequence data supported the monophyly of the Articulata. (1993) investigated the issue of arthropod monophyly and concluded that the Onychophora and Euarthropoda formed a clade. Character names are paraphrased. when present. prostomial/preoral palps. It is likely that there is possible nephridial involvement in the ducts. resulted in monophyletic Articulata.

1991). An acron. Rouse and K. since the condition of the acron is linked with segmentation. Also. These two characters refer to the condition of segmentation and cannot be said to be independent as discussed above for characters 47. though in the latter case. in the sense of this character description. myzostomids (Prenant 1959: 745). Clitellates have distinct. the brain is well away from the prostomium. The acron. A pair of lateral nerve cords is present in nemerteans (Turbeville 1991) and a central ventral pair and lateral pair are present in molluscs (Brusca & Brusca 1990). but it is difficult to explain how character 9.292 G. 55. The components of the urinogenital system of the Sipuncula are generally referred to as metanephridia (e. 63. but only 'acctran' will provide this result) in their Fig. The possibility that coelomoducts are incorporated into the 'metanephridia' and thus forming mixonephridia needs further investigation. Dorsal blood vessel with forward-going peristalsis. and this cannot reasonably be interpreted as a synapomorphy for the Articulata. More importantly. . Schizocoelous metamerism between preoral acron (prostomium) and the non. they are pre-segmental structures.g. The vestigial nature of the coelomoducts and derivatives varies considerably amongst articulates and cannot be regarded as a synapomorphy for the Articulata. Wheeler et al. originally defined by Hatschek (1878a) to refer to the prostomium and peristomium of annelids. and nemerteans is such that there is innervation of eyespots from anterior extensions of the 'brain' (Brusca & Brusca 1990). The 'nephridia" of the Echiura have also been interpreted as mixonephridia (Goodrich 1945: 232). Coelomoducts their vestiges and derivatives. in many clitellates. pycnogonids and crustaceans is also problematic (see Anderson 1973. A double nerve cord is present in arthropods (Brusca & Brusca 1990). xiphosurids. while nerve elements are present in the prostomium of polychaetes and clitellates taxa. clitellates (Dales 1963). Some doubt can be expressed about the homology of molluscan fate map with those of chelicerates. (1993) coded this character to bias against arthropod monophyly. (1993). A single nerve cord is present in echiurids (Brusca & Brusca 1990) and sipunculids. 5. We did not use a character based on the nature of the nerve cord because of uncertainty over homology. While such a system is present in the members of the Articulata. pogonophores (Jägersten 1956. The gonads of the nemerteans have been interpreted as incipient or modified coelomoducts (Turbeville 1991). with the state 1 (anterior-stomodeum.) arising below the (Annelida Arthropoda) changing to the outgroup condition below the Euarthropoda before reverting to state 1 for the (Diplopoda Chilopoda Hexapoda). can then serve as a synapomorphy for the Annelida (see below). as was done for character 50. and 59 in Eernisse et al. in most cases. character 50: 1 arises below the (Annelida Arthropoda). reverses to state 0 for the clitellates. the echiurids (Newby 1940) and Sipuncula (Rice 1975) show the same fate map. is now largely used to refer to the pre-segmental region in arthropods (Brusca & Brusca 1990). and transforms to state 2 for the euarthropods before reversing again to state 0 for the clade (Pycnogonida {Limulus Arachnida). Also. While some polychaetes show paired ventral nerve cords. i. Ordering of fate map tissues (anterior-stomodeummidgut-mesoderm-posterior vs. 62. well developed coelomoducts separate from the nephridial system (Goodrich 1945). Gardiner & Jones 1993). which was one of our two synapomorphies for the Articulata. Acronal protocerebrum serving the eyes and containing an association center connected with pedunculate bodies. with the stomodeum anteriorly and the mesoderm posteriorly (MacBride 1914. 59. The nature of the anterior end of platyhelminths.. In the Nemertea. 64. some myzostomids have a single ventral nerve cord (Jägersten 1940). it is also present in the Echiura (Pilger 1993) Beyond the dubious homology assessment of polychaete head appendages (many polychaete groups have none) with those of the Onychophora. there are a varying number of ventral cords. Brusca & Brusca 1990. Mollusca and Platyhelminthes. Fauchald absent (Jamieson 1992). The homology assessment of fate maps amongst the chelicerates. In 'turbellarian" platyhelminths there are one to several pairs of longitudinal nerve cords (Rieger et al. anterior midgutmesoderm-stomodeum-posterior). 57. For example. as is found in the majority of polychaetes (Goodrich 1945). with state 1 arising independently in the polychaetes and Onychophorans. they are not all associated with eyes. Double ventral somatic nerve cord. pycnogonids and crustaceans.metamerism (sic) telson (periproct). is coded as present by Wheeler eifl/. Hyman 1959. W. 'Longitudinal muscles broken into bands instead of sheets'. For example. there is a single mid-ventral cord (Golding 1992). Four other equally parsimonious transformations are possible. and we are unsure of its utility as a synapomorphy for the Articulata. sipunculids. Also.e. They correspond to our character 3. Pearse 1979). 61. Schräm 1986). Determining states given this variability in morphology was thought to be too problematic for our analysis. 58. several molluscs seem to have similar fate map patterns to those of polychaetes. specifically stated to be absent in the Onychophora by Anderson (1973). and vestimentiferans (in the vestimentum region. fusion of two cords has been seen in one species (Rice 1973). 54. this seems to be a dubious separate synapomorphy for the Articulata. . ( 1992). Similarly. coelomoducts are possibly present in the molluscs (Brusca & Brusca 1990). Dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscle bundles. xiphosurids. We find this is also a synapomorphy for the Articulata. . This character was homoplastic. this character state provides little in the way of support for the monophyly of the Articulata. as the 'annelids' and Onychophora etc. Segment origin in caudal elongation or proliferation zone. Segmentation. Rice 1993). Under the optimization used ('deltran' is stated. and eyes are generally Zoológica Scripta 24 . Ivanov 1959). Hadfield 1979. 58. 60. and as such they have mesodermal components.

scored with 4d mesoderm (character 19). Additionally. showing a polytomy for almost all ingroup taxa discussed here. 1 of Schräm & Ellis (1994). Two papers have used the matrix published by Schräm (1991) and generated the same consensus tree. as it is the Onychophora (Storch & Ruhberg 1993). The synapomorphies proposed by Wheeler í?í A/. The nature of the longitudinal muscles. The nature of the annelid head was discussed above with reference to the analysis by Brusca & Brusca (1990). Altering the matrix of Schräm (1991) for character 31 to state '0' Zoológica Scripta 24 . we ran the matrix of Schräm (1991). is considered here to be similar in the Onychophora (Mantón 1967) and was found to be synapomorphy for the Articulata. Also. 64. 2B of Backeljau etal. (1992) in which they correct a scoring error and remove the taxa 'ancestor' and the Pentastomida from the matrix of Schräm (1991). ten Hove who ran the matrix for Schräm & Ellis using Hennig86). are also scored with no particular cell source for character 63. and it cannot be considered to be distinct from the condition seen in the Echiura (Newby 1940). the presence of a cuticle with collagen is a symplesiomorphy for the annelid groups. Echiura and Mollusca are scored for 4d mesoderm. Sipuncula.19. Taxa relevant for this discussion. have taxa that are justifiably scored for the states 'mesoderm not segmented' (character 43) and 'no particular cell source' (character 63) included with taxa having no mesoderm at all. 2a. Serially repeated metanephridia that are separate from the genital system are present in the Clitellata and capitellid polychaetes (Goodrich 1945). characters 43 and 63. 19. This reversal. and deletion of ancestor and Pentastomida) to fig. the Sipuncula. and this result should now be questioned. This is erroneous. 1993: Fig. (1992) and fig.52 293 and cannot be considered an ailiculate synapomorphy. Backeljau et al. at least for the Echiura and Sipuncula. (1993) for the Annelida were shown in Table II. As shown in our analysis above. Echiura and Mollusca. epidermal paired chaetae are present in the Echiura. are scored with the state for ectomesoderm.63 Linkedto 11. The 'derived' state (protonephridia) shown for entoprocts in Schräm (1991) appears as the 'primitive' state '0' (no special excretory organ) in the unpublished matrix of Schräm & Ellis (1994). 2B). i. 51 Linked to42. (1992).51. There is no unique condition of the annelid nephridial system that can be considered a synapomorphy for the group. Thus. We then obtained Schräm & Ellis's matrix (thanks to Dr Schräm and to Dr H. and unacknowledged. One example also occurs with reference to the suite of characters associated with mesoderm. The variability of polychaete nephridial systems is remarkable (Goodrich 1943. Annelida. altered according to the parameters and corrections of Schräm & Ellis (1994). Incidentally. This topology results in some novel transformations series but suffers from similar character coding problems to those seen above in Eernisse et al. where there is no difference in the source of mesoderm formation from that seen in polychaetes and clitellates ('annelids'). Coclom or (mctacoel) Archimeric Enterocoel. Schroeder & Hermans 1975). which refer to the structure and formation of mesoderm and ectoderm (hence also linked to character 11. Nemertea. (1993) and.e. and noted that their scoring for the Entoprocta for character 31 was different from Schräm (1991).43 Linked to 42. as well as little resolution amongst major metazoan clades (Eernisse et al. and found 384 minimal length trees of length 124. Slates are paraphrased somewhat Character 11. which is implied by the topology of Fig. The paper by Schräm & Ellis (1994) is a response to Backeljau et al. serves as the only synapomorphy grouping these three taxa. Character 19 (already subsidiary to character 11) refers to the mode of mesoderm formation. Platyhelminthes. Similarly. 1992: Fig. The addition of these characters to the combined morphological analysis suggested a monophyletic Annelida. seemingly. Two examples are sufficient here and are summarised in Table III. being also found in Sipuncula and Echiura. This assessment of the proposed synapomorphies by Wheeler ei a/. They show a consensus tree of 30 minimal length trees (123 steps. 51. 63. 19. and a plesiomorphic polychaete condition has not been postulated. linkage problems involved with the characters that are subordinate to the presence of mesoderm or coelom. 52. if present Large and pervasive 'Derived' state Present 4d mesoderm Segmented or serial structures Teloblasts for mesoderm etc. except that the latter groups are segmented (Brusca & Brusca 1990). 52 Linked to 42. A separate form of banding of longitudinal musculature in the various 'annelid' groups cannot be discerned at this time. Mesodcrm Mesodcrm Mesoderm Mesodcrm Body cavity Coclorn Coclom Coclom 'Primitive' state Absent Ectomcsodcrm Not segmented No particular cell source No body cavity Undivided Schizococl. 19). (1993) is valid. with uninformative characters removed) with the topology of the taxa relevant to this discussion being (Nemertea (Arthropoda (Pogonophora (Annelida (Mollusca (Echiura Sipun- cula)))))). (1993). we see their finding of a monophyletic AnneHda as more problematic. Apart from the obvious. if present Around circulatory svstem Comment Linked to 11 Linkedto 11.Articulation of annelids Table III. whether they have mesoderm or not. Examples of characters used by Schräm (1991). (1993) illustrates the complexity of characters involved and in assigning homologies. 43. ectomesoderm or 4d mesoderm. 42. Eernisse et al. there are further errors in coding and logic. While their analysis supports our conclusion that there is a monophyletic taxon Articulata. 2a of Eernisse etal. none of the proposed morphological synapomorphies for the Annelida sensu Wheeler et al. with a consensus tree identical (given rooting differences. deletion of uniformative characters. whereas all other taxa. The 'deuterostomes' are the sister group to this clade with the Platyhelminthes (and gnathostomulids) sister group to this assemblage. broken into bands.

1959. Reynolds (Hamilton College) and D. Fauchald The definition of the Articulata can be formulated as the clade stemming from the first ancestor to show repetition of homologous body structures derived by teloblastic growth and longitudinal muscles broken into bands. Sei. Stuttgart. Polychaeta. Annélide. Smithsonian Institution. The sysiematization of organisms on the basis of their phylogenesis. based on current evidence and the consenus tree topology. the frenulate pogonophores. Thanks also to J. We agree. Pogonophora and Echiura). Trustees of the British Museum. ¡00: 89-166. Thus. 2 (as far as possible. and that the Chordata is paraphyletic. and Pogonophora may well prove to fall inside the Polychaeta.. (éd. Ax.e. Pleijel (Swedish Museum of Natural History). the traditionally formulated Annelida. Pogonophora. P.•Q. Onychophora. Bright (Smithsonian Institution) for tracking down specimens and references on the 'Vestimentifera".s-SipuncidiensEchiuriens-Priapuliens-Endoproctes-Phoronidiens. and K.. A. Vestimentifera. Anderson. Patterson. 28 (eds S. T. 1993. use of these taxa as outgroups for an analysis of polychaete relationships is not justifiable at this time. In Reef and shore fauna of . is paraphyletic if the Pogonophora are excluded. Zoológica Scripta 24 Acknowledgements Special thanks to L. Riitzler (Smithsonian Institution) for facilitating our work together. 1959. H.294 G. and A. 47: V-A2. namely the Polychaeta and Clitellata. Conway Morris. Masson et Cie. Lamellisabellidae Uschakov. In Traité de Zoologie. Rice. Ashworth. When we map our characters onto the tree topology of Winnepenninckx et al. D. Euarthropoda. the Pogonophora should revert to the original family name. Polychaeta: Pan I. Embryology and phytogeny in annelids and arthropods. the Arthropoda is the sister group to a deuterostome/limited 'protostome' clade. The Articulata is considered. 1912. P.^64 of the Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port. Anatomie. Ward (Smithsonian Institution) for bibliographicsupport and not believing a word of what we said. 1966. We feel a more judicious selection of polychaete species will result in more powerful assessments of the membership of. rooted using a platyhelminth. the Pogonophora. If this is shown more conclusively. F. The Vestimentifera is the sister group to. George. Clarendon Press. Ax P. B. In The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. as found by Schräm & Ellis (1994). D. Norenburg (Smithsonian Institution). Chichester. This result is incongruent. The position of the Gnathostomulida and Platyhelminthes in the phylogcnetic system of the Bilateria. P. New York. The synapomorphies for the Articulata are the presence of segmentation and longitudinal muscle broken into bands. T. T. M.'s (1995) fig. Rouse and K. The name Articulata is applied to the Clitellata. In half of the 18 minimal length trees. Grasse): 224-470. D. Avel. This is contribution number . Das Phylogenetische System. H. P. Pogonophora and Echiura. 1985. Simpson (University of Sydney) are thanked for reading the early drafts.•Cladistics9:167181. is paraphyletic. a taxon that has never been identified by synapomorphy. Kirk Fitzhugh (Los Angeles County Museum). Molecular systematic studies to date have only included at most one polychaete. the Annelida (a polychaete and a clitellate) is paraphyletic by exclusion of the Sipuncula. References Anderson. (1995) used maximum parsimony analysis of 18S rRNA molecular sequence data to assess relationships among 'protostomes' and also included some deuterostomes (chordates and echinoderms). and Vestimentifera. P. While the scoring of character 31 for the entoprocts may simply be a typographical difference between Schräm (1991) and the matrix used by Schräm & Ellis (1994). In the remaining minimal length trees. Smithsonian Institution. Our results show that minimally. L. (1995) conclude that further molecular sequence and anatomical data is needed to resolve discrepancies in hypotheses regarding the monophyly of the Mollusca and Annelida. J. with our results. Catalogue of the Chaetopoda in the British Museum (Natural History). This change is not actually justifiable since entoprocts do have protonephridia (Hyman \95\h\ Brusca & Brusca 1990). M. Phylum Annelida. and Pogonophora. Wiley. J. London. Bailey-Brock. The Systematics Association Special Vol. Slockh. the Arthropoda. that suggested the following: the Protostomata is paraphyletic by exclusion of the 'deuterostomes'. C. Clitellata. We draw this to the attention of those wishing to repeat Schräm & Ellis's (1994) result. J. One in particular. a monophyletic Annelida cannot be formulated. Platt): 168-180. 1933. Vestimentifera and Arthropoda. McHugh (Cornell University) for clarifying our understanding of certain issues. the 'correct' analysis should have been 384 minimal length trees (length 124) and the resulting lack of resolution of relationships amongst the taxa dealt with in this paper. the various transformation series minimally total 41 steps. Anderson. Polychaeta. GWR was supported by a Smithsonian Institution Postdoctoral Fellowship and an Australian Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship. Biologie. Gustav Fischer. 'arthropods'. D. Polychaeta and Clitellata.•Actazool. the Vestimentifera and Pogonophora form a clade that is the sister group to the Echiura. W. then results in 30 minimal length trees with 123 steps. 1984. though the latter group may be a clade of polychaetes. Two reviewers (one remains anonymous) for this journal provided critical comment on the manuscript. 1987. L. with deuterostomes deleted and 'mollusc' repeated to form a paraphyletic group with respect to the Nemertea. B. We suggest that the name Annelida cease to be used. the Mollusca is paraphyletic by exclusion of the Nemertea. V (1). and the name Pogonophora is retained for this group. Backcljau. They found a single minimal length tree with a topology. the conventionally formulated Annelida. and relationships within. 1973. Kensley. or more likely a clade within. 43Ü of the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems (CCRE) Program. D. Winnepenninckx et al. Jl microsc. Systématique. the Articulata. the former matrix is correct on this issue. The phylogenetic system. The embryology of the polychaete Scoloplos armiger. R. The Clitellata. Winnepenninckx et al. M. T. to say the least.•Arenicolidae. The comparative embryology of the Polychaeta. This analysis assumed the monophyly of the Polychaeta. 18 steps longer than our minimal length trees. 1987. Hirsch (Smithsonian Institution) for stirring the pot at appropriate times and for suggesting the title of the paper. to consist of four clades. unless relationships within the Articulata are resolved to show a monophyletic Annelida. Pergamon Press. Paris: Ax. & De Bruyn. made us realise we had to bite the arthropod' bullet. Oxford. Cladistic analysis of metazoan relationships: a reappraisal. A. Vestimentifera. i. & H. Conclusions The aim of this paper was consider the monophyly of the Annelida and to assess the relationship of taxa usually associated with annelids. Classe des Annclides Oligochètes. Gibson. Winnepenninckx.

Inc.] Akademia Nauk. H. Evolutionsforsch. 1994. Powell. V. zool. 1992. Paris (9 zool. Eeckhaut. In Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world (with contributions by I). [Principles of the Comparative Anatomy of Invertebrates. Scr. Beklemishev. with a phylogenetic analysis of Dorvilleidae. Bartolomacus. Beklemishev. Edinburgh. Distel. J. J. Carroll.•Z. Anatomie-SystématiqueBiologie.-C. Mus. Brinkhurst & B. Evidence from 12s ribosomal RNA sequences that onychophorans are modified arthropods. U. New York. Bunke. Rcish): 619 (Abstract). & Olea. Edinburgh. C. Carey. Brusca. M. G. Grasse): 495^99. Laubier & D. 1990. (Oligochaeta). Brinkhurst. D. 1967. & Brusca. 1.•Sber. 1914f>. Chichestcr. Zur Morphologic und Systematik der Aeolosomatidac Beddard 1895 und Potamodrilidae nov. 1975.•Bull. Contribution á la connaissance de Siboglinum Caullcry. Dcvancy & L. 23: 493-506. Bartolomacus. Brinkhurst & B. T. Iphitiniidae and Dinophilidac•Zoo/. Bunke. Fr. N. The origins and evolution of the Acanthocephala. Oxford.•Sys. S. O. C. pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction á l'anatomie comparée: Les Reptiles.• Magasin encyclopédique 1795 //. Florkin & B. 1984. Protonephridia and metanephridia• their relation within the Bilatcria.•Mar. XI Echinodermes-Stomocordés-Procordés (ed.. Toward a phylogenetic system of biological nomenclature. Wiley. K. lu à la société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Cuvier. Masson et Cie. Neapel 5: 544-580. Composition and relationships. 1990. Eldrcgc): 213-454. les Poissons. P. Stn. biol. les Mollusques et les Annélides. Platt): 143-158. Recherches sur les organes segmentaires des Annélides Polychètes. Ont. 2. D. Dales. 19: 7384. Aeolosomatidac and Potamodrilidae. 1985«. F. Oliver and Boyd. J. O. Jamicson): 165-177. Zool.•C. Eibye-Jacobsen. Ehlers.. Rev. D. & Anderson. Fauchald. G. S.•Biol. D. Beklemishev. Jamicson): 8^1. and parental care (cds K. O. T. L. F. Symbiosis of ehcmoautotrophic bacteria and marine invertebrates from hydrothermal vents and reducing sediments. G. Addenda aux Stomocordés. & Jangoux. Ecol. G. 1969. L. 39: 304-322. M. Téllez. Erséus. 1914ü. O. J. 1994. Rev. S. Soc. Smithsonian Institution Press. R. Ser. R. lu à la société d'Histoirc-Naturelle. & Nemec. 1982. Fr. M. A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa British Museum (Nat. Academic Press. Brinkhurst R. le 21 florial de l'an 3 [10 May. K.•Mitt. Nat. C. Comments on a phylogenetic system of the Platyhelminthcs. W. 1976. Abt.<is.•Z. On the life history and development of the genus Myzostoma (F.•Can. London. L. Observations on the reproductive biology of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyplila. D. 61: 2346-2350. Characterization of ehcmoautotrophic bacterial symbionts in a gutless marine worm (Oligochaeta. Cook. Through the looking-glass. Belg. Biol. N. Paris. Akad. 41: 305-330. L. 1989. 1948. Tiere 94: 187-368. J. II. M. T. 1992. T. Polychaete phylogeny: a problem in protostome evolution. In Chemical zoology.. J. 23: 107-131. V. O. 1981. Cuvier. Day. G. 1812. 1817. Gibson. E. Olsen.•Sarsia 60: 1-11. Cook.. 1795ö. Anatomy. Embryonic and post-embryonie development in the Pogonophora. Cavanaugh. & Waterbury. Bakke. Caullcry. MacMillan & Co. Phylogenetic analysis of the aquatic Oligochaeta under the principle of parsimony. 1982. A comparison of phenetic and phylogenetic methods applied to the systematics of Oligochaeta. V. S. & Gauthier. 1992. Clark. 6: 373-388. R. development. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Tome 162 Zoologie.•Anna. dans lequel on traite de la structure des Mollusques et de leur division en ordre. Paris. Microbiol. Jones. On the ultrastructure of the coelomic lining in the Annelida. Hutchinson University Library. Zool. G. 1971. van der Land) (eds R. The polychaete worms. In Introduction to the study of meiofauna (cds R. B. 23: 449-480. M. Faith. families and genera. 1994. Procaryotic cells in the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila Jones: Possible ehcmoautotrophic aymbionts. ¡Prituiples of the Comparative Anatomy of Invertebrates. 52: 89-94. Abt. Giere. Bishop Museum Press. Conway Morris.. L.. W. Invertebrates.) 3: 251^11.) Publication 696. 213: 340-342. Sonderheft 1975: 7-9. 1985. Wash. G. Annelida and Arthropoda arc not sister taxa: a phylogenetic analysis of spiralian metazoan phylogeny. Wi. London. L.?0. (ser III) 158: 2014-2017. Feeding behaviour and functional morphology of the introvert and digestive system of Myzostoma cirriferum (Myzostomida). & Crompton. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships within the Platyhclminthes. British Museum (Natural History). Odgers. Ann. D. P. type nouveau d'invertébrés recueillis par l'expédition du Siboga. W. & Gauthier. Sinauer Associates. Scr. Definitions and keys to the orders. Alberts. J. 28 (cds S. In Actes de la 4ème Conférence internationale des Polychètes (eds J. 1988. H. Scheer): 1-68.•Zool. P. Clarendon Press. Anderson and J. 1992. J. Acad. published in Russian in 1964). & Cavanaugh. Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation. Volume 4 Annelida. Sei.•Annls Mus.Articulation of annelids Hawaii. Cook. N. 1990. J. 1858. V. Higgins & H. Organology. T. van der Land) (eds R. D. Part B Fertilization. U. M. 1977.C. de Quciroz. O.•Hydrobiologia 132: 1-12. Nat. K. N. Honolulu. G.R. A. Hist. & Kristensen. zool. D. In Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world (with contributions by D. T. Adiyodi): 37^8.•Trends Ecol. Dochy. Wien 33: 473-513. Bishop Museum Special Publication 64 (cds D. I). & Gelder. No direct contact between the excretory system and the circulatory system in Prostomatella arenicola Friedrich (Hoplonemerlini). C. Anderson & J. B. London. Osnovy sravintel'noianatomii bespozvonochnykh. Volumel. Zool. sections 2 and 3. C. J. The early embryos of Siboglinum fiordicum Webb (Pogonophora) reared in the laboratory. K. and what Ahce found there. Tiere ¡03: 276-284. D. 57: 85-115. B. N. 1948. 1992. 1971. G. George. N0rrcvang). Systematics and Phylogeny: Annelida. Soc. . Moscow. et sur les affinités des animaux auxquels on a donné le nom de Vers.-ßu//. 295 Sipuncula (eds M. 1987. Moscow. type nouveau d'invertébrés recueillis par l'expédition du Siboga. Fauchald. J.•Hydrobiologia 155: 65-74. Beard. Prog. 1995.•Syi. Sei. P. & H. Chicago (Translation of the third edition. Thiel): 345-348. M. M.•. Phylogenetic taxonomy. In The phytogeny and systematic position of Pogonophora (ed. Los Angel. Sur les Siboglinidac. N. M. Y. le 11 prairial an troisième (30 May 1795]. R. 9: 27-30. acanthobdellidans and leeches?•Hydrobiologia 180: 7-15. 1795]. Evol. 1952. Ser. Syst. Mill): 1-32. Le genre Siboglinum Caullery 1914. P. 1989. \795b. 1994. & Holland. Caullcry. In Physiology of annelids (ed. O. Cavanaugh.Y.•Appl. J. Jb. M. Ballard. G. Pogonophora. Ecol. Zool. In Traité de Zoologie. G.•Hydrobiologia 156: 175-181. Ehlers. Bernice P. Syst. Environ. Mémoire sur la structure interne et externe.•Sys.. Annelida) by phylogentic 16S rRNA sequence analysis and in situ hybridization. J. Bakke. D. 13: 239-272. 1967. 28: 1-188. Fagc. S. Sipuncula. Evolutionsforsch. A. N. 60: 1043-1059. D. M. Sundcrland. Biol. Oliver and Boyd. 21-15. Echiura. P. Phylogeny as a central principle in taxonomy: Phylogenetic definitions of taxonomy. 1872. 1980. Echiura. A. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the gutless Phallodrilinae (Oligochaeta. Caullcry. Annelids. L. R.•ßu//. Felbeck. R. The Systematics Association Special Vol. In Reproductive biology of invertebrates Volume IV. M.•Zool. Washington D. Cuvier. Tubificidae). Bakke. C. H. Integument and epidermal sensory structures of Myzostoma cirriferum (Myzostomida). Brinkhurst. Fernandez. Sipuncula and Echiura.. Anat. C. A new genus and species of Dorvilleidae (Annelida. anné/ 2: 433-449. Evolution in the Annelida. Polychaeta) from Bermuda. Dauvin.. M. B. P. W. 1978. Zool. G. Second Mémoire sur l'organisation et les rapports des animaux à sang blanc.• Décade philosophique 1795 5: 385-396.Science. 1974. New York. Jb. Dawydoff.•Zool. C. Conway Morris. 1993.. Flist. W. G. Academic Press. Phylogeny and classification Part 1. Hist. Clark. fam. M. R. Did the lumbriculids provide the ancestors of the branchiobdellidans. D. Adiyodi & R. Eernisse. 1944./ Second Edition. dc Ouciroz. Bakkc. 1969. Jannasch. 1985fc. P.. Cuvier. 39: 350353.. Sur un nouveau rapprochement à établir entre les classes qui composant le Règne Animal. In The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates.. 9: 171220. Anat. T. Eeckhaut. M. R. Gardiner. Brinkhurst. & Atkinson. Erscus. Syst. Osnovy sravintel'noi anatomii bespozvonochnykh. L. Sur les Siboglinidac. 1987. Ont. G. M. & Ax. C.•Hydrobiologia 155: 75-89. Dubilier.•Microfauna Mar. Paris. Early cleavage in embryos of Siboglinum fiordicum Webb. Dicsing. Hirudinea. Revision der Myzhclminthcn. & Gauthier.. Universityof Chicago Press. de Quciroz.•Science. 1963. N. R. T. In Microscopic Zoológica Scripta 24 . & Jangoux. Detervillc Libraire. T. R. V. Akademia Nauk. J. Cty Sei. with description of one new genus and twenty two new species. 1906.• Zoomorphology 113: 33•45. Lcuckart). 82: 141-163. V.258: 1345-1348. Bartolomacus. Principles of comparative anatomy of invertebrates. K. S. 1884. J.

1960. 239: 748-753. W. 1969. C.•Mar. English summary). Gravely. H. M. Nerilla. J. Die Familien der Anneliden. Zh. Wicdemann. Handbook of zoology. New York. mar. Ivanov. M. A. 1993.•Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lehensweise 58:1594.•Q. Bull. Ivanov. R. 34: 513-522. Galeolaria caespitosa Lamarck (Scrpulidae). M. 10: 24-34. L. 3: 183185. Verwandtschaft und Evolution der Pogonophoren. Field. N. Grant. Jl microsc. W. L. 1993. H. Gain. Pogonophora Johansson. & Engel. Atlas of the sedentariate polychaetous annelids from California. Translated from the second Dutch Edition. Polychaeta. 54: 179-192. S. F.. 1975b. J.•J. 5c/. Structure de la région postérieure setigère du corps des Pogonophora. & Cloney. & Southward. Fine structure of the cuticle and epidermis. M. A. 1951/>. Zool. A scanning electron microscopic study of larval development in the marine polychaete. Ivanov. A. Gustus. A. 1938. Inst. Los Angeles. 1951a.•Science. Stockh. On external digestion in Pogonophora. B. Lotos. Wiley-Liss. Scheer): 45-102. A. Evidence from 18S ribosomal DNA that the lophophorates are protostome animals.54. Almquist & Wicksells Boktryckeri A/B. 1956. Hartman. Hartman. V. Ivanov. zool. Ivanov.•Am. Gardiner. Wilhelm Engelmann. 267: 1641-1643. 8: 109-119.Y.•Zoo/. Giovanni. Gardiner): 19-52. 1955. 1909. M. W.. Zool. New York. V. J. ein vorläufiger Bericht. Annelida. T.•Biol. Olsen.296 G. Suspension feeding by the lophophore-like apparatus of the ptcrobranch hemichordatc Rhahdopleura normani. In The ultraslructure of the Polychaeta (cds W. L. Wilcy-Liss. A. Structural studies on an aberrant tubificid associated with bacteria. Wien 1: 1-128. The molecular phylogcny of the animal kingdom. Aschelminthes. J. E. 1878a. B. & Jones. Zool. 1972. A. A. P. Zool. von 1877. 18: 85-102. Fcrraguti. V. New York. L. von 1884. In The phylogeny and systematic position of Pogonophora (cd. 1988. 1856. Woods Hole. 1895. Cambridge University Press. Biol. Taxon. Syst. [Über den Bau des Hinterkörperabschnittes von Pogonophora. Sei. S. Zool. Mann. Univ. J. H. mar. Goodrieh. P. Harrison & S. Masson et Cie. V. Goodrich. Ultrastructurc of coelomic organization in annelids. O. 1945. Gardiner): 15.. Evolutionsforsch. 1988. Zool. Hartmann-Schröder. Polychaeta: General organization. Evolutionsforsch. Family revision and cladistic analysis of the Ncrcidoidea (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida). Zool. Ser. (ed. K. 104: 19^14. A. volume 7: Annelida (eds F. Studien über die Entwicklungesehichtc der Anneliden. Ivanov. 5: 353-357. & Jones. V.•Ada zool. G. 1985. Molluscs: pelecypods and lesser classes. L. Kühn. Adiyodi): 343-376. B. In Reproductive biology of invertebrates Volume H. 1972. Ass. lab. Skriftserie utgiven afKonglia Svenska Vetenskapsakademien. K. System der Anneliden. 1965. Hatschck.. A. Akad. Epibiosis of the Gullmar Fjord. an archiannelid. nov. A.]. Zool. A. Hillis. 215: 171-179. Comments on the classification of the Clitcllata. Ivanov. The comparative ultrastructure of sperm flagella central sheath in Clitcllata reveals a new autapomorphy of the group.): 371460. 1961. R. 1970. Glasby. 1980. P. German summary). Y. On the systematic position of Pogonophora. Liva. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. L. Jl microsc. 1975a. Ivanov. Fransen. 1969. 54: 1125-1154 (in Russian. Wiley.. The systematic position of the Archiannclida.•Q. Polychaeta: Nervous system. Harrison & M. TimpI. genital ducts and nephridia. 53: 229-233. 1989. 1. & Jones. S. Inst.• Hydrobiologia 180: 1-5. 1951. Goodrich. O. & Callsen-Cenic.•Arh. Giese & J. The structure of the genital system of Pogonophora. A. S. Das Genus Myzosloma F. M.•ß. & Lake. 1963. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. K. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. K.•Zoomorphologie 95: 235-249. J. 1981. L.•Cah.•íyí. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Adiyodi & R. Prog. D. L. A. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala. 1970. Ivanov. Graff. volume 7: Annelida (eds F. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der Bilatericn. 19. A. N.•5arí7a 77: 287-290. III. Cambridge. 1959. T. The main features of the organization of Pogonophora. V. L.. E. 1973. E. G.•Zool. 1912. Wien I: 277-4(M. H. In Chemical zoology. Ultrastructure of spcrmiogencsis in the vestimcntifcran tube worm Riftia pachyptila (Pogonophora: Obturata). volume 12: Onychophora. The gutless marine oligochaete Phallodrilus leukodermatus. C. vol. 43: 581-589 (in Russian. S. W. C. Ivanov. N0rrevang). In Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Ghiselin. Golding. Uppsala. Academic Press. G. S.. M. Hadficid. JI microsc. C. V. zool. Leipzig. C. New York.•5yi. V.. Allan Hancock Foundation. Studies on polychaete larvae. Westhcidc & C. Vol.•Sys. Jl microsc. Spermatogenesis and sperm function (cds K. E. and Entoprocta. E. M. Chichcster. L. Hatschck. McGraw-Hill Book Co.•Invertebr. volume 7: Annelida (eds F. M. 1930. 5i. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 37: 253-267. A. Gardiner): 323-394. microsc. A comparative study of the setae of Pogonophora and polychaetous Annelida.•Science. Molecular characterization of cuticle and other interstitial collagens from worms collected at deep sea hydrothermal vents. New York. Sei. Gardiner. 1994. In Traité de Zoologie. O. B. 1981.•Sys. A. Lane. G. 6: 311-323.•Cell Tissue Res. 1995. Franzcn. 13: 201-207. N.•Trans.•J. 7: 15511573.. ZooL 5: 165-173. & Little. F. Gupta. R. Ultrastructure. Giere. Grasse): 1521-1622. Leuckart. 1975. 221:209-223. Naturgesch. 1993. S. Taxonomic status of Pogonophora. 53: 597-627. McGraw-Hill Book Co.•Arb. phyl. Studies on Pogonophora. Ecol. M. On the significance of larval and juvenile morphology for suggesting phylogenetic relationships for the Vestimentifera. Wiley-Liss. New observations on the biology of Siboglinum poseidoni Flügel & Langhof (Pogonophora) from the Skagcrrak. Nauk SSSR 76: 739-742 (in Russian. Harrison & S. V.•Z.-E. IIIMollusca (eds M. Â. V. 1878/>. Ivanov. 1992. D. 96-106. Zool. Aguinaldo. Gupta. D. Hermans). 5: 379-391. Bachelier. Sei. biol. & Raff. L. Rouse and K. (eds A. Graff. 185:A\1-421. 4: 37^3.• Sys. C.. On the coclom. L. J. New Pogonophora from the Far Eastern Seas.M.. 1984. New York. vol.S. P. S. Chilopoda and lesser Protostomata (eds F. G.• Sys. [On including the genus Siboglinum Caullery in the class Pogonophora. M. D. Gardiner. V. Hermans. The Invertebrates: Smaller coelomate groups. Am. University of Southern California. U. biol.]•DoA:/. Ivanov. W.•Microfauna Mar. 4: 171-177./. Syst. The study of nephridia and genital ducts since 1895. Holt.•Z. New York.•Z. J. B. A. Clitcllata. Ivanov.•Q. V. Pearse): 1-26. 1983. Sonderheft 1975: 10-44. Biol. Fcrraguti. English summary). Grégoire. Academic Press. M. Scr. Raff. London. Grube. Univ. Hyman.•Sys. Hartman. J. M.•Tissue Cell 2: 637-696. C. D. 1979. S. V. Hyman.• Challenger Reports 10: 1-82.13: 123-126. Sonderheft 1975: 45-63. phylogcny and Pogonophora. The spermatozoon of 5/fcog/mum. J. M. C. 1850.. G. Sei. S.K. Gardiner.]•Zool. Borstenwürmer. In Kristineberg Zootogiska Station 1877-1927. L. 1988. H. R. Wilcy-Liss. M olee. Hyman. Respiratory and feeding appendages. Flügel. BryozoairesBrachiopodes-Chétognathes-Pogonophores-Mollusques Aplacophores-Polyplacophores-MonoplacophoresLamellibranches. \n Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Harrison & S. Ivanov. George.. 57: 397-425. Gardiner. A. Paris. Pogonophora. The Invertebrates: Platyhelminthes and Rhynchocoela. Fabricinae (Feather-duster polychaetous annelids) in the Pacific•Pac. Stockh. 397^01. W. H. Anatomie-Systémalique-Biologie V (2). The nervous system of Pogonophora. L. Academic Press. 4. Rice M.•Arch. Fauchald between setae of brachiopods and polychaetes. V. V. 1940. & Little. 1954. New York. S. E. O. 1964. Actazool. S. Aplacophora. New York. Embryonalentwicklung der Pogonophora und ihre systematische Stellung.-P. N. Analysis of the embryonic development of Pogono- anatomy of invertebrates.S. 3: 69-79. vol. O. I-II. Florkin & B. J. E. Hatschck. N0rrcvang). 1893. Ultrastructural similarities Zoologica Scripta 24 . 2. Hyman. L. 1973. Embranchement des Pogonophora. A. L.V179. Evolutionsforsch. Structure of the molluscan shell. Halanych. Halanych. vol.. Report on the Myzostomida collected during the voyage of H. 16: 249-364. Zool. E. In The phytogeny and systematic position of Pogonophora (ed.. Pace. A. K. A. 1992.. On the assignment of class Pogonophora to a separate phylum of DeuterostomiaBrachiata A. L. II. 1951. C. Ivanov. H. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. L. O. Gislcn.. L. Vestimentifera. Soc. 1991. Studien über Entwicklungsgeschichte der Anneliden. New York. mar. [Observations of embryonic development in Pogonophora. Syst. 1959. V. 86: 113-392. T. Zh. 1992. 1971. Hoeven van der. Vol.

) 121: 409-456. Ivanov. l'exposition des principes fondamentaux de la Zoologie Tome II. Jamieson. & Rouse. M. & Maddison. & Gardiner. A. B. l'exposition des principes fondamentaux de la Zoologie Tome IV. 1987. N. 54. d'Hist. Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution. K. Jones. Jamieson. 16: 283-299. Kojima. M. volume 7: Annelida (eds F. Wash. 1981a. W. Annulata Polychaeta Spetsbergiae.•ylfiAi/i zool. et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. In The ultrastructurc of the Polychaeta (cds W. G. Seki. M. P. 1987a. E. The Systemalics A.Akad. D. Paris. G. Jamieson. enfin. L. de 1809. Lamarck. differentiis. M. J. evidence from spermatozoal ultrastructurc. S. Johansson. Helmckc. Murata. ordines. University of Washington Press.. Histoire naturelle des Animaux sarui Vertèbres présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux. Platt): 326-342. The ultrastructure and phylogeny of insect spermatozoa. Gardiner): 217-322. Soc. 6: 117-158. parmi leurs dépouilles conservées. V. donné dans la Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République. B. Biol. English summary). Soc.. Hasegawa. K.•Sys. B) 247: 1-183. B. M.01. J. 1985/). A biological classification of sperm types. Bidr. Über Lamellisabella zachsi und ihre systematische Stellung. 18: 253268.. Jb. Onychophoran-euclitcllatc relationships. N. W. Mohri): 311-332. Die Entwicklung der Larvalsegmente bei den Anneliden. F. Upps. Hashimoto. B. 1992. M. //7. Jones. Lamarck. 1989. Upps. E. 1967. ou Tableau général des classes. L. A. M. Jägerstcn. 33: 3-103. Rep. B. MacClade. Anz. Maddison. Jones. S. K. In Handbuch der Zoologie. Westhcidc & C. Paris. leurs classes. P. R. J. J.•Sys. G. Scient. Parsimony analysis of the phylogeny of some Oligochaeta (Annelida) using spermatozoal ultrastructure. Mus. Oligochaete ultrastructure: Some comparisons with Polychaeta. 4: 397^28. Froriep 50(9. G.•Biol. Déterville. et la citation des principales espèces qui .•Zool. version 3. I: 1-22. gesammelt und mitgetheUt von Dr. n. S. P.•J. 1988/). Biol. et la citation des principales espèces qui s'y rapportent. Paris. E. 1992. 1939). new phylum: Six new species. Jägersten. von 1767. J. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the oligochaetoid polychaete Questa sp. G. 24: 127-235. (Reprinted in Bull. Lamarck. de 1818. Outgroup analysis and parsimony. Oxford. Zool. S. 7>a«. C.. Saitama Univ. W. Wa. O. Conway Morris. Kasprzak. Kozloff. Linné. B. The Vestimentifcra. 1985û. IC 1952. Verdicre. Die Organisation der Pogonophorcn und deren Beziehungen zu den Polychäten. Macmillan and Co. v. 213: 333-336. Groenlandiae. 1836. Jamieson.•Sei. their biology. encountered in Skagerrak with some general remarks on the group Pogonophora. species. & Ferraguti M. 8: 306-314). de 1801. Stockh. Chez l'auteur ¡et] Déterville. Hermans). (Ser.•. 23-26.-Zoo/. Zoológica Scripta 24 . Y. leurs classes.. D. vol.• Zool. 1981. 1968. G. Maddison. 1936.sp. Rev. 1964. précédé d'une Introduction offrant la détermination des caractères essentiels de l'Animal. précédé d'une Introduction offrant la détermination des caractères essentiels de l'Animal. Jamieson. enfin. 86: 177-204. ¡3th Edition. Mantón. Akad. Wash. 1. Soc. biol. de 1815. I: 1-16. Annelida) and its phylogenetic significance. new genus. G. leurs familles. Bidr. On the development of Myzostome. B. and other taxa. species. S. (Morphological nature of obturados in Pogonophora]. leurs classes. Linné. leurs genres.•Proc Biol.. L. S. M. 1985. (4) 11: 1-84. Jones. differentiis. leur distribution. leurs genres. D. d'ouverture. Sy. Lamarck.. J. Riftia pachyptila Joncs: Observations on the vcstimentiferan worm from the Galapagos Rift. Jamieson. 1087): 129-131. G. W. B. L. secundum classes. London. Förh. locis.•Notizen aus dem Gebiete der Natur-und Heilkunde. Leuckart. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. microsc. 64:93157. 1993. Philosophie Zoologique. Ada. S. Jones. Jones. enfin. 1984. Nat. & Gardiner. L. 1840. L. no.tsociation Special Vol. G. 15: 141155. (Facsimile edition issued by British Museum of Natural History.sl. In The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. Special Volume 8: 69-82. J. gegründet on Willy Kükenthal 3(2) Lief 18 (eds J. 1983. Jones.«r. cum characteribus.•Zool. 38: 205-223. biol. Jones. Soc. R.•/•/!//. M. Erseus. 1981/). Paris. Upps. 93: 1295-1313. Paris. Warsz. 60:56). J. B. & Maddison. F. et la citation des principales espèces qui s'y rapportent. Tenth edition. L. Wermuth): 1-50. H. Zur Kenntnis der Parapodialborsten bei Myzostomum. ein Vertreter eine neuen Tierklasse Pogonophora. 104: 1-18. L. M. Verdière. K.•C/aí/i. leurs familles. The uUrustructure of the Oligochaeta. N. Zool. S. Lamarck. Svenska Vet. l'exposition des principes fondamentaux de la Zoologie Tome I. Molec. G. 1989.• Bull. B. Tiere 10: 62-161. ordines. M.•Oceanol. B. C. Seattle. Vet. 1989. locis. G. Système des Animaux sans Vertèbres. E. B. Scr. On the systematic position of Vestimentifcra. I. von 1758. Liwanow. & Okada. and an example of spermiocladistics. Soc. leurs genres. Wiley-Liss. M.. E. M. 1988«. Neue Akademische Buchhandlung von Karl Gross. J.•Z.•Zoo/.. Jamieson.v. 1984. sa distinction du végétal et des autres corps naturels. (Also issued in German in 1842 in Arch. N. systematic and evolutionary patterns. L. 238-251. La nouvelle classes des Annélides.. G.^/. 1993. leur distribution. S. R. de 1816. leurs families. & Porfirjewa. Naturgesch. P. the vcstimentiferan worm from the Galapagos Rift geothermal vents (Pogonophora).• Disc. Evolutionsforsch. d'après la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation. Donoghue. Malmgrcn. Invertebrata. M. new species. B. Missing data versus missing characters in phylogenetic analysis. D. Evol. 1940. C. Sinaucr Associates.•Proc.sa distinction du Végétal et des autres corps naturels. nat Hist. Johansson. so wie auf der Schmarotzerthier auf Comatula. cum characteribus. A. Mandibular mechanisms and the evolution of the arthropods. secundum classes. from hydrothermal vents and elsewhere. Dentu. lab. 1840: 111-121. Gibson & H. Versuch einer naturgemässen Einteilung der Helminthen nebst den Entwurf einer Verwandschafts-und Stuf erfolge der Thiere überhaupt. Sundcrland. de 1802 [1907]. Pogonophora. R. M. and observations on the nervous system and trophosome of Ridgea sp. Clarendon Press.•Öfv. Close phylogenetic relationship between Vestimentifcra (Tube Worms) and Annelida revealed by the amino acid sequence of Elongation Factor I (alpha). S.•Zool. On the Vestimentifcra. ctt parasitiskt maskdjur. The polychaete Spinther and the origin of the Arthropoda. Islandiae et Scandinaviae hactenus cognila. Starek & H. In Beziehung auf den Haarstem (Comatula) und Pentacrinus europeaus. Ullrastruct.•DoW.ih. W. T. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of spermatogencsis in the vestimentiferan tube worm Riftia pachyptila (Pogonophora: Obturata). mar. H. 1988. Belg.•Trans. synonymis. 37: 66-70. S. précédé d'une Introduction offrant la détermination des caractères essentiels de l'Animal. ou exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des Animaux. 1987. Entwicklung und Taxonomic der Myzostomida. Biol. An X. A. synonymis. Bull. 1988. 101: 423^33. M. . Morph. Zur Kenntnis der Morphologie. The spermatozoa of the Polychaeta (Annelida): An ultrastructural review. In New horizons in sperm cell research (ed. P. 1939. M. London. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. L. Stockholm. Evidence for a transient digestive tract in Vestimentifcra. 1994. The previous and contemporary conceptions on phylogeny and systematic classifications of Oligochaeta (Annelida). 1956. L. Textbook of embryology. Jamieson. Vol. sa distinction du Végétal et des autres corps naturels. K. in Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Am. M. Vol I. Akad. Mantón. 1914. & Gardiner. 27 floréal. MacBride. Lamarck.. Soc.s'y rapportent. genera. Investigations on Sibogliniim ekmani. G. and Riftia pachyptila. Leuckart. Maddison. 1986. 297 Kato. L. G. B. George. Jägersten.•Biol. W. B.•J. Heidelberg und Leipzig. Cambridge University Press. Précède du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie. (Questidae. Verdicre. Biol. Ökol. Ivanov. Ohta. leur distribution. Jamieson. London. des ordres et des genres de ces animaux. Tokyo. Zhl. 1827. New York. Lamellisabella zachsi Uschakow. 1867.•Cladislics 3: 145-155. G.víío 4: 367-410. 1928. with special reference to annelids and molluscs. 28 (eds S. NaukSSSR308:75S-159 (in Russian. V.•Science. Academic Press. N. Woods Hole 177: 254-276. M. 31:211-252.•Z. Marine invertebrates of the Pacific northwest.Articulation of annelids phora in connection with the problems of phylogenetics. On the early development of the vestimentiferan tube worm Ridgea sp. 1967. Paris. Harrison & S. genera. 26: 161-185. Myzostoma cirriferum Leuckart.•Nova Ada R. G. Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux.•Ai/cro/aMna Mar. Vestimentiferan pogonophores: their biology and affinities. L. Systema naturae per régna tria naturae. M. 42: 576-580. Oligochaeta.. 1937. Johansson. Ivanov. M. Fr. Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux. M. 1987/). Japan Scientific Society Press. (Sysl. M. Jamieson. upsal. K.. Riftia pachyptila. A. Lovcn. B. Bidr.

E. 1994. A. New York.5-619. R. Sei. In Origin and evolutionary radiation of the Mollusca (cd. O. Clarendon Press.•Cladistics 9:413426. Oxford University Press. (tond. 1973a. W. (sér ¡II) 305: 525-529. Structure and function of mctazoan ciliary bands and their phylogenetic significance. & Bubko. R. and orders. G. W. Fart H Fertilization. K. 1993. & Cook. (Annelida) and its significance for metazoan phylogeny. Orrhage. (eds A.•Am.5-203. Sei. Minichev. M. vol. K. Zoológica Scripta 24 . Newby. Vol. 1975. G. Mantón. Vol. Pettibone. G. G. The phylogenetic status of the acoelomate organization within the Bilateria: a histological perspective. The Systematics Association Special Volume 12 (ed. Taylor) Malacological Society of London. J. 462-662. 1987. W. Fauchald Pearse. M. C. J. fam. M. Richards. 1940. phil. M. L. 1988. Revisio critica Serpulidarum. Pleijcl. 1979. Zoological names: a list of phyla. Res. W. A. 16: 1-219. J. & Brinkhurst.•Acta zool. Oxford. Ultrastructurc of the heartkidney complex in smaller classes supports symplesiomorphy of molluscan coclomic characters. Pearse): 27-85. X.?. & Reynolds. 3) 1: 347^70. Principles of systematic zoology. 1971. Rice): 185-236. E. [Are the Oweniidac polychactcs?]•Explorations of the fauna of the seas. D. Zool. M. D. 30: 327-336. C. 91-101. 1993. Grasse): 714-784. Anatomy and ultrastructurc of the ventral pharyngeal organs of Saccocirrus (Saccocirridae) and Protodriloides (Protodriloidae fam. R. Vol. Larvae adrift: Patterns and problems in life histories of sipunculans. A. N0rrcvang. R. M. 1959. Kükenthal & T. M. Berlin. I973fc. Rouse and K. Patterns of morphogenesis mediated by dynamic microvilli: chaetogenesis in Nereis vexillosa. E. C. Orrhage. 32: 667-680. P. 1976. Comparative ultrastructure and the Lobatoccrcbridae: keys to understanding the phylogenetic relationship of Annelida and the acoelomates. 8 (cds W. A. E.) with remarks on the phylogenetic relationships within Protodrilida (Annelida: Polychaeta). House): 269322. Meyer. Oxford. Mémoire sur l'Echiure de Gaertner. M. C. Richards. Springer. Mayr. 4: . Light and electron microscope studies of some brachiopod and pogonophoran setae. Anatomy and ultrastructure of ventral pharyngeal organs and thcir phylogenetic importance in Polychaeta (Annelida) V.•Mem. Annelida. 1991a. Bereiter-Hahn. 52: 157-169. 1987. W. functional morphology and evolution. Köbcnhavn (sér. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. 1981. 2/. Orrhage. Ouatrcfagcs. J.373-382. Light and electron microscope studies of some annelid setae. Morph. R. & Coddington.•Zoomorphologie 95: 41-84. Prenant. Adiyodi & R. P. & Marchand. E.•Rep. de 1847. Stockh.. S. E. C. On outgroups. Chilopoda and lesser Protostomata (cds F. Zool. Rice. 2nd Edition. Todorovic): 141-160.. G. 68: 205-262. Westheide. Protoncphridial organs in Myzostoma cirriferum (Myzostomida). Morph. S. Wiley. Fredericton. N. S. 1928. Rieger. Zool.. & Anderson. Rieger. Ökol. C. M. 31: 71A (Abstract). Section F. & Jamieson. G. In Reproduction of marine invertebrates. 1993. P. W. Evolutionsforsch. 1978. K. zool. 1978. (sér. Belgrade. L. Pearse. Die Körperform der Serpulaccen und Hcrmellcn. in press. M. (ed. Echiura. P. Mill): 63-114. 1979. Am. 1988. Soc. G. An ultrastructural study of the distal epidermis and the occurrence of subcuticular bacteria in the gutless tubificid Phallodrilus albidus (Oligochaeta: Annelida). Richards.•Cladistics 7: 337-343. E. Oxford. A catalogue of names. H. development.•Proc. Über die Anatomie. Chilopoda and lesser Prolostomata (cds F. Menon. mar. Academic Press. Freswat. AAAS 1949. Gibson.•Mitt. n. Soc. R. Nelson. Noble. Invertebrates (eds J. 1970ft. J. A. IV. Matoltsy & K. J. Richards): 389-399. 1972. R. Parker): 1-43. J.-60. Ressemblances et conséquences phylétiques.•Acta zool. Fleming. Gicsc & J. 1977. A. & Wcsthcidc. T. II: 161173. Larval and adult characters in animal phylogeny. M. Tiere 79: 1^5. A. classes. Two fundamental requirements for phylogeneticscientific works as a background for an analysis of Dales's (1962) and Webb's (1969) theories. Zool. 1985. 22: 344-359.• Cell Tissue Res. Rieger. Nelson. Syst. O. Reynolds. Paris. D. Parasitology•The biology of animal parasites. Biologie. G. & Cloney. Orrhage. E. Academic Press. Ökol. Academic Press. In Physiology of annelids (cd. T. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. 1974. Morphological reinvestigation and phylogenetic relationship of Acanthobdella peledina (Annelida.. Mill. & Norcnburg. O. Anatomic. P. A new group of interstitial worms. In The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. M. in press. J. B. In Reproductive biology of invertebrates Volume IV. Harrison & M. Clarendon Press. M. In Traité de Zoologie. Phylogenetic relationship and classification.•Sar. S. In The ultrastructure of the Polychaeta (eds W. 3rd edition. E.298 G. Nfa/?e/S. A. Institute for Biological Research. 68: 19. mar.52. W. 151: 141-157. S. M. Richards): 311-322. London. S. Chichester. Krumbach): 1-352. J. George. In Handbuch der Zoologie 2(2) Lief. Cuticle. 1988. M. Acad. The pharyngés of the Ctenodrilidae and Orbiniidae. J. Annélides-SipunculiensEchiuriens-Priapuliens-Endoproctes-Phoronidiens (ed. R. I. 1993. Michacisen. Y. Masson et Cic. M. Sysl. Pearse): 67-128. On the structure and homologues of the anterior end of the polychactc families Sabcllidac and Scrpulidae. The Systematics Association Special Vol. D. Russian Academy of Sciences. V (I). Rice.•Annls Sei. Purschke. Giese & J. Berlin. Orrhage. 2.•Ausl. 1991. New York. Nixon. Pilger. J. 1993. Meglitsch P. R. D. L. Springer. J. Zool. Reynolds. S. M. G. 254: 147-1. Zool. A. L. E. D. 1981.• Zoomorphology 108: 119-135. Wilcy-Liss. 1982.) 215: 405^32. The position of Pogonophora in the phylogenetic system. 1863. E. New York. Ncedham. volume 12: Onychophora. 1974.•Z.•Sys. Tiere 74: 253-270.•C. & Jouin. Morse. In The origin of major invertebrate groups. Ultrastructure of the heart and pericardium of an aplacophoran mollusc (Neomeniomorpha): evidence for ultrafiltration of blood. Purschke. R. nat. Polyplacophora. In Proceedings of the International symposium on the biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura Vol I (eds M. In Synopsis and classification of living organisms.. Westheide & C. G. London. Hcrmam).• Am. The Arthropoda. The embryology of the cchiuroid worm Urechis caupo. London. A. I. A. R. 1980. Lea and Fcbigcr. F. D.•Am. Classe des Myzostomides. 1973. and parental care (eds K. I. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Platnick. 3) 7: 307-343. New York. 1980. University of New Brunswick. Platt): 101-122. Nielsen. Sipuncula. Zool. S. Invertebrates (cds J. McGraw-Hill.. Clitellata).) 1949. P. New York.'sia 42: 7-16. A. P. Clarendon Press. K. volume 12: Onychophora. New York. 1984. On the embryology of Siboglinum and its implications for the systematic position of the Pogonophora. Rieger. Observations on the development of Caribbean Sipuncula. Rice. 21:227-231. E. P. 1993. S. D. In Physiology of annelids (cd. Sin. P. E. V Molluscs: pelecypods and lesser classes (eds A. & Arp. Matoltsy & K. F. II entoprocts and lesser coelomales. Siockh. S. Purschke. Zoological Institute 43: 47-51 (in Russian.•J. J. C & Carpenter. On character coding for phylogeny reconstruction.Clitellata. Wiley-Liss. Mörch. Morse. Histologie und Verwandtschaft der Apistobranchidae (Polychaeta Sedentaria) nebst Bemerkungen über die systematische Stellung der Archiannclidcn. On missing entries in cladistic analysis. Vol. J. In Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Conway Morris.•Microfauna Mar. Ultrastructure of the body wall of the marine cchiuran Urechis caupo. Academic Press. Observations on development and metamorphosis of Siphonosoma cumanense with comparative remarks on Sipimculus n«ííui (Sipuncula. R. In Biology of the integument. V. & H. 1984. Pictsch. Tidss. O'Clair. Marsdcn. Mill): 33-62. 8: 161-172.•Naturh. 28 (eds S. BereiterHahn. Rieger. Sipunculidae). Les spermatozoïdes des Acanthoccphalcs et des Myzostomides. J. L. J. M. 1971. 1991. Systématique. G. Studien über Körperbau der Anneliden. (ed. Sense organs and sensory Pathways. J. B. Rice. Griswold. M. English summary). S. habits. M. Neue Organisationstypen aus der Sandlücken- Mantón S. Zool. R.•Bull. Oxford Universty Press. Et Bidrag til Rörormcncs Naturhistoric. Larval development and metamorphosis of the serpulid polychactc Galeolaria caespitosa Lamarck. & Anderson. Stockh. P.•Z. Harrison & M. G. Lobatoecrebridac nov. 1988. W. Dritte Klasse der Vermes Polymera (Annelida) Clitellata = Gürtelwürmcr. P.. Philadelphia. 1990. Epidermis and cuticle. Aust. S./î. 1970a. & Noble.•Zoomorphology //.. Classification as an expression of phylogenetic relationships. Evolutionsforsch. T. 1987.• Zoomorphology 96: 113-168. 42: 1-15. Invertebrate zoology. London. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. W. Polyphyly and the evolution of the arthropods. 1969. J. Adiyodi): 1-36.•Sys. Rice): 237-325. Mattel. O. Annelida . 1888. Evolution of the cuticle in the lower Eumetozoa. 1982. Sipuncula.•Z. 1973. Rice. Rice & M. In Biology of the integument. descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. Zool. 34: 492-501.A. N0rrcvang. 1972. M. Rohde. L. A.•Acta zool.•Z. Cladistics. Nielsen.

biol. Stannius).. R. Zool. 4: 383-396. 1984. eine den psammobionten Anneliden nahestehende Gattung aus dem Küstengrundwasser von North Carohna. G. Oxford. The evolution of the Arthropoda. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Hermans). Über Bau und Entstehung der Mantelrandstacheln von Lingula unguis L.•Z. C. V. Smith. Uschakov.•Sber. T. Annelida: Polychaeta In Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Specht. J. Hermans). P. Schräm. Homology of branchial filaments in Vcstimentifera to palpi in Pogonophora. C. Schräm. Academic Press. The Oligochaeta.C. J. Pcarse): 1-213. Richards): 368-375. 1988. wiss. W. Segrove. Myzostoma asteriae. Hermans). Champaign. D. E. P. V. Ill & Rieger. Broadcasting fables: Is external fertilization really primitive? Sex. Morph. J. W. E. M.-med. Ulrich. E. mar. Zur vergleichenden Anatomic der segmentalcn Muskelsysteme und zur Verwandtschaft der Polychaeten-Familien. 1981. E. The phyla Sipuncula and Echiura. Storch. C. In Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie (ed. O. W. Recent researches on the Pogonophorcs. Harrison & B. M. Volume 3: Platyhelminthes and Nemertinea (eds F. & Southward. & Pleijel. T.• Mol. 23: 19-25. Oxford University Press. A. Aplacophora as progenetic aculiferans and the coclomate origin of mollusks as the sister taxon of Sipuncula. Gardiner): 71-108. mar. Zool.•J. ¡0. 1986.•Q. A. 68: 465^87. Berlin. Clarendon Press. Ver. K. Conway Morris. A. Ökol. M. Schräm. Evolution and the primitive groups. R. Sedgcwick. Vol. 1903.. volume 12: Onychophora. A preliminary account of the general and enzyme histochemistry of Siboglinum atlanticum and other pogonophora. E. R. M. A. Biol. S. Bogitsch): 285-328. Scr. 1975. E. A. New York.T. naturw. R. G. Bacterial symbionts and low 13C/ 12C ratios in tissues of Pogonophora indicate unusual nutrition and metabolism.•J. nov.-219-234. from hydrothermal sites in the Lau Back-arc Basin (Southwest Pacific Ocean). Pogonophora. Clarendon Press. inferred from 18S rRNA sequences: Molecular data as a test of morphological character homology. Field. Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems. 82: 467-540. Ricgcr. Johansson). In The ultrastructure of the Polychaeta (eds W. 1986. dt. Suzuki. Sawyer. J. Three new species of Pogonophora. 1986. 1992. Arthropodization in the Hirudinea: evidence for a phylogcnetic link with insects and other Uniramia?•Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 80: 303-322. L. Wiss. [On the origin and evolution of aquatic Oligochaeta. London. L. S. Oxford.. & Raff. 1971. Westheidc & C.]• Eesti NSV Tead. 25: 859-881. Southward. Hermans).1. Abt. 1989. spec. Clarendon Press. The deep-sea tube worm hemoglobin: subunit structure and phylogcnetic relationship with annelid hemoglobin. Annu.•Science. size. E. Rev. Southward. Southward. Innsbruck 78: 203-215. 1988. E. 4: 121-1. Invertebrates (eds J. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Woods Hole 184: 67-78. J. M. Sensory structures. George.•Zoo/. J. Akad. Storch. 1972. Zoological and Botanical Institutes. 9: 193-220. A. 19: 637-645. Ridgeia piscesae Jones. Stephenson. S. G. O. V. K. Polychaeta: Excretory system. 1985 (Pogonophora: Obturata). & Southward. Berlin Smith. Matoltsy & K... Ltd. \?f)?> A student's textbook of zoology. A study of the structure of the opisthosoma of Siboglinum fiordicum. & Ruhbcrg. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates.•J. & Edmonds. A. Smith. British Museum (Natural History) Publication. & Carle. Turbevillc. E. Maloshcetinkovie chervi (Oligochaeta) vodoemov severo-zapada SSSR. J. W. E. Tiere 10: 264-275. Regionation and metamerisation in Pogonophora.•Am.3-208. Southward. Integument. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Studies on the haemoglobins of the small Pogonophora. The systematic position of Zoológica Scripta 24 . Jl microsc. Version 3. E. E. 1985.•J.•Ber. E von Sicbold & H. Smith. T. Scheltema. C. In The ultrastructure of the Polychaeta (eds W. (On a new group of oligomere worms. A.•Zool.•Z. Gibson & H. 1975. 1988. T. A.33. 1961. O.•M/cro/iiMnfl Mar. Westheide & C. Storch. Takagi.•Microfauna Mar. J. Evolutionsforsch. Sonderheft 1975: 64-76.K. (Bioloogiline Seeria) 30: 174-181 (in Estonian with English and Russian summaries). Storch V.•Dokl. C. Southward.•Biol. C. Anat. Tyler. 1988. F. M.. including two vcstimcntifcrans. J. S. Sawyer. Ass. wiss. 1991. biol. Trucman & M. Syst. New York. In The ultrastructure of the Polychaeta (eds W. Schroeder. 1993. Zool.•Zool. Platt): 123-142. Harrison & M. U. 104: 20. E. S. Westheidc & C. Academic Press. E. R. Sundberg. Toim. London.•Z. Veit. Hughes. lab. Harrison & B. Turbevillc. J.• Oceanogr. L. H. Tyler. Hist. Southward. Rouse. Harrison & M.]•Priroda (Mose) 1940: 76-77 (in Russian). 1991ÍI. Phylogcnetic position of phylum Nemertini. 1979. An ultrastructural analysis of coelomogcncsis in the hoplonemertine Prosorhochmus americanas and the polychaete Magelona sp. PAUP: Phylogcnetic Analysis Using Parsimony. Nauk SSSR 308: 760761. 9: 235-249. Estonia.•Nature 293: 616-620. 1982. von. M. J. vol. T. Rev.K. Storch. biol. mar biol. H. III & Tyler. Wiley-Liss. C. S. 25: 53-71. P. 1994. P. mar. and larvae in sabellid polychaetes. K. E. C. (Brachiopoda). & Flügel. 1980. & Hermans. volume 7: Annelida (eds F.•Biol. R. Leech biologv and behaviour.•Zoomorphology 103: 19. 1985. C Terwilliger. U. Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der wirbellosen Thiere. Crustacea. H. Harrison & S.•Zool. 1992. Timm. 717. Annelida and Mollusca•a prospectus. M. Jb. Is the Turbellaria polyphylctic?•Hydrobiologia 132: 13-21. 1930. V. Mar.. O. R. biol. 1933. O. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Southward. & Schlötzer-Schrehardt. O. Cambridge 33:255-337. C. 1991. 3 annelids and echiurans (eds A. Illinois Natural History Survey. Clarke): 59-150. In The Mollusca Vol. Nemertinea.•Microfauna Mar. N. V. F. S.. P. J. Ges.•Co«. von. S. In The ultrastructure of the Polychaeta (eds W.. L. V. Phylogeny of Priapulida.1. V.K. Southward. Anz. Wiley-Liss. R. G. von 1848. 1968. In The phylogeny and systematic position of Pogonophora (ed. Cambridge. 1988. Zool. 1989. Ricgcr.•Zool. R. Metazoan relationships: A rebuttal. from abyssal depths of the Okhotsk Sea and the polar basin. C. Wilcy-Liss. Siebold C. F. 4: 45-59. Am. Echiura and Sipuncula. 187: 51-60. E. L. mar. F. & Coates. Rau. & Welsch. W. U. Swan Sonnenschein and Co. 67. S. T. U.•C/flí/úncí 10: 331-337. E. N0rrevang). Tiegs. Wiley-Liss. P. Bull. Sei. Jennaria pukhra nov. T. 23: 271-312. 75: 495595. N. 1994. 84: 247-259. 1958.. London. New York. B. 1993. Storch. Vol. In The ultrastructure of the Polychaeta (eds W.. C. Comparative ultrastructurc and the evolution of Nemertines. & Mantón. Timm. J. R. P. Sei. 6: 915-926. 1993. 1985. Cladistic analysis of metazoan phyla and the placement of fossil problemática. R. Dando. 1988. M. & Fitzhugh. P. British Museum (Natural History). 1940. C. R. 133: 879-880. 1941. Furukohri. U. The development of the serpulid Pomatoceros triqueter L. P. 1985. Ass. van der Land. Storch. New York. 62: 889-906. Uschakov. Rice): 327-369. & Ruppert. 1994. Morph.•J. Stephen. D. 1991. New York. Oxford.•Microfauna Mar 4: 231-262. J. Sperm masses and sperm transfer in a vestimentiferan. G. & Ruppert. W. I. Southward.Articulation of annelids raumfauna: die Lobatocerebriden und Jennaria piilchra. K. Simonetta & S. Salvini-Plawen.ss. E. P. dt. Volume 3: Platyhelminthes and Nemertinea (eds F. F. & N0rrevang. Hermans). W. O. N. Mathematisch-naturwissenschafliche Klasse Jahrgang 1949 II: 1-25. V. J. T. Rice): 11-56. ¡83: 181-189. The Syslematics Association Special Volume 28 (eds S. & Ellis. Scr. 1984. Seiivanova. Springer. 1966.•7. Pogonophora. K. Nephridia. nat. 299 Southward. Shapeero. Cambridge University Press. Onychophora. Westheide & C. A. In The early evolution of Metazoa and the significance of problematic taxa (eds A.•Microfauna Mar. Eine neue Form aus der Familie SabcUidae (Polychaeta). Tiere 63: ISX-Ml. M. In The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. R. Chilopoda and lesser Protostomata (eds F.K. zool. 1987. 1975. Platyhelminthcs: Turbcllaria. Ass. 1993. Chilopoda and lesser Protostomata (eds F. C. W. Conway Morris): 3. A. 12 Onychophora. Westheide & C. S. Wilcy-Liss. 1950. C. J. New York.5^6. Giesc & J. Biol. den Begriff der Archicoelomaten und die Einteilung der Bilaterien. Southward. Akad. Zool. U. Beiträge zur Anatomie und Histologie der Myzostomen. Salvini-Plawcn. 46: 579-616. Chaetae.Y. 1981. R. C. Smith. Über die systematische Stellung einer neuen Tierklasse (Pogonofora K. E. Turbevillc. 1972. V. W. M. 1983. New York. R. Southward. Zool. E. 1991.•Z. Ruppert. Contributions of comparative ultrastructural research to problems of invertebrate evolution. Akad. In Biology of the integument. 1. von. 1989. The acoel turbellarians: kingpins of metazoan evolution or a specialized offshoot.5-208. S III. Akademia Nauk. A. & Rieger. W. Protozoa to Chaetognatha. 4: 13-36. Okuda. & Ohta. Swofford. R. Feibeck.. Evolution (eds E. Bacterial symbionts in Pogonophora. R. Stummer-Traunfels. Development of the gut and segmentation of newly settled stages of Ridgeia (Vestimentifera): implications for relationship between Vestimentifera and Pogonophora. Vol. E. H. Phylogcnetic classification and the definition of taxon names. Evol. Terwilliger. Bereitcr-Hahn. 1987. J.. J. Turbevillc.•Verh. H. R. 67: 2776-2781. Bogitsch): 7-140. A. gen. Ont.

Z. Nuchal organs 0. Circumesophageal nerve ring 0. 1988). & Wheeler. R. Longitudinal muscles 0. A. 'Annelid' cross 3. The systematic position of the Dinophilidae and the archiannclid problem. 1964ft. Cleavage pattern 0. Zimmer.. In Arthropodphylogeny (ed. Riegerei a/. Metanephridia 2. B. Anz. M. Southward. Character 13. 1995. T. Chaetae 0. Absent 1. biol. Mcroblastic cleavage 2. Williams. The out-group comparison method of character analysis. Molecular evolution and diversification of the vestimentiferan tube worms. Bull. W. a combined approach. Mol. L. W. & Holland. or where a feature was not clearly specified in the basic source. Webb.•Sarsia 15: 57-68. mar.•Cladistics 9: 1-39. Present 11. P. Syst.•Zoo/.300 G. Wheeler. 1985. Character 3: Newby (1940). Platyhelminthes Basic sources: Brusca & Brusca (1990). parasitic on a starfish. Jamieson (1981. M. (1991).•Sys. M. Rieger el al. Tiere 97:455481. H. Bull. 24: 19-35. Fauchald 7. Weygoldt. Mesoderm proliferation and formation of the protococi and mctacocl in early embryos of Phoronis vancouveriensis (Phoronida). Arthropod interrelationships•the phylogenetic systematic approach. Backeljau. Wheeler. Webb. Cross absent 1. R. fecundation and early cleavages of Myzostoma glabrum Leuckart.. W. Avel (1959). Platt): 310-326.is. 30: 1-11.. W. Zool. Syst. (1991). 1980. Ont. Anat. Nephridia 0. Character 5. For each group one or more basic sources is given. Webb.•Sarsia 38: 1-8. (1991). Segmentation 0. Closed 2. Wägele. Protonephridia 1. Arthropod phylogeny. E. & Stanjek.• Zool. 9: 169-181. Richards (1984). Lamellibrachia barhami. 1899. Syst.•Bull. 1969a. Evolutionsforsch. Clarendon Press. with collagen 3. Zool. Gibson & H. Woods Hole 186: 134-135. Absent 1. P. 1981. 1964d. Evolulionsforsch. 1994.•Sarsia 15: yi-Al. Circulation system 0.. (Pogonophora). J. 1993. In The Phytogeny and systematic position of Pogonophora: (éd. from the northeast Pacific. Pcricardioducts 8. Abt. Webb. G. Evol. C. The morphology and formation of the pogonophoran tube and its value in systematics. Present 4. Present 5. W. Riegerei a/. E. U. sp. Cartwright. Gut lumen 0. Character 11. N. Muscles in sheets 1. 1993. Character 1. Syst. Conway Morris.. D. Character 1. Sclcrolinidae. Not interpolated between sperm nucleus and mitochondria 1. P. Cuticle 0. (1991). nov. P. Zool. Needham (1990). Zool. Liège 15: 1-17. Ricgcretal. Gupta): 107-136. In situ spawning of hydrothermal vent tubeworms {Riftiapachyptila). M. D. M. N0rrevang). M. Zool. In The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. Sei. & Dc Wächter. 22: 281-288. Absent 1. Digestive tract with 0. Winnepenninckx. Westheide. L. Dixon. M. Wheeler. Jamieson (1981). C. 12: 641-649. The posterior extremity of Siboglinum fiordicum (Pogonophora). gen. Van Nostrand. For certain characters additional sources are listed where documentation from the primary literature appeared necessary. Character 9. J. Res. Watrous.•Zool. 1986. M. Ont. Absent 1. M. biol.•Z. M. M. Character 2. 73: 437-452. An evolutionary concept of some sessile and tubicolous animals. lab. Salvini-Plawen (1985. Open with ostiate heart 13. P.•Biol. 1964c.•Sarsia 16: 47-58.•Archs Biol. R. Studies on Lamellibrachia barhami (Pogonophora) 11. mar. The larvae ot Siboglinum fiordicum and a reconsideration of the adult body regions (Pogonophora). 1992). mar. 1971. Wheeler. George. 'Mollusc' cross 2. Webb. Woods Hole 8: 75-78.•J. with conchin 2. 1964ij. Weygoldt. Appendix II Scoring matrix Characters Taxa Platyhelminthes Clitellata Echiura Euarthropoda Mollusca Nemertca Onychophora Pogonophora Polychaeta Sipuncula Vcstimcntifcra 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 3 0/1/2 2 1 7 2 0 3 0 1 0 I 0 0 1 I 1 0 1 4 0 5 0 6 7 8 0 2 2 3 I 0 3 2 2 2 2 9 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 9 11 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 12 0 1 1 3 2 0 3 1 1 0 1 13 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Appendix III Sources for scoring taxa. Anat. Additional notes on Sclerolinum brattslromi (Pogonophora) and the establishment of a new family. Absent Zoológica Scripta 24 . Rieger (1984). Jh. Abt. Biol. Present 3. nov. Coclom 0. Webb. D. & Hayashi. O. Jb. (1984). Rieger etal. 1898. Absent 1. Echiura Basic sources: Stephen & Edmonds (1972). W. New York. Character 8.•Bid. Vcstimcntifcra). L. Anus present (at least transiently) 6. 1995. Webb. 1905. Beard on the sexual phases of Myzostoma. A new Myzostoma. Arthropod phytogeny inferred from partial I2SrRNA revisited: monophyly of the Tracheata depends on sequenee alignment. A. Open with chambered heart 3. Ax (1987). Smith & Tyler (1985). Appendix I Character list 1. 1979. J..K. 1969Í). The Systematics Association Special Volume 28 (eds S. Oxford. Van Dover. 19: 18-47. C. Character 7. biol. C. Evolutionsforsch. The reproductive organs. A redescription of Siboglinum ekmani Jägersten (Pogonophora). Muscle broken into bands 12. Rouse and K. Present 10. Significance of later embryonic stages and head development in arthropod phylogcny. Tiere 103: 219-233. J. Mouth only 1. W. Character 8. A. Clitellata Basic sources: Cook (1971). The maturation. with glycocalyx only 1. Webb. Pilger (1993). 33: 75-80. mar. Absent 1. Phylogeny of protostome worms derived from 18S rRNA sequences. R. with chitin 9. M. Y. Interpolated between sperm nucleus and mitochondria Lamellihrachia (Annelida. 1977. Character 1: Ncwby (1940).•Sarsia 15: 33-36.•Z. W. Present 1. Sperm mitochondria 0. Sonderheft 1975: 86-101. lab. Evol. Character 11.

van der Land & Nwrrcvang (1975) found one pair of anterior nephridia in Lamellibrachia barhami and L. Rieger (1984). 1959: 616). but lateral splits have yet to be demonstrated. obs. Character 8. Reynolds etal. Storch & Ruhberg (1993). Brain is a ring shape (van der Land & N0rrevang. Salvini-Plawcn (1985. Fauchald & Rouse (pers. Morse & Reynolds (in press). Character 1. fusing in the trunk region. Bartolomaeus (1988). the ventral nerve cord is single in most of the body. Character 3.Articulation of annelids Character 4: The nerve ring is present in the proboscis. (1993) Character 1. Transitory anus and reduction of gut lumen reported by Flügel & Callscn-Cenic (1992). Character 10. Character 3.3). Anderson (1973). Character 10. Jamieson (1986). (1993) Character 12. The nuchal organ may also be a protruding medial structure. Jones and Gardiner (1988. Salvini Plawen (1988). Orrhage (1971). Character 9. Scheltema (1993). Fauchald & Rouse (in prep. Brusca & Brusca (1990). and Gardiner & Jones (1988. Character 4. Anderson (1973). Character 4. Character 2. George & Southward (1973). Southward (1975) found three cords. Anderson (1973). 1989). Salvini-Plawcn (1988). Character 2. 1988). Caullery (1914a. luymesi opening to the exterior with a single median dorsal ncphridium. Characters 5 and 6: Open digestive tract present for a short while in the juveniles Southward (1988). Character 13. Character 2. Character I. Anderson (1973). Brusca & Brusca (1990). Rice (1993). Character 11. Turbeville( 1986. Character 7. Character 1. Brusca & Brusca (1990). Orrhage (1971. Gupta & Little (1975) reported no nerve ring present in the species they studied. Storch (1984). Clark (1969). Each ncphridium is open to the coelom. Clark (1969). Character 7. Richards (1984). Southward (1993). Wheeler el at. Character l. Polychaeta Basic sources: Dales (1963). Pogonophora Basic sources: Southward (1988. Character 12. Storch (1968). Onychophora Basic sources: Brusca & Brusca (1990). Jamieson & Rouse (1989). but see Reynolds etal. 1989). Paired nuchal organs reported by Brusca and Brusca (1990). the latter also reported a nerve net present. Character 7. Gupta & Little (1970) George & Southward (1973). Jones (1985a: figs 19. Gaillcra/. in reality the cephalic tubes leading into the deeply sunk cephalic organ are on occasion paired. Anderson (1973). Gardiner (1992). Ve. Character 8. Sipuncula Basic sources. Zoológica Scripta 24 . (1993). Anderson (1973). Character 1. Euurlhropoda Basic sources: Brusca & Brusca (1990). (1993) Nemertea Basic sources Hyman( 1951a). but fused from a pair present anteriorly (Stephen & Edmonds. 1994). (1993). Stephen & Edmonds (1972). 1975). Character 8. Character 7. 1973a). Reynolds e/«/. Character 1. Scheltema (1993). Character 13. Character 13. Southward (1980) reported protoncphridia from Oligobranchia gracilis and in Siboglinum (the latter as a personal communication from N0rrevang). Character 3. Meglitsch (1972). sometimes bilobed or quadrilobate (Hyman. Character 12. Nerve cord ventral and paired. Gardiner & Jones (1993. Menon & Arp (1991). Character 11. Character 9. Metanephridia are assumed to be the plesiomorphic condition since protoncphridia arc restricted to small acoelomate forms and to a small group of phyllodocimorph taxa.stimenlifera Basic sources. b) and Jagcrstcn (1956) both reported a nerve ring present anteriorly with the latter author reporting a paired nerve cord in parts. b). Character 8. Character 3. (1991) Character 11. 301 Character 7. Scheltema (199. Anderson (1973).). Weygoldt (1986). Jamieson (1987a).Bakke (1980). thus metanephridia of some form are present. the organ itself is always single as far as known. 20) shows a ventral split in longitudinal muscle bands and refers to dorsal splits. Wheeler « a/.). Storch (1988). Character 9. Mollusca Basic sources: Brusca & Brusca (1990). Characters 5 and 6. Ivanov (1963) found two cords. 1993). Scheltema (1993). Storch (1984). 1991). Southward (1988). 1972). Jones (1985a. Character 13.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful