The Pentateuch

The Five Books of Moses Part One:

RELG 201 Biblical Literature Lecture 03 Claflin University Dr. David Battle

The Pentateuch

• The five Books of Moses
– Genesis – Exodus – Leviticus – Numbers – Deuteronomy

• The Pentateuch provides the foundational source for Judaism and Christianity.

The Pentateuch: Canonical Reading
• The books can be read as a unit.
– Exod. 1:1 – Lev. 1:1 – Num. 1:1

• Deuteronomy contains three sermons of Moses.
– The first sermon Deut. 1:6-4:43 – The second sermon Deut. 4:44-11:32 – The third sermon Deut. 27:1-30:20

Pentateuch: Authorship
• Tradition
– Moses with the assistance of Joshua – Pentateuchal witness
• Exod. 24: 4-7; 34:27 • Deut. 31:24-26

– If these traditions are taken at face value, then the Pentateuch was written around 1400 B.C.

Pentateuch: Authorship, Traditional
– The tradition found in other Biblical books
• General Reference
– Josh. 1:7-8 (pre 580 B.C.) – 1 Kings 2:3 (pre 580 B.C.)

• Explicit Links
– Ezra 6:18 (c. 430 B.C. & 515 B.C.) – Mal 4:4 (c. 430 B.C.) – 2 Kings 14:6 (c. 580 B.C. & c. 780 B.C.)

• Implicit links
– 2 Samuel 24 (before 580 B.C. & 1000 B.C.) » Exod. 30:11-16

The Pentateuch
The Five Books of Moses Part Two:

RELG 201 Biblical Literature Lecture 03 Claflin University Dr. David Battle

Pentateuch: Source Criticism
• Critical Enlighten Scholars question Mosaic authorship.
– Deuteronomy 34 – Moses is referred to in the third person.

– Some early critics believed that writing was not invented. – Theological reflections are too advanced.
• When people were polytheist, the Pentateuch depicts Monotheism.

Benedict de Spinoza 1632-1677

The Pentateuch: Source Criticism
• Distinct “Sources”
1. The J “source” can be arranged into a coherent narrative. 2. The E “source” seems to supplement J. 3. The “D Source” or Deuteronomy is independent of JE 4. The P “source” can be separated from “E” by an emphasis on ritual matters or “cultic” material.

Source Criticism, Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918)
• Reordered the “Sources” of the Pentateuch and order according to a reconstructed the history of Israelite religion.
• • • • • • Early or pre-Israelite people had to be polytheist. Monolatry Julius Wellhausen Henotheism (1844-1918) Monotheism Ethical Monotheism Legalism

Source Criticism, Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918)
• The Pentateuch resulted from a series of documents and redactions. • Gave prominence to “Abrahamic” traditions, such as the promise of land.
– Hexateuch (Six books) – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua.

Source Criticism, Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918)
• The Pentateuch resulted from a series of documents and redactions. • Gave prominence to “Abrahamic” traditions, such as the promise of land.
– Hexateuch (Six books) – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua.

Pentateuch
• The Bible is a very complex and subtle work. • There are many sub themes but they are all intended to be read together.
– Umberto Cassuto (1883-1951)
• Elohim indicated a more abstract and universal depiction of God. • Yahweh (J or LORD) indicated a more personal depiction of God.
Umberto Cassuto 1883-1951

The Pentateuch
The Five Books of Moses Part Three: A Brief Survey of the Pentatuech

RELG 201 Biblical Literature Lecture 03 Claflin University Dr. David Battle

Genesis: The Book of Beginnings
• • • • • • First Book of the Pentateuch First Book of the Old Testament First Book of the Christian Bible Accounts for the beginning of universe Accounts for the beginning of humanity Accounts for the beginning of humanity’s propensity toward evil.

Genesis: Primeval History
• Primeval History (Genesis 1-11)
– The Account (Genealogies) of Adam (5:1-6:8) – The Account of Noah (6:9-9:29) – The Account of the Son's of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Jepheth (10:1-11:9) – The Account of Shem (11:10-26)

Genesis: Primeval History
• Traces the relationship between God and humanity as a whole. • Often called “Myth”
– A myth is a story that establishes a world view for a culture or people.

Biblical Worldview
• Monotheism • Humanity made in the image of God. – Capable: – Some autonomy: – Arrogant: • Humanity operates under a curse and limits imposed by God.

Genesis: Patriarchal History
• Traces the relationship between God and the Abrahamic family. • Often called “Legend” • Contains “Etiologies”

Genesis: Patriarchal History
• Patriarchal History (Genesis 12-50)
– The Account of Terah (11:27-25:11)
• Abrahamic Narratives

– The Account of Abraham's son Ishmael (25:12-18) – The Account of Abraham's son Isaac (25:19-35:29)
• Isaac and Jacob Narratives

– The Account of Esau (36:1-37:1) – The Account of Jacob (37:2-50:26)
• Joseph Narratives

Patriarchal History
• Abrahamic Narratives (Gen. 11:27-25:18) • Isaac and Jacob Narratives(Gen 25:19-37:1)
• Joseph Narratives (Gen. 37:2-50:26)

Abrahamic Narratives
• God calls Abram and establishes a covenant with him.
– God makes four promises (Gen. 12:1-4). – Abraham is puts the Covenant in jeopardy. – Abraham attempts to supplant the Covenant.

• Abraham obeys and believes God. • God confirms His Covenant with Abraham and his descendants.

Exodus-Leviticus and Numbers:
The Creation of a Nation

• God brings forth a nation (Exod. 1:1-13:16). • The people journey from Egypt to Sinai (Exod. 13: 17-19:2). • God establishes His Covenant with the people of Israel (Exod. 19:3-Num. 10:10). • The people wander the wilderness (Num. 10:11-21:20). • Israel on the Plains of Moab (Num. 21:21-26:13)

Exodus-Leviticus and Numbers:
The Creation of a Nation

• Themes: God reveals Himself to the world and redeems a people for Himself.

• Sub-Themes
– Israel grudgingly trust God which brings divine judgment. – Moses intercede for the people. – God blesses the people in spite of their unfaithfulness.

The Creation of a Nation
Exodus-Leviticus and Numbers

• The Covenant (Exod. 19:3-Num. 10:10).
– God calls Israel to His royal priesthood and a holy nation representing Him to the world (Exod. 19:5-6).

A Holy Priesthood
• God tabernacles with His people (Exod. .
– A holy God requires a holy people. – A place to worship God. – The proper rituals for worshiping God. – The proper décor for holy leaders. – ESV Study Bible

• The Holiness Code (Leviticus 17-26)

Leviticus
• Main Characters:
– Aaron and his sons. – The Tribe of Levi

• Theme: A holy God requires a holy people.
– The proper rituals for worshiping God. – The proper décor for holy leaders. – The proper personal purity to enter God’s prescience.

Israelite Sacrifices
• Five Major Offering
Name
Burnt Offering Grain Offering Peace Offering Sin Offering (ESV Study Bible 217)

Emphasis
underscores prayers of petition or praise pleasing aroma; often mirrors emphasis of the offering it accompanies fellowship with the Lord by having a communion meal atonement of a committed sin; metaphor of purification atonement of a committed sin; metaphor of compensation for wrongdoing

Focus is on the general Focus is on the proper procedure or reasons handling, eating, or for the offerings disposal of the offerings
Leviticus 1 Leviticus. 2 Leviticus 3 Lev. 4:1–5:13 Lev. 6:8–13 Lev. 6:14–23 Lev. 7:11–36 Lev. 6:24–30

Guilt Offering

Lev. 5:14–6:7

Lev. 7:1–10

Pattern of Israelite Sacrifices
• First, the worshiper had to atone for sin.
– Restitution and fines had to be paid. – Sin and/or guilt offering.*

• The worshiper committed himself to God through the whole Burnt Offering. • The worship culminated with a communal meal in the form of a Peace Offering.
* There is no offering mentioned for intentional sin.

Israelite Festivals
ESV Study Bible 247

The Sabbath principle permeates each of these feasts, which are intended to express the divine-human relationship. Each feast requires (1) cessation from ordinary work and (2) dedication to the Lord by means of offerings.
Feast Sabbath Passover Reference Lev. 23:3 Lev. 23:4–8 Lev. 23:9–14 Lev. 23:15–21 Lev. 23:23–25 Lev. 23:26–32 Lev.23:33–36 General time of year Weekly Spring Specific time of year 7th day 14th of first month (Abib) 16th of first month (Abib) 1st of third month (Sivan) 1st of seventh month (Tishri) 10th of seventh month (Tishri) 15th–22nd of seventh month (Tishri) Modern equivalent Saturday March/April (Easter) Significance Creation Salvation

First fruits

Spring

March/April (Easter)

Dedication

Weeks

Spring

Pentecost

Dedication

Trumpets

Fall

Late September

Solemn assembly; spiritual preparation Redemption

Day of Atonement

Fall

September/October

Booths

Fall

October

Joyful remembrance of the Lord’s historic guidance

Also see ESV Study Bible 310

Deuteronomy
• Main Characters:
– Moses and Joshua

• Theme: Moses exhorts the people of Israel to follow the way of life and to shun the path of death.

Deuteronomy
• Conflict: Moses cannot enter the promise land, but must get the people ready.
– Transfer of leadership. – New generation comes of age.

• The Deuteronomistic Code
– Re-presentation of the Covenant
• Ten Commandments (Deut. 5:1-21//Exod. 20:1-17)

– Shema (Deut. 6:4-6)

Deuteronomy
• Sets the stage for the Historical Books.
– Deuteronomistic History – Former and Latter Prophets

• The way of death • The way of life

The Pentateuch
The Five Books of Moses Part Three: Literary Genres in the Pentateuch

RELG 201 Biblical Literature Lecture 03 Claflin University Dr. David Battle

Literary Genres in the Pentateuch
• Mostly Narrative
– Meta Narratives
• Cosmological Narratives • Ancestral Narratives • National Narratives

– Specialized Narratives
• Etiologies • Genealogies • Itineraries

Literary Genres in the Pentateuch
• Legal literature
– Covenant Forms
• Pentateuch as a whole and the Deuteronomy mirror known Treaty Forms of the Ancient Near East. • Hittite suzerian-vassel

– George E. Mendenhall

George E. Mendenhall 1916-Ret 1986

Deuteronomy as Treaty
• Preamble (Deut 1:1-5) • Historical Prologue (Deut 1:6-4:43) • Stipulations of the Covenant (Deut 4:44-26:19)
– The Great Commandments (Deut 4:44-11:32) – Supplementary Requirements (Deuteronomy 12-26)

• Ratification; Covenant Curses and Blessing (Deuteronomy 27-30) • Leadership Succession under the Covenant (Deuteronomy 31-34)
Taken from NIV Study Bible

Literary Genres in the Pentateuch: Legal Codes
– The Book of the Covenant
• (Exod. 20:22-23:19)

– Ritual Code
• (Exod. 34:10-36

– Deuteronomic Code
• (Deuteronomy 12-26)

– The Holiness Code
• (Leviticus 17-26)

Literary Genres in the Pentateuch
• Albrecht Alt
– The Origins of Israelite Law (1966)

• Apodictic Law (Ten Commandments)

• Casuistic Law (Case Law)
Albrecht Alt 1883-1956

• Rabbi Simlai claimed that there are a total of 613 laws

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