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Ecology Ch 13

Learning Objec8ves
A"er studying this chapter you should be able to 1. Dene landscape ecology and describe how it examines hierarchical scales in space and 8me. 2. Know the landscape elements (patch, corridor, and matrix, etc.) and be able to iden8fy them. 3. Understand fragmenta8on eects on wildlife. 4. Know the species-area rela8onship. 5. Understand the importance of remote sensing and geographic informa8on systems and how they can be used.

Landscape Ecology
Integra8ve, scale-related study of the structure, func8on and changes of ecosystems. Core themes: Quan8fying and describing paOerns. Agents inuencing paOerns. Implica8ons of paOerns on ecology. Managing landscape.

For organisms of the size of an ant, landscape paOerns are at the scale of cen8metres and decimetres.

Landscapes Are Hierarchically Structured

Coarse scale - regional Ultra ne scale bricks on a driveway

Intermediate scale - urban

Fine scale -residenAal

Fig. 13.1, p. 386

Structure of Landscapes
Landscape elements are spaAally interrelated: Patches
Edges Fragmenta8on


Networks Matrix Mosaic

Con8guous area of a single landcover class.
E.g. marsh, woodland, wheat eld.

Caused by: Topography. Moisture. Disturbance.

Shape of the patch determines the ra8o of edge to interior. An elongated lake has rela8vely more shoreline than a round one.

Shape of a Patch
The shape of a patch inuences its ecological characteris8cs. Elongated patches have a rela8vely larger area as edge. PAR

Fig. 13.7, p. 393

Linear features. Natural or anthropogenic. Passage for organisms: connecAvity. Popula8ons in dierent patches connected by corridors: metapopulaAons.

Hedgerows act as corridors between patches of forest, and increase the connec8vity of the landscape. They can form a network.

Fencerows as Corridors

Peter Ryser

Tamias striata

Chipmunks use fencerows to move from one forest- patch to another (together corridors make a network).
Fig. 13.8, p. 394

Wildlife Overpasses


Spa8ally integrated complex of patches, corridors and networks. Aected by geology, topography, climate. Aected by disturbance and succession.

A mosaic usually consists of a matrix, with island-like patches embedded in it. Predominant cover type.

Corridor Network Patch Edge Interior Matrix Mosaic

Fig. 13.4, p. 390

Habitat Fragmenta8on
Leads to more insular environments. Isola8on Rescue eects Source/sink Dispersal
Highway building is fragmen8ng popula8ons.

Species-area Rela8onship (SAR)

Arrhenius (1921) There is an increase in the number of species detected with an increase in the area surveyed.

S = cAz
S = number of species A = area c = constant z = constant

Kalmar & Currie (2006)

Island Area and Species Richness Kalmar & Currie (2006)

Global rela8onship between island area and bird species richness.
avian richness

Island area sets the upper bound on richness and other factors can reduce it from there.


Ofen a nega8ve rela8onship between the number of species an island can support and isola8on.

August October

Aerial photography Remote sensing Satellite images GIS

p. 410

Bring a calculator next class