Compressors are fluid machines that handle compressible fluid (gases and vapours) . As the pressure increases the volume decrease and temperature increases too. gases and vapours are usually less dense than liquids
Mechanical Equipment Compressors, Pumps, Seal Motors, variable Speed, Drive, Control Valves and Actuators
Instructor: Eng. Mohamed Anwar
Compressors do not like liquids • Liquid in a compressor can cause:
• high power requirement which may damage the driver or transmission components damage to impellers and internal seals
• Compressor is a device used to Increase the pressure of a compressible fluid (gas or vapour). p )
– The inlet pressure can be any value from near vacuum to a high positive pressure. – The discharge pressure can range from subatmospheric to very high values.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR
• • • • piston compressor screw compressor vane compressor lobe compressor
Types of Compressors
Intermittent (positive displacement). Continuous or dynamic (centrifugal) • Radial • Axial • Rotary
Continuos compression , continuos flow of gas admitted into compressor , flows through compressor & where it is compressed & discharge without interruption of the flow
Compressor coverage chart
TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
Definition - positive-displacement machine in which the compressing and displacing element is a piston moving linearly within a cylinder High Speed Units - Typically engine or motor
driven separable (800- 1800 rpm)
Low Speed Units - Typically integral design with
compressor and power cylinders working off the same crank of the drive shaft (300 -. 600 rpm
1. Reciprocating compressors
• • • • • • Widely used: instrument air , utility,gas bottles refill Reciprocating motion to piston linear motion inside cylinder Displacing action ; admits quantity of gas to cylinder when compression & discharge Valves : Check valve ; one way flow; The discharge check valves prevent the back a low of gas into the compressor during the intake of the next cycle Single Acting : compression takes place on one side of the piston only Double acting : when compression takes place on both sides of the piston. (RCP-2,3) – Configurations consist of a single cylinder or multiple cylinders • Multi-stage compressor : arrangement of multiple cylinders on a common frame are connected in series
Typical application ranges of compressor types
Pressure Ratio: flow Rate:
2. Rotary compressors
• They add energy to the gas being compressed through a rotating shaft carrying a single or multiple rotors • They do not have inlet and discharge valves. straight lobe • The straight-lobe compressor has two untwisted or straight lobe rotors, which intermesh as they rotate. • There is no compression as gas flows to the discharge port • Gas is compressed by the back flow from the discharge port. Four cycles of compression take place in the period of one shaft rotation
TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
RECIPROCATING o Definition – positive-displacement machine in which the compressing and displacing element is a piston moving linearly within a cylinder High Speed Units – Typically engine or motor driven separable (800- 1800 rpm) Low Speed Units – Typically integral design with compressor and power cylinders working off the same crank of the drive shaft (300 -. 600 rpm)
Continuous (or dynamic)Compressors
Energy is transferred from a moving set of blades to the gas. The energy is in the form of velocity and pressure. Further, pressure increase takes place in the stator Compressor volute . Dynamic compressors are divided into 1 Radial, .or centrifugal, compressor is widely used. 2 Axial .have large volume The flow passes axially through the Axial, have volume. machine.
– The rotor consists of multiple rows of unshrouded blades. Before and after each rotor row there is a stationary (stator) row. – A stage is a pair of rotating and stationary blades rows.
TYPES OF COMPRESSORS (Continued)
- machines in which compression and displacement is effected by the positive action of rotating elements; gas trapped between elements is compressed and displaced
Sliding Vane Units - axial vanes slide radially in a rotor eccentrically mounted in a cylindrical casing Straight Lobe Units - two straight mating lobed impellers trap gas and carry it from intake to discharge
3 The mixed-flow compressor is relatively uncommon. A bladed impeller is used. The flow path has both radial and axial velocity components and mixed flow.
• An ejector is a very simple device which uses a high-pressure jet stream to compress g gas. The momentum of the high-pressure jet g p j stream is transferred to the low pressure
- rotary continuous flow unit in
•Single Case •Single Stage •Multi-stage •Multi Case
COMPARISON OF CENTRIFUGAL VS. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Factor Investment Operating Cost (excluding fuel) Fuel Consumption Flexibility Efficiency High Less Better at Ratios Space Requirements Relocation Less Less Difficult More More Difficult Low Low More Better at High Ratios Centrifugal Low Less Reciprocating High More
EXAMPLE COMPRESSOR TYPE SELECTIONS
SPECIFYING A COMPRESSOR
Flow Rate MMSCFD
Type Number of Stages Horsepower
Integral (onshore only)
10 Gas Lift 20 5
2.0 2.7 27 2.7
1 3 3
440 980 3,920
High Speed High Speed Centrifugal
Integral (onshore only)
INFORMATION REQUIRED Qg = Volume of gas to be compressed, MMSCFD Ps Pd Ts S = = = = Suction pressure, psia Discharge pressure, psia Suction temperature, °R (460 + °F) Gas specific gravity
100 2 2 4 0.1 1.0 2.0
2.7 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
3 1 2 2 2 2 2
19,602 88 190 380 14 143 286
Centrifugal Screw High Speed High Speed Screw High Speed Vane Screw High Speed Screw Vane Screw
CENTRIFUGAL - TURBINE OR MOTOR DRIVEN
Lower compressor efficiency Limited flexibility for capacity Higher fuel rate than reciprocating units Larger horsepower outage disrupts process or pipeline capabilities
Size o Starts about 500 hp o 1000 horsepower increments to 20,000 hp Advantages o High horsepower per unit of space and weight o Easily adapted to combined cycle and co generation for co-generation high fuel efficiency o Easily automated for remote operations o Skid mounted self-contained o Low initial costs per horsepower o Lower maintenance cost than reciprocating o High availability factor o Larger capacity available per unit
Td = gas discharge temperature, °R Ts = gas suction temperature, °R Pd = gas discharge pressure, psia Ps = gas suction pressure, psia k = ratio gas specific heats, Cp/Cv η= allowance for irreversibility ηand friction effects (polytropic efficiency) = 1.0 for reciprocating compressors = 0.8 for centrifugal compressors
R = compression ratio per stage Pd = required discharge pressure Ps = required suction pressure n = number of stages •Initial selection use equal ratios in each stage for q g minimum horsepower •Normal compression ratio limits are 1.2 to 5.0 • Staging compression saves horsepower •Limit compressor ratio to limit discharge temperature Packing Life = 2500F to 275°F Lube Oil Degradation = 3000F Ignition if Oxygen Present = 3000F Maximum = 3500F to 4000F
• Gas discharge temperature should be limited to 300 °F • Discharge temperature can be changed by: 1. Adding or deleting stages 2. Cooling suction gas
• Compressor capacity is the volume of gas moving through the compressor in a given period of time • Speed control is the easiest and most economical way to control capacity. • Recycling gas also affects compressor performance and enables the operator to control the performance of the compressor
General performance curves.
Efficiency versus type of compressor.
• No gas conforms exactly to the ideal gas laws. However, most gases conform to these laws with sufficient accuracy to yield y y good engineering answers. These laws, therefore, are used to form the foundation of compressor thermodynamics.
• The volume of a gas varies directly as the absolute temperature at constant pressure.
• The Pv product remains constant at constant temperature.
• All gases have the same number of moles in the same volume at the same pressure and temperature. p
• In a mixture of gases, the summation of partial pressures equals the total pressure of the mixture.
THE IDEAL GAS LAW
• From Charles' and Boyle's laws
• Most gases at low pressures act as ideal gases. • Note that for a specific gas, the ideal gas gas equation reduces to
ADIABATIC PROCES Combining this with the equation of state for a perfect gas,
Cv = Specific heat at constant volume
Cp = Specific heat at constant pressure
An adiabatic process is defined as a process in which no heat transfer takes place. This does not mean that the temperature is constant, but rather that no heat is transferred into or out from the system. In compressor theory, the terms adiabatic (no heat transfer) and isentropic (constant entropy) are used interchangeably. This is quite valid for the context in which they are used. (The actual definition of an isentropic process is an adiabatic, reversible process.)
• When a gas follows a reversible process that includes heat transfer, the process generally p proceeds such that a plot of log P versus log p g g v is a straight line, as shown in Figure 2.1.
ADIABATIC VERSUS POLYTROPIC PROCESS • All compressor processes fall between isentropic (n = k) and isometric (n = ∞ ). • Industry accepted practice is to use adiabatic equations for single-stage and air compressors, while polytropic equations are generally used for all other situations.
• An adiabatic process is a reversible constant entropy process for an ideal id l gas without heat ih h transfer, following the relationship • A polytropic process is a reversible process for an ideal gas with heat transfer, and variable entropy, following the relationship
where n = 1 for isothermal process (constant temperature) n = ∞ for isometric process (constant volume)
CONCEPTUALIZING HEAD • Head = Energy • = Enthalpy • = Foot-pound force per pound mass, or ftbf/lbm
• Assuming negligible heat transfer and minimal velocity effects,
Adiabatic versus polytropic process.
Adiabatic versus polytropic process.
• From these relationships off-design performance can be approximated. These relationships are most accurate for singlestage compressors and an ideal gas. For multistage compressors with gas that deviates from the ideal gas laws, the accuracy of the following equations is reduced. Equations (2.66) and (2.67) are graphically represented in Figure 2.8.
Single stage volute compressor with a speed-increasing gearbox.
Cross section of axial compressor Cross section of axial compressor
Guide-vane actuator linkage Compressor rotor Labyrinth seals
Adjustable guide vanes Thrust bearing Compressor inlet nozzle Compressor outlet nozzle
Two-stage centrifugal compressor
Multi-stage centrifugal compressor
Horizontally split casing
Sectional Casings ( Compressor
Compressor Theory and Designs
Single-Acting Compressor Vertical Split Casing
Sliding Vane Compressor
Double –Acting Compressor Cylinder
Rotary Lobe Compressor
Side View Cutaway of Large Sliding Vane Compressor
Principle of Operation of Rotary Screw Compressor
Basic Compressor Flows
Single Stage Centrifugal Compressors
Multi-Stage Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressor with Diffuser Vanes
Split Casing Axial Flow Compressor
Axial Flow Compressor
Stator Blades Rotor Blades
Stator Blades Casing
• The horizontal and vertical split casings are shown in Figure 9,10 respectively. • The horizontal split casing is perfect to use for large multistage units. The vertical split casing is used for high pressure.
Single-stage, overhung compressor showing (1) casing, (2) inlet cover, (3) back plate, (4) impeller, (5) shaft, (6) seal, (7) journal bearings, (8) th t bearing, thrust b i (9) coupling hub, (10) balance plane,
and (11) variable inlet guide vanes.
• The impeller is the most critical part of a centrifugal compressor. Its size, shape and speed determine the compressor p p performance. The two main types of impellers used are closed (or shrouded) and semi-open (or semi-shroude
• Closed impeller • The closed impeller is the most common. A closed impeller has shrouds covering both sides of blades with a central whole (eye) to allow gas to enter the impeller. Closed impellers are used mainly in multi-stage compressors, and for higher pressure range. • 2 Semi open impeller 2. • A semi open impeller has a shroud completely covering and forming a solid backing for one side of the blades. Semi open impellers are used for large volume gas flow and are generally used only in single stage compressors, which means lower pressure range applications.
IMPELLERS AND RETURN CHANNELS
Blades ( Vanes )
• The blades or vanes of an impeller can be straight (radial), curved forward, or curved backward (Figure 12). • Backward curved vanes are the most efficient and stable. Since they discharge g y g gases from the impeller with less tangential velocity. Therefore, there will be less velocity to convert to pressure. Most oilfield centrifugal compressors use backward curved vanes.
• Compressor rotors commonly consist of a solid center shaft with impellers keyed and pressed onto the center shaft. p Centrifugal compressor rotors are normally built with a balancing piston installed at the discharge end to relieve the thrust-bearing load
• It is fixed to and rotates with the shaft and surrounded by a seal that minimises leakage from the upstream side to the downstream side. The downstream side of the balancing piston is connected to a tube back to the compressor’s suction side by means of a balancing piston leak off line. This causes a pressure difference across the piston that provides a net thrust on the shaft to compensate for the thrust being created by the impellers.
Balance Piston Forces
Rotor shaft with balance piston and thrust collar
Suction Line to Balance Piston
• Efficient performance and stable operation of a centrifugal compressor depend on the velocity and direction of the gas entering the impeller eye eye. • Guide vanes (Figure 15) are used at stages to direct the flow of the gas optimum angle. Guide vanes can be located at the compressor inlet and between the impeller eye in the form of a fixed or an adjustable ring
• Adjustable guide vanes are usually available in single-stage compressors and are sometimes used in the first stage of a multi stage compressor. These vanes can be t Th b adjusted manually or automatically to control the angle of gas flowing into the eye of the impeller. This controls the performance of a centrifugal compressor and keeps it efficient over a wider operating range
Adjustable inlet guide vanes and their effect on surge and power.
Diffuser and volute
• As the gas leaves the impeller it is forced into a passageway in the casing called the diffuser (Figure 16). The diffuser forms an increasingly larger diff f i i l l path for the gas to flow through. Once the gas is in the diffuser, the velocity decreases. This decrease in velocity converts the kinetic energy of the gas into an increase in gas pressure
Back-to-back impeller arrangement
Function : • • Prevent the compressed gas from leaking out of the compressor • Prevent leaking between stages stages. • Types of seals 1- Liquid film 3- Labyrinth 2- Carbon ring, 4- Mechanical.
Double Flow arrangement
Liquid film seals
• • • Liquid film seals provide a barrier fluid, which prevents leakage of process gas to the atmosphere The most common seals used with high pressure or heavy-duty compressors. A typical seal : consists of two or more rings that do not rotate but free to float with shaft movement.
How it works Oil is injected between these rings at a pressure above the suction pressure. Oil flows between seal rings and shaft, then to the oil drain. Labyrinth seals on the gas side guard against any oil leakage into the gas stream. Some systems use a buffer gas in the labyrinth to further ensure that oil remains out of contact with the gas stream.
Liquid film seals
How it works . Oil is injected between these rings at a pressure above the suction pressure. Oil flows between seal rings and shaft, then to the oil drain. Labyrinth L b i th seals on th gas side guard against any l the id d i t oil leakage into the gas stream. Some systems use a buffer gas in the labyrinth to further ensure that oil remains out of contact with the gas stream
Liquid-buffered face and bushing seal. q g
• They are dry contact seals, which consist of several high quality carbon rings held in place by stainless steel spacers and axial springs. • Combination of carbon rings and labyrinth seals are also used.
Carbon ring seal
Are a series of grooves is machined to sharp knife-edges and maintain a close clearance with the mating part.
• The labyrinth can be stationary or rotating. The mating parts are made of a softer material so they will wear before the labyrinth does
Labyrinth seal action
Shaft Labyrinth seal
Mechanical contact seal
• They consist of machined rotating and stationary surface in direct contact with one another to prevent leakage. They are used primarily for low-pressure gas that has no low pressure corrosive components. A typical form of this seal (see Figure 21) uses rotating contact rings, a full floating carbon wear ring, a stationary mating ring and a spring loading device. A small quantity of lubricating oil is needed to remove frictional heat. These types of seals provide some degree of sealing whenever the compressor is shut do
Seal oil system
– Function : Oil film seals are used to positively seal gases inside the casing. • • • Types In some cases, a separate seal oil system is used Most compressors use a combination of lube oil and seal system.
How it seals: The seal oil enters the space between liquid film seal rings from an overhead oil reservoir. Oil, which has been used only for lubrication drains back to the reservoir. Seal oil, which may have come in contact with gas drains into drain pots for removal of the gas. The separated oil is returned to the reservoir for recirculation.
Tandem dry gas seal.
Dry Gas Seal
Dry Seal Section
• The forces within a centrifugal compressor tend to generate two undesirable types of shaft motion. They are the forward and backward ( i l) and side t side ( di l) b k d (axial) d id to id (radial) motions. An unbalanced impeller can result in radial motion. Sleeve or self-aligned tilting pad bearings are used to prevent radial motion. Tapered-land or tilting pad type thrust bearings are used to prevent axial motion
Compressor sleeve bearing bottom, and tilt pad bearings top.
The forces within a centrifugal compressor tend to generate two undesirable types of shaft motion.: .Axial : The forward and backward • .Radial: side to side motions. • Sleeve or self aligned tilting pad bearing are used • self-aligned prevent radial motion. Tapered land or tilting pad type thrust bearing is • used to prevent axial motion. An unbalanced impeller can result in vibrating • motion.
The forces within a centrifugal compressor tend to generate two undesirable types of shaft motion.: Axial : The forward and backward 1 Radial: side to side motions. 2 Sleeve or self-aligned tilting pad bearing • are used prevent radial motion. Tapered land or tilting pad type thrust • bearing is used to prevent axial motion. An unbalanced impeller can result in vibrating motion.
Double acting used to support thrust loading in either axial direction.
A typical thrust bearing : has a thrust • collar attached to the shaft and thrust g g shoes arranged in a circular bearing casing. An oil film between the thrust collar and • the thrust shoes supports the thrust load Close tolerances eliminate the need for • axial adjustment.
Used for: large or high-speed centrifugal compressors
Tilting pad journal bearings
self-aligned compensate for misalignment • and tend to distribute loads evenly. Function: prevent radial motion by p p y prevent • the rotor oscillations oil whip that can occur with the standard sleeve journal bearing. As the shaft rotates, a wedge shaped film • of oil produces a stabilizing force that tends to reduce vibration.
Oil pump : pump Oil from the reservoir through a • filter to a cooler Cooler: cools the oil to the correct operating • temperature. Filter removes dirt and foreign particles • particles. The cooled clean oil flows under pressure to – each bearing through holes and grooves. The oil then flows by gravity back to the reservoir. Dual : Most lube oil systems have a back up or • auxiliary pump and dual filters
Most centrifugal compressors use external • lube oil circulation systems to lubricate and cool all bearing, gearboxes and drive auxiliaries. Lubrication system: consists of an oil • reservoir, an oil pump, a filter, and a cooler Reservoir: oil tank with • Special baffles are built inside the reservoir • to prevent oil foaming.
Gas Turbine Driven Compressor
Plain Journal Bearing with Thrust Bearing
Rotor and Stator Blade Arrangement
Solid Rotor and Disc. ( Courtesy Demag Delaval Turbomachinery )
Drum and Disc Rotor
Fixed Stator Blade
Blade Root Designs
Continuously Adjusted Stator Blade
Individually Adjusted Stator Blade
Combination Flow with Balance Drum Shown
Combination Flow ( Courtesy Demag Delaval Turbomachinery )
Section Showing Gas Flow
Balanced Axial Thrust Using Opposed Gas Flow
Compressor Performance Curve
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR: PERFORMANCE CURVES
Variable Speed Drive Control
Single Speed Compressor Drive with Suction / Discharge Control
Compressor Auxiliaries and Operation Inlet Valve Unloader
Compressor Cylinder Unloading-Suction Valves Closed
Cross-Sectional View of a Suction –Unloading Valve
Modulating Inlet Valve Control
Arrangement of Suction Control Valve and Pilot Valve
At a given rpm, a decrease in flow rate results in an increase in pressure. As the flow rate becomes very small, the gas flow will separate from the vane tips. As a result, vane passages lose the ability to increase the gas pressure. When that happens there will be a slight amount of back flow (beginning of recirculation, see Figure 32) from the diffuser until lift is regained
• Surging is the rapid flow of gas back and forth within a centrifugal compressor. • Surging is an aerodynamic condition caused by a recirculation of the gas starting near the impeller edge. • In a centrifugal compressor this happens when the compressor achieves very high pressure for very low flow rate
• . If the flow through the compressor is decreased further, a point will be reached where there is a complete recirculation (Figure 33) of flow through all vane passages of the impeller. This causes a large amount of back flow and a violent surge can occur. While this happens, large flow reversals cause loud noises, thrust fluctuation, and damaging vibration in the compressor
• Surging can cause severe damage to the compressor, While surging is occurring, gas is recirculated through the compressor and becomes heated by the compression process. As the gas recirculates back to the impeller at lower pressure, it retains heat. As it is recompressed to its original high pressure, additional heating occurs As this continues gas occurs. continues, will cause a bearing or seal failure. • Another problem with surging is caused by thrust reversals that occur from the violent recirculation of the gas. The rapid violent recirculation of the gas can cause thrust reversals that exceed the thrust bearing failure limit and can be catastrophic to a centrifugal compressor
Surge sequence steps
Step 1 Electro motor is started Machine accelerates to nominal speed Compressor reaches performance curve Note: Flow goes up faster because pressure is the integral of flow Step 2 Pressure builds Resistance goes up Compressor “rides” the curve Pd = Pv + Rlosses
Pd B A
Pd Pv Rlosses
Machine shutdown no flow, no pressure
Pd = Compressor discharge pressure Pv = Vessel pressure Rlosses = Resistance losses over pipe
Step 5 Result of flow reversal is that pressure goes down => less negative flow Operating point goes to point C Step 6 System pressure is going down Compressor is again able to overcome Pv Compressor “jumps” back to performance curve and goes to point D Forward flow is re-established
Step 3 Compressor reaches surge point A Compressor looses its ability to make pressure Gas flow will separate from the compressor impeller vane Suddenly Pd drops and thus Pv > Pd Compressor surges Step 4 . Because Pv > Pd the flow reverses Compressor operating point goes to point B
• While surge happens, large flow reversals cause loud noises, thrust fluctuation, and damaging vibration in the th compressor.
Step 7 Compressor starts to build pressure Compressor “rides” curve towards surge Point A is reached The Th surge cycle is complete l i l Cycle timing From A to B 20 - 50 ms Drop into Surge From C to D 20 - 120 ms Jump out of surge A-B-C-D-A 0.3 - 3 seconds Surge cycle
Compressor Instrumentation and Control
• Many compressors have a surge detection system that senses discharge pressure variation and initiates a compressor shutdown. A surge control system (Figure 34) can also be installed that allows discharge gas t di h to b be recirculated outside th i l t d t id the compressor to suction side. The objective is to keep flow above the surge point. An anti surge control valve in the recycle line is regulated with a controller that senses the rate of gas flowing into the compressor and the pressure rise across the compressor. If the flow rate at a given pressure rise is less than the set point, the valve opens and allows enough recycled gas to enter the suction port to keep the compressor flow rate above the surge point.
1-Compressor vibrates 2- Damage in sequence with increasing severity to seals, bearings, impellers, shaft 3-Increased 3 Increased seal clearances and leakage 4- Lower energy efficiency 5- Reduced compressor life 6- Trips may occur 7- Conventional instruments and human operators may fail to recognize surge
Surge consequences Can be listed as:
• Centrifugal compressors are available over a wide range of speeds from 3000 to 50 000 rpm. p • The type of power unit used to drive a compressor depends on the speed range and load
Anti Surge Control System on a Centrifugal Compressor
• Turbines (steam or gas) have variable speed drives, which use governors to keep the speed controlled during operation. A governor will control the amount of steam or fuel supplied to the turbine. turbine A control mechanism measures the speed of the turbine and actuates a throttle valve to increase or decrease the supply of steam or fuel.
• Steam and gas turbines can drive centrifugal compressors through couplings. Electrical motors drive compressors through gearboxes and couplings. Th couplings must b able t d li The li t be bl to withstand changes in compressor load or stoppage of the driver. Steam and gas turbines rotate at high speeds and can be used to drive high-speed centrifugal compressors without gearbo
• To operate a centrifugal compressor at a high speed, the motor must be coupled through a speed-increasing p g p g gearbox. Gearbox (Figure 28) can be an integral part of the compressor construction, or it can be external auxiliary equipment connected between the drive and the compressor
Even with intercooling, discharge gas may • not be cold enough. In that case, an aftercooler is used. Discharge g is p g gas passed through an aftercooler before it is delivered to the pipeline.
• Couplings are used to transmit motion between two shafts that are in line. Couplings are used to connect the drive p g to the centrifugal compressor. Uneven heating of equipment and variation in loading can result in misalignment. There are two types of couplings, gear and flexible diaphragm couplings.
Multi Stage Compressors
Single-Section, Three-Stage Single-Case, Two-Section, Six-Stage
Multi Stage Compressors
Two-Case, Two-Section, Six-Stage
The centrifugal force developed by the impeller depends on, impeller rotation speed, impeller diameter, and impeller shape. Joining impellers together form multi stage centrifugal compressors. Each stage is separated from the others by a diaphragm. A stage is sometimes defined as one impeller and one diffuser.
Multi Stage Compressors
When it is not feasible to increase the gas pressure in one step, multi stage is used. Most petroleum applications use multi- • stage centrifugal compressors
Some factors considered when selecting a configuration are as follow
-Inter cooling between stages reduces the power consumed. -Back-to-back impeller allow for a balanced rotor thrust and minimizes overloading of the thrust bearing. -Cold inlet or hot discharge at the middle of casing reduces oil-seal and lubrication problems. -Single inlet to single discharge reduces external piping problems. -Balanced piston with no extrenal leakage will greatly reduce wear on thrust bearing. -Hot and cold sections adjacent to each other will reduce thermal gradients and thus reduce casing distortion. -Horizontally split casing are easier to open for inspection than vertically split casing therefore, reducing maintenance time. -Overhung rotors present an easier alignment problem because shaft end alignment is necessary only at the coupling between the compressor and drive.
As gas passes through successive stages, the pressure is increased in steps until the final pressure is reached. When multiple impellers are used, gas leaving the impeller of one stage flows through a diffuser then a diaphragm. It is then directed using inlet guide vanes into the eye of the next impeller where the pressure is further increased.
-Smaller, high-pressure compressors that do the same job will reduce foundation problems but will have greatly reduced operational range.