WATER INDUSTRIES

INDUSTRIAL USES OF WATER
• • • • • Reaction medium Heating Cleaning /washing Cooling Power generation

WATER AND ITS IMPURITIES
In the evaluation of water quality, the impurities in water are usually classified as: • Physical – color, silt, clay • Chemical – Cl- Fe2+ Ca2+ Mg2+ CO32• Biological – bacteria, viruses, algae

TYPES OF WATER HARDNESS
TEMPORARY  Or carbonate hardness  Due to the presence of bicarbonates Ca and Mg which can be removed by heating PERMANENT  or noncarbonate hardness  Due to the sulfates and chlorides of Ca and Mg which can be removed by the use of chemical agents

SCALE FORMATION due to presence of dissolved salts which results to: 1) Clogging up of pipelines 2) Reduction in the capacity of equipment 3) Hindrance to the flow of heat (low heat transfer increases fuel consumption) 4) High maintenance and repair costs

WAYS TO MINIMIZE THE PROBLEMS ON WATER HARDNESS

• Pre-treatment – removal of salts present in water • Descaling – removal of scales on the equipment • Use solvents to dissolve scales, e.g., HCl

WAYS TO MINIMIZE THE PROBLEMS ON WATER HARDNESS

• Neutralization • Application of protective coatings on the equipment (excluding Pb paints when water is used as drinking water) • Introduce anti-foaming device like agitators

WATER CONDITIONING AND TREATMENT
 Terms used for rendering water fit for industrial use and consumption by some physical and chemical treatment  Any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural “behavior” of a water supply

METHODS OF WATER CONDITIONING AND TREATMENT
 WATER SOFTENING – process of reducing or eliminating the hardness of water  WATER CLARIFICATION – removal of suspended matter present in water  WATER PURIFICATION – removal of pathogenic (disease causing) microorganisms from water

GENERAL METHODS OF WATER SOFTENING
 PRECIPITATION – use of chemical agents to precipitate salts that cause hardness  ION-EXCHANGE – use of resins to exchange ions in water; can give zero hardness

TYPES OF PRECIPITATION PROCESS

• Lime-Soda Process (hot or cold) • Phosphate Process • Modified Lime-Soda Process

LIME-SODA PROCESS
• Addition of lime & soda ash to reduce levels of Ca and Mg • Also referred to as “lime softening” • Purpose: precipitate Ca & Mg hydroxides (hardness) & then clarify the water • Cheap but only marginally effective (150-120 ppm or 3-7 gpg hardness)

TYPICAL REACTIONS INVOLVED IN THE LIME-SODA PROCESS
• TEMPORARY HARDNESS: Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 → 2CaCO3↓ + 2H20 Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 → MgCO3 + CaCO3↓ + 2H2O + H2 MgCO3 + Ca(OH)2 →Mg(OH)2↓ + CaCO3↓

• PERMANENT HARDNESS: MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2 → Mg(OH)2↓ + CaCl2 CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3↓ + 2NaCl

TYPICAL REACTIONS INVOLVED IN THE LIME-SODA PROCESS

CaSO4 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3↓ + Na2SO4
MgSO4 + Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → Mg(OH)2↓ + CaCO3↓ + Na2SO4

COLD-LIME PROCESS
Uses ordinarily cheaper lime as reagent Applications 1) For partial softening of municipal water 2) For conditioning of cooling water where Ca(HCO3)2 hardness is the scale former 3) In processing of certain paper mill waters where Ca(HCO3)2 is troublesome

HOT-LIME PROCESS
Operates at the boiling point of water to: 1) Hasten reaction 2) Easily facilitate coagulation and precipitation 3) Drive out CO2 and air which causes tiny bubbles  Application: conditioning boiler feed water

MODIFIED LIME-SODA PROCESS
Addition of caustic soda(NaOH) – aids in the precipitation of Mg(OH)2 even without excess lime Addition of water coagulants – aids in precipitation and reduce the “afterdeposits” After-deposits – sediments formed in the soft water tanks after a certain period of time

REACTION WITH COAGULANTS
• Alum {Al2(SO4)3•24H2O}: 2Al3+ + 6H2O → 2Al(OH)3↓ + 3H2↑
• Ferrous sulfate {FeSO4}: Fe2+ + H2O → Fe(OH)2 → Fe(OH)3↓

PHOSPHATE PROCESS
Uses sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) for precipitation The flow diagram is similar to the cold-lime process except that Na3PO4 is used as precipitator

ION EXCHANGE PROCESS
A reversible chemical reaction in which mobile hydrated ions of a solid are exchanged, equivalent for equivalent, for ions of like charge in solution Purpose: to remove scale-forming Ca & Mg ions from hard water and in many cases ferrous ion Disadvantage: presence of Na+ after the ion exchange process

ION EXCHANGE PROCESS
Solid: has an open like structure which can either be a naturally occurring inorganic zeolites (e.g., aluminum silicates) or synthetically produced organic resins, e.g., polystyrene-divinylbenzene (SDVB) that are treated to selectivity adsorb cations or anions Mobile ions: electrically neutralize charged, or potentially charged, groups attached to the solid matrix (ion exchanger)

ORGANIC RESIN
 Composed of high-molecular-weight polyelectrolytes that can exchange their mobile ions for ions of similar charge from the surrounding medium.  Each resin has a distinct number of mobile ion sites that set the maximum quantity of exchanges per unit of resin

ION EXCHANGE METHODS
 Cation exchange occurs when the mobile, positively charged cation fixed to the negative charged fixed group of the ion exchanger, exchanges for another cation in the solution

ION EXCHANGE METHODS
 Anion exchange occurs when the mobile, negatively charged anion attached to the positively charged fixed group of the ion exchange resin is exchanged for another anion in the solution

REGENERATION

When the capacity of a resin to exchange ions is exhausted it needs to be backwashed and regenerated.

REACTION INVOLVED IN CATION EXCAHNGER
Sodium-cation exchanger – uses NaR resin
REACTION:

REACTION INVOLVED IN CATION EXCAHNGER
REGENERATION OF RESIN:

REACTION INVOLVED IN CATION EXCAHNGER
Hydrogen cation-exchanger – uses HR; can be employed to remove all cations REACTIONS:

REACTION INVOLVED IN CATION EXCAHNGER
REGENERATION:

Acid water is not desirable for most purposes, thus the effluent from the hydrogen cationexchanger is neutralized of blended with sodium zeolite-treated water.

REACTION INVOLVED IN ANION EXCAHNGER
• R4NOH – good for treating acidity • R4N resin – good for neutralization
REACTIONS:

REACTION INVOLVED IN ANION EXCAHNGER
REGENERATIONS:

WATER CLARIFICATION
 Generally a multi-step process to reduce turbidity & suspended matter  Effectively removes particles larger than 25 microns  Not 100% efficient thus some suspended matter is still present after clarification

METHODS OF WATER CLARIFICATION
Processes: • Coagulation/ flocculation • Settling • Sedimentation • Filtration

WATER PURIFICATION
 Chlorination (disinfection)  Use of activated carbon and resins  Use of ozone, chlorine dioxide or chloramine  Dechlorination with the use of sulfites and then rechlorinating with chloramine to remove mutagen

DESALINATION/ DEMINERALIZATION
o Commonly applied to any process used to effect: (1)partial or (2)complete demineralization of highly saline waters, such as seawater (35000 ppm of dissolved salts) or brackish waters o Also referred to as “desalting” or deionization o Similar to ion exchange but employs two types of resins, one to remove cations and the other to remove anions o Resin regeneration is also done

PARTIAL DEMINERALIZATION
o Lowering the saline content to a degree which renders the water suitable for drinking purposes and other general use o Special form: decarbonization

DECARBONIZATION
o Specially designed to remove carbonate hardness in water by employing a special cation which exclusively removes the momentary hardness which is the ne that forms a scale. o Permanent hardness, which is the one that adds taste to the water, remains in the water.

DECARBONIZATION
o TDS (residual after evaporation) has been more than halved compared to softened water. o Suitable for treatment of water to be used in breweries, soft drink production, coffee brewing and ice cube making

COMPLETE DEMINERALIZATION
o Achieved by mixing several types of ion exchange resin in a tank (mixed-bed) o Cation resin – strong acidic o Anion resin – strong basic o Furnishing water suitable for use in high pressure boilers and for certain other uses ( turbines, laboratories, humidifiers, fountain solution in print shops and for post treatment of reverse osmosis water)

COMPLETE DEMINERALIZATION
o Totally desalinated water hardly contains any cations and anions (<0.2 μS/cm) o TDS (residual salt after evaporation) will be less than 0.1 g per 1 m3 of totally desalinated water.

SPECIAL METHODS OF DEMINERALIZATION
MEMBRANE METHODS Reverse osmosis Electrodialysis Microfiltration Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration OTHER METHOD  Flash evaporation  Vertical tube evaporation  Vapor compression  Vacuum compression

REVERSE OSMOSIS
 Application of pressure above the osmotic pressure to force pure water through a semipermeable membrane from the concentrated brine solution  Opposite of ordinary osmosis process in which water flows through a membrane from a lower concentration to the one of a higher concentration  1st crossflow membrane separation process to be widely commercialized

REVERSE OSMOSIS

REVERSE OSMOSIS
 Removes

virtually all organic compounds and 90-99% of all ions  Rejects 99.9+% viruses, bacteria and pyrogens  Pressure applied: 200-1000 psig(13.8 to 68.9 bar)  More energy efficient

RO MEMBRANES
 

Bundles of very fine capillaries Spiral-wound sheets Maybe made of cellulose acetate (preferred for brackish water) or polyamides (preferred for seawater) Made of polyamide or polysulphone which can work in the ph range 2-12

ELECTRODIALYSIS

Uses ion exchange semipermeable membranes in an electric field to reduce ionic content of water

ELECTRODIALYSIS
 A direct electric current is allowed to pass through saline or brackish water in a series of alternating cations and anions exchangers thereby separating the dissolved salts into cations and anions resulting into a salinity decrease in one space and a salinity increase in the next space

MICROFILTRATION

Use of membranes with pore size of 0.1 to 2 microns Membranes are traditionally available in polymer or metal membrane discs or pleated cartridge filters Typical operating pressure: 1 – 25 psig (0.07 – 1.7 bar)

ULTRAFILTRATION

Crossflow process does not reject ions Reject contaminants in the range of 1000 Da (10 Å) to 0.1 microns Typical operating pressure: 10 to 100 psig (0.7 – 6.9 bar) Removes organics, bacteria and pyrogens

NANOFILTRATION

Removes organic compounds in the range of 300 – 1000 MW Rejects divalent salts and passes more water at lower pressure than RO systems More environment-friendly and economical

ECHAVIA, VERNADETTE SORIA, MEGAN CARITAN, JESSEL

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