P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU

JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.1 481
CHAPTER 9
SECTION 9.1
1. y

1
(x) =
1
2
e
x/2
; 2y

1
−y
1
= 2
_
1
2
_
e
x/2
−e
x/2
= 0; y
1
is a solution.
y

2
(x) = 2x +e
x/2
; 2y

2
−y
2
= 2
_
2x +e
x/2
_

_
x
2
+ 2e
x/2
_
= 4x −x
2
= 0;
y
2
is not a solution.
2. y

1
+xy
1
= −xe
−x
2
/2
+xe
−x
2
/2
= 0; not a solution
y

2
+xy
2
= −Cxe
−x
2
/2
+x +Cxe
−x
2
/2
= x; y
2
is a solution.
3. y

1
(x) =
−e
x
(e
x
+ 1)
2
; y

1
+y
1
=
−e
x
(e
x
+ 1)
2
+
1
e
x
+ 1
=
1
(e
x
+ 1)
2
= y
2
1
; y
1
is a solution.
y

2
(x) =
−Ce
x
(Ce
x
+ 1)
2
; y

2
+y
2
=
−Ce
x
(Ce
x
+ 1)
2
+
1
Ce
x
+ 1
=
1
(Ce
x
+ 1)
2
= y
2
2
;
y
2
is a solution.
4. y

1
+ 4y
1
= −8 sin 2x + 8 sin 2x = 0; y
1
is a solution.
y

2
+ 4y
2
= −2 cos x + 8 cos x = 6 cos x; not a solution.
5. y

1
(x) = 2e
2x
, y

1
= 4e
2x
; y

1
−4y
1
= 4e
2x
−4e
2x
= 0; y
1
is a solution.
y

2
(x) = 2C cosh 2x, y

2
= 4C sinh 2x; y

2
−4y
2
= 4C sinh 2x −4C sinh 2x = 0;
y
2
is a solution.
6. y

1
−2y

1
−3y
1
= e
−x
+ 18e
3x
−2(−e
−x
+ 6e
3x
) −3(e
−x
+ 2e
3x
) = 0; not a solution
y

2
−2y

2
−3y
2
=
7
4
_
(6 + 9x)e
3x
−2(1 + 3x)e
3x
−3xe
3x
¸
= 7e
3x
; y
2
is a solution.
7. y

−2y = 1; H(x) =
_
(−2) dx = −2x, integrating factor: e
−2x
e
−2x
y

−2e
−2x
y = e
−2x
d
dx
_
e
−2x
y
¸
= e
−2x
e
−2x
y = −
1
2
e
−2x
+C
y = −
1
2
+Ce
2x
8. y


2
x
y = −1; H(x) =
_

2
x
dx, integrating factor: x
−2
x
−2
y


2
x
3
y = −x
−2
d
dx
(x
−2
y) = −x
−2
x
−2
y =
1
x
+C
y = x +Cx
2
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
482 SECTION 9.1
9. y

+
5
2
y = 1; H(x) =
_ _
5
2
_
dx =
5
2
x, integrating factor: e
5x/2
e
5x/2
y

+
5
2
e
5x/2
y = e
5x/2
d
dx
_
e
5x/2
y
_
= e
5x/2
e
5x/2
y =
2
5
e
5x/2
+C
y =
2
5
+Ce
−5x/2
10. y

−y = −2e
−x
; H(x) =
_
−dx, integrating factor: e
−x
e
−x
y

−e
−x
y = −2e
−2x
d
dx
_
e
−x
y
_
= −2e
−2x
e
−x
y = e
−2x
+C
y = e
−x
+Ce
x
11. y

−2y = 1 −2x; H(x) =
_
(−2) dx = −2x, integrating factor: e
−2x
e
−2x
y

−2e
−2x
y = e
−2x
−2xe
−2x
d
dx
_
e
−2x
y
¸
= e
−2x
−2xe
−2x
e
−2x
y = −
1
2
e
−2x
+xe
−2x
+
1
2
e
−2x
+C = xe
−2x
+C
y = x +Ce
2x
12. y

+
2
x
y =
cos x
x
2
; H(x) =
_
2
x
dx = 2 ln |x|, integrating factor: x
2
x
2
y

+ 2xy = cos x
d
dx
[x
2
y] = cos x
x
2
y = sin x +C
y =
sin x
x
2
+
C
x
2
13. y


4
x
y = −2n; H(x) =
_ _

4
x
_
dx = −4 ln x = ln x
−4
, integrating factor: e
ln x
−4
= x
−4
x
−4
y


4
x
x
−4
y = −2nx
−4
d
dx
_
x
−4
y
¸
= −2nx
−4
x
−4
y =
2
3
nx
−3
+C
y =
2
3
nx +Cx
4
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.1 483
14. y

+y = 2 + 2x; H(x) =
_
dx, integrating factor: e
x
e
x
y

+e
x
y = (2 + 2x)e
x
d
dx
(e
x
y) = 2(1 +x)e
x
e
x
y = 2xe
x
+C
y = 2x +Ce
−x
15. y

−e
x
y = 0; H(x) =
_
−e
x
dx = −e
x
, integrating factor: e
−e
x
e
−e
x
y

−e
x
e
−e
x
y = 0
d
dx
_
e
−e
x
y
¸
= 0
e
−e
x
y = C
y = Ce
e
x
16. y

−y = e
x
; H(x) =
_
−dx, integrating factor: e
−x
e
−x
y

−e
−x
y = 1
d
dx
(e
−x
y) = 1
e
−x
y = x +C
y = xe
x
+Ce
x
17. y

+
1
1 +e
x
y =
1
1 +e
x
; H(x) =
_
1
1 +e
x
dx = ln
e
x
1 +e
x
,
integrating factor: e
H(x)
=
e
x
1 +e
x
e
x
1 +e
x
y

+
1
1 +e
x
·
e
x
1 +e
x
y =
1
1 +e
x
·
e
x
1 +e
x
d
dx
_
e
x
1 +e
x
y
_
=
e
x
(1 +e
x
)
2
e
x
1 +e
x
y = −
1
1 +e
x
+C
y = −e
−x
+C (1 +e
−x
)
This solution can also be written: y = 1 +K (e
−x
+ 1) , where K is an arbitrary constant.
18. y

+
1
x
y =
1 +x
x
e
x
; H(x) =
_
1
x
dx, integrating factor: x
xy

+y = (1 +x)e
x
d
dx
(xy) = (1 +x)e
x
xy = xe
x
+C
y = e
x
+
C
x
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
484 SECTION 9.1
19. y

+ 2xy = xe
−x
2
; H(x) =
_
2xdx = x
2
, integrating factor: e
x
2
e
x
2
y

+ 2xe
x
2
y = x
d
dx
_
e
x
2
y
_
= x
e
x
2
y =
1
2
x
2
+C
y = e
−x
2
_
1
2
x
2
+C
_
20. y


1
x
y = 2 ln x; H(x) =
_

1
x
dx, integrating factor:
1
x
1
x
y


1
x
2
y =
2
x
ln x
d
dx
_
1
x
y
_
=
2
x
ln x
1
x
y = (ln x)
2
+C
y = x(ln x)
2
+Cx
21. y

+
2
x + 1
y = 0; H(x) =
_
2
x + 1
dx = 2 ln(x + 1) = ln(x + 1)
2
,
integrating factor: e
ln(x+1)
2
= (x + 1)
2
(x + 1)
2
y

+ 2(x + 1) y = 0
d
dx
_
(x + 1)
2
y
¸
= 0
(x + 1)
2
y = C
y =
C
(x + 1)
2
22. y

+
2
x + 1
y = (x + 1)
5/2
; H(x) =
_
2
x + 1
dx, integrating factor: (x + 1)
2
(x + 1)
2
y

+ 2(x + 1)y = (x + 1)
9/2
d
dx
_
(x + 1)
2
y
¸
= (x + 1)
9/2
(x + 1)
2
y =
2
11
(x + 1)
11/2
+C
y =
2
11
(x + 1)
7/2
+C(x + 1)
−2
23. y

+y = x; H(x) =
_
1 dx = x, integrating factor : e
x
e
x
y

+e
x
y = xe
x
d
dx
[e
x
y] = xe
x
e
x
y = xe
x
−e
x
+C
y = (x −1) +Ce
−x
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.1 485
y(0) = −1 +C = 1 =⇒ C = 2. Therefore, y = 2e
−x
+x −1 is the solution which satisfies
the initial condition.
24. y

−y = e
2x
; H(x) =
_
−dx, integrating factor: e
−x
d
dx
(e
−x
y) = e
x
e
−x
y = e
x
+C
y = e
2x
+Ce
x
1 = y(1) = e
2
+Ce =⇒ C =
1 −e
2
e
and y = e
2x
+
1 −e
2
e
e
x
is the solution which
satisfies the initial condition.
25. y

+y =
1
1 +e
x
; H(x) =
_
1 dx = x, integrating factor : e
x
e
x
y

+e
x
y =
e
x
1 +e
x
d
dx
[e
x
y] =
e
x
1 +e
x
e
x
y = ln (1 +e
x
) +C
y = e
−x
[ln (1 +e
x
) +C]
y(0) = ln 2 +C = e =⇒ C = e −ln 2. Therefore, y = e
−x
[ln (1 +e
x
) +e −ln 2] is the
solution which satisfies the initial condition.
26. y

+y =
1
1 + 2e
x
; H(x) =
_
dx, integrating factor: e
x
d
dx
(e
x
y) =
e
x
1 + 2e
x
e
x
y =
1
2
ln(1 + 2e
x
) +C
y = e
−x
_
1
2
ln(1 + 2e
x
) +C
_
e = y(0) =
1
2
ln 3 +C =⇒ C = e −
1
2
ln 3 and y = e
−x
_
1
2
ln(1 + 2e
x
) +e −
1
2
ln 3
¸
is the
solution which satisfies the initial condition.
27. y


2
x
y = x
2
e
x
; H(x) =
_ _

2
x
_
dx = −2 ln x = ln x
−2
,
integrating factor: e
lnx
−2
= x
−2
x
−2
y

−2x
−3
y = e
x
d
dx
_
x
−2
y
¸
= e
x
x
−2
y = e
x
+C
y = x
2
(e
x
+C)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
486 SECTION 9.1
y(1) = e +C = 0 =⇒ C = −e. Therefore, y = x
2
(e
x
−e) is the solution which satisfies
the initial condition.
28. y

+
2
x
y = e
−x
; H(x) =
_
2
x
dx, integrating factor: x
2
d
dx
(x
2
y) = x
2
e
−x
x
2
y = −e
−x
(x
2
+ 2x + 2) +C
y = −
e
−x
x
2
(x
2
+ 2x + 2) +
C
x
2
−1 = y(1) = −5e
−1
+C =⇒ C = 5e
−1
−1 and y = −
e
−x
x
2
(x
2
+ 2x + 2) +
5e
−1
−1
x
2
is the
solution which satisfies the initial condition.
29. Set z = y

−y. Then z

= y

−y

.
y

−y = y

−y

=⇒ z = z

=⇒ z = C
1
e
x
Now,
z = y

−y = C
1
e
x
=⇒ e
−x
y

−e
−x
y = C
1
=⇒ (e
−x
y)

= C
1
=⇒ e
−x
y = C
1
x +C
2
=⇒ y = C
1
xe
x
+C
2
e
x
30. General solution: y = Ce
−rx
. (a) y(a) = 0 = Ce
−ra
=⇒ C = 0 =⇒ y(x) = 0 for all x.
(b) r < 0 and y = 0 =⇒ y →∞ as x →∞
(c) r > 0 and y = 0 =⇒ y →0 as x →∞
(d) If r = 0, then y(x) = C, constant.
31. (a) Let y
1
and y
2
be solutions of y

+p(x)y = 0, and let u = y
1
+y
2
. Then
u

+pu = (y
1
+y
2
)

+p (y
1
+y
2
)
= y

1
+y

2
+py
1
+py
2
= y

1
+py
1
+y

2
+py
2
= 0 + 0 = 0
Therefore u is a solution.
(b) Let u = Cy where y is a solution of y

+p(x)y = 0. Then
u

+pu = (Cy)

+p(Cy) = Cy

+Cpy = C(y

+py) = C ×0 = 0
Therefore u is a solution.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.1 487
32. (a)
y

+p(x)y = 0
e
_
x
a
p(t) dt
y

+p(x)e
_
x
a
p(t) dt
y = 0
_
e
_
x
a
p(t) dt
y
_

= 0
e
_
x
a
p(t) dt
y = C
y(x) = Ce

_
x
a
p(t) dt
(b) y(b) = 0 =⇒ Ce

_
b
a
p(t) dt
= 0 =⇒ C = 0 =⇒ y(x) = 0 for all x.
(c) Let z = y
1
−y
2
. Then z is a solution of y

+p(x)y = 0. If y
1
(b) = y
2
(b), then z(b) = 0 =⇒
z(x) = 0 for all x.
33. Let y(x) = e
−H(x)
_
x
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt.
Note first that y(a) = e
−H(a)
_
a
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt = 0 so y satisfies the initial condition.
Now,
y

+p(x)y =
_
e
−H(x)
_
x
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt
_

+p(x) e
−H(x)
_
x
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt
= e
−H(x)
q(x) e
H(x)
+e
−H(x)
[−p(x)]
_
x
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt +p(x) e
−H(x)
_
x
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt
= q(x)
Thus, y(x) = e
−H(x)
_
x
a
q(t) e
H(t)
dt is the solution of the initial value problem.
34. Let z = y
1
−y
2
. Then
z

= y

1
−y

2
= q −py
1
−(q −py
2
) = −p (y
1
−y
2
) = −pz =⇒ z

+pz = 0
35. According to Newton’s Law of Cooling, the temperature T at any time t is given by
T(t) = 32 + [72 −32]e
−kt
We can determine k by applying the condition T(1/2) = 50

:
50 = 32 + 40 e
−k/2
e
−k/2
=
18
40
=
9
20

1
2
k = ln(9/20)
k = −2 ln(9/20)

= 1.5970
Therefore, T(t)

= 32 + 40 e
−1.5970t
.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
488 SECTION 9.1
Now, T(1)

= 32 + 40 e
−1.5970 ∼
= 40.100; the temperature after 1 minute is (approx.) 40.10

.
To find how long it will take for the temperature to reach 35

, we solve
32 + 40 e
−1.5970t
= 35
for t:
32 + 40 e
−1.5970t
= 35
40 e
−1.5970t
= 3
−1.5970t = ln(3/40)
t =
ln(3/40)
−1.5970

= 1.62
It will take approximately 1.62 minutes for the thermometer to read 35

.
36. By (9.1.4) T(t) = 100 −80e
−kt
T(2) = 22 =⇒ 100 −80e
−2k
= 22 =⇒ k =
ln(39/40)
−2

= 0.01266
T(6)

= 100 −80e
−0.01266(6) ∼
= 25.85

C; T(t) = 90 =⇒ −80e
−0.01266t
= −10 =⇒ t

= 164.25 secs.
37. (a) The solution of the initial value problem v

= 32 −kv, (k > 0) v(0) = 0 is:
v(t) =
32
k
_
1 −e
−kt
_
.
(b) At each time t, 1 −e
−kt
< 1. Therefore
v(t) =
32
k
_
1 −e
−kt
_
<
32
k
and lim
t→∞
v(t) =
32
k
(c)
38. (a)
dP
dt
+ (b −a)P = 0; H(t) =
_
(b −a) dt = (b −a)t, integrating factor : e
(b−a)t
e
(b−a)t
dP
dt
+ (b −a)e
(b−a)t
P = 0
d
dt
_
e
(b−a)t
P
_
= 0
e
(b−a)t
P = C
P = Ce
(a−b)t
P(0) = P
0
=⇒P(t) = P
0
e
(a−b)t
.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.1 489
(b) (i) a > b =⇒P
0
e
(a−b)t
is increasing.
P(t) →∞ as t →∞.
(ii) a = b =⇒P(t) = P
0
is a constant.
(iii) a < b =⇒P
0
e
(a−b)t
is decreasing.
P(t) →0 as t →∞.
39. (a)
di
dt
+
R
L
i =
E
L
; H(t) =
_
R
L
dt =
R
L
t, integrating factor : e
R
L
t
e
R
L
t
di
dt
+
R
L
e
R
L
t
i =
E
L
e
R
L
t
d
dt
_
e
R
L
t
i
_
=
E
L
e
R
L
t
e
R
L
t
i =
E
R
e
R
L
t
+C
i(t) =
E
R
+Ce

R
L
t
i(0) = 0 =⇒ C = −
E
R
, so i(t) =
E
R
_
1 −e
−(R/L) t
_
.
(b) lim
t→∞
i(t) = lim
t→∞
E
R
_
1 −e
−(R/L) t
_
=
E
R
amps
(c) i(t) = 0.9
E
R
=⇒ e
−(R/L) t
=
1
10
=⇒ −
R
L
t = −ln 10 =⇒ t =
L
R
ln 10 seconds.
40. (a)
di
dt
+
R
L
i =
E
L
sin ωt; H(t) =
_
R
L
dt =
R
L
t, integrating factor : e
R
L
t
e
R
L
t
di
dt
+
R
L
e
R
L
t
i =
E
L
e
R
L
t
sin ωt
d
dt
_
e
R
L
t
i
_
=
E
L
e
R
L
t
sin ωt
e
R
L
t
i =
E
L
e
R
L
t
L
2
R
2

2
L
2
_
R
L
sin ωt −ω cos ωt
_
+C
i(t) =
EL
R
2

2
L
2
_
R
L
sin ωt −ω cos ωt
_
+Ce

R
L
t
i(0) = i
0
=⇒ i(t)=
EL
R
2

2
L
2
_
R
L
sin ωt −ω cos ωt
_
+
_
i
0

EL
R
2

2
L
2
_
e

R
L
t
.
(b) lim
t→∞
does not exist because the trigonometric functions continue to oscillate.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
490 SECTION 9.1
(c) A sample graph is:
41. (a) V

(t) = kV (t) =⇒ V (t) = V
0
e
kt
Loses 20% in 5 minutes, so V (5) = V
0
e
5k
= 0.8V
0
=⇒ k =
1
5
ln 0.8
=⇒ V (t) = V
0
e
1
5
(ln0.8)t
= V
0
_
e
ln0.8
_
t/5
= V
0
(0.8)
t/5
= V
0
_
4
5
_
t/5
.
Since V
0
= 200 liters, we get V (t) = 200
_
4
5
_
t/5
(b)
V

(t) = ktV (t)
V

(t) −ktV (t) = 0
e
−kt
2
/2
V

(t) −kte
−kt
2
/2
V (t) = 0
d
dt
_
e
−kt
2
/2
V (t)
_
= 0
e
−kt
2
/2
V (t) = C
V (t) = Ce
kt
2
/2
.
V (0) = C = 200 =⇒ V (t) = 200e
kt
2
/2
.
V (5) = 160 =⇒ 200e
k(25/2)
= 160, e
k(25/2)
=
4
5
, e
k
=
_
4
5
_
2/25
.
Therefore V (t) = 200
_
4
5
_
t
2
/25
liters.
42. Let s(t) be the number of pounds of salt present after t minutes. Since
s

(t) = rate in − rate out = 3 (0.2) −3
_
s(t)
100
_
,
we have
s

(t) + 0.03s(t) = 0.6.
Multiply by e
_
0.03dt
= e
0.03t
:
e
0.03t
s

(t) + 0.03e
0.03t
s(t) = 0.6e
0.03t
d
dt
_
e
0.03t
s(t)
¸
= 0.6e
0.03t
e
0.03t
s(t) = 20e
0.03t
+C
s(t) = 20 +Ce
−0.03t
.
Use the initial condition s(0) = 100(0.25) = 25 to determine C: 25 = 20 +Ce
0
so C = 5.
Thus, s(t) = 20 + 5e
−0.03t
lb.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.1 491
43. (a)
dP
dt
= k(M −P)
(b)
dP
dt
+kP = kM; H(t) =
_
k dt = kt, integrating factor : e
kt
e
kt
dP
dt
+ke
kt
P = kM e
kt
d
dt
_
e
kt
P
¸
= kM e
kt
e
kt
P = M e
kt
+C
P = M +Ce
−kt
P(0) = M +C = 0 =⇒ C = −M and P(t) = M
_
1 −e
−kt
_
P(10) = M
_
1 −e
−10k
_
= 0.3M =⇒ k

= 0.0357 and P(t) = M
_
1 −e
−0.0357t
_
(c) P(t) = M
_
1 −e
−0.0357t
_
= 0.9M =⇒ e
−0.0357t
= 0.1 =⇒ t

= 65
Therefore, it will take approximately 65 days for 90 % of the population to be aware of the product.
44. (a)
dQ
dt
= rate in −rate out = r −kQ, k > 0
(b)
dQ
dt
+kQ = r, Q(0) = 0 =⇒ Q(t) =
r
k
_
1 −e
−kt
_
(c) lim
t→∞
Q(t) =
r
k
.
45. (a)
dP
dt
−2 cos(2πt)P = 0 =⇒ P = Ce
1
π
sin2πt
.
P(0) = C = 1000 =⇒ P = 1000e
1
π
sin2πt
.
(b)
dP
dt
−2 cos(2πt)P = 2000 cos 2πt =⇒ P = Ce
1
π
sin2πt
−1000.
P(0) = 1000 =⇒ C = 2000 =⇒ P = 2000e
1
π
sin2πt
−1000.
46. (a) Let Q = ln P. Then
dQ
dt
=
1
P
dP
dt
= a −bQ.
Solving the differential equation
dQ
dt
+bQ = a =⇒ Q =
a
b
+Ce
−bt
, so P = e
a
b
+Ce
−bt
.
P(0) = P
0
=⇒ e
c
= P
0
e

a
b . Thus P = e
a
b
_
P
0
e

a
b
¸
e
−bt
.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
492 SECTION 9.2
(b) e
−bt
→0 as t →∞, so P →e
a
b .
(c) P

= P(a −b ln P) =⇒ P

= P
_
−b
P
_
P

+P

(a −b ln P) = P(a −b ln P)(a −b −b ln P).
If 0 < P < e
a/b−1
, then P is increasing and the graph is concave up; if e
a/b−1
< P < e
a/b
, then P
is increasing and the graph is concave down; if e
a/b
< P, then P is decreasing and the graph is
concave down.
(d)
SECTION 9.2
1.
y

= y sin(2x + 3)
1
y
dy = sin(2x + 3) dx
_
1
y
dy =
_
sin(2x + 3) dx
ln | y | = −
1
2
cos(2x + 3) +C
This solution can also be written: y = Ce
−(1/2) cos(2x+3)
.
2.
y

= (x
2
+ 1)(y
2
+y)
_
dy
y
2
+y
=
_
(x
2
+ 1) dx
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
y
y + 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
x
3
3
+x +C
This solution can also be written: y =
1
Ke
−x−x
3
/3
−1
(K = e
C
).
3. y

= (xy)
3
1
y
3
dy = x
3
dx, y = 0
_
1
y
3
dy =
_
x
3
dx

1
2
y
−2
=
1
4
x
4
+C
This solution can also be written: x
4
+
2
y
2
= C, or y
2
=
2
C −x
4
;
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.2 493
4. y

= 3x
2
(1 +y
2
)
_
dy
1 +y
2
=
_
3x
2
dx
tan
−1
y = x
3
+C
y = tan(x
3
+C)
5. y

=
sin(1/x)
x
2
y cos y
y cos y dy =
1
x
2
sin(1/x) dx
_
y cos y dy =
_
1
x
2
sin(1/x) dx
y sin y + cos y = cos(1/x) +C
6.
y

=
y
2
+ 1
y +yx
_
y
1 +y
2
dy =
_
1
1 +x
dx
ln
_
1 +y
2
= ln |1 +x| +C
1 +y
2
= K(1 +x)
2
(K = ln C)
7.
y

= xe
y+x
e
−y
dy = xe
x
dx
_
e
−y
dy =
_
xe
x
dx
−e
−y
= xe
x
−e
x
+C
e
−y
= e
x
−xe
x
+C
This solution can also be written: y = −ln(e
x
−xe
x
+C).
8.
y

= xy
2
−x −y
2
+ 1 = (x −1)(y
2
−1)
_
dy
y
2
−1
=
_
dx
x −1
1
2
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
y −1
y + 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
= ln |x −1| +C
This solution can also be written: y =
1 +Ke
x
2
−2x
1 −Ke
x
2
−2x
(K = e
C
).
9.
(y ln x)y

=
(y + 1)
2
x
y
(y + 1)
2
dy =
1
x ln x
dx
_
y
(y + 1)
2
dy =
_
1
x ln x
dx
ln | y + 1 | +
1
y + 1
= ln | ln x| +C
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
494 SECTION 9.2
10.
e
y
sin 2xdx + cos x(e
2y
−y) dy = 0
_
sin 2x
cos x
dx +
_
(e
y
−ye
−y
) dy = C
−2 cos x +e
y
+e
−y
(1 +y) = C
11.
(y ln x)y

=
y
2
+ 1
x
y
y
2
+ 1
dy =
1
x ln x
dx
_
y
y
2
+ 1
dy =
_
1
x ln x
dx
1
2
ln (y
2
+ 1) = ln | ln x| +K = ln |C ln x| (K = ln |C|)
ln (y
2
+ 1) = 2 ln |C ln x| = ln (C ln x)
2
y
2
= C(ln x)
2
−1
12.
y

=
1 + 2y
2
y sin x
y
1 + 2y
2
dy = csc xdx
1
4
ln(1 + 2y
2
) = ln | csc x −cot x| +C
the integral curves can be written as: ln(1 + 2y
2
) = ln
_
C(csc x −cot x)
4
¸
, or as
y
2
= K(csc x −cot x)
4

1
2
.
13.
y

= x
_
1 −y
2
1 −x
2
, y(0) = 0
1
_
1 −y
2
dy =
x

1 −x
2
dx
_
1
_
1 −y
2
dy =
_
x

1 −x
2
dx
sin
−1
y = −

1 −x
2
+C
y(0) = 0 =⇒ arcsin 0 = −1 +C =⇒ C = 1
Thus, arcsin y = 1 −

1 −x
2
.
14.
y

=
e
x−y
1 +e
x
_
e
y
dy =
_
e
x
1 +e
x
dx
e
y
= ln(1 +e
x
) +C
y(1) = 0 =⇒ 1 = ln(1 +e) +C =⇒ C = 1 −ln(1 +e) and e
y
= ln(1 +e
x
) + 1 −ln(1 +e)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.2 495
15.
y

=
x
2
y −y
y + 1
, y(3) = 1
y + 1
y
dy = (x
2
−1) dx, y = 0
_
y + 1
y
dy =
_
(x
2
−1) dx
y + ln | y | =
1
3
x
3
−x +C
y(3) = 1 =⇒ 1 + ln 1 =
1
3
(3)
3
−3 +C =⇒ C = −5.
Thus, y + ln | y | =
1
3
x
3
−x −5.
16. x
2
y

= y −xy
_
1
y
dy =
_
(1 −x)x
−2
dx
ln |y| = −
1
x
−ln |x| +C
−1 = y(−1) =⇒ C = −1 and ln |xy| +
1
x
= −1
17. (xy
2
+y
2
+x + 1) dx + (y −1) dy = 0, y(2) = 0
(x + 1)(y
2
+ 1) dx + (y −1) dy = 0
(x + 1) dx +
y −1
y
2
+ 1
dy = 0
_
(x + 1) dx +
_
y −1
y
2
+ 1
dy = C
x
2
2
+x +
1
2
ln (y
2
+ 1) −tan
−1
y = C
y(2) = 0 =⇒ C = 4. Thus,
1
2
x
2
+x +
1
2
ln (y
2
+ 1) −tan
−1
y = 4
18. cos y dx + (1 +e
−x
) sin y dy = 0
_
dx
1 +e
−x
+
_
sin y
cos y
dy = C
ln(e
x
+ 1) + ln | sec y| = C;
π
4
= y(0) =⇒ ln 2 + ln

2 = C
ln(e
x
+ 1) + ln | sec y| =
3
2
ln 2
19. y

= 6 e
2x−y
, y(0) = 0
y

= 6 e
2x−y
e
y
dy = 6 e
2x
dx
e
y
= 3 e
2x
+C
y(0) = 0 =⇒ 1 = 3 +C =⇒ C = −2
Thus, e
y
= 3 e
2x
−2 =⇒ y = ln
_
3 e
2x
−2
¸
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
496 SECTION 9.2
20. xy

−y = 2x
2
y, y(1) = 1
xy

= y
_
1 + 2x
2
_
1
y
dy =
1 + 2x
2
x
dx =
_
1
x
+ 2x
_
dx
ln |y| = ln |x| +x
2
+C
y(1) = 1 =⇒ 0 = 1 +C =⇒ C = −1
Thus, ln |y| = ln |x| +x
2
−1 or y = xe
x
2
−1
21. We assume that C = 0 at time t = 0. (a) Let A
0
= B
0
. Then
dC
dt
= k(A
0
−C)
2
and
dC
(A
0
−C)
2
= k dt.
Integrating, we get
_
1
(A
0
−C)
2
dC =
_
k dt
1
A
0
−C
= kt +M M a constant.
Since C(0) = 0, M =
1
A
0
and
1
A
0
−C
= kt +
1
A
0
.
Solving this equation for C gives
C(t) =
kA
2
0
t
1 +kA
0
t
.
(b) Suppose that A
0
= B
0
. Then
dC
dt
= k(A
0
−C)(B
0
−C) and
dC
(A
0
−C)(B
0
−C)
= k dt.
Integrating, we get
_
1
(A
0
−C)(B
0
−C)
dC =
_
k dt
1
B
0
−A
0
_ _
1
A
0
−C

1
B
0
−C
_
dC =
_
k dt
1
B
0
−A
0
[− ln (A
0
−C) + ln (B
0
−C)] = kt +M
1
B
0
−A
0
ln
_
B
0
−C
A
0
−C
_
= kt +M M an arbitrary constant
Since C(0) = 0, M =
1
B0−A0
ln
_
B0
A0
_
and
1
B
0
−A
0
ln
_
B
0
−C
A
0
−C
_
= kt +
ln(B
0
/A
0
)
B
0
−A
0
.
Solving this equation for C, gives
C(t) =
A
0
B
0
_
e
kA0t
−e
kB0t
_
A
0
e
kA0t
−B
0
e
kB0t
.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.2 497
22. (a) From (9.2.4) with K = 0.0020, M = 800, R = P(0) = 100, we have
P(t) =
80, 000
100 + 700e
−1.6t
(b) (c)
dP
dt
is maximal at t

= 1.2162
Maximum value = 320
23. (a)
m
dv
dt
= −αv −βv
2
dv
v(α +βv)
= −
1
m
dt
_
1
v(α +βv)
dv = −
_
1
m
dt
1
α
_
1
v
dv −
β
α
_
1
α +βv
dv = −
_
1
m
dt
1
α
ln v −
1
α
ln(α +βv) = −
1
m
t +M, M a constant
ln
_
v
α +βv
_
= −
α
m
t +αM
v
α +βv
= Ke
−αt/m
_
K = e
αM
¸
Solving this equation for v we get v(t) =
αK
e
αt/m
−βK
=
α
Ce
αt/m
−β
[C = 1/K].
(b) Setting v(0) = v
0
, we get
C =
α +βv
0
v
0
and
v(t) =
αv
0
(α +βv
0
)e
αt/m
−βv
0
(c) lim
t→∞
v(t) = 0
24. F = ma = m
dv
dt
(a)
m
dv
dt
= mg −βv
2
dt =
mdv
mg −βv
2
=
m
β
_
dv
v
c
2
−v
2
_
t =
m
β
_
1
v
c
2
−v
2
dv =
m
2v
c
β
_ _
1
v
c
+v
+
1
v
c
−v
_
dv
=
m
2v
c
β
_
ln
_
v
c
+v
v
c
−v
__
+C
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
498 SECTION 9.2
At t = 0, v(0) = v
0
. Therefore
C = −
m
2v
c
β
_
ln
_
v
c
+v
0
v
c
−v
0
__
=
m
2v
c
β
_
ln
_
v
c
−v
0
v
c
+v
0
__
.
Thus
t =
m
2v
c
β
_
ln
_
v
c
+v
v
c
+v
0
·
v
c
−v
0
v
c
−v
__
=
v
c
2g
_
ln
_
v
c
+v
v
c
+v
0
·
v
c
−v
0
v
c
−v
__
.
v
c
=
_
mg/β
(b)
v
c
+v
v
c
+v
0
·
v
c
−v
0
v
c
−v
= e
2tg/vc
v
c
+v =
v
c
+v
0
v
c
−v
0
e
2tg/vc
(v
c
−v)
v
_
1 +
_
v
c
+v
0
v
c
−v
0
_
e
2tg/vc
_
= v
c
__
v
c
+v
0
v
c
−v
0
_
e
2tg/vc
−1
_
v = v
c
_
(v
c
+v
0
)e
2tg/vc
−(v
c
−v
0
)
(v
c
+v
0
)e
2tg/vc
+ (v
c
−v
0
)
_
.
We can bring the hyperbolic functions into play by writing
v = v
c
_
(v
c
+v
0
)e
gt/vc
−(v
c
−v
0
)e
−gt/vc
(v
c
+v
0
)e
gt/vc
−(v
c
−v
0
)e
−gt/vc
_
= v
c
_
v
0
cosh(gt/v
c
) +v
c
sinh(gt/v
c
)
v
0
sinh(gt/v
c
) +v
c
cosh(gt/v
c
)
_
(c) a = g
_
v
c
2
−v
0
2
[v
0
sinh(gt/v
c
) +v
c
cosh(gt/v
c
)]
2
_
The acceleration can not change sign since the denominator is always positive and the numerator
is constant. As t →∞, the denominator →∞, and the fraction →0.
(d) We can write
v = v
c
_
(v
c
+v
0
) −(v
c
−v
0
)e
−2tg/vc
(v
c
+v
0
) + (v
c
−v
0
)e
−2tg/vc
_
.
As t →∞, −2gt/v
c
→−∞ and e
−2tg/vc
→0. Thus v →v
c
25. (a) Let P = P(t) denote the number of people who have the disease at time t. Then, substituting
into (9.2.4) with M = 25, 000 and R = 100, we get
P(t) =
25, 000(100)
100 + (249, 00)e
−25,000kt
=
25, 000
1 + 249e
−25,000kt
.
P(10)
25, 000
1 + 249e
−25,000(10k)
= 400 =⇒ −25, 000k

= −0.1398.
Therefore, P(t) =
25, 000
1 + 249e
−0.1398t
.
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JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.2 499
(b)
25, 000
1 + 249e
−0.1398t
= 12, 500 =⇒ t

= 40;
It will take 40 days for half the
population to have the disease.
(c)
26.
dy
dt
= ky(M −y) = kMy −ky
2
=⇒
d
2
y
dt
2
= (kM −2ky)
dy
dt
= k
2
(M −2y)(M −y)y
d
2
y
dt
2
> 0 for 0 < y <
M
2
, so
dy
dt
is increasing
d
2
y
dt
2
< 0 for
M
2
< y < M, so
dy
dt
is decreasing
Therefore
dy
dt
is maximal at y =
M
2
. The disease is spreading fastest when half the population is
infected.
27. Assume that the package is dropped from rest.
(a) Let v = v(t) be the velocity at time t, 0 ≤ t ≤ 10. Then
100
dv
dt
= 100g −2v or
dv
dt
+
1
50
v = g (g = 9.8 m/sec
2
)
This is a linear differential equation; e
t/50
is an integrating factor.
e
t/50
dv
dt
+
1
50
e
t/50
v = g e
t/50
d
dt
_
e
t/50
v
_
= g e
t/50
e
t/50
v = 50g e
t/50
+C
v = 50g +Ce
−t/50
Now, v(0) = 0 =⇒ C = −50g and v(t) = 50g
_
1 −e
−t/50
_
.
At the instant the parachute opens, v(10) = 50g
_
1 −e
−1/5
_

= 50g(0.1813)

= 88.82 m/sec.
(b) Now let v = v(t) denote the velocity of the package t seconds after the parachute opens. Then
100
dv
dt
= 100g −4v
2
or
dv
dt
= g −
1
25
v
2
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
500 SECTION 9.2
This is a separable differential equation:
dv
dt
= g −
1
25
v
2
set u = v/5, du = (1/5)dv
du
g −u
2
=
1
5
dt
1
2

g
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
u +

g
u −

g
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
t
5
+K
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
u +

g
u −

g
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
2

g
5
t +M
u +

g
u −

g
= Ce
2

gt/5 ∼
= Ce
1.25t
u =

g
Ce
1.25t
+ 1
Ce
1.25t
−1
v = 5

g
Ce
1.25t
+ 1
Ce
1.25t
−1
Now, v(0) = 88.82 =⇒ 5

g
C + 1
C −1
= 88.82 =⇒ C

= 1.43.
Therefore, v(t) = 5

g
1.43e
1.25t
+ 1
1.43e
1.25t
−1
=
15.65
_
1 + 0.70e
−1.25t
_
1 −0.70e
−1.25t
(c) From part (b), lim
t→∞
v(t) = 15.65 m/sec.
28. (a) By the hint
_
dC
_
A
0

1
2
C
_
2
=
_
k dt
2
A
0

1
2
C
= kt +K.
First, C(0) = 0 =⇒ K = 2/A
0
. Then, C(1) = A
0
=⇒ k = 2/A
0
. Thus,
2
A
0

1
2
C
=
2
A
0
(t + 1), which gives C(t) = 2A
0
_
t
t + 1
_
.
(b) By the hint
_
dC
_
A
0

1
2
C
__
2A
0

1
2
C
_ =
_
k dt
1
A
0
_



1
A
0

1
2
C

1
2A
0

1
2
C


⎦ dC =
_
k dt
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JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.2 501
1
A
0
_
−2 ln |A
0

1
2
C| + 2 ln |2A
0

1
2
C|
_
= kt +K
2
A
0
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2A
0

1
2
C
A
0

1
2
C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= kt +K.
First, C(0) = 0 =⇒ K =
2
A
0
ln 2. Then,
C(1) = A
0
=⇒
2
A
0
ln 3 = k +
2
A
0
ln 2 =⇒ k =
2
A
0
ln
3
2
.
Thus,
2
A
0
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
2A
0

1
2
C
A
0

1
2
C
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
2
A
0
t ln
3
2
+
2
A
0
ln 2 =
2
A
0
ln
_
2
_
3
2
_
t
_
so that
2A
0

1
2
C
A
0

1
2
C
= 2
_
3
2
_
t
and therefore C(t) = 4A
0
3
t
−2
t
2(3
t
) −2
t
.
(c) By the hint
_
dC
_
A
0

m
m+n
C
__
A
0

n
m+n
C
_ =
_
k dt
_
1
A
0
(m−n)



m
A
0

m
m+n
C

n
A
0

n
m+n
C


⎦ dC =
_
k dt
1
A
0
(m−n)
_
−(m+n) ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
A
0

m
m+n
C
¸
¸
¸
¸
+ (m+n) ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
A
0

n
m+n
C
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= kt +K
m+n
A
0
(m−n)
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A
0

n
m+n
C
A
0

m
m+n
C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= kt +K.
First, C(0) = 0 =⇒ K =
m+n
A
0
(m−n)
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
A
0
A
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0. Then,
C(1) = A
0
=⇒ k =
m+n
A
0
(m−n)
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A
0

n
m+n
A
0
A
0

m
m+n
A
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
m+n
A
0
(m−n)
ln
m
n
.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
502 SECTION 9.2
Thus,
m+n
A
0
(m−n)
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A
0

n
m+n
C
A
0

m
m+n
C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
m+n
A
0
(m−n)
ln
_
m
n
_
(t) + 0
so that
A
0

n
m+n
C
A
0

m
m+n
C
=
_
m
n
_
t
and therefore C(t) = A
0
(m+n)
_
m
t
−n
t
m
t+1
−n
t+1
_
.
PROJECT 9.2
1. (a) 2x + 3y = C =⇒ 2 + 3y

= 0 =⇒ y

= −
2
3
The orthogonal trajectories are the solutions of:
y

=
3
2
.
y

=
3
2
=⇒ y =
3
2
x +C
(b) Curves: y = Cx, y

= C =
y
x
orthogonal trajectories: y

= −
x
y
_
y dy +
_
xdx = K
1
; x
2
+y
2
= K (= 2K
1
)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.2 503
(c) xy = C =⇒ y +xy

= 0 =⇒ y

= −
y
x
The orthogonal trajectories are the solutions of:
y

=
x
y
.
y

=
x
y
_
xdx =
_
y dy
1
2
x
2
=
1
2
y
2
+C
or x
2
−y
2
= C
(d) y = Cx
3
, y

= 3Cx
2
=
3y
x
orthogonal trajectories: y

= −
x
3y
_
3y dy +
_
xdx = K
1
; 3y
2
+x
2
= K (= 2K
1
)
(e) y = C e
x
=⇒ y

= C e
x
= y
The orthogonal trajectories are the solutions of:
y

= −
1
y
.
y

= −
1
y
_
y dy = −
_
dx
1
2
y
2
= −x +K
or y
2
= −2x +C
(f) x = Cy
4
, 1 = 4Cy
3
y

; y

=
y
4x
orthogonal trajectories:
dy
dx
= −
4x
y
_
y dy +
_
4xdx = K
1
; y
2
+ 4x
2
= K (= 2K
1
)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
504 SECTION 9.3
2. (a) Curves: y
2
−x
2
= C; 2yy

−2x = 0 =⇒ y

=
x
y
orthogonal trajectories: y

= −
y
x
;
_
1
y
dy = −
_
1
x
dx; y =
C
x
(b) Curves: y
2
= Cx
3
, 2yy

= 3Cx
2
; y
2
=
2xyy

3
=⇒ y

=
3y
2x
orthogonal trajectories: y

= −
2x
3y
;
_
3y dy +
_
2xdx = C; x
2
+
3
2
y
2
= C or 2x
2
+ 3y
2
= C
(c) Curves: y =
Ce
x
x
, xy = Ce
x
; xy

+y = Ce
x
=⇒ y

=
y(x −1)
x
orthogonal trajectories: y

=
x
y(1 −x)
;
_
y dy =
_
x
1 −x
dx =
_ _
1
1 −x
−1
_
dx;
1
2
y
2
= −ln |1 −x| −x +C or y
2
+ 2x + ln (1 −x)
2
= C
(d) Curves: e
x
sin y = C; e
x
cos y y

+e
x
sin y = 0 =⇒ y

= −
sin y
cos y
orthogonal trajectories: y

=
cos y
sin y
;
_
sin y
cos y
dy =
_
dx; ln | sec y| = x +C or sec y = Ce
x
3. (a) A differential equation for the given family is:
y
2
= 2xyy

+y
2
(y

)
2
A differential equation for the family of orthogonal trajectories is found by replacing y

by −1/y

.
The result is:
y
2
= −
2xy
y

+
y
2
(y

)
2
which simplifies to y
2
= 2xyy

+y
2
(y

)
2
Thus, the given family is self-orthogonal.
(b)
x
2
C
2
+
y
2
C
2
−4
= 1 =⇒
2x
C
2
+
2yy

C
2
−4
= 0 =⇒ C
2
=
4x
x +yy

A differential equation for the given family is:
x
2
+xyy


xy
y

−y
2
= 4
A differential equation for the family of orthogonal trajectories is found by replacing y

by −1/y

.
The result is:
x
2
−xy
1
y

+xyy

−y
2
= 4
Thus, the given family is self-orthogonal.
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JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.3 505
SECTION 9.3
1. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
+ 2r −8 = 0 or (r + 4)(r −2) = 0.
The roots are: r = −4, 2. The general solution is:
y = C
1
e
−4x
+C
2
e
2x
.
2. r
2
−13r + 42 = 0 =⇒ r = 6, 7; y = C
1
e
6x
+C
2
e
7x
3. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
+ 8r + 16 = 0 or (r + 4)
2
= 0.
There is only one root: r = −4. By Theorem 9.3.6 II, the general solution is:
y = C
1
e
−4x
+C
2
xe
−4x
.
4. r
2
+ 7r + 3 = 0 =⇒ r = −
7
2
±

37
2
; y = C
1
e
−7+

37
2
x
+C
2
e
−7−

37
2
x
.
5. The characteristic equation is: r
2
+ 2r + 5 = 0.
The roots are complex: r = −1 ±2i. By Theorem 9.3.6 III, the general solution is:
y = e
−x
(C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x) .
6. r
2
−3r + 8 = 0 =⇒ r =
3
2
±

23
2
i; y = e
3x/2
_
C
1
cos

23
2
x +C
2
sin

23
2
x
_
7. The characteristic equation is:
2r
2
+ 5r −3 = 0 or (2r −1)(r + 3) = 0.
The roots are: r =
1
2
, −3. The general solution is:
y = C
1
e
x/2
+C
2
e
−3x
.
8. r
2
−12 = 0 =⇒ r = ±2

3; y = C
1
e
2

3x
+C
2
e
−2

3x
.
9. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
+ 12 = 0.
The roots are complex: r = ±2

3 i. The general solution is:
y = C
1
cos 2

3 x +C
2
sin 2

3 x.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
506 SECTION 9.3
10. r
2
−3r +
9
4
= 0 =⇒ r =
3
2
; y = C
1
e
3
2
x
+C
2
xe
3
2
x
.
11. The characteristic equation is:
5r
2
+
11
4
r −
3
4
= 0 or 20r
2
+ 11r −3 = (5r −1)(4r + 3) = 0.
The roots are: r =
1
5
, −
3
4
. The general solution is:
y = C
1
e
x/5
+C
2
e
−3x/4
.
12. 2r
2
+ 3r = 0 =⇒ r = 0, −
3
2
; y = C
1
+C
2
e

3
2
x
.
13. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
+ 9 = 0.
The roots are complex: r = ±3i. The general solution is:
y = C
1
cos 3x +C
2
sin 3x.
14. r
2
−r −30 = 0 =⇒ r = 6, −5; y = C
1
e
6x
+C
2
e
−5x
.
15. The characteristic equation is:
2r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0.
The roots are complex: r = −
1
2
±
1
2
i. The general solution is:
y = e
−x/2
[C
1
cos(x/2) +C
2
sin(x/2)] .
16. r
2
−4r + 4 = 0 =⇒ r = 2; y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
xe
2x
.
17. The characteristic equation is:
8r
2
+ 2r −1 = 0 or (4r −1)(2r + 1) = 0.
The roots are: r =
1
4
, −
1
2
. The general solution is:
y = C
1
e
x/4
+C
2
e
−x/2
.
18. 5r
2
−2r + 1 = 0 =⇒ r =
1
5
±
2
5
i; y = e
x/5
_
C
1
cos
2x
5
+C
2
sin
2x
5
_
.
19. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
−5r + 6 = 0 or (r −3)(r −2) = 0.
The roots are: r = 3, 2. The general solution and its derivative are:
y = C
1
e
3x
+C
2
e
2x
, y

= 3C
1
e
3x
+ 2C
2
e
2x
.
The conditions: y(0) = 1, y

(0) = 1 require that
C
1
+C
2
= 1 and 3C
1
+ 2C
2
= 1.
Solving these equations simultaneously gives C
1
= −1, C
2
= 2.
The solution of the initial value problem is: y = 2e
2x
−e
3x
.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-09 JWDD027-Salas-v1 November 25, 2006 19:21
SECTION 9.3 507
20. r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0 =⇒ r = −1; y = C
1
e
−x
+C
2
xe
−x
1 = y(2) = C
1
e
−2
+ 2C
2
e
−2
, 2 = y

(2) = −C
1
e
−2
−C
2
e
−2
=⇒ C
1
= −5e
2
, C
2
= 3e
2
=⇒ y = −5e
2−x
+ 3xe
2−x
.
21. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
+
1
4
= 0.
The roots are: r = ±
1
2
i. The general solution and its derivative are:
y = C
1
cos(x/2) +C
2
sin(x/2) y

= −
1
2
C
1
sin(x/2) +
1
2
C
2
cos(x/2).
The conditions: y(π) = 1, y

(π) = −1 require that
C
2
= 1 and C
1
= 2.
The solution of the initial value problem is: y = 2 cos(x/2) + sin(x/2).
22. r
2
−2r + 2 = 0 =⇒ r = 1 ±i; y = e
x
(C
1
cos x +C
2
sin x).
−1 = y(0) = C
1
, −1 = y

(0) = C
1
+C
2
=⇒ C
2
= 0, y = −e
x
cos x
23. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
+ 4r + 4 = 0 or (r + 2)
2
= 0.
There is only one root: r = −2. The general solution and its derivative are:
y = C
1
e
−2x
+C
2
xe
−2x
y

= −2C
1
e
−2x
+C
2
e
−2x
−2C
2
xe
−2x
.
The conditions: y(−1) = 2, y

(−1) = 1 require that
C
1
e
2
−C
2
e
2
= 2 and −2C
1
e
2
+ 3C
2
e
2
= 1.
Solving these equations simultaneously gives C
1
= 7e
−2
, C
2
= 5e
−2
.
The solution of the initial value problem is: y = 7e
−2
e
−2x
+ 5e
−2
xe
−2x
= 7e
−2(x+1)
+ 5xe
−2(x+1)
.
24. r
2
−2r + 5 = 0 =⇒ r = 1 ±2i; y = e
x
(C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x).
0 = y(π/2) = e
π/2
(−C
1
) =⇒ C
1
= 0; 2 = y

(π/2) = e
π/2
(−2C
2
) =⇒ C
2
= −e
−π/2
=⇒ y = −e
x−π/2
sin 2x.
25. The characteristic equation is:
r
2
−r −2 = 0 or (r −2)(r + 1) = 0.
The roots are: r = 2, −1. The general solution and its derivative are:
y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
e
−x
y

= 2C
1
e
2x
−C
2
e
−x
.
(a) y(0) = 1 =⇒ C
1
+C
2
= 1 =⇒ C
2
= 1 −C
1
.
Thus, the solutions that satisfy y(0) = 1 are: y = Ce
2x
+ (1 −C)e
−x
.
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508 SECTION 9.3
(b) y

(0) = 1 =⇒ 2C
1
−C
2
= 1 =⇒ C
2
= 2C
1
−1.
Thus, the solutions that satisfy y

(0) = 1 are: y = Ce
2x
+ (2C −1)e
−x
.
(c) To satisfy both conditions, we must have 2C −1 = 1 −C =⇒ C =
2
3
.
The solution that satisfies y(0) = 1, y

(0) = 1 is:
y =
2
3
e
2x
+
1
3
e
−x
.
26. r
2
−ω
2
= 0 =⇒ r = ±ω; y = A
1
e
ωx
+A
2
e
−ωx
Since e
ωx
= cosh ωx + sinh ωx and e
−ωx
= cosh ωx −sinh ωx, we can write
y = C
1
cosh ωx +C
2
sinh ωx (with C
1
= A
1
+A
2
, C
2
= A
1
−A
2
).
27. α =
r
1
+r
2
2
, β =
r
1
−r
2
2
;
y = k
1
e
r1x
+k
2
e
r2x
= e
αx
(C
1
cosh βx +C
2
sinh βx) , where k
1
=
C
1
+C
2
2
, k
2
=
C
1
−C
2
2
.
28. r
2

2
= 0 =⇒ r = ±ωi; y = C
1
cos ωx +C
2
sin ωx.
Assuming that C
2
1
+C
2
2
> 0, we have
C
1
cos ωx +C
2
sin ωx =
_
C
1
2
+C
2
2
_
C
1
_
C
1
2
+C
2
2
cos ωx +
C
2
_
C
1
2
+C
2
2
sin ωx
_
= A(sin φ
0
cos ωx + cos φ
0
sin ωx) = Asin(ωx +φ
0
),
where A =
_
C
1
2
+C
2
2
and φ
0
, φ
0
∈ [0, 2π), is the angle such that
sin φ
0
=
C
1
_
C
1
2
+C
2
2
and cos φ
0
=
C
2
_
C
1
2
+C
2
2
29. (a) Let y
1
= e
αx
, y
2
= xe
αx
. Then
W(x) = y
1
y

2
−y
2
y

1
= e
αx
[e
αx
+αxe
αx
] −xe
αx
[αe
αx
] = e
2αx
= 0
(b) Let y
1
= e
αx
cos βx, y
2
= e
αx
sin βx, β = 0. Then
W(x) = y
1
y

2
−y
2
y

1
= e
αx
cos βx[αe
αx
sin βx +βe
αx
cos βx] −e
αx
sin βx[αe
αx
cos βx −βe
αx
sin βx]
= βe
2αx
= 0
30. Characteristic equation: r
2
+ 10
3
r +
1
C
= 0; roots: r =
−10
3
±
_
10
6
−4/C
2
.
(a) r = 100(−5 ±

5); y = C
1
e
100(−5+

5)t
+C
2
e
100(−5−

5)t
(b) r = −500; y = C
1
e
−500t
+C
2
te
−500t
(c) r = 500(−1 ±i); y = e
−500t
(C
1
cos 500t +C
2
sin 500t)
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SECTION 9.3 509
31. (a) The solutions y
1
= e
2x
, y
2
= e
−4x
imply that the roots of the characteristic equation
are r
1
= 2, r
2
= −4. Therefore, the characteristic equation is:
(r −2)(r + 4) = r
2
+ 2r −8 = 0
and the differential equation is: y

+ 2y

−8y = 0.
(b) The solutions y
1
= 3e
−x
, y
2
= 4e
5x
imply that the roots of the characteristic equation
are r
1
= −1, r
2
= 5. Therefore, the characteristic equation is
(r + 1)(r −5) = r
2
−4r −5 = 0
and the differential equation is: y

−4y

−5y = 0.
(c) The solutions y
1
= 2e
3x
, y
2
= xe
3x
imply that 3 is the only root of the characteristic
equation. Therefore, the characteristic equation is
(r −3)
2
= r
2
−6r + 9 = 0
and the differential equation is: y

−6y

+ 9y = 0.
32. (a) We want r = ±2i, so r
2
= −4. Differential equation: y

+ 4y = 0
(b) We want r = −2 ±3i, so (r + 2)
2
= −9. Differential equation: y

+ 4y

+ 13y = 0
33. (a) Let y = e
αx
u. Then
y

= αe
αx
u +e
αx
u

and y

= α
2
e
αx
u + 2αe
αx
u

+e
αx
u

Now,
y

−2αy +α
2
y =
_
α
2
e
αx
u + 2αe
αx
u

+e
αx
u

_
−2α(αe
αx
u +e
αx
u

) +α
2
e
αx
u
= e
αx
u

Therefore, y

−2αy +α
2
y = 0 =⇒ e
αx
u

=⇒ u

= 0.
(b) y

−2αy

+
_
α
2

2
_
y = y

−2αy


2
y +β
2
y.
From part (a) y = e
αx
u =⇒ y

−2αy


2
y = e
αx
u

. Therefore,
y

−2αy

+
_
α
2

2
_
y = 0 =⇒ e
αx
u


2
e
αx
u = 0 =⇒ u


2
u = 0.
34. r
2
+ar +b = 0 =⇒ r
1
, r
2
=
−a ±

a
2
−4b
2
.
If a
2
−4b > 0, then

a
2
−4b < a, so
−a ±

a
2
−4b
2
is negative, and the solutions:
y = C
1
e
r1x
+C
2
e
r2x
→0 as x →∞.
If a
2
−4b = 0, then r = r
1
= r
2
= −a/2 < 0, and the solutions:
y = C
1
e
rx
+C
2
xe
rx
→0 as x →∞.
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510 SECTION 9.3
If a
2
−4b < 0, then y = e
−ax/2
_
C
1
cos
1
2

b
2
−4a x +C
2
sin
1
2

b
2
−4a x
_
satisfies
|y| < e
−ax/2
=⇒ y →0 as x →∞.
35. (a) If a = 0, b > 0, then the general solution of the differential equation is:
y = C
1
cos

b x +C
2
sin

b x = A cos
_

b x +φ
_
where A and φ are constants. Clearly | y(x) | ≤ | A| for all x.
(b) If a > 0, b = 0, then the general solution of the differential equation is:
y = C
1
+C
2
e
−ax
and lim
x→∞
y(x) = C
1
.
The solution which satisfies the conditions: y(0) = y
0
, y

(0) = y
1
is:
y = y
0
+
y
1
a

y
1
a
e
−ax
and lim
x→∞
y(x) = y
0
+
y
1
a
; k = y
0
+
y
1
a
.
36. Let y
1
and y
2
be solutions of the homogeneous equation.
Suppose that y
2
= k y
1
for some scalar k. Then
W(y
1
, y
2
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
y
1
k y
1
y

1
k y

1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
Now suppose that W(y
1
, y
2
) = 0, and suppose that y
1
is not identically 0. Let I be an interval on
which y
1
(x) = 0. Then,
_
y
2
y
1
_

=
y
1
y

2
−y
2
y

1
(y
1
)
2
=
W(y
1
, y
2
)
(y
1
)
2
= 0
Therefore,
y
2
y
1
= k constant on I. Finally, y
2
= ky
1
on I implies y
2
= ky
1
for all x by the uniqueness
theorem.
37. Let W be the Wronskian of y
1
and y
2
. Then
W(a) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 0
y

1
(a) y

2
(a)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
Therefore one of the solutions is a multiple of the other (see the Supplement to this Section).
38. From the hint,
dy
dx
=
dy
dz
1
x
. Differentiating with respect to x again, we have
d
2
y
dx
2
=
d
2
y
dz
2
dz
dx
1
x
+
dy
dz
_

1
x
2
_
=
1
x
2
_
d
2
y
dz
2

dy
dz
_
.
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SECTION 9.3 511
Substituting into the differential equation x
2
y

+αxy

+βy = 0, we get
_
d
2
y
dz
2

dy
dz
_

dy
dz
+βy = 0, or
d
2
y
dz
2
+a
dy
dz
+by = 0,
where a = α −1, b = β.
39. From Exercise 38, the change of variable z = ln x transforms the equation
x
2
y

−xy

−8y = 0
into the differential equation with constant coefficients
d
2
y
dz
2
−2
dy
dz
−8y = 0.
The characteristic equation is:
r
2
−2r −8 = 0 or (r −4)(r + 2) = 0
The roots are: r = 4, r = −2, and the general solution (in terms of z) is:
y = C
1
e
4z
+C
2
e
−2z
.
Replacing z by ln x we get
y = C
1
e
4 lnx
+C
2
e
−2 lnx
= C
1
x
4
+C
2
x
−2
.
40. Using the result of Exercise 38, we get
d
2
y
dz
2
−3
dy
dz
+ 2y = 0, so r
2
−3r + 2 = 0 =⇒ r = 1, 2.
=⇒ y = C
1
e
z
+C
2
e
2z
. Substituting z = ln x, we get y = C
1
x +C
2
x
2
.
41. From Exercise 38, the change of variable z = ln x transforms the equation
x
2
y

−3xy

+ 4y = 0
into the differential equation with constant coefficients
d
2
y
dz
2
−4
dy
dz
+ 4y = 0.
The characteristic equation is:
r
2
−4r + 4 = 0 or (r −2)
2
= 0.
The only root is: r = 2, and the general solution (in terms of z) is:
y = C
1
e
2z
+C
2
ze
2z
.
Replacing z by ln x we get
y = C
1
e
2 lnx
+C
2
ln xe
2 lnx
= C
1
x
2
+C
2
x
2
ln x.
42. From Exercise 38, we get
d
2
y
dz
2
−2
dy
dz
+ 5y = 0
r
2
−2r + 5 = 0 =⇒ r = 1 ±2i; and y = e
z
(C
1
cos 2z +C
2
sin 2z) .
Substituting z = ln x we get: y = x[C
1
cos(2 ln x) +C
2
sin(2 ln x)] .
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512 REVIEW EXERCISES
REVIEW EXERCISES
1. First calculate the integrating factor e
H(x)
:
H(x) =
_
1dx = x and e
H(x)
= e
x
Multiplication by e
x
gives
e
x
y

+e
x
y = 2e
−x
which is
d
dx
(e
x
y) = 2e
−x
Integrating this equation, we get
e
x
y = −2e
−x
+C
and
y = −2e
−2x
+Ce
−x
2. The equation can be written
−2 cos(2x) +
2y
2
+ 1
y
y

= 0.
The equation is separable:
_
−2 cos(2x)dx +
_
2y
2
+ 1
y
dy = C and −sin(2x) +y
2
+ ln |y| = C
3. The equation can be written
cos
2
xdx −
y
y
2
+ 1
dy = 0.
The equation is separable:
_
cos
2
xdx −
_
y
y
2
+ 1
dy = C and
1
4
sin(2x) +
1
2
x −
1
2
ln(y
2
+ 1) = C
or sin(2x) + 2x −2 ln(y
2
+ 1) = C.
4. The equation can be written
xe
x
−(y ln y)y

= 0.
The equation is separable:
_
xe
x
dx −
_
y ln ydy = C and e
x
(x −1) −
1
2
y
2
ln y +
1
4
y
2
+C
5. The equation can be written
y

+
3
x
y =
sin 2x
x
2
.
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REVIEW EXERCISES 513
Calculate the integrating factor e
H(x)
:
H(x) =
_
3
x
dx = ln x
3
and e
H(x)
= x
3
.
Multiplying by x
3
gives
x
3
y

+ 3x
2
y = xsin 2x which is
d
dx
(x
3
y) = xsin 2x.
Integrating this equation, we get
x
3
y =
_
xsin 2xdx +C = −
1
2
xcos 2x +
1
4
sin 2x +C.
and
y = −
1
2x
2
cos 2x +
1
4x
3
sin 2x +
C
x
3
.
6. The equation can be written
y

+
2
x
y =
2
x
e
x
2
.
Calculate the integrating factor e
H(x)
:
H(x) =
_
2
x
dx = ln x
2
and e
H(x)
= x
2
.
Multiplication by x
2
gives
x
2
y

+ 2xy = 2xe
x
2
which is
d
dx
(x
2
y) = 2xe
x
2
.
Integrating the equation, we get
x
2
y = e
x
2
+C.
and
y =
1
x
2
(e
x
2
+C).
7. The equation can be written
1 +x
2

1
1 +y
2
y

= 0.
The equation is separable:
_
(1 +x
2
)dx −
_
1
1 +y
2
dy = C and x +
x
3
3
−arctan y = C
or arctan y = x +
x
3
3
+C.
8. The equation can be written
x
2
−1 −
y + 1
y
y

= 0
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514 REVIEW EXERCISES
The equation is separable:
_
(x
2
−1)dx −
_
y + 1
y
dy = C and
1
3
x
3
−x −y −ln |y| = C.
9. The equation can be written
y

+
2
x
y = x
2
.
Calculate the integrating factor e
H(x)
:
H(x) =
_
2
x
dx = ln x
2
and e
H(x)
= x
2
.
Multiplication by x
2
gives
x
2
y

+ 2xy = x
4
which is
d
dx
(x
2
y) = x
4
.
Integrating this equation, we get
x
2
y =
1
5
x
5
+C and y =
1
5
x
3
+
C
x
2
.
10. The equation can be written
x
_
1 +x
2

1
y
2
y

= 0
The equation is separable:
_
x
_
1 +x
2
dx −
_
1
y
2
dy = C and
1
3
(1 +x
2
)
3/2
+
1
y
= C.
Solving for y, we have
y =
−3
(1 +x
2
)
3/2
+C
.
11. The equation can be written
y

+
1
x
y =
2
x
2
+ 1
The integrating factor is
e
H(x)
= e
lnx
= x.
Multiplication by x gives
xy

+y =
2
x
+x which is
d
dx
(xy) =
2
x
+x.
Integrating this equation, we get
xy = ln x
2
+
1
2
x
2
+C and y =
1
x
(ln x
2
+
1
2
x
2
+C).
Applying the initial condition y(1) = 2, we have
ln 1 +
1
2
+C = 2 and C =
3
2
.
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REVIEW EXERCISES 515
Therefore
y =
1
x
_
ln x
2
+
1
2
x
2
+
3
2
_
.
12. The equation can be written
4x −
y
_
y
2
+ 1
y

= 0.
The equation is separable:
_
4xdx −
_
y
_
y
2
+ 1
dy = C and 2x
2
−(y
2
+ 1)
1/2
= C.
To find the solution that satisfies y(0) = 1, we set x = 0, y = 1 and solve for C:
C = −(1 + 1)
1
2
= −

2.
Therefore 2x
2
−(y
2
+ 1)
1/2
+

2 = 0 is the solution.
13. The equation can be written
e
2x
+
1
2y −1
y

= 0.
The equation is separable:
_
e
2x
dx +
_
1
2y −1
dy = C and
1
2
e
2x
+
1
2
ln |2y −1| = C.
Solving for y, we get
y =
1
2
+Ce
−e
2x
.
To find the solution that satisfies y(0) =
1
2
+
1
e
, we set x = 0, y =
1
2
+
1
e
and solve for C.
We have C = 1. Therefore y =
1
2
+e
−e
2x
.
14. The equation can be written
tan x −cos yy

= 0.
The equation is separable:
_
tan xdx −
_
cos ydy = C and ln | sec x| −sin y = C.
Applying the initial condition: y(0) =
π
2
, we have C = −1. Therefore sin y = ln | sec x| + 1.
15. The characteristic equation is
r
2
−2r + 2 = 0.
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516 REVIEW EXERCISES
The roots are: r = 1 ±i.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
x
cos x +C
2
e
x
sin x
16. The characteristic equation is
r
2
+r +
1
4
= 0.
The roots are: r = −
1
2
with multiplicity 2.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
−x/2
+C
2
xe
−x/2
17. The characteristic equation is
r
2
−r −2 = 0.
The roots are: r = 2, −1.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
e
−x
18. The characteristic equation is
r
2
−4r = 0.
The roots are: r = 0, 4. The general solution is
y = C
1
+C
2
e
4x
19. The characteristic equation is
r
2
−6r + 9 = 0.
The roots are: r = 3 with multiplicity 2.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
3x
+C
2
xe
3x
20. The characteristic equation is
r
2
+ 4 = 0
The roots are: r = ±2i.
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REVIEW EXERCISES 517
The general solution is
y = C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x
21. The characteristic equation is
r
2
+ 4r + 13 = 0
The roots are: r = −2 ±3i.
The general solution is
y = e
−2x
(C
1
cos 3x +C
2
sin 3x)
22. The characteristic equation is
3r
2
−5r −2 = 0.
The roots are: r = 2, −
1
3
.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
e
−x/3
.
23. The characteristic equation is
r
2
−r = 0.
The roots are: r = 0, 1.
The general solution is
y = C
1
+C
2
e
x
.
Applying the initial conditions y(0) = 1 and y

(0) = 0, we have
C
1
+C
2
= 1, C
2
= 0 =⇒ C
1
= 1.
The solution of the initial-value problem is: y = 1.
24. The characteristic equation is
r
2
+ 7r + 12 = 0.
The roots are: r = −3, −4.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
−3x
+C
2
e
−4x
.
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518 REVIEW EXERCISES
Applying the initial conditions y(0) = 2, y

(0) = 8, we have
C
1
+C
2
= 2, −3C
1
−4C
2
= 8 =⇒ C
1
= 16, C
2
= −14.
The solution of the initial-value problem is: y = 16e
−3x
−14e
−4x
.
25. The characteristic equation is
r
2
−6r + 13 = 0.
The roots are: r = 3 ±2i.
The general solution is
y = e
3x
(C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x).
Applying the initial conditions y(0) = 2, y

(0) = 2, we have
C
1
= 2, 3C
1
+ 2C
2
= 2 =⇒ C
1
= 2, C
2
= −2.
The solution of the initial-value problem is: y = e
3x
(2 cos 2x −2 sin 2x).
26. The characteristic equation is
r
2
+ 4r + 4 = 0.
The roots are: r = −2 with multiplicity 2.
The general solution is
y = C
1
e
−2x
+C
2
xe
−2x
.
Applying the initial conditions y(−1) = 2, y

(−1) = 1, we have
C
1
e
2
−C
2
e
2
= 2, −2C
2
e
2
+ 3C
2
e
2
= 1 =⇒ C
1
= 7e
−2
, C
2
= 5e
−2
.
The solution of the initial-value problem is: y = 7e
−2x−2
+ 5xe
−2x−2
.
27. Curves: y = Ce
2x
; y

= 2Ce
2x
=⇒ y

= 2y
Orthogonal trajectories: y

= −
1
2y
;
_
2y dy = −
_
dx; y
2
= C −x.
28. Curves: y =
C
1 +x
2
; y

= −
2xC
(1 +x
2
)
2
=⇒ y

= −
2xy
1 +x
2
Orthogonal trajectories: y

=
1 +x
2
2xy
;
_
2y dy =
_
1 +x
2
x
dx =
_ _
1
x
+x
_
dx;
and
y
2
= ln |x| +
1
2
x
2
+C
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REVIEW EXERCISES 519
29. Substituting y = x
r
into the equation, we get
r(r −1)x
r
+ 4rx
r
+ 2x
r
= 0 or x
r
(r
2
+ 3r + 2) = 0 =⇒ r
2
+ 3r + 2 = (r + 2)(r + 1) = 0.
The solutions are: r = −1, −2.
30. Substituting y = x
r
into the equation, we get
r(r −1)x
r
−rx
r
−8x
r
= 0 or x
r
(r
2
−2r −8) = 0 =⇒ r
2
−2r −8 = (r + 2)(r −4) = 0.
The solutions are: r = 4, −2.
31. Let y(t) be the value of the business (measured in millions) at time t. Then y(t) satisfies
dy
dt
= ky
2
The general solution of this equation is
y(t) =
1
−kt +C
Applying the given conditions, y(0) = 1 and y(1) = 1.5, to find C and k, we get C = 1 and
k = 1/3.
1 year from now the business will be worth:
y(2) =
1

1
3
+ 1
= 3 million.
1.5 years from now the business will be worth:
y(2.5) =
1

1
3
_
5
2
_
+ 1
= 6 million.
2 years from now the business will be worth:
y(3) =
1

1
3
(3) + 1
= ∞.
Obviously the business cannot continue to grow at a rate proportional to its value squared.
32. Let y(t) be the value of the business (measured in millions) at the time t. Then y(t) satisfies
dy
dt
= k

y
The general solution of this equation is
y(t) =
_
k
2
t +C
_
2
Applying the given conditions, y(0) = 1 and y(2) = 1.44, to find C and k, we get C = 1 and
k = 0.2 so
y(t) =
_
1
10
t + 1
_
2
.
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520 REVIEW EXERCISES
5 years from now the business will be worth:
y(7) = (0.7 + 1)
2
= 2.89 million.
Solve
y(t) =
_
t
10
+ 1
_
2
= 4
t = 10. The business will be worth 4 million 8 years from now.
33. (a) The general solution of the differential equation is
y =
a
b
+Ce
−bt
.
Applying the initial condition y(0) = 0, we get C = −
a
b
, and
y =
a
b
(1 −e
−bt
)
(b) lim
t→∞
y(t) =
a
b
(c) Setting y = 0.9
a
b
, we have
0.9
a
b
=
a
b
(1 −e
−bt
).
The solution to this equation is t =
ln 10
b
hours.
34. Let T(t) be the temperature of the bar at time t. It follows from Newton’s law of cooling that
T(t) = τ +Ce
−kt
.
By the conditions given in the problem, we have
τ = 0, T(0) = 100, T(20) = 50.
Applying these conditions, we get C = 100 and k =
ln 2
20
. Therefore
T(t) = 100e
−(t/20) ln2
= 100(2)
−t/20
.
(a) T(30) = 100(2)
−3/2 ∼
= 35.4

.
(b) Solve 25 = 100(2)
−t/20
for t:
25 = 100(2)
−t/20
, −
t
20
ln 2 = ln(1/4), t =
20 ln 4
ln 2
= 40.
It will take 40 minutes for the bar to reach 25

.
35. Let T(t) be the temperature of the object at time t. It follows from Newton’s law of cooling that
T(t) = τ +Ce
−kt
.
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REVIEW EXERCISES 521
By the conditions given in the problem, we have
τ = 70, T(10) = 20, T(20) = 35.
Applying these conditions, we get
C = −
500
7
and k =
1
10
ln(10/7).
(a) The temperature of the object at time t is
T = 70 −
500
7
e
−(t/10) ln(10/7)
= 70 −
500
7
_
7
10
_
t/10
(b) T(0) = 70 −
500
7
= −
10
7
36. (a) Let T be the length of time needed to fill the tank. Then
600 + (6 −4)T = 1200
and T = 300 minutes.
(b) Let S(t) be the amount of salt dissolved in the tank at time t. Then
dS
dt
= rate in −rate out =
1
2
×6 −
S
600 + 2t
×4 = 3 −
2S
300 +t
The equation can be rewritten
S

+
2S
300 +t
= 3.
The general solution to this equation is
S = 300 +t +
C
(300 +t)
2
.
Since S(0) = 40, we get C = −300
2
· 260. Therefore, the amount of salt in the tank at time t is:
S(t) = 300 +t −
300
2
· 260
(300 +t)
2
(c) S(T) = 300 + 300 −
300
2
· 260
(300 +t)
2
= 535 pounds.
37. (a) Let T be the length of time needed to empty the tank. Then
80 −(8 −4)T = 0 and T = 20 minutes.
(b) Let S(t) be the amount of salt in the tank at the time t. Then
dS
dt
= 1 ×4 −
S
80 −4t
×8 = 4 −
2S
20 −t
, S(0) =
1
8
×80 = 10
The solution to this initial-value problem is
S(t) = 4(20 −t) −
7
40
(20 −t)
2
(1)
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522 REVIEW EXERCISES
(c) Let t
0
be the time that the tank contains exactly 40 gallons. Then
80 −4t
0
= 40 and t
0
= 10.
Substituting t = 10 into (1), we get S(10) = 22.5 pounds.
38. (a) The differential equation is separable and can be written as
dP
P(10
−1
−10
−5
P)
= dt.
With the initial condition P(0) = 2000, the solution is
P(t) =
2500e
0.1t
1 + 0.25e
0.1t
.
Then
lim
t→∞
P(t) = 10
4
.
(b) Setting P = 0.9 ×10
4
, we get
0.9 ×10
4
=
2500e
0.1t
1 + 0.25e
0.1t
.
The solution to this equation is t = 35.835

= 36 months.
39. Let P(t) be the number of people that have heard the rumor at time t. Then P(t) satisfies:
dP
dt
= kP(20, 000 −P)
The general solution of this equation is
P(t) =
20, 000
1 +Ce
−20,000kt
.
Now, P(0) =
20, 000
1 +C
= 500 =⇒ C = 39;
P(10) =
20, 000
1 + 39e
−20,000(10k)
= 1200 =⇒ 20, 000k

= −.0912.
Therefore, P(t) =
20, 000
1 + 39e
−0.09120t
.
(a) P(20) =
20, 000
1 + 39e
−0.0912(20)

= 2742
(b) The rumor will be spreading fastest when the number of people who have heard it is equal to the
number of people who have not heard it:
20, 000
1 + 39e
−0.0912t
= 10, 000.
The solution of this equation is: t

= 40 days.
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REVIEW EXERCISES 523
40. (a) From (2),
du

1 +u
2
=
1
a
dx
Integrating, we get
ln
¸
¸
¸u +
_
1 +u
2
¸
¸
¸ =
x
a
+C.
Applying the initial condition y

(0) = u(0) = 0 =⇒ C = 0. Thus, ln
¸
¸
u +

1 +u
2
¸
¸
=
x
a
.
(b) Set u = y

:
ln
¸
¸
¸y

+
_
1 + (y

)
2
¸
¸
¸ =
x
a
, y

+
_
1 + (y

)
2
= e
x/a
and
_
1 + (y

)
2
= e
x/a
−y

.
Squaring both sides and simplyfying, we get
y

=
e
x/a
−e
−x/a
2
= sinh (x/a) =⇒ y = a cosh (x/a) +C.
Applying the initial condition y(0) = a, we get C = 0.
Therefore y(x) = a cosh(x/a), a catenary.

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