# P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU

JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
918 SECTION 18.1
CHAPTER 18
SECTION 18.1
1. (a) h(x, y) = y i +xj; r(u) = ui +u
2
j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
x(u) = u, y(u) = u
2
; x
/
(u) = 1, y
/
(u) = 2u
h(r(u)) r
/
(u) = y(u) x
/
(u) +x(u) y
/
(u) = u
2
(1) +u(2u) = 3u
2
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
3u
2
du = 1
(b) h(x, y) = y i +xj; r(u) = u
3
i −2uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
x(u) = u
3
, y(u) = −2u; x
/
(u) = 3u
2
, y
/
(u) = −2
h(r(u)) r
/
(u) = y(u) x
/
(u) +x(u) y
/
(u) = (−2u)(3u
2
) +u
3
(−2) = −8u
3
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
−8u
3
du = −2
2. (a)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(ui +u
2
j) (i + 2uj) du =
_
1
0
(u + 2u
3
) du = 1
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(u
3
i −2uj) (3u
2
i −2 j) du =
_
1
0
(3u
5
+ 4u) du =
5
2
3. h(x, y) = y i +xj; r(u) = cos ui −sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ]
x(u) = cos u, y(u) = −sin u; x
/
(u) = −sin u, y
/
(u) = −cos u
h(r(u)) r
/
(u) = y(u) x
/
(u) +x(u) y
/
(u) = sin
2
u −cos
2
u
_
C
h(r) dr =
_

0
(sin
2
u −cos
2
u) du = 0
4. (a)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(e
−u
i + 2 j)(e
u
i −e
−u
j) du =
_
1
0
(1 −2e
−u
) du = 2e
−1
−1
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
2
0
2 j(1 −u) i du =
_
2
0
0 du = 0
5. (a) r(u) = (2 −u) i + (3 −u) j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
(−5 + 5u −u
2
) du = −
17
6
(b) r(u) = (1 +u) i + (2 +u) j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
(1 + 3u +u
2
) du =
17
6
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.1 919
6. (a)
_
C
h dr =
_
4
1
_
1

u(1 +u)
i +
1
u

1 +u
j
_

_
1
2

u
i +
1
2

1 +u
j
_
du =
_
4
1
1
u(1 +u)
du = ln
8
5
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
1
(1 +u)
3
(i +j) (i +j) du =
_
1
0
2
(1 +u)
3
du =
3
4
7. C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
where,
C
1
: r(u) = (1 −u)(−2 i) +u(2 i) = (4u −2) i, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
2
: r(u) = (1 −u)(2 i) +u(2 j) = (2 −2u) i + 2uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
3
: r(u) = (1 −u)(2 j) +u(−2 i) = −2ui + (2 −2u) j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
= 0 + (−4) + (−4) = −8
8. r(u) = (−1 + 2u) i + (1 +u) j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(e
−2+u
i +e
3u
j) (2i +j) du =
_
1
0
(2e
−2+u
+e
3u
) du =
e
5
−e
2
+ 6e −6
3e
2
9. C
1
: r(u) = (−1 + 2u) i, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
2
: r(u) = cos ui + sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, π ]
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
= 0 + (−π) = −π
10. Bottom: r(u) = ui;
_
1
0
u
3
j i du =
_
1
0
0 du = 0
Right side: r(u) = i +uj;
_
1
0
[3ui + (1 + 2u)j]j du =
_
1
0
(1 + 2u) du = 2
Top: r(u) = (1 −u)i +j;
_
1
0
3(1 −u)
2
i (−i) du =
_
1
0
−3(1 −u)
2
du = −1
Left: r(u) = (1 −u)j;
_
1
0
2(1 −u)j(−j) du =
_
1
0
−2(1 −u) du = −1
_
C
h dr = sum of the above = 0
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
920 SECTION 18.1
11. (a) r(u) = ui +uj +uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
3u
2
du = 1
(b)
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
(2u
3
+u
5
+ 3u
6
) du =
23
21
12. (a)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
e
u
(i +j +k) (i +j +k) du =
_
1
0
3e
u
du = 3(e −1)
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(e
u
i +e
u
2
j +e
u
3
k)( i + 2uj + 3u
2
k) du=
_
1
0
(e
u
+ 2ue
u
2
+ 3u
2
e
u
3
) du = 3(e −1).
13. (a) r(u) = 2ui + 3uj −uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
(2 cos 2u + 3 sin 3u + 3u
2
) du =
_
sin 2u −cos 3u +u
3
¸
1
0
= 2 + sin 2 −cos 3
(b)
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
_
2ucos u
2
+ 3u
2
sin u
3
−u
4
_
du =
_
sin u
2
−cos u
3

1
5
u
5
_
1
0
=
4
5
+ sin 1 −cos 1
14. (a)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(−2u
2
i + 4u
3
j −2u
3
k)(2 i − j + k) du =
_
1
0
(−4u
2
−6u
3
) du = −
17
6
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(i +ue
2u
j +uk) (e
u
i −e
−u
j + k) du =
_
1
0
(e
u
−ue
u
+u) du = e −
3
2
15. r(u) = ui +u
2
j, u ∈ [ 0, 2 ]
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
2
0
_
(u + 2u
2
) + (2u +u
2
)2u
¸
du =
_
2
0
_
2u
3
+ 6u
2
+u
_
du = 26
16. C
1
: r(u) = ui;
_
1
0
ui i du =
_
1
0
udu =
1
2
C
2
: r(u) = i +uj;
_
1
0
(cos ui −usin 1j) j du =
_
1
0
−usin 1 du = −
1
2
sin 1
C
3
: r(u) = (1 −u)i +j;
_
1
0
[(1 −u) cos 1i −sin(1 −u)j] (−i) du =
_
1
0
(u −1) cos 1 du = −
1
2
cos 1
W =
_
C
F dr =
1
2

1
2
sin 1 −
1
2
cos 1 =
1
2
(1 −sin 1 −cos 1)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.1 921
17. r(u) = (1 −u)(j + 4 k) +u(i −4 k)
= ui + (1 −u)j + (4 −8u)k, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
1
0
(−32u + 97u
2
−64u
3
) du =
1
3
18. C
1
: r(u) = ui; F(r(u)) = 0,
_
C1
F dr = 0
C
2
: r(u) = i +uj;
_
1
0
uk j du =
_
1
0
0 du = 0
C
3
: r(u) = i +j +uk;
_
1
0
(ui +uj +k) kdu =
_
1
0
du = 1
W = 1
19. r(u) = cos ui + sin uj +uk, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ]
_
C
F(r) dr =
_

0
_
− cos
2
u sin u + cos
2
u sin u +u
2
¸
du =
_

0
u
2
du =

3
3
20. Place the origin at the center of the circular path C and use the time parameter t. Motion along C
at constant speed is uniform circular motion
r(t) = r(cos ωt i + sin ωt j).
Diﬀerentiation gives
r
/
(t) = rω(−sin ωti + cos ωt j), r
//
(t) = −rω
2
(cos ωti + sin ωt j).
The force on the object is
F(r(t)) = mr
//
(t).
Note that F(r(t)) r
/
(t) = 0 for all t, and therefore W is 0 on every time integral.
Physical explanation : At each instant the force on the object is perpendicular to the path of the
object. Thus the component of force in the direction of the motion is always zero.
21.
_
C
q dr =
_
b
a
[q r
/
(u)] du =
_
b
a
d
du
[q r(u)] du
= [q r (b)] −[q r (a)]
= q [r (b) −r (a)]
_
C
r dr =
_
b
a
[r (u) r
/
(u)] du
=
1
2
_
b
a
| r | d| r | (see Exercise 57, Section 14.1)
=
1
2
_
|r(b)|
2
−|r(a)|
2
_
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
922 SECTION 18.1
22. (a) r(u) = (1 −2u) i;
_
C1
h dr =
_
1
0
(1 −2u)
2
i (−2 i) du =
_
1
0
−2(1 −2u)
2
du = −
2
3
(b)
_
C2
h dr =
_
1
0
(i +uj) j du +
_
1
0
[(1 −2u)
2
i +j] (−2i) du +
_
1
0
[i + (1 −u)j] (−j) du
=
_
1
0
udu +
_
1
0
−2(1 −2u)
2
du +
_
1
0
−(1 −u) du = −
2
3
(c) r(u) = cos ui + sin uj, u ∈ [0, π]
_
C3
h dr =
_
π
0
(cos
2
ui + sin uj) (−sin ui + cos uj) du =
_
π
0
(−sin ucos
2
u + sin ucos u) du = −
2
3
23.
_
C
f(r) dr =
_
b
a
[f(r (u)) r
/
(u)] du =
_
b
a
[f(u) i i] du =
_
b
a
f(u) du
24. Follows from the linearity of the dot product and of ordinary integrals.
25. E : r(u) = a cos ui +b sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ]
W =
_

0
__

1
2
b sin u
_
(−a sin u) +
_
1
2
a cos u
_
(b cos u)
_
du =
1
2
_

0
ab du = πab
If the ellipse is traversed in the opposite direction, then W = −πab. In both cases [W[ = πab = area
of the ellipse.
26. force at time t: mr
//
(t) = 2mβ j
work during time interval: W =
_
1
0
4mβ
2
t dt = 2mβ
2
27. r(t) = αt i +βt
2
j +γt
3
k
r
/
(t) = αi + 2βt j + 3γt
2
k
force at time t = mr
//
(t) = m(2βj + 6γtk)
W =
_
1
0
[m(2β j + 6γt k) (αi + 2βtj + 3γt
2
k)] dt
= m
_
1
0
(4β
2
t + 18γ
2
t
3
) dt =
_

2
+
9
2
γ
2
_
m
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.1 923
28. (a) v ⊥ k, v ⊥ r, | v |= ω and ωk, r, v, form a right-handed triple
(b) We can parametrize C counterclockwise by
r(t) = a cos t i +a sin t j, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.
Then
r
/
(t) = −a sin t i +a cos t j
and
_
C
(ω kr) dr =
_

0
(ω kr(t)) r
/
(t) dt.
Now
kr(t) = a cos t j −a sin t i.
So
(kr(t)) r
/
(t) = a
2
(cos
2
t + sin
2
t) = a
2
.
Thus
_
C
(ωkr) dr +
_

0
ωa
2
dt = ωa
2
(2π) = 2ω(πa
2
) = 2ωA.
If C is parametrized clockwise, the circulation is −2ωA.
29. Take C: r(t) = r cos t i +r sin t j, t ∈ [ 0, 2π ]
_
C
v(r) dr =
_

0
[v(r(t)) r
/
(t)] dt
=
_

0
[f(x(t), y(t)) r(t) r
/
(t)] dt
=
_

0
f(x(t), y(t)) [r (t) r
/
(t)] dt = 0
since for the circle r(t) r
/
(t) = 0 identically. The circulation is zero.
30. (a) r(u) = i +uj; W =
_
2
0
k
1 +u
2
(i +uj) j du =
_
2
0
ku
1 +u
2
du =
k
2
ln 5
(b) r(u) = ui +j; W =
_
1
0
k
u
2
+ 1
(ui +j) i du =
_
1
0
ku
u
2
+ 1
du =
k
2
ln 2.
31. (a) r(u) = (1 −u)(i + 2 k) +u(i + 3 j + 2 k) = i + 3uj + 2 k, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ].
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
1
0
9uk
(5 + 9u
2
)
3/2
du =
_
−k

5 + 9u
2
_
1
0
=
k

5

k

14
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
924 SECTION 18.2
(b) Let C be an arc on the sphere |r| = r = 5.
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
C2
kr
| r |
3
dr
=
k
5
3
_
C2
r dr =
k
5
3
_
C2
| r | d| r | (see Exercise 57, Section 14.1)
=
k
5
3
_
1
2
| r |
2
_
(0, 4, 3)
(3,4,0)
= 0
32. Let (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) and (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) be the coordinates of a and b, respectively. Then
W =
k
_
x
2
1
+y
2
1
+z
2
1

k
_
x
2
0
+y
2
0
+z
2
0
33. r(u) = ui +αu(1 −u) j, r
/
(u) = i +α(1 −2u) j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
W(α) =
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
1
0
_

2
u
2
(1 −u)
2
+ 1
¸
+ [u +αu(1 −u)]α(1 −2u)] dx
=
_
1
0
_
1 + (α +α
2
)u −(2α + 2α
2
)u
2

2
u
4
¸
du = 1 −
1
6
α +
1
30
α
2
W
/
(α) = −
1
6
+
1
15
α =⇒ α =
15
6
=
5
2
The work done by F is a minimum when α = 5/2.
34. Suppose that C is the curve r(u), a ≤ u ≤ b.
_
C
∇f dr =
_
b
a
∇f(r(u)) r
/
(u) du =
_
b
a
df
du
du =
_
f(r(u))
_
b
a
= f(r(b)) −f(r(a)).
SECTION 18.2
1. h(x, y) = ∇f(x, y) where f(x, y) =
1
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
C is closed =⇒
_
C
h(r) dr = 0
2. xi +y j is a gradient (Exercise 1); we need integrate only y i.
_
C
h(r) dr =
_

0
y(t)x
/
(t) dt =
_

0
(b sin t)(−a sin t) dt = −πab
3. h(x, y) = ∇f(x, y) where f(x, y) = xcos πy; r(0) = 0, r(1) = i −j
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f(r) dr = f(r(1)) −f(r(0)) = f(1, −1) −f(0, 0) = −1
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.2 925
4. h = ∇f with f(x, y) =
x
3
3
+
y
3
3
−xy, and C is closed, so
_
C
h dr = 0
5. h(x, y) = ∇f(x, y) where f(x, y) =
1
2
x
2
y
2
; r(0) = j, r(1) = −j
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f(r) dr = f(r(1)) −f(r(0)) = f(0, −1) −f(0, 1) = 0 −0 = 0
6. e
y
i +xe
y
j is a gradient; we need integrate only i −xj
C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
∪ C
4
where
C
1
: r(u) = (2u −1)i −j, u ∈ [0, 1]
C
2
: r(u) = i + (2u −1)j, u ∈ [0, 1]
C
3
: r(u) = (1 −2u)i +j, u ∈ [0, 1]
C
4
: r(u) = −i + (1 −2u)j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
+
_
C4
= 2 + (−2) + (−2) + (−2) = −4
7. h(x, y) = ∇f(x, y) where f(x, y) = x
2
y −xy
2
; r(0) = i, r(π) = −i
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f(r) dr = f(r(π)) −f(r(0)) = f(−1, 0) −f(1, 0) = 0 −0 = 0
8. h(x, y) = ∇f(x, y) where f(x, y) = (x
2
+y
4
)
3/2
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f(r) dr = f(−1, 0) −f(1, 0) = 1 −1 = 0
9. h(x, y) = ∇f(x, y) where f(x, y) = (x
2
+y
4
)
3/2
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f(r) dr = f(1, 0) −f(−1, 0) = 1 −1 = 0
10. h = ∇f with f(x, y) = cosh x
2
y; and C is closed, so
_
C
h dr = 0
11. h(x, y) is not a gradient, but part of it,
2xcosh y i + (x
2
sinh y −y)j,
is a gradient. Since we are integrating over a closed curve, the contribution of the gradient part is 0.
Thus
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
(−yi) dr.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
926 SECTION 18.2
C
1
: r(u) = i + (−1 + 2u)j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
2
: r(u) = (1 −2u)i +j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
3
: r(u) = −i + (1 −2u)j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
4
: r(u) = (−1 + 2u)i −j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C1
(−y i) dr +
_
C2
(−y i) dr +
_
C3
(−y i) dr +
_
C4
(−y i) dr
= 0 +
_
1
0
−i (−2 i) du + 0 +
_
1
0
i (2 i) du
= 0 +
_
1
0
2 du + 0 +
_
1
0
2 du
= 4
12. h(x, y) = ∇
_
x
2
y
2
2
_
(a)
_
2
0
(u
5
i +u
4
j) (i + 2uj) du =
_
2
0
3u
5
du = 32
(b) f(2, 4) −f(0, 0) = 32 −0 = 32
13. h(x, y) = (3x
2
y
3
+ 2x) i + (3x
3
y
2
−4y) j;
∂P
∂y
= 9x
2
y
2
=
∂Q
∂x
. Thus h is a gradient.
(a) r(u) = ui +e
u
j, r
/
(u) = i +e
u
j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
_
(3u
2
e
3u
+ 2u) + 3u
3
e
3u
−4e
2u
)
¸
du =
_
u
3
e
3u
+u
2
−2e
2u
¸
1
0
= e
3
−2e
2
+ 3
(b)
∂f
∂x
= 3x
2
y
3
+ 2x =⇒ f(x, y) = x
3
y
3
+x
2
+g(y);
∂f
∂y
= 3x
3
y
2
+g
/
(y) = 3x
3
−4y =⇒ g
/
(y) = −4y =⇒ g(y) = −2y
2
Therefore, f(x, y) = x
3
y
3
+x
2
−2y
2
.
Now, at u = 0, r(0) = 0 i +j = (0, 1); at u = 1, r(1) = i +e j = (1, e) and
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
x
3
y
3
+x
2
−2y
2
¸
(1,e)
(0,1)
= e
3
−2e
2
+ 3
14. h(x, y) = ∇(x
2
sin y −e
x
)
(a)
_
π
0
_
(2 cos usin u −e
cos u
) i + (cos
2
ucos u)j
¸
(−sin ui +j) du = e −e
−1
(b) f(−1, π) −f(1, 0) = e −e
−1
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.2 927
15. h(x, y) = (e
2y
−2xy) i + (2xe
2y
−x
2
+ 1) j;
∂P
∂y
= 2e
2y
−2x =
∂Q
∂x
. Thus h is a gradient.
(a) r(u) = ue
u
i + (1 +u) j, r
/
(u) = (1 +u)e
u
i +j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
_
e
2
(3ue
3u
+e
3u
−2u
3
e
2u
−5u
2
e
2u
−2ue
2u
+ 1
¸
du
=
_
e
2
ue
3u
−u
3
e
2u
−u
2
e
2u
+u
¸
1
0
= e
5
−2e
2
+ 1
(b)
∂f
∂x
= e
2y
−2xy =⇒ f(x, y) = xe
2y
−x
2
y +g(y).
∂f
∂y
= 2xe
2y
−x
2
+g
/
(y) = 3x
3
−4y =⇒ g
/
(y) = 1 =⇒ g(y) = y
Therefore, f(x, y) = xe
2y
−x
2
y +y.
Now, at u = 0, r(0) = 0 i +j = (0, 1); at u = 1, r(1) = e i + 2 j = (e, 2) and
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
xe
2y
−x
2
y +y
¸
(e,2)
(0,1)
= e
5
−2e
2
+ 1
16. h(x, y, z) = ∇f with f(x, y, z) = xy
2
z
3
_
C
h dr = f(1, 1, 1) −f(0, 0, 0) = 1
17. h(x, y, z) = (2xz + sin y) i +x cos y j +x
2
k;
∂P
∂y
= cos y =
∂Q
∂x
,
∂P
∂z
= 2x =
∂R
∂x
,
∂Q
∂z
= 0 =
∂R
∂y
. Thus h is a gradient.
∂f
∂x
= 2xz + sin y, =⇒ f(x, y, z) = x
2
z +x sin y +g(y, z)
∂f
∂y
= x cos y +
∂g
∂y
= x cos y, =⇒ g(y, z) = h(z) =⇒f(x, y, z) = x
2
z +x sin y +h(z)
∂f
∂z
= x
2
+h
/
(z) = x
2
=⇒ h
/
(z) = 0 =⇒ h(z) = C
Therefore, f(x, y, z) = x
2
z +x sin y (take C = 0)
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f dr =
_
x
2
z +x sin y
¸
r(2π)
r(0)
=
_
x
2
z +x sin y
¸
(1,0,2π)
(1,0,0)
= 2π
18. h(x, y, z) = ∇f with f(x, y, z) = yz sin πx
_
C
h dr = f
_
1
2
,

3
2
,
π
3
_
−f(1, 0, 0) =
1
6
π

3
19. h(x, y, z) = (2xy +z
2
) i +x
2
j + 2xz k;
∂P
∂y
= 2x =
∂Q
∂x,
∂P
∂z
= 2z =
∂R
∂x,
∂Q
∂z
= 0 =
∂R
∂y.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
928 SECTION 18.2
∂f
∂x
= 2xy +z
2
=⇒ f(x, y, z) = x
2
y +xz
2
+g(y, z)
∂f
∂y
= x
2
+
∂g
∂y
= x
2
=⇒ g(y, z) = h(z) =⇒f(x, y, z) = x
2
y +xz
2
+h(z)
∂f
∂z
= 2xz +h
/
(z) = 2xz =⇒ h
/
(z) = 0 =⇒ h(z) = C
Therefore, f(x, y, z) = x
2
y +xz
2
(take C = 0)
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
C
∇f dr =
_
x
2
y +xz
2
_
r(1)
r(0)
=
_
x
2
y +xz
2
_
(2,3,−1)
(0,2,0)
= 14
20. h(x, y, z) = ∇f with f(x, y, z) = z
3
−e
−x
ln y
_
C
h dr = f(2, e
2
, 2) −f(1, 1, 1) = 7 −2e
−2
21. F(x, y) = (x +e
2y
) i + (2y + 2xe
2y
) j;
∂P
∂y
= 2e
2y
=
∂Q
∂x
. Thus F is a gradient.
∂f
∂x
= x +e
2y
=⇒ f(x, y) =
1
2
x
2
+xe
2y
+g(y);
∂f
∂y
= 2xe
2y
+g
/
(y) = 2y + 2xe
2y
=⇒ g
/
(y) = 2y =⇒g(y) = y
2
(take C = 0)
Therefore, f(x, y) =
1
2
x
2
+xe
2y
+y
2
.
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
C
∇f dr =
_
1
2
x
2
+xe
2y
+y
2
_
r(2π)
r(0)
=
_
1
2
x
2
+xe
2y
+y
2
_
(3,0)
(3,0)
= 0
22. F = ∇f with f(x, y, z) = x
2
ln y −xyz W = f(3, 2, 2) −f(1, 2, 1) = 8 ln 2 −10
23. Set f(x, y, z) = g(x) and C : r(u) = ui, u ∈ [ a, b ].
In this case
∇f(r(u)) = g
/
(x(u))i = g
/
(u)i and r/(u) = i,
so that
_
C
∇f(r) dr =
_
b
a
[ ∇f(r(u)) r/(u)] du =
_
b
a
g
/
(u) du.
Since f(r(b)) −f(r(a)) = g(b) −g(a),
_
C
∇f(r) dr = f(r(b)) −f(r(a)) gives
_
b
a
g
/
(u) du = g(b) −g(a).
24. F(x, y, z) =
k
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
n/2
(xi +y j +z j) = ∇f
(a) n = 2 : f(r) = k ln r +C (b) n ,= 2 : f(r) = −
_
k
n −2
_
1
r
n−2
+C
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.2 929
25. F(r) = kr r = k
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
(xi +y j +z k), k > 0 constant.
∂P
∂y
=
kxy
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=
∂Q
∂x,
∂P
∂z
=
kxz
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=
∂R
∂x
∂Q
∂z
=
kyz
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=
∂R
∂y
Therefore, F is a gradient ﬁeld.
∂f
∂x
= kx
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=⇒ f(x, y, z) =
k
3
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
3/2
+g(y, z).
∂f
∂y
= ky
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
+
∂g
∂y
= ky
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=⇒ f(x, y, z) =
k
3
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
3/2
+h(z)
∂f
∂z
= kz
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
+h
/
(z) = kz
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=⇒ h(z) = C, constant
Therefore, f(x, y, z) =
k
3
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
3/2
+C.
26. Set f(x, y, z) =
1
2
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
0
g(u) du. Then
∇f = g(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
) [xi +y j +xk] = F(r)
27. F(r) = ∇
_
mG
r
_
; W =
_
C
F(r) dr = mG
_
1
r
2

1
r
1
_
28. (a) Since the denominator is never 0 in Ω, P and Q are continuously diﬀerentiable on Ω.
∂P
∂y
=
x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
=
∂Q
∂x
.
(b) Take r(u) =
1
2
cos ui +
1
2
sin uj.
_
C
h dr =
_

0
_
1
2
sin u
1/4
i −
1
2
cos u
1/4
j
_

_

1
2
sin ui +
1
2
cos uj
_
du =
_

0
−du = −2π
Therefore h is not a gradient since the integral over C (a closed curve) is not zero.
(c) Ω : 0 < x
2
+y
2
< 1 is an open plane region but is not simply connected.
29. F(x, y, z) = 0 i + 0 j +
−mGr
2
0
(r
0
+z)
2
k;
∂P
∂y
= 0 =
∂Q
∂x
,
∂P
∂z
= 0 =
∂R
∂x
,
∂Q
∂z
= 0 =
∂R
∂y
.
Therefore, F(x, y, z) is a gradient.
∂f
∂x
= 0 =⇒ f(x, y, z) = g(y, z);
∂f
∂y
=
∂g
∂y
= 0 =⇒ g(y, z) = h(z).
Therefore f(x, y, z) = h(z).
Now
∂f
∂z
= h
/
(z) =
−mGr
2
0
(r
0
+z)
2
=⇒ f(x, y, z) = h(z) =
mGr
2
0
r
0
+z
30. W = f(x, y, 0) −f(x, y, 300) = mGr
0

mGr
0
2
r
0
+ 300
= 279.07 mG.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
930 SECTION 18.3
SECTION 18.3
1. If f is continuous, then −f is continuous and has antiderivatives u. The scalar ﬁelds U(x, y, z) = u(x)
are potential functions for F:
∇U =
∂U
∂x
i +
∂U
∂y
j +
∂U
∂z
k =
du
dx
i = −f i = −F.
2. d
dt
_
1
2
mv
2
_
=
d
dt
_
1
2
m(v v)
_
= m(v a) = v ma
= v F = v
e
c
[vB] = 0
3. The scalar ﬁeld U(x, y, z) = αz +d is a potential energy function for F. We know that the total
mechanical energy remains constant. Thus, for any times t
1
and t
2
,
1
2
m[v (t
1
)]
2
+U(r(t
1
)) =
1
2
m[v (t
2
)]
2
+U(r(t
2
)).
This gives
1
2
m[v (t
1
)]
2
+αz(t
1
) +d =
1
2
m[v (t
2
)]
2
+αz(t
2
) +d.
Solve this equation for v (t
2
) and you have the desired formula.
4. Throughout the motion, the total mechanical energy of the object remains constant:
1
2
mv
2

GmM
r
= E.
At ﬁring v = v
0
, r = R
e
= the radius of the earth and we have
1
2
mv
0
2

GmM
R
e
= E.
As r →∞, v →0 (by assumption) and also −GmM/r →0.
Thus E = 0 and we have
1
2
mv
0
2
=
GmM
R
e
and v
0
=
_
2GM
R
e
.
(Note that v
0
is independent of the mass of the projectile.)
5. (a) We know that −∇U points in the direction of maximum decrease of U. Thus F = −∇U attempts
to drive objects toward a region where U has lower values.
(b) At a point where u has a minimum, ∇U = 0 and therefore F = 0.
6. We have x(0) = 2, x
/
(0) = v(0) = 1. Inserting these values in the formula for E we have
E =
1
2
m+ 2λ.
Since E =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
λx
2
is constant, the maximum value of v comes when x = 0. Then
E =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
m+ 2λ and v =
_
1 + 4λ/m.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.4 931
The maximum value of x comes when v = 0 (at the endpoints of the oscillation). Then
E =
1
2
λx
2
=
1
2
m+ 2λ and x =
_
m/λ + 4.
7. (a) By conservation of energy
1
2
mv
2
+U = E. Since E is constant and U is constant, v is constant.
(b) ∇U is perpendicular to any surface where U is constant. Obviously so is F = −∇U.
8. F(r) =
k
r
2
r = ∇f where f(r) = k ln r
9. f(x, y, z) = −
k
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
is a potential function for F. The work done by F moving an object
along C is:
W =
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
b
a
∇f dr = f[r(b)] −f[r(a)].
Since r(a) = (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) and r(b) = (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) are points on the unit sphere,
f[r(b)] = f[r(a)] = −k and so W = 0
SECTION 18.4
1. r(u) = ui + 2uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
(x −2y) dx + 2xdy =
_
1
0
¦[x(u) −2y(u)]x
/
(u) + 2x(u) y
/
(u)¦ du =
_
1
0
udu =
1
2
2. r(u) = ui + 2u
2
j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C
(x −2y) dx + 2xdy =
_
1
0
¦[x(u) −2y(u)] x
/
(u) + 2x(u)y
/
(u)¦ du
=
_
1
0
(u + 4u
2
) du =
11
6
3. C = C
1
∪ C
2
C
1
: r(u) = ui, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]; C
2
: r(u) = i + 2uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C1
(x −2y) dx + 2xdy =
_
C1
xdx =
_
1
0
x(u) x
/
(u) du =
_
1
0
udu =
1
2
_
C2
(x −2y) dx + 2xdy =
_
C2
2xdy =
_
1
0
4 du = 4
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
=
9
2
4. C = C
1
∪ C
2
C
1
: r(u) = 2uj, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = ui + 2 j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
(x −2y) dx + 2xdy =
_
C1
0 dy = 0
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
932 SECTION 18.4
_
C2
(x −2y) dx + 2xdy =
_
C2
(x −4) dx =
_
1
0
(x(u) −4)x
/
(u) du =
_
1
0
(u −4) du = −
7
2
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
= −
7
2
5. r(u) = 2u
2
i +uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
y dx +xy dy =
_
1
0
[y(u) x
/
(u) +x(u) y(u) y
/
(u)] du =
_
1
0
(4u
2
+ 2u
3
) du =
11
6
6. r(u) = 2ui +uj, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C
y dx +xy dy =
_
1
0
[y(u)x
/
(u) +x(u)y(u)y
/
(u)] du
=
_
1
0
(2u + 2u
2
) du =
5
3
7. C = C
1
∪ C
2
C
1
: r(u) = uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]; C
2
: r(u) = 2ui +j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C1
y dx +xy dy = 0
_
C2
y dx +xy dy =
_
C2
y dx =
_
1
0
y(u) x
/
(u) du =
_
1
0
2 du = 2
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
= 2
8. r(u) = 2u
3
i +uj, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C
y dx +xy dy =
_
1
0
[y(u)x
/
(u) +x(u)y(u)y
/
(u)] du
=
_
1
0
(6u
3
+ 2u
4
) du =
19
10
9. r(u) = 2ui + 4uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
y
2
dx + (xy −x
2
) dy =
_
1
0
_
y
2
(u)x
/
(u) +
_
x(u)y(u) −x
2
(u)
¸
y
/
(u)
_
du
=
_
1
0
_
(4u)
2
(2) + (8u
2
−4u
2
)(4)
¸
du =
_
1
0
48u
2
du = 16
10. r(u) = ui +u
2
j, u ∈ [0, 2]
_
C
y
2
dx + (xy −x
2
) dy =
_
2
0
[y
2
(u)x
/
(u) + (x(u)y(u) −x
2
(u))y
/
(u)] du
=
_
2
0
(3u
4
−2u
3
) du =
56
5
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.4 933
11. r(u) =
1
8
u
2
i +uj, u ∈ [ 0, 4 ]
_
C
y
2
dx + (xy −x
2
) dy =
_
4
0
_
y
2
(u)x
/
(u) +
_
x(u)y(u) −x
2
(u)
¸
y
/
(u)
_
du
=
_
4
0
_
u
2
_
u
4
_
+
_
u
2
8
(u) −
_
u
2
8
_
2
(1)
__
du
=
_
4
0
_
3
8
u
3

1
64
u
4
_
du =
104
5
12. C = C
1
∪ C
2
C
1
: r(u) = 2ui, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = 2 i + 4uj, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
y
2
dx + (xy −x
2
) dy =
_
C1
0 dx = 0
_
C2
y
2
dx + (xy −x
2
) dy =
_
C2
(2y −4) dy =
_
1
0
[2y(u) −4]y
/
(u) du =
_
1
0
16(2u −1) du = 0
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
= 0
13. r(u) = ui +uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
(y
2
+ 2x + 1) dx + (2xy + 4y −1) dy
=
_
1
0
_
[y
2
(u) + 2x(u) + 1]x
/
(u) + [2x(u)y(u) + 4y(u) −1]y
/
(u)
_
du
_
1
0
_
(u
2
+ 2u + 1) + (2u
2
+ 4u −1)
¸
du =
_
1
0
_
3u
2
+ 6u
_
du = 4
14. r(u) = ui +u
2
j, u ∈ [0, 1].
_
C
(y
2
+ 2x + 1) dx + (2xy + 4y −1) dy
=
_
1
0
_
(y
2
(u) + 2x(u) + 1)x
/
(u) + (2x(u)y(u) + 4y(u) −1)y
/
(u)
¸
du
=
_
1
0
(5u
4
+ 8u
3
+ 1) du = 4
15. r(u) = ui +u
3
j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
(y
2
+ 2x + 1) dx + (2xy + 4y −1) dy
=
_
1
0
_
[y
2
(u) + 2x(u) + 1]x
/
(u) + [2x(u)y(u) + 4y(u) −1]y
/
(u)
_
du
=
_
1
0
_
(u
6
+ 2u + 1) + (2u
4
+ 4u
3
−1)3u
2
¸
du =
_
1
0
_
7u
6
+ 12u
5
−3u
2
+ 2u + 1
_
du = 4
16. C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
C
1
: r(u) = 4ui, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = 4 i + 2uj, u ∈ [0, 1];
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
934 SECTION 18.4
C
3
: r(u) = (4 −3u)i + (2 −u)j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
=
_
C1
(y
2
+ 2x + 1) dx =
_
1
0
4(8u + 1) du = 20
_
C2
=
_
C2
(8y + 4y −1) dy =
_
1
0
2(24u −1) du = 22
_
C3
=
_
1
0
_
−3
_
(2 −u)
2
+ 2(4 −3u) + 1
¸
−[2(4 −3u)(2 −u) + 4(2 −u) −1]
_
du
=
_
1
0
(−9u
2
+ 54u −62) du = −38.
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
= 20 + 22 −38 = 4.
17. r(u) = ui +uj +uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
y dx + 2z dy +xdz =
_
1
0
[y(u) x
/
(u) + 2z(u) y
/
(u) +x(u) z
/
(u)] du =
_
1
0
4udu = 2
18.
_
C
y dx + 2z dy +xdz =
_
1
0
[y(u)x
/
(u) + 2z(u)y
/
(u) +x(u)z
/
(u)] du
=
_
1
0
(u
2
+ 3u
3
+ 4u
4
) du =
113
60
19. C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
C
1
: r(u) = uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]; C
2
: r(u) = uj +k, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]; C
3
: r (u) = ui +j +k, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C1
y dx + 2z dy +xdz = 0
_
C2
y dx + 2z dy +xdz =
_
C2
2z dy =
_
1
0
2z(u) y
/
(u) du =
_
1
0
2 du = 2
_
C3
y dx + 2z dy +xdz =
_
C3
y dx =
_
1
0
y(u) x
/
(u) du =
_
1
0
du = 1
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
= 3
20. C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
C
1
: r(u) = ui, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = i +uj, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
3
: r(u) = i +j +uk, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
y dx + 2z dy +xdz = 0
_
C2
y dx + 2z dy +xdz = 0
_
C3
y dx + 2z dy +xdz =
_
C3
xdz =
_
1
0
du = 1
_
C
y dx + 2z dy +xdz = 0 + 0 + 1 = 1
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.4 935
21. r(u) = 2ui + 2uj + 8uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
_
C
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz
=
_
1
0
¦x(u)y(u)x
/
(u) + 2z(u)y
/
(u) + [y(u) +z(u)]z
/
(u)¦ du
=
_
1
0
[(2u)(2u)(2) + 2(8u)(2) + (2u + 8u)(8)] du
=
_
1
0
_
8u
2
+ 112u
_
du =
176
3
22. C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
C
1
: r(u) = 2ui, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = 2 i + 2uj, u ∈ [0, 1];
C
3
: r(u) = 2 i + 2 j + 8uk, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz = 0
_
C2
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz = 0
_
C3
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz =
_
C2
(y +z) dz =
_
1
0
8(2 + 8u) du = 48
23. r(u) = ui +uj + 2u
2
k, u ∈ [ 0, 2 ]
_
C
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz
=
_
2
0
¦x(u)y(u)x
/
(u) + 2z(u)y
/
(u) + [y(u) +z(u)]z
/
(u)¦ du
=
_
2
0
_
(u)(u)(1) + 2(2u
2
)(1) + (u + 2u
2
)(4u)
¸
du
=
_
2
0
_
8u
3
+ 9u
2
_
du = 56
24. C = C
1
∪ C
2
C
1
: r(u) = 2ui + 2uj + 2uk, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = 2 i + 2 j + (2 + 6u) k, u ∈ [0, 1].
_
C1
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz =
_
1
0
8(u
2
+ 2u) du =
32
3
_
C2
xy dx + 2z dy + (y +z) dz =
_
C2
(y +z) dz =
_
1
0
6(4 + 6u) du = 42
_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
=
158
3
25. r(u) = (u −1) i + (1 + 2u
2
) j +uk, u ∈ [ 1, 2 ]
_
C
x
2
y dx +y dy +xz dz
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
936 SECTION 18.4
=
_
2
1
_
x
2
(u)y(u)x
/
(u) +y(u)y
/
(u) +x(u)z(u)z
/
(u)
¸
du
=
_
2
1
_
(u −1)
2
(1 + 2u
2
)(1) + (1 + 2u
2
)(4u) + (u −1)u
¸
du
=
_
2
1
_
2u
4
+ 4u
3
+ 4u
2
+u + 1
_
du =
1177
30
26. r(u) =
_
2 −
u
2
2
_
i +u
_
1 −
u
2
4
j +uk, u ∈ [0, 2]
_
C
y dx +yz dy +z(x −1) dz =
_
2
0
_
−u
2
_
1 −
u
2
4
+
u
2
2
(2 −u
2
) +u(1 −
u
2
2
)
_
du = −
π
2

8
15
27. (a)
∂P
∂y
= 6x −4y =
∂Q
∂x
∂f
∂x
= x
2
+ 6xy −2y
2
=⇒ f(x, y) =
1
3
x
3
+ 3x
2
y −2xy
2
+g(y)
∂f
∂y
= 3x
2
−4xy +g
/
(y) = 3x
2
−4xy + 2y =⇒ g
/
(y) = 2y =⇒g(y) = y
2
+C
Therefore, f(x, y) =
1
3
x
3
+ 3x
2
y −2xy
2
+y
2
(take C = 0)
(b) (i)
_
C
(x
2
+ 6xy −2y
2
) dx + (3x
2
−4xy + 2y) dy = [f(x, y)]
(0,4)
(3,0)
= 7
(ii)
_
/
C
(x
2
+ 6xy −2y
2
) dx + (3x
2
−4xy + 2y) dy = [f(x, y)]
(0,3)
(4,0)
= −
37
3
28. (a) F = ∇f where f(x, y, z) = x
2
y +xz
2
−y
2
z
(b) (i)
_
C
(2xy +z
2
) dx + (x
2
−2yz) dy + (2xz −y
2
) dz = f(3, 2, −1) −f(1, 0, 1) = 25 −1 = 24
(ii)
_
C
/
(2xy +z
2
) dx + (x
2
−2yz) dy + (2xz −y
2
) dz = f(1, 0, 1) −f(3, 2 −1) = −24
29. s
/
(u) =
_
[x
/
(u)]
2
+ [y
/
(u)]
2
= a
(a) M =
_
C
k(x +y) ds = k
_
π/2
0
[x(u) +y(u)] s
/
(u) du = ka
2
_
π/2
0
(cos u + sin u) du = 2ka
2
x
M
M =
_
C
kx(x +y) ds = k
_
π/2
0
x(u) [x(u) +y(u)] s
/
(u) du
= ka
3
_
π/2
0
(cos
2
u + cos usin u) du =
1
4
ka
3
(π + 2)
y
M
M =
_
C
ky(x +y) ds = k
_
π/2
0
y(u) [x(u) +y(u)] s
/
(u) du
= ka
3
_
π/2
0
(sin ucos u + sin
2
u) du =
1
4
ka
3
(π + 2)
x
M
= y
M
=
1
8
a(π + 2)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.4 937
(b)
I =
_
C
k(x +y)y
2
ds = k
_
π/2
0
_
x(u)y
2
(u) +y
3
(u)
¸
s
/
(u) du
= ka
4
_
π/2
0
_
sin
2
ucos u + sin
3
u
¸
du
= ka
4
_
π/2
0
_
sin
2
ucos u + (1 −cos
2
u) sin u
¸
du
= ka
4
_
1
3
sin
3
u −cos u +
1
3
cos
3
u
_
π/2
0
= ka
4
I =
1
2
a
2
M.
30. (a) I =
_
C
M
L
x
2
ds =
Ma
2

_

0
cos
2
udu =
1
2
Ma
2
(b) I =
_
C
M
L
a
2
ds =
Ma

_
C
ds = Ma
2
31. (a) I
z
=
_
C
k(x +y)a
2
ds = a
2
_
C
k(x +y) ds = a
2
M = Ma
2
(b) The distance from a point (x

, y

) to the line y = x is [y

−x

[/

2. Therefore
I =
_
C
k(x +y)
_
1
2
(y −x)
2
_
ds =
1
2
k
_
π/2
0
(a cos u +a sin u)(a sin u −a cos u)
2
a du
=
1
2
ka
4
_
π/2
0
(sin u −cos u)
2
d
du
(sin u −cos u) du
=
1
2
ka
4
_
1
3
(sin u −cos u)
3
_
π/2
0
=
1
3
ka
4
.
From Exercise 29, M = 2ka
2
. Therefore
I =
1
6
(2ka
2
)a
2
=
1
6
Ma
2
.
32. (a) M =
_
C
k ds =
_

0
k
_
sin
2
u + (1 −cos u)
2
du =
_

0
2k sin
1
2
udu = 8k
(b)
x
M
M =
_
C
kxds =
_

0
_
(1 −cos u)(2k sin
1
2
u)
_
du
= 4k
_

0
sin
3
1
2
udu =
32
3
k; x
M
=
4
3
y
M
M =
_
C
ky ds =
_

0
_
(u −sin u)(2k sin
1
2
u)
_
du
= 2k
_

0
(usin
1
2
u −2 sin
2
1
2
ucos
1
2
u) du
= 8πk; y
M
= π
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
938 SECTION 18.4
33. (a) s
/
(u) =

a
2
+b
2
L =
_
C
ds =
_

0
_
a
2
+b
2
du = 2π
_
a
2
+b
2
(b) x
M
= 0, y
M
= 0 (by symmetry)
z
M
=
1
L
_
C
z ds =
1

a
2
+b
2
_

0
bu
_
a
2
+b
2
du = bπ
(c) I
x
=
_
C
M
L
(y
2
+z
2
) ds =
M

_

0
(a
2
sin
2
u +b
2
u
2
) du =
1
6
M(3a
2
+ 8b
2
π
2
)
I
y
=
1
6
M(3a
2
+ 8b
2
π
2
) similarly
I
z
= Ma
2
(all the mass is at distance a from the z-axis)
34. (a) s
/
(u) = 2u
2
+ 1
L =
_
C
ds =
_
a
0
(2u
2
+ 1) du =
2
3
a
3
+a =
a(2a
2
+ 3)
3
(b) x
M
=
1
L
_
C
xds =
3
a(2a
2
+ 3)
_
a
0
(2u
3
+u) du =
3a(a
2
+ 1)
2(2a
2
+ 3)
y
M
=
1
L
_
C
y ds =
3
a(2a
2
+ 3)
_
a
0
(2u
4
+u
2
) du =
a
2
(6a
2
+ 5)
5(2a
2
+ 3)
z
M
=
1
L
_
C
z ds =
3
a(2a
3
+ 3)
_
a
0
_
4
3
u
5
+
2
3
u
3
_
du =
a
3
(4a
2
+ 3)
6(2a
3
+ 3)
(c)
I
z
=
M
L
_
C
(x
2
+y
2
) ds =
3M
a(2a
3
+ 3)
_
a
0
[(u
2
+u
4
)(2u
2
+ 1)] du
=
Ma
2
(30a
4
+ 63a
2
+ 35)
35(2a
2
+ 3)
35. M =
_
C
k(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
) ds
= k
_
a
2
+b
2
_

0
(a
2
+b
2
u
2
) du =
2
3
πk
_
a
2
+b
2
(3a
2
+ 4π
2
b
2
)
36. C : r = r(u), u ∈ [a, b]
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
b
a
[h(r(u)) r
/
(u)] du
=
_
b
a
_
h(r(u))
r
/
(u)
| r
/
(u) |
_
| r
/
(u) | du
=
_
b
a
[h(r(u)) T(r(u))]s
/
(u) du
=
_
C
[h(r) T(r)] ds
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.5 939
SECTION 18.5
1. (a) _

_
C
xy dx +x
2
dy =
_
C1
xy dx +x
2
dy +
_
C2
xy dx +x
2
dy +
_
C3
xy dx +x
2
dy, where
C
1
: r(u) = ui +uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]; C
2
: r(u) = (1 −u) i +j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ]
C
3
: r(u) = (1 −u) j, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ].
_
C1
xy dx +x
2
dy =
_
1
0
(u
2
+u
2
) du =
2
3
_
C2
xy dx +x
2
dy =
_
1
0
−(1 −u) du = −
1
2
_
C3
xy dx +x
2
dy =
_
1
0
0
2
(−1) du = 0
Therefore, _

_
C
xy dx +x
2
dy =
2
3

1
2
=
1
6
.
(b) _

_
C
xy dx +x
2
dy =
__
Ω
xdxdy =
_
1
0
_
y
0
xdxdy =
_
1
0
_
1
2
x
2
_
y
0
du =
1
2
_
1
0
y
2
dy =
1
6
2. (a) C = C
1
∪ C
3
∪ C
3
∪ C
4
C
1
: r(u) = ui, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = i +uj, u ∈ [0, 1]
C
3
: r(u) = (1 −u)i +j, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
4
: r(u) = (1 −u)j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
x
2
y dx + 2y
2
dy = 0
_
C2
x
2
y dx + 2y
2
dy =
_
C2
2y
2
dy =
_
1
0
2u
2
du =
2
3
_
C3
x
2
y dx + 2y
2
dy =
_
C3
x
2
dx =
_
1
0
−(1 −u)
2
du = −
1
3
_
C4
x
2
y dx + 2y
2
dy =
_
C4
2y
2
dy =
_
1
0
−2(1 −u)
2
du = −
2
3
_

_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
+
_
C4
= −
1
3
(b) _

_
C
x
2
y dx + 2y
2
dy =
_ _
Ω
_

∂x
(2y
2
) −

∂y
(x
2
y)
_
dxdy =
_
1
0
_
1
0
−x
2
dxdy = −
1
3
3. (a) C : r(u) = 2 cos ui + 3 sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ]
_

_
C
(3x
2
+y) dx + (2x +y
3
) dy
=
_

0
_
(12 cos
2
u + 3 sin u)(−2 sin u) + (4 cos u + 27 sin
3
u)3 cos u
¸
du
=
_

0
_
−24 cos
2
u sin u −6 sin
2
u + 12 cos
2
u + 81 sin
3
u cos u
¸
du
=
_
8 cos
3
u −3u +
3
2
sin 2u + 6u + 3 sin 2u +
81
4
sin
4
u
_

0
= 6π
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
940 SECTION 18.5
(b) _

_
C
(3x
2
+y) dx + (2x +y
3
) dy =
__
Ω
1 dxdy = area of ellipse Ω = 6π
4. (a) C = C
1
∪ C
2
C
1
: r(u) = ui +u
2
j, u ∈ [0, 1]; C
2
: r(u) = (1 −u)i + (1 −u)j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C1
y
2
dx +x
2
dy =
_
1
0
(u
4
+ 2u
3
) du =
7
10
_
C2
y
2
dx +x
2
dy =
_
1
0
−2(1 −u)
2
du = −
2
3
; _

_
C
=
_
C1
+
_
C2
=
1
30
(b) _

_
C
y
2
dx +x
2
dy =
_ _
Ω
_

∂x
(x
2
) −

∂y
(y
2
)
_
dxdy =
_
1
0
_
x
x
2
2(x −y) dy dx =
1
30
5. _

_
C
3y dx + 5xdy =
_ _
Ω
(5 −3) dxdy = 2A = 2π
6. _

_
C
5xdx + 3y dy =
_ _
Ω
0 dxdy = 0
7. _

_
C
x
2
dy =
_ _
Ω
2xdxdy = 2xA = 2
_
a
2
_
(ab) = a
2
b
8. _

_
C
y
2
dx =
_ _
Ω
−2y dxdy = −ab
2
9.
_

_
C
(3xy +y
2
) dx + (2xy + 5x
2
) dy =
_ _
Ω
[(2y + 10x) −(3x + 2y)] dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
7xdxdy = 7 xA = 7(1)(π) = 7π
10. _

_
C
(xy + 3y
2
) dx + (5xy + 2x
2
) dy =
_ _
Ω
(3x −y) dxdy = (3x −y)A = (3 + 2)π = 5π.
11. _

_
C
(2x
2
+xy −y
2
) dx + (3x
2
−xy + 2y
2
) dy =
_ _
Ω
[(6x −y) −(x −2y)] dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
(5x +y) dxdy = (5x +y)A = (5a + 0)(πr
2
) = 5aπr
2
12. _

_
C
(x
2
−2xy + 3y
2
) dx + (5x + 1) dy =
_ _
Ω
(5 + 2x −6y) dxdy = (5 + 2x −6y)A = (5 −6b)πr
2
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.5 941
13. _

_
C
e
x
sin y dx +e
x
cos y dy =
_ _
Ω
[e
x
cos y −e
x
cos y] dxdy = 0
14. _

_
C
e
x
cos y dx +e
x
sin y dy =
_ _
Ω
2e
x
sin y dxdy =
_
1
0
_
π
0
2e
x
sin y dy dx = 4(e −1)
15. _

_
C
2xy dx +x
2
dy =
_ _
Ω
[2x −2x] dxdy = 0
16. _

_
C
y
2
dx + 2xy dy =
_ _
Ω
0 dxdy = 0
17. C : r(u) = a cos ui +a sin uj; u ∈ [ 0, 2π ]
A = _

_
C
−y dx =
_

0
(−a sin u)(−a sin u) du = a
2
_

0
sin
2
udu = a
2
_
1
2
u −
1
4
sin 2u
_

0
= π a
2
18. C : r(u) = a cos
3
ui +a sin
3
uj, u ∈ [0, 2π]
A = _

_
C
−y dx =
_

0
(−a sin
3
u)(−3a cos
2
usin u) du = 3a
2
_

0
sin
4
ucos
2
udu =
3
8
πa
2
19. A = _

_
C
xdy, where C = C
1
∪ C
2
;
C
1
: r(u) = ui +
4
u
j, 1 ≤ u ≤ 4; C
2
: r(u) = (4 −3u) i + (1 + 3u) j, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1.
_

_
C1
xdy =
_
4
1
u
_
−4
u
2
_
du = −4
_
4
1
1
u
du = −4 ln 4;
_

_
C2
xdy =
_
1
0
(4 −3u)3 du =
_
1
0
(12 −9u) du =
15
2
.
Therefore, A =
15
2
−4 ln 4.
20. A =
1
2
_

_
C
xdy −y dx, where C = C
1
∪ C
2
;
C
1
: r(u) =

5 tan ui +

5 sec uj, tan
−1
_
−2/

5
_
≤ u ≤ tan
−1
_
2/

5
_
C
2
: (2 −4u) i + 3 j, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1
1
2
_

_
C1
xdy −y dx =
5
2
ln 5,
1
2
_

_
C2
xdy −y dx = 6 Therefore, A = 6 +
5
2
ln 5.
21. _

_
C
(ay +b) dx + (cx +d) dy =
_ _
Ω
(c −a) dxdy = (c −a)A
22. _

_
C
F(r) d r =
_ _
Ω
(−5) dxdy = −5A = −
15
8
πa
2
(by Exercise 18)
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
942 SECTION 18.5
23. We take the arch from x = 0 to x = 2πR. (Figure 9.11.1) Let C
1
be the line segment from (0, 0) to
(2πR, 0) and let C
2
be the cycloidal arch from (2πR, 0) back to (0, 0). Letting C = C
1
∪ C
2
, we have
A = _

_
C
xdy =
_
C1
xdy +
_
C2
xdy = 0 +
_
C2
xdy
=
_
0

R(θ −sin θ)(Rsin θ) dθ
= R
2
_

0
(sin
2
θ −θ sin θ) dθ
= R
2
_
θ
2

sin 2θ
4
+θ cos θ −sin θ
_

0
= 3πR
2
.
24. _

_
C
y
3
dx + (3x −x
3
) dy =
_ _
Ω
(3 −3x
2
−3y
2
) dxdy = 3
_ _
Ω
(1 −x
2
−y
2
) dxdy
The double integral is maximized by
Ω : 0 ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 1.
(This is the maximal region on which the integral is nonnegative.) The line integral is maximized by
the unit circle traversed counterclockwise.
25. Taking Ω to be of type II (see Figure 18.5.2), we have
_ _
Ω
∂Q
∂x
(x, y) dxdy =
_
d
c
_
ψ2(y)
ψ1(y)
∂Q
∂x
(x, y) dxdy
=
_
d
c
¦Q[ψ
2
(y), y] −Q[ψ
1
(y), y]¦ dy
(∗) =
_
d
c
Q[ψ
2
(y), y] dy −
_
d
c
Q[ψ
1
(y), y] dy.
The graph of x = ψ
2
(y) from x = c to x = d is the curve
C
4
: r
4
(u) = ψ
2
(u) i +uj, u ∈ [c, d ].
The graph of x = ψ
1
(y) from x = c to x = d is the curve
C
3
: r
3
(u) = ψ
1
(u) i +uj, u ∈ [c, d ].
Then
_

_
C
Q(x, y) dy =
_
C4
Q(x, y) dy −
_
C3
Q(x, y) dy
=
_
d
c
Q[ψ
2
(u), u] du −
_
d
c
Q[ψ
1
(u), u] du.
Since u is a dummy variable, it can be replaced by y. Comparison with (∗) gives the result.
26. Let h(r) = f(r)∇g(r) +g(r)∇f(r). Then h = ∇(fg)
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.5 943
27. Suppose that f is harmonic. By Green’s theorem,
_
C
∂f
∂y
dx −
∂f
∂x
dy =
__
Ω
_

2
f

2
x

2
f

2
y
_
dxdy =
__
Ω
0 dxdy = 0.
28. −
λ
3
_

_
y
3
dx = −
λ
3
_ _
Ω
(−3y
2
) dxdy =
_ _
Ω
λy
2
dxdy = I
x
λ
3
_

_
x
3
dy =
λ
3
_ _
Ω
3x
2
dxdy =
_ _
Ω
λx
2
dxdy = I
y
29. _

_
C1
= _

_
C2
+ _

_
C3
30. Let Ω be the region enclosed by C. Then
_
C
f(x) dx +g(y) dy = ±_

_
C
f(x) dx +g(y) dy
= ±
_ _
Ω
0
¸ .. ¸
_

∂x
[g(y)] −

∂y
[f(x)]
_
dxdy = 0
31.
∂P
∂y
=
−2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
=
∂Q
∂x
except at (0, 0)
(a) If C does not enclose the origin, and Ω is the region enclosed by C, then
_

_
C
x
x
2
+y
2
dx +
y
x
2
+y
2
dy =
_ _
Ω
0 dxdy = 0.
(b) If C does enclose the origin, then
_

_
C
= _

_
Ca
where C
a
: r(u) = a cos ui +a sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ] is a small circle in the inner region of C.
In this case
_

_
C
=
_

0
_
a cos u
a
2
(−a sin u) +
a sin u
a
2
(a cos u)
_
du =
_

0
0 du = 0.
The integral is still 0.
32. (a) _

_
C

y
3
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
dx +
xy
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
dy =
_ _
Ω
0 dy dx = 0
(b) By Green’s theorem, _

_
C
= _

_
C
/
, where C
/
is a circle about the origin. r(u) = a cos ui +a sin uj.
_

_
C
/
=
_

0
(sin
4
u + sin
2
ucos
2
u) du =
_

0
sin
2
udu = π
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
944 SECTION 18.6
33. If Ω is the region enclosed by C, then
_

_
C
v dr = _

_
C
∂φ
∂x
dx +
∂φ
∂y
dy =
_ _
Ω
_

∂x
_
∂φ
∂y
_

∂y
_
∂φ
∂x
__
dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
0 dxdy = 0.
equality of mixed partials
34. r(u) = [x
1
+ (x
2
−x
1
)u]i + [y
1
+ (y
2
−y
1
)u]j, u ∈ [0, 1]
_
C
−y dx +xdy =
_
1
0
¦[−y
1
−(y
2
−y
1
)u] (x
2
−x
1
) + [x
1
+ (x
2
−x
1
)u] (y
2
−y
1
)¦ du
=
_
1
0
(x
1
y
2
−x
2
y
1
) du = x
1
y
2
−x
2
y
1
.
35. A =
1
2
_

_
C
(−y dx +xdy)
=
__
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
Cn
_
Now
_
Ci
(−y dx +xdy) =
_
1
0
¦[y
i
+u(y
i+1
−y
i
)] (x
i+1
−x
i
) + [x
i
+u(x
i+1
−x
i
)] (y
i+1
−y
i
)¦ du
= x
i
y
i+1
−x
i+1
y
i
, i = 1, 2, . . . , n; x
n+1
= x
1
, y
n+1
= y
1
Thus, A =
1
2
[(x
1
y
2
−x
2
y
1
) + (x
2
y
3
−x
3
y
2
) + + (x
n
y
1
−x
1
y
n
)]
36. (a) A =
1
2
[0 + (8 −1) + 0] =
7
2
(b) A =
1
2
[0 + (12 −2) + (12 −0) + (0 + 6) + 0] = 14
SECTION 18.6
1. 4[(u
2
−v
2
)i −(u
2
+v
2
)j
+ 2uv k]
2. uk 3. 2(j −i)
4. sin usin v i + cos ucos v j + (sin
2
usin
2
v −cos
2
ucos
2
v) k
5. r(u, v) = 3 cos u cos v i + 2 sin u cos v j + 6 sin v k, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ], v ∈ [ 0, π/2 ]
6. r(θ, z) = 2 cos θ i + 2 sin θ j +z k, θ ∈ [0, 2π], z ∈ [1, 4].
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.6 945
7. r(u, v) = 2 cos u cos v i + 2 sin u cos v j + 2 sin v k, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ], v ∈ ( π/4, π/2 ]
8. r(s, θ) = s cos θ i +s sin θ j + (s cos θ + 2) k, s ∈ [0, 1], θ ∈ [0, 2π].
9. The surface consists of all points of the form (x, g(x, z), z) with (x, z) ∈ Ω. This set of points is
given by
r(u, v) = ui +g(u, v) j +v k, (u, v) ∈ Ω.
10. r(y, z) = h(y, z) i +y j +z k, (y, z) ∈ Γ
11. x
2
/a
2
+y
2
/b
2
+z
2
/c
2
= 1; ellipsoid
12. z =
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
; elliptic paraboloid.
13. x
2
/a
2
−y
2
/b
2
= z; hyperbolic paraboloid
14. (a) See Exercise 53, Section 14.2.
(b) (c)
15. For each v ∈ [a, b ], the points on the surface at level z = f(v) form a circle of radius v.
That circle can be parametrized:
R(u) = v cos ui +v sin uj +f(v)k, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ].
Letting v range over [a, b ], we obtain the entire surface:
r(u, v) = v cos ui +v sin uj +f(v)k; 0 ≤ u ≤ 2π, a ≤ v ≤ b.
16. For the parametrization given in the answer to Exercise 15
N(u, v) = −vf
/
(v) cos ui +v j −vf
/
(v) sin uk, | N(u, v) |= v
_
1 + [f
/
(v)]
2
.
Therefore
A =
_

0
__
b
a
v
_
1 + [f
/
(v)]
2
dv
_
du
= 2π
_
b
a
v
_
1 + [f
/
(v)]
2
dv =
_
b
a
2πx
_
1 + [f
/
(v)]
2
dx
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
946 SECTION 18.6
17. Since γ is the angle between p and the xy-plane, γ is the angle between the upper normal to p and k.
(Draw a ﬁgure.) Therefore, by 18.6.5,
area of Γ =
_ _
Ω
sec γ dxdy = (sec γ)A
Ω
= A
Ω
sec γ.
γ is constant
18. n = i +j +k is an upper normal.
cos γ =
n k

3
=
1

3
, sec γ =

3 A =

3πb
2
19. The surface is the graph of the function
f(x, y) = c
_
1 −
x
a

y
b
_
=
c
ab
(ab −bx −ay)
deﬁned over the triangle Ω : 0 ≤ x ≤ a, 0 ≤ y ≤ b(1 −x/a). Note that Ω has area
1
2
ab.
A =
_ _
Ω
_
[f
/
x
(x, y)]
2
+ [f
/
y
(x, y)]
2
+ 1 dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
_
c
2
/a
2
+c
2
/b
2
+ 1 dxdy
=
1
ab
_
a
2
b
2
+a
2
c
2
+b
2
c
2
_ _
Ω
dxdy =
1
2
_
a
2
b
2
+a
2
c
2
+b
2
c
2
.
20. f(x, y) =
_
x
2
+y
2
, Ω : 0 ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 1
A =
_ _
Ω
_
[f
/
x
(x, y)]
2
+ [f
/
y
(x, y)]
2
+ 1 dxdy =
_ _
Ω

2 dxdy =

21. f(x, y) = x
2
+y
2
, Ω : 0 ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 4
A =
_ _
Ω
_
4x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 1 dxdy [ change to polar coordinates ]
=
_

0
_
2
0
_
4r
2
+ 1 r dr dθ
= 2π
_
1
12
(4r
2
+ 1)
3/2
¸
2
0
=
1
6
π(17

17 −1)
22. f(x, y) =
_
2xy, Ω : 0 ≤ x ≤ a, 0 ≤ y ≤ b
A =
_ _
Ω
x +y

2xy
dxdy =
1

2
_ _
Ω
(
_
x/y +
_
y/x) dxdy
=
1

2
_
a
0
_
b
0
_
_
x/y +
_
y/x
_
dy dx
=
2
3

2(a +b)

ab
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.6 947
23. f(x, y) = a
2
−(x
2
+y
2
), Ω :
1
4
a
2
≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ a
2
A =
_ _
Ω
_
4x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 1 dxdy [ change to polar coordinates ]
=
_

0
_
a
a/2
r
_
4r
2
+ 1 dr dθ = 2π
_
1
12
(4r
2
+ 1)
3/2
_
a
a/2
=
π
6
_
(4a
2
+ 1)
3/2
−(a
2
+ 1)
3/2
_
24. f(x, y) =
1

3
(x +y)
3/2
, Ω : 0 ≤ x ≤ 2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 −x
A =
__
1

2
_
3x + 3y + 2 dxdy =
1

2
_
2
0
_
2−x
0
_
3x + 3y + 2 dy dx =
464
135
25. f(x, y) =
1
3
(x
3/2
+y
3/2
), Ω : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ x
A =
__
Ω
1
2
_
x +y + 4 dxdy
=
_
1
0
_
x
0
1
2
_
x +y + 4 dy dx =
_
1
0
_
1
3
(x +y + 4)
3/2
_
x
0
dx
=
_
1
0
1
3
_
(2x + 4)
3/2
−(x + 4)
3/2
_
dx =
1
3
_
1
5
(2x + 4)
5/2

2
5
(x + 4)
5/2
_
1
0
=
1
15
(36

6 −50

5 + 32)
26. f(x, y) = y
2
, Ω : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1
A =
_ _
Ω
_
4y
2
+ 1 dxdy =
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
4y
2
+ 1 dy dx =
1
4
_
2

5 + ln(2 +

5)
_
27. The surface x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−4z = 0 is a sphere of radius 2 centered at (0, 0, 2):
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−4z = 0 ⇐⇒ x
2
+y
2
+ (z −2)
2
= 4.
2
= 3(x
2
+y
2
) intersects the sphere at height z = 3:
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−4z = 0
z
2
= 3(x
2
+y
2
)
_
=⇒
3(x
2
+y
2
) + 3z
2
−12z = 0
4z
2
−12z = 0
z = 3. (since z ≥ 2)
The surface of which we are asked to ﬁnd the area is a spherical segment of width 1 (from z = 3 to
z = 4) in a sphere of radius 2. The area of the segment is 4π. (Exercise 27, Section 9.9.)
A more conventional solution. The spherical segment is the graph of the function
f(x, y) = 2 +
_
4 −(x
2
+y
2
), Ω : 0 ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 3.
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948 SECTION 18.6
Therefore
A =
_ _
Ω
¸
¸
¸
_
_
−x
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
_
2
+
_
−y
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
_
2
+ 1 dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
2
_
4 −(x
2
+y
2
)
dxdy
=
_

0
_

3
0
2r

4 −r
2
dr dθ [ changed to polar coordinates ]
= 2π
_
−2
_
4 −r
2
_

3
0
= 4π
28. The spherical segment is the graph of the function
f(x, y) = a +
_
a
2
−(x
2
+y
2
), Ω ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 2ab −b
2
.
Therefore
A =
_ _
Ω
a
_
a
2
−(x
2
+y
2
)
dxdy [change to polar coordinate]
=
_

0
_

2ab−b
2
0
ar

a
2
−r
2
dr dθ
= 2πab.
29. (a)
_ _
Ω
¸
_
∂g
∂y
(y, z)
_
2
+
_
∂g
∂z
(y, z)
_
2
+ 1 dydz =
_ _
Ω
sec [α(y, z)] dydz
where α is the angle between the unit normal with positive i component and the positive x-axis
(b)
_ _
Ω
¸
_
∂h
∂x
(x, z)
_
2
+
_
∂h
∂z
(x, z)
_
2
+ 1 dxdz =
_ _
Ω
sec [ β(x, z)] dxdz
where β is the angle between the unit normal with positive j component and the positive y-axis
30. (a) r
u
/
= −a sin ui +a cos uj; r
/
v
= k N(u, v) = r
/
u
r
/
v
= a cos ui +a sin uj
(b) A =
_ _
Ω
| N(u, v) | dudv =
_ _
Ω
a dudv =
_

0
_
l
0
a dv du = 2πla
31. (a) N(u, v) = v cos usin αcos αi +v sin usin αcos αj −v sin
2
αk
(b)
A =
_ _
Ω
|N(u, v)| dudv =
_ _
Ω
v sin αdudv
=
_

0
_
s
0
v sin αdv du = πs
2
sin α
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.6 949
32. (a) Set x = a cos u sin v, y = a sin u sin v, z = b cos v. Then
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
+
z
2
b
2
= 1
(b)
(c) N(u, v) = −ab cos usin
2
v i −ab sin usin
2
v j −a
2
sin v cos v k,
A =
_ _
Ω
| N(u, v) | dudv =
_

0
_
π
0
_
a
2
b
2
sin
4
v +a
4
sin
2
v cos
2
v dv du
= 2πa
_
π
0
sin v
_
b
2
sin
2
v +a
2
cos
2
v dv
33. (a) Set x = a cos u cosh v, y = b sin u cosh v, z = c sinh v. Then,
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2

z
2
c
2
= 1.
(b)
(c) A =
__
Ω
|N(u, v)| dv du
=
_

0
_
ln2
−ln2
_
64 cos
2
u cosh
2
v + 144 sin
2
u cosh
2
v + 36 cosh
2
v sinh
2
v dv du
34. (a) Set x = a cos u sinh v, y = b sin u sinh v, z = c cosh v. Then,
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2

z
2
c
2
= −1.
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
950 SECTION 18.7
(b)
(c) Assuming c > 0, z = c cosh v > 0 for all v.
35. A =
_
A
1
2
+A
2
2
+A
3
2
; the unit normal to the plane of Ω is a vector of the form
cos γ
1
i + cos γ
2
j + cos γ
3
k.
Note that
A
1
= Acos γ
1
, A
2
= Acos γ
2
, A
3
= Acos γ
3
.
Therefore
A
1
2
+A
2
2
+A
3
2
= A
2
[cos
2
γ
1
+ cos
2
γ
2
+ cos
2
γ
3
] = A
2
.
36. We can parametrize the surface by setting
R(r θ) = r cos θ i +r sin θ j +f(r, θ) k, (r, θ) ∈ Ω.
The integrand is | N(r, θ) | .
37. (a) (We use Exercise 36.) f(r, θ) = r +θ; Ω : 0 ≤ r ≤ 1, 0 ≤ θπ
A =
_ _
Ω
_
r
2
[f
/
r
(r, θ)]
2
+ [f
/
θ
(r, θ)]
2
+r
2
drdθ =
_ _
Ω
_
2r
2
+ 1 drdθ
=
_
π
0
_
1
0
_
2r
2
+ 1 dr dθ =
1
4

_

6 + ln (

2 +

3)
_
(b) f(r, θ) = re
θ
; Ω : 0 ≤ r ≤ a, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π
A =
_ _
Ω
r
_
2e

+ 1 drdθ =
__

0
_
2e

+ 1 dθ
___
a
0
r dr
_
=
1
2
a
2
[

2e

+ 1 −

3 + ln (1 +

3) −ln (1 +

2e

+ 1)]
38. r(u, v) = x(u, v) i +y(u, v) j, (u, v) ∈ Ω
Straightforward calculation shows that | N(u, v) |= [J(u, v)[.
SECTION 18.7
For Exercises 1–6 we have sec [ γ(x, y)] =
_
y
2
+ 1. N(x, y) = −yj +k, so | N(x, y) |=
_
y
2
+ 1.
1.
_ _
S
dσ =
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
y
2
+ 1 dxdy =
_
1
0
_
y
2
+ 1 dy =
1
2
[

2 + ln (1 +

2)]
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SECTION 18.7 951
2.
_ _
S
x
2
dσ =
_
1
0
_
1
0
x
2
_
y
2
+ 1 dy dx
=
__
1
0
x
2
dx
___
1
0
_
y
2
+ 1 dy
_
=
1
6
_

2 + ln(1 +

2)
_
3.
_ _
S
3y dσ =
_
1
0
_
1
0
3y
_
y
2
+ 1 dy dx =
_
1
0
3y
_
y
2
+ 1 dy =
_
(y
2
+ 1)
3/2
_
1
0
= 2

2 −1
4.
_ _
S
(x −y) dσ =
_
1
0
_
1
0
x
_
y
2
+ 1 dy dx −
_
1
0
_
1
0
y
_
y
2
+ 1 dy dx
=
__
1
0
xdx
___
1
0
_
y
2
+ 1 dy
_

_
1
0
y
_
y
2
+ 1 dy
=
1
4
[

2 + ln(1 +

2)] −
1
3
(2

2 −1)
=
1
3

5
12

2 +
1
4
ln(1 +

2)
5.
_ _
S

2z dσ =
_ _
S
y dσ =
1
3
(2

2 −1) (Exercise 3)
6.
_ _
S
_
1 +y
2
dσ =
_
1
0
_
1
0
(1 +y
2
) dy dx =
_
1
0
(1 +y
2
) dy =
4
3
7.
_ _
S
xy dσ; S : r(u, v) = (6 −2u −3v) i +uj +v k, 0 ≤ u ≤ 3 −
3
2
v, 0 ≤ v ≤ 2
| N(u, v) | = | (−2 i +j) (−3 i +k) | =

14
_ _
S
xy dσ =

14
__
Ω
x(u, v)y(u, v) dudv
=

14
__
Ω
(6 −2u −3v)ududv
=

14
_
2
0
_
3−3v/2
0
(6u −2u
2
−3uv) dudv
=

14
_
3
_
3 −
3
2
v
_
2

2
3
_
3 −
3
2
v
_
3

3
2
v
_
3 −
3
2
v
_
2
_
dv =
9
2

14
8. S is given by z = f(x, y) = 1 −x −y, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 −x
_ _
S
xyz dσ =
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
xy(1 −x −y)
_
(−1)
2
+ (−1)
2
+ 1 dy dx
=

3
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
xy(1 −x −y) dy dx =

3
120
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
952 SECTION 18.7
9.
_ _
S
x
2
z dσ; S : r(u, v) = (cos ui +v j + sin uk, 0 ≤ u ≤ π, 0 ≤ v ≤ 2.
N(u, v) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
−sin u 0 cos u
0 1 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −cos ui −sin uk and | N(u, v) | = 1.
_ _
S
x
2
z dσ =
__
Ω
cos
2
u sin ududv =
_
2
0
_
π
0
cos
2
u sin ududv =
4
3
10.
_ _
S
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
) dσ =
_ _
x
2
+y
2
≤1
[x
2
+y
2
+ (x + 2)
2
]

2 dxdy
=
_

0
_
1
0
[r
2
+ (r cos θ + 2)
2
]

2 r dr dθ
=
_

0
_
1
0
(r
3
+r
3
cos
2
θ + 4r
2
cos θ + 4r) dr dθ =
19

2
4
π
11.
_ _
S
(x
2
+y
2
) dσ; S : r(u, v) = cos u cos v i + cos u sin v j + sin uk, 0 ≤ u ≤ π/2, 0 ≤ v ≤ 2π.
N(u, v) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
−sin u cos v −sin u sin v cos u
−cos u sin v cos u cos v 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −cos
2
u cos v i + cos
2
u sin v j −sin u cos uk;
| N(u, v) | = cos u.
_ _
S
(x
2
+y
2
) dσ =
__
Ω
cos
2
u cos ududv =
_

0
_
π/2
0
cos
3
ududv =
4
3
π
12.
_ _
S
(x
2
+y
2
) dσ =
_ _
x
2
+y
2
≤1
(x
2
+y
2
)
_
4x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 1 dxdy =
_

0
_
1
0
r
2
_
4r
2
+ 1 r dr dθ
= 2π
_
1
0
r
3
_
4r
2
+ 1 dr =
25

5 + 1
60
π
For Exercises 13–16 the surface S is given by:
f(x, y) = a −x −y; 0 ≤ x ≤ a, 0 ≤ y ≤ a −x and sec [γ (x, y)] =

3.
13. M =
_ _
S
λ(x, y, x) dσ =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0
k

3 dy dx =
_
a
0
k

3 (a −x) dx =
1
2
a
2
k

3
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.7 953
14.
M =
_ _
S
k(x +y) dσ =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0
k(x +y)

3 dy dx
=
1
2
k

3
_
a
0
(a
2
−x
2
) dx =
1
3

3a
3
k
15. M =
_ _
S
λ(x, y, z) dσ =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0
kx
2

3 dy dx =
_
a
0
k

3x
2
(a −x) dx =
1
12
a
4
k

3
16.
xA =
_ _
S
xdσ =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0
x

3 dy dx
=

3
_
a
0
(ax −x
2
) dx =
1
6

3a
3
A =
_ _
S
dσ =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0

3 dy dx
=

3
_
a
0
(a −x) dx =
1
2

3a
2
x = xA/A =
1
3
a; similarly y = z =
1
3
a
17. S: r(u, v) = a cos ucos v i +a sin ucos v j +a sin v k with 0 ≤ u ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ v ≤
1
2
π. By a previous
calculation |N(u, v)| = a
2
cos v.
x = 0, y = 0 (by symmetry)
zA =
_ _
S
z dσ =
_ _
Ω
z(u, v) |N(u, v)| dudv =
_

0
_
π/2
0
a
3
sin v cos v dv du = πa
3
z =
1
2
a since A = 2πa
2
18. N(u, v) = 2 i + 2 j −2 k
A =
_ _
S
dσ =
_ _
Ω
| N(u, v) | dudv =
_
1
0
_
1
0
2

3 dudv = 2

3
19. N(u, v) = (i +j + 2 k) (i −j) = 2 i + 2 j −2 k
ﬂux in the direction of N =
_ _
S
_
v
N
|N|
_
dσ =
_ _
Ω
[v(x(u), y(u), z(u)) N(u, v)] dudv
=
_ _
Ω
[(u +v)i −(u −v)j] [2 i + 2 j −2 k] dudv.
=
__
Ω
4v dudv = 4
_
1
0
_
1
0
v dv du = 2
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954 SECTION 18.7
20. sec[γ(x, y)] =
_
x
2
+y
2
+ 1
M =
_ _
S
kxy dσ = k
_
1
0
_
1
0
xy
_
x
2
+y
2
+ 1 dy dx
=
1
3
k
_
1
0
_
x(x
2
+ 2)
3/2
−x(x
2
+ 1)
3/2
_
dx
=
1
15
(9

3 −8

2 + 1)k
For Exercises 21–23: n =
1
a
(xi +y j +z k)
S : r(u, v) = a cos ucos v i +a sin ucos v j +a sin v k with 0 ≤ u ≤ 2π, −
1
2
π ≤ v ≤
1
2
π
|N(u, v)| = a
2
cos v
21. With v = z k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
1
a
_ _
S
z
2
dσ =
1
a
_ _
Ω
(a
2
sin
2
v)(a
2
cos v) dudv
= a
3
_

0
_
π/2
−π/2
(sin
2
v cos v) dudv =
4
3
πa
3
22. With v = xi +y j +z k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ = a
_ _
S
dσ = aA = 4πa
3
23. With v = y i −xj
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
1
a
_ _
S
(yx −xy)
. ¸¸ .
0
dσ = 0
24. I
x
=
_ _
S
(y
2
+z
2
) dσ = 2

3
_
1
0
_
1
0
(5u
2
−2uv +v
2
) dv du = 3

3
I
y
=
_ _
S
(x
2
+z
2
) dσ = 2

3
_
1
0
_
1
0
(5u
2
+ 2uv +v
2
) dv du = 5

3
I
z
=
_ _
S
(x
2
+z
2
) dσ = 4

3
_
1
0
_
1
0
(u
2
+v
2
) dσ =
8
3

3
For Exercises 25–27 the triangle S is the graph of the function
f(x, y) = a −x −y on Ω : 0 ≤ x ≤ a, 0 ≤ y ≤ a −x.
The triangle has area A =
1
2

3a
2
.
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.7 955
25. With v = xi +y j +z k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
[−x(−1) −y(−1) + (a −x −y)] dxdy = a
_ _
Ω
dxdy = aA =
1
2

3a
3
26. With v = (x +z) k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
(a −y) dxdy =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0
(a −y) dy dx =
1
3
a
3
27. With v = x
2
i −y
2
j
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy
=
__
Ω
[−x
2
(−1) −(−y
2
)(−1) + 0] dxdy =
_
a
0
_
a−x
0
(x
2
−y
2
) dy dx
=
_
a
0
_
ax
2
−x
3

1
3
(a −x)
3
_
dx =
_
1
3
ax
3

1
4
x
4
+
1
12
(a −x)
4
_
a
0
= 0
28. With v = −xy
2
i +z j
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
x
/
−v
2
f
y
/
+v
3
) dxdy
=
_
1
0
_
2
0
(xy
3
−x
2
y) dy dx =
4
3
29. With v = xz j −xy k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
(−x
3
y −xy) dxdy =
_
1
0
_
2
0
(−x
3
y −xy) dy dx
=
_
1
0
−2(x
3
+x) dx = −
3
2
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
956 SECTION 18.7
30. With v = x
2
y i +z
2
k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy
=
_
1
0
_
2
0
(−x
2
y
2
+x
2
y
2
) dy dx = 0
31. n =
1
a
(xi +y j)
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
1
a
_ _
S
[(xi +y j +z k) (xi +y j)] dσ
=
1
a
_ _
S
(x
2
+y
2
) dσ = a
_ _
S
dσ = a (area of S) = a (2πal) = 2πa
2
l
32.
ﬂux =
_ _
S
_
GmM
r
r
3

r
r
_
dσ = GmM
_ _
S
1
r
2

= GmM
_ _
S
1
a
2
dσ =
GmM
a
2
_ _
S
dσ =
GmM
a
2
(4πa
2
) = 4πGmM
In Exercises 33–36, S is the graph of f(x, y) =
2
3
(x
3/2
+y
3/2
), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 −x
We use
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy.
33. With v = xi −y j +
3
2
z k
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy =
_ _
Ω
2y
3/2
dxdy
=
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
2y
3/2
dy dx =
_
1
0
4
5
(1 −x)
5/2
dx =
8
35
34. With v = x
2
i,
ﬂux =
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
−x
5/2
dy dx = −
4
63
.
35. With v = y
2
j
ﬂux =
_ _
S
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
(−v
1
f
/
x
−v
2
f
/
y
+v
3
) dxdy =
_ _
Ω
−y
5/2

=
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
−y
5/2
dy dx =
_
1
0

2
7
(1 −x)
7/2
dx = −
4
63
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.7 957
36. With v = y i −

xy j,
ﬂux =
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
(−yx
1/2
+

xyy
1/2
) dy dx = 0.
37. x = 0, y = 0 by symmetry. You can verify that |N(u, v)| = v sin α.
zA =
_ _
S
z dσ =
_ _
Ω
(s cos α)(v sin α) dudv = sin αcos α
_

0
_
s
0
v
2
dv du =
2
3
π sin αcos αs
3
z =
2
3
s cos α since A = πs
2
sin α
38.
M =
_ _
Ω
k
_
x
2
+y
2
dσ =
_ _
Ω
k
_
x
2
+y
2

2 dxdy
= k

2
_

0
_
1
0
r
2
dr dθ =
2
3

2πk
39. f(x, y) =
_
x
2
+y
2
on Ω : 0 ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 1; λ(x, y, z) = k
_
x
2
+y
2
x
M
= 0, y
M
= 0 (by symmetry)
z
M
M =
_ _
S
zλ(x, y, z) dσ =
_ _
Ω
k(x
2
+y
2
) sec [γ(x, y)] dxdy
= k

2
_ _
Ω
(x
2
+y
2
) dxdy
= k

2
_

0
_
1
0
r
3
dr dθ =
1
2

2πk
z
M
=
3
4
since M =
2
3

2πk (Exercise 38)
40. (a)
I
x
=
_ _
Ω
k
_
x
2
+y
2
(y
2
+z
2
) dσ =
_ _
Ω
k
_
x
2
+y
2
(y
2
+x
2
+y
2
) dσ
= k

2
_ _
Ω
_
y
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
1/2
+ (x
2
+y
2
)
3/2
_
dxdy
= k

2
_

0
_
1
0
(r
4
sin
2
θ +r
4
) dr dθ =
3

2
5
πk
(b) I
y
= I
x
by symmetry
(c)
I
z
=
_ _
Ω
k
_
x
2
+y
2
(x
2
+y
2
) dσ =
_ _
S
k(x
2
+y
2
)
3/2

= k

2
_ _
Ω
(x
2
+y
2
)
3/2
dxdy = k

2
_

0
_
1
0
r
4
dr dθ =
2
5

2πk
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
958 SECTION 18.7
42.
M =
_ _
S
k(y
2
+z
2
) dσ = 2

3k
_ _
S
[(u −v)
2
+ 4u
2
] dudv
= 2

3k
_
1
0
_
1
0
(5u
2
−2uv +v
2
) dv du = 3

3k
43. x
M
M =
_ _
S
xλ(x, y, z) dσ =
_ _
S
kx(y
2
+z
2
) dσ
= 2

3 k
_ _
Ω
(u +v)
_
(u −v)
2
+ 4u
2
¸
dudv
= 2

3 k
_
1
0
_
1
0
(5u
3
−2u
2
v +uv
2
+ 5u
2
v −2uv
2
+v
3
) dv du
= 2

3 k
_
1
0
_
5u
3
−u
2
+
1
3
u +
5
2
u
2

2
3
u +
1
4
_
du =
11
3

3k
x
M
=
11
9
since M = 3

3k (Exercise 42)
44.
I
z
=
_ _
S
λ(x, y, z)(x
2
+y
2
) dσ =
_ _
S
k(y
2
+z
2
)(x
2
+y
2
) dσ
= 2

3k
_ _
Ω
_
(u −v)
2
+ 4u
2
¸ _
(u +v)
2
+ (u −v)
2
¸
dudv
= 4

3k
_
1
0
_
1
0
(5u
4
−2u
3
v + 6u
2
v
2
−2uv
3
+v
4
) dudv =
82

3
15
k.
45. Total ﬂux out of the solid is 0. It is clear from a diagram that the outer unit normal to the cylindrical
side of the solid is given by n = xi +y j in which case v n = 0. The outer unit normals to the top
and bottom of the solid are k and −k respectively. So, here as well, v n = 0 and the total ﬂux is 0.
46. The ﬂux through the upper boundary is 0:
(yi −xj) k = 0.
The ﬂux through the lower boundary is 0:
v
_
∂f
∂x
i +
∂f
∂y
j −k
_
= (y i −xj) (2xi + 2y j −k) = (2xy −2xy) = 0.
Thus the total ﬂux out of the solid is 0.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.7 959
47. The surface z =
_
2 −(x
2
+y
2
) is the upper half of the sphere x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 2. The surface intersects
the surface z = x
2
+y
2
in a circle of radius 1 at height z = 1. Thus the upper boundary of the solid,
call it S
1
, is a segment of width

2 −1 on a sphere of radius

2. The area of S
1
is therefore 2π

2(

2 −1). (Exercise 27, Section 9.9). The upper unit normal to S
1
is the vector
n =
1

2
(xi +y j +z k).
Therefore
ﬂux through S
1
=
_ _
S1
(v n) dσ =
1

2
_ _
S1
2
¸ .. ¸
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
) dσ
=

2
_ _
S1
dσ =

2 (area of S
1
) = 4π(

2 −1).
The lower boundary of the solid, call it S
2
, is the graph of the function
f(x, y) = x
2
+y
2
on Ω : 0 ≤ x
2
+y
2
≤ 1.
Taking n as the lower unit normal, we have
ﬂux through S
2
=
_ _
S2
(v n) dσ =
_ _
Ω
_
v
1
f
/
x
+v
2
f
/
y
−v
3
_
dxdy
=
_ _
Ω
(x
2
+y
2
) dxdy =
_

0
_
1
0
r
3
dr dθ =
1
2
π.
The total ﬂux out of the solid is 4π(

2 −1) +
1
2
π = (4

2 −
7
2
)π.
48. face n v n ﬂux
x = 0 −i −xz = 0 0
x = 1 i xz = 1
1
2
y = 0 −j −4xyz
2
= 0 0 total ﬂux =
1
2
+
2
3
+ 2 =
19
6
y = 1 j 4xyz
2
= 4xz
2 2
3
z = 0 −k −2z = 0 0
z = 1 k 2z = 2 2
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
960 SECTION 18.8
SECTION 18.8
1. ∇ v = 2, ∇v = 0 2. ∇ v = 0, ∇v = 0
3. ∇ v = 0, ∇v = 0 4. ∇ v = −
4xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
, ∇v =
2(y
2
−x
2
)
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
k
5. ∇ v = 6, ∇v = 0 6. ∇ v = 0, ∇v = 0
7. ∇ v = yz + 1, ∇v = −xi +xy j + (1 −x)z k
8. ∇ v = 2y(x +z), ∇v = (2xy −y
2
) i −y
2
j −x
2
k
9. ∇ v = 1/r
2
, ∇v = 0
10. ∇ v = e
x
(3 +x), ∇v = −e
x
z j +e
x
yk
11. ∇ v = 2(x +y +z)e
r
2
, ∇v = 2e
r
2
[(y −z)i −(x −z) j + (x −y) k]
12. ∇ v = 0, ∇v = −2
_
ze
z
2
i +xe
x
2
j +ye
y
2
k
_
13. ∇ v = f
/
(x), ∇v = 0
14. each partial derivative that appears in the curl is 0
15. use components.
16. ∇ F = −GmM
_
∇ (r
−3
r)
¸
= −GmM(0) = 0
linearity (Exercise 15) (17.8.8)
∇F = −GmM[∇(r
−3
r)] = −GmM(0) = 0
linearity (Exercise 15) (17.8.8)
17. ∇ v =
∂P
∂x
+
∂Q
∂y
+
∂R
∂z
= 2 + 4 −6 = 0
18. ∇ v =

∂x
(3x
2
) +

∂y
(−y
2
) +

∂z
(2yz −6xz) = 6x −2y + (2y −6x) = 0
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.8 961
19. ∇F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k

∂x

∂y

∂z
x y −2z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
20. F(x, y, z) = (2x +y + 2z)i + (x + 4y −3z)j + (2x −3y −6z)k
∇F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k

∂x

∂y

∂z
2x +y + 2z x + 4y −3z 2x −3y −6z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (−3 + 3)i −(2 −2)j + (1 −1)k = 0
21. ∇
2
f = 12(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
22. ∇
2
f = ∇ ∇f = ∇ (yzi +xzj +xyk) = 0
23. ∇
2
f = 2y
3
z
4
+ 6x
2
yz
4
+ 12x
2
y
3
z
2
24. Note that for r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
,
∂r
∂x
=
x
r
Then

2
∂x
2
(cos r) =

∂x
_
−xsin r
r
_
=
−r
2
sin r −x
2
r cos r +x
2
sin r
r
3
,
With similar formulas for y and z. Therefore

2
f =

2
∂x
2
cos r +

2
∂y
2
cos r +

2
∂z
2
cos r
=
−3r
2
sin r −(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)r cos r + (x
2
+y
2
+z
2
) sin r
r
3
= −cos r −2r
−1
sin r
25. ∇
2
f = e
r
(1 + 2r
−1
)
26.

2
∂x
2
ln r =

∂x
_
x
r
2
_
=
r
2
−2x
2
r
4
, with similar formula for y and z.
Then ∇
2
f =
3r
2
−2(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
r
4
=
1
r
2
27. (a) 2r
2
(b) −1/r
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
962 SECTION 18.8
28. (a) (u ∇)r = (u ∇x)i + (u ∇y)j + (u ∇z)k
= (u i)i + (u j)j + (u k)k = u
(b) (r ∇)u = (r ∇yz)i + (r ∇xz)j + (r ∇xy)k
= [r (zj +yk)]i + [r (zi +xk)]j + [r (yi +xj)]k
= (yz +zy)i + (xz +zx)j + (xy +yx)k
= 2(yzi +xzj +xyk) = 2u
29. ∇
2
f = ∇
2
g(r) = ∇ (∇g(r)) = ∇
_
g
/
(r)r
−1
r
_
=
_
(∇g
/
(r)) r
−1
r
¸
+g
/
(r)
_
∇ r
−1
r
_
=
__
g
//
(r)r
−1
r
¸
r
−1
r
_
+g
/
(r)(2r
−1
)
= g
//
(r) + 2r
−1
g
/
(r)
30. (a) ∇ (fv) =

∂x
(fv
1
) +

∂y
(fv
2
) +

∂z
(fv
3
)
=
_
f
∂v
1
∂x
+
∂f
∂x
v
1
_
+
_
f
∂v
2
∂y
+
∂f
∂y
v
2
_
+
_
f
∂v
3
∂z
+
∂f
∂z
v
3
_
=
_
∂f
∂x
i +
∂f
∂y
j +
∂f
∂z
k
_
v +f
_
∂v
1
∂x
+
∂v
2
∂y
+
∂v
3
∂z
_
= (∇f) v +f(∇ v)
(b) ∇(fv)
=
_

∂y
(fv
3
) −

∂z
(fv
2
)
_
i +
_

∂z
(fv
1
) −

∂x
(fv
3
)
_
j +
_

∂x
(fv
2
) −

∂y
(fv
1
)
_
k
=
_
f
∂v
3
∂y
+
∂f
∂y
v
3
−f
∂v
2
∂z

∂f
∂z
v
2
_
i + etc.
(c) ∇v =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k

∂x

∂y

∂z
v
1
v
2
v
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
_
∂v
3
∂y

∂v
2
∂z
_
i +
_
∂v
1
∂z

∂v
3
∂x
_
j +
_
∂v
2
∂x

∂v
1
∂y
_
k
i-component of ∇(∇v) =

∂y
_
∂v
2
∂x

∂v
1
∂y
_

∂z
_
∂v
1
∂z

∂v
3
∂x
_
=

2
v
2
∂y∂x

2
v
1
∂y
2

2
v
1
∂z
2
+

2
v
3
∂z∂x
=

∂x
_
∂v
2
∂y
+
∂v
3
∂z
_

_

2
v
1
∂y
2
+

2
v
1
∂z
2
_
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.9 963

2
v
1
∂x
2
, we get

∂x
_
∂v
1
∂x
+
∂v
2
∂y
+
∂v
3
∂z
_

_

2
v
1
∂x
2
+

2
v
1
∂y
2
+

2
v
1
∂z
2
_
=

∂x
(∇ v) −∇
2
v
1
= the i-component of ∇
2
v.
Equality of the other components can be obtained in a similar manner.
31.
∂f
∂x
= 2x +y + 2z,

2
f
∂x
2
= 2;
∂f
∂y
= 4y +x −3z,

2
f
∂y
2
= 4;
∂f
∂z
= −6z + 2x −3y,

2
f
∂z
2
= −6;

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
+

2
f
∂z
2
= 2 + 4 −6 = 0
32. f(r) =
1
r
.

2
∂x
2
_
1
r
_
=

∂x
_
−x
r
3
_
=
−r
2
+ 3x
2
r
5
, with similar formulas for y and z
Then ∇
2
f =
−3r
2
+ 3(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
r
5
= 0.
33. n = −1
34. Since ∇ (∇f) = ∇
2
f = 0, the gradient ﬁeld ∇f is solenoidal.
∇f is irrotational by Theorem 18.8.4
SECTION 18.9
1.
__
S
(v n) dσ =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
3 dxdydz = 3V = 4π
2.
__
S
(v n) dσ =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdy dz =
___
T
(−3) dxdy dz = −3V = −4π
3.
__
S
(v n) dσ =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
2(x +y +z) dxdydz.
The ﬂux is zero since the function f(x, y, z) = 2(x +y +z) satisﬁes the relation f(−x, −y, −z) =
−f(x, y, z) and T is symmetric about the origin.
4.
__
S
(v n) dσ =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdy dz =
___
T
(−2x + 2y + 1) dxdy dz =
___
T
dxdy dz = V =
4
3
π
by symmetry
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
964 SECTION 18.9
5. face n v n ﬂux
x = 0 −i 0 0
x = 1 i 1 1
y = 0 −j 0 0 total ﬂux = 3
y = 1 j 1 1
z = 0 −k 0 0
z = 1 k 1 1
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
3 dxdydz = 3V = 3
6. face n v n ﬂux
x = 0 −i −xy = 0 0
x = 1 i xy = y 1/2
y = 0 −j −yz = 0 0 total ﬂux =
3
2
y = 1 j yz = z 1/2
z = 0 −k −xz = 0 0
z = 1 k xz = x 1/2
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
(y +z +x) dxdydz = (y +z +x)V =
_
1
2
+
1
2
+
1
2
_
(1) =
3
2
.
7. face n v n ﬂux
x = 0 −i 0 0
x = 1 i 1 1
y = 0 −j xz
ﬂuxes add up to 0 total ﬂux = 2
y = 1 j −xz
z = 0 −k 0 0
z = 1 k 1 1
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
2 (x +z) dxdydz = 2 (x +z)V = 2 (
1
2
+
1
2
)1 = 2
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SECTION 18.9 965
8. face n v n ﬂux
x = 0 −i −x = 0 0
x = 1 i x = 1 1
y = 0 −j −xy = 0 0 total ﬂux =
7
4
y = 1 j xy = x 1/2
z = 0 −k −xyz = 0 0
z = 1 k xyz = xy 1/4
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
(1 +x +xy) dxdydz =
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
0
(1 +x +xy) dxdy dz =
7
4
.
9. ﬂux =
___
T
(1 + 4y + 6z) dxdydz = (1 + 4y + 6z)V = (1 + 0 + 3) 9π = 36π
10. ﬂux =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
_
1−x−y
0
(y +z +x) dz dy dx
= (x +y +z)V =
_
3
4
__
1
6
_
=
1
8
11. ﬂux =
___
T
(2x +x −2x) dxdydz
___
T
xdxdydz
=
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
_
1−x−y
0
xdz dy dx
=
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
_
x −x
2
−xy
_
dy dx
=
_
1
0
_
xy −x
2
y −
1
2
xy
2
_
1−x
0
dx
=
_
1
0
_
1
2
x −x
2
+
1
2
x
3
_
dx =
1
24
12. ﬂux =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
4y dxdy dz = 4yV = 4(1)
_
32
3
_
=
128
3
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
966 SECTION 18.9
13. ﬂux =
___
T
2(x +y +z) dxdydz =
_
4
0
_
2
0
_

0
2(r cos θ +r sin θ +z)r dθ dr dz
=
_
4
0
_
2
0
4π rz dr dz
=
_
4
0
8π z dz = 64π
14. ﬂux =
1
2
__
S
(v n) dσ =
1
2
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
(2 + 2x) dxdy dz = V =
32
3
π
15. ﬂux =
___
T
(2y + 2y + 3y) dxdydz = 7yV = 0
16. ﬂux =
___
T
(∇ v) dxdydz =
___
T
7y dxdy dz = 7 y V = 7
_
a
2
_
a
3
=
7
2
a
4
17. ﬂux =
___
T
(A+B +C) dxdydz = (A+B +C)V
18.
__
S
(∇f n) dσ =
___
T
[∇ (∇f)] dxdydz
=
___
T
(∇
2
f) dxdydz =
___
T
0 dxdydz = 0
19. Let T be the solid enclosed by S and set n = n
1
i +n
2
j +n
3
k.
__
S
n
1
dσ =
__
S
(i n) dσ =
___
T
(∇ i) dxdydz =
___
T
0 dxdydz = 0.
Similarly
_ _
S
n
2
dσ = 0 and
_ _
S
n
3
dσ = 0.
20. (a) The identity follows from setting v = ∇f in (17.8.6).
__
S
(ff
/
n
) dσ =
__
S
(f∇f n) dσ =
___
T
[∇ (f∇f)] dxdydz
=
___
T
_
| ∇f |
2
+f(∇
2
f)
¸
dxdydz
=
___
T
| ∇f |
2
dxdydz since ∇
2
f = 0
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
SECTION 18.9 967
(b)
__
S
(gf
/
n
) dσ =
__
S
(g∇f n) dσ =
___
T
[∇ (g∇f)] dxdydz
=
___
T
¦(∇g ∇f) +g[∇ (∇f)]¦ dxdydz
=
___
T
[(∇g ∇f) +g(∇
2
f)] dxdydz
21. A routine computation shows that ∇ (∇f ∇g) = 0. Therefore
__
S
[(∇f ∇g) n] dσ =
___
T
[ ∇ ( ∇f ∇g)] dxdydz = 0.
22. Since ∇ r = 3, we can write
V =
___
T
dxdydz =
___
T
_

r
3
_
dxdydz =
__
S
_
1
3
r n
_
dσ, by the divergence theorem.
23. Set F = F
1
i +F
2
j +F
3
k.
F
1
=
_ _
S
[ρ(z −c)i n] dσ =
___
T
[ ∇ ρ(z −c)i] dxdydz
=
___
T

∂x
[ρ(z −c)]
. ¸¸ .
dxdydz = 0.
Similarly F
2
= 0.
F
3
=
__
S
[ ρ(z −c)k n] dσ =
___
T
[ ∇ ρ(z −c)k] dxdydz
=
___
T

∂z
[ρ(z −c)] dxdydz
=
___
T
ρ dxdydz = W.
24. τ
Tot
i =
_ _
S
¦[r ρ(c −z)n] i¦ dσ
(12.5.6)
= −
__
S
[(i r) ρ(c −z)n] dσ
= ρ
__
S
(z −c)[(i r) n] dσ
divergence theorem
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
968 SECTION 18.10
= ρ
___
T
[∇ (z −c)(ir)] dxdydz
i r = i(xi +yj +zk) = −zj +yk
(z −c)(ir) = (z −c)(−zj +yk) = (cz −z
2
)j + (yz −cy)k
∇ (z −c)(ir) = y
τ
Tot
i = ρ
___
T
y dxdydz = ρyV = y(ρV ) = yW
(r F) i = [(xi +yj +zk) Wk] i
= (−xWj +yWi) i = yW = τ
Tot
i
Equality of the other components can be shown in a similar manner.
PROJECT 18.9
1. For r ,= 0, ∇ E = ∇ qr
−3
r = q(−3 + 3)r
−3
= 0 by (17.8.8)
2. By the divergence theorem, ﬂux of E out of S =
___
T
(∇ E) dxdy dz =
___
T
0 dxdy dz = 0
3. On S
a
, n =
r
r
, and thus E n = q
r
r
3

r
r
=
q
r
2
=
q
a
2
Thus ﬂux of E out of S
a
=
__
Sa
(E n) dσ =
__
Sa
q
a
2
dσ =
q
a
2
(area of S
a
) =
q
a
2
(4πa
2
) = 4πq.
SECTION 18.10
For Exercises 1–4: n = xi +yj +zk and C : r(u) = cos ui + sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ].
1. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
(0 n) dσ = 0
(b) S is bounded by the unit circle C: r(u) = cos ui + sin uj, u ∈ [ 0, 2π ].
_
C
v(r) dr = 0 since v is a gradient.
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SECTION 18.10 969
2. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
(−2k n) dσ = −2
__
S
z dσ = −2zA = −2
_
1
2
_
2π = −2π
Exercise 17, Section 17.7
(b)
_
C
v(r) dr =
_
C
y dx −xdy =
_

0
(−sin
2
u −cos
2
u) du = −2π
3. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
_
(−3y
2
i + 2zj + 2k) n
¸

=
__
S
(−3xy
2
+ 2yz + 2z) dσ
=
__
S
(−3xy
2
) dσ
. ¸¸ .
0
+
__
S
2yz dσ
. ¸¸ .
0
+2
__
S
z dσ = 2zV = 2(
1
2
)2π = 2π
Exercise 17, Section 17.7
(b)
_
C
v(r) dr =
_
C
z
2
dx + 2xdy =
_
C
2xdy =
_

0
2 cos
2
udu = 2π
4. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
[(−6yi + 6xj −2xk) n] dσ
=
__
S
(−2xz) dσ = 0 by symmetry
_
C
v(r) dr =
_
C
6xz dx −x
2
dy = −
_
C
x
2
dy
= −
_

0
cos
3
udu = −
_

0
(cos u −sin
2
ucos u) du = 0
For Exercises 5–7 take S: z = 2 −x −y with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 −x
and C as the triangle (2, 0, 0), (0, 2, 0), (0, 0, 2). Then C = C
1
∪ C
2
∪ C
3
with
C
1
: r
1
(u) = 2(1 −u) i + 2uj, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ],
C
2
: r
2
(u) = 2(1 −u) j + 2uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ],
C
3
: r
3
(u) = 2(1 −u) k + 2ui, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ].
n =
1
3

3(i +j +k) area of S: A = 2

3 centroid:
_
2
3
,
2
3
,
2
3
_
5. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
1
3

3 dσ =
1
3

3A = 2
(b)
_
C
v(r) dr =
__
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
_
v(r) dr = −2 + 2 + 2 = 2
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970 SECTION 18.10
6. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
[(−2xj −2yk) n] dσ
= −
2
3

3
__
S
(x +y) dσ = −
2
3

3(x +y)A = −
16
3
(b)
_
C
v(r) dr =
__
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
_
v(r) dr = −
8
3
+ 0 −
8
3
= −
16
3
7. (a)
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
(yk n) dσ =
1
3

3
__
S
y dσ =
1
3

3yA =
4
3
(b)
_
C
v(r) dr =
__
C1
+
_
C2
+
_
C3
_
v(r) dr =
_
4
3

32
5
_
+
32
5
+ 0 =
4
3
8. By (18.10.2) v is a gradient: v = ∇φ. Therefore
_
C
v(r) dr =
_
C
[(∇φ) dr] = 0 by (18.2.2).
9. The bounding curve is the set of all (x, y, z) with
x
2
+y
2
= 4 and z = 4.
Traversed in the positive sense with respect to n, it is the curve −C where
C : r(u) = 2 cos ui + 2 sin uj + 4k, u ∈ [0, 2π].
By Stokes’s theorem the ﬂux we want is

_
C
v(r) dr = −
_
C
y dx +z dy +x
2
z
2
dz
= −
_

0
_
−4 sin
2
u + 8 cos u
_
du = 4π.
10. The bounding curve is the set of all (x, y, z) with
x
2
+z
2
= 9, y = −8.
Traversed in the positive direction with respect to n, it is the curve −C where
C : r(u) = 3 cos ui −8 j + 3 sin uk, u ∈ [0, 2π].
By Stokes’s theorem the ﬂux we want is

_
C
v(r) dr = −
_
C
1
2
y dx + 2xz dy −3xdz
= −
_

0
(12 sin u −27 cos
2
u) du = 27π.
11. The bounding curve C for S is the bounding curve of the elliptical region Ω :
1
4
x
2
+
1
9
y
2
= 1. Since
∇v = 2x
2
yz
2
i −2xy
2
z
2
j
is zero on the xy-plane, the ﬂux of ∇v through Ω is zero, the circulation of v about C is zero, and
therefore the ﬂux of ∇v through S is zero.
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SECTION 18.10 971
12. Let T be the solid enclosed by S. By our condition on v, ∇v is continuously diﬀerentiable on T.
Therefore by the divergence theorem
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
___
T
[∇ (∇v)] dxdydz.
This is zero since the divergence of a curl is zero.
13. C bounds the surface
S: z =
_
1 −
1
2
(x
2
+y
2
), (x, y) ∈ Ω
with Ω : x
2
+ (y −
1
2
)
2

1
4
. Routine calculation shows that ∇v = yk. The circulation of v with
respect to the upper unit normal n is given by
__
S
(yk n) dσ =
__
Ω
y dxdy = yA =
1
2
_
π
4
_
=
1
8
π.
(18.7.9)
If −n is used, the circulation is −
1
8
1
8
π.
14. ∇v = i −2j −2k. Since the plane x + 2y +z = 0 passes through the origin, it intersects the sphere
in a circle of radius a. The surface S bounded by this circle is a disc of radius a with upper unit
normal
n =
1
6

6(i + 2j +k).
The circulation of v with respect to n is given by
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
_

5
6

6
_
dσ = −
5
6

6A = −
5
6

6πa
2
.
If −n is used, the circulation is
5
6

6πa
2
5
6

6πa
2
.
15. ∇v = i + 2j +k. The paraboloid intersects the plane in a curve C that bounds a ﬂat surface S that
projects onto the disc x
2
+ (y −
1
2
)
2
=
1
4
in the xy-plane. The upper unit normal to S is the vector
n =
1
2

2 (−j +k). The area of the base disc is
1
4
π. Letting γ be the angle between n and k, we
have cos γ = n k =
1
2

2 and sec γ =

2. Therefore the area of S is
1
4

2π. The circulation of v with
respect to n is given by
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S

1
2

2 dσ =
_

1
2

2
_
(area of S) = −
1
4
π.
If −n is used, the circulation is
1
4
1
4
π.
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972 SECTION 18.10
16. ∇v = −yi −zj −xk. The curve C bounds a ﬂat surface S that projects onto the disc x
2
+y
2
= b
2
in the xy-plane. The upper unit normal to S is the vector n =
1
2

2(j +k). The area of the base disc
is πb
2
. Letting γ be the angle between n and k, we have cos γ = n k =
1
2

2 and sec γ =

2.
Therefore the area of S is πb
2

2. The circulation of v with respect to n is given by
_ _
S
[(∇v) n] dσ = −
1
2

2
_ _
S
(x +z) dσ = −
1
2

2
_ _
S
z dσ = −
1
2

2zA.
by symmetry
It’s clear by symmetry that z = a
2
, the height at which S intersects the xz-plane. Since A = πb
2

2,
the circulation is −πa
2
b
2
. If −n is used, the circulation becomes πa
2
b
2
2
b
2
.
17. Straightforward calculation shows that
∇(ar) = ∇ [(a
2
z −a
3
y) i + (a
3
x −a
1
z) j + (a
1
y −a
2
x)k] = 2a.
18. ∇(φ∇ψ) = (∇φ∇ψ) +φ[∇∇ψ] = ∇φ∇ψ
(18.8.7)
since the curl of a gradient is zero. Therefore the result follows from Stokes’s theorem.
19. In the plane of C, the curve C bounds some Jordan region that we call Ω. The surface S ∪ Ω is a
piecewise–smooth surface that bounds a solid T. Note that ∇v is continuously diﬀerentiable on T.
Thus, by the divergence theorem,
___
T
[ ∇ (∇v)] dxdydz =
__
S∪Ω
[(∇v) n] dσ
where n is the outer unit normal. Since the divergence of a curl is identically zero, we have
_ _
S∪Ω
[(∇v) n] dσ = 0.
Now n is n
1
on S and n
2
on Ω. Thus
_ _
S
[(∇v) n
1
] dσ +
_ _
Ω
[(∇v) n
2
] dσ = 0.
This gives
_ _
S
[(∇v) n
1
] dσ =
_ _
Ω
[(∇v) (−n
2
)] dσ =
_
C
v(r) dr
where C is traversed in a positive sense with respect to −n
2
and therefore in a positive sense with
respect to n
1
. (−n
2
points toward S.)
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SECTION 18.10 973
20. By the chain rule
dx
dt
=
d
dt
[x(u(t), v(t))] =
∂x
∂u
u
/
(t) +
∂x
∂v
v
/
(t).
Thus
_
C1
v
1
dx =
_
b
a
_
v
1
dx
dt
_
dt =
_
b
a
_
v
1
∂x
∂u
u
/
(t) +v
1
∂x
∂v
v
/
(t)
_
dt
=
_
Cr
v
1
∂x
∂u
du +v
1
∂x
∂v
dv
by Green’s theorem
=
_ _
Γ
_

∂u
_
v
1
∂x
∂v
_

∂v
_
v
1
∂x
∂u
__
dudv.
The integrand can be written
∂v
1
∂u
∂x
∂v
+v
1

2
x
∂u∂v

∂v
1
∂v
∂x
∂v
−v
1

2
x
∂v∂u
=
∂v
1
∂u
∂x
∂v

∂v
1
∂v
∂x
∂u
.
equality of partials
Thus we have
_
C
v
1
dx =
_ _
Γ
_
∂v
1
∂u
∂x
∂v

∂v
1
∂v
∂x
∂u
_
dudv.
By our previous choice of unit normal, n = N/ | N | . Therefore
_ _
S
[(∇v
1
i) n] dσ =
_ _
Γ
[(∇v
1
i) N] dudv.
Note that
(∇v
1
i) N =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k

∂x

∂y

∂z
v
1
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
∂x
∂u
∂y
∂u
∂z
∂u
∂x
∂v
∂y
∂v
∂z
∂v
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
_
∂v
1
∂z
j −
∂v
1
∂y
k
_

__
∂x
∂v
∂z
∂u

∂x
∂u
∂z
∂v
_
j +
_
∂x
∂u
∂y
∂v

∂x
∂v
∂y
∂u
_
k
_
=
∂v
1
∂z
_
∂x
∂v
∂z
∂u

∂x
∂u
∂z
∂v
_
+
∂v
1
∂y
_
∂x
∂v
∂y
∂u

∂x
∂u
∂y
∂v
_
=
_
∂v
1
∂z
∂z
∂u
+
∂v
1
∂y
∂y
∂u
_
∂x
∂v

_
∂v
1
∂z
∂z
∂v
+
∂v
1
∂y
∂y
∂v
_
∂x
∂u

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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
974 REVIEW EXERCISES
Now, by the chain rule,
∂v
1
∂u
=
∂v
1
∂x
∂x
∂u
+
∂v
1
∂y
∂y
∂u
+
∂v
1
∂z
∂z
∂u
,
∂v
1
∂v
=
∂v
1
∂x
∂x
∂v
+
∂v
1
∂y
∂y
∂v
+
∂v
1
∂z
∂z
∂v
.
Therefore
(∇v
1
i) N =
_
∂v
1
∂u

∂v
1
∂x
∂x
∂u
_
∂x
∂v

_
∂v
1
∂v

∂v
1
∂x
∂x
∂v
_
∂x
∂u
=
∂v
1
∂u
∂x
∂v

∂v
1
∂v
∂x
∂u
and, as asserted,
_ _
S
[(∇v
1
i) n] dσ =
_ _
Γ
_
∂v
1
∂u
∂x
∂v

∂v
1
∂v
∂x
∂u
_
dudv.
REVIEW EXERCISES
1. (a) r(u) = ui +uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1;
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(u
3
−u
2
) du = −
1
12
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
(2u
8
−3u
7
) du = −
11
72
2. (a)
_
C
h dr =
_
π/2
0
(−cos
3
u sin u + sin
3
ucos u) du = 0
(b)
_
C
h dr =
_
π/2
0
(−3 cos
11
usin u + 3 sin
11
ucos u) du = 0
3. Since h(x, y) = ∇f where f(x, y) = x
2
y
2
+
1
2
x
2
−y,
_
C
h(r) dr = f(2, 4) −f(−1, 2) =
119
2
for any curve C beginning at (−1, 2) and ending at (2, 4).
4. h(x, y) is a gradient:
∂P
∂y
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
=
∂Q
∂x
; h(x, y) = ∇arctan (y/x).
Therefore the integrals in (a), (b) and (c) all have the same value.
(a) r(u) = 2 cos ui + 2 sin uj, 0 ≤ u ≤
3
4
π;
_
C
h dr =
_
3π/4
0
_
−2 sin u
4
(−2 sin u) +
2 cos u
4
(2 cos u)
_
du =
_
3π/4
0
1 du =

4
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REVIEW EXERCISES 975
5. h(x, y, z) = sin y i +xe
xy
j + sin z k; r(u) = u
2
i +uj +u
3
k, u ∈ [ 0, 3 ]
x(u) = u
2
y(u) = u z(u) = u
3
, x
/
(u) = 2u, y
/
(u) = 1, z
/
(u) = 3u
2
h(r(u)) r
/
(u) = 2usin u +u
2
e
u
3
+ 3u
2
sin u
3
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
3
0
_
2usin u +u
2
e
u
3
+ 3u
2
sin u
3
_
du
=
_
−2u cos u + 2 sin u +
1
3
e
u
3
−cos u
3
_
3
0
=
2
3
−6 cos 3 + 2 sin 3 +
1
3
e
27
−cos 27
6. h(x, y, z) = x
2
i +xy j +z
2
k; r(u) = cos ui + sin uj +u
2
k, u ∈ [0, π/2]
h(r(u)) r
/
(u) = 2u
5
;
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
π/2
0
2u
5
du =
1
3
_
π
2
_
6
7. F(x, y, z) = xy i +yz j +xz k; r(u) = ui +u
2
j +u
3
k.
F(r(u)) r
/
= u
3
+ 5u
6
; W =
_
2
−1
(u
3
+ 5u
6
)du =
_
1
4
u
4
+
5
7
u
7
_
2
−1
=
2685
28
8. F(x, y) = xi + (y −2) j; r(u) = (u −sin u) i + (1 −cos u) j, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2π.
F(r(u)) r
/
= u −ucos u −2 sin u;
W =
_

0
(u −ucos u −2 sin u)du =
_
1
2
u
2
+usin u + 3 cos u
_

0
= 2π
2
9. A vector equation for the line segment is: r(u) = (1 + 2u) i + 4uk, u ∈ [ 0, 1 ].
F(r(u)) r
/
= C
2 + 20u

1 + 4u + 20u
2
;
_
C
F dr = C
_
1
0
(20u + 2)

1 + 4u + 20u
2
du = 4C
10. Suppose that the path C of the object is given by the vector function r = r(u), a ≤ u ≤ b. Then
r
/
= v is the velocity of the object and F v = 0. The work done by F is
_
C
F(r) dr =
_
b
a
F(r(u)) r
/
(u) du =
_
b
a
F(r(u)) v(u) du = 0.
11.
∂(ye
xy
+ 2x)
∂y
= e
xy
+xye
xy
=
∂(xe
xy
−2y)
∂x
(a) h(r(u)) r
/
= 3u
2
e
u
3
−4u
3
+ 2u;
_
C
h dr =
_
2
0
_
3u
2
e
u
3
−4u
3
+ 2u
_
du = e
8
−13
(b) Let f(x, y) = e
xy
+x
2
−y
2
. Then ∇f = h and
_
C
h dr = f(2, 4) −f(0, 0) = e
8
−13
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
976 REVIEW EXERCISES
12.
∂P
∂y
= 4xy + 2 =
∂Q
∂x
(a) h(r(u)) =
_
C
h dr =
_
1
0
_
6 + 66u + 216u
2
+ 576u
3
_
du =
_
6u + 33u
2
+ 72u
3
+ 144u
4
_
1
0
= 255
(b) Let f(x, y) = (x
2
y
2
+ 2xy). Then ∇f = h and
_
C
h dr = f(3, 5) −f(0, 1) = 255
13. h(x, y, z) = ∇f where f(x, y, z) = x
4
y
3
z
2
.
(a) h(r(u)) = 4u
15
i + 3u
14
j + 2u
13
k; r
/
(u) = i + 2uj + 3u
2
k
_
C
h(r) dr =
_
1
0
16 u
15
du = 1.
(b)
_
C
h(r) dr = f(r(1)) −f(r(0)) = f(1, 1, 1) −f(0, 0, 0) = 1.
14. (a) r(u) = ui + 4uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2
_
C
y
2
dx + (x
2
−xy) dy =
_
2
0
[16u
2
+ 4(u
2
−4u
2
)] du =
_
2
0
4u
2
du =
32
3
(b) C
1
: r(u) = ui, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2; C
2
: r(u) = 2i +uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ 8
_
C
y
2
dx + (x
2
−xy) dy =
_
C1
y
2
dx + (x
2
−xy) dy +
_
C2
y
2
dx + (x
2
−xy) dy = 0 +
_
8
0
(4 −2u)du = −32
(c) C : r(u) = ui +u
3
j, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2
_
C
y
2
dx + (x
2
−xy)dy =
_
2
0
(3u
4
−2u
6
) du = −
608
35
15. (a) r(u) = (1 −u)i +uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1.
_
C
2xy
1/2
dx +yx
1/2
dy =
_
1
0
_
2(1 −u)u
1/2
(−1) +u(1 −u)
1/2
_
du
= −2
_
1
0
(1 −u)u
1/2
du +
_
1
0
u(1 −u)
1/2
du
= −
_
1
0
(1 −u)u
1/2
du = −
4
15
(b) r
1
= i +uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1; r
2
= (1 −u) i +j
_
C
2xy
1/2
dx +yx
1/2
dy =
_
1
0
udu +
_
1
0
−2(1 −u) du = −
1
2
(c) r = cos ui + sin uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ π/2
_
C
2xy
1/2
dx +yx
1/2
dy =
_
π/2
0
_
−2 sin
3/2
u cos u + cos
3/2
u sin u
_
du = −
2
5
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REVIEW EXERCISES 977
16.
_
zdx +xdy +ydz =
_

0
(a
2
cos
2
u −ausin u +a sin u)du = πa
2
+ 2πa
17.
_
C
ye
xy
dx + cos xdy + (
xy
z
) dz =
_
2
0
_
u
2
e
u
3
+ 2ucos u + 3u
2
_
du
=
_
1
3
e
u
3
+ 2usin u + 2 cos u +u
3
_
2
0
=
1
3
e
8
+
17
3
+ 4 sin 2 + 2 cos 2
18. r = cos ui + sin uj; λ(x, y) = k; s
/
(u) = |r
/
| = 1.
(a) M =
_
C
λ(x, y) ds =
_
π
0
k du = kπ
By symmetry, x
M
= 0.
y
M
M =
_
C
yλ(x, y) ds =
_
π
0
k sin udu =
_
−k cos u
_
π
0
= 2k; y
M
=
2
π
(b)
I =
_
C
λ(x, y)R
2
(x, y) ds =
_
C
kx
2
ds
=
_
π
0
k cos
2
udu =
k
2
_
π
0
(1 + sin 2u) du =
1
2

19. (a) Set C
1
: r(u) = ui +u
2
j, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1; C
2
: r(u) = (1 −u) i +

1 −uj, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1.
Then, C = C
1
+C
2
.
_
C
xy
2
dx −x
2
y dy =
_
C1
xy
2
dx −x
2
y dy +
_
C2
xy
2
dx −x
2
y dy
=
_
1
0
(u
5
−2u
5
) du +
_
1
0
_
−(1 −u)
2
+
1
2
(1 −u)
2
¸
du
=
_
1
0
_
−u
5
_
du −
1
2
_
1
0
(1 −u)
2
du =
_

1
6
u
6
+
1
6
(1 −u)
3
_
1
0
= −
1
3
(b) P = xy
2
; Q = −x
2
y
_
C
xy
2
dx −x
2
y dy =
_
1
0
_

x
x
2
(−4xy) dy dx =
_
1
0
_
2x
2
−2x
5
_
dx = −
1
3
20. (a)
_
C
(x
2
+y
2
) dx + (x
2
−y
2
) dy =
__
Ω
(2x −2y) dxdy =
_

0
_
1
0
(2r cos θ −2r sin θ)r dr dθ = 0
(b)
_
C
(x
2
+y
2
) dx + (x
2
−y
2
) dy =
_

0
(−sin u + cos 2ucos u) du = 0
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978 REVIEW EXERCISES
21. P = x −2y
2
; Q = 2xy
_
C
(x −2y
2
) dx + 2xy dy =
_
2
0
_
1
0
6y dy dx = 6
22.
_
C
xy dx +
_
1
2
x
2
+xy
_
dy =
__
Ω
y dxdy =
_
1
−1
_

1−x
2
2
0
y dy dx =
_
1
−1
1
8
(1 −x
2
)dx =
1
6
23. P = ln(x
2
+y
2
); Q = ln(x
2
+y
2
);
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
=
2x −2y
x
2
+y
2
_
C
ln(x
2
+y
2
) dx + ln(x
2
+y
2
) dy =
__
Ω
2x −2y
x
2
+y
2
dxdy
=
_
π
0
_
2
1
2r cos θ −2r sin θ
r
2
r dr dθ
= 2
_
π
0
_
2
1
(cos θ −sin θ) dr dθ = −4
24. P = 1/y, Q = 1/x,
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
= −
1
x
2
+
1
y
2
_
C
(1/y) dx + (1/x) dy =
__
Ω
_
−x
−2
+y
−2
_
dxdy =
_
4
1
_

x
1
_
−x
−2
+y
−2
_
dy dx
=
_
4
1
_
−x
−3/2
−x
−1/2
+x
−2
+ 1
_
dx =
3
4
25.
_
y
2
dx =
__
Ω
−2ydxdy =
_

0
_
1+sinθ
0
−2r
2
sin θ dr dθ =
_

0
(−
2
3
)(1 + sin θ)
3
sin θ dθ = −

2
26. P = e
y
cos x, Q = −e
y
sin x,
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
= −2e
y
cos x
_
C
e
y
cos xdx −e
y
sin xdy =
__
Ω
(−2e
y
cos x) dxdy =
_
π/2
0
_
1
0
(−2e
y
cos x) dy dx = 2(1 −e)
27. C
1
: r(u) = −ui + (4 −u
2
) j, −2 ≤ u ≤ 2; C
2
: r(u) = ui, −2 ≤ u ≤ 2; C = C
1
∪ C
2
A =
1
2
_
C
(−y dx +xdy) =
1
2
_
C1
(−y dx +xdy) +
1
2
_
C2
(−y dx +xdy)
=
1
2
_
2
−2
−(4 −u
2
)(−1) du −u(−2u) du +
1
2
_
2
−2
0 du
=
_
2
−2
(4 +u
2
) du =
32
3
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
REVIEW EXERCISES 979
28. C
1
: r(u) = (3 −2u) i + (1 + 2u) j, 0 ≤ u ≤ 1; C
2
: r(u) = ui + (3/u) j, 1 ≤ u ≤ 3;
C = C
1
∪ C
2
A =
1
2
_
C
(−y dx +xdy) =
1
2
_
C1
(−y dx +xdy) +
1
2
_
C2
(−y dx +xdy)
=
1
2
_
1
0
[−(1 + 2u)(−2) + (3 −2u)2] du +
1
2
_
3
1
[−(3/u) +u(−3/u
2
)] du
=
1
2
_
1
0
8 du +
1
2
_
3
1
(−6/u) du = 4 −3 ln 3
29. By symmetry, it is suﬃcient to consider the upper part of the sphere: z =
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
∂z
∂x
=
−x
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
,
∂z
∂y
=
−y
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
Let Ω be the projection of the sphere onto the xy plane, then
S = 2
__
Ω
_
(z
x
)
2
+ (z
y
)
2
+ 1 dxdy = 2
__
Ω
2
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
dxdy
= 4
_
π/2
−π/2
_
2cos θ
0
1

4 −r
2
r dr dθ
= 4
_
π/2
−π/2
_
2 −2
_
1 −cos
2
θ
_
dθ = 8(π −2)
30. From x +y + 2z = 4, we get z =
4 −x −y
2
and z
x
= −
1
2
, z
y
= −
1
2
.
area of S =
__
Ω
_
z
2
x
+z
2
y
+ 1 dxdy =
_
3
2
_

0
_
2
0
r dr dθ = 2

6π.
31.
∂z
∂x
=
x
_
x
2
+y
2
,
∂z
∂y
=
y
_
x
2
+y
2
.
The projection Ω of the surface onto the xy plane is the disk x
2
+y
2
≤ 9.
S =
__
Ω
_
(z
x
)
2
+ (z
y
)
2
+ 1 dxdy =
__
Ω

2 dxdy =
_

0
_
3
0

2 r dr dθ = 9 π

2
32. A = 2
__
Ω
_
z
2
x
+z
2
y
+ 1 dxdy = 2
__
Ω
_
4x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 1 dxdy
= 2
_

0
_
3
0
_
1 + 4r
2
r dr dθ = 4π
_
3
0
_
1 + 4r
2
r dr
=
π
3
(37
3/2
−1)
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
980 REVIEW EXERCISES
33.
__
S
yz dσ =

2
_

0
_
1
0
r
2
sin θ(r sin θ + 4) dr dθ =

4
34.
__
S
xz dσ =
__
S
x(1 −x −y) dσ =
__
Ω
x(1 −x −y)

3 dxdy =

3
_
1
0
_
1−x
0
x(1 −x −y)dy dx =

3
24
35. The cylindrical surface S
1
is parametrized by: x = u, y = 2 cos v, z = 2 sin v, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2, 0 ≤ v ≤ 2π.
N(u, v) = −2 cos v i −2 sin v j, |[N(u, v)|[ = 2
__
S1
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
dσ =
_
2
0
_

0
_
u
2
+ 4
_
2 dv du =
128π
3
The disc S
2
: x = 0, y
2
+z
2
is parametrized by: x = 0, y = ucos v, z = usin v, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2,
0 ≤ v ≤ 2π.
N = ui, |[N(u, v)|[ = u;
__
S2
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
dσ =
_
2
0
_

0
_
0 +u
2
_
udv du = 8π
The disc S
3
: x = 2, y
2
+z
2
is parametrized by: x = 2, y = ucos v, z = usin v, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2,
0 ≤ v ≤ 2π.
N = ui, |[N(u, v)|[ = u;
__
S2
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
dσ =
_
2
0
_

0
_
4 +u
2
_
udv du = 24π
Thus,
__
S
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
dσ =
128π
3
+ 8π + 24π =
224π
3
36. The cylindrical surface S is parametrized by:
x = 2 cos u, y = 2 sin u, z = v, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ v ≤ 1.
N(u, v) = 2 cos ui −2 sin uj, |[N(u, v)|[ = 2;
__
S
xz dσ =
_
1
0
_

0
2v cos u(2) dv du = 0.
37. ∇ v = 4x, ∇v = 2yk 38 ∇ v = 0, ∇v = 0
39. ∇ v = 1 +xy, ∇v = (xz −x)i −yzj +zk
40. ∇ v = yz +xsin xy, ∇v = xcos xyi + (xy −y cos xy)j + (y sin xy −xz)k
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REVIEW EXERCISES 981
41. (a) ∇ v = z −x +y
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
0
(z −x +y)dzdydx =
1
2
(b) at x = 0, n = −i, v n = 0,
_
1
0
_
1
0
0dydz = 0
at x = 1, n = i, v n = z,
_
1
0
_
1
0
zdydz = 1/2
at y = 0, n = −j, v n = xy = 0,
_
1
0
_
1
0
0dxdz = 0
at y = 1, n = j, v n = −xy = −x,
_
1
0
_
1
0
−xdxdz = −1/2
at z = 0, n = −k, v n = 0,
_
1
0
_
1
0
0dydx = 0
at z = 1, n = k, v n = yz,
_
1
0
_
1
0
ydydx = 1/2
The sum is 1/2
42. (a) ∇ v = 3
___
T
3 dxdydz =
_
4
0
_

0
_
1
0
3r dr dθ dx = 4(2π)(
3
2
) = 12π
(b) at x = 0, n = −i, v n = −z,
__
S
−z dydz = 0 (by symmetry)
at x = 4, n = i, v n = 4 +z,
__
S
(4 +z) dydz =
__
S
4 dydz = 4π
for z =
_
1 −y
2
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 4, n = −y j +
_
1 −y
2
k and
v n = 1 −2y
2
−y
_
1 −y
2
+x
_
1 −y
2
_
1
−1
_
4
0
(1 −2y
2
−y
_
1 −y
2
+x
_
1 −y
2
)dxdy = 8 −
16
3
+ 4π
for z = −
_
1 −y
2
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 4, n = y j +
_
1 −y
2
k and
v n = −1 + 2y
2
−y
_
1 −y
2
+x
_
1 −y
2
_
1
−1
_
4
0
(−1 + 2y
2
−y
_
1 −y
2
+x
_
1 −y
2
)dxdy = −8 +
16
3
+ 4π
The sum is 12π
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
982 REVIEW EXERCISES
43. The projection of S onto the xy-plane is: Ω : x
2
+y
2
≤ 9.
__
S
v ndσ =
__
Ω
_
4x
2
+ 2xyz +z
2
_
dxdy
=
__
Ω
_
4x
2
+ 2xy
_
9 −x
2
−y
2
¸
+
_
9 −x
2
−y
2
¸
2
_
dxdy
=
_

0
_
3
0
_
4r
2
cos
2
θ +r
2
(9 −r
2
) sin 2θ + (9 −r
2
)
2
¸
rdr dθ = 324π
44. On x = 0, n = −i, v n = −x
2
= 0, the ﬂux is 0;
on x = a, n = i, v n = a
2
, the ﬂux is a
4
;
on y = 0, n = −j, v n = xz, the ﬂux is
_
a
0
_
a
0
xz dxdz =
1
4
a
2
;
on y = a, n = j, v n = −xz, the ﬂux is
_
a
0
_
a
0
−xz dxdz = −
1
4
a
2
;
on z = 0, n = −k, v n = 0, the ﬂux is 0;
on z = a, n = k, v n = a
2
, the ﬂux is a
4
.
Hence the total ﬂux is 2a
4
.
45. (a) (∇ v) n = (i +j +k)
_

1
2
xi −
1
2
y j +
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
2
k
_
= −
1
2
x −
1
2
y +
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
2
__
S
_

1
2
x −
1
2
y +
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
2
_
dσ =
__
S
_

1
2
x −
1
2
y +
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
2
_
2
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
dxdy
=
__
_
−x
_
4 −x
2
−y
2

−y
_
4 −x
2
−y
2
+ 1
_
dxdy
=
_

0
_
2
0
_

r cos θ

4 −r
2

r sin θ

4 −r
2
+ 1
_
r dr dθ = 4π
(b) r(θ) = 2 cos θ i + 2 sin θ j, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π
__
S
[(∇v) n]dσ =
_
C
v(r) dr =
_

0
4 cos
2
θdθ = 4π
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JWDD027-18 JWDD027-Salas-v1 January 4, 2007 18:12
REVIEW EXERCISES 983
46. (a) v = z
3
i +xj +y
2
k; n =
2xi + 2y j +k
_
1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
;
__
S
[(∇v) n] dσ =
__
S
1
_
1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
(4xy + 6yz
2
+ 1) dσ
=
__
Ω
(4xy + 6yz
2
+ 1) dxdy
=
__
Ω
[4xy + 6y(9 −x
2
−y
2
)
2
+ 1] dxdy
=
_

0
_
3
0
_
4r
2
cos θ sin θ + 6r sin θ(9 −r
2
)
2
+ 1
¸
r dr dθ
=
_
3
0
2πr dr = 9π
(b) The boundary of the surface is the curve x
2
+y
2
= 9, z = 0; r(u) = 3 cos ui + 3 sin uj + 0 k;
v(r(u)) = 3 cos uj + 9 sin
2
uk; r
/
(u) = −3 sin ui + 3 cos uj
_
C
v dr =
_

0
9 cos
2
udu = 9π.