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Revisited”. pp. 142-145. Tucumán. 2011. ISBN 978-987-26208-1-3
Literature in Teacher Education: modelling e-competencies (A Room of One's Own Presentation) Prof. Mariel R. Amez Instituto de Educación Superior “Olga Cossettini” - ISPI “San Bartolomé” APrIR Rosario firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This paper examines the e-competencies framework proposed by Cobo Romaní (2009), as well as SITE and UNESCO guidelines for ICT Teacher Education. It then introduces the findings of a questionnaire administered to some pre-service Teacher Education students in Rosario, regarding the extent and characteristics of their online activity. Finally, it reviews the work implemented in Literature classes, discussing its impact to model effective development of e-competencies in new learning environments
Literature in Teacher Education: modelling e-competencies Education today: theoretical guidelines The changes in access to information and generation of knowledge associated with the developments in technology have revolutionized the world of work and prompted agencies worldwide to set out the requirements education should meet in our times. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, for example, organises the skills, knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life into the Framework for 21st Century Learning (2009), which brings together the following components, interconnected in the teaching and learning processes core subjects and 21st century themes learning and innovation skills life and career skills information, media and technology skills Similarly, the Education Council (European Commission 2007) identifies "eight key competences", which are considered to interlock, with a number of themes that are applied throughout them, such as critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem-solving, risk assessment, and decisiontaking. communication in the mother tongue communication in foreign languages mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology learning to learn social and civic competences sense of initiative and entrepreneurship cultural awareness and expression
The European Commision uses the term competence rather than competency, which has been respected in this paper.
integrates most of the competencies outlined both in the Framework for 21st Century Learning and in the European Commission's report. As a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration. technological literacy. Cobo argues. interactive learning environments" (Khvilon & Patru. they involve "the proficient use of information and the application of knowledge to work individually and collaboratively in changing contexts" and are constituted by the interaction of e-awareness. skills and new capabilities in both social and professional life" and also includes legal and ethical behaviour Technological literacy refers to the "ability to interact with hardware and software. Pedagogy. Clearly. informational literacy. communication devices and management applications" It also "embraces understanding of the opportunities and potential risks of the Internet and communications via electronic media for activities such as networking. knowledge and other sources. share. but as a driver for change in the teaching-learning process that will bring about a movement "from teachercentred. which has three main components: Content. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). platforms and ways of communication and interaction and. the understanding of how and why it produces meaning (constructs reality) as well as the social. data. The Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (Thompson et al. We need to re-think the curriculum." Informational literacy "means the ability to read with meaning. exchange and communicate in multiple formats. Beyond the use of any specific ICT. he recommends a bottom-up approach in which the consideration of teachers and students views is paramount." Media literacy relates to "the comprehension of how the media works. manage. among other steps. Mishra and Koehler (2007) put forward the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) model." The development of e-competencies. store. economic and political implications. the interactions among which yield Content Knowledge (CT). to understand critically and importantly – to evaluate. It can be seen that Cobo's framework. and that students should experience innovative technologysupported learning environments in their teacher education programme. sharing information. either textual or multimedia. which are characterized as follows. etc. and Technology. 2002). how it is evolving towards new formats. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK). legal. lecture-based instruction to student centred. and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). as well as productivity applications. digital competence Cobo Romaní (2009) proposes the term e-competencies to include "a set of capabilities. though taking ICT competency as a starting point. present." Digital literacy involves "using technology for information and knowledge in order to access. collaborating. digital literacy and media literacy. st It is our contention that effective teacher education for the 21 century should not only foster the students' development of e-competencies. E-awareness concerns the "capability to understand and adopt the lifelong-learning paradigm and the use of ICTs as a medium to facilitate individual or collective development of knowledge. and while the scope of such a project is multidimensional and concerns policy-making. enhanced by the utilisation of digital technologies and the strategic use of information". technology should be introduced in context and infused into the entire teacher education programme. Technological Knowledge (TK). Technological Content Knowledge (TCK). how it is organised. retrieve. Technology is no longer perceived as either content or tool. synthesise. connect and integrate different information. organise. pre-service teacher education plays a crucial role to achieve this goal. Literature in Teacher Education: putting theory into practice . needs to be underpinned by a transformation of the teaching and learning paradigm. guided by the TPCK model. integrate. but also model the use of learning environments supported by technology. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK). in order to develop effective ICT teacher education. 1998) recommends that. finally. thus embracing cognitive abilities and technical proficiencies. value informal learning. skills and abilities to exploit tacit and explicit knowledge. devise innovative and flexible forms of assessment.
downloading materials and academic work. A total of 36 students (all female) responded. and suggest that even if young people are technologically savvy this "does not necessarily mean they want to use these technologies constantly and in all the contexts of their lives" (e. Not surprisingly. I decided to start the 2011 academic year by administering a survey via a nd th Google form to my 2 and 4 year Literature students in two EFL Teacher Education programmes in Rosario. Bennett. It can be seen that their amount of online activity (How much time do you spend online?) justifies classifying most of the students as digital natives. Maton & Kervin.0 activities such as blogging or podcasting. 2009).Given that a number of studies challenge the scientific validity of the popular labelling as "digital natives" of those who were born in the 1980’s and onwards (e. and 12 aged 26 or over.0 technologies. 2008). collaborative writing tools (associated with academic work) were used to a certain extent.g. Kennedy et al. personal Look for info school Read (known people) Read unknown people) Emails Games Write (personal Write (school) Downloa d Upload (others) Upload (own) Campus All the time Often Stimes Never 15 18 3 0 1 3 14 18 7 20 9 0 14 17 4 0 2 15 15 4 1 3 25 7 0 10 17 9 5 17 13 1 10 15 11 0 0 1 7 28 0 4 13 19 7 21 6 2 The last aspect of the survey concerned their use of Web 2. With the aim of obtaining concrete responses. so findings will be reported for the total of respondents.g. the social network Facebook appeared as a really popular choice. their traditional use of the web (What do you do online?) contradicts that assumption. PBWorks/ Pbwiki I'm a frequent user to do things myself I'm a frequent user to check what others do Used it occasionally Heard about it but never used it Never heard about it 1 Wikispaces 2 Google Docs 7 0 3 4 28 3 8 12 11 3 12 10 4 Blogger I'm a frequent user to do things myself I'm a frequent user to check what others do Posterous Wordpress Facebook Twitter Delicious Diigo 1 0 0 18 2 0 0 0 0 1 9 3 0 0 . (see full questionnaire in Appendix 1). Less than one hour a week Frequency of Internet access 4 Between 2 and 5 hours per week 19 Between 6 and 10 hours a week 10 More than 10 hours a week 3 However. since the most frequent activities are email interaction. On the whole no significant differences were observed between these two age groups or between state and private institutions. though. Predictably. 24 of them under 25 years old. Look for Info. actual tools or service providers were included in the options rather than Web 2. while blogging and social bookmarking platforms were virtually unknown.
Xtranormal. and on my personal page included links to my Twitter and Goodreads (social book sharing site) account. Although the year is in progress at the time of writing this paper. through the application of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Voicethread. All classes participated separately in some forums in their VLE. It is to be hoped this experience will encourage them. and instructions were provided to tag and nd categorise the compulsory posts. Useful Web 2. the journal was completed through "traditional" personal posts. In the case of th 4 year. ToonDoo) but of these only BBC podcasts had been used occasionally – probably also academically. In these classes. available from the beginning of the year. A number of students chose to do one of the optional activities (Twitter was the most popular). In addition. a Photovisi collage of To the Lighthouse covers was the input for the initial post.0 tools and Twitter tips. whose characteristics include a high level of digital aptitude. the input for which was a series of covers for The Great Gatsby and a reader's review of the novel on Goodreads. It was therefore challenging to model learning in new environments for them to progress in the development of e-competencies. Podbean. In 2011 I set up a space for the classes mentioned on the free SNS Spruz. teachers-to-be have developed a number of e-competencies. I have been using Social Networking Sites (SNS) since 2009 (see Amez 2009 and 2010 for a description of these experiences) in addition to the institutional VLE. Tutorials for other tools were made available when necessary to carry out an activity. or to tweet part of their reading process in lieu of a post. The results showed that these students did not fit the stereotype of the "digital native". I am extremely pleased with the results so far. embed videos from social sites (uploading of videos is not allowed). in addition to forums and another journal. a culture of sharing information and literacy in multiple media. four personal posts were assigned. On the Spruz homepage I provided the RSS feed for the Delicious tag chosen for each subject. where. with the invitation to make one of the posts a podcast on Audioboo and embed it in their blog. which required them to compare some theoretical materials with a literary text. integrate. Reading journals were the focus of the first term. activities will include digital storytelling and social bookmarking on Diigo. and personalise their pages in terms of features and colours. Tagging and social bookmarking. In the case of 2 year. on graduation. and no final assessment of or by the students has been made. and later directed to the ones required to complete a certain task. Netiquette. to make their own classrooms student centred. innovative technology-supported learning environments have been modelled in the context of one subject. though not of design. and all members' blogs are brought together. members can upload and embed photos. produce and share materials in multiple formats. interactive learning environments. Podomatic. and most of them took pains to look for. Students kept a record of the activities they carried out by filling in a collaborative spreadsheet on Google docs.Used it occasionally Heard about it but never used it Never heard about it 7 1 0 4 4 2 0 18 10 3 32 3 32 5 0 26 1 6 28 6 30 Other services included in the options regarded podcasting and digital storytelling (Voki. BBC Podcasts. The posts combined personal tips with videos available online on the following issues: Looking for and assessing information online. Students were invited to read them at the start. and to interact among themselves. prediction activities were made in a collective VoiceThread. images and videos). Itunes. The students were encouraged to read and comment on other journals. which provides a moderately customisable network in terms of appearance. I also put together some tutorials on Blogging on Spruz in particular (adding links. where subgroups can be set up. I created a blog category for topics related to Technological Knowledge and Technological Content Knowledge. . select. In the second term.
. P. & Kervin. 2011 from http://site. (2009). J. In Teachers in Action: Making the latest trends work in the classroom – XXXIV FAAPI Conference Proceedings. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. A.. Judd. The `digital natives' debate: A critical review of the evidence.aace.edu.. & Willis. Retrieved 21 May. S. Dalgarno.pdf Khvilon. Brussels. Retrieved 1 April. SITE Position Paper: Statement of Basic Principles and Suggested Actions. Bull.0 resources in Literature Teaching. Bishop. L.pdf . Educating the Net Generation: A Handbook of findings for practice and policy.J.. M. Amez. Retrieved May 7.skope. Waycott. VA: AACE.org/documents/P21_Framework_Definitions. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK): Confronting the Wicked Problems of Teaching with Technology. 775-786. T.. (2008) ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. Gray. Knowledge and Organisational Performance. M.References Amez.. E. Paris. (2009).. Oxford University & The School of Social Sciences. R. M.org/images/0012/001295/129533e. From Learner to Prosumer: Interactions between Art and Literature from a Connectivist Perspective. 2010. Retrieved 21 April. UNESCO. from http://www.. ESRC Centre on Skills. (2002) Information and Communication Technologies in Teacher Education. (2008).unimelb.. 2011 from http://www. S. J.unesco. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2007 (pp. EBook. Patru. Framework for 21st Century Learning.org/position-paper. Department of Education.aace. Intel and Microsoft. Cardiff University. http://ec. 2011 from http://unesdoc.netgen. Maton. Maton. Commission of the European Communities. K.pdf Thompson. (Eds. (2007).eu/dgs/education_culture/publ/pdf/ll-learning/keycomp_en.pdf Mishra. from http://www. G..html UNESCO et al. Retrieved October 14. Chesapeake. 2011 from http://unesdoc..pdf Kennedy. L. Carlsen et al. C. Cordoba : FAAPI. B. K. Retrieved 10 April.. Retrieved 2 June.ox. & Chang. (1998). A planning guide.unesco. (2009). & Koehler. (2009). Strategies to Promote the Development of E-Competencies in the Next Generation of Professionals: European and International Trends. In R. Australian Learning and Teaching Council.doc Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Cisco. G.p21. 2010. Of Mouse and Book: Using Web 2. (2010).uk/publications/strategies-promote-development-e-competencies-nextgeneration-professionals-european-an European Commission (2007) Key Competences for Lifelong Learning . 2214-2226).au/downloads/handbook/NetGenHandbookAll. Cobo Romaní.europa. Bahía Blanca: FAAPI. UNESCO Division of Higher Education.. 2011 from https://www.ac. Krause. Bennett. In EFL and Art: Learning English with all our senses : selected papers from the XXXV FAAPI Conference. A.. 39 (5).). Bennett. K.org/conf/site/mishra_invited.org/images/0015/001562/156209e. British Journal of Educational Technology..EuropeanReference Framework. M.
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