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World Journal of Science and Technology 2011, 1(8): 144-148 ISSN: 2231 2587 www.worldjournalofscience.

com

SPEED CONTROL OF AC/DC MOTOR USING SINGLE PHASE LINE-INTERACTIVE POWER SUPPLY
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Sharanbasappa.B.Belamgi, 1Hameed Miyan 2V.Satyanaga Kumar and 1Sanjeevkumar Gogga Department of electronics & communication engg.REC, Bhalki-585328, India 2 Chairman of Electrical Department, UVCE, Bangalore, India Corresponding author e-mail: sharanrec@gmail.com; hameedmiyan@gmail.com
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Abstract
An improved single-phase line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is proposed for low-power applications with low cost. The proposed UPS is comprised of two pushpull converters based on low-voltage battery for reduced cost: one in series with the input and the other in parallel with the load. In the presence of input power, the UPS acts as an output voltage regulator and at the same time as an active filter while charging the battery. In case of loss of input power, the UPS supplies a regulated sinusoidal voltage to the load, drawing power from the battery. The series converter compensates only a small percentage of the input voltage carrying the input current and, therefore, a reduced rating is made. The parallel converter always supplies a nominal voltage and makes a seamless transition to backup mode. In this paper we designed & fabricated the UPS for the speed control of AC/DC motor using PWM technique. We have noted the experimental results for no load with output voltage 250V & speed of 1500rpm & for on load vary from 200gms to 3000gms with the output voltage & speed of 245V to 228V & 1500rpm to 1250rpm respectively. Keywords: Active filter, battery charger, line conditioner, uninterruptible power supply.

Introduction
UNINTERRUPTIBLE power supplies (UPSs) are used to supply clean and uninterrupted power to critical loads, e.g., computers, medical/life support systems, communication systems, industrial controls, etc., under any normal or abnormal utility power conditions, including outages from a few milliseconds up to several hours duration. This holdup time is totally dependent upon the size of the critical load and the energy-storage capabilities built into the UPS powering this critical load. In order to supply output power in the absence of the input power, the UPS employs some form of bulk energy-storage mechanism. Most UPS systems use valve-regulated lead-acid batteries or glass matte starved electrolyte batteries for this purpose. These maintenance-free batteries are the most widely used energy-storage devices because of their portability and low maintenance requirements.

Based on topology or configuration, UPSs may be classified as line preferred, inverter preferred, or line interactive. A line-preferred UPS, as shown in Fig. 1(a), also known as the offline UPS, consists of a charger, a battery set, an inverter, a static bypass switch and in certain instances, an isolation transformer. Under normal utility line conditions, the load is directly supplied from the unconditioned utility line while the battery is charged. When utility power is lost, the static switch transfers the load from the input line to the phase-synchronized inverter. The transfer time is to be a maximum time of 1/4 line period, which does not affect the modern computer loads. Thus, this type of UPS does not provide automatic voltage regulation, but can act as an active power filter [1] [4]. An inverter-preferred UPS, as shown in Fig. 1(b) [5], also known as an online double-conversion UPS, supplies the load through the inverter during both abnormal and normal input power conditions. A rectifier charges the battery, floating on the dc link,

World Journal of Science and Technology | www.worldjournalofscience.com | 2011 | 1(8): 144-148

and also powers the inverter. A static bypass switch may connect the input line to the load, bypassing the inverter during overload or inverter failure. This UPS is composed of the pulse width modulation (PWM) rectifier/inverter, providing a regulated output voltage regardless of input power conditions. The PWM rectifier also presents a high power factor to the utility load. This topology is usually the most costly. The line-interactive UPS [Fig. 1(c)] performs midway between the offline and the online UPSs [6] [9]. It consists of a single static converter in parallel with the load and another in series with the input source. The output control has two degrees of freedom for controlling the output voltage namely phase and amplitude. Therefore, the output voltage can be regulated and the input power factor can be controlled. The two converters can be controlled independently with the parallel converter controlling the output voltage and the series one controlling the input-line current. Normal power flow is from the input line to the load with the parallel converter operating as a rectifier. In loss of the input power, the static switch opens and the inverter supplies power to the load. The UPS provides active power filtering, controlling the amplitude and phase of the output voltage. This line-interactive UPS is less costly than the topology shown in Fig. 1(b), but the control over the input current and the output voltage is complex, when not operating in the battery made. In this paper, an improved single-phase lineinteractive UPS (Fig. 2) is proposed for low-power and low-cost applications. This UPS has simple power circuit configuration and therefore can be controlled easily compared to the line-interactive designs of [6][9]. This UPS is composed of two pushpull converters, based on low battery voltage for a reduced cost one in series with the input and the other in parallel with the load. The UPS provides: 1) a regulated sinusoidal output voltage; 2) sinusoidal input current with low total harmonic distortion (THD); 3) negligible transition time from charging to backup mode during power failure; and 4) the charging capability of the battery, without additional hardware. Thus the performance of the proposed UPS approaches that of the ideal online UPS. The series converter compensates only a small percentage of the input voltage reducing its power to less than that of the PWM rectifier of the ideal online UPS, thereby reducing system cost when on utility power; the parallel converter compensates only the reactive power of the load increasing UPS efficiency.

Experimental results of speed control of AC/DC for various loads with the proposed UPS.

Fig 1. Three types of UPSs. (a) Linepreferred UPS. (b) Inverter-preferred UPS. (c) Line-interactive UPS System Description
Single-Phase line-interactive Power supply circuit as shown in fig (2) is extended AC/DC motor speed control applications. The circuit is capable of driving AC/DC motors rated up to 230V & 0.8 Amps continuous thus able to deliver a maximum power of 200W. The power control is achieved by pulse width modulation where the frequency is kept constant & the Ton time is varied from zero to maximum by a control signal.

Fig 2. Proposed Circuit diagram of Single-Phase line-interactive Power supply circuit

World Journal of Science and Technology | www.worldjournalofscience.com | 2011 | 1(8): 144-148

System Analysis
PWM Oscillator Control circuit The operation of the PWM concept is shown in fig (2). The waveforms are shown in fig (3). When the voltage at non inverting input is more than the voltage at inverting input, the output swings to +Vsat. similarly if the voltage at non inverting input is less than the voltage at the inverting input, the output swings to Vsat ( In this case it is zero volt). The pulse width depends upon the feedback signal. As the pulse width changes the average voltage changes at output. There by the speed of the motor varied from minimum to maximum by varying the duty cycle from 5% to 50% & it given as. (3.1)

then the reference voltage of a comparator then the relay will energized automatically. If the load is more than the rated load the automatically inverter output will become zero. There by the various components of the circuit is protected. Experimental Results and Discussion The experimental setup of Speed Control of AC/DC Motor Using Single Phase Line-Interactive Power Supply is shown in fig (4). The overall circuit diagram of the single phase line interactive UPS is shown in fig (2). The PWM pulses are generated through PWM Oscillatory control circuit, the pulse width is varied by varying the duty cycle of the pulse then the output voltage & the speed of the motor varies. Table (1), shows the output voltages & speeds of the motor for different loads.

Table 1.The output voltages & Speed of the motor for different loads
Load (grams) No load Fig 3. generation of PWM waveform Driver & Output selections MOSFET driver circuit is shown in fig (2). The switching function of MOSFET provides variable current at the transformer winding in such a way that the variable current flows through the primary winding of main transformer which produces magnetic flux around the primary winding. This will induces voltage in the secondary winding. Constant Voltage Charger Circuit: The Charger circuit keeps the battery charged when the main power supply is available. The AC input is rectified & filtered & the regulated voltage is fed to the base of the transistor 2N377. The circuit diagram of the constant voltage power supply is shown in fig (2). Over load protection circuit: Fig (2) shows the circuit diagram of the overload protection circuit. In this circuit the transformer is used for monitoring the load current continuously. If the variable voltage is equal or more 200 500 1000 1500 2000 3000 Output Voltage Speed of (Volts) motor (rpm) 250 245 243 241 239 236 228 1500 1500 1490 1490 1420 1380 1250

The experimental waveform for PWM control with duty cycle 5% & 50% is shown in fig (5), Fig (6) shows the sinusoidal waveform at the output of step up transformer (inverter transformer) at a speed of 1500rpm. With loss of the input power, the UPS transfers instantly to the backup mode to minimize a transient effect of the output voltage, demonstrating the fast detection algorithm of the input voltage. Fig. (7) shows a transient waveform of the output voltage in the backup mode under resistive load. The transfer time is about 1ms (desired to be less than 1/4 line

World Journal of Science and Technology | www.worldjournalofscience.com | 2011 | 1(8): 144-148

period) with the transient output voltage not deteriorating any load.

Conclusion
A novel improved single phase line interactive UPS for low power application has been proposed. The proposed UPS combines low cost with excellent performance. In the absence of input power, the UPS acts as an output voltage regulator, an active power filter & battery charger. In case of loss of input power the UPS supplies a regulated sinusoidal voltage to the load drawing power from the battery. The reliability of an line interactive UPS to the proposed low-cost UPS. There is a smooth variation in the speed of the motor from zero to its rated speed.

Fig 4. Experimental setup of Speed Control of AC/DC Motor Using Single Phase LineInteractive Power Supply

References
1. Bong-Hwan,Jin-Ha Choi, & Tae-won Kim,(2001). Improved Single- Phase LineInteractive UPS,IEEE transaction on industrial electronics. 2. T. Kawabata, T. Miyashita, N. Sashida, and Y. Yamamoto, (1989). Three-phase parallel processing UPS using multi-functional inverter, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, pp. 982987. 3. S. J. Chiang, S. C. Huang, and C. M. Liaw, (1995). Three-phase multi-functional battery energy storage system, Proc. IEEElect. Power Applicat., vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 275284. 4. H. L. Jou, J. C. Wu, and H. Y. Chu, (1995). New single-phase active power filter, Proc. IEEElect. Power Applicat., vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 129134.
Fig 6.The sinusoidal waveform at the output of step up transformer (inverter transformer) at a speed of 1500rpm

Fig 5. PWM control waveform with duty cycle of 50% & 5% respectively

5. C. Y. Hsu and H. Y. Wu, (1996). A new singlephase active power filter with reduced energystorage capacity, Proc. IEEElect. Power Applicat.vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 2530. 6. A. V. Jouanne, P. N. Enjeti, and D. J. Lucas,(1996). DSP control of high-power UPS systems feedings nonlinear loads, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 43, pp. 121125, Feb. 7. F. Kamran and T. G. Habetler, (1998). A novel on-line UPS with universal filtering capabilities, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 13, pp. 410 418.

Fig 7.Transient waveform of the output voltage to the backup mode

World Journal of Science and Technology | www.worldjournalofscience.com | 2011 | 1(8): 144-148

8. S. Rathmann and H. A. Warner, (1996). New generation UPS technology, the delta conversion principle, in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, pp. 23892395.

9. S. Moran, (1989). A line voltage regulator/conditioner for harmonic-sensitive load isolation, in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, pp. 945951.

World Journal of Science and Technology | www.worldjournalofscience.com | 2011 | 1(8): 144-148