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GuidelinesforFoodSafetyControlin RetailEstablishments

Authors: RachelPearce,B.Sc.,Ph.D. BlithnMaunsell,B.Sc.,Ph.D. DeclanJ.Bolton,B.Sc.,Ph.D.,Grad.Dip.(Business) TheFoodSafetyDepartment, TeagascAshtownFoodResearchCentre, Ashtown, Dublin15, RepublicofIreland.

The EURAIN project is funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework ProgrammeQualityofLifeandManagementofLivingResources(QoL),KeyAction1(KA1)on Food,NutritionandHealth.Projectnumber:QLK1CT200202178. ThisdocumentistheresponsibilityoftheauthorsanddoesnotreflecttheviewsoftheEuropean Commissionoritsservices. TeagascAshtownFoodResearchCentre2006 ISBN:1841704465 February2006

TableofContents
Page Summary Introduction Prerequisites HazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPoint PotentialCriticalControlPoints Verification Recordkeeping Glossary Acknowledgements Referencesandfurtherreading Contacts 1 2 5 11 23 27 27 29 30 30 31

Summary
The occurrence of foodborne disease is unacceptably high with an estimated 10 to 30% of the population in developed countries suffering illness annually. Efforts to prevent, reduce and/or eliminate hazards such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria monocytogenes in food must be taken at all stages of the food chain including the retail stage. This can be achieved through the implementationofaretailfoodsafetymanagementsystem. AninternationalconferenceentitledFarmtoForkFoodSafety:ACallforCommonSense was organised as part of the European Union Risk Analysis Information Network (EURAIN) in Athens, Greece in 2004. This document focuses on retail food safety as discussed at that conference. Food safety management systems may be subdivided into: [1] prerequisite activities, which are used to control hazards in the food environment, and [2] Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), which is used to control hazards associated directly with food processes (i.e. storageandpreparation). An effective prerequisite programme must be in operation before HACCP can be implemented. Generalretailprerequisiterequirementsarediscussedunderthefollowingheadings:premisesand structure;equipmentandmaintenance;storageanddisplay;zoning;cleaning/sanitation;services; pestcontrol;training/hygieneofpersonnel;productrecall/withdrawalandtraceability;packaging; suppliercontrol;transporttotheretailoutletanddeliverycontrols;andhomedeliveries. ThesevenprinciplesofHACCParethenintroducedandthedevelopmentofaHACCPsystemis dividedintofifteensteps,whichmaybefollowedintheimplementationofaretailHACCPplan. These include: HACCP team building; product and process analysis; hazard identification; risk assessment; and critical control point development. To facilitate this process, summary flow diagrams,adecision treeand the structure of a Hazard Control Plan are provided and their use explained. Chilled storage, frozen storage, thawing, cooking, cooling/chilling, reheating and hot holdingarethendiscussedaspotentialcriticalcontrolpoints(CCPs),includingtherelevantcritical limits, monitoring and corrective actions. The document is completed with an explanation of verificationanddocumentationactivities.

Introduction
AllEuropeanfoodbusinessesarerequiredbylawtohavefoodsafetymanagementsystemsbased ontheprinciplesofHACCP(HazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPoint).Thisisnowcoveredby Europeanlegislationonthehygieneoffoodstuffs,whichcameintoeffectonthe1stofJanuary2006 (Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004). Food businesses are required to ensure that all steps in the activitiesoftheirbusinesscriticaltofoodsafetyareidentifiedandtoensurethatadequatesafety procedures are put in place. Primary responsibility for food safety lies with the food business operator. Retailsaleoftenrepresentsthefinalstageinthefoodchainpriortoconsumptioninthehome.The hazards to be controlled in retail establishments may be biological, chemical or physical. The biological hazards are mainly concerned with bacterial pathogens/microorganisms such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Listeria. At the retail stage, food is vulnerable to bacterialcontamination.Bacteriamayalreadybepresentatlownumbersinsomefoods(e.g.meat andpoultry),havingbeingintroducedatanearlierstageinthe food chain. Bacteria can also be introduced into foods at the retail stage through direct contact with other contaminated foods, retailpersonnel,pestsorviatheair.Foodsprovidebacteriawitharichnutrientsource.Iftheretail environment provides bacteria with favourable conditions (i.e. favourable temperature and moisturelevels),bacteriacanmultiplyrapidly.Chemicalhazardsrefertochemicalresidues,which canpotentiallyoccurinfoodsduetotheuseofpesticides,veterinarydrugs,etc.inagricultureor due to cleaning chemicals, etc. used in any food environment. Physical hazards refer to foreign bodiessuchasglassfragments,metal,plastics,etc. Itiscriticalthatgoodfoodsafetymanagementpractices(basedonHACCPprinciples)arepresent at the retail stage in order to prevent, reduce and/or eliminate hazards and thus maintain food safety in the food chain from farm to fork. HACCP is a systematic and scientific approach to identifying and controlling hazards and is generally regarded as the most effective means of minimising the levels of contamination on many food products. However, reports indicate that EuropeanfoodbusinessesarestrugglingtoimplementtheprinciplesofHACCP(Anon.,2002). In2004,aninternationalconferenceentitledFarmtoForkFoodSafety:ACallforCommonSense was organised as part of the European Union Risk Analysis Information Network (EURAIN), a EuropeanCommissionfundedconcertedactionproject,inAthens,Greece.Thisdocumentfocuses onretailfoodsafetyasdiscussedatthatconference. Food safety management systems may be subdivided into: [1] prerequisite activities and [2] HazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPoint(HACCP). As a general rule, prerequisites should be used to control hazards associated with the food environment (premises, personnel, equipment, etc.), while HACCP should be used to control hazards associated directly with food processes (storage and preparation), which are critical for producing safe food. An adequate prerequisite programmemustbeinplacebeforeHACCPcanbeimplemented. The objective of this document is to guide the retail sector in food safety management practices, and to assist in the development and implementation of prerequisite and HACCP programmes. ThedocumentoutlinescurrentbestpracticebutisnotintendedasaninterpretationofEuropean legislation.Forinformationonspecificrequirements,retailersareadvisedtoconsulttheirnational competentauthority.
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Products and processes vary within different retail establishments. The majority of foods are readyforsalefoods.Othersareprocessedintheretailestablishmentpriortosale.Rawmeats,fish and poultry may be cut, portioned, minced, etc. at the butcher/fish counter. Readytoeat foods (cookedmeats,sandwiches,etc.)maybepreparedand/orcookedpriortosaleathotorcolddeli counters. In this document, products are grouped as follows: raw meat/poultry/fish; cold deli products;dairyproducts;frozenfoodproducts;eggs;fruitandvegetables;breadsandcakes;non perishableproducts;andhotdeliproducts,asoutlinedinTable1.Ingeneral,rawfoodsofanimal origin(i.e.meat/poultry/fish)andreadytoeatfoodshaveahigherriskofmicrobialcontamination thanotherfoods.

Table1:Productgroupingsinretailestablishments ProductGroup Rawmeat/Poultry/Fish Examples Meat Poultry Fish Bacon Sausages Cookedmeats/fish/poultry Readymeals Salads Sandwichfillings Milkandcream Butterandspreads Cheese Yoghurts Frozenmeat/poultry/fish Frozenvegetables Frozenreadymeals Icecream Eggs Allfruitandvegetables Bread,baguettes,muffins,scones,cakes Cakeswithfreshcream Nonperishableproducts Driedproducts(e.g.soups,tea,coffee) Cannedfoods Cereals Flour Sugar Biscuits Cookingoils Softdrinks Chicken(wholeandportions) Meats(e.g.hotbaconandsausages) Filledpastryproducts(e.g.meatpies) Risk Highrisk

Colddeliproducts

Highrisk

Dairyproducts

Highrisk

Frozenfoodproducts

Highrisk

Eggs Fruitandvegetables Breadsandcakes

Highrisk Lowrisk Lowrisk Highrisk Lowrisk

Hotdeliproducts

Highrisk

Prerequisites
Prerequisites likely to be of relevance for retail food safety management are outlined in this section. Premisesandstructure The retail premises should be kept clean and maintained in good condition. The design and constructionshouldallowforcleaning/disinfectionandbeofadequatesizetoallowforhygienic performanceofalloperations.Wallsshouldbemadeofdurable,waterresistantmaterials,which are scratch proof, impact resistant and heat resistant, where necessary. They should be easy to clean and free from contaminants including moulds, condensation and cobwebs. All junctions (walltowall, walltofloor and walltoceiling) should be closed and cracks should be sealed. Floors should be constructed of durable, water and sanitizer resistant material without cracks, gaps or holes. The ceilings should be smooth, clean and free of dirt, condensation and moulds. Doors,windows,windowframesandrooflightsshouldbecleanandwellmaintained.Ifwindows infoodprocessingareasareopenedtotheoutsideenvironment,theyshouldbefittedwithinsect proof screens (see Pest control). Windows should remain closed if there is potential for contamination. Surfaces should be smooth, impervious, nontoxic, nonabsorbent, and corrosion and sanitizer resistant. A sufficient number of separate sinks should be available for hand washing, raw and readytoeat food preparation and cleaning/sanitation tasks. Ideally, sinks should be nonhand operated. Stafffacilitiesshouldincludechangingroom(s),designatedwashhandbasin(s)withhotandcold water, soap and hygienic hand drying facilities, and a sufficient number of toilets (with external lobby),whicharewellventilatedandlocatedawayfromthefoodpreparationarea.

Equipmentandmaintenance Equipmentusedin retail establishments may include refrigeration units, freezers, slicers, knives, microwave, cooker, grills, etc. All equipment used for food preparation and food storage and display should be of hygienic design to facilitate cleaning and sanitation. All glassware/crockery shouldbeinspectedregularlyforbreakages.Damagedutensils(choppingboards,etc.)aredifficult tocleanandshouldbereplaced. Equipmentusedforchilled,frozenorhotstorageshouldbecapableofmaintainingthefoodatthe required temperature continuously and should be designed to allow temperature monitoring. Ideally, alarms should be fitted on chill units, freezers and hot holding devices to indicate a temperature failure. Preventative maintenance and calibration schedules should be put in place anddocumented. Thermometers should not contain mercury and all temperature measuring and recording equipment should be checked and calibrated at least twice per year. This may be achieved by immersingthethermometerinicewaterandtheninboilingwaterthathasbeenallowedtoboilfor at least 10 minutes. The thermometer should be discarded and replaced if the temperature readingsareoutsidetherangeof0C+/0.5Cand100C+/0.5C,respectively.

Storageanddisplay Storage and display areas should be clean, dry, adequately illuminated and well ventilated. Produce should be handled with care when stacking/mounting onto shelves/units to avoid damage.Produceshouldbecheckedregularly.Ifdamagedorpoorqualityproduceisdiscovered, itshouldberemovedfromsale.Stockshould be rotated on a first infirst out basis, taking into considerationthebestbeforeandusebydates.Thisrequirescheckingdatecodesregularlyon all produce. Outofdate produce should be removed immediately. Display units should be cleaned regularly. If spillages occur, they should be removed and sanitised immediately. All produce stored at ambient (room) temperature should be stored off the floor on, for example, palletsorshelving. Produce requiring chilled storage should be stored at refrigeration temperatures generally between0Cand5C.Frozenfoodsshouldbestoredinfreezerunitsat18C.Temperaturechecks of chill and freezer units should be carried out regularly to ensure storage is at the correct temperature. The monitoring of these can be considered as part of the retail HACCP plan (see Potential Critical Control Points). Where appropriate, the doors of chill/freezer units should be kept closed to maintain the required temperatures. To maintain air circulation, products should notbeoverstacked. Particular care is needed with readytoeat foods prepared in retail establishments. Useby dates shouldnotbelongerthan1dayfrompreparation.Dateofpreparationshouldbenotedonholding containers. Produce should be covered with food grade cling film to prevent physical contamination when not on display. If a selfservice area for readytoeat foods exists (e.g. salad bar), the layout should prevent customers from contaminating foods. Providing serving utensils withlonghandle,havingfoodlaidoutsuchthatcustomersarenotreachingoverotherfoodand having a barrier to prevent people from coughing/sneezing directly onto foods will all help preventcontamination.Thisareashouldalsoberegularlyinspected.Temperatureprobesshould be used to check the temperature of storage/display units used for such readytoeat foods regularly.ThiscanbeconsideredaspartoftheretailHACCPplan(seePotentialCriticalControl Points). Customers should be advised to eat or refrigerate such readytoeat foods within 90 minutesofpurchase. Where a risk of crosscontamination exists, produce should be segregated during storage (see Zoning). Household chemicals, detergents, toiletries, etc. should also be completely segregated fromfoodstoavoidchemicalresidueproblems.

Zoning Zoningisthephysicalseparationofactivitiesorproducetopreventpotentialfoodcontamination. Foodstorage,handlingand,ifappropriate,preparationshouldbecarriedoutinseparateareasifa risk of crosscontamination exists. There should be separate designated areas for raw meat/poultry/fish, cooked/readytoeat foods, fruit/vegetables, etc., each with designated equipment,e.g.knives,cuttingboards,slicers,retailscales.Colourcodingofequipmentshouldbe used where appropriate. For example, cutting boards should be different colours to differentiate betweenthoseusedfordifferentfoodtypessuchasrawfish(blue),rawmeat(red),cookedmeats (yellow), dairy and bakery products (white), salads and fruits (green) and vegetables (brown). Separatesinksshouldbeusedwhereappropriate(seePremisesandstructure).

Cleaning/sanitation Cleaning/sanitation programmes are essential in all retail establishments. Microbiological contaminationisacertainty if good sanitation procedures are not adhered to, especially in areas with unpackaged foods, e.g. butcher, bakery and deli areas. It is necessary for each retail establishmenttotailorthe programme to suit its needs, due to differences in store design, size, products handled, employees, construction materials, ventilation systems, etc. Sanitation procedures should be documented. A cleaning/sanitation schedule would facilitate this process. Thisshouldincludedetailsofallitemsthatrequirecleaning,howtocleantheitem,whatchemicals to use, what equipment to use and frequency of cleaning. An example of a cleaning schedule is given in Table 2. Cleaning chemicals such as detergents and disinfectants should be clearly labelled and stored away from the food areas. The replacement of dishcloths/sink cloths with disposableequivalentsishighlyrecommended.Otherwise,suchclothsshouldbedisinfectedonan ongoingbasis.Thesinkusedforcleaning/sanitationtaskssuchasfillingoremptyingmopbuckets shouldbedifferenttothoseusedforfoodpreparation.

Table2:Exampleofacleaningschedule Item Frequencyofcleaning Everyshift Methodofcleaning

Afteruse

Weekly

Worksurface

Other 1. Removeanylargepiecesoffood. 2. Wash the surface with hot soapy water to remove greaseandanyotherfoodanddirt. 3. Rinsewithcleanwatertoremovethedetergent. 4. Applyadisinfectant.Makesurethatitisleftonfor aminimumcontacttime. 5. Rinsewithcleanwatertoremovethedisinfectant. 6. Leave to dry naturally or use a clean disposable cloth. 1. Sweepthefloortoremovepiecesoffood,etc. 2. Mopthesurfacewithhotsoapywater. 3. Leavetodry. 1. Washthewallswithhotsoapywatertoremovedirt andgrease. 2. Rinsewithcleanwater. 3. Leavetodry.

Floors

Walls

Daily x

Services The water should comply with the relevant national and EC legislation for drinking water. Ice should only be made with drinking water. The light provided should be adequate for the tasks beingperformedinagivenareaandlightfilamentsshouldbeofthesafetytypeinallfoodrooms. Fluorescentlightingtubesshouldbeenclosedinshatterproofdiffusers.Theflowofcleanairand theremovalofsteamshouldbeachievedusingnaturalor,wherenecessary,mechanicalventilation systems. Drainage systems should be adequate to avoid contamination. Lidded containers (bins) should be provided at appropriate locations within the establishment for the collection of waste and should be emptied at least daily into covered bins or skips in a designated area, physically separatedfromthefoodstorageandfoodpreparationareas.Thelattershouldbeemptiedatleast onceperweek.Wastecontainersshouldbecleanedregularly.

Pestcontrol Rodents,birds,insectsandanimals(withtheexceptionofguidedogsontheshopfloor)shouldbe excludedfromtheretailestablishment.Ifaninsectocutorforfliesispresent,thisshouldbelocated awayfromnaturallight,freefromdraughtsandawayfromfood.Flyspraysshouldnotbeusedin areas where food is prepared, stored and/or cooked. All opening windows and skylights should havesuitableinsectscreens.Theseshouldbefittedsothatthebackofthescreenandareabehind the screen can be cleaned. External doors should be rodent proof and should not be left open if opening into a food processing area. Ideally, doors should be fitted with selfclosers. Detailed inspections of the premises should be carried out by a competent person at least every three monthsforevidenceofinfestationbyinsectsorrodents.Pesticidesshouldonlybeusedinsucha wayastopreventthecontaminationoffoodandshouldnotresembleafoodproduct.Theyshould also be stored in a separate cupboard away from the food storage area. An effective rodent managementprogrammeshouldbeputinplace.Adequatewastedisposalisvitalforpestcontrol (seeServices).

Training/hygieneofpersonnel All staff should receive documented training in food safety (including their role in the HACCP programme),personalhygiene,cleaning/sanitationprocedures,pestcontrolandpersonalsafety. Staff have a legal responsibility not to work in areas where they have direct contact with unpackaged foods, if suffering from a persistent cough, diarrhoea, vomiting, infections of the mouth,throat,nose,eyesandearsorinfectiousskindisordersontheirfaceorhands.Allnewstaff shouldcompleteamedicalquestionnaire.Cutsandwoundsshouldbecoveredwithhighvisibility blue coloured plasters/dressings. If wounds cannot be covered, the staff member should be excludedfromdirectcontactwithproduceandequipmentorwaterthatcontactstheproduce. In areas where personnel have direct contact with unpackaged foods (e.g. butcher area, hot and colddeli,bakery),protectiveclothing(e.g.apron,hairnet,hat,whitecoat/chefsjacket)shouldbe wornandchangeddaily,anddisposableglovesshouldbefreelyavailable. Staff should be instructed regarding when to wash their hand (i.e. before handling unpackaged foods,afterhandlingrawfoods,afterusingthetoilet,afterhandlingrefuse,etc.).Staffshouldalso betrainedinprocedurestoensurethatmoneydoesnotcontaminatehighriskunpackagedfoods.

Productrecall/withdrawalandtraceability From the 1st of January 2005, all food businesses have a legal responsibility to implement a traceability system and to recall foods that are not compliant with food safety requirements (Regulation(EC)No.178/2002).Tofacilitatethisprocess,retailersarerequiredtomaintainrecords ofsuppliers,producesuppliedandthedatesupplied(seeSuppliercontrol).Retailersshouldalso implementatraceabilitysystemforfoodsprocessedintheretailestablishment(seePackaging).

Packaging Allproducepackagingshouldbecarriedoutusinggoodhygienepracticesandproduceshouldbe handled with care. Separate bags/containers should be used for raw meat/poultry/fish, hot and coldreadytoeatfoods,breadandcakes,detergents/householdchemicals/toiletries,etc.Inthecase of foods processed in the retail establishment, packaged produce should bear labels containing shelflifedates,storageinstructionsandtraceabilitycodes(e.g.processingdate).Iflabelscomeinto directcontactwiththeproduce,theyshouldbemadewithfoodgradeadhesive.Recordsshouldbe keptofalllabelsusedonsuchproduce(seeProductrecall/withdrawalandtraceability).

Suppliercontrol Onlyreputablesuppliersshouldbeusedwhenpurchasingfood,foodingredients,foodpackaging orfoodcontactmaterials.Thesemaybethirdpartyapproved,havequalityassurancesystemsin operationorhavebeenauditedbytheretailer.Retailersshouldseekwrittenassurancefromtheir suppliersthattheuseofchemicalsinmeat,fruitandvegetableproductionwasincompliancewith regulations.Retailersshouldmaintainalistofsuppliersused.

Transporttotheretailoutletanddeliverycontrols Transportvehiclesandanyreusablecontainersshouldbecleanandallproduceshouldbestored on shelves or on pallets off the floor to minimise the risk of contamination. In the case of refrigerated vehicles, this also allows greater air circulation, which in turn ensures better temperaturecontrolinthevehicle. Where necessary to prevent crosscontamination, foods should be segregated, e.g. raw foods should be separated from cooked or readytoeat foods. If transported together, household chemicals,detergents,toiletries,etc.shouldbecompletelysegregatedfromfoodstoavoidchemical residueproblems. Refrigeratedorinsulatedconditionsarenecessaryforthetransportofchilledfoodandfrozenfood toensurethatfoodtemperaturesaremaintainedat5Corless(coretemperature)forchilledfood andatorbelow18Cforfrozenfood.Temperatureloggingdevicesandrefrigerationequipment shouldbecheckedatregularintervalstoensurecompliancewithspecificholdingtemperatures. The retail establishment should have a checklist for deliveries. Produce should be inspected for datecoding(bestbeforeandusebydates),temperature,damagetoproduceorpackaging,etc.The cleanlinessofthevehicleandhygieneofthedeliverypersonshouldalsobechecked.Producenot oftherequiredstandardortransportedinappropriatelyshouldberejected.

Homedeliveries If a home delivery service is provided, vehicles and reusable containers should be clean, and different foods should be packaged separately, where necessary (see Zoning and Packaging). Chilled/frozenfoodshouldnotbeexposedtoambienttemperaturesformorethan90minutesafter removal from the chill or freezer. Hot foods should not be exposed to ambient temperatures for morethan60minutes.Otherwise,suchfoodsshouldbeexcludedfromthedeliveryservice.

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HazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPoint
Food safety is primarily controlled using the prerequisite programme. HACCP should only be applied to control hazards that cannot be prevented or eliminated using the prerequisite programme.Thereare7principlesofHACCPeachofwhichmustbeaddressedwhenaHACCP planisbeingdevelopedandimplemented(Anon,1997): 1.Conductahazardanalysis,i.e.preparealistofstepsintheprocesswheresignificanthazards mayoccuranddescribethecontrolmeasures. 2. Determine the critical control points (CCPs) or steps at which control can be applied and is essentialtopreventoreliminateafoodsafetyhazardorreduceittoanacceptablelevel. 3.Establishcriticallimits,whicharethemaximumorminimumvalue(s)towhichahazardmust becontrolledataCCPtoprevent,eliminateand/orreducetoanacceptableleveltheoccurrenceof theidentifiedfoodsafetyhazard. 4.EstablishmonitoringprocedurestoassesswhetheraCCPisundercontrolandtoproducean accuraterecordforfutureuseinverification. 5.Establishcorrectiveactionstobefollowedwhenadeviationoccurs,whichisafailuretomeeta criticallimit. 6.EstablishverificationprocedurestodetermineiftheHACCPplanisoperatingasintended. 7.Establishrecordkeepinganddocumentationprocedures. Theapplicationoftheseprinciplesmaybedividedinto15stepsasfollows: 1. Determinetheobjectives,strategiesandresourcesrequired 2. AssembleaHACCPteam 3. Assembleproductdata 4. Prepareprocessdata 5. Sourceandreviewhazarddata 6. Identifythehazardsassociatedwitheachstep 7. Riskassessment 8. Listpotentialcontrolmeasures 9. Determinecriticalcontrolpoints(CCPs) 10. Establishcriticallimits 11. Establishmonitoringprocedures 12. Establishcorrectiveactions 13. CompileaHazardControlPlan 14. DocumenttheHACCPsystem 15. Verificationofthesystem

1.Determinetheobjectives,strategiesandresourcesrequired HACCP is managements responsibility and the objectives are as follows: [1] to systematically examine products and processes and list known hazards; [2] to determine CCPs at which these may be controlled; [3] to evaluate the existing level of control; [4] to document the above in a HazardControlPlan;[5]toagreeaprojectplan(targetdates,resources,etc.);and[6]toappointa projectmanager.

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2.AssembleaHACCPteam The HACCP team should be multidisciplinary and include people with knowledge of different products/processes within the retail establishment, e.g. management, butcher, fresh produce assistant,deliassistant,etc.and,ifrequired,afoodsafetyconsultant.

3.Assembleproductdata TheHACCPteamshouldgatherinformationabouttheproducts/processesincludingingredients, preservation factors, packaging and storage conditions. Despite the relatively large number of products,whichmaybesoldinaretailestablishment,thisinformationshouldbereadilyavailable fromsuppliersandinproductliterature.

4.Prepareprocessdata Inaretailestablishment,productsandprocessesarewiderangingandwillvarydependingonthe particular establishment. Figure 1 outlines the major stages involved in food retailing. The groupingofproductsasdescribedinTable1willfacilitatethedevelopmentoftheHACCPplan. Retailersshoulddevelopdetailedproductdependentflowdiagrams.Examplesofflowdiagrams for: [1] readyforsale foods; [2] raw meat/poultry/fish that are processed in the retail establishment; and [3] readytoeat foods that are processed in the retail establishment are providedinfigures2,3and4,respectively.

5.Sourceandreviewhazarddata Food safety hazards that may occur in the retail establishment should be identified. Information about hazards may be found in the scientific literature, in the regulatory guidelines, from consumer complaints, from internal audits, etc. The following is a summary of the potential hazards,whichmayoccurintheretailestablishment. Biologicalhazards The biological hazards are primarily bacteria associated with foodborne illness, but viruses and parasites should also be considered. While not presenting a health risk, other microorganisms contributetofoodspoilage.Alistofthemostcommonfoodbornepathogenicmicroorganismsis showninTable3. Chemicalhazards Chemical residues may occur in food and in the food service environment. Residues present in foodingredientscannotberemovedatthisstageinthefoodchainandtheircontrolisrelianton the implementation of suitable chemical residue control programmes at the primary and/or processing stages prior to delivery. Management should seek written assurance from their suppliers that the use of chemicals in food production was in compliance with regulations. Residuesfrompackagingmaybeavoidedbyensuringthat recommended food grade packaging materials are used and that the packaging or containers have not been damaged. Residues from cleaning agents, sanitisers, etc. used in the retail establishment are prevented from entering the food through proper storage and application, which is specified in the cleaning schedule and controlledaspartoftheprerequisiteprogramme. Inrecentyears,therehasbeenasteadyincreaseinseriousreactionstofoodallergens,e.g.peanuts and other nuts. Every establishment should be aware of the potential presence of allergens in
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certain foods and these should be stored, prepared and displayed in a separate area so as to prevent crosscontamination. Where appropriate, customers should be informed of the potential presence,traceorotherwise,ofthesesubstances. Physicalhazards Foreign objects in food, such as metal, glass, plastics, knife blades, hairs, etc. are all examples of physicalhazards.Theprerequisiteprogrammeshouldpreventphysicalhazardscontaminatingthe food.Preventingsuchhazardsintherawingredientsisreliantonthefoodsafetycontrolsystem(s) insupplieroperations.

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Purchasing

Delivery/Collection

Processing Storage (Chilled,Frozen, Ambienttemperature) Butcherscounter(e.g.cuttingof largerjointsofmeat) Colddeliarea(e.g.preparation salads,sandwiches,slicingcooked meats) Hotdeliarea(e.g.cookinghotfood)

Display (Chilled,Frozen,Ambient temperature,Hotholding)

Checkout

Homedelivery

Customer

Figure1:Themajorstagesinvolvedinfoodretailing

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Purchase

Purchase&collect (cashandcarry)

Returnto supplier

No

Delivery accept Yes

Rawmeat/ Poultry/Fish

Cooked meat/Salads

Dairy products

Frozen foods

Eggs/Nonperishableproducts/Fruit &Vegetables/Breads,etc.

Chill0to5C

Freezer18C

Ambient temperatures

Packaging(ifrequired)

Checkout

Home delivery

Customer

Figure2:Flowchartforreadyforsalefoods

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Purchase

Purchase&collect (cashandcarry)

Returnto supplier

No

Delivery accept Yes Rawmeat/Poultry/Fish

Storage (Chilled0to5Cor Frozen18C)

Thaw

Processingofrawmeat/poultry/fish (e.g.cutting,deboning,mincing)

Chill0to5C

Packaging

Checkout

Home delivery

Customer

Figure 3: Flow chart for raw meats, poultry and fish that are processed in the retail establishment

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Purchase

Purchase&collect (CashandCarry)

Returnto supplier

No

Delivery accept Yes

Rawmeat/ Poultry/Fish

Cooked meat/Salads

Dairy products

Frozenfoods

Eggs/Nonperishableproducts/ Fruit&vegetables/Breads,etc.

Chilled0to5C

Frozenstorage18C

Ambient temperatures

Thaw

Preparation

Cook

Chill

Chill/Freeze

Chilled/Frozen storage Thaw

Reheat

Chilledstorage (Colddeliarea)

Hotholding (Hotdeliarea)

Packaging

Checkout

Home delivery

Customer

Figure4:Flowchartforreadytoeatfoodsthatareprocessedintheretailestablishment
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Table3:Commonpathogenicmicroorganismsandassociatedfoods/othersources Pathogen Bacteria: Salmonella Campylobacter Listeriamonocytogenes Associatedfood(s)/othersources

Poultry,meat,eggs,dairyproducts Poultry,meat,unpasteurisedmilk,unchlorinatedwater Soft cheeses, unpasteurised milk, ice cream, raw vegetables, fermentedsausages,smokedfish,poultry,meat Porkandothermeats,unpasteurisedmilk Products that have been handled by humans, e.g. meat, poultry, egg products,creamfilledpastries,sandwiches,dairyproducts Meat,poultry,foodshandledbyinfectedperson Beefproducts,rawvegetables,unpasteurisedmilk Starchyfoods(e.g.rice),meat,milk,vegetables,fish Rawvegetables,salads,dairyproducts,poultry,water,foodshandled byinfectedperson Meatproducts,gravy Foodspackedwithoutair&notveryacidic,e.g.improperlycanned foods Water,shellfish,fish

Yersiniaenterocolitica Staphylococcusaureus

Escherichiacoli E.coliO157 Bacilluscereus Shigella

Clostridiumperfringens Clostridiumbotulinum

Vibriospp.

Viruses: Norovirus

Shellfish, water, persontoperson transmission, foods handled by infectedperson Persontopersontransmission,foodshandledbyinfectedperson Shellfish, water, persontoperson transmission, foods handled by infectedperson Water,persontopersontransmission

Rotavirus HepatitisA

HepatitisE

Parasites: Cryptosporidiumparvum Trichinellaspiralis

Water Porkproducts,horsemeat

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6.Identifythehazardsassociatedwitheachstep Once the potential hazards have been identified, the source of these hazards should be determined. Describing the sequence of events from purchase to sale of product can aid in the identificationofhazards.

7.Riskassessment Havingidentifiedthehazardsandpotentialsources,itisimportanttodeterminewhethertheseare significantornonsignificant.Forahazardtobesignificant,itmustbereasonablylikelytooccur andtheconsequencesshouldberelativelyserious,e.g.Salmonellainpoultry.Anyhazardwhichis bothlikelytooccurandwouldresultinseriousconsequencesshouldbedeemedsignificant.

8.Listpotentialcontrolmeasures Control measures should be identified for the hazards identified in step 6 and deemed as significantinstep7(ifnonsignificant,thesehazardswouldbecontrolledundertheprerequisite procedures). A control measure is a factor that may be used to control an identified hazard by preventing,eliminatingand/orreducingittoanacceptablelevel.

9.Determinethecriticalcontrolpoints(CCP) A CCP is a step, point or procedure in a food process where control may be applied in order to prevent, eliminate and/or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level. CCPs are used to controlthehazardsdeemedtobesignificantinstep7.Whendecidingifaparticularstep,pointor procedure is suitable to control one of these significant hazards, a decision tree (such as that illustratedinFigure5)maybeused.

10.Establishcriticallimits Critical limits are criteria that must be met if control is to be achieved. These are based on experience, regulations, literature searches, microbiological data, etc. An example would be storageofperishablefoodsatrefrigerationtemperaturestoensurethatbacteriasuchasE.coliO157 do not multiply. If this critical limit (0C to 5C) is not achieved, the safety of the food may be compromised.

11.Establishmonitoringprocedures Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations to assess whether a control point is under controlandtoproduceaccuraterecordsforfutureverification.

12.Establishcorrectiveactions Actionstakeninresponsetoadeviationfromthecriticallimitsarereferredtoascorrectiveactions andshouldbedeterminedforeachCCP.

13.CompileaHazardControlPlan AlltheelementsdiscussedsofarshouldbecompiledintoaformalplancalledtheHazardControl Plan.ThestructureofthisplanisshowninTable4.


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Q1:Dopreventativecontrolmeasuresexist?

NO

Iscontrolatthis stepnecessary forsafety?


NO YES

Modify steps in the process/product


YES

NotaCCP

Q2:Isthestepspecificallydesignedtoeliminate orreducethelikelyoccurrenceofahazardtoan acceptablelevel?

NO

Q3: Could contamination with identified hazard(s)occurinexcessofacceptablelevels?


YES YES

NO

NotaCCP

Q4:Willsubsequentstep(s)eliminate or reduce thehazardtoanacceptablelevel?

YES

NO

CRITICALCONTROLPOINT

Figure5:Adecisiontreewhichmaybeusedtodeterminewhetherornotaparticularstep,point orprocedureinafoodprocessorpreparationmaybeusedasaCCP(Anon.,1997).

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Table4:ThestructureoftheHazardControlPlan

HazardControlPlan

Process

Author

Date: Revisiondate:

Page1of Step CCP number Hazard (source) Control measure Critical limits Frequency Method Bywhom Monitoring Corrective action Document reference

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14.DocumenttheHACCPsystem HavingcompletedtheHazardControlPlan,StandardOperatingProcedures(SOP)foreachCCP shouldbewritten.Whenthisiscompleted,theHACCPsystemisreadyforimplementation.This document, associated documents (including product data, process flow charts, etc.), monitoring records, corrective action records and verification records make up the documentation of the HACCPsystem.

15.Verificationofthesystem ItisnecessarytoverifythatthesystemoutlinedintheHACCPplanisbeingimplementedandto testitseffectiveness.Thismaybeachievedthroughaudits(internalandexternal),recordreview, performancestandardsreview,etc.

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PotentialCriticalControlPoints
ThefollowingisadescriptionofpotentialCCPsthatmaybeappliedinaretailestablishment.Itis notenvisagedthateveryCCPwillbeappliedbutthateachretailestablishmentselectsthoseCCPs thatarenecessarytocontrolthesignificanthazardsintheirestablishment.Forexample,CCPssuch as cooking, hot holding, cooling/chilling and reheating are normally only applicable to retail establishmentswithahotdeliarea.

Chilledstorage Perishable foods such as raw meat, dairy products and cooked foods that are not for immediate consumption should be stored between 0 and 5C. These temperature limits are important. If bacteriaarepresentinfood,theywillmultiplyrapidlyifthesetemperaturesareexceeded.Ifthe chillingisconsistentlyinbreachofthecriticallimits,thismaybetheresultofoverstacking.Theair in the chilling unit should circulate freely around the produce so care should be taken when storingfoodtopreventthedevelopmentofwarmspots. Hazard Biological (multiplication ofbacteria&/or toxin productiondue topoor temperature control/ incorrectdates/ displaying productfortoo long) Control Suitable temperatures Loadlevels Stockrotation Labels indicatinguse bydates& processing datesonfoods processedin the establishment Critical limits 0to5C Vents clear Indate Monitoring Usecalibrated probetocheckair temperatureat leasttwiceperday Checkloadlevels Checkproductuse bydates Checkthatscale labeldatesare correct Correctiveaction Removeproductto alternativechillcabinet Disposeifproduct temperature10C& recordwastage Discardoutofdate products Contactrefrigeration engineer Correctdateonscales

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Frozenstorage Perishablefoodsmayalsobemaintainedattemperaturesof18Corbelow.Freezingandfrozen food storage may be considered to be a CCP as freezing also prevents multiplication and toxin productionbybacterialcontaminants. Hazard Biological (multiplication ofbacteria&/or toxin productiondue topoor temperature control/ incorrectdates) Control Suitable temperatures Loadlevels Stockrotation Checkload levels Checkproduct usebydates Criticallimits 18C Indate Monitoring Usecalibrated probetocheck temperatureat leasttwiceper day Correctiveaction Removeproductto alternativefreezercabinet Placeinchilledstorageor useimmediately(ifthe surfacetemperature<10C) Disposeifproduct temperature10C& recordwastage Discardoutofdate products Contactrefrigeration engineer

Thawing Frozenfoodsshouldbethawedatchilltemperaturesor,ifnecessary,usingthedefrostcycleina microwave oven. Thawing should never be performed at room temperature as any bacterial pathogensonthesurfaceofthefoodwillhaveanopportunitytogrow,multiplyandmayproduce toxins. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that the core of the food is fully thawed as a frozen centre may not receive sufficient heat in any subsequent cooking process to ensure the destruction of dangerous pathogens. Thawed foods should be cooked or consumed within 24 hours. Hazard Biological (multiplication ofbacteria&/or toxin productiondue toincorrect thawing procedure) Control Thawfoodat chill temperatures ormicrowave defrost Iffoodis thawedfor cooking,the coremustbe above0C beforeplacing intheoven, etc.
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Criticallimits Core temperature above0C (but5Cif foodis perishable)

Monitoring Checkcore temperatureof eachbatchof product Timebetween thawingand cooking

Correctiveaction Continuethawing(ifthecore temperatureislessthan0C) Discardthefoodifthe surfaceofperishablefood hasreached10Corhigher Investigatethecause& rectifyaccordingly

Cooking Thescientificliteraturewouldsuggestthatcookingtoacore temperature of 75C is sufficient to destroybacterialikeSalmonella,Campylobacter,L.monocytogenesandY.enterocolitica.Effectiveheat treatment involves both time and temperature. Equivalent cooking processes may be used but shouldbevalidated,usingexpertguidanceifnecessary. Hazard Biological (survivalof bacteria&/or bacterialspores dueto insufficient cookingleading tosubsequent bacterial multiplication &/ortoxin production) Control Ensure correct cooking temperature isachieved Criticallimits 75Corhigher (coretemperature) Theuseoflower temperaturesis permissibleif validated&ifthe foodisconsumed within30minutes orheldat63Cor higher Monitoring Checkcore temperatureof eachbatchof productafter cooking (thisfrequency maybereducedif datahavebeen accumulatedwhich demonstratethat cookingatagiven oven/grill/other settingfora definedperiodof timeconsistently achievesthecritical limits) Correctiveaction Continuetocook untilthecriticallimit isachieved Discardtheproduct Investigatethecause &rectifyaccordingly

Cooling/chilling Where appropriate, cooked foods should be cooled as soon as possible. The product should be placedinchilledstoragewithin90minutesofthecompletionofcooking.Dividingthecookedfood intosmallerportionswillfacilitatefastercooling.Chillingorcoolingdevicesshouldbecapableof reducing the core temperature to 10C or less within 150 minutes. Failure to achieve the target temperaturewithinthistimeframewouldallowbacterialikeSalmonellatomultiply. Hazard Biological (multiplication ofbacteria&/or toxin productiondue toslow cooling/food leftfortoolong atroom temperature) Control Coolfoodas soonas possible Criticallimits Foodshouldbe placedinchilled storagewithin90 minutesofcooking Lessthan10C within150minutes Monitoring Checkcore temperatureof eachbatchof product Timebetween cooking&chilling Correctiveaction Discardthefood(if lefttoolongatroom temperature) Investigatethecause &rectifyaccordingly

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Reheating Precookedfoodsthatarenotservedatchilledtemperaturesshouldbereheatedimmediatelyafter removalfromchilledstoragetoacoretemperatureofnotlessthan70C,shouldnotbereheated more than once and should be served within 30 minutes. While reheating will destroy most bacterialcells,preformedtoxinsmayremain.Thus,thisCCPshouldbeusedinconjunctionwith otherCCPssuchascooling/chillingand/orhotholding. Hazard Biological (survivalof bacteria&/or bacterialspores dueto insufficient reheating, leadingto subsequent bacterial multiplication &/ortoxin production Control Ensure correct reheating temperature isachieved Criticallimits 70Cor above(core temperature tobe achieved immediately) Servewithin 30minutesor less Monitoring Checkcore temperatureofeach batchofproduct (thisfrequencymay bereducedifdata havebeen accumulatedwhich demonstratethat reheatingatagiven oven/grill/other settingforadefined periodoftime consistentlyachieves thecriticallimits) Correctiveaction Increasethe temperatureuntilthe criticallimitis reached Discardthefood(if lefttoolongatroom temperature) Investigatethecause &rectifyaccordingly

Hotholding Hotholdingoffoodshouldbefortheshortestperiodpossible.Foodshouldbeplacedintothehot holding device before the temperature of the food decreases below 63C and held at this temperatureorhigher. Hazard Biological (multiplication ofbacteria&/or toxin productiondue topoor temperature control) Control Ensure correcthot holding temperature ismaintained Ensureunit ispreheated Criticallimits 63Cor higher Monitoring Checkcore temperatureofeach batchofproductat leastonceperhour (thisfrequencymay bereducedifdata havebeen accumulatedwhich demonstratethatthe hotholdingdeviceat aparticularsetting achievesthecritical limits) Correctiveaction Increasethe temperatureofthehot holdingdevice Discardtheproduct Investigatethecause &rectifyaccordingly

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Verification
Prerequisites Verification that the prerequisites are being performed effectively should be achieved through internalauditandmicrobialchecks.Theauditshouldincludeareviewofallrecordsrelatingtothe prerequisiteproceduresincludingcleaningrecords,deliverycheckrecords,etc.Forthemicrobial checks,totalviablecounts(TVCs)shouldbeperformedatleastonceperyeartovalidatecleaning. TVCsinexcessof1colonyformingunitpersquarecentimetreareunacceptableand,ifobtained, cleaningproceduresandschedulesshouldbereviewed.

HazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPoint VerificationproceduresforHACCParedividedinto3distinctareas: 1. EachCCPshouldbevalidated,aspartofverification,toensurethattheCCP,whenoperated within the defined critical limits, actually achieves the prevention, reduction and/or eliminationofhazardsasstatedintheHACCPplan.Thisisbestachievedintheretailsituation by reference to current research data, scientific and technical publications, codes of practice, etc. 2. The records generated as a result of monitoring each CCP should be checked to ensure that eachCCPwasoperatingwithinitsdefinedcriticallimitsforagivenperiodoftime.Inretailing, thisshouldbeanongoingprocesswithareviewatleastonceperweekofallrecordsgenerated sincethelastreview.Thisshouldbesupplementedbyauditsofmonitoringactivitiesasthey arebeingperformed. 3. Internalauditsshouldbeperformedonabimonthlybasis.Thisshouldincludeareviewofall records relating to the food safety control system(s) including monitoring, corrective action andtrainingrecords.

Recordkeeping
Prerequisites Undertheprerequisiteprogramme,thereshouldbe: 1. Cleaning/sanitation records: these should clearly demonstrate that the cleaning has been performedasperthecleaningschedule,e.g.completedchecklists. 2. Listofapprovedsuppliers. 3. Delivery inspection records: there should be records for the inspection of food deliveries, demonstratingthattherequiredcheckswereperformedandgiving the results for checks carriedoutbeforegoodswereacceptedbytheestablishment. 4. Stafftrainingrecordsandmedicalquestionnaires.

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5. Thermometeraccuracycheckrecords. 6. Records to allow the traceability of foods processed in the retail establishment (Process dates,batchnumbers,etc.). Allrecordsshouldbesignedanddatedbytheperson(s)doingthemonitoringandbytheperson responsibleforsupervisingthemonitoring(e.g.manager)andshouldbeheldforatleast2yearsor asdirectedbythenationalcompetentauthority.

HazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPoint One of the main requirements of any HACCP plan is accurate record keeping in order to prove that the HACCP plan is being effectively implemented. This applies to monitoring, corrective actionsandverification.Allofthesestepsrequireaccuraterecords,whichcanbeusedtoassess theefficientworkingofthesystembutcanalsobeusedtodetermineimportantdecisionssuchas frequencyofmonitoring,verificationrequirementsortoidentifychangesthatcouldimprovethe HACCP plan. Under the retail HACCP plan, there should be records for monitoring, corrective actionsandverificationoftheCCPs. All records and documents associated with monitoring CCPs should be signed by the person(s) doingthemonitoringandbythepersonresponsibleforsupervisingthemonitoring(e.g.manager). HACCP procedures should also be documented, signed and kept by the HACCP team. Documentation examples include hazard analysis, CCP determination and critical limit determination (Anon., 1997). All records should be legible, clearly identified, signed and dated. CCP monitoring records should be held for at least 2 years or as directed by the national competentauthority.Correspondence,documentsorrecordsofinspectionrelatingtofoodsafety fromtheretailestablishmentorregulatoryauthoritiesshouldalsobeheldforatleast3yearsoras directedbythenationalcompetentauthority.

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Glossary
Hazard: A biological, chemical or physical agent with the potential to cause an adverse health effect. Crosscontamination: The direct or indirect transfer of biological, chemical or physical contaminantsfromrawfoodorothersourcestootherfoodthatmaycausethemtobeunsafefor humanconsumption. Hygiene:Allmeasuresnecessarytoensurethesafetyandqualityoffoodatallstagesinthefood chain. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP): A system that identifies, evaluates and controlshazardsthataresignificantforfoodsafety. HACCP plan: A document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure control of hazards that are significant for food safety in the segment of the food chain under consideration. Decision tree: A sequence of questions that can be applied to identify which process steps are CCPs. CriticalControlPoint(CCP):Astepatwhichcontrolcanbeappliedandisessentialtopreventor eliminateafoodsafetyhazardortoreduceittoanacceptablelevel. Criticallimit:Acriterionorvaluewhichseparatesacceptabilityfromunacceptability. Monitoring:AplannedsequenceofobservationsormeasurementsofCCPcontrolmeasures.The recordsofmonitoringprovideevidenceforfutureuseinverificationthattheCCPisundercontrol. Correctiveaction:AnyactiontobetakenwhentheresultsofmonitoringattheCCPindicatealoss ofcontrolortrendtowardslossofcontrol. Validation:ObtainingevidencethattheelementsoftheHACCPplanareeffective. Verification: The application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring,todeterminecompliancewiththeHACCPplan. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): A document which defines all the necessary actions that shouldbefollowedtoensurethatanactivityiscarriedoutinacontrolledmanner.

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Acknowledgements
Conferencespeakersanddelegatesarethankedfor their contributions at the EURAIN Farm to ForkFoodSafety:ACallforCommonSenseconference. The EURAIN project is funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework ProgrammeQualityofLifeandManagementofLivingResources(QoL),KeyAction1(KA1)on Food,NutritionandHealth.Projectnumber:QLK1CT200202178. Ms. Marie Buckley, Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland is acknowledged and thankedforreviewingthisdocument.

Referencesandfurtherreading
AlvarezV.B.,Bash,W.,Cornelius,B.,Courtney,P.,andKnipe,L.(2002)Ensuringsafefooda HACCPbasedplanforensuringfoodsafetyinretailestablishments.UniversityofOhio.Bulletin 901.FoodScienceandTechnology.http://ohioline.osu.edu/b901/ Anon.(1997)RecommendedInternationalCodeofPractice.GeneralPrinciplesofFoodHygiene. CodexAlimentariusCommission,11969,Rev.3. Anon.(1998)IrishStandardSpecificationforHygieneinFoodRetailingandWholesaling.I.S. 341:1998 Anon.(2002)FoodandVeterinaryOfficeAnnualReport,EuropeanCommission,Grange, Dunsany,Co.Meath,Ireland. http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fvo/annualreports/final_2002_en.pdf Anon.(2005a)Saferfood,betterbusiness.FoodStandardsAgencyUK http://www.food.gov.uk/foodindustry/hygiene/sfbb/ Anon.(2005b)Managingfoodsafety:amanualforthevoluntaryuseofHACCPprinciplesfor operatorsoffoodserviceandretailestablishments.U.S.DepartmentofHealthandHuman Services,FoodandDrugAdministrationandCenterforFoodSafetyandAppliedNutrition. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/hret2.pdf EURAIN(2004)Farmtoforkfoodsafety:acallforcommonsense.AbstractbookfortheEuropean UnionRiskAnalysisInformationNetwork(EURAIN)conference,Athens,Greece,May12thto14th, 2004.http://www.eurain.com/publications/

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Contacts
For further information on the European Union Risk Analysis Information Network (EURAIN) projectcontact:

Dr.BlithnMaunsell(Administrator), TeagascAshtownFoodResearchCentre, Ashtown, Dublin15, Ireland. Email:bmaunsell@nfc.teagasc.ie Tel:35318059500 Fax:35318059550

Dr.DeclanJ.Bolton(Coordinator), TeagascAshtownFoodResearchCentre, Ashtown, Dublin15, Ireland. Email:dbolton@nfc.teagasc.ie Tel:35318059523 Fax:35318059550

MariaSpulber(EUCommissionContact), EuropeanCommissionDGResearch, DirectorateEBiotechnology,AgricultureandFoodResearch, UnitE2FoodQuality, B1049BrusselsSDME8/02, Belgium. Email:maria.spulber@cec.eu.int Tel:3222987333 Fax:3222964322

EURAINwebsite:www.eurain.com InformationonEURAINconferencesandpublicationscanbeaccessedatthiswebsite.

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