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Dept. of Geology

Evaluation of Aquifer Parameters by Pumping Tests L. Elango

1

**When We Pump A Well Where Does the Water Come From?
**

Storage coefficient or storativity (S) volume of water that a permeable unit will absorb or expel from storage per unit surface area per unit change in head

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Unconfined System Drainage of the Pores Specific Yield

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Confined System

If potentiometric surface changes, ater ill water will be e pelled or expelled stored

But Pores aren’t Draining?

Where is the Water Coming From? 3

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Think of a Tire System is Elastic Filled with air under pressure we release it it is still filled with air Skeleton If pressure increases, Mineral skeleton will expand Water will contract Water

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P

If pressure drops, p p , Mineral skeleton will contract Water will expand

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P

Expansion of Water Compaction of the Aquifer Skeleton 4

When Pumping

Reduce the Pressure

Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Specific Storage (Ss)

elastic storage coefficient amount of water per unit volume of a saturated formation that is stored or expelled from storage owing to compressibility of the mineral skeleton and pore water per unit head change

Ss = ρwg(α + nβ)

ρw = density of water g = acceleration of gravity α = compressibility of aquifer skeleton n = porosity β = compressibility of water 5

Storage Coefficient

The storage coefficient (S) consists of two components: pore fluid draining of the aquifer water released from compressibility of aquifer For confined aquifers, there is no draining of the pores, so all storage comes from the compressibility component Ss = specific storage (1/L) b = saturated thickness (L) S < 0.005 For F unconfined aquifers, most of the water is from draining, fi d if t f th t i f d i i contribution from compressibility is very small in comparison S = Ssb S = Sy + Ssb usually, Sy >> Ssb S ~ Sy Sy = specific yield b = saturated thickness (L) Ss = specific storage (1/L) S: 0.02 to 0.30

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

What is drawdown?

Piezometer t=0 t>0

7

Groundwater Movement - Cone of Depression

**(from Keller, 2000, Figure 10.10)
**

Water table

flow flow Cone of depression

Pumping water from a well causes a cone of depression to form in the water table at the well site. S. Hughes, 2003 8

Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Cone of Depression

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Plan View

Axi symmetric flow

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Well

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Drawdown cones at a given time

Freeeze and Cherry 1979

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Aquifer Parameters

• Storage coefficient or storativity volume of water that a permeable unit will absorb or expel from storage per unit surface area per unit change in head.

• Transmissivity - the amount of water y

**that can be transmitted horizontally by the full-saturated thickness of the aquifer under a hydraulic gradient of 1.
**

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Steady and Unsteady Flow
**

• Steady Flow – variation in head w.r.t time is Zero • Unsteady – head varies with time

99.55 99.6 99.65 99.7 99 99.75 99.8 99.85 99.9 99.95 100 100.05 0 1000 2000 3000 Time

Equilibrium

Drawdown

4000

5000

6000

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**Groundwater Flow Equation
**

• Consider a small volume of the aquifer, called a control volume. • The three sides are of length dx,dy and dz respectively respectively. • Area of the faces normal to the xaxis is dydz

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**The inflow and outflow components in the X direction can be stated as
**

⎛ ∂h ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ q x ,i = −T z W ⎜ ⎟ and qx ,o = −Tx W ⎜ ⎟ d z z x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ o i

Tx is the Transmissivity in the x direction, W is the length of a side of the square, (δh/δx)i and (δh/δx)o define the hydraulic gradient at the entry and exit faces

15

The flow rate or released in the element as a result of these flows, by continuity, equals

(q x,i − q x,o ) + (q y ,i − q y ,o ) = − SW 2 ∂h

∂t

S - storage coefficient g

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Substituting the values of q
**

⎛ ∂h ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ i ⎝ ∂x ⎠ o − Tx − Ty W ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ∂h ⎝ ⎠i ⎝ ⎠o = −S W ∂t

If the value of W becomes infinitesimally small, the derivatives on the left hand side become the second derivatives of h, so

Tx

∂ 2h ∂x 2

+ Ty

∂ 2h ∂y 2

rs ity

=S

∂h ∂t

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**Extending this as a 3 D equation
**

Kx ∂ 2h ∂x 2 +Ky ∂ 2h ∂y 2 + Kz ∂ 2h ∂z 2 = Ss ∂h ∂t

S=Ss W

If the flow is steady, δh/δt = 0; therefore,

K xx

∂ 2h ∂x

2

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∂2h ∂y

2

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+ K yy + K zz ∂ 2h ∂z

2

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=0

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**For homogenous and isotropic aquifers
**

∂ 2h ∂x 2 + ∂ 2h ∂y 2 + ∂ 2h ∂z 2 = 0 K

This is known as Laplace equation

19

**The Flow Equation (cont.)
**

Flow Equation Simplifications

0 0

**Steady State Flow Equation y q
**

If inflow = out flow, Net inflow = 0 Change in storage = 0

**Two dimensional flow equation
**

Horizontal flow (Dupuit assumption) Thus: dh/dz = 0

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**2-D, horizontally isotropic flow equation
**

Kx=Ky=Kh T=Kh b units: [L2/T], S=Ss b Ah: horizontal area of recharge Ss/Kh=S/T hydraulic diffusivity

0

0

Isotropic, 2-D, steady state flow equation (without source term), Laplace Equation

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**In polar coordinates
**

Unsteady Radial Flow the equation for confined flow is

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Unsteady Radial Flow the equation for unconfined flow is

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Pumping Tests

• Estimate transmissivity T and storativity S in the field • Pumping a well • Measure drawdown in observation wells near the pumping well • Relation among discharge, drawdown and time help to determine aquifer parameters • Also known as ‘Well hydraulics’

23

**AxiAxi-symmetric Flow
**

• STEADY RADIAL FLOW (Equilibrium)

– Confined Aquifer q – Unconfined Aquifer

- well pumped at constant rate - equilibrium (no change in head with time)

**• UNSTEADY RADIAL FLOW (Non equilibrium flow/ Transient)
**

– Confined Aquifer – Unconfined Aquifer

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

STEADY RADIAL FLOW

Confined Aquifer

• After a long time, drawdown approaches an equilibrium value. value • Derive a expression for transmissivity as a function of Q and h measured at two observation wells. • Dupit assumptions (a) the hydraulic gradient is equal to the slope of the water di i l h l f h table and (b) for small water-table gradients, waterthe stream-lines are horizontal and the streamequipotential lines are vertical.

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Dupuit Assumptions

For unconfined ground water flow Dupuit developed th d l d a theory that allows for a simple th t ll f i l solution based off the following assumptions: 1) The water table or free surface is only slightly inclined 2) St Streamlines may b considered h i t l li be id d horizontal and equipotential lines, vertical 3) Slopes of the free surface and hydraulic gradient are equal

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

STEADY RADIAL FLOW

Confined Aquifer

Cone of Depression

s = drawdown

Q

h

r

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From Darcy’s law for horizontal flow, Q at any radius r equals,

Integrating after separation of variables, with h = h1 at r = r1 at the well, yields

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Derivation

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

The formula is...

Q r2 T= ln( ) 2π (h2 − h1 ) r1

This is known as Thiem Eqn 29

STEADY RADIAL FLOW

Unconfined Aquifer

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Derivation of equation

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The formula is...

For steady state conditions we can NOT determine storativity of aquifer as hydraulic head does not change with time

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

• Advantages: T (or K) determination quite accurate ( (compared to transient methods) p ) • Disadvantages: need 2 observation wells, can’t get storativity S • may require very long term pumping to reach steady-state

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UNSTEADY RADIAL FLOW

**Pumping Tests in an Ideal Confined Aquifer
**

Theis (1935) Solution

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Determining T and S from Pumping Test Data
**

Non N equilibrium equation is ilib i ti i advantageous Value of S can be determined One observation well is required Shorter period of pumping However the assumptions!!

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Assumptions: • full penetration of aquifer and radial flow, • homogeneous and isotropic, y • Pizometric surface is horizontal that is steady state system prior to pumping, • constant density and viscosity of water, • pumping well of infinitesimal diameter and 100% efficient • horizontal flow and Darcy's law valid • potentiometric surface initially horizontal and any changes due to pumping of well, • aquifer horizontal, infinite in horizontal extent and bounded on bottom by confining layer

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Theis Method

Q = pumping rate

**t=0 t>0 Confined Aquifer Impermeable above and below aquifer
**

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**• The governing ground water flow equation for h in plane polar coordinates is:
**

∂2h/∂ r2 + (1/r)(∂h/∂r) = (S/T)(∂h/∂t)

where: r = radial distance from well S = storage coefficient and coefficient, T = transmissivity RHS = transient term of storage

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

visualaquifer.htm

http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/classe s/geol552/pumptest/visualaquifer.ht m 39

Theis Equation

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Q e h0 − h = du ∫ ud 4π T u

Theis equation is written as W(u) and is known as the exponential integral or well function,

−u

Q h0 − h = W ( u) 4π T

r2S u= 4Tt

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Q h0 − h = W ( u) 4π T

well function W(u) can be expanded as infinite series

W(u) = – 0.5772 – ln(u) + u – u2/2·2! + u3/3·3! – u4/4·4! + ..

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• • • • •

**Drawdown, (h0 - h) Drawdown Pumping rate, Q Transmissivity, T Storativity, S Radial distance between pumping and observation wells, r
**

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Theis Solution

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Pumping Tests for T and S
**

• Measure drawdown due to the pumping well in nearby observation wells. Get t vs s data • Use graphical techniques or approximations to measure T and S. S

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Theis Method of Solution...

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Q h0 − h = W ( u) 4π T

s = (Q/4πT)W(u) r2/t = (4T/S)u

r2S u= 4Tt

The relationship between W(u) and u must be the same as that between s and r2/t because all other terms are constants. - therefore, plot of the following will be similar: W(u) vs. u, and s vs. r2/t

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Estimating T and S using Theis
**

1 Construct a plot of W(u) versus u on loglog-log paper. 2 Plot drawdown measurements on paper of same scale. 3 Match the data to the type curve. h h d h

45

**...T and S from Theis
**

1 Select a match point (normally W(u) = 1/u = 1. 2 Find values of drawdown and time that correspond to the match point. 3 S l f T and S with Theis solution. Solve for d ih h i l i

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Theis Type Curve and Field Data
**

Data Pts Well Fcn

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Rearrange and solve for T:

Q T= W ( u) 4π (h0 − h)

4Tt Ttu S= 2 r

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Example Problem

• A well in a confined aquifer was pumped at a rate of 1000L/min for 500 minutes. The aquifer is 15 m thick and the observation well is 250 m from the pumping well. Find T K, and S. well T, K S

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**Drawdown Data from an Observation Well 250 m from the Pumping Well P mping
**

10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 1 10 Time (min) 100 1000

Dra awdown (m)

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Example Data

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Theis Type Curve
**

Theis Type Curve

10 1 W(u) 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.1 1 10 1/u 100 1000

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**Match the data to the type curve.
**

Theis Type Curve

10 1 W(u) 0.1

10 1 0.1

0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 1 0.1 10 100 100 1000 1000

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1 10 1/u

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Match the data to the type curve.
**

Theis Type Curve

10 1 W(u) 0.1

10 1 0.1

0.7 m 4 mins

1

0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 1 0.1

10

10 1/u

100 100

1000 1000

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• Recall Q = 1000L/min. 1000L/min • r = 250 m. • Match point values are W(u) = 1, 1/u = 1, h0 - h = 0.7 m, and t = 4 minutes. i

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Calculations

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Recall...

Q T= W ( u) 4π (h0 − h)

4Ttu S= 2 r

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**Values of T, K, and S are
**

• T = 0.11 m2/min 0 11 /min. • K = T/b = 7.3 x 10-3 m/min. • S = 2.8 x 10-5

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**CooperCooper-Jacob Straight-Line StraightMethod
**

• Approximation of Theis technique. technique • Applies to long time data. • Represent W(u) by an infinite series.

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W(u) as an Infinite Series

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

W(u) as an Infinite Series

Truncate the Series - OK for longer times. u < 0.01

ho - h =

Q (- 0.5772 - ln(u)) 4ΠT

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Simplify

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-u = ln(1/u) ln 1.78=0.5772

h0 − h =

Q ⎛ 4 Tt ⎞ ( − ln 1 . 78 + ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ) 4π T ⎝r S ⎠ Q 4 Tt ⎛ ⎞ h0 − h = ln ⎜ ⎟ 4π T 1 . 78 r 2 S ⎠ ⎝

h0 − h =

2 .3Q ⎛ 2 . 25 Tt ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ 2 4π T ⎝ r S ⎠

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Use t0 (time for which drawdown = 0), to estimate S.

**2.3Q 2.25Tt ho - h = log ( 2 ) \ l 4πT r S
**

So, since log(1) = 0, rearrangement yields

2.25Tt 2 25Tt o r 2S

= 1 or S =

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2.25Tt 2 25Tt o r2

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h0 − h =

2.3Q ⎛ 2.25T ⎞ (log⎜ 2 ⎟ + log t ) 4πT ⎝ r S ⎠

Similar to equation of straight line Plot of s Vs log t a forms straight line T = 2.3Q/4π ∆s ∆s is the drawdown difference per unit log p g cycle of t First solve for T and then for S and is only applicable for small values of u < 0.01

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Plot data on appropriate axes.
**

Data For Jacob Method

Tim e (m in) 1 0 0.5 Draw wdown (m) 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 10 100 1000

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**Find Δ(h0-h) (1 log cycle)
**

Data For Jacob Method

Tim e (m in) 1 0 0.5 Draw wdown (m) 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 10 100 1000

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Δ(h0-h) = 2.1 - 0.4 = 1.7 m

Now find t0, where drawdown = 0.

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Measurement of t0

Tim t0 = 7 mins. e (m in) mins 1 0 0.5 Draw wdown (m) 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 10

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Data For Jacob Method

100 1000

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Calculation of T, K and S

2.3Q w T= 4πΔ(H − h )

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Finally Calculate S

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S =

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2.25Tt 2 25T o r2

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Chow Method

• • • • Relation between F(u), u and W(u) Choose a pt. note t and s Find Δs • F (u) = s/Δs • For F(u) get u & W(u)

1 10 0 1 2 3 0.5 1.5 2.5 Drawdown (m) 3.5

**D For JacobM ata ethod
**

Tim (m e in) 100 1000

Q h0 − h = W ( u) 4π T

u=

r2S 4Tt

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• That we can also determine T & S with r vs s data also!

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Remember …

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Theis recovery method

http://www.nyecounty.com/RID_data/rid4802.pdf

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• Well pumped for a given time t • Recovery data can then be collected • Residual drawdown s’

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Plot f ’ d log / ’ Pl of s’ and l t/t’ – straight line i h li

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**Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer
**

• Leaky aquifers are complex because when they are pumped, water is withdrawn from both the lower aquifer and from the saturated portion of the overlying aquitard. • By creating a lowered piezometric surface below the i i f b l h water table, ground water can migrate vertically downward and than move horizontally to the well 74

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer
**

• When pumping starts from a well in a leaky aquifer, drawdown of the piezometric surface can be given by: s' = (Q/4πT)W(u,r/B) where the quantity r/B is given by: r/B = r/ T/(K' / b') where: T is transmissivity of the aquifer i t i i it f th if K' is vertical hydraulic conductivity b' is the thickness of the aquitard W leaky well function tabulated in books

Hantush and Jacob (1955) 75

• – Theis solution assumes all pumped water comes from aquifer storage (ideal aquifer) – additional water can enter such systems via leakage from lower-permeability bounding materials or surface water bodies. • This lowers the drawdown vs. time curve below vs the classic Theis curve • Assumptions: as in Theis solution, plus vertical-only flow in the aquitard (i.e. leakage only moves vertically), no drawdown in un pumped aquifer, no contribution from storage in aquitard

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

• Values of the function W(u, r/B) have been given for various r/B to create a family of type curves

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**• This method of solution for the leaky aquifer is similar to the Theis method, except for W( /B) t f W(u,r/B)
**

– A curve of best fit is selected and values of W, 1/u, s', and t are found, which allows T and S to be determined. This makes it possible to calculate K' and b'. – M h d i rarely used i practice since the Method is l d in i i h assumptions are often violated in the field. – Better to use a numerical model (MODFLOW) that can handle variations more accurately. 78

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Unconfined Aquifer

• Have both radial (horizontal) and vertical flow. • Drawdown the water table. • Drain pores.

Unsteady Flow

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**Pumping from an Unconfined Aquifer
**

Q

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at t = 0. t>0 Impermeable Base

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Three Distinct Stages of Drawdown
**

Assumption of horizontal-only flow is violated for unconfined aquifers 1. at early stages of pumping, the water table changes little, and the p q , drawdown responds as a Theis curve for confined aquifer, with storage in the aquifer equal to specific storage ( Ss) 2. when the drawdown cone is sufficiently deep, vertical flow to the well occurs and gravity-assisted drainage decreases the drawdown 3. at late stages the drawdown follows a Theis curve, but storage g Theis (S) is equal to specific yield Theis (Sy) (Sy), i.e. provided by gravity 3 2 drainage ho - h

1 time

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Neuman (1975) Solution

Q h0 − h = W (uA, uB, Γ ) 4πT

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

r S uA = 4Tt r Sy uB = 4Tt

2

2

Γ = r2Kv / b2Kh

b – saturated thickness of aquifer Kh, Kv - Horizontal and vertical K

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Other methods

• • • • • • Partially P ti ll penetrating wells t ti ll Wells near barrier boundaries Multiple wells Large diameter wells g Trenches ……………………

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**Advantages of Pumping Tests
**

• Meas re parameters i situ Measure in it • Average parameters over a large volume • Measure T and S simultaneously.

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Disadvantages of Pumping Tests
**

High cost Time consuming Not possible to satisfy the assumptions Non-uniqueness of T and S results Disposal of potentially contaminated Di l f t ti ll t i t d water? • Possibility of contamination.

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• • • • •

**Slug or Bail Tests: Alternatives to Pumping Tests
**

• • • • • No pumping req ired p mping required Only need one well Easy to add a solid slug to a well Measure time required to recover Rate of recovery is proportional to K

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Slug Tests

Slug tests are conducted by “instantaneously” raising or lowering the water level in a well and monitoring the recovery of the water level Often accomplished by dropping a long object into the well to displace the water – Forward Test

Initial condition t=0 t = t1 t = t2 t = t3

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Forward Slug Test – Insert the Slug

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Reverse Test – Pull the Slug

91

**Cooper – Bredehoeft - Papadopulos
**

solution for a slug test in a confined aquifer by curve matching

Displace water using a slug Instantaneous rise in water level H0 = maximum rise in water level H = height above static water level Measure H with respect to time 92

Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Plot H/H0 (arithmetic) verses time (log) Match Data to Type Curves Keep H/H0 axes coincident p Shift Horizontally Select a match point for the value of t1 at the point where Tt/r2 = 1

T=

rc2 t1

S = (rc2u)/rs2

Curves for small values of u look very similar and should be used with caution Fully penetrating confined system 93

**Hvorslev Slug Test Method
**

Plot of log H/H0 vs time (arithmetic) Fit Straight Line to Data Determine T0 for H/H0 = .37

K=

r2ln(Le/R) 2LeT0

K = hydraulic conductivity r = radius of well casing R = radius of well screen Le = length of well screen Unconfined or Confined 94

Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Fetter, Applied Hydrogeology 4th Edition

Figure 5.21. Piezometer geometry for Hvorslev method. Note that for a piezometer installed in a lowpermeability unit the value R is the radius of the highest permeable zone that includes the gravel pack zone and 95 L is the length of the gravel pack zone.

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96

Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Bouwer and Rice Method
**

Intended for unconfined systems

K = hydraulic conductivity rc = radius of the well casing R = radius of gravel pack Re = effective radial distance over which head is dissipated Le = length of screen H0 = drawdown at time t = 0 Ht = drawdown at time t t = time since test began 97

Partially Penetrating

Fully Penetrating

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98

Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Gravel Pack K

Plot Ht (log) vs time (arithmetic) Fit Straight Line to Middle Data Choose point on line for t Ht Ch i t li f t,

99

Step Drawdown Test

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Step drawdown test for well efficiency

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Well Efficiency

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10

Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Well Skin Effects Well Installation can produce low K skin Slug test will be influenced by the skin K Critical to develop the well - Purge and surge Slug Test Guidelines 1. Three or more slug tests should be performed in each well 2. Two or more initial displacements should be used 3. Introduce slug near instantaneously 4. 4 Log sampling – pressure transducer

10

• All the methods can be performed using commercially available software

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Groundwater Model

Modelling? Modelling?

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• Represents an approximation to a real field situation i.e simplified version of a real system, • Phenomena that take place within it, • approximately simulates the systems’ systems excitationexcitation-response relationships that 10 are of interest. interest. 6

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Groundwater Model

Tool to predict subsurface groundwater flow and solute transport to changes in natural or human induced stresses

10 10

**Purpose of Model to organise field data to predict to learn to answer
**

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Elango L

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Types of Models

Types of Groundwater Models

Physical Models

Mathematical Models

Sand Tank Models

Analog Models

Analytical Models

Numerical Models

Viscous Models

Membrane Models

Thermal Models

Electrical Models

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Numerical Models

Provide approximate solutions to partial difference equation(s) through the discretisation of space and time

to determine groundwater head and conc. 11

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Finite Difference & Finite Element

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Finite-Difference Equation FiniteGroundwater flow equation in FDE follows application of the continuity equation: i.e the sum of all flows into and out of the cell must be equal to the rate of of change in storage within the cell.

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Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Derivation of the finite-difference equation finiteof groundwater flow
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Kx ∂ 2h ∂x 2 +Ky ∂ 2h ∂y 2 + Kz ∂2h ∂z 2 = Ss ∂h ∂t

Partial-differential equation for 3-D movement artialof groundwater through porous earth is

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Discretisation of Aquifers

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Source: Modflow manual

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Cell i,j,k

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Groundwater Flow

Flow thro the cell is defiend by Darcy Law Darcy’s Law Discharge through porous media is proportional to the hydraulic gradient and area of cross section Q= KAi Proportionality constant K = Hydraulic conductivity

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Main stages of modelling
**

The main stages of the site scale groundwater flow modelling

– – – – – – Conceptual model construction of flow model, creation of an finite difference cells, solving of partial differential equations, g p q , calibration of flow model, computation and assessment of final results, and – sensitivity and uncertainty analysis.

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**Flow Chart of Modelling
**

Model design design of a grid, selecting time steps, setting initial and boundary conditions, and preliminary selection of aquifer parameters and hydrologic stresses Calibration a set of values for aquifer parameters is found that approximates field measured heads and flows, by trail and error or by inverse methods Sensitivity analysis Post-audit After a few years verify. Adjust model as necessary

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Elango L

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

**Popular Computer Codes
**

• MODFLOW (Modular Three Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow Model) - USGS - 3D FDE • PLASM (Prickett-Lonnquist Aquifer (PrickettSimulation Model) - Illinois S W S – 2D FDE • AQUIFEM (Finite Element Aquifer Flow Model) - CSIRO - 2 D FE 11

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