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THE END OF HISTORICISM

Millerite Hermeneutic of Time Prophecies in the Old Testament

by
Kai Arasola

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Copyright 1990 Kai Arasola Revised submitted Uppsala examined edition of an earlier mimeographed dissertation to the Theological Faculty of the University of for the degree of Doctor of Theology, publicly on May 24, 1989.

Abstract Arasola, K.J., 1989. The Hermeneutic of Time Testament. 226 pp. Uppsala.
ISBN 91-630-0105-5

End of Historicism. Millerite Prophecies m the Old

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This dissertation shows that William Miller' ,' i ,"( ;jl -"V tl" had several ways of counting the time of the parousia. Many or his interpretations have long been forgotten and overlooked by literature and research on Millerism. Miller had fifteen "proofs" of the second Advent in 1843. These proofs were found 1D various parts of the Bible from Genesis to the book of Revelation. Miller's proofs included the "prophecy of Moses," seven prophetic years or 2520 literal years. He found this prophecy in Lev 26, Deut 15, Dan 4, and Eze 39. He also counted the time of the end by 6000 years from the creation. These views may have affected the later doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses. Miller also had other imaginative prophetic interpretations like the Jubilees or the two days of Hos 6:2. However, the backbone of Miller's fifteen proofs was a complex system of interlinked prophecies from the books of Daniel and Revelation which in turn shaped the teachings of Seventh-day Adventism. This study describes Miller's historicist hermeneutic. It also shows that because of the disappointment at the end of the revival the popular historical method of prophetic interpretation changed. HIStoricism was replaced by Darbyan futurism and by preterism. Few outside the denominations that stem from Millerism dared keep on using the traditional historical method.
Kai Arasola, Department of Theology, Uppsala University, Box

The Millennium was supposed to be very near. I fully entered into the enthusiasm of the time. -- My heart was fixed on the Millennium and I resolved to live or die for it. Noyes, Confessions of Religious Experience

1604, S-751 46 Uppsala, Sweden.

Printed in Sweden by DATEM PUBLISHING, Sigtuna, 1990.

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ABBREVIATIONS
ABU AH AHer AM AMDZ ANF ASR diss. DS DSE EOTH EvT Aid to Bible Understanding Advent Herald Adventist Heritage The American Monitor Advent Message to the Daughters of Zion Roberts & Donaldson eds. Ante-Nicene Fathers 6

SDABD SDAE

vols.

SMV ST TGC TMC VOP
VI' WA

SEA

IDB

ICC IEP
JW KJV LS LW MC MEA

MIN MS n.d. n.p . N&PNF
NT PFF PT RD ROA SAL SAM SDA SDABC

OT

Advent Shield and Review dissertation Day Star Day Star Extra Westermann ed . Essays on Old Testament Hermeneutics Evangelische Teologie The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible The International Critical Commentary The Investigator or monthly Expositor and Register of Prophecy Jehovah's Wittness James Version Wafch ed . Dr. Martin Luthers Werke 67 vols. Hilton ed. Luther's Works Midnight Cry Hoornstra ed. The Millerites and Early Adventists A Microfilm collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts Ministry Manuscript no date no place Roberts & Donaldson eds. Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, 4vols Old Testament New Testament Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, 4vols Present Truth Reader's Digest Sandeen ed. Rise of Adventism Second Advent Library Hale, Second Advent Manual Seventh-day Adventist(s) Nichol ed . The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary

Horn ed . The Seventh-day Adven Dictionary Neufeld ed. The Seventh-day Encyclopedia Svensk Eksegetisk Arsbok Miller 1842i Synopsis of Miller's Views Signs of the Times The Great Crisis of 1843 True Midnight Cry Miller 1842j Views of the Prophecies ant ChronologyVetus Testamentum D. Martin Luthers Werke. Gesammtausgabe. Weimar 1883-1948

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction
1.1

3.12 3.12 .1 3.13 3.14

American contribution Some features of American literature Miller's relationship to other historicists Summary

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46

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48 49

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4. Miller's view of prophecy and history 4.1
4.2

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2. Background
2.1

The problem The scope of the research Comments on Methodology An overview of the contents Literature

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2

3
4

5
6

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2
2.3

2.3.1 2.4 2.4.1 2.5 2.5.1 2.6 2.7 2.8

William Miller Miller and the prophecies Miller begins to preach Millerite message Mass meetings and publications The organization and spread of Millerism Millerism and American religiousity Popularity of Millennarianism A significant change in Millerism The seventh-month movement The aftermath of the disappointment Miller 's heritage Summary

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7 8 8

4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.4 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.7.4 4.7.5 , 4.9
4.8

9 11 11 13
14

19
21

16 17

3. The historical method

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23
24

3.2 3.2.1
3.4

3.1

3.2.2 3.3 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

Protestant apocalypticism From Reformation to American biblicism Reformation hermeneutic The rise of biblicism Definition of historicism An excursus - early background of historicism The church fathers The year-day theory and papal antichrist Joseph Mede Sir Isaac Newton Thomas Newton John Gill George Stanley Faber Historicism in popular commentaries Contemporary British premillennialism

27 28
29

25

The basic premise of Miller's exegesis 49 50 Rules of interpretation Observations on Miller 's rules 53 Scriptural analogy 54 Iml?0rtance of words 55 Unilateralism and literalism 56 Millerite view on Biblical languages 57 Resistance to historical critical influence 58 Lack of Christocentricity 59 The influence and function of hermeneutical rules 60 Millerite confession of faith 62 Return of the Jews 64 Miller 's argument on the promises 66 Millerite support 66 Literal fulfillment 67 The importance of prophecies concerning Israel 68 Premillennialism 68 The Day of the Lord 70 The importance of premillennialism 72 Historical application of the book of Daniel 73 Sequencial fulfilment 75 Details 75 The Horns 76 78 The hom of Daniel 8 Daniel chapter eleven and twelve 80 The book of Revelation 82 Summary 83
84

5. Miller's chronological exegesis 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2
5.3.3

33
35 37
40 40

30 32

41 43

5.4

Year-day method Other methods of counting time The scope of Miller's exegesis problem of literature The scope of Miller's exegesis - 15 proofs The scope of Miller's exegesis an analysis of periodicals Synopsis of Miller's chronology The prophecy of Moses

86 88

89 90
94 95
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5.4.1 5.4.2 5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.7 6.7.1 5.7.2 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.9 5.10 5.10.1 5.10.2 5.10.3 5.10.4 5.10.5 5.11 5.11.1 5.11.2 5.11.3 5.12 5.12.1 5.12.2 5.13 5.14 5.14.1 5.14.2 5.14.3 5.14.3.1 5.14.4 5.15 5.16 Proof of 6TI B.C. Comments on the prophecy of Moses Year of release of the seven times Bac ound an of the e The Extrabiblical research Popularity and influence of the 6000 year theory The Jubilees The terminus for the Jubilees Comments on the Jubilees The third day The cleans:r of the sanctuary Daniel 8 an 9 interpreted together When was Jerusalem rebuilt The date of the crucifixion What is the Sanctuary Comments on the 2300 year prophecy Time of the End The French revolution The time of the Antichrist Comments on the 1260 years 1335 dayslyears Taking away of the daily From Daill to the end Number 0 the beast Proof for the year-day theory History of Islam Fractions of a prophetic day News from the east Wallah, hillah, tillah Comments on the fall of Turkey Observations on Miller's chronological points Summary 98 100 102 104 106 107 111 112 113 115 116 118 120 121 124 124 126 127 128 131 133 134 134 135 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.7 The Autumn feasts The Seventh-month Details of the sanctuary typos Objections to Snow's typology Midnight cry Excursus, background to typology New Testament typology Cocceius and Marsh North American concepts Examples of sanctuary typology Summary

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154 155 156 158 160 161 162 163 165 166 167 169 169 169 170 171 171 173 173 181 181 189 190 203 205
208

7. Conclusions and Miller's heritage 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Bibiography Millerite sources Periodicals Periodical articles Manuscripts and letters Old historicist literature up to the time of Miller's contemporaries Published literature on Millerism and Miller Published literature on Seventh-day Adventism and Je ovah's Witnesses General literature Periodicals and articles Unpublished manuscripts Appendixes The power of The nature of M' er's exegesis The Seventh-month movement of prophetic exegesis New The en and the continuation of Millerism

130

136 138

139 140 141 142 143 144 146

210 215 216

6. Festal calendar and sanctuary typology 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.3 6.3.1 Two Jewish calendars A correction of calculations The time of the crucifixion and 1844 Correction for the year zero Autumn speculation Creation in the autumn The seven times Daniel 8:14 and sanctuary typology Development of Millerite interest in typology

147 148 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153
i .

218 Example of Millerite hermeneutical rules 219 Exegetical and other articles in Millerite periodicals 220 Miller's 15 proofs 221 Millerite charts William Miller: "Time Proved in 15 Different Ways" 222 William Miller: "A Bible Chronology from Adam to Christ" 226

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1 INTRODUCTION FOREWORD
A word of gratitude to professors Ringgren and Ottosson for the and freedom of research they have given with a topic which in their particular fields must appear peculiar. Millerism may indeed appear a far fetched topic for a study in the history of exegesis. Yet even this subject has provided joy of discovery as previously undiscovered facts on Miller's exegesis have been uncovered. Dr. Harry Leonard's reading of the manuscript has not only saved this book from a number of embarassing mistakes but also provided insight into areas of further research and writing. There is a further word of gratitude that must be extended to family members. At times they may have wondered how a last century revivalist can rob a family of a father for months. However, whether they appreciate Miller or not, this document is dedicated to Ida Marie, Kristiina, Pasi and Mika. A system of prophetic exegesis captured the imagination of North America a century and a half ago. It caused more than a little upheaval in the established churches. It initiated the birth of several new religious denominations. This apocalyptic revival, Millerism, is generally remembered as a queer, extremist phenomenon of nineteenth century American religiosity, but what is not commonly known is the fact that this revival was one of the turning points in the history of prophetic exegesis. Millerism represents a Biblical interpretation that not only brought excitement, inspiration as well as trauma to thousands, but also marked a watershed in the history of millennialist exegesis. The inglorious end of Millerism brought disrepute to anyone attempting to calculate a prophetic time-table for world history. Within a few years from the widely publicized failure of Millerite expectations, the centuries-old, well-established historical method of prophetic exposition lost dominance, and gave way to both dispensationalist futurism and to the more scholarly preterism.' Very few outside of former Millerites dared keep on using the continuous historical hermeneutic as it was charged with Millerism's infamous failure. This is the reason for the title The End of Historicism. However, one should not get the impression that historicism is dead. There were people who remained faithful to the old hermeneutic, and the denominations that grew out of Millerism now have millions of adherents. The change that took place simply means that within a few decades from

lThis development was not limited to North America alone, but took place also in Germany and Great Britain.

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Miller historicism was no more the standard protestant method in the universities, theological seminaries or in the churches.

contributed to exegetical changes in the nineteenth century . Such factors catalyzed the impact of Millerism. They are outside the sphere of this research which is limited to describing prophetic exegesis within Millerism, and the background of this exegesis. Many aspects of Miller's interpretation are discussed only in a cursory manner. His use of the Bible, his ideas on millennialism and zionism are passed over with but a few remarks. The primary focus of this research has been on time prophecies that Miller related to a terminus in 1843/4. All of these time calculations, with only a couple of secondary exceptions, stem from the Old Testament. Admittedly a major section of interesting and informative exposition is thus left aside, but this limitation is not only due to lack of space and time but is also prompted by the writer's personal interest.

1.1 The Problem
The basic question this research sets out to answer is, "What was the exegesis like that shook America and upset the established tradition of prophetic interpretation?" It may well be that some Millerite viewpoints appear naive to twentieth-century observers, yet the question is worth asking. Naive or not, Miller marks the end of one school of exegesis which he developed to its logical conclusions. Furthermore, Millerism is a dramatic example of the impact that prophetic expositions may have. Such episodes must be of interest to anyone concerned with the history of exegesis. This is so in spite of the fact that the influence of prophecy on the religious thinking of past centuries is usually underrated by historians. By any standards Miller and his revival represent a noteworthy part of nineteenth-century American history. In fact Millerism is one of the most widespread apocalyptic revivals ever, and there are still several million people, Seventh-day Adventists, members of the Radio Church of God, or of the many small Adventist churches and even Jehovah's Witnesses, that in one way or another have to reckon with William Miller in their spiritual pedigree,"

1.3 Comments on methodology
Attemps at organizing and interpreting other people's ideas are always hazardous. The research has been based on an investigation of Millerite books and periodicals. All material relating to time prophesies has been analyzed and classified under the headings of Miller's fifteen proofs which cover the essential aspects of Millerite chronological exegesis.
It is important to be aware from the outset that some Old Testament texts that the Millerites used do not appear as prophecies to a modern reader. There are also several explanations which call for the reaction: This is no exegesis at all. However, Miller and many of his followers regarded the texts prophetic (with utter seriousness). Furthermore, the history of exegesis must deal with what people discovered in a text rather than what we think they should have found. It is also appropriate to note that even though the following

1.2 The scope of the research
While Millerism made its impact in North America there were other influences which contributed to the end of the historical method of prophetic interpretation. There was Darbyisim, the English counterpart of Millerism, there were the Plymouth Brethren and people like Scofield who shaped the new hermeneutic of futurism and of course there was the slowly widening influence of historical critical research, all of which 2Some of these groups (e.g. JWs) are largely unaware of any link they may have to Millerism.

pages include phraseology such as Miller "believed" or "liked" or "thought" or "cherished" or "disapproved" there is no device to measure the actual beliefs any more than likes or dislikes of a person no more alive. Here, as in any history of ideas, the only concrete facts are the writings available. The writing itself does not necessarily prove that the author himself believed what he wrote, neither does it usually tell the origin of the idea. The only fact is the text. Everything else is speculation. This means

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that every time a word implying emotion or thought appears in the following pages, it is not intended to express the actual sentiment of a person but rather that of a piece of writing. One of the methodological problems related to the study of Millerism is the repetitious nature of Millerite writings. There is no need to read through many Millerite publications before one realizes that on many subjects the contents are virtually identical even when different authors are named on the title page. In addition they loved reprints. Many documents appeared first in the periodicals, then in pamphlet form. After a year or two several pamphlets were collected into a book. No effort has been made to determine who wrote something first. In a case of similar ideas between Millerites and non-Millerites one can at best suspect dependence, but never prove it - unless, of course, clear reference or ipsissima verba are found. This makes the background of Miller's exegesis an illustration of similar thinking rather than a proof of Miller's dependance on earlier exegetes. The same must hold true also in the case of Miller's impact on later exegetes.

1.5 literature
In historical research the availability of sources is often a formidable opponent to the researcher. In the case of Millerism one is in a fortunate position. While numerous valuable sources have been lost, University Microfilms has published a microfilm collection of rare books and manuscripts on Millerism." These films include over 1000 titles, Millerite as well as non-Millerite, 110 volumes of periodicals, and over 1000 copies of letters and manuscripts. The collection is not exhaustive and there has been frequent need to complement it with other literature, yet it has been invaluable in providing many of the primary sources for this research. The largest collection of original Millerite material is found at Aurora College, Aurora, Illinois. There are also extensive collections at Ellen G. White Estate, Takoma Park, Washington, D.C., and Heritage Room, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan. In Europe Newbold College, Bracknell, Berks., England, has a branch of Ellen G. White research center, with some original and some copies of Millerite and early Adventist material.

1.4 An overview of the contents
The first part is a short background on Miller and Millerism. Historical, political, social, or religious factors that may have affected the rise of Millerism have been cut out. A short description of Miller and his revival remains. The historical background is followed by exegetical background. Chapter three gives a definition of historicism, describes its the rise and draws comparisons between Miller and other historicists. Miller's exegesis is depicted from two angles. Firstly, to show the foundation of Miller's exegesis his view of the Bible and his hermeneutical methods are described with examples of nonchronological exegesis. Secondly, there is a description of Miller's prophetic time-table with a separate chapter on the specific issues relating to date-setting and typological interpretation of the final stage of the revival. 3Hoonstra J. ed. The Millerites And Early Adventists, A Microfilm Collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts, 1978
[MEA] .

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commanded some respect in his community. He personifies the talented and virtuous American, the "self made man" who from common background makes his way into wide recognition." He support to serve as a captain. However, farming. remained his primary occupation until Millerism was well consolidated,"
2.1.1 Miller and the prophecies

2 BACKGROUND
2.1 William Miller
Literature on Willam Miller is somewhat schizophrenic in picturing the man. On the on e hand he is portrayed as a religious zealot, an enthusiast , a maniac with a fertile imagination, a man who is certainly literate but scarcely learned.' On the other one finds him described as a farmer of superior virtue: sober, honest, temperamentally conservative, utterly logical, self-educated with wide general knowledge, an ingeniously resourceful mind, and careful in relationships to the expressions of religious extremes." The safe position lies in acknowledging that no one-sided view of the man matches fully with all available data." There is no need for an extensive treatment of various facets in Miller's or the revival's historical development, because a wealth of literature on Miller and Millerism is in existence." Miller

In spite of (or perhaps becauseof) " his stern religious upbringing Miller turned 10 free-masonry, free-thinking and deism." The eve nts of the War of 1812 co nverte d him back to th e religion of his childho od. With the enthusiasm of a new convert and with th e rationalistic method of historicism he se t o ut to exp lore the prophesies . H e believed that "G od in his wisdom had so interwoven sever al prophesies, that -- they tell us the same things." Even if deism plays no significant role in Mill er's writings, he may be termed as a an antideist who sought to convince his audience that th e Bible was "a fe ast of reason ." ?

·"In his hermeneutic'.r ·· is . obviously of and ': the BritiSh millenarian tradiliol He is familiar with Mede, Newt on, Faber, and Gill. " H owever , pr ob ably fru strated by the differing op inions of the commentaries, he itlecided.. in 1816 to launch a Bible study relying solely on the " Bible and a Cruden's concordance. The results of his study sh ow that he was primarily concerned to harmonize prophetic

'E.g. McMaster 1910, 134-141; Sears 1924; Canevin, "G abriel, Blow That Horn", AM Nov 1942; RD Jan 1943.. The view is usually documented by quotes from Miller's contemporary opponents, especially newspaper reports. Se e e.g. Nichol 1944, 15, 14Of. 2E .g. Nichol 1944, 17-74; SDAE 787-9; PFF IV, 455-75. Cf. Linden 1978, 36-40 ; Cr oss 1965, 291. certain interpretative problem will always remain . Co mpare e.g . Nichol 1944, 321-354 with Linden 1978, 36-40, or with Sandeen "Millenialism" in ROA, 112f. 4In recent matured from a Linden 1971 and The Bibliography years the writing on Miller has gradually simple black or white description. See e.g. 1978; Rowe MS 1974; Numbers & Butler 1987. has a section o n Miller and Millerism.
3A

5Rowe MS 1974, 6. 6For further details see e .g. SDAE, 787. 7R owe MS 1974, 22f, 27, arg ues for Mill er's turn to deism as a re action to strict child hood ins truction; Cf. Rasmussen MS 1983, 18. 8Linden 1978, 37. gMiller, 1838, iv. ,oMiller 1845, 6. " Cf. ch, 5. Miller "Address to Believers in All Denominations" in Bliss 1853, 251. Miller 1833, 10, 42 includes a direct qu ote from Gill . Cf. Rasmussen MS 1983, 52-57.

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tim e periods. He was confident that everything made sense. abQQJcf,wntten that has a better connection and harmony than the

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receive all honor, power and glory. Believe, and you shall live . Obey his word, his spirit his calls his invitations. Ther e is no time to delaY.18 ' This qu otation and Mill er's written confe ssio n of faith pla ce him of mainstre am A merican well within th e boundaries pr ot estan tism with the exce ptio n of the dat ed parousia . H e ?elieved in the trinity, in salvation thro ugh satisfactio vicaria an d 10 a .so mew ha t so ftened ve rsion of the C alvinis tic conce pt of salvation for the ele ct only." W hile this is true of Mille r him self, matters of dogma, except es ch atology, wer e of secondary imp ortance to him . H e was not co ncerned with th e Arian views of a size able propor tion of Millerite spokesm en." H enr y Da na War d sums up M illerite att itudes co nvenient ly: "Some me n are R oman Catho lics, so me are Pr otestants: let th e m .be Cat holics or Protestants, only looking for the coming of the Lord according to his word.?" The revival is therefore best desc ribe d as a one idea movem en t. It s ce ntral th em e was th e liter al second co ming of Ch rist "abo ut the year 1843.,,22 Miller 's stro ng rel iance up on th e Bible ma de his me ssage appealing and the stage was set for an ec ume nical or an interd en ominational revival.

2.1.2 Miller begins to preach
Mil ler' s so lita ry st ud ies b rought results within two yea rs. In 1818 he had reach ed his basic conclusio ns, bu t it was not until four years later, after th o rou gh checking and rechecking of his that he felt co nfiden t enough to promote his pr ophetic tim e-table in pri vat e co nversa tion and co rrespond ence . In he felt enticed into a career of part-time Baptist, Metho dist, an d Congregati on al mini st er s invit e d him to lecture as his me ssage was useful in th eir pro tr acted meetings." A revival was slowly kindled. Miller 's th eory was .convincing because i\ that protestants Because his messag e was appealing, Mil ler ca me to be involved in a series of events that gave birth to one of th e mo st widespread apocalyptic re vivals in Chris tian history." Miller him self accounted for th e success "by ?upposing that G od is supporting th e old man's work, wick ed, imperfect, a nd igno r ant he is."le

2.2 Millerite message
M ille r's as Linden ha s observ ed, "shared ma ny ideas rampant 10 the small comrn unitive groups of ante-b ellum A me r ica." It wa s not on ly apocalypti c but also "devotio nal and revivalistic''." In a se rmon rep orted in 1840 he said: Be wa rned . Repent. Fl y, fly for succour to th e ark of God - to J esus - the Lamb which once was slain, th at you might live, for he is wor th y to

2.3 Mass meetings and publi cations
Th er e were .two agents th at th e Mille rites skillfully em plo yed to spread their messag e: Ma ss meetings and an effecti ve publicat ion programme. The former ca te red for th e e motional

18E xce rpt fro m William Mill er's ser mo n in Miller 1842/b ,
174.

:9M ilJer's 20 a rticles of faith . Bliss 1853, 77-80. 12Mille r 1838, iv.

13PFF I V, 461-482. Cross 1965, 292f.

2CO ut of 43 kn own Millerite preach er s 38 had T rinitarian and 5 Ar ian backgro und . (A rati o of 7 to 1.) Froorn 1971, 141jf. 21W ard 'T o th e Confer ence of Ch ristians- -" ST Jan 1, 1842. =rhe phrase is typical of M iller 's early co mme nts on the (!ate. Cf. title from Scripture 'an d History of (he Second Corning of Christ about the Year 1843 (editio ns 1833 1836, 1838, 1840, 1842/b). '

" Rowe MS 1974, 6.
15C Cross 1950, 2537; Linden 1982, 13. f. 1eMiller, Ietter Ju Iy 21, 1838 to Truman H endryx, MEA .

" Linden 1978, 32.

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needs of the group" while the latter was geared for the intellectual satisfaction of the Millerites with thousands of Eages of tedious theological arguments and apology for Millerism... Towards the end of the movement several of these large meetings were organized every month. The camp meetings and the second advent conferences drew audiences of up to ten thousand." Apart from mass meetings Millerite success must be credited to the phenomenal publication programme of the movement. In 1843 they had produced an estimated one million copies of periodicals, but during the culminating year the total number of copies rose to about five million.28 Some of the titles match the disposition of their camp meeting SOngs.27 The

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flagship of the publication programme was The Signs of the Times started early in 1840 and renamed into The Advent Herald early in 1844.28 In June 1841 a decision was taken to publish a series of books and pamphlets "that none need be in darkness.f" These books were called the Second Advent Library.

2.3 .1 The Organization and spread of Millerism
Miller's popularity grew rapidly with the help of publications and large revival meetings. The printing and distribution of periodicals as well as the financial and other arrangements for the mass meetings required organization. Miller himself was a poor organizer . This lack was compensated for by the fact that several ordained ministers took their stand on the side of Miller.f In fact Miller's role in the progress of the revival has been overemphasized and misrepresented. He was a figurehead ",,:hose ideas kindled the fire. But the flames soon grew out of his command. As early as 1837 he was no more in control of Joshua Himes' organizational ability the consolidated into a well structured undertaking with a sound financial basis, some property, and a massive production of publications."

Zlofhe emotional tone of the meetings is reflected in hymns like "Farewell poor careless sinners too, it grieves my heart to leave you here, Eternal vengeance waits for you, 0 turn and find your salvation near" Himes ed . 1843/b part I, 21. See also the sulphurous description of the end in Anon. "A Scene of the Last Day" in Miller 1842/c, 99-114. 24Millerite argumentation runs often with a set of questions: 1) mao is the people refered to, 2) what is the sequence of events and the historical context, and most importantly 3) when is the fulfillment to be expected. Every question was to be answered within the framework of Miller's rules of interpretation. See e.g, Miller 1845, 68; Miller 1844, 14; Miller 1842/a, 8; Miller 1842/b, 191, 286. 25In 1842 Millerites are reported to have organized 30, in 1843 about 40, and in 1844 at least 54 camp meetings. Often the meetings were announced with proviso, "providence permitting," or "if time lingers." The audience rarely fell below 4000 and a couple of times audiences of 10000 to 15000 or 10000 to 12000 are declared. In 1842 "The Big Tent" was purchased to be used in the protracted meetings. This mammoth tent had the seating capacity of 5000 to 6000 but was frequently unable to accommodate the crowds that gathered. PFF IV, 645662. Cf. Dick, "Advent Camp Meeting" Ailer, winter 1977.
26PFF W, 624f.

2.4 Millerism and American religiousity
Since Jonathan Edward's "Great Awakening" in 1740 North protestantism had had a revivalist tempe;. Each revival gave an outlet to the dormant powers of enthusiasm. The century started with massive waves of revivals" followed by Finney's "new measures" in 1830's. These awakenings sought to

titles like: Bible Examiner; World's Crisis; Coming of Christ, etc. See PFF IV, 626. 28See e.g. Nichol 1944, 79.
29ST April 15, 1841; Nichol 1944, 91. 30PFF IV, 503-554.

27E.g. The Voice of Warning; City Watchman'S Alarm; Faithful Watchman; The Trumpet of Alarm; The Voice of Elijah; The Trump of Jubilee; The Advent Shield; Watchman's Last Warning. There were also several publications with rather sober

31Especially Froom and Nichol make the revival appear dependant solely on Miller. See Linden 1978 45f' Rowe MS
1974,

nf.

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32"The Great Revival" E.g. Handy 1976, 162-8.

12 fight back deism and sectanamsm, as well as communitarianism. With hindsight one may say that there was more success in the battle against deism than in the one against sectarianism. Geographically Millerism concentrated on the New England states, "the burned over district.f" It was around 1840 that the casual, rural and local movement spread into the cities. In its culminating year the revival may have had up to 50,000 followers and probably many times that number of people on the fringe, following events with curious alarm." Cross has aptly described the revival claiming that no sizeable "group of folk adopted such ideas so wholeheartedly since the early days of Roman Empire.f"

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The main body of Millerites came from Baptist or Methodist background, but there were also Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Dutch Reformed, Presbyterians, Lutherans, as well as a good number from small obscure churches at the fringe of Protestantism."

2.4.1 Popularity of millennarianism
Within nineteenth century North American Protestantism an interest in the last things was not a fringe phenomenon. There was intense millenarian speculation by some of the leading theologians'" as well as by many popular preachers ." Several ventured to calculate the time of the eschaton. Millennial convictions were strong among the Shakers. The Mormons" expected a quick end. The spirit of the times is reflected in the words of John Humphrey Noyes, leader of the Oneida community. The Millennium was supposed to be very near. I fully entered into the enthusiasm of the time. -My heart was fixed on the Millennium and I resolved to live or die for it. -- A feeling of expectation on this point lay at the bottom of that triumphant march of revivals which shook the land for several years from that time. The Millerites have since met with unbounded ridicule' but it should be remembered that all that portion of the churches who were spiritual who believed in revivals, and who were zealous :- had

33Cross 1950, 3; 173-184. After each round of Finney's awakening it proved to be exceedingly difficult to rekindle the enthusiasm again, a phenomenon which gave rise to the titles "the burned over district" or the "infected district". It was this area of the United States that turned out to be particularly receptive to the novel doctrines of Spiritualism, Mormonism, Millerism and a few years later Adventism, Christian Science and Jehovah's Witnesses. Thus revivalism may have played into the hands of sectarianism and millenarianism. However, one should note that Cross's conclusions on the burned over district are not indisputable, because before Finney the same general area witnessed the rise of The Shakers (founded by Ann Lee, with emphasis on the literal presence of the Holy Spirit, around 1774), The Disciples of Christ (formed around the interesting charismatic personality, Alexander Campbell, who among other teachings rejected the Old Testament, around 1811), and Unitarianism the "liberalism" of the day, led by the moderate William Channing, around 1820). 34Nichol 1944, 217f gives an estimate of 500 public lecturers some of whom were ordained ministers. PPP W, 699 gives a figure of 1500-2000 lecturers during the seventh month movement. See also Cross 1950, 287; Linden 1978, 63; Sweet 1950, 278. It is impossible to give any accurate fisure on the membership of a group that kept no records and lived as if it were one foot inside the pearly gates. 35Cross 1950, 287.

36Nichol 1944, 217; Froom 1971, 146f. 37Apocalyptic speculation was promoted by e.g. U. Ogden (rect?r of Trmity Episcopal Church, Newark NJ), S. (president of Harvard), Timothy White (president of Yale), O. Elsbree (professor at Buckland), E. Nott (president of Union College), Lyman Beecher (president of Lane Theological Seminary), etc. See PPF W, 56-133. 38E.g. S. M'Corkle (Presbyterian pastor) Father John Thayer, Jedidah Morse, Morse 1810. Cf. PPP W. 56-133' Sandeen, "Millenialism" in ROA, 104-109. "

14 a fit of expectation as enthusiastic and almost as fanatical as the Millerites." Obvio usly William Miller was not th e only one in tere sted in th e e nd o f the world . America was drunk on the mill ennium. From Miller's su ccess on e may conclude that he is an el oquent represent ati ve of th e historicist millennial spe cu lation.

15
th e pr essure for sp ec ulation to find a more exact d ate increased. In what has be en termed biblicist naivete Miller joined th e " game and paved th e way for the revival' s slip p ing o ut of his exegetical scheme." N early a decade before 1843 he had pr opo sed th at the true Biblical cal endar sh ould be based on the J ewish year , which would bring th e co nsumm ation o f e nd -time p ro pheci es to be tween the Spring of 1843 and the Spring of 44 1844.
I n lat e l K42 and ea rly 1S43 they fel t a nee d for d efining th e J ew ish ye a r mo re exactly, and M iller's so urces "th e most ) l.p p rove d and standard chronologers -. who hav e never yet been "shown to b e'- iti"'" rfor" indicated that &arch 21, 1844 wo uld be e th e last d ay of th e Jewish year, A .D. 1843.45 W hen the tim e ap proac hed oth ers tri ed [0 be even more sp ec ific th a n M ille r had been. Acc ordin g { o poss ib ly mistake n informatio n. th e J ewish year corresponding to l S43 wa s claimed to e nd o n April new moo n, or A p ril 18. IS44:16 W ith the increasing specula tio n th e e mp hasis of M illerism W as changing. Inst ead o f the am b iguo us "about the year 1843" exact final dates were being discussed.
,0

2.5 A significant change in Millerism
C hr ist ian enthusias ts ha ve th rough th e ages antic ipate d an early millenni um . H owever , only rar ely has the anticipa tio n included an exa ct da te . It is important to note th at Mill er originally specific He preferred the les s pr etenti ou s 40 exp ressio ns "onor before",' and "abo ut the year 1843 ." A clear turn in th e Mill erite movem ent b egan at the sixteenth Millerite ge nera l co nfe re nce , held in Bost on in M ay 11'142. One of th e o utco me s of th is me et ing was a stro nge r ad vocacy of a d efi nite time." most Millerites a loosely defined time was emotionally of Millerism was , promises of G od" , "at th e time appointed THE END SHALL BE."42 M an y Milleritcs were convinced that a ca reful application o f pr ophe cies would pr oduce a definite time. As 1843 a p proache d,

Afte r a d isa pp oi ntme nt in M ar ch M iller hazarded no fu rthe r announ cements to sp ec ify the tim e . Miller hi msel f never co m mitte d him self to th e Kar aitc April d at e whic h othe rs advocat ed , and he rega rd ed the "v1arc h d at e mor e genuine." He wa s now co nte nt to kee p th e p arous ia immine nt. H owever , many o f his sup po rte rs were not pr epared to se ttle for irn-

:;9Noyes, Confess ions oj q uote d in Sande e n 1< )70, 49.
40 E .g.

R eligious

Experience,

1849,

2,
43Lindc ll 1Y78, 56-()). Cf. PFF IV, 7R4-826.
44 PFF IV, 794.

"Miller's Twenty Articles o f F aith," ST May 1, 1841. The p h r ase is als o typical of Miller 's ea rly co m ments o n th e d ate . C f. the title of o ne of th e most p opular Mi lle rite book s : E vidence fr om S cripture and Hi story oj the S econ d Co m ing oj Christ ab out the Year 1843 (Ed itions lR33, 11'136, 183R, 1840 , 1842b ) . C r. Bliss l R43, 77-80; PFF lV, 406 f, 463 , 789 ; Dams teeg t 1977, .15[; C ro ss 1% 5, 291. . , Arthur "Josh ua V. Himes and th e Ca use o f Adventism " in N umber s &. Butler 191'17, 43. This was against th e wishe s o f so me le ad ing Mi lleritc s like Dr. H enry D an a W ard .
4 2 A no n.

45Mi lle r d ocs no t a ppea r 10 have be en aw are o f the technica lities of the J ewish ca lend er. H e th ought th e Je wish year ran [r orn e q uino x to eq uino x. Mille r "Syno psis o f Mi ller's Views " Me J une IS, 1843. C r. ano n. ''T he Ti me o f th e E nd " S T J an 4, 184\ ano n. "T he Ve rnal Equi nox" AN A p ril 3, 1844; PFF I V, 784, 7(}4. Miller, Himes, Litch, H al e, Fitch a nd Hawkey objec te d to det er mini ng th e exact d al e of the p arou si a.
4sS T June 21, l H43; PFF IV, 796 f.

"D iagram exhib iting th e eve nts o f pr opheey--" A H

Feb 21, 1844.

47 Miller, 1845, 24.

16

17

med iat ism. H e wa s unable to keep the mo vem ent on his side." Mi ller ite mentality pre ferred an exact d at e . Mill er ism was re ady for its last turn .

2.5.1 The seventh-month movement
In <Febr uary 1844 two men , Sa muel Sn ow an d Geor ge Sto rrs began pr om oting a typologi cal solution to the problem of tim e . By the summer t of 1844 they had co ncluded that O ctober 22, 1844 was the exac t date of th e e nd and in an Augus t ca mp meeting they attaine d massive su pport for their calculations agai ns t feeble polemi c by Mill er and his associates. They thus launch ed the final fervent ph ase o f th e revival, ca lle d th e "seve nth-month mov ement" or th e "midnight cry".49 In its exegesis as well as its e mp has is this stage of M ille rism has to be dis tinguished from the earlier revival. Snow and Sto rrs boosted the revi val o ff to its Waterl oo." Literature on M illerism shows a ge ne ral co nfus ion in interpreting this stage of the revival. 'Miller is unfairly blamed for the failure of . the October calculation 'iff spite of his remaining unsympathetic to it, except for a fortnight before th e disappointme nt." A co mpariso n b etween Mill er 's exeg esis an d th at of th e seve nth- mo nth movem ent compe ls o ne to make a clear separa tion between ori gin al Millerism and thi s last st age of

th e r evival. The seven th-month movement singled o ut one o f M iller's ma ny argume nts and excgeted it with a method different from Miller's. Trad ition al hist ori cist expos itions, d evelop ed and ad vocate d by Mill er , bec am e secondary to sanc tua ry typology. Th e Levitical festa l calendar was prom ot ed by implication as th e most important pr o ph ecy in all of the Bib le. Th e basic meth od re mained unch an ged while em phasis changed . Becau se the former leade rs of the moveme nt wer e no longer in cont rol, as the argu me nts of Snow and Sto rr s swavcd th e faith and th e e mo tions" of the gro up. this inter va l in has been call ed-a sectarian turn. T he ad opt ion of an exact date was like a b uilt-in exp los ive for the revival. Durin g the late summ er and ea rly a utumn the commit merit. zeal, sacr itic es, and number of suppo rt e rs excee d ed everything that had been seen so far in the his!my of th is revival. T he grav ity of d isap poin tm ent was to match th e e nthusiasm of exp ectatio n. As the morning o f O ct ober dawned it was again true th at :'th l:: hour knoweth 'no man". M illerism had co me to an end. As it died it gave birth to Adventism."

n

2.6 The aftermath of the disappointment
One can still apprec iate the impact th e disappointm ent had o n man y Milleri tes. The few weeks o f the seve nth- mo nth moveme nt had meant everything for many of those involved , Man y left th eir cro ps unharvest ed or negle ct ed o the r secular duti es. -Many had d onated th eir savings to spread the "p res ent truth" and ai l had to bear the ridicule of their neigh bors and relativcs.f Th is research docs not follow the even ts of th e chaotic disinteg ra tion uf the revi val. A fter th e initia l reac tions o ne fi nds four ma in tren ds:"

48Cf. Lind en 1978, 60f. 49T he nam e "Seve nth month movem en t" co mes fro m th e

Jewish ca le nd ar th at Sno w and St orrs utilized in their exegesis,
and ' M id night cr y" was derived fro m the parable of th e ten virgins. T his pa rable use d exte nsive ly as a time pr oph ecy (1 nigh t =, 1/2 prop he tic Jay = 6 mo nths accord ing to the year /da y theory) which brought the wailing Millc rites fro m spring 1844 to th e autumn of 1844.
50 Linde n

1en8, 65. 52Linde n 1978, 65. 53Nicho l 1944, 2661'. 54T he:e is little pu blished resear ch on th e per iod betw e en O ct 22, 1844 ami the Imp ort ant A lba ny confere nce in April IH45. Sec c .g, Linden 1978, 79-81.

e.g. H arri son 1979, 192-206; D arnstecgt 1977, 78-135; Sande en 1970, 4LJ-55. T hese authors fail to d istinguish . the seventh month movem ent. The sa me is ofte n true of SD A literature tho ugh in a differ ent sense. E .g. PFF I V 784-876 and N icho l 1944, 217-260 fail to observe th e di ffer en ce th er e was in bo th th e emphasis and exegesis of Mill erism prior to th e spring o f 1844 .

18

19

, 1. The majority disengaged themselves from the revival, man y pr ob abl y lost all int erest in the apocalyptic.
2. . A ' large Advent Christian group was formed around William Miller and othe r prominent Millerite leaders. They regarded the se venthmonth mo vement hand any further time calculations a mistake. They were satisfied to keep the parousia imminent.i"

A s tim e ha s progr essed, I hav e been pain ed to sec man y err ors which ha ve been embraced in d iffe rent of the co untry by some who have labored with myself. -- I ha ve be en pai ned to sec a spir it of sectaria nism and bigotry. -Some arc disposed to lay stress on the seve nthmonth movement which IS not wa rra nted by the Word . Ther e was th en a d edi cation of th e he art in view of the Lord's coming ... ' now to contend that we were not mistaken IS dishonest. We should never be ashamed to frankly confess all
>

3. Some small groups went on recalculating..the
prophetic time-tables and setting new dates for the parousia. 4. Some e ndo rse d th e exegesis of the seventhmonth movement claiming t hat the time was right but the event wrong. They .advanced the so called "shut door" the or y of Christ ha ving entered the most hol y pl ace o f. th e heavenl y sa nc tuary o n Oct 22 and tha t p ro bati on was closed . A t th is junct ure o ne o f th e od di ties of churc h histo ry took place. T he hard -cor e Mill erites of th e last two gr o up s pr oved The seventh-mon th adherents ad opted the stro nges t. sabbatarianism and grew into Seventh-day Adventism , and throu gh a p ro cess which takes o ne far from origina l Miller isrn th e tim e-sett er s affec te d the bi rth of th e Watcht ower. T he leas t popula r po st-d isa p po intme nt opt io ns pr obabl y involved the d eepest co nvictio ns .P" T he birth and th e tea ching of th e dive rse A dven tist bodies is bes t unde rstood whe n th e seve n th-mo nth ph ase of th e re vival is kept d istinc t from e arly Miller ism . This concl usion is s up ported bv Mille r's lat er evaluation wh ich includes th e seve nth-mo nth movem ent, ea rly sabb atarian ad ventism and possibly oth er Mil leri te o ffsho ots.

7 our 'errOrs.5

In Miller's view the sabbatarian Adventis!.s:'-Y 9 .k.ept hold of the ! seventh-month movement exegesis 'were illegitimate children of Millerism,

2.7 Miller's heritage
The seve nth-mo nth movem ent is the real exeg etical watersh ed th at marked the e nd of historicism and made futurism or pr ct erisrn att ractive . Sand een has portrayed th e dis gu st and with whieh the Mill erite system of interpreting th e Bible ca me to be regard ed after the inglo rio us clim ax of th e movement. Mill er became an an athema, a th eological lep er for anyone speaking or writing on Biblical prophecies. Miller's fail ur e mad e th e inroad of D arbyism easie r. M ille r had exha usted the tr adition al hist oricist interpret ati on of th e prophecies . The method whi ch had be en d ominant in protestantism fo r mor e th an th ree ce nturies had b ut litt le room simi la r in A me rica after th e grea t di sappointmen t. A development made historicism unpopular in Brita in whe re th e dispensa tionalist me th od ca me to domin ate most of the churc he s sup po rting a bibli cal or fundam en talist traditi on." M iller 's tradition al emphas is a nd method was ret ai ned by den ominati on s tha t in on e way or an othe r have th eir roots in

55('1.

A rt h ur 1970, 137-9; Rowc MS 1974, 2771'.

51M ille r 1945 , 26-28. 58Sandc e n 1970, 42-102. Cf. Fr oom 's co nclusions in PF F IV, 203 f. F or th e de velopment of disp ens at ion alism see e.g, C ox 1963b ; Turner ]944 ; Sa ndeen 1970.

56Carroll 1979, 85-110 pr e sents a psych ological th eor y in .' U nfortunate ly Carr oll's expla natio n of th is d evelopm ent. know ledge of M illeri sm is superfi cial.

20
the M ille ri te re vival. Afte r th e di sappointment m ainstream Mi llcrisrn d windled into va rious A d ve ntist chur ches. E van geli cal Ad ven tists beca me extinct b y the fir st years of th is cen tury. The largest den ominat ion ste mm ing from main stream Mi llerism is th e A d vent Ch ristian C h urch, but there ar c othe rs : Th e Churc h of G od (Adventist) , The Church o f God (A bra harnic Faith), Life a nd A d ve nt U nio n all of which arc listed in the Yearbook of American Churches .59 H o we ver , as has been po int ed o ut ea rlie r, M illeris rn co ntin ued to gro w th ro ugh offshoots. The wi d est present d ay audie nce for Millerit e type of hermeneutic ca n to day be found in two gr ou ps , the Seven th-da y Adve ntists and J ehovah 's W itnesses . A s th ese two grou ps her e a re mentioned together it mu st be emphatically sla te d th at th eir de velopmen t began from thorough ly d istinc t gro ups of ze alo us Millerites. Subseq uently Seve nth-d ay Adven tists genera lly identify with the Pr ot estant tradition while J eh ovah's W itnes ses d o not. At the pr esent time th e ir doctrinal di fferences are so g reat th at represent ati ves of eithe r gro u p wo ul d feel un comfo rtable with any eq uatio n bet ween th e two . Furth ermore, eve n in the area o f prophe tic inte r pre ta tio n , the c urrent her meneutic of these two de no m in ati on s is d iffer e nt. 60 :i.evc nth-d ay A dven tists o we their her me neutic a nd e mp h asis in I 'Fticu la r to th e se ven th-mo nth mo vement. T he y soo n le ft as ide Millerite ca lculations exce p t those rel at ing to th e boo ks o f or th e O ctobe r 22, 18-:14 was rega rd ed as a with'a misinterpreted event. "A ft e r an ini tial "shut d qd'r" of the dat e the prophecy was said to have bc£n fu lfilled III the heavenly sa n ct ua ry. H avin g adopted se ve nthday sabba tarian ism th e gr o up launched an aggressive m ission .?' As ind icated ea rlier, some sm all splin te r groups of Adve ntis ts kep t se tt ing new d a tes for th e parou sia. N.H . Ba rbour wr ites of

21
the fir st "m id nigh t cry III the seco nd in 1860, and th e thi rd in 1873.62 Bar bo ur toge th e r wit h his as socia tes , J .H .P a to n a nd J .W en d e ll gr ea tly influenced th e young C ha rles T aze R usse l who ca me in co nt ac t wit h th em in uno. Ru sse l fam iliari ze d himsel f with th e message of Willi am Mill er and G eorge St o rr s, and edite d with Bar bo ur som e advcntis: publications'" until br e aking away to form the W at ch tower society. While Ru ssel sho ws indepen dent thinking in believing th e pa ro usia to be invisi ble an d in p urs uing A ria nism al o ngsid e nume rous expositio ns unique to the Jeho va h's W itne sses, the meth odol ogy as we ll as m an y int e r pr et ati on s a rc closer to o rig inal Mi lleri srn th an th e teachings o f prese nt d ay Se ve nth-day A dvent ists .f"

2 .8 Summary
Ea rly ninet e e nth -ce ntury Nor th Amer ica was fert ile gr ou nd for th e birt h o f new a nd extrem e religio us id e as. The economi c, int ell ectual, as well as religious, tr aditions of t he day pr odu ced ma ny co m m unita ria n or secta ri an revivals . and it co me s as n o sur p rise th at M iller ism a p pealed to lar ge num ber s of peo ple . It is possible to see it as we ll as its exeges is as a respon se to th e sociological a nd spir itua l needs o f th e tim e. Apoca lypticism was po p ula r with in th e m ainst ream of A me rica n Protestantism. W illia m Mi ller hi mself had neith er th e inter est nor ab ility to hand le th e revival he spa rked off. Oth e rs took ove r th e o rgan iza tio nal side of th e revival whil e Mill er remained its figureh ead . Mill er himself was rel uct ant to pin p oint an exact da v for the parousia. But his rel uct ance wa s not sha red by h is

62Ba r b o llI J 871. 3D.

u3T he magazin es we re' ca lled The f lcrald of {he Morning a nd The n lr!!/, Worlds Plan of Redemption . Beckfor d 197.\ 2;

Hoe kern a 1%], 224.

59"A dve ntist Bod ies," SDA E, 10.
HO Jeh ovah 's W itnesses d o no t co mm on ly ackno wledge that their movement has any co nn ec tio n with Millerisrn. SDAs are eq ua lly unaware of any 'l ink t here is betwee n Millerism and the J Ws.

oIE .g. Lin de n 1982; Damste eg t 1\)77 , 259, 263, 135-164 .

64Je ho va h's W itnesses in fact retai n severa l o f M iller's 15 even th o ugh th ey ca nno t be reg a rded as a rg umen ts o n outgrowth of Millcrism . (E.g. 6000 yea rs from th e a creation to the e nd of the world, the yea r-d a y method, a pr o ph ecy o n th e seve n times [or igin ally taken fr om Levit icu s 26, now usua lly from and int er pr etatio n of G og a nd M agog th at m at ch es th at o f M iller, e tc. Cf. R ccs MS 1984, 14.

22 supporters, in particular Samuel Snow. Snow's insistence on a precise date led to the breakdown of Millerism. Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses as well as several small Adventist churches grew up from the remains of Millerism. Outside of these groups very few ventured to trust the traditional historicist method of exegesis which Miller had employed.

23

3 THE HISTORICAL METHOD
No revival nor exegesis is born in a vacuum. It would make a fascinating but difficult study to investigate the influence that certain historical events have had on the exposition of the Scriptures. Climactic historical occasions have boosted interest in Biblical prophecies. However, no historical circumstance can produce exegesis without creative minds, able to adapt the message of the Bible to a particular setting. But there is a context to Millerism which is far more important to his exegesis than the economic or sociological situation in which the revival brooded. This is the historical method of prophetic interpretation. Miller's concepts may well have been independent, but they were certainly not born without information on the conclusion and presuppositions that go with historicism.

3.1 Protestant apocalypticism
It is an interesting fact of church history that within Protestantism outbursts of millenarianism have occurred more frequently in the Reformed tradition than in the Lutheran one.'

,After Stiefel's failure in Lockham (8 AM. Oct 19, 1533) there have been but few apocalyptic revivals within Lutheranism. There were individuals who had millenarian ideas: Johann Amos Comenius (-1670), Johan Albrecht Bengel (-1752), Johann Philipp Petn (-1792), L.R Kelber, Heinrich Richter (-1847) all of whom created millennial time tables. Some of the Swedish "ropare" child preachers of 1840's, and Abraham Achrenius in Finland can also be added to a list of Lutheran apocalyptics. A parallel list of persons with apocalyptic interests within the Reformed tradition would grow into over a hundred names if picked from PFF II-IV. This was recognized also in Miller's day. Brooks, the editor of the Investigator wrote, "Prophecy is not now, in any shape, popular on the continent." IEP New

24 Futhermore, within the Reformed field of influence millenarian revivals mainly sprung up in the Anglo-Saxon world, England and America. And, for some reason, early nineteenth century was one of the periods characterized by widespread millennialism. These observations must, however, be taken with caution. It by no means follows that the Reformed doctrine and hermeneutic as such causes millenarianism, or that the national mentality and sociological circumstances in England and North America were uniquely suited for producing a harvest of apocalyptic revivalism. The true reasons for the appearance of millenarian expectations must, of course, be much more complex. After all there were several millennialist revivals in the Middle Ages without the aid of either the Reformed or Anglo -Saxon heritage." The exegetical method that most English or American exegetes used in their prophetic calculations between from late seventeenth to early nineteenth century is called the historical method. In this chapter this historicist tradition of prophetic interpretation is surveyed with references to Miller's exegesis. a share in the best of Protestant tradition,"

25

Superficially, Millerites, like any other group of American Protestants of the time, can indeed be linked with the Reformation. They certainly approved the Reformation slogans: faith in the sufficiency of the Scriptures; the Bible as its own interpreter, sacra Scriptura sui ipsius interpres, the perspicuity of the Bible, claritas sacrae Scriptuae? In fact such a connection is made. Miller's method is presented as one which is based solely on the principles of the Protestant Reformation," An excursus to Reformation hermeneutic serves two purposes. Firstly, it shows that the above-mentioned view in fact short circuits the background of Miller's hermeneutic with its partly unfounded claim on Miller's following the methods of the Reformation. Secondly, it gives a dimension which will make it easier to evaluate Miller's exegesis.

3.2.1 Reformation hermeneutic
The change of method after the Reformation can be seen clearly if Luther's and Calvin's main interpretative point is given. Luther's method was not one of rationalism, it was one of

3.2 From Reformation to American biblicism
Millerite exegesis cannot be properly understood without some insight into the view of the Scriptures it employed. It is a little known fact of considerable significance that even in the best of American theological seminaries Francois Turrettini's dogmatics was used as a textbook in the first half of the nineteenth century." Turrettini's biblicism dominated theological thought. People were brought up to believe that they were faithful followers of Luther and Calvin while they followed the methods of protestant orthodoxy. The Millerites were no exception. They had but little to say about the Reformation, but they did claim

"See e.g. Rasmussen MS 1983, 52-66.
sFor a summary of Reformation view of the Scriptures see e.g. Kraus 1956/1969, 6-18; Farrar 1886, 323-354. erhe basic argument of PFF series is that of placing Millerism into Reformation tradition as far as prophetic interpretation is concerned. See also Damsteegt 1977, 16-20; Nichol 1944, 89; Olsen "Hermeneutical Principles and Biblical Authority in Reformation and Postreformation Eras" SOBH, 10925. It is typical of fundamentalists to claim that their hermeneutic is based on the Reformation. Barr 1977, 20. Cf. e.g. Lindsell 1976, 56-62; Preus "The View of the Bible Held by the Church: The Early Church through Luther" in Geisler (ed.) 1980, 372-380. Gerstner, "The View of the Bible Held by the Church: Calvin and the Westminster Divines" in Geisler (ed.) 1980, 385-395.

series 1836, 5n. 2See e.g. Cohn 1957, 1-194 3Rogers & McKim 1979, xvii-xviii .

26

27

faith.' In his view the crux interpretum and authority of the Bible was Jesus Christ. "Sacred Scripture is God incarnate." He understood the Bible as the book of Christ and about Christ. 1I Every true interpretation of the Scripture would lead to Him. "When I have a text that is like a nut with a hard shell, I immediately dash it against the Rock [Christ] and find the sweetest kernel.?" Without Christ he felt there was nothing left in the Bible - a viewpoint that allowed for modest criticism of certain parts of the Bible as well as some untraditional views on authorship.11 Thus Luther shuns scholastic biblicism. It is true that he was also deeply interested in last day events in the Scriptures, but his focal point was the Biblical message of Jesus Christ. For Calvin the Scriptures were less human than for Luther. He believed the Bible had flowed from the very mouth of God." He made little distinction between various parts of the Bible and approached it with a "letter-worship" attitude that led him into gross inconsistencies with some parts of the Old Testament." Yet, in spite of his underlying biblicism, he was attentive to the natural historical meaning of texts, emphatic on

Christocentricity, and was thus kept from the many problems and arguments which make later Reformed biblicism look naive." His hermeneutical key is expressed in comments on John, "We ought to read the Scriptures with the express design of finding Christ in them . Whoever shall turn aside from this object, though he may weary himself throughout his whole life in learning, will never attain the knowledge of truth."15 In this fundamental issue Calvin's view is the same as Luther's. This approach does also give a different meaning for any apocalyptic exegesis or calculations that the reformers did. IS

3.2.2 The rise of biblicism
Luther's hermeneutic should have put an end to the old perfectionistic eschatology based on omens and signs. However, his Christocentricity was soon forgotten. Protestant scholasticism preserved all rules the Reformation had brought out on the Bible, but it forgot the foundation on which the rules were based." Orthodoxy turned the Bible into a repository of information on all manner of things, including science and history, which then had to "be proven correct by the current l standards." Reformation humanism was replaced by scholastic' biblicism, which regarded the Scriptures as unilaterally inspired. Often the natural meaning of the text was overlooked in pursuit of an organized pattern of dogma. Unilateralism required that apocalyptic prophecies should be studied with the same interest as the Gospels. Galileo and

7Dillenberger 1960, 30. Cf. Olsen "Hermeneutical Principles and Biblical Authority in Reformation and Postreformation Eras" SOBH,53. 8LS 3.21 cited in Wood 1%9, 176; Rogers & McKim 1979, 78. Cf. WA 48,31; Kooinman 1%1, 237f.
9WA 4.535 cited in Wood 1%9, 140; Rogers & McKim 1979, 79.
IOLW 10.6 cited in Rasmussen MS 1983, 58.

"See e.g. Rogers & McKim 1979, 114-116.
"Calvin, Commentary on John 5.39; CR XLVII, 125; Cf. CR XLV, 817. Rogers & McKim 1979, 107.

l1E.g. Seeberg 1%4, 3OOf; Kraus 1956/1969 16-28; Barr 1977, 173f; Kraeling 1955, lOf. Luther expressed his doubts over the canonicity of e.g. Esther, Hebrews, James and Revelation for not making the gospel clear, and he felt free to publicize critical views on the authorship of Genesis, Ecclesiastes, Jude and the Revelation. He also preferred Kings as historically more accurate than the Chronicles. 1 2Calvin Institutes 1:7,5; Farrar 1886/1%1, 349. 13Farrar 1%1, 349f.

18E.g. Luther shared in some conjecture on the 6000 years "Supputation Annorum Mundi Emendata" cited in PFF ll, 279; Cf. Melanchton "In Danielem Prophetam Commentarius" in Opera Corpus Reformatorum vol 13, cols. 978 quoted in PFF ll, 291. 17The Reformation had not purged out all of the "old leaven", cf. Berkhof 1960, 28. "Rogers & McKim 1979, xvii; Kraeling 1955, 12.

29

Copernicus brought about the dawn of a scientific world view with mathematics as its foundations. Faith in a mystic inspiration of the Word made the prophecies particularly intriguing for anyone willing to apply the science of mathematics to the Scriptures. It was believed that diligent obse rvatio n had unraveled the laws of nature and that similar industrious harmonization of th e Bible texts wo uld unfold God's sec rets." One simple way of expr essing th e change fr om th e C hristoce ntric hermeneuti c of Luther and Calvin to the Biblicism of Pr ot estant scho lasticism is th e following: For th e Reformer s the Bible was God's word, but for th e th eol ogian s of o rt hodoxv th e Bib le was G od 's wo rds.'? Millerite unilateralism , lack of C hristocc ntric content in expositions, pl ay with Biblical numbers, harmonization , emphasis on individual words, all stem from pr ot est ant ortho doxy. .

millennium before there was any protestant orthodoxy. The birth o f historicism was not so much a process of new invention as one of pulling together separate ideas into a coherent Bibli cist system. The. main characteristics of historicism are: 1) The endorsement · a preoccupationwith prophetic time . . '" petiods; ¥. 2) • continuous

.

•.

*

3.3 Definition of historicism
Historicisin.,(al$ocalledf some times the historical ' messianic' int erpretation) was a p;od uc t of Biblici sm . For th e purpose s o f this research historicism is d efin ed as th e method of prophetic interpretation which d ominated British and A me rican exegesis fr om lat e seventee nth century to th e middle of nine tee nth ce ntury. H owever , fairness to historicism demands the observatio n that many indi vidual aspects o f this mode of int erpretation had been popular for ce ntur ies, and some for a Mill er 's method is called hist oricism.

4) At the foundation of the method, its distinguishing feature , was the cr eation of a coherent system of interdependent synchronizations between prophecies. The method included a. desire to place every prophecy into an elaborate . lies the '..biblicist , concept of scholasticism believed that all parts",Qi",, '" " .Bible contained

in:.

a

mystica . ' 'elWUnt''''''·'6 ''''''<'p.

.."

.

.

.

harmonized by rational processes. Itt was th e biblicist view of the Bible which empo we red historicism." This was alien to Luther's or Calvin' s view of D ani el or the Apocalypse."

3.4 An excursus, early background of historicism
In a sense th e int entionally obscur e lan guage of th e book o f Daniel 23 suited well , historicist int erpretations. In his sketch of P?wer s tl;re. author of. Its formidable little horn umdentified while the earlier symbols are interpreted within the book itself. SOOlf after the Ma ccabean peri od Daniel's symbols are already a p plied to th e Romans."

. 1 9BalJ 1981.. 73 p oints o ut how pe ople stud ied propheci es with th e same mt cn suy as th e gospels. This was also Miller's not but regard the chro nological portions o f conclu.sion : "I th e Bib le as being as much a portion of the word of G od as a ny othe r par t 01 th e Scriptures." Miller 1845, 10. For d etails o f in America and a d escription of th e turn from R eformation humanism to scholastic rationalism see Rogers & M cKim 1979, 147-199 . 20D illenherge r 1960, 97; Rasmussen 1983 , 59 . Rasmu ssen sho ws Mill er' s involvement in Biblicism. Aft er the d isappo intment it took ab ou t 4{) years for the SDAs to begin With an y christocent ric e mp ha sis. White 1898, 211; White 1915a, 315; Arasola MS 1981, 64-66 .

21Cf. Dillenberger 1960, 97 .

22Cf. Sa ndeen's d efinition of historicism. Sand een l c O 36 n 39; Se e also PFF I, 22f.
23R uss el 1964, 16. 24 Babylon, Media, Persia and Greece are mentioned by name within the book of Daniel (e .g, D an 2.37-39; 8.20; 11.2; 8 .20; UJ.20; 11.2.) R om e co me in already in th y tr an slat ion o f the which makes D an 7.17 four kings [ \=7t; 1 int o four kingdoms [ ], or even more dearly in Dan

30 New Testament authors and the church fathers interpreted the book of Daniel and projected the abomination of desolation as an event of the future (Mt 24:15). In fact, the Synoptic apocalypse is by allusion and quotation based on the book of Daniel.2&

31 assurance, I beseech thee. Thou dost prophesy concerning the lioness in Babylon; for thou wast a captive there. Thou hast unfolded the future regarding the bear; for thou wast still in the world, and didst see the things to come pass. Then thou speakest to me of the leopard; and whence canst thou know this, for thou art already gone to thy rest? -- The leopard has arisen; the he goat is come; he has smitten the ram; he hath broken his horns in pieces; he hath stamped upon him with his feet. -- Rejoice blessed Daniel. Thou hast not been in error: all these things have come to pass. After this again thou hast told me of the beast dreadful and terrible . It had iron teeth . -Already the iron rules; already it subdues and breaks all in pieces>- already we see these things ourselves." In a milder form Hippolytus' interest in the apocalyptic was shared by many of his better known predecessors. Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and a little later Julius Africanus expressed similar sentiments.Z8 With the exception of the anti-Christian Porphury, the hermeneutic of Daniel in the first Christian centuries can be regarded as the precursor of later historicism. Beginning with the church fathers on, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome were commonly seen as the four kingdoms. This made it easy for Europeans to regard Europe with its many

3.4.1 The church fathers
Among the church fathers Hippolytus in particular expressed keen interest in the apocalyptic. He was one of the first knoWIJ to have calculated a time for parousia - A.D. with th, help of an early version of the 6000 year theory.27 More than millennium later many historicists would have happily endorsed his words: Speak with me, 0 blessed Daniel. Give me full

11.30 ships of Kittim, which was translated as the power of the Romans [i'\Eoucft ·Pwpliiol}. Also Josephus clearly applied the fourth power to the Romans. E.g. Antiquities X, 10,4; X,7; Wars of the Jews, VI,2,1 in Josephus 1886. See also translators notes in Thackeray's and Marcus translation of the LXX (1926-1943). 2&One can draw several parallels between Matthew 24 and the book of Daniel: Mt 24.5 • Dan 7.8,25; Mt 24.6,7 - Dan 11.4-27; Mt 24.15 - Dan 9.27; 11.31; Mt 24.21 - Dan 21.1, etc. Nestle's and the United Bible Societies Greek texts include 24 cross references to the book of Daniel for the Synoptic apocalypse. This can be compared with 19 references for Isaiah, 12 for Joel and 9 for the book of Zachariah. However, what is important is the fact that all of the main themes of the Synoptic apocalypse can be traced to the book of Daniel. See e.g, Hongisto MS 1984, TI-100. 2tlSchaff 1882/1910, vol 2, 7%f, PFF I, 278. 27This theory appears to have a very early background. See e.g. "the Epistle of Barnabas" ch. 15 m ANF, 283f, "--in six thousand years the Lord shall bring all things to and end ." Cf. Irenaeus "Against Heresies," cbs 28:3; 30:4; 33:2, in ANF, 557, 550, 562. Hippolytos' date for the parousia [500 A.D.] was based on the 6000 year theory and LXX chronology; Hippolytos "Fragments from Commentaries" fragment 2 on Daniel cbs. 4-7, in ANF V, 179. The tradition may have a Jewish background. See Slavonic Enoch 32.2; 33.1£; PFF I, 195f, 204.

ANF V, 210; PPF I , 274.

28Hippolytos "Treatise on Christ and Antichrist" chs. 32f;

29Justin Martyr expected the parousia soon and takes issue with Trypho who interprets Darnel's times lasting 100 years. "Dialogue with Trypho" ch. 31£ ANF I, 209f. Irenaeus writes ; that "the empire which now rules shall be part itioned. He [John the Revelator] teaches us what the ten horns shall be which were seen by Daniel." "Against Heresies" 5.26; ANF I, 554. Tertul1ian "On the Resurrection of the Flesh" ch. 24; ANF III, 563. Julius Africanus proposed a month for a prophetic day theory to calculate Daniel's prophecies. "Extant Fragments of the Five Books on the Chrono-graphy of Julius Africanus" fragment 18; ANF VI, 137. Cf. PFF I , 219-282.

32
nations as the ten horns of Daniel seven.i" However, it would be a mistake to identify the patristic exegesis with historicism as Froom does." Three essential elements of historicism were missing from the early Christian exposition of the apocalyptic. There was no synchronization or harmonization of prophecies. There was no papal little horn. Neither was there that strong emphasis on chronology, which is typical of the continuous historical exegesis. These features were not developed until a millennium later."

33
with cryptic numbers aroused widespread interest in apocalyptic figures." Without a change in the exegesis of prophetic times it would have been difficult to reapply eschatological imagery and keep it relevant. Joachim of Fiore can be credited with also another exegetical invention that was later taken over and developed by historicists. He believed that the antichrist would usurp the Roman see, Some late medieval scholars, of whom Eberhard Il, archbishop of Salzburg (1200-124fJ) and John Wyclif (1324-13R4) arc examples, identified the little horn with the bishop of Rome.?" At the time of the Reformation this became a firrnlv held doctrine among the majority of Protestants. Neither Luther nor Calvin had any doubts on this point."

3.4.2 The year-day theory and papal antichrist
Towards the dawn of the second millennium of the Christian era some ] ewish scholars began calculating prophetic time by counting years for days. This device made it possible to date the eschaton close to the year 1000 when applied to the periods of 1260 days, 1290 days, or 1335 days as found in Daniel. loaGliimOfFiore (1130-1202) is the first Christian who is known to have employed the year-day method. He applied it on the 1260 days of the book of Revelation, and his imaginative play

3.5 Joseph Mede
The basic characteristics of historicism had emerged over a long period of time. What was needed was someone to draw all the features together. The man who pioneered historicism was Joseph Mede (1586-1638). Even though Mede, a master of Christ's College in Cambridge, is only one among many apocalyptic expositors of his time, he is credited with what has been named "a Copernican revolution in the interpretation of prophecy.r" The respect he commanded is indicated bv titles like "the father of prophetic interpretation," and "inspired for

30The history of the interpretation of Daniel shows a continuous updating and revitalization of the meaning attached to the symbols. E.g. the little horn was first applied to Antiochos Epiphanes, to the Empire of Rome, a few centuries later to Islam, and at the time of the Reformation to the Papacy. The exception to this desire of updating the application is the historical critical method because it looks at what was relevant in the past rather than in the present. 31ln his monumental apology for historicism Froo:n regards Theodoorct as the last correct interpreter and Augustine as the originator of a hermeneutical apostasy to be corrected only by post-Reformation orthodoxy. Sec e.g. PFF I, 450-543. Augustine's own comments on Daniel are interesting in contrast with Froorn's comments on his importance. See e.g. Augustine on the crushing power of the kingdom of God, Tracktate 4 on the Gospel of John, sec. 4; N&PNF VII, 26. Cf. PFF I, 488f. 32Froom fails to see the many variations there have been in the area of prophetic exegesis, For different efforts of interpreting prophecies and finding relevance see e.g. Carrol 1979, 214-9; Rowley 1947; Koch 1972.

33Joachim proposed that from Christ to about 1200 A.D. 42 generations and 1260 prophetic years. Dempf 1929, 74; Pl-F. J, 695. However, prophetic dates were not paramount m Joachim's work. Reeves 1969, 4Of, 51-55, 437. See also Reeves 1976; Williams (ed.) 1980. 340n Eberhard see e.g. PFF J, 796-806. Wyclif leaves no roon: for ?OU?t his position: >-in the seventh chapter of Daniel Antichrist IS forcefully descnbed by a horn arising in the time of the fourth kingdom. For so our clergy foresee the lord pope, as it is said of the eight blaspheming little head."
u

PFP lI, 55.

35E.g. PFF lI, 241-394; 373-394.
L983, 67.

38Ball 1981, 193-212;

Manuel

1974, 90;

Rasmussen MS

34

35 years with his terminus for the 1260 days/years of papal antichristllittle horn - to Anno Aerae Christianae 1736."4' Finally, but not least importantly, Mede placed the coming of Christ right after the ruin of Antichrist at the end of 1260 years, to be followed by the millennium." In this he initiated a tradition of premillennialism within the historicist method. Froom classifies this as epochal because it meant a repudiation of the Augustinian theory of amillennialism.P Indeed Mede stands out as one who turned the tide in the history of exegesis for about two centuries until the Millerite disappointment in 1844.44
II

the interpretation of the prophecies: given him by later expositors. His major work Clavis Apocalyptica or The Key of the Revelation was still in print in the nineteenth century, and nearly every serious commentary on Daniel or the Apocalypse referred to his name." Mede's main contribution was a system of synchronism between various prophetic symbols. Primarily he worked within the Apocalypse but he did coordinate the key prophecies of Daniel with those of Revelation. Thus he radically affected the future exegesis of Daniel. Mede's most far reaching conclusion was that of equating seven time prophecies which contained time spans of 3 1/2 years, 1260 days, or 42 months (Dan.7.25; 12.7; Rev.11.2,3; 12.6,14; 13.5). These, he explained must apply to the antichristian power of papacy . He also labored to link other prophetic time periods with the time of the antichrist to provide "a sure guide in this holy Labyrinth.f" This plan he called "that SACRED KALENDAR and GREAT ALMANACK OF PROPHECIE" or "A Prophetical Chronology of Times ."39 Mede's version of the year-day method was simple. He made one day in apocalyptic prophecies correspond to a literal solar year. With this device the 1260 days of the Roman Antichrist would last 1260 years. There were, however, some prophetic periods like Dan 8.14, 2300 evenings and mornings, which Mede interpreted literally to the time of Antiochos Epiphanes.f Mede did also leave the boundaries of Daniel and Revelation and, writing to Archbishop Ussher, he expressed the increasingly popular concept that the second advent and millennium were to come at 6000 years anno mundi. Employing the Samaritan Pentateuch he was able to match the end of 6000

3.6 Sir Isaac Newton
Next in the line of well known historicists, stands Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) who was not only a well known scientist alS? .a keen interpreter prophecies. He applied Mede's rationalistic method and Wished to explain both physical phenomena as well as prophecy with the new mathematics." The Bible he considered "the dictates of the Holy Ghost." Therefore the "prophetick dictates" were "histories of things to .- without ambiguity. v" Methodologically Newton added to Mede. His main contribution was that of confirming the notion that the historicist exegesis was scientific "without ambiguity." The goal of this discipline was, in his opinion, to the obscure prophetic language. This language, Newton believed, was purposely difficult to keep the information with true and to prevent it from "the proud, the selfconceited, the presumptuous, the sciolist, the sceptic." It is quite

"Mede's terminus a quo .was A.D. 476 leading up to 1736, about a century from his time. Mede letter to archbishop Ussher, May 22, 1628, in Works 1663-i664 2:896. Rasmussen MS 1983, 69. '
42Mede K..ey. to the Revelation, 1:20; 2:122; "A Compendium of Mr. Mede-- (in Key to the Revelation), no page numbers. 43PFF II, 544. 44Ball 1981, 216; Ladd 1956, 32; Rasmussen MS 1983, 71. 45Dillenberger 1960, 118f, 126; Manuel 1974, 48.
461. Newton "Fragment from a Treatise on Revelation " in Manuel 1974, 113f. '

37E.g. I. Newton "Fragments from a Treatise on Revelation" , in Manuel 1974, 121; Cf. Manuel 1974, 90; T. Newton 1754, 22, 442 & passim ; Faber 1828, vii, ix, xi-xiii, 38Mede 1650 part 1:1. 39Mede The Apostasy of Latter Times, 69. PFF II, 545. 4°Mede Apostasy, 2:806; PFF II, 542-549, 785f; Rasmussen MS 1983, 66-71.

36 "certain that the church understanding thereof." shall at length attain to the

37 Millerism was thus being laid. Daniel 8.14 meant 2300 years according to Newton, though without a definite starting point. He strongly opposed any application to Antiochos Epiphanes.t" Manuel summarizes Newton's main contribution aptly: There was nothing left over, no random words still unexplained, no images that were superfluous . The system was enclosed, complete, and flawless. Newton saw his 'methodizing of prophecy' as an ideal scientific structure, exhibiting the greatest possible simplicity and harmony.f'

Daniel, Newton claimed, was the key to all other prophecy, and "to reject his [Daniel's] Prophecies is to reject the Christian religion.?" In his exegesis he, unlike Mede or many of his contemporaries, did not give any date or year from which a terminus could be calculated. Instead he specified the time vaguely, at "about the time of the invasion of the Barbarous nations and their erecting several Kingdoms in the Roman Empire," and "it being certain that 1200 of the 1260 years are run out already.?" The manuscript of this statement has been tentatively dated around 1680 which places Newton close to Mede (A.D.476-1736). Whatever the case, the great scientist did not want to bind himself to a single year. While Newton was not overly specific on the most significant of apocalyptic time prophecies, his writings set forth a magnificent profusion of eschatological detail including a mathematical foundation for calculating prophetic time. Newton made the parallel between three and a half years (e.g. Dan 7.25) with 42 months (e.g. Rev 13.5) and with 1260 days (e.g. Rev 12.6), which gives 360 days for each prophetic year and 30 days to a prophetic month. Thus, unlike Mede, he disassociated prophetic time from solar or lunar calendars. This model for prophetic time was widely used a century later." It is of particular interest to note that Newton began counting the 70 years of Daniel 9.25 from Artaxerxes' decree (Ezra7), which he believed was issued in 457 B.C.51 One cornerstone of

3.7 Thomas Newton
Thomas Newton, John Gill, and George Stanley Faber would rank high in any list of eighteenth and nineteenth century exegetes. Of course many other prominent men who pursued similar solutions to the apocalyptic riddle could be mentioned." However, for our purposes these three are important because of their likely influence on William Miller.55 Bishop Thomas Newton (1704-1782), was dean of St.Pauls in London and bishop of Bristol. In nineteenth-century American literature no other eighteenth-century exegete of prophecies is mentioned more often than he is.56 Bishop Newton's Dissertations on the Prophecies (1754) became immensely popular. The book was translated into German and Danish and it ran through many Engljsh editions. His thesis on prophecy appears to have had a different purpose from the works of Mede and Sir Isaac Newton though he operates with the same

52

Newton "Fragment from a Treatise on Revelation," in Manuel 1974, 107-111, 123, 89.
471.

1. Newton 1733, 123f; PFF II, 662.

53Manuel 1974, 98.
54pFF III, 263-639.

481.
491.

Newton 1733, 16f. Newton "Yabuda" MS 23.6 in Manuel 1974, 99f.

Newton's result was 391 years. PFF II, 666. The Millerites added 15 days for the "one hour." Newton 1733, 130f. Johan Funk (1558), Heinrich Bullinger (1557), and Jaques Cappell (1624) had proposed 457 B.C. as a starting point for this prophecy. PFF II, 582f, 631£.
511.

sor.

55See Miller "Address to Believers in All Denominations" in Bliss 1853, 251; Miller 1833, 10, 42 includes a quote from Gill. Cf. Rasmussen Ms 52-57. 56Miller's contemporaries praise T. Newton freely. See e.g. Anderson 1840, 36; Boudinot 1815, 67; Bush 1842, 6; Pym 1839, 109; Smith 1808, iii; Starkweather 1843/b, 5; Watkins 1795, 55; etc.

38

fundamental premises with Genesis and eschatological prophet that the whole Bible on the two advents used as keys for unl not be surprising if t Thomas Newton's bo try harmonizing all tit

Thomas Newton refit Newton's method . Ho He advocated proph increasing infidelity ( were an exact "SUDll exegeted scientifically,'

Part of his prophetic millennium at arounc chronology as such importance of the 60( references to it in the instance he expressec days/years as well as /years coincides with the creation.

Emphasis on the (j prophetic Bible study. on chronology into a prophecies of Daniel may not have been prepare his grand esc validity of 1843. Wha any part of the Bible

57Southard "The

5&J'. Newton 183

I

I

39 also create a harmony of prophecies in order to interlink all of the various lines of prophecies they found. 59 There is one essential difference that must be noted when Miller and Newton are compared. While Newton wrote in a manner that was likely to stimulate chronological speculation he never ventured to commit himself to any single date . He believed that the terminus ad quem can never be seen clearly before the time has come." For the 1260 day/year period he suggested at least three starting points. The earliest is with Justinian's degree (533 AD), the second Phocas' degree in 606 (this had the additional benefit of being also the beginning of Mohammed's rise to power), and the third the early eighth century when the pope was established as a "temporal prince."?' The parallel termini, which Newton did not spell out but which the reader could easily deduce for himself, were 1793, 1866 and the late twentieth century. Newton's dates for the 2300 days/years (Dan 8.14)62 and his theory of the 6000 years of the world history" match with the last of the options above. Newton provided the blueprint and left the calculations to his readers.

his exegetical predecessors. He begins refully maps traditional Messianic or s. His fundamental idea, like Miller's, is resents a harmonious chain of prophecy Christ . Daniel and the Revelation are eking other parts of the Bible. It would e "Newton" Miller had in his library was c and that it inspired William Miller to prophecies of the Bible.57

S

d and systemized Mede's and Sir Isaac ever, his ultimate purpose was apologetic. cy as the main argument against the the age. The prophecies, he believed, ary of the history of the world" when

c hronology was to expect the dawn of the 6000 Anno Mundi even though biblical does not dominate his thesis. The years for him is apparent from repeated context of apocalyptic time prophecy. For the idea that the terminus of the 1260 that of the 2300 evenings and morningshe terminus of the sixth millennium from

3.8 John Gill
John Gill (1697-1771) was another scholar with whom Miller

DO years greatly changed priorities in It turned any genealogy or any statement ime prophecy of equal importance to the and John the Revelator. Newton mayor ie inspiration that sparked Miller off to atological scheme with "15 proofs" on the ver the case, both men believed that the is primarily prophetic. Both of them did

59por the apocalyptic 6000 years see T. Newton 1833, 221£ , 259f. One of the most peculiar interpretations within Millerism is Miller's effort to turn Lev 26 into a time prophecy. For an interesting use of Lev 26 in T. Newton's writings (though in a somewhat different context from Miller) see e.g. T. Newton 1833, 89, 92, 105. eo.'But as lrenaeus saith in a like case, it is surer and safer to wait for the completion of the prophecy than to conjecture and to divine about It." T. Newton 1933, 222; cf. p. 321. 61T. Newton 1933, 221£; PFF II , 685. 62JIe opposed any application to Antiochos, because then the "sanctuary was not yet cleansed." T. Newton 1833, 259f.
63-y'. Newton approved of Ussher's popular chronology which dated creation to the year 4004 B.C.

lome of Wm Miller" Me Oct 26, 1843. 715; Rasmussen MS 1983, 75.

40

41 popular terminus of 1866.66 However, contrary to the Newtons he believed the little horn of Dan 8 to be Mohammedianism." ' Even though Faber comes to a definite year he leaves the actual events ot that year in the shadow. He expected the end of both Papal and Islamic power, "the western and the eastern antichrist", but he is ambiguous on whether Christ will then reign literally or spiritually."

would have been familiar." He commanded great respect within the Baptist denomination and was called "in some respects the most learned man that had yet appeared in our denomination. Nor, indeed, have any equalled him, to the present day, in acquaintance with Hebrew and the Rabbinic literature."85 Gill's multi-volume commentaries of the Old and the New Testament contain thorough expositions of the prophecies. Gill provided little new for the historicist method. He was a believer in the year/day method. His terminus a quo for the 1260 years of Dan 7.25 was A.D. 606 which made him conclude the prophecy in 1866. Like Thomas Newton he expected the end of the 2300 evenings and mornings at terminus of the 6000th year from the creation. Futhermore Gill allows for the possibility that the number of the beast, 666, might signify years. He did also go beyond the strict year/day principle and he proposed that the two days of Hosea 6.2 signify 2000 years after which the restoration of the Jews will take place. In a modified form Miller included all of these viewpoints into his proofs."

3.10 Historicism in popular commentaries
The work of the leading historicists might have been sufficient in preparing the. ground for the nineteenth-century apocalyptic revivals, There IS, however, another group of writings that established the dominance of this historicist exegesis. Large numbers of protestant commentary sets were distributed in the first half of the century. Most of these were of British origin.P Froom lists thirteen different Protestant commentaries available in Miller's time. The grip that historicism had over serious North American exegesis can be seen in that only one of the thirteen commentaries makes Antiochos the only fultillment of the. little horn in Daniel 7, two give an option between Antiochos and Rome, and the remaining propose the Papacy as the only solution."

3.9 George Stanley Faber
The most productive exegete of the prophecies among Miller's contemporaries is George Stanley Faber (1773-1854). According to Froom he was "the most voluminous religious writer of his generation.?" There is no certainty as to which of Faber's many commentaries Miller referred to, when he acknowledged having a "Faber" in his library." It is likely that it was Dissertation on the Prophecies, originally published in 1804 and distributed in America in 1808. Faber's exegesis closely follows that of Mede, the two Newtons and Gill. He keeps within Daniel and Revelation with the

B9Faber 1808, 160-79. Faber later revised his calculation on the 1260 days/years to run from 604 to 1864. Faber 1828 3'48795. ' . 1808, 1:211f; Rasmussen MS 1983, 81. 71E.g. Faber 1828, 1:xx-xxi, 468-71, 487-95. Rasmussen MS 1983, 81. 72Commentary sets were used widely especially by the clergy. For further examples of 19th Century exegetical literature see e.g. PFF IV, 82-410.

54Rasmussen MS 1983, 56. 65Cramp 1868, 484. 66Gill 1809/10, NT 3:792, Rasmussen 1983, 78f. 67pFF III, 339.

or

6:327, 334. PFF II, 682-684;

66S outhard "The Home of Wm Miller"

Me

Oct 26, 1843.

73PFF W, 329f. However, it must be noted that Froom is optimistic in classifying some of these commentators into the instance, Matthew Henry (1662-1714) in his historicist camp. SlX volume J!X.poSltlOn of the Old and New Testament is so terse and guarded m. his comments on apocalyptic prophecy that he cannot not be listed as a supporter of historicism.

42 While the concordance was regarded as more valuable than a commentary there are some commentaries which were significant for the continuous historical method. One of these was the six volume commentary by Thomas Scott (1747-1821), originally published 1788-92, and produced in America in 1804-9. At least eight reprints were made of the American edition. In his comments Scott follows the two Newtons and Faber. Like them 74 his 1260 years began in 606 A.D . and ended in 1866. Another very influential commentary was Adam Clarke's (17621832) eight volume Commentary and Critical Notes. American editions of this commentary were produced almost simultaneously with the British ones (1810-25). Clarke is particularly effective in the area of chronology. His commentary includes exhaustive chronological tables and with exact dating for every incident. He also prints his prophetic times boldly including a count on the number of years one must wait to see fulfillment, The 1260 years he began with Pepin's giving power to pope Stephen II in 755, thus ending in 2015 A.D., though he also notes the 1798 date as a turning point marking the beginning of the downfall of the papacy. Miller chose the latter date for his terminus of the same prophecy. In regard to the 2300 years his commentary gives the dates from 334 B.C. to 1966 A.D .75 The only important American commentary at the time was that of William Jenks (1788-1866) Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible (1834-8) which followed British historicism except in advocating postmillennialism."

43 .T he exegesis of these men spread to Birks,. and and tunmg of the two revivals and the apparent similarity of their doctrine tempts one to conclude that there was some kind interdependence between the two revivals." 1S, however, vigorously denied by Froom ." As Such the eVldence. up, one cannot determine with certainty that the British revivalists and Miller worked out their views unaware of each other. . three. reasons against Miller's being influenced by the British views. First, Miller and Millerites do refer to the Protestant c:ommentators," chiefly Mede, the Newtons, an? Gill, bU:t 1S no to the nineteenth-century Second, L1tCh, one of Miller's leading 184:4 that the British revivalists did not "gain assistants, wr:ote much attention in this country, until after Mr . Miller had lab?red for a. number of years."? Third, Rasmussen mistakenly clauns that Miller expected a heavenly millennium in contrast to premillennialists who believed that Christ would reign the this e3!th for tho.usand years." In reality there is little difference m the Millennial teaching of the two groups. . argument is not impeccable. Miller could have obtained cop!es of the millennialist journal, The Christian Observer which was published from 1802 in London, with American editions. After he had formulated his main attacked the concepts of the E?g1ish literalists,. acknowledging his awareness of their .and. There is, however, no direct proof of early British literalist influence on Miller.

3.11 Contemporary British premillennialism
In America Millerism emerged as the largest premillennialist group of nineteenth century. Several historians have noted the fact that in Britain there was a contemporary premillennial awakening. This revival was led by Cuninghame, Bickersteth,
77PFF W, 189-90; Ladd 1965, 35f., 42.

76Sandeen, "Millenarianism" in ROA; Sandeen 1970, 50f.
79PFF W, 518.

74Scott 185!. 75Clarke n.d., vol IV, 603-613. 76Cf. PFF W, 125f.

SOLitch "Rise and Progress of Adventism" ASR May 1844, pp. 46-93. ' 81Rasmussen MS 1983, 89-91. 82Miller 18421c, 83-86.

44

45

The striking similarity between these British literalists and Miller is in the timing of the prophecies. Of all the historicists mentioned earlier in this study no one published the very dates which were essential for the Millerites. Yet every one of Miller's termini ad quem can be found in The Christian Observer. In England the Albury conferences of the 1820's concluded that the second Advent would occur in 1843 or 1847. Both of these dates became popular in America. Edward Irving, and Henry Drummond, William Miller's English counterparts were participants in these conferences." Furthermore the French Revolution was claimed to mark the end of the Papal power and of the 1260 years. Likewise the prophecy of Dan 8.14 was frequently explained in conjunction with Dan 9.24-27, a hermeneutical device of great value to Miller. Thus the year 457 B.C. could be proposed as the terminus a quo of the 2300 evenings and mornings or years." Cuninghame also presented a prophecy on the jubilees, which is another match with Miller's exegesis." Overall there is more than passing resemblance between the hermeneutic of the two revivals. Outside of actual British premillennialism one may note that the writings of enthusiasts like Lacunza and Joseph Wolff were at least partly available in the English language. Irving himself provided one translation of Lacunza's text.88 Because John Wesley's had endorsed Johan Albrecht Bengel's complicated mathematics for a parousia in 1836 this year was expounded as the year of the end." It is likely that also this date was familiar to William Miller. 88

3.12 American contribution
In North America indigenous time-setting sprang up. Miller had a host of contemporaries interested millennialism. Around 1835/6 eight year old Ellen G. Harmon, better known as Ellen G. White, a and co-founder of Seventh-day Adventism, found a slip of paper on the street. The paper contained such a calculation. She was filled with terror at the thought of a end to the world ." While the origin and details of this time prophecy are unknown, several individuals counting the years for the eschaton are known. The years were frequently 1843, 1844, 1847, or 1866/8.90 The disposition of many was expressed in J.P. Wheethee's words: "the last sands are dropping from the glass of time; the great time-bell is about to toll the hour of midnight,'?'

3.12.1 Some features of American literature
An examination of early nineteenth-century American literature on prophecies leaves one in no doubt about the strength of the historicist exegesis. The names of Mede, the two Newtons or of Faber are m.entioned uncounted times. There is not the slightest d?ubt that literally thousands of Miller's contemporaries shared his method as well as his imaginative approach to the problems of prophecy. On the sensational side of American exegesis one . de.tails concerning particulars on prophetic termini, including a dated parousia, 92 the eastern question or the future of Islam,93 prophetic solutions to the internationai or domestic politics of the day,9<4 the return of Jews,95 peculiar

83Sandeen 1970, 18-22. 54For a convenient summary of the hermeneutic in The Christian Observer see PFF III, 283-97. One of the points frequently debated in the magazine is whether 2200, 2300, or 2400 is the correct figure for Dan 8.14. 55Cuninghame 1840a, xiii. 88S andeen 1970, 11, 19. (Lacunza's work was translated by Edward Irving.) 87Wesley, Explanatory Notes Upon the New quoted in PFF II, 692-4. 88B[rinsmead] 1979, 19. Cf. PFF II, 709-713. 1915, 20.

90PFF W, 370-81 mentions Shimeall, McGrecor Wheeler Wheetee, Shannon, and Robinson in support of these dates. '
91Wheetee, "Letter March 17, 1843" ST Apr 5 1843; PFF W,376 . ' 92E.g. Pym 1839, 52; Roberts 1828, 71; Rudd 1734, 418; Whi te 1823, lOf; etc. 93E.g. Morse 1810, 6; Rudd 1734 15' Smith 1811, 101; " White 1823, 10f; True 1834, 6; etc. 9<4E.g. Thorp 1841, 82; Thompson 1812, Bf; etc.

Testament,

46 typological prophecies from Israel's sanctuary service or the Jubilees," calculations on the 6000 year theory," or like problems.
As far as time prophecies are concerned American expositions

47 interpretation while unknowingly and unintentionally being line with "some of the finest minds".'?'
in

have been well tabulated by Froom." The tables are, however, misleading. They give the impression that everyone was calculating times for the parousia the way Miller did. There are indeed many calculations'" but if one searches the available literature for elements that match with Miller's exegesis the result is disappointing. Similarities are largely superficial. A high degree of common outlook can only be found between Miller and the British apocalyptics.

However, from Southhard's comment as well as from the actual Millerite exegesis one can reasonably draw the conclusion that when Miller launched his Bible study around 1816 he was at least aware of Newton's (whether Sir Isaac or Thomas is uncertain) and Faber's interpretation. This conclusion is confirmed by the occurrence of other references to the pioneers of historicism. In another context Miller is quoted mentioning the two Newtons together with Joseph Mede. Futhermore Miller reveals firsthand familiarity with Gill as he is directly quoted.'?" Mede, the two Newtons, Faber and Gill are all men whose work was at the very centre of the historicist tradition. Miller worked in no vacuum, and he is known to have been an avid reader'P" and he may well have studied a number of the well known as well as the less known exegetes of prophecy. It is possible that he wanted to improve on the variant interpretations and to create such a harmonious interpretation that it would be above dispute.'?'

3.13 Miller's relationship to other historicists
It appears to have been a matter of honor for William Miller and his supporters to claim that Miller's exegesis was fully original. There are several distinct statements on Miller's complete independence. Those involved in the revival were not prepared to acknowledge their hermeneutical roots. For instance, in 1843 Southard wrote that Miller "never had a commentary in his house, and did not remember reading any work upon the prophecies except Newton and Faber, about thirty years ago."100 Miller himself repeated this claim to originality adding that "all" preconceived opinions were laid aside when he conducted his research. His apologists, Nichol, Damsteegt and Froom, interpret this to mean that Miller was unaware of any parallel

3.14 Summary
The elements that made up the historicist interpretation grew up over a millennium from the early church to the late middle ages. These included the continuous application of prophetic symbols from time of Babylon to the present age, the yearday hermeneutic of prophetic time, and the identification of the papacy with the little horn. The full package of historicism was

95Wintrop 1843, 112f; Spalding 17%, 5; White 1806, 19-21 & passim; Ramsay 1841, 24f; Rudd 1734, 10, 214; etc. seE.g. Dickinson, chart 4. s7E.g. Dickinson 1843, 8; Chamberlain 1805, 93.
98PFF W, 392-405.

101Miller 1845, 6. Bliss 1853, 69f. PFF W, 462-9; Nichol 1944, 150 fn., "-- he came to his conclusions exclusively through a study of the Bible and reference to a concordance." Cf. Damsteegt 1977, 18 fn. 102Miller "Address to Believers in Christ m All Denominations", in Bliss 1853, 251; Miller 1833 10 42. Cf. Hawley "The Voice of the Second Advent Sustained by the Voice of the Church" ST, June 7, 1843. l03Nichoi 1944, 2Of. 104Cf. Rasmussen MS 1983, 55f; PFF W 66.

amount of speculation on the date of the end is sufficient to challenge Anderson's conclusion that the dated parousia was a scandal. A milder word would do better justice to the situation. cr. Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in Numbers & Butler 1987, 89. 1°OSouthard "The Home of Wm Miller" Me Oct 26, 1843.

48
drawn together by Joseph Mede aided by the conceptions a nd methods of Protestant scholasticism. The system was refined and clarified by reputable eighteenth-century scholars whose research was at the time wid ely acknowledged. Historicism was the most popular method of prophetic exegesis from late seventeenth to middle nineteenth century. No North American Protest ant inter est ed in Biblical prophecies in th e early half of nineteenth century could avoid encountering the traditional historical method. The books of the pioneers of the method were widely available in reprints, th e method was pr om oted by popular commentar y sets , and by a host of indigen ous writers whose ba sic outlook stemmed from historicism but who tried to press their own peculiar notions into the field of apocalyptic interpretation. If on e looks for clos e equa tio ns between Miller and othe r exeg etes, one has to turn to Gill, the two Newtons as well as the British pr ernillennial revivali sts .

49

4 MILLER'S VIEW OF PROPHECY AND HISTORY
4.1 The basic premise of Miller's exegesis
Miller's fundam ental aspiration was to create a harmonious and syste ma tic expos ition. H e wrote: "God in his wisdom had so seve ral prophecies, that the y tell us the sa me things. -- There never was a book writt en that has a better harmony." words "harmony" , and ."iIltcrwovcn." ':lre the key words. For ..the -whole Bible was a coherent system. ' of Subsequently all exege sis mu st be seen as pieces the consistent de sign which he believed to lie behind any subject, whether time pr ophecy, the rise and fall of historiu;1 kingd om s, millennialism, or the fat e of the Jews. has been rec ogniz ed. There is nothing sur pnsmg. 10 t.lllS becau se It wo uld be no great exagge ratio n to say that In this re sp ect he was like cvervbodv else ." For Mille r the _whole Bible belonged togeth er . Th e task the exege te was to fwd it slot into .which ever y pr ophecy fitted. Re ferring to his lon g an d solita ry Bible study he wro te : "I was thus satisfied that the Bible is a of re vealed tru ths, so clearly and simply gwe n that the wayfari ng man, though a fool, need not err therein ."? He felt that the pieces of the punk had fallen in place.

' Miller lk4 2/b , 4.
2Sandeen "Millcnni alisrn" In RO'/1. , 1121'. A

3RJiss 1853, 20.

50

51

4.2 Rules of interpretation
Int erpr et a rio n was to be guided by prop er rules which would provide consistency. William Miller present ed a set of her meneuti cal can ons which received wide circulation among the M illcrite s . Mille r originally p ub lish e d his fourteen rule s in l S40· After a fe w re p rints" (with m inor modificatio ns) they were edited by Apollos Hale and republished in a strea mlined and mor e logical set of thirtee n rule s which were printed in the Sec ond A d ve n t M anu al. " Because of its early and wi d e dis: rib ution Millcr's original version is preferable i;l spite of its less fl ue nt sequence. In recent years these rule s have been repu blished sever al times.' However. because discussion on the ra mification of the rule s has not ;"(:: t been exhausted. the r ules arc repeat ed once mor e with hints on their implicatio ns. Miller' s rules arc a co nvenie nt starling point because they express his meth od of interpreti ng the Bible in a concise for m. With these rule s. Miller claimed , no dOC need to "err far fro m th e truth ." He prefaced the rules with the words: "Evcrv rule should be well studied, in connexion with the scr ipture refe renc es, if the Bible student would be at a ll hc: ncli led by th e m. " The Bihli cal refe re nc e s, or the "p roo f-" as they were called, are as follows:

I. Every word must have its pr op er bearing on the subje ct present ed in the Bible . Proof. Mall. v.18. II. .All Scripture is necessary, and rnav be understood by a diligent application and study. Proofs. 2Tim. iii. IS, 10, 17.
[II. Nothing revealed in Scriptures can or will be hid from those who ask in faith, not wavering. Pr oofs. Deut. xxix.29. Matt. x.26,27. l Co r ii.I O Phil. iii. IS. 1sa. xlv.l I. Matt. xxi.n. J oh. xivl], 14. xv.7. James i.5,6. IJoh n \'.13,14,1 5,

IV . T o under sta nd doctrine, bring all the Scriptures together on the subject you wish to then leI w ord have its prope r "can -form- . yoilrtheory m,tluence; and Without a contnf'dictton, vou ca nnot be in crr ur 1 Proufs. Isa. x..wiii.7-2S. xxxv.S. Pro vo xix.27. xxlv.27,4 1,45. Rom. xvi.2n. J ames v. Iv , 2Pct i.19,20. .

must be its own: expositor, since it is Itself. If I depend on a teacher to to me, and he should guess at its mea nmg,. or to be thought . wise, then his guessing, desire, creed or Wisdom , IS my rule, not the Bible,
111
10 .

V a rule

ST May 15, 184( Thi s } original version was most exhaustive of all with even ' Bible refer ence print ed out and with editorial comment s. .
5E. g . Miller "R ules of .,:' J C Nov 17, 1842. See also (/ OP I,f IR42/j, 20-24. e./iAM , 103-6. Cf. Darnstcegt 1977, 299f. H ale's ve rsion omits rule HI and the second sentence of rule no. X. O ne sho uld also nutc that Miller's first effort of crea ting guide lines guidelines is in Evi 1833. Miller was not the only one to among the Millerit cs. Sec e.g. R . "Second Coming-fur . .\ r Apr il 15, 184<1. See App endix I.

"M iller "Miller's Lett er s No. ')

VI. God has revealed things to come. bv visio ns. figures and pa r ab les ; and in this way 't he same thIngs arc (? ftcn revealed time and time again, bv dilferen! visions, or in different an ll parables. It you WISh to und erstand the m, vou m ust combine them all I n o ne, P ru ols . . Ps . lxxxix.I v, [-Ill:-.. xi i. Jt) Hab. ii.2. Acts ii.l! . l Cor X(, . H cb, ix.<J ,24. Ps, lxxviii.Z, Man. xiii.L\,:q C ;cn: xlt. l-J2. Dan. ii.vi i. < Inti viii. Act s x.')-[Ii. VII. Visions are always ment ioned as such. Proof. 2C·or. xii. l .

'E.g. Harri son 1979, 201lf. Ju dd "William Miller, Disappointed Proph et" in Number & Butler 1987, 20r. Damstccgt J977 , 29Yf used the edited version of the rules.
"M ille r "R ules of --" ,v ' IC Nov 17, IS42.

VIII. Figur es always have a figur ative meaning, and arc used in proph ecy to repr esent futur e things, limes and events: s uc h as m ountain s, meaning beasts, meaning kingdoms; Waters, meanin g people. L amp, meanin g

52

53

Word of God. Day;""'memllng

yefU,,'J, Pr oofs. Dan. ii.35,44. vii.8,17: R ev. xvii. 1,15. Ps . cxix.105. E zek . iv.6.

IX. Parables are used as comparisons to illustr ate subject, and must be explained in th e same way as figure s, by th e subj ect and Bible. M ark iv.B. See expl an ati on of th e ten virgins, Mi ller's Le ctures, No xvi. X . Figures some times have two or mor e differ ent significations , as da y is used in a figur at ive se nse to represent thr ee different peri od s of time . 1. Indefinite. 2. Definite, a da y for a year. 3. D ay for a thousand years. If you put on the right construction it will harmonize with the Bible and make good sen se, otherwise it will not. Pr oofs. Eccles. vii.14. Ezek. iv.6. 2Pet. iii.8. Xl. How to know when a word is used figuratively. If it makes good sense as it sta nds, and does no violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figurat ively. Pr oofs . Rev. xii.l,2.xvii.3-7. XlI. T o learn the tru e meaning of figur es, tra ce your figur ative word throu gh your Bib le, and where you find it exp lained , put it on your figure, and if it makes goo d se nse you need look nofurther , if not , look again . XIII . T o know whether we have the tru e histori cal event for the fulfillment of a prop hecy. If you find every word of the pr ophecy (after the figures are under stood ) is liter ally fulfilled , t hen you may know that your hist or y is the tru e eve nt. But if one word lacks fulfillment , then you must look for ano ther event, or wait its futur e develop ment. For God takes care th at histor y and pr ophecy doth agree , so that th e true be lieving children of God may never be ashamed. Pro ofs. Ps. xxii.5. Isa, xlv.17,18,19. 1Pet. ii.6. Rev.xvii.17. Acts iii.18. XIV. The most import ant rule of all is th at you must ha ve f aith. It must be a faith that req uir es a sac rifice, and, if tri ed , would give up th e dear est

object on ea rth, the world and all its de sire s, cha racte r, living, oc cupation, frie nd s, home, comforts , and worldly hon ors. If any of these sho uld hind e r our believing any pa rt of God's wor d, it would show our faith to be vain. Nor can we ever be lieve so long as one of the se mo tives lies lurking in our hea rts. We must believe that God will never for feit his word. And we can have confide nce that he tha t takes notice of the arrow , and numbers the hairs of our head , wil gua rd the translati on of his own word, and throw a barrier aro und it, and pr event those who since rely tru st in G od, and put impli cit confide nce in his word , fro m er ring far from the tr uth, th ough they mav not und erstand H ebr ew or Gr eek. 9 ' -

S f

.1

!

I

I

I
·1
'1

Th ese ru les refle ct the indepe ndence, the intellect ual level, ,IS well a., the type of mind Miller ism catered for. T hey encourage a d o-it-yourself approa ch to the Scr iptur es, intended to pr ovide the active layman with a ration ale for believing in the Millerite chrono log of the end. y

4 .3 Observa tions on Miller's rules

I
!

T he re a re a nu mbe r o f obse rvations that sho uld be made on Mille r's rul es. T heir re petitive a nd arg ume ntat ive style is typical of ninetee nt h-cen tur y religious writing. Wh at is ess ential is to note what t-,1iller include s as well as what he OIll IlS . , f urthe rmo re one must keep in mind tha t even though some of the rules see m to apply to gene ral Biblical exegesis, the ir context in the Millerite revival p resuppo ses that th eir prima ry inte ntion lies within the sphere of prop hetic exeges is. All of the rule s. whethe r they men tion pr op hecy or not, are relevant within the fra me work of co ntinuo us histor ical interpret ation of pro phecy.

9VO p 1842/j, 20-24. Cf. Miller "Miller's Lett er s No. 5-·" ST May 15, 184D; Miller "Rul es of . . » M e Nov 17, 1R42; Bliss 1B53, 7()·72; -r. Harrison 1979, 20nr. J udd "Willia m Miller , Disappointed Prophet" in Numbe r & Butler 1987, 20r. Sec also s.o«, 103-6; Darn stcegt 1977, 299f.

.
54

..t• .
Mill er was proud of his ind ep endent a nalogy. applica tion of

55 Biblical

4 .3.1 Scriptural analogy
Seve ral amo ng Miller's hermeneutical precepts encourage Sc rip tural analogy.'? The idea of the Bibl e being its own exposito r was th e b ackbon e of historicism from its beginning. Mede , th e pion eer of th e method, had alr ead y been co nvinced of a need for co mp aring "Scripture with Scr ipture" in order to find "the pr op er and genuine use of th e like Words and Phrases in seve ral passage s of Scriptur e." 1 In pr actice thi s exegetical device meant tha t the mo st im po rta nt tool o f th e interpreter was a co ncord ance throu gh which he co uld find correl ating Biblical texts. T hese "pro o f text s" were then co llec te d int o a clus te r to d e monstr a te the co rrect meaning of a wo rd in need o f an inte rpr etation , In pra ctice thi s meant th at for any pr ophetic word, be a horn , a lion, a dragon, a day , or th e moon, the exegete 's first ta sk was to trace the use of the particular word in the e ntire Bibl e. Then the meaning that was appro priate within the context was chose n, In the framework of unilateral biblicism such co ncl usio ns are perfectly logical, even th ough the original intent o f th e word, sensus litteralis historicus, was frequently ove rlooked . T he metaph or s were thought of as cod ewo rds, "d ecor ative substitutes" to be excha nged with th e liter al, non -symbol ic meaning." There are, however , a few inst an ces in whi ch th e actual character of a met aphor is conside red. For instance Mill er writes abo ut th e power and ru le of a lion, th e ce le rity of a leop ard , th e voracious ness of a bear and th e submissive nature of an OX.'3 This pri nciple meant th at th e co nco rd ance was more im po rta nt th a n a co mme ntary for a truly Biblical interpret ati on o f a text.

I
. i

:-1

I

,

I det ermi ned to lay aside all my prepo ssessio ns, to tho ro ughly co mpa re Scr ipture with Scr iptur e , and to pu rsue its st udy in a regular an d meth odic al mann er. I comme nc ed with Ge nesis and re ad ve rse by verse." Virtu a lly every pie ce o f exegetical writing by th e Millcrites reflect s this con co rd ance logic. T he text or the subjec t und er interpret ati o n is cla rified by ap pro priate parallel texts on the key wor ds o f th e o pe ning text. Wh e n the subjec t was the n surr o und ed with a na logo us texts, the read er was induced to co nclude like Sir Isaac Newt on in his use of the same prin cip al. "< -thcre is no gro und in Sc ripture for any othe r intcr prcration.'"

4 .3.2. Importance of words
T he usc of a con cord an ce in this exege ses had (\ pro fou nd impact on Miller's co ncl usions. Th e exegesis of a text was ba sica lly an exer cise in find ing o ut th e mcanmg o f eve ry ind ivid ua l word in the text. Sever a l of Miller 's rules reflect Ihis emphasis o n single wo rds." II IS no wo nde r, the n, 1ha t M ille rism ce nte red on wor ds like "Babylon," "day,' "sa nctu a ry. "the cle a nsing," "the seve nt h mo nth," and so on .

O ne fr uitag e of this was th e p ublication of a small pr ophetic di ctiona ry. T his eight pag e glossary, Explanation of prophetic fIgures had nearl y 140 e ntries, T he co nte nts ope n with "adu lte ry" an d close with "wrat h, day of ' both of whi ch arc interp reted in a prophet ic sense , In th e glossa ry o ne find s obvio us exp lanations like: 'DA Y , is one ye ar - revol ution of the ea rt h in its o rbit. :'\ ullu iv..14. E / c. iv.5,fj. Dan. vii.2.r "H ORN . Ki ngs. D an.vii.24. \ iii.20,21. Rcv.xvii.lz.I ri." SEA. A large bo dy of peop le . Is,t.lvii.2ll. Dan .vii.J , Rev.vii.z.J ." But there ar c also ma ny wor ds

" Rules IV, V, VI, IX , X, XII. VOP 1842/j, 20-24. Cf. also Mill er 1845, 6.
" Worthingo n "Preface to Med c's Works" in Mede 1663/4, no page numbers; Rasmussen 1983, 71. 1 2Porte r 1983, ix. ' 3M iller 1836, 3f. Cf. D arn stecgt 1977, 18,

U 43. i

"' Bliss 1853, 6. C f. Sou tha r d ''The Horne of· ·"

Me

O ct 26,

" Newton "Fragments from --" in Manuel 1974, 1Hi.
" R ules T, IV, VIII, X, X I, X II. VO? 1842/j, 20-24.

56

57
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1

with no obvious connec tion with apo calyptic pr ophecy. For instance: "BE LLY. Pr actical part. R om.xvi.18. Job xv.35. Rev.x.9,1O. Luk e xv.16. John vii.38." "BREASTS. Consolation , word of G od . Isa.lxvi.1l."'7 It must have been a chall enge to use suc h mean ings consiste ntly as rule XII suggests.

figurative, unless abso lute ly required to make correct sense of meeting the event which is intended to be point ed OUt.,,2t This was not, however, literalism ill the Mop suestian sense. It was founded on the commonly accepted concept of a mystical meaning behind Biblical words and it presup posed a pa rticula r view of inspi rati on . Subseq uentl y, not eve ryone agr ees with the assess ment on Miller 's literalism. Because he freely app lies O ld T cs ta rnc n t symbols tn Chri stian doc trine and history and ove r lo o ks a liter al application to J ewis h history, he has also bee n rat ed a spiritua l rather tha n a literal intcrprctcrj" Such confusing assessmen ts arc du e to an ambivalence in the meanin g of the "literal" and "spiritual.' However, !1l1 nne can de ny the fact that M iller's p ro p hetic inte r pret at io ns cente r arou nd co ncret e histori cal events am i arc. in this se nse, uu er lv literalistic.23 . .

4.3 .3 Unilateralism and literalism
Miller fully identified with wha t can be termed unilat er al BibJicism. He believed that an answer to a problem in, for insta nce , the hook of Daniel can as natu rall y be found within the boo k of Ge nesis as in that of R evelati on . Th e fact that he mad e no distinc tion between the vario us pa rts of the Bible made his cherished concordance meth od possible. It is no wonder that this herm en e utic has also been named the proof text method . However , in Miller 's case the goa l was one of findin g "proof wor ds" as well as proof texts. Such un ilat er alism is expressed several times in the rul es." Thi s was a time whe n ther e were generally few d oubts conce rning the absolute uniformity of the Scriptures amo ng American Pr otestan ts." Th is characte ristic was combined with a type of liter alism . While many pre-histo ricist exege tes and even a handful of M iller's contemp orar ies followed tr ad itions begun by Origen or Au gustine who allegori zed Scr iptural meanings never intended by the authors , the Milleritcs, With ot her historicists, did their share of violence to the or iginal intent o f the Biblical au thor by insisting upon a fulfillment , liter al to the de tail, wherever possible." The Alaine Wesleyan Journa l gives a contemporary opini on that "Mr. Miller is a great st riclcr [sic] for literal interpr etations; never admitting the

4 .3 .4 Millerite VIew on Biblical lang uages
Th e charac ter of Millerite exegesis is mad e clear by the fact that th e rules play down linguistic study as well as historical or cult ural resea rch . Thi s is not done by omission only, but is clea rly stat ed in rule XIV: -- he that takes not ice of the sparrow, and numbers the hairs of our head, will guard the tra nslation of his own word, and throw a ba rri er aro und it, and pr even t those who sincerely trust in G od -- from erring far from the tru th, though they may not understand Hebrew o r Greek .'?" T his stateme nt could be inter pre ted as negative evidence on the intellectual level of Millcri sm. How ever, it can also he taken as i\ clever way of apo logizing for the lack of learned men in

'7VOp 1842/j, 25--31. Cf. An on. "Mr. Miller " 57 May 15,
184 1. " R ules II, IV, V, VI, IX, X, XII. VOP 1842/j, 20-24 .

that " Rogerseclvlck.im 1979, 265 -322. Sandeen there was virtu ally no debate over the abso lute authority and infallibility of the Scriptures, "Millennialism" in ROA , 112f. 20RuJe XI. VOP 1842/j, 20-24.

2·"Mr. Miller " Maine Wesleyan Iournat , Mar ch 20, 1840 . \ 'l illcr agreed with the statement: "I have found one honest editor.' I/OP 1842/j , [G. 2?Rowe MS !tJ74, 196. 23Cf. Ram m It)70, 24 1-244.
24SA M, 106.

58 Millerite ranks. Or one may also look upon it from the angle that with this rule Miller exhorts laymen to study the Scriptures for themselves, independently of theologians who, after all, were likely to discredit Millerite viewpoints. There is an excellent illustration of this in Miller's debate with Dr. Stuart who published a set of rules with emphasis on the historical context: The meaning is not to be we must go thinking of Regard must age in which Miller comments: On the first impressions, without vanation, I should pronounce it one of the most skeptical works that I have read for twenty years.':" Overall Miller's rules demonstrate distrust for accepted creeds as well as for the scholarship of religious teachers." of the Bible, of any passage thereof, determined by modem notions; but back to the times and modes of the sacred writers themselves. -be had to the controversies of the the sacred writers lived and wrote."

59 prophecies, in particular the book of Daniel, was in question. Because they believed that their interpretation was the logical absolute of conservative Christianity, they had reason to suggest that some churches promoted modern notions to counteract Mil-

lerism."
/ It is likely that the name of Antiochos Epiphancs was frequently thrust into the debate because Millerism was so popular." Miller's rules take no direct notice of these theological controversies, but their disposition is clearly for a conservative, biblicist view against one where the original historical mcamng of a text is sought after. 32 ..

4.3.6 Lack of Christocentricity
Finally, and possibly most significantly, one can consider what is omitted in Miller's rules. Thev make no mention of Christ. of salvation or of the gospel. This matches the ncar total lack of devotional writing in Millerite periodicals.f In spite of the fact that some historicists outside of Millerism sought to interpret prophecies with a Christocentric method'" only few Millerites expressed any concern about this. Dr. Henry Dana Ward with the following comment is an exception rather than the rule: 'The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." 0:0 matter where the prophecy is found, whether in the Old or New Testament, one spirit animates the page; the testimony it bears is still to Jesus; and that interpretation is to be preferred which testifies of Jesus. The Old Testament ought
h

4.3.5 Resistance to historical critical influence
It will come as no surprise to discover, that the Millerites sided

with the majority of American protestants in their total and
highly emotional rejection of "neology," theological research employing the historical critical method." The first reports ?f German critical Biblical scholarship reached North America 111 Miller's day." The issues were, of course, especially sensitive to the Millerites when the authorship or the fulfillment of

25Miller "Review of 'Hints on Prophecy,' by M. Stuart" ST Nov 23, 1842.
26M iller "Review of 'Hints on Prophecy.' by M. Stuart" ST Nov 23, 1842.

:;0 Anon. "The Neology of the Church" Af! April 3, 1844; Anon. "The Methodists also on the Road to German Neology" Al-i April 17, 1844.

J1Sec Bush 1842; Colver 1843; Stuart 1842. 32Rulcs XIV, XIII, V. VO? I842/j, 20-24.
33S ee

27Rules V, XIV. VO? 1842/j, 20-24. 28Ahlstrom 1975, 277; Clements 1976, 2-8. 29Millerites regularly reported on new developments. Anon. 'The Tendency to German Neology" ST June 21, 1843 ridicules the conclusions of Semler and Eichorn. See also Whiting Uj44.

Appendix II.

J4E.g. Vitringa's canons were published in the Investigator. "Tht; infallible key is the right knowledge of Jesus Christ--". Vlln nga "On the Interpretation of Prophecy," IE? IV:157-169.

60
always to be interpret ed New Test ament. "
In

61
hol y co nfo rmity to the hist oric al method pr ovid ed and exp ressed
III

rul es like th ose of

Miller 's."
Hermeneutical rules were writt en to remove ambiguity from the inte r p reta tion of pr o ph et ic symbols. Th e laws of th e Bible we r e regard ed a re p lica of th ose fou nd in nature . The sear ch fo r such rules was rega rded as a sc ientific and schola rl y e nterp rise with ,111 exact ma the matical foundation." Mill er's rules ad de d respe ctability to his exegesis. E llen CJ. Whit e re p orted yea rs lat e r th at the op po ne nts of Millcr isrn were un abl e 10 disprove M iller's co nclusio ns because they wer e based o n suc h carefully rules a lso had long term though t out pr inc ip les." co nseq ue nce s. They mak e it ea sier to underst and som e exegetical or d octrinal co nclusi on s of var iou s Ad vent ist churches or even Je ho vah's Witnesse s. T he rules show th at th e Miller ites too k the task of inte rpret ing th e Bible seriously. In his comment s on the M illerit cs W hitne y C ross suggests th at th ey ca nno t be regar d ed "victims (;1' eco no mic change, or hypn ot ized followe rs of a maniac, thrown int o p romi ne nce merely by freak coi ncide nce" beca use the la rger part of A m er ican P rotes ta ntism came close to th eir be liefs. "Their doc trine," he continues, "was th e logi cal absol ute of fund amen tal ist or thodoxy.'?"

Dr. Ward, an episcopalian rector, was a leading figure in th e earl y ph ases of the Millerite revival but he was lat er quie ted by zealo us tim e se tti ng and liter alism towards th e e nd of th e movement." Subseque ntly it is not surprising to find th at for so me p ost M illerite gr oups it took de cades to b egin a se rio us discussion on sootcriology." H owever, one mu st not co nclude that th e lack of Ch risto logical co nte nt in M iller 's rul es is a sign of a lack in persona l pi et y. It is rath er an indication of Miller's stro ng endorsement of th e prevailing Biblicisrn which mad e th e Bibl e a co llectio n of tru ths o n all ma tters. H is enth us iasm o n the eschaton crowded out some of th e devotio na l co nte nt th ey ce rtainly b elieved in. T he genera l argumenta tive style of his wr iting lead s him , in almost every document, to prove points related to pr ophecy. T his left no roo m for sa lvifie sides te ps .

4.3.7 The influ ence and function of hermeneutical rules
Pro p er rules we re regarded as keys fo r unl ocking the oth erwise mysteriou s symbols of th e apocalypt ic. "PR O P H ECY, like Scie nce," wr ote F aber, "has its own peculiar language . For understanding the prophecies, therefore, as Sir Isaac Newton ju stl y observes, we are, in the first place, to acquaint ourselves with the figurati ve language of the prophets ."38 F aber co ntin ues by compa ring pro phecies to hieroglyphics whic h ca n only be d ecip here d wit h co rr ec t information , a R osell a stone. whi ch th e

35Ward 1843 , 5.

J9-j'he confidence placed on such ru les is obvious in Faber's words. "In th e use of this la ngua ge the re is by no mean s th at ob scuritv and un ce rt aint y, wh ich some ha lf infideI pr etend.. -- T hey. might j ust as reasonably th ro w aside a Ch inese inscnpuon , as inca pable o f b eing decyp her ed . Wi th out a key, neither ca n be un dersto od : b ut when a key is prod uc ed, th e b ook will very readily be op ened ." Faber 1828, 12. Cf. Fa ber IH 2. 28,
111

36PFF IV, 569-576.
37E .g. SD As h ad th eir sooteriological ens IS III 1888. E .G . White s upported traditional protest ant values together with EJ . W aggon er and A.T . Jones. See Fr oom 1971; O lsen 1966; Lind en
(JR .

4° he laws of th e Bible were regarded a replica of those T nat ure with an exact mat he matical founda tion. Ma nu el 1974, 4'Wh ile IlJ l1 , 405f; 411; "Not es on Travel" RH Nov 2 1,
1965, 320.

1982.
38 Faber 1828, 1:2. C f. Newton 1733, 16.

IK84.
,2 . C r05s

62

63
for his return as the next eve nt
In

4.4 Millerite confession of faith
F U . ' D A M E NT AL PRI NCIPLES on which the SECOND ADVENT CAUSE IS BASED I.-The word of God tea ches th at th e ea: th is to b e regenerated in the restitution . of all things, and restored to the Eden state as It came t: om th e ha nd of th e M aker before th e fall, and .IS to b.e the eternal ab ode of the ri ghteou s III th ei r resurrection state . Il-The only Mill ennium found in th e .word of G od is the 1000 years which ar c to be twee n \he fir st a nd the second as brough t to view in the 20 th And th e "va rious p ortion s o f Sc ri ptu re .. . a rc adduce d as evide nce of su ch a III liI,ne, arc to have th eir fulfillme nt o nly 10 th e New Earl h, wh er ein dwclkt h right eo usness. Ill. -Th e on ly rest or ation o f Isr ael yet future . is th e res toratio n of the Sa ints to the new Eart h, whe n th e Lord my God sha ll co me, and all h IS sa ints with him. IV .-The signs which we re to p re cede th e co m ing of our Savio r, ha ve all been given ; and pr ophecies ha ve all been fulfil.led b ut those whlc.h e nd of thi s relat e to th e co ming of C hr ist, wo rld . and th e restitution of all things. V -T her c are non e of the prophetic. period s, as we under st and them, ext endi ng b eyond the (Jcwis h) year 1843. V I -T hc abov e we sha ll eve r ma intain as th e truths of th e word of G od , and therefore till our L ord come, we shall ever look

historical

prophecy?"
These lines we re writte n by th e ed ito rs o f th e S igns of th e Times as an exp r essio n of their principal viewpoints. After the Spring of 1843 virtually ever y issu e of the Signs of the Tim es o r TIl e A dven t herald carried the "F unda me nta l principles". Thus it mu st .have been th e .fir st sUl1.1m ary th at manx p eo ple read .on th e te achings of Mill erism, This wa s th e Mill erite confession of faith . R egar dle ss of religiou s ba ckgr o und, everyone who ag ree d o n th ese points was accepte d in Millerite fellows hip, even if th ere was variance in min or details. "F und ame nta l princip les" includ e severa l facto rs which arc im port a nt for under st an d ing M ille r's exege tical co n clus ions. Th e y sh ow how import ant prernillenn ialism was fo r the Millerite s. T hey cla im th at "the res toration o f the Sai nt s to the new Eart h " is the on ly fulfillme nt of pr ophecies given to Isr ael. [n M iller 's ca se these two ideas arc a requisi te for his finding seve ra l pr ophecie s wh ich lead to 1843. Furthermore th e y state th at th e signs of th e times'" have all been fulfille d and tha t the next eve nt to be exp ec te d is th e parousia. The existe nce of "Fundame nta l Principles" did not mean th at th er e was no room for deb at e ove r va rio us M ille rite doctrine s in th eir periodicals. Frequent ar guments included matt ers like the return o f th e J ews and th e d ating of Daniel 's proph ecies."? Some of th is d eb at e is mere prom otio n of M ille rite ideas

4J''F unda me n ta l principles" A H Fe b 14, 1844. Supple ment to the A H 1844 (no. 17) includes a co mme nta ry with a slig htly edi ted text o f the "princip les", 44The "signs of th e tim es" in Millerite wr iti ngs mea ns no t only the synoptic a pocalypse b ut also th e boo ks of D an iel and Revel ati on . 45See e.g . MiIler "M r. Mill er's re ply to Cambell, Smith, an d othe rs , on the Lillie H o rn in Dan iel 's four th kingdo m" ST A p r il 1, lR4{); Cam be ll "Mr. Cambe ll's re ply to Mr. Miller, on th e Little horn in D ani el 's fourth kingdom" ST April 15, 1840; Litc h, .M r . Li tch's reply to rev. E than Smith, and othe rs on the Litt le I lorn in D ani e l's fourth king dom" S T May 1, 184{). So me of the art icles we re collected into pamphlets like Bus h 1844.

64 against their opponents" while some of it of di ffering opinions."
IS

6S
ge n uine allowa nce made for Israel." He makes the following comment on the topic. The quotation is also a n exce lle nt example of Miller's style of writing: The substance of the prevailing o pinio n on this subject is, that the Jews, the literal descendants of Jacob, are to be gathered from th eir dispersed condition am ong the nations of th e ea rth, and rest or ed to th e land of Palestin e, whe re the y arc to enjo y an ind ep endent, national gove rn me nt and privil eges, among th e nations of th e earth , never to be di spersed again, to the end of time.

4.5 Return of the Jews
Mil ler 's Old Testament exe gesis would never have pr oduced the result s it did with out one hermeneutical conclusion. The return, resto rat ion, and/o r co nvers ion of th e Je ws was a most po pul ar eschato logical exp ec tation in ea rly nine teenth century No rt h Am erica. It was an ess e ntial clement of th e po pula r postrnillc nni alism , bu t also man y prcrnill ennialists believed tha t some thing spect acular would happen with the J ews in fulfillment of O ld T estament prophec ies on the future glory of Israe l. This was look ed for ward to as th e final sign of the tim es. Th e lite ralistic enthusiasm with which the return of th e J ews was expected made men look for the ten lost tribes of Isr ael in vari ous pla ces. Som e found them among American Indians . As it proof it was shown tha t th er e we re 29 sim ilar wo rds in a n Ind ian d ialect an d the H ebrew. Furt hermo re both th e Indi an s a nd the Isr aelit es were well known for the ir internpcra ncc.:" O ther s det ected th em a mo ng th e Ncs torians in Khoor dist an o r other far away places." A liter al return was exp ected to be liter al up to the sm allest detail. Mille r d id not sha re th ese popular nut ions. Mi lle rite publica tions make it ab so lutely cle ar th at Miller and man y of his follower s be lieved it es se ntial to pr esent a differ ent view on th e pr omises

If thi s doctrine can be sup por ted , it must pr ove fat al to the doctrine ma intained in these pages .»And it must be confesse d th at ther e are many passages of Scripture which at first view seem to favor th e sentiment; and wer e th er e no others to counteract them, or to explain their meaning, we co uld arrive at no othe r con clu sio n tha n that th e J ews mu st be restor ed ."

' BE.g. Bliss 1843/a (first publish ed as a se ries in ST and A/ C in the spr ing of 1843); Miller 1842/g (first publishe d in S T, aut um n 1842. ' 7E.g. Cambe ll was a llowe d to express freely his prophetic expos itio ns co ncern ing prophe tic chro no logy and th e return of the J ews eve n th ou gh he hel d views differ ent from th ose of ; Mille r. Cambe ll "M r. Cambe ll on th e Return of th e J ews" .<T June 15, 1840 . By 1842 alti tud es we re less relaxed . Sec c.g, Mill er ' Miller' s rcply --" in VOP 1842/j (first published in ST in the autum n of 1842). 48Smith 1823, 47-68. 49R ams ay 1841, 62.

SOFor books see e.g: Bliss 1842/a , 20-35; VO? 1842/j, 85100; 225-23] ; Lit eh 1842/b , 35-76; Litch ]842/a, 4D-56; Lit ch 1843; Fleming 1844, 9-15; War d ] 843; Co x 1842, 36-43; Sabine ]843, 58-77; Spa lding 1841, 156- 177. So me exa mples of rep rese ntative per iodi cal arti cles: Miller "Letter from mr. Mill er , No 3, O n th e Return of the Jews ' ST April 15, 1840; Ward 'T he Restor ati on of Isr ael" S T Sep 1, 1840 : An o n. "The Promises to Abraham " S T Ju ne 1, 18-H; A no n. "W ho are the Isr ael to whom th e Prom ises Arc Ma de" S T J un e 1, 184 1; W . "Pler oma , or the Fullness of the Jews" S T Sepl, 1841; W . "Ple ro rna, or th e fulln ess of th e Ge ntiles" S'T Se p 15, 184 1; C ox "Return of th e Jews" ST June 1, 1842; Wals icnholme "Co nver sion of th e Jew's" ST A ug 10, 1842; B. 'T he Return of th e J ew s" ST Au g 31, 1842; W ard "Pro phecy an d th e jews" S T A pr 12, 1843; Co les "T he J ews - Roman xi" ST may 17, 1843 ; Ward, J ar s, Ru ssel "Circ ular - Th e Address of th e Co nfe re nc e o n th e Second A dvent of the Lord, Conve ne d at Bost on Ma ss. O ct 14, I84D" ST Nov 1, 184D includes th e following significant co mment: "We do not condemn th ose who cir cul ate Judaising notio n."
51

Miller n.d.za, 4{)f.

66
One can see the importance of this point in Miller's own words. Faith in the return of the J ews would prove fat al to his exp ectatio n of an imm ediate paro usia, Miller did not wa nt to have anyth ing in b etwe en th e pr esent and th e se con d A dve nt.

67
future but also a similar basis of sa lvation. Old T estament heros of faith were regarded Christ ian s." Using G al 4:22f and R om 10:12 it was concluded th at th e C hristia n believer s are th e true child re n of Abraham and th at th er e is no d iffer ence bet ween a Jew and a G entile. "The Jewish nati on fell from th eir e arthly privileges, and through that fall sa lvatio n came to th e gentiles." All we re o n the sa me platform." The arg ume nts were repeated in var io us forms, and at tim es with pu re rh et ori c. In th e Signs of the Tim es an ano nymous Millerite wrote that "in all of New T estament th ere is not one promise to be found o n earthly greatness made to any nation under heaven . There are pr omi ses of infinite value, bu t they a rc mad e to th e hou seh old of faith, to those th at are in Christ.> ·,57 The gathering of Israel (Isa 11:10-12) was expecte d to ta ke p lace under th e new covena nt with both J ews an d G e ntiles jo ining the C hris tia n church."

4. 5.1 Miller's argument on the promises
Mill er's int erpretation of "the original pr omise made to th e pa tr iar chs" shows both sh arp logic and a good kn owle dge of the Bib le H c po ints ou t th at all o the r O ld T est am ent proph ecie s "s up p osed to refer to th e rest orati on of th e J ews" arc in fact in ag ree me nt with the or igina l prorni sc .i" H e un d e rst ood that any fut ur e fulfillme nt of the Ol d T estam ent pr ophecies m ust lin d ih so lution in the New Testament

Mi ll er tu rn s to the bo ok o f H ebrew s to p rove th at th e "Abraharnic pr omi se" is an everlasting promise: "Fo r he looked fo r a city which hath foundati on s, whos e build er an d mak er is G od . -- Bu t now th ey d esire a b ette r COLIIlIl)', th at is, an he ave n Iv: wherefo re G od is not ashamed to be called th ei r God: for he hat h pr e pared for th em a city."(H eb 11:10,16) And if the p ro mise is to be fulfilled in ete rn ity it mu st apply to th ose who art: Ab ra ha m's seed in faith rather th an in the flesh. ( Ro m 2:2K.29; 9:6 ,7) With proo f like this it is easy for Mill er to co ncl ud e tha t th e pr omises arc not int ended fo r th e or iginal recipients but rather for th ose who believe in C hrist, whos e seco nd adve nt will be the ultimat e fulfillment o f th e prornises.f

4.5.3 Literal fulfillment
If some o ne wa s unconv inccd with th e New T estament evidence of A b ra ha m' s seed and pr omi ses, Miller tr ied anothe r ap pr oach. Hi s logic d em anded th at a literal fulfillment mu st be liter al in eve ry respect. Such a fulfillment, he claimed, was imp ossible becau se th e ten tribes are lost. One co uld also li nd pr ophecies on th e J ews ruling over th e Gentiles .(D t 30:7; Isa 1] :14; 55:7,8,1 5) This, he continued, would scarcely b e palatable to

4 .5 .2 Millerite support
In Hi mes' reprint o f S paldi ng's bo ok th er e is a sk illfully p la nned case for a Christianization of O ld T est ame nt pr op hecies. Spald ing places side by side Old and New T est am ent proph ecies o n th e new ea rth. H e find s numerous exam ples of Old T est am ent qu ot ati ons in th e New with th e purpose of pr oving that both J ew a nd G entile ha ve o ne and th e same hop e." For man y Millerites th ey not only had the same prophecies for the

5S"W he n A br aham was co nve rt ed he was circumcised of he art ," Anon . "W ho ar e the Israe l to Whom th e Pr omises Arc M ad e" S T June 1, 184 1.
56 Anon. "T he Promises to Abraham " ST Juri c 1, 1841. Cf. e .g . Cox "Return o f th e Jews" ST June 1, 1842; Litc h 1842/a , 55-76.
57 Anon. "T he Promises to A braham " ST June 1, 1841. Cf. Mill er "E vid e nee --" ST May 1, 1841.

52Miller n.d.Za, 41. 53M ille r n.d .za , 41- 4K 54Spalding 1841, 167-170 .

58M iller VOP 1841 , 229f. Mill er believed th at Isa 11:11 and Jer 32:37-4{) would prove the new cove nan t fulfillment.

68
man y of those who arde ntly advocate a literal restor ati on of the J ews."

69
I Various Millennial Views
A. Amilleonialism

4 .5.4 The importance of prophecies concerrung Isra el
It is not ea sy fully to appreciate the imp ortance of the Millerite her meneu tic o n pr oph ecies co nce rn ing Isr ael and the return of the Jews. Whil e Miller's fourteen rul es are an important but repetit ious exp ress io n of his biblicist pre mises, his view on Israel is eq ua lly fundam ental for un der standing any aspect of his exege sis. In so me resp ects this co nce pt is the real powe r house be hind Miller 's man y int erpretat io ns, because it gave him an almost inexhaustible wealth of materi al in Ol d T estament pro phecies, history and sanc tuary ser vice , all rea d y for an eschato logical app lication outside Palestin e. Witho ut this pr incip le m uc h of Millerite chrono logy would have co llap sed; after all, every o ne of Miller 's key texts carne from th e O ld T esta ment. Thi s pa rticula r hermen eutical device is in fact mor e imp ort ant for Mill er's system of exegesis than any other single viewp oint tha t he pr om ot ed.

Present age is the millenn ium or there is no millenn ium

Parousia Resurrection Judgment

Etern ity

View endorsed by e.g. Augustine, Luther, and Calvin.

B. Postmillennialism:
1000 yrs

----1--------- ------Return of the Jews J udgment Parou sia Etern ity

View endo rse d by Cocceius, Vitringa, Jonathan Edwards, Charles Finney, Whitby. C. Premillenoialism:
1000 yrs

4 .6 Premill ennialism
W hile not relating directly to his Old Testament exegesi s, premi llennia lism gave Miller the framework within which he inte rp ret ed all eschato logica l prophecies whether fro m the O ld or the New T estament. Th e pionee rs of historicism, Mede, th e two Newto ns, (j ill an d Fab er wer e all prcrnillcnni alists. T owards t he e nd of th e eighteenth-century pr ernilleni alism began to give way to postm illennialism in E ur ope as we ll as America ." Postmi lknnia lism was frequently co nnected with an expecta tion of the Jews' reinstate me nt into Palestine as an inaugur ation of a

Parousi a Millennium Ju dgment Eternity Ist resurrection 2nd resurrection

View endo rse d by e.g. Mede, Isaac Newto n, T ho mas Ne wto n, Gill, Fab er , Irvin, M iller.

1841, 228. Some of M iller's clai ms were simply belligerent. For instance "How ma ny will br others P help s and C ambe ll, and o thers, who are stickle rs for th e Jew's return, and for a te mpor al millennium, he th e mean s of lulling to slee p." VO? l k41, 221. Or he refe rs to Pet er's words that God is no respecte r of per son s (A cts 10:34f) . But if God sho uld restore the Jews as his people, then God would be a respecte r of pe rsons and "Peter needed anot her conversio n." VOP 1841, 221.
sOPFF IV, 391f.

period of peace an d pr osp erity. These chilias tic expectat.lOns se eds of dispensationali sm, a syste m of pro phetic exegesis which becam e extremely popular to war ds th e last part of the nineteenth ce ntury whe n historicism had run o ut of favor."

6'S andeen 1970, 5-7.

70 After the turn of the nineteenth-century premillennialism app ea rs to have had a spontaneous revival in both America and Brit ain .62 Millerites endorse d the old but again prevalent p re millennialism. This was a recurrent topic in th eir pe riod icals." T he re wer e also cha pters o n the subjec t under se ve ral disguises. Directly on the Mill ennium, of course, but also und e r tit les relat ed to the resurrecti on , th e judgment, th e new e a rt h and so on. 54 T he following chart co mpa res so me of the mai n cha racte ristics of vario us millennial views:

71

re surrect ion by a millennium. (R ev 20:4,5) This, Miller asserted, means that the Day of the Lord cannot be an ordinary day. Th e appear ing of the Sun of right eou sness "is a plain figure of th e coming of Christ," but even if the sinne rs are destroyed at the purou sia their ultim ate destructi on cannot be hut a th ousand years later. (Rev 20:7-15) The Day of th e Lord is the M illennium." Thi s .is the day of the Lord, o ne thou sand yea rs. Is this day to be understood a literal or figurative th ousand years? I answer, liter al, for it is an of a figure rather th an a See 2P et 111.8 : But , beloved, -- one day IS W ith the Lord as a thousand years . , » When will the wi cked be raised and judged ? 1 answer, when [he th ousand year s are ex pired , Satan shall be loos e d out of his pris on , G og and Mago g will come up on the sur fac e of th e eart h. Gog and Magog signify th e whole host of th e wicked which have ever lived o n the ea rth the ' opposers of Chr ist." Dur ing the millennium th e saints were expected to live in th e safety of th e New Jerusalem which "is o n th e ea rt h, and o f co urse mu st have co me down from heaven at the co mme nceme nt of the thousand yea rs ."68 Mill er was emphatic on an earthly millennium, possibly be ca use th e sto ne of Daniel 2 in his vie w, co uld on ly mean the es tab lishme nt of G od 's ete rn al

4 .6 .1 The Day of the Lord
Th e key to Miller 's thinkin g lies in his Old T est ament co ncept of the Da y al' th e Lord. H e found two types of Old T est ament texts O il th e subje ct. One categor y is on th e destruction of th e wicked "Behold the day of th e Lord cometh, cru el both with wra th and fier ce a nger; and he shall de stroy the sinne rs th ereof o ut of it," (I sa 13:9) and th e oth er is o n th e glory of the sa ints, "Fo r beh old , the day co me th -- [when] unt o yo u th at fear my nam e shall th e Sun of right eou sness ar ise." (Ma l 4:1f.) T hese two varieties of text s ar e th en interpreted in the light of Revela tion 20 which separa tes th e first and th e se co nd

52PFF IV , 414f.
63W ithin fo ur yea rs the re wer e 61 arti cles tou ching the subject in ST, Ali Ale Id. II]. For repr esen tati ve exa mples see An o n. Fundament al Principles AM DZ May, IS42; Litch "R ev ew o f ' Bible R ead er ' o n Miller 's View of the Mille ni nium. No. III" ST Jul y I , 1841 [Thi s is part of a series th at be:$in June 1, 1841]; W alst enholmc "T he Puritan The M illenniu m" S T May 1, 1842 ; B. "A Tem poral Mill ennium a So ul Destroying Doctrine" ST Jun e 29, 1842; Law "A Plain Exposition of a Plain Pa ssage - R ev xx.c- o'' ST J une 29, 1842; C ollins "T wo Re surrections I & II" ST June 6 & 22, 1842; An on . "Seco nd Advent of Christ Pr crnillennial'' ST Sep 6, 1843 . 64T he main so urces for the Millerite te achin g on th e Millennium are Bliss 1842/a, 35-71; Bliss 1843/f, 7; Miller 1842/h, ' 2,1 -38; Litch 1842/b, 1:38-54, 197-207; Lit ch 1842/a, 19-39; Flem in g 1842, 24-32; Fleming 1M4 , 6-9, 15-18; Fleming 184{) , 182(); H er vey 1843/a, 68[; Spaldi ng 1841, 54-76. T here arc a lso so me unclear pr esent ati on s like Fit ch 1841, 14-30; Cox 1842, 536 .

G 6J.,() p

lS42/j , 145-15().

. 56Some Millcritcs advanced ide as of a p rophetic millenni um lastIng WOO pr ophetic or J60.()()() literal yea rs. Such ide as we re not too pr obl em atic as millenniu m was r an of c tcr nu v. l: .g. Allen "O n the Des iun ati on s of Ti llle- -' ST Oc l 1 0 , 1840.
87

VOP 1842/j , 149f.

58kDP 1B42/j, 151. Th e British pr crnillennia lisrs Cuningha rnc , Birk s and Irving held views only slightly d iffer ent fro m the Mil leri tc s, R asmussen MS 1983. 8:L-S4 is mistake n on this p oint.

72 kingdom on this earth at the fall of all earthly powers." At the b eginning of the millennium the e ne mie s of G od a re destro yed, and th e "ha p py p eriod" portrayed by Isaiah , Jeremiah, E zekiel, a nd Z a ch ar i ah cornme n cc s. ?" Miller 's main in te rest was in connectin g the Millennium together with his ideas o f prophetic time.

73

things." The ir attack against postmilJenniali sm was so fierce
becau se they believed th at the te net o f th e type o f "te mpo ral m illen niu m" in whic h th e world would gra d ually turn into a place of p eac e , prospe rit y, and sa fety was "a so ul destroying doctrine." 7

4 .7 Hist orical applica tion of the book of Daniel
T he b ook s of D ani el a nd Revelation nat urally te nd to millenn ial exp ectat ion s. Mill e rism is no exce ptio n. The Miller ire s loved bot h o f the se boo ks. II is typical for a Mi llerite cha rt to include words like "R ead, Dani el II, VI I and VIII . 'W ho so readct h, let him UN DER'<' TA ND !' " ' 75 And the \1illerit es ce rtai n ly believed tha t they did

4.6.2 The importance of premillennialism
In the final an alysis Miller came to hi s particular premillennial view s because he believed that O ld T est amen t p romises o n Isr ael 's fu ture must lind their fulfillment in Christian chur ch. No th e o the r millennial view seeme d

unde rstand ;" I cann o t ag ree with so me who tell us that the pro phecies cann ot be understo od . I co nside r such language the language of injideiitv. What is it b ut saying - "R evela tio n is 110 Revelation ? R evel atio n
is so me thing mad e kn own, and, of co urse, to be underst ood . -- I mo st solernnlv beli eve th at God d esigne d eve ry part of th e Bib le should be under-

to provide a slot into which even th e m ost obs cure or di fficul t O ld or New T estamen t te xts co uld be placed." When they ran out of Bible texts the M illerites took the chur ch fathers to witness fo r premille nnialism ." T hey loved proving

1841

Millerite woodcut ST April 1,
13T he Millcri tes love d numbers. On [he ligh te r s ide of t he \;f ille ritc reaso ning, pr ernillen nialism wa s s upp ort ed wit h a n es tima te o n r opulati on densit y. D uring th e p ro sp erous circumstances 0 th e M illenn iu m with no deat hs to he exp ec te d E Jacob claimed tha t th e eart hs populat ion wou ld do uble every :. " vca rs. Thus th e then c urra nt SlOO.OOO inh abitants would :1 mu shroo m in to a stagg e rin g 2.6:)8.8 27.906 .662.--Ul().O .OOO leaving OO an im possible 5.6 milli o n inh abi ta nts for eve ry sq ua re yar d o f the ea rt h. Jacob "T he Mi lle n nium" M e Oct S, 1843. ' 7"I3[ liss'; ] "A Tempo ra l Millenni um --" ST .lu n 7SAn on. "D a niel's Visio ns" 1842.

69Mille r 1842/d , 18 -24. 70A Student of Pr o phecy "D oct r ine of the Millennium" 5T Feb 1, 1842 . 7'S ee e.g. M iller "D isse rtatio n on the Judgment" ST J an 15, 1841; B[lis s?) "A T emporal M ille nnium--" 5 T June 29, ] 842; P seu d on ym : A Bibl e R eader "A Bibl e R ead er on Mr. M ille r's Vi ew on th e Millennium" ST J an 15, 1841. 72Bliss 1842 /a cites Barnab as, Pa pi an , Pol ycarp, Turtullian [sic) and Cyprian as believers in Chris t's lit e r al millennial reign on e a rt h.

Me

Feb :), 1843.

76Bes t so urces for th e Mi ller ite exegesis o f Daniel a rc Bliss 1C\42ia; Bliss 1843/f. 1-6 ; FOP 184 2/j, 173- J8 1 [Lillie horn] ; Litch 1842/b, 1:77-111 ILittle horn] ; 2:3-113 [Dan 111; Litch 1842/a, 88 UO [Dan 11- 12a ]; Storrs 1843, ] -53; Articles : The Au thor of 'A Cl ue to th e Ti m e' "T he E ndless Kingdom" 5T May 11, 1842 I D a n 2 ]. See also b ibliograp hical no tes o n D an 7 an d 8 in th e 10 IIowing chapter.

74

75
stood. "

4 .7. 1 Sequential fulfillment
Miller explained the pr oph etic symbo ls of Dan iel in sequence through Babylon, a kingd om called Mod o-P ersia (a fter Dan 8:20), Greece, pa gan Rome an d finally papal Rome, which no sur prises for includes a nyone fam iliar with histori cal interp re tation of proph esies." T her e were several aspects in the pr ophe cies of Daniel which we re assumed to co nfirm the hist oricist view of I he kingdo ms, Ever y vision leads to the establishment of God's kingdom [Dan 2],8' the judgment [Dan 71 or the time of the end [D an 8], all of w h ic h m a t c h th e eschatological sett ing the Millerite woodcut ST April 15, Milleri tes were inte rested in. 1841 Some of the symbolic met als or beasts had qu alities which a ppeare d to portray the kingdom it was att ach ed to. For instance Babylon was a kingd om of "gold" and Rome displ ayed the irresistible streng th of "iro n." Likewise [he clumsy b ut power ful "bear" and swift 'leopa rd" ma tc hed the war techn iqu e [ha t Pe rsia and Ma cedonia e mployed.

The Millerites had little to sayan the narrative sec tions of D aniel. The folIowing is limited to comments on their views of D ani el's prophecies. The first lesson many M illerites received on D ani el ca me from posters th at were de corated with a picture of Dani el 2 or of the be asts in Daniel 7 and 8. These rather gro tesq ue visual aids were often accompanied by time sca les which matched the ch ange s of kingdoms according to th e M iller ite underst anding. The yea r 1843 was naturalIy matched

Millerite woodcuts ST April 1, 1841
with th e to es of clay and iron,78 as welI as th e final en d of the last beast and its little horn ."

4.7.2 Det ails
Co nfi rmation of the historica l inte rpre ta tion was sea rched for
111

77Storr s 1843, 4. l8T he most fam ou s of these charts was designed by Charles Fitch and Apo llos H ale in 1843. In this one th e sta tute of Dan iel is se para te from the timet able . See A ppe ndix IV. Eve n their opponents copied some of these charts. Litch "Danie l's Vision s" N ew York Tribune Extra M ar ch 2, 1843; Trumpe t of A larm Apr 24, 1843. 78E .g. Storrs 1843, 22-57. OCE .g. Miller 1833, ch. 1. 8' B1iss 1842/a, 8-14 emphas izes that God's kingdom was not established 1800 years ago [like many am illcnn ialists and some po stmille nnia lists claim ed] because it is not yet established, On the othe r hand, Bliss con tinues, the "chur ch militant " has existed all the way from Ab el.

76 every m inute detail." St orrs commented on th e be ar 's two sides (Dan 7:5): "R e pr ese nting two lines of kings, one than th e other."83 Simi larly the two horns of th e r am m D aniel 8:3 were said to be two royal lin es in th e M ed o-P er sian kingdo m. They were th e "me rid ian .glory" of kingdom." F or every m ino r fea ture some kind of historical re alit y was assume d . The Bible was used to exp and on th e meaning of a symb ol. George Sto rrs' Bi ble Exam in er is o ne of th e most co m pre he ns ive co mme ntaries th at M iller ism ever pr oduced on the book o f Daniel. Storrs' co mmen ts on Babylon reflect the desire to find a Bib lical and so mewha t myst ical meaning for th e golden he ad o f the statue in D an iel 2. Babyl on was th e first kingd om of universal empire. It was founded by Nimrod, the great grandson o f No ah . See G en esis x.8-10 . It lasted ne ar sev enteen hundred year s, though under . different p arnes; so me times called Bab ylon , so metime s A ssyri a, and so me times Chaldea. It extended from Ni mro d to 85 Belshazzar, who was its last kin g.

77 exegetes had always had min or var iants in their lists of the horns and th e Millerit es are no exceptio n . These powers we re co ns iste n tly found in Europe." This is important bec au se it opened a possibilit y for arr iving at an anti-R oman exeges is of the littl e horn. The little horn rose fr om "am on g th em." It ap peared "after" th e other horns and was "d ifferent" fr om th em, it "blasp he me d" God and pu sh ed aside "three horns".(Dan 7:8) The fulfillment of all this was e nvisaged in th e pa pac y which, of co urse, appeared in Europe after the tribes th ou ght to be represen ted by the horns. It was d iffere nt as it was a rel igiou s powe r, its teachings were blasp hemo us for the puritan fr ame of mind. The M ille rites identified th e th ree horns pl uck ed away with tb e H cruli (476 A D.) , the Vandals (534 A.D.) and th e O strogo ths (538 AD. ) . The defe at of th ese A rian nations was see n to have been ca used by papal a nd it was re ga rded a vi cto ry for the bisho p o f Rome . T he list of pa ra llels between papacy a nd the litt le horn is imp ressive. It includ ed blasphemy, per secuti on o f the sa ints, change of times ami laws, d ura tio n, the descrip tion of the rise of pap acy as well as its ru le, and fina lly th e end of papacy. Litch 's co mmentary on the se qualities inclu d es ch arges of papal atro cities matching each detail of th e desc ript ion." Millerite perio dicals printe d their fi er cest exegetical d ebates with those who objected to Mi ller's id eas over th e id e ntity o f the

4. 7.3 The horns
From th e very first issue of th e Signs th er e begins an on going discu ssion on th e exac t identity of th e ten horns." Hist oricist

82Some times parallels were exte nded to the point of contradic tion. E. g. Mill erit es identified th e ten toes of Nebuch adnezzar 's image with th e ten kingdom s of D ani el 7. The sa me ap plication was also done with the R ey 13.1 and 17.12,16 le aving ten kingdoms mt o Europe at th e tim e of the second adve nt afte r three had su pposedly been plu cked aw ay by 538 AD . See Sto rrs "Exposition o f Neb uchadnezzar's Dre am " Me May 4, 1843. 83Sto rrs 1843, 18. 84 Bliss 1842/ a, 102; Sto rrs 1843, 18, 31. 85S torr s 1843, Sf. 88Mi lle r "M r. M iller 's R eply to Cam be ll and Ot he rs on th e Little Horn in D aniel's Fourth Kingdom" ST Mar 20, 1840 . Lit ch "M r. Lit ch's R eply to E tha n Smith and O the rs on the

Littl e H orn in Daniel's F ourth Kin gd om" S T May 1, 1840. 87F lcming 1842, 40; SAM 841'; Litch l R42/b, 1:77-111 ; Bliss 1842/a , 86; give the following iden tific ati ons: Bl iss [identical wit h Mill er's, Litch 's and H ale's list]: H uns, Ostro goths, Visigoths, Fr ank s, Va nd als, Sucves, Burgundians, Heruli, Saxo n a nd Angles, Lornba rds (Heruli, Vandals and O strogo th s wer e plucked out) ; Fle ming: France, Britain, Sp ai n, Po rt ugal, Naples, Tu sca ny, Aust ria - p lus 3 that were pluc ke d ou t by being given to th e pope - Lo mbard y, Rom e , R ave nn a .
Be A

detail whic h was little disc usse d is the fact that the

relationship of th e rise of p apacy and the defeat of the Ostrogoths in 538 is no t well attested in secular h ist ory. Cf.
She a MS 1980, 270-288. B9Litch 1842/b, 83-91,

78 little horn in Daniel 8. C o n t i n uo u s h istoric al interpretation had always b een fairly unanimous co nce rn ing Dani el 2 and 7. However , Daniel 8 had been inte rpre te d in a variety of ways. M ede solved the pr o blem s of this cha pter by ap plying th e pr ophecy to A ntiochos E pipha nes . The two Ne ....'ton s di ffere d from him by stre tching the little horn all the way through pagan Rom e to papal Rome." Miller's historicist we re at Millerite woodcut Evi 1842/b co nte mporaries variance on thi s issue. These differe nces we re ca used by th e fac t that the basic principles of continuous hist ori cal app licatio n bring the little horn int o the Grecian period as th e symbo l of th e he- goat is clearly identified within the cha pte r its elf.(D an 8:21) Yet , on th e other hand, parallelism and synchro nization of the little horns of ch apters 7 and 8 led som e historicists to apply the horn to the papacy. This was also Miller's con clusion .

79 with the co nq uests of R om e th an with th ose of the kingdo m of th e Seleu cids, A s a final point of identification th e littl e horn per secuted the sai nts, 50 million of who m wer e claimed to have been kille d by th e Rom an Ca tho lic churc h. Wh en compa re d with this figur e Antiochos destructi on of a few th ou san d Jews appeared insignificant." Colbe rt, o ne of Mi l I e r ' s co n te m po ra r ies , wro te a book on the l i te ra l fulfi ll me n t of Da niel which the Milleri tes took as an anti-Millerite document. The lit er alne s s of C o l b e r t' s a ppro xima te 1260, 1290, 1335, or 2300 d ays was ridicule d by the M ill eri t e s as Sample text: Bliss "Inconsistencies --" Me March 10, 1843 a ny t h i n g but l i t er a l. Th e y cla imed that thr ee yea rs and te n days ( lMac 1:54; 4:52f) is far fro m the "lite ra l" 1260 or even 1150 days." Th e final and conclusive argume nt against A ntioc hos was, however, th at Daniel 8 pr ese nts Per sia as "great" (Dan 8:4). Th en Gr eece is described as "very great" ( Da n 8:8). Fina lly the little horn is described as "excee dingly great" ( Dan 8:9). T hus if Ant iochos were the fulfillme nt, he would have had to be greate r th an Per sia or Al exand er the Gr eat. Rome, the y claim ed , wou ld

4.7.4 The horn of Daniel 8
Millerite periodi cals give several reason s for the p apal id entification of the littl e horn in Daniel 8. It was claimed to be abs ur d to have a horn symbolize anything but a kingdom while Anti ochos was but one of 26 individuals. The vision claims to take the reader to the "time of th e end," (Dan 8:17) and Ant iochos br ought no end to the world. The little horn was said to gro w into exce eding greatness, bigger than eve rything th at preceded it, which would be hist orically untrue for An tiochos. (D an 8:9) Fur thermore the geographical dir ection s for the co nq ues ts of the little horn: south, cas t, and the beautiful land (Dan 8:9) pr esumably mat ched more closel y

g1 A no n "Is Antiochos Epi phanes the H ero Prophec y" S T Dec 28, 1842. Cf. Bliss 1843/d. 92IBlisslJ "T he Incon sistencies of Co lver 's
.,»

of

Daniel's

llONc M on 1733, 107-127; Newt on T . 1803, 285f.

Me

March 10,

1843.

80 match the description perfectly." In some of the illustrations the Millerites portraled the little horn as extremely long in proportion to the goat." This was so because the horn had to represent about two thousand years of hist ory in the form of pagan as well as papal Rome.

81 whi ch includes no time-prophecie s. A large part of its contents rel ate so directly to Antiochos Epiphanes that historicism ne ver created great enthusiasm about it.95 From Miller's point of view the main problem of this cha pte r lies in the fact that any ext ensive identification of Antiochos in chapter 11 would er ode the co n clusio n that the little horn of Daniel 8 marks Rome. In his few comments on this chapter Miller evad es Antiochos in the early part of th e chapter. T he important point in his view was th e a p pe ara nce of the Rom an s on th e Jewish sce ne in 158 B.C. , a da te which was imp ort ant for his chronological exege sis . The dividing line for him lies in vv, 20 and 21. Th e tax co llecto r is ap plied to Augustu s (Lk 2:1) and th e ano inte d prince naturall y to Christ himsel f. T he vile per son is Tibcri us In the latt er half o f th e ch apter th e king of the north was with varying degrees of app ropriate ness applied to R oman Caesars , th e papacy and finally to Napoleon and his Egyptian campaigns." Millerite exposition is a peculiar co mbinatio n of literal and symbolic interpretation . Anon. "Du r a tion of·-" ST May 24, 1843 In D ani el 12 besides time-prophecies, there were two interesting points. Because M illerites beli eved that C hrist was also th e Sa viour of the J ews, Mi chael (Dan 12:1) was sai d to be Jesus." The second idea rose from D ani el 12:4 - "many shall run to and fro , and kn owledge shall be increased." Th e fulfillm ent o f this was se e n not only in the ir "inc reasing kn owledge" of th e book of Daniel b ut also in th e rapid ly cha nging system s of communication [tel egr aphs, steam engines, etc.] and inforrna-

Daniel 8 was vital for Millerism, Its chronology, the 2300 even ings and mornings was decisive for the fate of the whole revival. This aspect of Daniel 8 will be discussed in the foll owing chap ter. But th e basi c o utline of the chapte r was also vita l. They believed that th ey had interpreted every aspect of thi s chapter logically according to all available Biblical or hist orical information. The identification they gave to th e various symbo ls made it possible for th em to pr ocl aim the time as pects of th e chapte r with co nvictio n .

tion."
Mill eri sm cat er ed for th e type of mind th at was mainly int erest ed in th e end. Bec au se of this th e book s o f D ani el an d R evel at ion were so important. The historical int erpretati on of pr ophet ic symbo ls appear s to have had two fun ction s: it pro ved

4.7.5 Daniel chapter eleven and twelve
A s Miller's ch ronological exegesis is dis cu ssed in th e foll owing cha p te r one may pass over D ani el 9 d irectly to chap ter e leve n

93[Bliss] "T he Inconsistencies of Colver's ..» Me Mar 10 1843 . Cf. Anon. "Is Antiochos Epiphanes the Hero o f Prophecy" ST D ec 28, 1842. g4A non "D ur atio n of E arthly Kingdoms" S T May 24, 1843.

95 F'or d" . iverse mt erpretauon s co mpare Newton, I 1733, 196231 and Newton, T 1803, 301-3 78.

96Litch 1842/b, 3-113. 97 Litc h 18842/b, 2:114. 98Fle ming 1842, 62f.

82

83
illustrating am ong other thin gs the rise and fall of both Roman Ca tho licism and Islarn. P? Th e final chapters represented last day signs. The seven last plagues were understood to have been fulfilled with the exception of th e seventh, which was expecte d to co me true on th e day of th e second A dven t.' ?' In particu lar chap ter 20 was imp ortant as it lay at the foundati on of Millerite teaching o n premillennialism .

4.9 Summ ary
Th e Millerite view of th e Bible may not have been unique for nin et eenth-century Nor th America. It views the Bible as a stor eroom . ,. " er of things including, of .course, the past and the present. In the case of the Millerites sootc r iological issues were left behind a qu est for a divine philosophy of history. This meant painstaking co mpariso ns of Bibli cal texts with the help of a concordance. The mean ings and symbo ls of key words was a vital part of th e process. With these to ols det ails of prophecy wer e explained to cover mo st of hum an histor y. With the help of two vital principles prern illcnnialism and an application of Old T estament pr ophecies for Israel to th e C hristian church - M iller built a herme ne utical structure th at suppor ted his idea s on th e time in eve ry re sp ect.
.< . ' '

J\'lillcritc woodcuts ST April 15, 1841
th e acc ur acy of prophecy and pointed out signs of the tim es. H istorical events wer e seen to run towards a d ivinely planned go al.

4.8 The book of Revelation
Miller's exp osition of the book of Revelation ha s not be en included in th is stud y. This docs not mean th at the boo k of R evelation was unimpor tant for th e Miller itcs." Even th ou gh th e ir main es cha tologi cal calculati ons were derived from the Old T est am ent , they , like all histor icists , loved the Apocalypse. For W illiam Miller the book of Revelati on was a series of pr ophecies which repeat ed th e history of th e C hristian e ra from di ffer ent angles . Every new visio n of the Apocalyp se was seen as a n e nlarge me nt o n the latt er part of the sa me history which they had found in th e book of D ani el. Th e seve n chur ches (Rev 2-3) wer e seve n e pochs of th e Christian church. The seve n seals (Rev 6-8) and the seven trumpets (Rev 8-9) were regarded as re petit ion s of th e princip al eve nts in the histor y of th e wo rld,

99The best Mill erite so urces on th e book of Revelation are Mille r 1842/b, 127-232 [fir st cha pters of Re v); Miller 1844 [latter part of R ev); Litch 1842/b , 1:175-196 [seven last plag ues ); a nd e.g. A Lover of Truth "T he Beast s" ST Mar 1, 1842.

HXJS ee e.g. Anon . "End of th e 1260 D ays" S T July 19, 1843; Litch 1842/b , 2:132-227.

1 0lLitch 1842/b, 1:175-196.

84 Views includes the following statement on his final conclusion:

85

I believe the time can be known by all who

5. MILLER'S CHRONOLOGICAL EXEGESIS
When Miller began studying his Bible he was excited with its predictions about the future. He was amazed at how literally and specifically the prophecies that had been fulfilled were accomplished. He admired those prophecies which he believed to point to specific events in the history of Israel or to the first coming of Christ. These were often presented as the unarguable, Biblical proof of the value of prophecy.' Miller was assured that the ones relating to the second Advent would be likewise fulfilled. He was intrigued at the thought that God had placed prophecies into the Bible for humans to understand. In particular time-prophecies appealed to him. "I could but regard the chronological portions of the Bible as being as much a portion of the word of God, and as much entitled to our serious consideration, as any other portion of the Scriptures." Indeed, he sensed an obligation to understand these passages. "I had no right to pass over the prophetic periods." The results of his chronological labor were published in sermons, books, pamphlets and periodicals. Synopsis of Miller's
.:¢

desire to understand and to be ready for his coming. And I am fully convinced that some time between March 21st, 1843, and March 21st, 1844, according to the Jewish mode of computation of time, Christ will come, and bring all his saints with him; and that then he will reward every man as his works shall be,"

The power of Millerism lies in these time calculations. What steam was for an engine, defmite times were for the Millerites. Miller is by no means original in his enthusiasm to create a time table for the eschaton. However, his creative imagination located chronological prophecies in all parts of the Bible. He brought them together into a unique combination. God in his wisdom has so interwoven the several prophecies, that the events foretold are not all told by one prophet. And although they lived and prophesied in different ages of the world, yet they tell us the same things; so you take away one, and a link will be wanting. There is a general connection through the whole; like a wellregulated community they all move in unison, speaking the same things, observing the same rules, so that a Bible reader may almost wi,th propriety suppose, let him read in what prophecy he may, that he is reading the same prophet, the same author .• therefore the biblical student must select and bring together every part of the subject he wishes to investigate, from every part of the Bible.4 Thus Miller located eschatological time-prophecies in such diverse books of the Bible as Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea as well as Luke, Hebrews, and the Revelation. Miller's interpretation of these texts is the theme of this chapter.

'There were several compilations of such prophecies. Hervey 1843/b includes the largest Millerite collection of prophecies on the first Advent. Bliss 1842/a, 114f. lists time prophecies that were believed to have been fulfilled: 120 years of Noah (Gen 6:3), 7 days of waiting for the flood (Gen 7:4), 400 and 430 years of Egyptian bondage (Gen 15:3; Ex 12:41), 40 years in the wilderness (Nu 14:34), 65 xears for the fall of Ephraim (Isa 7:8), 70 years of the exile (Jer 25:11), and 490 years to the death of Christ (Dan 9:24). See also VOP 18421j, 41-43. 2Miller 1845. Cf. VOP 18421j, 45; Miller 1842/b, 4-5; Nichol 1944, 33. Cf. Rasmussen MS 1983, 34.

3SMV, 17f.

4Miller 1842/b, 4.

86
If Millerite prophetic chronology were to be appraised by today's exegetical criteria one could easily find reason to criticize his use of the Bible and his conclusions. This would mean imposing modern standards upon people who worked under ambitions and logic quite different from today's. The purpose of the following pages is not to claim that Miller's conclusions were sound or unsound. It is simply to describe the evidence that the Millerites gave for their prophetic time table. Any evaluation of Miller's exegesis must be done by the historicist criteria. Such evaluation is not, however, important here. The main purpose of this chapter is to give, for the first time, a full picture of the exegesis that shook the life of thousands and that was at least partially responsible for the end of historicism as a popular method of interpreting prophecies.

87 The first text he lights upon is in NUID. xiv.34, "each day for a year." May this not be it? says the child. He takes hold of it by faith, carries it home, lays it up in his cell of sweets, richer than a lord, and again goes forth in search of more. He now lights upon Eze. iv.6: [ have appointed thee each day for a year." -- He does not stop to criticise -- and query, and reason himself out of common sense and reason too; but Abraham-like he believes, and lays up his treasure at home. see, says the child, this use of days was so ordained by my Father in two cases and two witnesses is enough." '

i

5.1 Year-day method
Apocalyptic timekeeping was the heart of Millerite exegesis. For centuries the historicist method had employed a system which interpreted prophetic times with a simple formula: a prophetic "day" means a literal "year"." This made it possible to interpret apocalyptic prophecies so that they terminated in the modern era. Miller accepted this year/day principle and in his own words found himself in "accordance with the opinions of all the standard . ..fOIllillcntators.,,6 dilY had occasion to expound on the

This rather emotionally loaded argument for the year-day method continues by an application, which was considered an proof of its suitability. Miller applies the year-day device to the "seventy weeks" of Dan 9:25. Like earlier believed that a 490 year period leading up to the tune of Chnst was an unarguable conclusion for any discussion on the year for a day theory." Miller's use of the formula: year/day method employed the following

1 prophetic day means 1 literal year 1 prophetic month means 30 literal years 1 prophetic year means 360 literal years
This equation was founded upon an idea of a "prophetic calendar" which followed neither lunar nor solar calendars."

One of Miller's expositions on the year-day principle shows how the usc of a concordance is a prerequisite for the whole idea. He explains how even a child may take the word "day" to find "what his heavenly father means by days in a figurative sense for he is satisfied it cannot be literal" as several kingdoms cannot rise and fall in a time span of 2300 [or 1260] days of Daniel's prophecies.

6Miller 1842/g, 22f. 9Miller 23. Cf. Shea 1982, 74-79 for modern argumentation which follow's Miller's and old historicist understanding of the year-day method. lOS ome MilJerites and some non-Millerites did at times propose variants to the simple 1 day = 1 year hermeneutic. Flemming, Apoc. Key, 20-22; quoted in Faber 1808, 14, gives an example. The system created a prophetic calendar in which 1 month is 30 days and a prophetic year equals to 360 days Instead of the 365 days of a regular calendar year. This made

5Cf. chapter 5.
"Miller 1849, 11. Miller appears to refer in particular to Mede and sir Isaac Newton and Thomas Newton in this context.
7See e.g. Bliss 1853, 207f; Miller 1842/g.

88 The length of a "month" was counted from Mede's equation of Daniel 7:25; 12:7; Rev 11:2; 12:6,14; 13:5. This synchronization made 3 V2 years equal to 1260 days and 42 months.' 1 The Millerites utilized this hermeneutic to its limits. They applied the formula even to fractions of a day and they believed one prophetic hour to mean fifteen literal days or half an hour to mean a literal week." The high regard in which the year/day theory was generally held is reflected in the fact that Miller's opponents rarely objected to it. Dr. Bush in his Reasons for rejecting Mr. Miller's views of the Advent comments: otherwise it will not."

89

year, I believe you are sustained by the soundest exegesis, as well as fortified by the high names
Mede, Sir I. Newton, Bishop Newton, Scott, Keith and a host of others."

In taking a day as the prophetical term for a

In another context he clarifies his argument on the meaning of the word by stating that there were three types of days: natural, lasting 24 hours or one cycle of the earth round its axis; prophetic, meaning a year or one cycle of the earth round the sun; thousand year days, which due to their length deserved the title "Lord's day." In addition to using the popular year/day also the thousand years for a day method. calculation in some of his interpretations of the date of the parousia. The basis for turning a day into a thousand years was naturally derived from 2 Pet 3:8,10. King James' translation "be not ignorant of this one thing," appeared to emphasize' the legitimacy of this chronology."

Kirby,

5.3 The scope of Miller's exegesis - problem of literature
Biographical as well as scholarly literature on Millerism gives an view. on. exegetical interests. Anyone reading literature on Millensm 15 likely to conclude that Daniel 8:14 was Miller's only and main reason for expecting the parousia in the year 1843 and that he was interested primarily in the books of Daniel and Revelation. This is unfortunate since it fails to do justie;:e to Mil!er. This chapter describes Miller's fifteen ways of proving the tune of the eschaton, and at the same time it will show that Miller was absorbed in proving the time with all of the Bible. Miller wanted to present a coherent Biblical broadside on the time of the parousia. There is no reason to assume that the omissions in the various descriptions on Miller's interpretation were deliberate. Many of those who have written on Miller have had a Seventh-day Adventist background. The result has been "strongly partisan history''" which unintentionally omitted ideas that were no longer relevant for Sabbatarian Adventism. Again, Miller's

5.2 Other methods of counting time
Miller did, however, differ from most historicists in employing more than one formula for the interpretation of time. Figures sometimes have two or more different significations, as day is used in a figurative sense to represent three different periods of time. 1. Indefinite. (Eccles. vii.14) 2. Definite, a day for a year. (Ezek. iv.6) 3. Day for a thousand years. (2Pet. iii.8)

If you put on the right construction it will harmonize with the Bible and make good sense,

prophetic calculation rather impressive: 1260 x 360 : 365 453600 : 365 = 1242 + 270 : 365 = 1242 yrs, 270 days.
llVOP 1842/j, 79-81.

l·VOp 1842/j, 2If. 15VOP 1841, 167. See also Bliss 1842/a, 52.

12E.g. SMV, 27f. 13Bush 1844, 6.

"Sandeen 1970, 288.

>
91

90
last ' eSIS has been shadowed by that of the revival's id .. ongm aI exegenth- month movement. The sheer bulk of one SI e d S turn, ;; Millerism has hampered judgment and the have been perpetuated in scholarly as well as maccuracles 17 popular works. prophecy which in my humble oppuuon [sic] proved the time; but the publishers thought three of them would be enough, they therefore selected out three or four of the most prominent ones and published them left [sic] the rest, which I believe have since been published or are now in

5.3.1 The scope of Miller's exegesis - IS proofs
rtant and popular part of Miller's argumentation time it certainly was not the only one. For ?n the lectures were published in 1833, 1836, 1838, instanced 1842. Each time only some of Miller's arguments were 1840. and, nly some of his fifteen proofs were chosen. An publishe 0 & his undated letter explains the reason lor t :

prep."
He believed that all possible time-prophecies must be brought together for a true understanding of the Biblical revelation. He decried using only a few "proofs." Another illustration of this is related to a review of Miller's lectures in the Maine Wesleyan Journal. Having been allowed space for but five of his fifteen arguments Miller concludes, ''These are only rart of the scriptural data by which this theory is established." 1 Similarly in his "Address to the Second Advent Conference" in 1841 he mentions most of his arguments, 6000 years, 2520 years, 2450 years, 2300 years, 2000 years and 391 years 15 days. Then he makes a point which cannot be appreciated if one focuses exclusively on Daniel. You will next inquire, How shall we know when these times will all end? I answer, when you or any other man can show by scripture rule that they all harmonize and come out in one and the same year, they cannot be far from the truth. 20 The division of Miller's exegesis into 15 categories stems from a document published in January 1843, the very year he expected Christ to return. This synopsis of his views lists fifteen modes of arriving at 1843 under the heading: "Time proved in Fifteen Different Ways."21 This document is not the most comprehensive account of any single part of Miller's exegesis, but it is the best available summary of his chronological exegesis."

. , Millerite been an

urees confirm that even though Daniel 8:14 may have

I have prepared at the time my lectures were
published, lectures of seven different modes on

17Th birth of Seventh-day Adventism was dependant on e _month movement. SDA writers have concentrated the seventhesis of this period. With the exception of Bates 1847 the. exeg can be traced to the earliest SDA accounts thi:s D;UStakBates 1847 highlighted several of Miller's prophetic . . OS However, the desire to give an explanation to mterpretaUO at the end of the Seventh-month the great ade more prominent writers like J.N. Andrews and m arrow the interest down to Daniel 8:14. A J. White.: of these ideas can be found in e.g, Loughborough White 1911, 355-390.. . . 1905, 1909"s and Nichol's investigation established the Froom has 400 pages on Millensm, yet.only a IV critical E.g. PFF nl-737 would realize that Millentes believed in reader PPthat are not elaborated on all. Nichol many things some interpretations that Miller chenshed to the 1944 522-524 with a short comment on "secondary" appendIX, a:ieegt [di;s.] 1977 makes the same oversight which proofs. D le d on to non-SDA scholarly works on Miller. Cf. . r IS also l 1974. The inadvertent overlooking of things that Rowe [ SSt al for Miller but are irrelevant for Seventh-day were repeated in the latest books and articles: E.g. of the Advent" AR, Feb 11, 1982; Maxwell Maxwe y of William Miller" AR, Feb 18, 1982; Reid "From "The Destiny" Min, Apr, 1982; Gale 1975. Despair

1

8Miller, undated [probably 1842] letter to Br. Copeland.

df

1 9An on. "Mr. Miller", Maine Wesleyan Journal, Mar 20, 1840, p.2. 1842/c, 97. 21SMV,18. 22Cf. Rasmussen MS 1983, 22-51.

93 92

5.3.2 The scope of Miller's exegesis - an analysis of periodicals
Miller's comments and his books confirm that he himself apprec iated all of his fifteen proofs. It must, however, be noted that these fifteen ways were not Miller's ways only, but many or all of them were shared by other leading Millerites.P This is also indicated by the many chronological charts and articles that they publish ed." None of the charts was prepare d by Miller himself , yet most of them included several ways of adding up prophe tic years to the terminus of 1843. However, it must be recognized that all of the fifteen proofs were not equally popula r with other Millerites. Some of them are promot ed in books only and are virtually unment ioned in Millerite periodicals, while others are frequently discussed in both books and periodicals. The validity of various exegetical points was at times questio ned in Millerite periodicals. This is true also for Miller's argument on Daniel 8:14. In an effort to arrive at a correct definition of Millerite teaching the present writer analyzed the subject matter of every article in Millerite periodicals betwee n January 1840 and Decem ber 1843.2!l This analysis included 685 articles with a minimum length of a third of a page. More than half of these periodical items, 355, were exegetical in nature, mostly on the Millennium, the resurrection, the judgment, and the principles of interpr etation as well as the prophe cies on the return on the Jews. There were 127 articles on time-prophecies out of which 123 were on one or more of Miller's 15 proofs. The distribution of these articles on time-prophecies gives an interesting insight into the development of Millerism. In the 23E.g. Litch, Fitch, Bliss, Hervey, Hawley , and Bates published articles and books which included some of Miller's points. 24E.g. ST May 1, 1841; June 1, 1841; April 26, 1843; May 24, 1843. Me Nov 18, 1842; March 17, 1843; June 8, 1843; July " 20, 1843; Aug 31, 1843. French "Diagram of Daniel's Visions ST Mar 1, 1841. 25See Appendix II.
. _
. 4...... _ _ l!"J .,..... c• .

" __ = __ = _
•• ,toI'"

rS

_

... PICTOmM . CHART ". DA1'i'IF,L' S V["lll!fS

."
"

_. _
"

' -.

f.:(f{
Millerite chart by Himes, n.d,

" .....:. ..

_

,

final count Daniel 8:14 is discussed in 34 separat e items, much more frequently than all the other proofs. However, the result would have been very different had the analysis covered but a few months shorter period. In the period 1840-1842 the theory of 6000 years was the most frequently discussed way of timing 26 second Adven.t. In the year 1843 speculation on the exact tune of the end increased and Daniel 8:14 was discussed over and over in several articles . This paved the way for the seventhmonth movement. Overall the periodicals show that the Millerites had sufficient interest in a number of Miller's fifteen proofs to make it a gross misrepresentation of Millerism to leave anyon e of Miller's fifteen proofs undiscussed. Each one of the arguments must be taken into consideration for a full summary of Millerite teaching.

Millerism certain ideas were popula r at certain . . In 1840 the Eastern question was discussed with great tunes frequency. Then. from the autumn of 1840 on there appear a numbe r of articles on the 6000 years. This subject was exhausted by the end of 1842 when an increasing number of articles on 2300 evenings and mornings were printed.

94

95
American denominations.f It has been a mistake to limit Miller's exegesis of time-prophecies to Daniel and Revelation only. Anyone in doubt should read those Millerite sources that endeavored to give a compendium on Millerite kerygma . All of these unhesitatingly interpret several Biblical texts to prove the time of the second advent." Miller's fifteen points are the subject matter of the rest of this chapter. These time-prophecies are so diverse that it is difficult to see how they relate to each other without visualization. Appendix III includes a chart on Miller's basic time-prophecies on one page. Copies of some Millerite charts are also included ."

5.3.3 Synopsis of Miller's chronology
Miller prepared fifteen proofs which on closer analysis include seven diverse ways of calculating 1843 as the fmal year of world's history. The actual sequence in which Miller developed his 15 proofs is unclear because many of them are referred to or found in the earliest written sources." A clue as to the evolution of Miller's thinking might be available in the Vermont Telegraph from the early part of 1832, when Miller presented his view in writing for the first time. These have not been available for this study, but there are other observations one can make on Miller's fifteen proofs. Only two of the seven stem from the book of Daniel and none from the Apocalypse.P The deduction that Daniel 8:14 was not the exegetical hub of Millerism is sealed by the observation that in the Synopsis of Miller's Views Miller's comments on Daniel are the shortest of all among the fifteen proofs, and in no way singled out. After the "proofs" he states, "These several ways of prophetic chronology prove the end in 1843."211 Five of the seven time spans were recurrently printed in a short statement on Millerite beliefs on the editorial page of the Advent Herald.:ItJ All fifteen proofs were fublished in the leading Millerite periodical, Signs of the Times,3 and N. Southard, the editor of Midnight Cry chose the synopsis of the fifteen points to represent Millerite beliefs in a history of various North

5.4. The prophecy of Moses
The "first of the main pillars" of Millerism was the "prophecy of Moses" as Miller called the text he found in Lev 26. And if ye will not yet for all this hearken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins. And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth brass: And your strength shall be m for your land shall not yield her mcrease, neither shall the trees of the land yield their fruits. And if ye walk contrary unto me, and will not hearken unto me; I will bring seven times more plagues upon you according to your sins. I will also send wild beasts among you, which shall rob you of your chilo/en, and destroy your cattle, and make you few m number; and your high ways

27Anon.

"Miller" ST May 15, 1840.

28SMV, 18-30. See Appendix V. 2IISMV, 30. Cf. Appendix V. 3O]'hese five are: "I. 6000 years of the Hebrew text- n. The seven times -- III. The Great Jubilee -- IV. 2300 days of Daniel viii -- V. 1335 days of Daniel xii -- We must therefore, if we read the Bible aright, near the termination of all the prophetic periods." E.g. Anon. "Prophetic time" AH Feb 14, 1844. 3'Miller, ''Time, proved -- " ST Jan 25, 1843.
668-691.

32Southard "Second Advent Believers," in Rupp ed [1844]
.

,

most important of these was SMV. Southard edited SMV's text for Rupp ed. 1844, to stand as a scholarly and representative summary of Millerite Adventism. See also VOP 18421j, 32-53. 3-4See Appendix IV.

96
shall be desolate. And if ye will not be reformed by me by these things, but will walk contrary unto me' Then will I also walk contrary unto you, and will' punish you yet seven times for your sins. And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall avenge the quarrel of my covenant: and when ye are gathered together within your cities, I will send the pestilence among you; and ye shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy. And when I have broken the staff of your bread, ten women oven, they shall shall bake your bread in deliver you your bread agam by weight: and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied. And if ye will not for all this hearken unto me, but walk contrary unto me' Then I will walk contrary unto you also in fury;' and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins. (Lev 26:18-28, KJV) This "prophecy" is expounded by Miller himself as well .as .his associates in several books and in a number of penodical articles." The text depicts the exile as a sevenfold punishment for Israel's sins. Due to the King James translation Miller interpreted this as a time-prophecy : "I, even y?U seven times for your sins."(v.28) The word time in M.illente vocabulary implied a year,aa which led him to a prophetic and chronological interpretation of the text. The year/day. method converted the "seven times" into 7 x 360 years, and Miller had no obstacles for the claim that the "seven times" of Lev 26:1828 symbolized 2520 years within which "the church has been punished by the kings and rulers of this world.f"

97 Testament times could be covered with one prophecy. The terminal points of this 2520 year period were located within the Bible. His general concept of hist?ry, enlightened by bo?k of Daniel, led him to state that this "prophecy" must begm WIth Babylon and cover the period of all the great oppressors of "the church": Babylon, "Medo-Persia", "Grecia", and Rome, pagan as well as Papal." Miller makes the surprising claim that he found the seven times of Lev 26 before he came to Dan 8:14. In a sermon, recorded by Litch, Miller says: "I was satisfied that the seven times terminated in 1843. Then I came to the 2300 days; they brought me to the same conclusion.f" However, Miller's terminus a quo is so obscure that one can reasonably assume that, in a manner not unfamiliar to other blstoricists," Miller first fixed the terminus ad quem, 1843 A.D, subtracted the 2520 years to arrive at the desired starting point 677B.C., and then with the help of marginal notes in his King James Bible, found the only event dated 677 B.C.'" The incident with this date was Manasseh's short arrest by the Assyrians. The text includes the peculiar feature of his being taken to Babylon rather than Assyria. (2Chr 33:11). Was this not, Miller asked, the time when "the people of God are to be in bondage to the kingdoms of this world; or in Babylon, literal and mystical.t"

wi!!

5.4.1

Proof of 677 B.C.

For anyone reading the King James Bible and approving the year-day method, Miller's basic conclusions on Leviticus 26 were

Miller is not concerned with the obvious exilic context of the text. He believed that Old and New Testament believers formed one church, one spiritual Israel and that both Old and New

38Miller 1842/e, 16-18. 39Litch "Rise and Progress of Adventism" ASR May 1844. In Miller 1845, 1, the order is as follows: 1) Seven times; 2) 2300 days, 3) 1335 days. 40See e.g. Newton T. [1766], 9-12.

most detailed discussions of the seven times theory are in Miller 1842/b, 250-263; SAM, 33-49 and VOP 1842/j, 3239' 43-46 See also Miller 1842/e, 16; Litch 1842/b, 2:124-130; Bliss 1843/b, 66; Bliss 1843/f, 6f. Miller "Reasons for Believing - " TGC July 4, 1842; Plummer "The prophecy of Moses" ST May 17, 1843. aaCf. Dan 7:25; 4:25 KJV. 37Miller 1842/b, 256.

41KJV Bibles had Ussher's chronology printed in the margins and 2Chr 33 is dated 677 B.C. Several 19th Century commentaries and O'I' chronologies also follow this chronology. See e.g. Clarke n.d. II, 691.
"2SMV, 18f. See Appendix: V.

98 plain. It appears, however, that there was struggle to prove the terminus a quo, 6TI B.C.. verify the unpor,tance of this episode proof of Manasseh's SIgnificance for Israel s future fate had to be demonstrated. Hale refers to the actual wording of Leviticus, "I will break the pride of your power," (Lev 26:19) and continues: "If the kingly form of civil government is here referred to, it was never "broken" until the captivity of Manasseh."43 Miller found other texts like Jer 15:4, which states that God punishes Israel because of Manasseh's sins," and that the transgressions of Manasseh were in fact the very ones referred to in the book of Leviticus." There was a further verification of 677 B.C. Miller asserted that then "the ten tribes were carried away by Esarhaddon, king of Babylon"." This puzzling claim is explained in another context where he does refer to Assur and he writes that the ten tribes of Israel began to be carried away in 722 B.C. but the completion of her slavery did not come until 677 B.C:.47. At a closer look this peculiar idea turns out to be a detail in the Millerite layout of Old Testament chronology, and again its base

99

II Illustration of Miller's proofs 1 and 2

Punishment of Israel 2520 yrs

End

677 B.C. Miller's texts: Lev 26; Dt15:1,2; Jer 34:14

1843

lies in the marginal notes of KJV Bibles. The evidence for this date is in Second Advent Manual where Hale points out that Isa 7:8 was dated to the year 742 B.C.<4a The text prophesies that "within threescore and five years shall Ephraim be broken." A simple subtraction produces 677 B.C. giving Biblical confirmation for Miller's dating. It was easy for Hale to suggests that Esarhaddon took both Manasseh and the remnant of Israel together into captivity." Having presented this evidence concerning the date, Miller explained that "since the days of Manasseh not a moment has she [the church] enjoyed of respite, but has been scattered among the kingdoms of the world."50 For Miller Manasseh:s time marks the beginning of oppression for God's people. This was the period when Jerusalem was trodden underfoot ?y Gentiles." On the other hand, in A.D. 1843 the "kingdom will be given to the saints of the Most High; mystical Babylon will be destroyed'f" and the time of "the punishment of the people

43SAM,37.

44He also refers to Isa 7:8. SMV, 18.

45SMV, l8f. Hale makes the following comparison: Lev 26:14,18,27 match 2K 21:9-13, and Lev 26:1,2 equal 2K 21:2-8 and 2Chr 33:2-11. SAM, 38. Cambell created a variant of Miller's ideas. His ideas never reached popularity among the Millerites, but they serve to illustrate the love they had for counting times. First Cambell gave exact tunes for the four SIns and punishments, 677 B.C., 607 B.C., 590 B.C., and 584 B.C., all related to Millerite dates on the exile. He then added 2520 years to each one getting dates, 1843 for the first signs of the end 1913 for the battle of Armageddon, 1930 for the of the Jews and finally 1934 for the millennial jubilee. Cambell "Mr Cambell on the return of the Jews" ST June 15, 1840. 46Miller 1842/b, 251-256. 47Miller 18421e, 20. While there is no direct Biblical evidence for such a deportation Ezra 4:2, 10 are cited as a proof of deportations from the Northern Kingdom after 722 B.C. SAM, 41. Cf. Herrmann 1975, 215f.

48Cf. Clark n.d. 4:50-55. 4llSAM, 38-40.
50Miller 1842/b, 256. 51Bliss 1843/e, 4; cf. Lk 21:24. 1842/b, 262.

100
of God will end."53

101
rather "an intimation of degree" meaning sevenfold/" Miller insisted on the superiority of the King James translation as fifty times better to any, however learned, "opinion" on the original text.M It is an interesting fact that Miller is not known to have changed any of his fifteen proofs at any time whether in face of serious objections or even the disappointment of 1844.511 Because of the problems that there were in the actual meaning of the "seven times" some Millerites hesitated in accepting Miller's interpretation. After years of investigation Litch wrote, "I am constrained at length to acknowledge it as such.?" But there was also enthusiastic endorsemeat." Finally one must note that this hermeneutic, like every other B.C. to A.D. calculation that Miller made, includes an error of one year. This is due to

5.4.2 Comments on the "Prophecy of Moses"
It would be easy but unfair to criticize the hermeneutical construction that Miller built upon Lev 26. The following remarks are not intended as criticisms but rather as observations. The 'first of the main pillars" of Millerite chronology is an excellent illustration of much of nineteenthcentury North American exegesis. It almost
totally

54Bush 1844, 10.

l.

ignores the -. original context and combines texts together Josiah Lltch's chart New Yoric in a rather flaccid Tribune, F.x1ru March 2, 1842 fashion, and it shows a blind faith in the English translation. On the other hand Miller's interpretation is simple and straightforward. It includes nothing mystical . or difficult to comprehend. For anyone who accepted the King James version as the genuine Bible text this interpretation may have appeared valid.
Yet even Biblicist or historicist interpreters were not so blind to the original meaning and to the context of a text that they would have taken Miller's claims without criticism. Prof. G. Bush advised Miller on the correct meaning of Lev 26, and pointed out that there is no word "time" in the Hebrew, but

suppose I come to you and get your understanding of the original text, will you ensure me that I receive a better understanding from you alone, than I could have from fifty men, equally as good as yourself, if not better, who did give us the sense in English, when they gave us the present translation? If you say Yes, I shall then believe you have as much vanity, as you say the adventists have assurance. And if you say No, then when you read the original text only, with your judgment to understand and teach the English sense, and I read it in the English text, I have fifty times the weight of judgment to yourself." Bush 1844, 9f.
56 Miller was obliged to admit that something in his chronology was wrong . But he added "With respect to other features of my views, I can see no reason to change my belief." Miller 1845, 34, 15. Instead he believed that his opponents disproved themselves by their conflicting arguments and so confirmed his exegesis. See e.g. Miller's letter to T.E. Jones, Nov 29, 1844; Bliss 1853, 280; Cf. Rasmussen 1983, 84f.

57Litch continues with the idea that the 2300 days of Dan 8:14 is still the bulwark of the cause. Litch "Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel" Me Nov 30, 1842. ME.g. SAM, 33, calls the seven times "the first of the prophetic periods, which are considered as main pillars in the calculations of Mr. Miller." Cf. Anon. "The Seven Times of Lev xxvi: Why are they repeated four times." ST Jan 24, 1844. Bliss 1853, 71.

102
his taking for granted the existence of a year zero. Correct arithmetics would have yielded 1844 instead of 1843. This mistake was shared by many of Miller's contemporaries/"

103
years.52 The time calculated for this prophecy is the same as that of proof number one. This interpretation emphasized 1843 as the year "when the children of God will be released from all bondage and slavery.1lIl3 This hermeneutic gave Miller a powerful homiletical base to preach on liberty for all captives at the second advent. Isa 61:1,2 was one of his key texts. The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidinzs unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted., to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of prison to them that are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord., and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn." The text does mention "the acceptable year" and the "day of vengeance" which in itself implied an eschatological fulfillment for the Millerites. The prophetic interpretation of the year of release gave Miller the answer for questions arising from the text: who are the captives and when are they liberated. The captive is the true church oppressed by the powers mentioned in Daniel, and the time of the liberation is in A.D. 1843, at the end of seven symbolic years of slavery and at the dawn of the great antitypical sabbatical year.ll6

5.5 Year of release
In the Pentateuch Miller found another text which he believed to demonstrate that a "seven times" or 2520 year period ended in A.D . 1843. This was the year of release. At the end of every seven years thou shalt make a release. And this is the manner of the release: Every creditor that lendeth ought unto his neighbour shall release it; he shall not exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the LORD's release. (Dt 15:1,2 KJV) At the end of seven years let ye go every man his brother a Hebrew, which has been sold unto thee, and when he has served thee six years, thou shalt let him go free from thee; but your fathers hearkened not unto me, neither inclined their ear. (Jer 34:14 KJV) The sources for the Millerite interpretation of these texts are not as numerous as the ones for the prophecy of Moses.eo The text stems from an old sacral ordinance of letting the land lie fallow and it is here applied to a release from debts and from slavery." Miller's interpretation transformed the text into an allegory of world history. Like a Hebrew slave who was to be released "at the end of every seven years," the people of God were to expect the parousia to release them from the slavery of the spiritual Babylon at the end of seven symbolic prophetic

This interpretation illustrates Miller's adherence to a kind of magical inspiration where God implants prophecies of the 82SMV, 19. 83SMV 19.
114Miller 18421e, 3.

5llproom recognizes the problem and points out that even the marginal notes on Dan 9 in KJV Bibles make the same mistake. There were also several renowned scholars, including Mr. Hales on whom Miller heavily depended in matters of chronology, who made the same error. PFF W, 791. 6OE.g. SMV 19; Miller 1842/e, 27. 51Cf. e.g. Rad 1966, 14.

is some inconsistency in the argumentation. This is due to the fact that some texts on the year of release show six years of labor and release on the seventh (Ex 21:2; 23:10 as well as Jer 34:14b) while others indicate release after seven years (Dt 15:1,2; Jer 34:14a). The former was applied by Miller to mean six thousand years of sin with the seventh as freedom in heaven during the Millennium, and the latter to the period of 2520 years.

104
eschaton into everything there is in the Bible. Miller craves to

105

build everything into a harmonized typological system where Old Testament events and the whole history of Israel grow into symbols of a grand plan of world history.

5.6 Gog and Magog
Miller developed a third exegetical design related to the "seven times" or the 2520 year period. And they that dwell in the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and bum the weapons, both the shields and the bucklers, the bows and the arrows, and the handstaves, and the spears, and they shall bum them with fire seven years: So that they shall take no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests; for they shall spoil those that spoiled them, and rob those that robbed them, saith the Lord GOD. -And seven months shall the house of Israel be burying of them, that they may cleanse the land. (Eze 39:9,10,12 KJV) The prophecy in Ezekiel 39:9,10. mentions a seven year period within which Israel, after the hordes of Gog and Magog are destroyed, gathers spoil and burns the weapons of her enemies. make only occasional references to this Millerite prophecy. Miller's interpretation turns the actual imagery of the prophecy upside down. He interpreted this seven year period to mean time during which the enemies of God's people oppressed them - seven prophetic years from 677 B.C. to AD. 1843.87 The text includes an additional feature in verse 12, a period of seven months for the burial of the dead and for the cleansing of the land. As far as prophetic time is concerned Miller counted each month as thirty days which in literal time denoted thirty years." Therefore seven months stood for 210 years,

which in turn was seen as a portion of the longer 2520 year period. Miller's idea of this seven-month/210-year time span is curious. He wrote that during this period the "People of God" were "putting away the rotten carcass of papal power." The starting point of his calculations was 1588, marked by the Edict of Nantes and the turning of Henry IV, king of Navarre, against the papal power. Thus 1798, when papacy was believed to have received its deadly would, became the end of this 210 years period." Miller's comments on 1588 are somewhat confused as the four decades of Huguenot wars began in 1562, Henry of Navarre became the king of France in 1589, and the Edict of Nantes was not given until 1598. III Chart illustrating the time span of Miller's proof no. 3

Burning of or opposition to enemy weapons 2520yrs

1-------------1 677B.C. 210yrs 1843
1588AD. Edict of Nantes Miller's text: Eze 39:9,10,12

End

I

1798AD. End of papacy

I

One may observe that outside of Millerism Ezekiel's prophecy on Gog and Magog was a popular one. It was a popular proof text for Zionistic arguments on the return and future victories of the Jews. Such a concept Miller flatly rejected." Miller's view on a spiritual Israel lies at the foundation of this as well as the previous seven year interpretations.

esE.g. SMV 19f; VOP 1842Jj, 67-84. 87SMV 19f.
esVOP 1842Jj, 79-81.

llllVOp 1842Jj, 82f.

70See e.g. VOP 1842Jj, 85-100.

106

107
It is more

5.6.1 Background and impact of the seven times
Several of Miller's historicist forefathers endorsed a seven year prophecy. Miller's three prophetic ways of counting 2520 years are almost certainly not unique to him although exact parallels have not been located. " 'n, • • ,,"_.... _.. A hermeneutic which resembles '" " . a...... > 1_ . ,M" .. ' 11u.. - - _ .• . . Miller's is in Burwell's ... .'U1.k...,eii_ Z _1Moa. . -O-' I•. book,published in 1835, at a ..........- ...... "1' time when Miller probably had his prophetic ideas fairly well formulated." The most notable supporter of a seven year prophecy was Faber who did base his calculation [657 B.C. to A.D . 1864] on Daniel 4.72 The idea of involving Daniel 4 in the seven year calculation was not Millerite woorcut on Dan 4, foreign to the Millerites. In fact Numbers & Butler 1987. Miller, Litch and Hale do make Nebuchadnezzar's seven years of insanity a proof of the legitimacy of the seven year calculation."

than likely that a key prophecy in Jehovah's Witnesses' eschatology has its background in3 Miller's idea. The Watchtower society has recalculated the terminal points of the prophecy, and the emphasis is now on Daniel 4 rather than Leviticus 26, the latter of which is mentioned as a prophecy only in their older books."

5.7 The age of the earth
Fourth among Miller's fifteen points involves the whole Bible. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made. (Gen 2:2,3 KJV) For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest: although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And God did rest the seventh day from all his works. -- There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God. (Heb 4:3,4,9 KJV) And six years thou shalt sow thy land and gather in the fruits thereof: But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard. (Ex 23:10,11 KJV) It [the Sabbath] is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the

..

llIe .. ..,flfd..

... ..,

,.. d"

e.... .,( ,II

l/,II M ....

u _ ....

Whether original or not Miller's view certainly had a influence on some Advent believers after the disappointment. 4

71Burwell 1835, 166-170 has a section on sacred numbers. He bases his seven year prophecy on Leviticus and begins the time from the fall of Samaria. 1828 2:33-39.
73SAM 33; Miller 1949, 13-16; Litch "Review of Cambell of the Captivity of the Jews" ST Oct 15, 1840. See also Cambell "Mr Cambell on the return of the Jews" ST June 15, 1840.

74See e.g. John Stevenson "God's Measuring Rods" Advent Harbinger and Bible Advocate June 9, 1849. This article synchronizes the seven times with the 6000 years.

711Cf. "Seven" ABU 1234. Cf. Cambell "Mr. Cambell on the Mode of Computing the Time" ST July 15, 1840. Cambell plays with the figure seven, the number of perfection. He describes seven priests, seven trumpets, seven days, seven times, and proposes a 6000 year theory which approaches that of the JWs.

108
LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. (Ex 31:17 KJV) Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field nor prune thy vineyard. (Lev 25:3,4 KJV) Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the LORD that sanctify them. (Eze 20:12 KJV) But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. (2Pet 3:8 KJV) Like many before him he believed that "the sabbath" or rather the weekly cycle is a miniature model and a prophecy of the world's history. "Christ will also labor six days [1000 years each] in creating the new heavens and earth, and rest on the seventh ."76 Miller explained that Old Testament Israel was given the literal sabbath as a "sign," because God had given it expressly for such a purpose. However, the Christian church, observing no literal sabbath,77 must regard the sabbath a prophetic sign, a symbol of the coming millennium. At the end of the 6000 years "the Anti -typical Sabbath of a 1000 years will commence.l" the time of peace and rest for the whole universe."

109
The popularity of this topic is obvious from the many chronological charts Millerite periodicals and books included'? as well as from the number of articles and books that deal with this interpretation." The main problem was not one of demonstrating that the weekly cycle is a symbol of world history because a sizeable portion of Miller's contemporaries already held this concept. The major obstacle for the Millerites was to overcome the widely approved chronology of archbishop James Ussher. Ussher's Annales Veteri et Novi Testamenti (1650-4) had dominated the exegesis of Old Testament chronological information for nearly two hundred years. Miller was obliged to work diligently and repeatedly with his calculations to push the creation from Ussher's 4004 B.C. back to 4157 B.C. which, with his one year's arithmetical error, gave 1843 as end of the 6000

years."
BOE.g. ST May 1, 1841; June 1, 1841; April 26, 1843; May 24, 1843. Me Nov 18, 1842; March 17, 1843; June 8, 1843; July 20, 1843; Aug 31, 1843. French "Diagram of Daniel's Visions" ST Mar 1, 1841. See also SAM for a chart that with a combination of literal and prophetic times. Appendix VI. 81The main Millerite sources on the 6000 year chronology are SAM, 13-32; Cox 1842, 56-68. VOP 1842/j, 32-39; 157-171' to Miller 1842/b, 1-4. Especially Bliss. was frequently labormg With Old Testament chronogenealogies, See Bliss 1843/a, 4; 25-28, Bliss 1843/f, 10, and Bliss 1851. Jones "The Kingdom at Hand" ST June 15, 1840; Litch "Reply" ST June 15 1840, makes an interesting combination of prophecy and chronology; Cambell "Mr Cambell on the mode of Computing the Time" ST June 15, 1840. Fleming "Review of Rev Dr . Week's Lectures against the Chronology of Wm. Miller" ST Apr 12, 1843. One of the most detailed and extensive articles is Anon. Dr. Jarvis No.4, The Chronology of the Bible" ST Aug 16, 1843. E.BK "Theory of Types No.1" ST Mat 15, 1841 develops 6000 years into a speculat ive system involving a certain number of generations and creation days which were believed to be 7 years long. B. "Six thousand years" ST Nov 22, 1843. Bible UUssher's chronology was printed in many editions of the and various commentaries. The general nature of cal !s reflected in bishop John Lightfoot's timing 0 the creation, Faithful to Ussher he placed creation on Oct 22, 4004 B.C. at 9.00 A.M., which led Brewter to comment "Closer than this, as a cautious scholar, the Vice Chancellor of

76SMV, 20.
77Miller that a literal Sabbath should not be kept because all Jewish ordinances were cancelled and because the Sabbath had become a symbol of the Millennium. VOP 1842/j, 160-162. 78SMV, 21.

79VOP 18421j, 156-171; SMV, 2Of.

110 The book of Judges provided the evidence Miller needed. His basic claim, which had to be modified several times in the uncounted debates over this issue, was that Ussher made a mistake in assuming overlaps in the rule of the judges. Ussher's dating for this period of Old Testament history was based on chronological statements in 1 Kings 6:1 and Judges 11:26 which left only 295 years for the time between Joshua and Miller preferred to explain Ussher's argument and With little help from Josephus he argued that the Judges were successive with a span of 448 years. This gave the needed 153 years to pull the creation back into 4157 B.C and allowed for 83 the parousia 6000 years later in 1843. IV Chart illustrating Miller's understanding of the 6000 years postulated, would cast a shadow on God.8!l

111

5.7.1 Extrabiblical research
The efforts that the Millerites put forward to interpret the Bible so that 6000 years would run from the creation to 1843 led them further into historical investigation than any other subject. The complexity of problems forced them into repeated recalculations." They needed authority to back up their idea of Sylvester Bliss was the pushing Archbishop Ussher aside." Millerite specialist on chronological problems. He wrote: Chronology of the Hebrew text; for every period where that has failed us, we have taken the chronology as given by Dr. Jarvis, and such is the result. Our object has not been to prove this earth just 6000 years old, but to show from best of evidence that it cannot vary much from it.88 Unfortunately Jarvis' chronological studies have not been available for this research. The discussion on the problems of Biblical chronology gave Miller awareness of different chronological systems that the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint followed. Even Chinese. Indian and Roman chronologies are mentioned by him as illustrations." The Millerites appealed to the authority of the church fathers, Irenaeus, Barnabas, Cyprian, Lactantius as well as well known scholars like Mede, Clarke or Gibbon or even Bunyan to exhibit the validity of the 6000 year

Creation 4157B.C.

6000yrs

End

1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11843A.D.

l000yrs

Eternity

Miller's texts: Ex 31:17

Some Millerite timetables with 6000 years leading up to 1843 were presented as "very clear evidence." The tables often included Anno Mundi dates e.g. 5997 for the "present year."84 At other times words of caution were included. "Very well. No one pretends to tell, positively, how long the world has sto?d, but still it is believed there are serious reasons for supposmg that its age is not far from 6000 years." Anything else, they

8!lSAM, 13. problems of these calculations are reflected in Miller's on one of his charts of world history, "If this Chronology is not correct, I shall despair of ever getting from the Bible and history, a true account of the age of the world." Miller "A Bible Chronology from Adam to Christ," in Himes ed. VOP 18421j, 36-39; MC Nov 22, 1842. 87For the sensitivity of this subject see e.g. H[imes] "Opposition on the M.E. Church-Zion's Herald vs. 'Millerism'" ST Jan 24. 1844. 88Bliss 1843/a, 25.
89VOP 18421j, 170.

Cambridge University did not venture to himself." Kaiser, Classical. Evangelical Essays,. in Geraty "The Genesis Genealogies as an Index of Time Spectrum vol 6/l.
83VOP 18421j, 36-39. 84VOP 18421j, 170. Cf. ST Dec 15, 1840.

112

113

theory.SO

5.7.2 Popularity and influence of the 6000 year theory
Faith in the 6000 year hermeneutic was prevalent in ante bellum America." From Millerite periodicals one can only infer that the Millerites accepted this concept unanimously. Bliss comments in his Chronology of the Bible: The coming of Christ would be at the end of the six thousand years from the creation has been the belief of those who look for the pre-millennial advent, ever since the days of the primitive church. 92 An average layman had little possibility of exanumng critically the detailed charts with hundreds of Bible texts. Any information in the Bible took precedence over any data available from historical sources. For instance the events of Christ's ministry were dated with the help of the book of Daniel/" Yet even by the historicist standards the Millerites should have known better than to place the birth of Christ in year zero." Litch does in fact make an apology of this detail, but he brushes the whole question aside by pointing out that a correction would make no difference to the final outcome." However, this error together with other minor deviations from well known historical dates like those of the exile, show that Miller's aim was one of proving the time of the end rather than that of finding reliable dates. He used historical data when it

matched his plan and disregarded it, even where information was readily available, if the data did not appear relevant for his goals.
It was on the 6000 years and the age of the earth rather than

Daniel 8:14 that the largest remaining Millerite groups invested 96 their energies on after autumn of 1844. It is also more than likely that the slightly modified version of the 6000 year theory of Jehovah's Witnesses stems from William Miller."

5.8 The Jubilees
One of Miller's most imaginative interpretations stems from the book of Leviticus. And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of the years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years. -- And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye

1843.

&oaliss 1843/a, 29f. Anon "Six Thousand Years" ST Nov 22,

9IE.g. Chamberlain 1805, 93, expresses the nearness of the 6000 years of history. 92Bliss 1943/a, 3. 93E.g. SAM 25-7, counts the crucifixion from the Book of Daniel. 94E.g. VOP 1842/j, 39. 96Litch 1842/c, 14.

96A fascinating example of post disappointment harmonization is in John Stevenson "God's Measuring Rods" Advent Harbinger and Bible Advocate June 9, 1849. This article advises one to take first 7 x 360 = 2520. Then the result is deducted from the perfect number: 6000 - 2520 = 3480. This is the Anno Mundi date for Judah getting into trouble. Then 70 years more leads to the beginning of the exile, Anno Mundi 3550. From this one can count forward another 70 years to the end of the exile or 390 years of sin backward [according to Ez 4:1,8] to 3160 Solomon's death and Jeroboam's rebellion against God. With the help of 1K 6:1,37 one could count further back to the time when the Temple was build and to the time of the exile etc .

ABU 322-347 looks like a modernized version of Millente discussion on the 6000 years. There are references to various calendar systems of the ancient Near East. The creation is dated 4026 B.C. the birth of Christ Oct 1, 2 H.C. and the reader is left to expect the eschaton in 1975 [the article is written in 1969].

114

115

SUPPLEMENT ,

IUOSITIOH

or

XILLU'. CllO.&T
OF

CJlAONoLOO Y 01 Tilt: WORLD,

THE raO'IlETIC P£&IOD3 .

sabbaths, and carry us up to the perfect sabbath in heaven.'l9lI The seven Sabbaths Miller found were 1) the seventh-day sabbath, 2) the fiftieth-day sabbath (Lev 23:15,16), 3) the seventh week sabbath (Deut 16:9,10), 4) the seventh month sabbath (Lev 23:24,25), 5) the seventh year sabbath (Lev 25:35), 6) "the year fiftieth, Jubilee" (Lev 25:8-13), and 1) the fiftieth Jubilee, which he designated the antitype of all sabbaths."? "The Jews kept but six Sabbaths; if they had kept the seventh they would have been made perfect without us; but they broke the seventh. 'Therefore there remains a keeping of the Sabbath to the people of God."'(Heb 4:9)101 The symbolism of the Jubilees was interpreted in a forthright manner. The Jubilee was thought to mean consummation and restoration, deliverance "from bondage and corruption" and the time to be "introduced into the glorious liberty of the children of God."l02 The method of counting the time was uncomplicated. It included no device for manipulating the time from days to years. "How long." writes Miller, "is a Jubilee of Jubilees? Ans. 49 times 50 years = 2450 years."l03

Sample text, Supplement to VOP 1842/j shall return every man unto his family. A Jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, not gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed. For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: Xe shall eat the increase thereof out of the field. (Lev 25:8, 10-12 KJV)98 Miller's argument runs as follows: "As seven days constitute a sabbath, so seven kinds of sabbath form a complete round of

5.8.1 The terminus for the Jubilees
Miller arrives at the terminal points of this "prophecy" with a fascinating argument. He believed there cannot have been any post exilic Jubilees because the Jubilee belonged to free men and the Jews returned from the exile as "slaves and bondsmen and remained so under the kingdoms of Persia, Grecia, and Rome."I04 He decided to initiate the tally for the fiftieth Jubilee from Josiah's reign when the last Jubilee, as he believed, had have been celebrated in a free Israel.

98There is no wide selection of sources for the Millerite jubilee interpretation: Miller 1842/e, 28; Spalding 1841, 30; Anon. "The Ordinance of the Year Jubilee" ST May 1, 1841. On the speculative side there is a series of articles in the Signs by E.B.K. "Theory of Types Nos. 1-5" ST Mar 15 - Sep 1, 1841, which combines the Jubilees into world chronology. See also Cambell "Mr. Cambell on the Mode of Computing the Time" ST July 15, 1840, which included as count of world history, seven millenniums in 140 Jubilees.

ll8Miller 1842/e, 28. lOOMiller 1842/e, 28; SMV, 21f. 101SMV, 22. 1841. I02Anon. ''The Ordinance of the Year Jubilee" ST May 1,

lO3SMV, 22.
lO4Miller 1842/e, 29f.

116

117

For some reason Miller suggested that the Jews ceased keeping the Sabbath as well as Jubilees at the close of Josiah's reign "the last king of Jerusalem that obeyed the commandments of the Lord, or kept his statutes ltl O!5 His dating made him choose what he believed to be the last year of Josiah's reign, 607 B.C. He argued that after this date the Jews would not and could not celebrate the Jubilee or the year of release. This brought Miller's calculation down to 1843 and conveniently reinforced the message of the Millerite revival. lOll V A Chart illustrating Miller's view of the fiftieth Jubilee

list of the seven Sabbaths the second and the third sabbath were one and the same festival, the feast of weeks or the Pentecost. 107 This must be so within Miller's own biblicist method which is characterized by harmonization.108 There is another point that Miller does not discuss. Contemporary scholars found no agreement upon whether 49 or 50 years should be counted.f" Mathematical harmony appears to have been more important for him than a critical look at his own theories and agreement even with the conservative Biblical scholarship of his time. Millerite teaching on the typological and prophetic significance of the Jubilees is not fairly appraised, however, until one acknowledges that the theme of a shortly beginning millennial Jubilee was extremely popular. Interpretations varied, and while there was probably no other theory like Miller's, those Christians who expected Christ's return accepted that the Jubilee was a familiar symbol of the approaching glory."? In terminology the medieval father of apocalypticism, Joachim of Fiore comes close to Miller with his theory of the seventh sabbath rest in the seventh age.III Towards the end of the revival the Millerites looked for more and more effective means of finding the exact time of the parousia. The speculative and inexact nature of the beginninof this "prophecy" may have led to the secondary role that this interpretation played in the Millerite movement. Its effect on Jehovah's Witness' eschatology would require further study. Their Bible Dictionary gives only a cursory allusion to any symbolic meaning that there may lie in the Jubilee, but it does

Josiah

1---------607B.C.
Miller's text: Lev 25:8-13

49 Jubilees

2450yrs

End 1843A.D.

5.8.2 Comments on the Jubilees
Miller's argument is somewhat baffling. One may appreciate the Jubilee signifying freedom from slavery and return of ownership on the land. These features made the Jubilee a frequently acclaimed symbol of the second advent in Miller's time. Yet the idea of a prophetic Jubilee appears somewhat out of place. Miller's arguments are normally replete with Biblical texts. For obvious reasons he is not able to find a single text pointing to the fiftieth Jubilee. The whole idea is based more on a desire to find mathematical order within the Scriptures than on the usual multitude of proof texts. Even within historicist ideals Miller should have seen that in his

I07E.g. Clarke n.d. vol 1, 868. I080nly historical critical approach might in a case like this suggest either two originally different feasts, or two different sources for Miller's J>roof texts, Lev 23:15,16 and Dt 16:9. Cf. e.g. Driver 1895 [ICCj, 195f. 109Cf. e.g. Clarke n.d. vol 1, 606, comments on Lev 25:10. IIoE.g. Cunningham 1840, xiii, makes a time calculation of 3430 years based on the jubilees. I11 Reeves 1976, 8; Reeves 1%9, 40, 86, 89.

118

119

make a count of seventeen Jubilees, the last one of which happens to be dated 607 B.C.112

5.9 The third day
Miller's proofs number six and ten must be discussed together to avoid unnecessary repetition. They provide a fresh scheme to 3 achieve the target year of 1843.11 Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up. After two days will he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight. (Hos 6:1,2 KJV) And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected. (Lk 13:32 KJV) The two texts have nothing in common except that both mention two days followed by a third of a special character. "In the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight." Here Miller asserts to have found a prophecy in which every word is full of meaning, "a pearl of great price, lying deep in the waters of prophecy."114 After God's people have been tom for two prophetic days by worldly powers there is the time of resurrection and life with the Lord in perfection with the devil "chained, and cast out of the earth into the pit, and shut Up."115 These two days of Hosea and Luke cover the same period of time. Miller contended that these days cannot mean natural twenty four hour days "for the church has been tom and

smitten for more than 48 hours."!" Miller argues that only when the principle of 2 Pet 3:8 is applied, the meaning of Hosea's prophecy becomes intelligible. As the days are turned into millenniums the prophecy reveals the specific time when all labor will be finished and the millennium of bliss will begin as Rev 20:4,6 and John 14:3 describe it.117 The most engaging part in the exposition of this "diamond" of prophecy comes in the method of determining the terminus a quo. Miller makes a comparison with Hosea's prophecy and the words of Jesus. "I cast out devils and I do cures to-day and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected."(Lk 13:32,33). The words are addressed to Herod, "that fox." Miller reminded his readers that Herod was a Roman appointee, therefore the context, in his view, demanded the beginning of this two thousand year period with the Romans taking control over Palestine.

VI A Chart illustrating Miller's interpretation of the two prophetic days from the time of Roman's to the end

2001yrs 1843A.D. Miller's texts: Has 6:1-3; Lk 8:32

112ABU 971f.
11:loJ'he best Millerite sources are e.g, VOP 18421j, 32-39; Miller 18421c, 45-75; Miller "Evidence •. Chapter IV" ST July 15, 1841. 114Miller 1842/c, 46.

The actual date for the Roman rule was settled with 1 Maccabees 8 and 9. These chapters describe a league which the Jews, led by Judas Maccabeus, made with the Romans. Miller's

118Miller 1842/c, 59..
117

115SMY, 26.

SMY, 22f; 26f.

120
date for this was 158 B.C.ll8 Two millenniums added to 158 B.C. made in Miller's calculation A.D. 1842. This is, of course, one year short of 1843, but this one year was claimed to be the proof of the accuracy of this particular prophecy. This is so because Hosea said, "After two days he will revive us.--" The first year "after' 1842 is 1843. Similarly Jesus said that perfection would come "on" the third day, correct for 1843 and thousand years after it.119 With this explanation Miller proposed the prophecy as another unquestionable proof for the parousia in 1843. One may note that Miller does not mention the possibility that according to his own literalistic method 1844, 1845, or any year within a millennium would be "after" 1842 or "on" the third millennium since 158 B.C. No examples of similar exposition have been found in contemporary literature.

121
Prophetic Expositions, Fleming's Synopsis, and Hawley's Second Advent Doctrine .120 The prophecy of Daniel 8 required several definitions to make the Millerite interpretation possible. First of all the length of time needed discussion. The Millerites were well aware of Jerome's reading of 2200 evenings and mornings as well the Septuagint's 2400. Here the Hebrew text was considered preferable because it must be considered more original, because no variants were known amonJ?; the Hebrew manuscripts, and because the "Vatican edition" [Codex Vaticanus?] of the LXX also had the reading 2300 1 Secondly, .the : 21 itselt no terminus a quo suitable for historicist application. Therefore Miller and his associates tried to prove a connection between chapters 8 and 9 in Daniel.

5.10.1 Daniel 8 and 9 interpreted together
It was pointed out that in Daniel 9:23 Gabriel came to make Daniel understand "the vision", which, Miller claimed, must mean the one that precedes.V'

5.10 The cleansing of the sanctuary
The prophecy for which Millerism is best remembered is found in the book of Daniel. Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed. (Dan 8:13,14 KJV) The interpretation of this text was regarded as an important challenge because its exegesis varied more among historicists than that of any other time-prophecy in the book of Daniel. Some serious conservative historicists applied Daniel 8 only to Antiochos. Others sought to stretch the time into the Christian diverse era, but with widely variant starting points and. lengths of time, 2200, 2300, or 2400 days. The Millentes wrote no books on this prophecy alone, but it is discussed extensively in Miller's Evidence, Hale 's Second Advent Manual, Litch's 118Miller 18421c, 56.
18421c, 56-73.

18421b, 39-75; Miller 18421f; VOP 18421j, 46-53; Miller 18421g; SAM 42-59; Fleming 1842, 39-60; Hawley 1843, 62-93; Litch 1843; Litch 18421a, 74-87; Litch 18421c, 22-62; Hervey 1843/a, 40-108; Bliss 18421a, 101-111; Litch 18421b, 1:112144; Bliss 18421b, 26-46; Bliss 18421c; Bliss 1843/d; Bliss 1843/£, Sf. There are also several articles on the subject. e.g. Miller "Cleansing of the Sanctuary, A Letter from Wm Miller" ST Apr 6 1842; B. "The 70 Weeks and 2300 Days of Daniel" ST June 22, 1842; Anon. "The Sanctuary" ST Feb 1, 1842. Inquirer "The Sanctuary" ST Feb 15, 1842, Mar 1, 1842. Anon . "Is Antiochos Epiphanes the hero of Daniel's Prophecy" ST Dec 28, 1842; Evan "The Prophecy of Daniel" ST Mar 8, 1843; Anon. "The End of the Prophetic Periods" ST Apr 5, 1843. Anon . "Duration of Earthly Kingdoms" ST May 29, 1843. Hawley "The Doctrine of the Second Advent Sustained by the Voice of the Church " ST June 7, 1843. 1 Litch 1842/b, 1:115. 21 is reflected in the heavy debates there were over the topic even among the Millerites. See e.g. VOP 18421j, 47.
VI' vol 28 (1978).

123Cf. Zevit "Exegetical Implications of Daniel 8:1, 9:21"

122

123 Does not the angel say to Daniel, ix.23, "Therefore understand the matter and consider the vision?" Yes. Does not the angel then go on and give his instruction concerning the 70 weeks? Yes. Do you believe the Bible is true? We do. Then if the Bible is true, Daniel's 70 weeks are a part of the vision, and 490 years were accomplished when the Messiah was cut off and not for himself. Then 1810 years afterwards the vision is completed.l'" the word "determined" [1I:lm J and he contends that it should have been translated "cut .off' or "separated" which, in the framework of prophetic time, could mean only that the seventy weeks or 490 years of Daniel 9 were "cut off' from the longer . . . penod 0 f 2300 evenmgs an d mormngs or 2300 years. 128 The case for the oneness of Daniel 8 and 9 was established step by step. Daniel's prayer [ch. 9] provided a further possibility of pointing out how the two texts belonged together. Daniel was worried over the fate of his people and he wanted to know the solution to chapter 8 when he prayed. Chapter 9 must therefore be an explanation of chapter 8.129 For the Millerites the problem was solved. Everybody knew how Daniel 9 must be interpreted. A Christological interpretation was presupposed even by the marginal notes of the Bibles. This made the preceding argument crucial for Millerism. Without Daniel 9:25 as a legitimate solution for the beginning of the 2300 evenings and mornings they would not have had such a terminus a quo that would bring the conclusion of the prophecy in the region of 1843. The time was to be counted "from the going of the commandment to restore and to build J Miller's interpretation of Daniel 8 cannot be looked upon 1D isolation from Daniel 9. William Miller was not alone in the linking of the 70 weeks and the 2300 days. Already in 1654 Tillinghast advocated in England that the 70 weeks were a lesser period within the greater one of 2300 days.l30 A century later in 1768 Johan Petri clearly proposed that the 70 weeks be placed to the first part of the 2300 days.?' By the turn of the nineteenth century this view became increasingly popular even though there were many serious historicists who preferred Antiochos and literal time as 128"The Hebraists all admit that the our English version, does signify 'cut off.' it." Litch Me vol 4 no. 25. In Litch "Hebraists," Fulson, Bush and Seixas, are Cf. Bliss 1851, 15. 129Litch 1842/b, 1:128-137. word determined, in Not one has disputed 1842/b, 1:133 three mentioned by name .

The second confirmatory statement was seen in a another reference to a "vision" (Dan 9:24). The seventy weeks were to "seal up the vision." This vision was believed to be that of 25 Daniel 8.1 The sealing aspect was strongly advocated by Miller's associate, Apollos Hale, a Methodist minister. --there can be nothing sealed without something to seal, to which it is made an appendage. As the 70 weeks are the appendage - the seal - to something else called the vision, that vision must, in nature of the case, be something different from the 70 weeks, even if the 70 weeks could with any propriety be called a vision.128 Miller agrees with Hale but stresses a slightly different view. He wrote, that the sealing meant confirmation on the fulfillment of Daniel 8 because sealing means fulfillment, and a prophecy cannot be fulfilled without a starting polnt.!" There was a third detail related to the wording of Daniel 9:24 which was used to strengthen the argument on the unity of Daniel 8 and 9. Litch investigated the Hebrew background of

124Miller 1836, 47.

125VOP 1842/j, 47. Hale suggested that Daniel's reference to Jeremiah's 70 years shows that he misunderstood Daniel 8 somehow to mean that the 70 years would not terminate at the expected time. Therefore Gabriel came to explain the matter and to give the correct place for Jeremiah's seventy as well as the 490 and 2300 years. Hale 1846, 43. 128Hale 1846, ch. 1. 127VOP 1842/j, 47.

130PFF W, 209. 131PFF Iv, 210.

124 the fulfillment of Daniel 8.132

125
or the crucifixion in AD. 33. Both 457 B.C. and AD. 33 were conveniently verified by marginal notes in many KJV Bibles. This made Miller's interpretation of Daniel 9 appear impeccable.P" Millerism was a Bible reader's religion. VII Chart illustrating the Millerite exegesis of Dan 8 and 9

5.10.2 When was Jerusalem rebuilt
All throughout the historicist tradition the interpretation of Dan 9 had remained fairly stable. The prophecy of 70 weeks was exegeted as a Messianic prophecy. The time was counted as prophetic years. "The rule is this. There is nothing said about days at this time by the angel. The Hebrew is seventy heptades, or seventy sevens." This means 490 years.133 Christ was the "anointed prince" to be "cut off." (Dan 9:24-27) Subsequently Cyrus' decree (2 Chr 36; Ezra 1) was as unsatisfactory as it led nowhere.P' Therefore several historicists started this prophetic period some time between 453 and 457 B.C.l35 Miller chose the seventh year of king Artaxerxes Longimanus. The letter of Artaxerxes in Ezra 7:11-26 was explained to be the final Royal command concerning the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Most contemporary commentaries followed Ussher and dated the fifth month of the seventh year of Artaxerxes to 457 B.C.138

457 B.C. Ezra's Decree

I----11-------- I
490 years 1810 years 33 AD. Crucifixion

2300 years

1843 AD. Parousia

Miller argued the unity of Daniel 8 & 9 with the following: 1) Daniel did not understand the vision of ch. 8 (Dan 8:27) 2j The two chapters connected in Dan 9:21. 3 "The vision" mentioned in Dan 9:23 and 9:24. 4 (Dan 9:24) was interpreted to mean "cut off" pointing to a shorter time "cut off" from the longer 2300 days. 5) Terminus a quo only unexplained part of Dan 8:14.

5.10.3 The date of the crucifixion
Because Daniel 9 was regarded a Messianic prophecy.I" this timing, and the whole design that Miller put on Daniel 8 and 9 was believed to have been confirmed by events relating to the life of Christ. In the Millerite version the 490 years of Daniel 9:24 were added to 457 B.C. This led to "Messiah the Prince,"

132E.g. Mede, the father of historicism. 133Bliss 1842/a, 103. 134Cf. e.g. Lacoque 1979, 194f. 135Damsteegt 1977, 30. 138Cf. e.g. Clarke n.d. vol II, 732. PFF IV 396f. Litch used "Rollin's chronology" Litch 18421b, 1:135. 137This was also used to prove the unsuitability of Antiochos. "It is, however, very evident that Antiochos Epiphanes could not be the little horn predicted, for the little horn was to stand against the Prince of Princes, and Antiochos died 164 years before the Prince of Princes was born." Bliss 1842/a, 104.

In his detailed comments on the chronological combination of Daniel 8 and 9 Litch asserts that AD. 33 can be proven to be the date of the crucifixion. Christ was crucified before a paschal full moon and on a Friday. Passover falls on the first full moon after the equinox. The Sabbath after the crucifixion Friday must have been the first full moon of the passover. Litch continues: I fmd by calculation, the only passover full moon that fell on a Friday, for several years before or after the disputed year was 3rd of April 4746

138E.g. Miller 18421b, 71.

126
Julian, 490 after Nehemiah, 33 A.D. ' 38 This made it possible for Litch to conclude that the "chronology of the 490 years -- rests on the most solid To complete the exegesis of the 2300 years Miller and his associates were left with the simple task of adding a further 1810 years to A.D. 33 to arrive at 1843.141

127

After listing his possibilities Miller sets out to deduce the correct one by a process of elimination. "The question now arises which of these sanctuaries does Daniel mean?" The next part of the evidence provides a typical example of Miller's logic and style:
I answer not the first Jesus Christ for he is not

5.10.4 What is the sanctuary
Having arrived at the desired year of 1843 Miller proceeded to exegete the non-chronological parts of the prophecy. This exegesis would have been meaningless had not Miller believed that Daniel's cleansing of the sanctuary was in fact the parousia. To establish this Miller labored to obtain a clearcut meaning for the word "sanctuary". This part of Miller's exegesis is a primary example of the concordance method. With the help of his Cruden's he found seven possible meanings for the word sanctuary. These were:
1. 2. 3. 4.

impure.-- not the second heaven for that is not unclean, people, -- not the third Judah for literal Judah is cut off as a people,-- not the fourth, the temple, for that is destroyed and what is not cannot be numbered. v"

Naturally the holy of holies could not count either as it was not in existence any more, and Miller was left with only two appropriate meanings: the earth and the saints, both of which, he claimed, needed and would receive the cleansing promised by Daniel at the end of the 2300 years.l'"

5.10.5 Comments on the 2300 year prophecy
It is interesting that there was more debate in Millerite publications over the details of Daniel 8:14 than over any other issue. Many of these arguments were with non-Millerites who objected to the 2300 evenings and mornings meaning days, or who proposed that the little horn of Daniel 8 was Antiochos Epiphanes.l'" It may have been that the Millerite editors allowed for this debate because of their confidence in the correctness of the opinions they held on Daniel 8. From the earliest period of Miller's prophetic interest his view on Daniel 8:14 emerges as one of his main arguments for the

Jesus Christ (Isa 8:14; Eze 11:16) Heaven (Ps 102:19; 20:2) Judah (Ps 114:28) The temple of the Jews (1 Chr 22:19; Ex 25:8) 5. The holy of holies (lChr 28:10; Lev 4:6) 6. The earth (Isa 16:13; 1 K 8:27; Rev 5:10; 20:6; Mt 6:10; Ps 32:15; Rev 11:15; Ps 96:6-13) 7. The saints (lCor 3:16,17; 2Cor 6:16; Eph 2:21)'42

'39t.itch 1842/b, 1:138-140. 1842/b, 1:140.
l4lVOP, 47.

142Miller 1842/f, 4-7. Even though Miller again assembled a number of texts to prove his points many of his proofs [especially under point 6] appear irrelevant on closer examination. After the disappointment the interpretation of the Sanctuary symbol was hotly debated between mainline Millerites and Sabbatarian Adventists. It was then contested that 145 times the word "sanctuary" is used and not a single time applied to the earth. Everyone knows, they claimed, that the earth is neither a dwelling place of God nor yet a holy or sacred place,

and that the sanctuary must be a definite object. Similar argument was repeated against the church being the sanctuary. AH Aug 2, 1850, pp. 28-30. 143Miller 1842/f, 7f. 144Miller 1842/f, 8f. debates with Stuart, Colver, Morris, True, Brown and Dowling were reprinted in book form. Miller 1842/g; Bliss 1843/d; Bliss 1842/a; Litch n.d./d; Litch 1842/c.

128

U9
High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. (Dan 7:25 KJV) And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished. (Dan 12:7 KJV) But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months. And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. (Rev 11:2,3 KJV) And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days. (Rev 12:6 KJV) And the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. (Rev 12:14 KJV) And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months. (Rev 13:5 KJV) These prophecies are to be found in the books of Daniel and Revelation. They cover the work of the little horn and one of the beasts of Revelation as well as the period of the scattering and persecution of God's people. The Millerites frequently discussed both the events and the termini of these prophecies in

nearness of the parousia. Together with the 6000 year theory it was popular with the majority of the Millerites. This particular exegesis grew in importance as the end of the Millerite expectation approached in 1843 and 1844. This may have been due to the fact that this prophecy had been interpreted to tell the time of the end by numerous historicist exegetes before Miller.
If one tries to look at Miller's exegesis through the eyes of a contemporary, one may assume that this hermeneutic together with Miller's views on other prophecies in Daniel and the Apocalypse appeared as regular exegesis, while his teachings on Leviticus, Jubilees or even the 6000 years may at times have reached the borderlines of propriety. The increasing popularity of this doctrine among the Millerites may have been caused by the nature of the prophecy. It allowed for speculation on the exact day of the second advent while most of the other "proofs" were only good for determining the year. As the time approached this prophecy was interpreted with increasing resolution to find the exact date. This was against Miller's personally expressed wishes.I.e
As one looks at the way Miller's inheritance was shared, it

appears that after the disappointment, caused by a typological elaboration of this prophecy, most Millerite groups took a rather detached view on Daniel 8, while Sabbatarian Adventism appeared to stake its life on the typologically updated interpretation of this prophecy.I"

5.11 Time of the end
Miller 's exegesis also included the prophetic period of 1260 days, 42 months, or 3 112 years which was one of the cornerstones of historicism . And he shall speak great words against the most

146Miller objected to the specific date until a fortnight before the time. .,g. Linden 1984. This prophecy still appears to be of vital significance for Seventh-day Adventism. E.g. Linden 1982.

130

131
persecution of the saints (Dan 7:25).'81 The Millerites reminded themselves of the details: "Feb 10, 1798 General Berthier, at the head of the republican army of France, entered the city and it." The J?Ope was imprisoned and taken to France together WIth the cardinals and the whole papal system lost its power because it was reorganized by Bonaparte.P" Miller was not alone in suggesting that the end of this period was in the year 1798. At this time Miller had been a lad of 16. The first one to suggest A.D. 1798 as the terminus of Daniel seven and its parallel prophecies was Samuel M'Corkle who gave the events a prophetic meaning in the very year they took place. Hl3

their books and periodicals.t" These prophecies were not exegeted to lead to Miller's year of the end, 1843. Instead they were believed to indicate the beginning of the "time of the end." One can compare Miller's interpretation of this prophecy to a backbone in a skeleton. It provided the supportive structure to which several other timeprophecies were fixed,

5.11.1 The French revolution
The prophetic significance of the French revolution was underwritten by many commentaries of the early nineteenth century. For some Americans the news from France may have appeared to mark progress and reform, but the sudden changes of power, the bloodshed, the attacks against Christianity and the Bible made many religious people regard the revolution as a somber sign of the times. These interpretations were highlighted by the fate of the papacy in the aftermath of the revolution when Napoleon sought to make the pontiff his puppet. After all, papacy had been the antichrist of prophetic hermeneutic since the Reformation.r'" Miller chose the year 1798 for the termination of the papal domination.P? At that time Napoleon's troops entered Rome and he put an end to the pope's political rulership. This was the deadly wound (Rev 13:3) and the end of the little hom's

.1.

5.11.2 The time of the antichrist
Attacks against the papacy were common in all areas of nineteenth-century American life. In the sphere of prophecies historicists applied concepts like "antichrist," "little horn," "abomination of desolation," the "beast" of the book of Revelation and others to the papal power. This outlook was re.formers, and it had been kept up by well est,ablished. .tradition. Miller approaches these prophecies from the a slightly different angle. He IS not overly concerned with the possible papal atrocities used to prove the antichristian character of this power.HIli Miller was interested in chronology and in the historical accuracy of the prophecy. The easiest aspect of these prophecies was the length of time in

148Some of the most detailed and thorough discussions of this prophecy are in Miller 1842/b, 86-114; Miller 1842/a, 30-36; Miller 1842/g; Litch 1842/a, 57-73; SAM 82-95; Storrs 1843, 153; Bliss 1842/a 78-101; Bliss 1843/d; Bliss 1843f, 4f. See also VOP 1842/j, 46-53. Litch 1842/b, 2:121-124; Litch 1842/c, 62-80; Cook 1843, 50-62; Hervey 1843/b, 40-108; Anon. "1260 Years of Papal Triumph" ST Feb 1, 1843; Anon. "End of the 1260 days" ST July 19, 1843. 149Sandeen 1970, 5-7, 13. For a Millerite view see e.g. Miller, "Remarkable Fulfillment of Prophecy, Relating to France and the two Witnesses" VOP 1842/j, 203-211. PFF Iv, 60, 67, 71, 78 etc. cr. White 1911, 265-288. l!50Cf. PFF II 751-782.

151Miller 1842/b, 104. 1842/b, 1:105-109. 153pFF Iv, 396. 154See e.g. Ball 1981, 199, 208f. 155Anti-Roman sentiments had been boosted by the continuously increasing proportion of Roman Catholic unrmgrants. See e.g. Gaustad "Introduction" in ROA xi-xx; PFF !y. 27,5f describes the rise of anti-Catholic literature and feeling including popular horror stories (like Maria Monk's Awful Disclosures Of Six Months in a Convent) and popular journals.

132 question. From its beginning historicism had presented all 3 112 year, 42 month and 1260 day prophecies to mean the same period of 1260 years. Anyone proposing a different solution would have been regarded unorthodox. Neither was there any problem with the papal application. lee
VIII Chart illustrating Miller's view of the rise and fall of the papacy

133 dominating the scene with "all" acknowledging his supremacy.?" However, the terminus a quo was obscure enough to call for some serious criticism. It is not easy to convince people of a date which is not generally attested in secular history. The Millerites compensated for this lack of historical references to AD. 538 with a careful presentation of minor details of the events of AD. 538. At times they also resorted to polemic attacks against opponents.1M The minutiae presented in verification of the significance of AD. 538 make Millerite exegesis appear like a collection of quotations from a history book. Attention was drawn to Belisarius who chose deacon Virgilius for the papal throne in AD. 537 because Virgilius had paid him 200 lbs. of gold. In AD. 538 this fraudulent arrangement was legalized. The pontiff had received all the accessories of power by this time. The only problem was an attack by the Arian Ostrogoths in March 538. He was only able to use his powers as the Ostrogoths were driven out later in the same year.1S The logic was simple. While Goths held the city the Pope was helpless, but when Belisarius expelled them the Pope was left to defend himself and "Rome was under his power."leo There was no need to carry the research further.

Beginning of Papacy 538 AD.

1260yrs

1---------1

End of Papacy

1798AD.

Miller's texts: Dan 7:25; Dan 12:6,7; Rev 11:2,3; Rev 12:6,14; Rev 13:5

What required careful explanation was the terminal point of the prophecy. Counting the 1260 years back from 1798 required 538 as the starting point. The historical event connected with this year was the expulsion of the Ostrogoths from Rome. This interpretation matched a fairly widely approved view of the ten horns, three of which were plucked away from before the little hom. (Dan 7:8) Because the Ostrogoths were the last one of the three the time appeared logical. All details of these events were seen to match those of Daniel 7. The interpretation was consistent with the method used and information available. The conclusion was that in AD. 538 the Roman bishop was left

5.11.3 Comments on the 1260 years
While Froom's Prophetic Faith has been criticized for its slanted view on the history of prophetic exegesis and Millerism, the four volumes do provide an excellent survey of the background of the Millerite type of hermeneutic for both the 2300 days as well as for the 1260 days. While it may hold true that Miller is 1 57Miller 18421a, 31-36; VOP 18421j, 49-53; Miller 1836, 75; Bliss 18421a, 79.

n-

l!5&y'he Millerites applied the 1260 year time regularly on the papacy. Outside of Millerism several expositors included Islam into their interpretation. There are only few Millerite examples of this. Anon. "Chronology of the Mohammedan 15, 1840 recalculates 1260 84 years short by Power" ST some chronological device, then starts the prophecy with 622 for the beginning of Islam and concludes it in 1843.

1 E .g. Bliss 18421a 79-80. Bliss' argument is an excellent M illustration of Millerite polemic. Morris had objected to Miller's date without suggesting another in its place. 'Morris does not know when the time begins, so he cannot know when it does not begin." 'saliss 18421a, 86-90. l80Litch 1842/b, 1:101.

134

135 called 'daily sacrifice,' is Rome pagan abomination; the same Christ has reference to in Matt. xxiv.15."'8-4 At first sight Miller's conclusion may appear impossible to prove but he certainly made a serious effort of establishing his point. The motivation for this exegesis lies in Miller's unshaken conviction that the little horn of Daniel must mean the Papacy. Did the papacy take away daily sacrifices? Certainly no Jewish ones, so the "daily" must, he continues, mean something else, something which was put away by the papacy. Was it not paganism with its daily sacrifices that lost its strength with the rise of Roman Catholicism, Miller asked. This conclusion allowed Miller to name two abominations, one in the form of the papal antichrist and the other, represented by "daily sacrifice," being satan's continual opposition to God's work in the form of paganism. This was believed to clarify the enemy's two disguises: pagan and papal Rome. The first alluded to by Christ himself in reference to the "abomination of desolation" (Mt 24:15; Lk 21:21) and the second by Paul in his prophecy on the "man of sin." (2 Thess 2:3_10)'85 The destruction of Jerusalem then turned out to be the work of the "daily" or "Rome pagan." This interpretation made the year 508 AD. appear reasonable. After all, Western Rome had fallen but a few years earlier. Hale made a further observation on the events of the year AD. 508. "Anastasias sent pope the title and insignia of patrician and consul and conferred the appellation of August," details which Hale extracted from Gibbon's popular history of the Roman empire.P"

no "fiery comet with a lOoo-year tail" and that every millennarian was not necessarily "a forerunner of the New York farmer-preacher.v'" Froom does conclusively show that Miller's exegesis of Daniel 7 and 8 follows widely accepted historicist standards. It follows naturally that any later historicist interpretations of these chapters are close to Miller's views.

5.12 1335 days/years
And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. (Dan 12:11,12 KJV) For Millerites these concluding verses of Daniel represented an important scheme of prophetic interpretation. These prophecies were carefully incorporated into an intricate system which was founded on the 1260 years and which included the number of the beast as an appendix. The times Daniel 12:11,12 were important links in the arrangement. The most detailed expositions of this prophecy are found in Hale's Second Advent Manual, in Bliss' answer to Colver and Miller's Reply to Stuart.182

5.12.1 Taking away of the daily
First Miller took the prophecy of 1290 days/years. Counting backwards from 1798 he fixed "the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away" (Dan 12:11) at AD. 508. For Miller the taking away of the daily sacrifice was identical with the end of pagan Rome.l'" "I have come to this conclusion: that this power,

5.12.2 From daily to the end
From AD. 508 it was easy to proceed to 1843 by adding 1335 years. The cobweb of prophetic lines had reached the decisive year of the end. More than anything else the prophecy of Dan 12:12, "Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days," was the ultimate

181Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in Numbers & Butler 1987, 89.

182SAM 59-81; Miller 1842/g; Bliss 1843/d. See also VOP 1842/j, 46-53; Litch 1842/b, 2:121-124; Litch 1842/c, 81-90; Cox 1842, 48-55.
183Miller 1842/b, 104; 113.

18-4VOP 18421j, 48. See also Litch 1842/b, 2:128. 185VOP 18421j, 48. 1111JSAM 74.

136

137 into a time-prophecy.'· He believed that this duration stretched from 158 B.C., when Jews made a "league" with the Romans, until 508 AD. when be believed the pagan Rome or the daily to have met its end.'· Thus the number of the beast confirmed and bound together Miller's idea of the two millennial days of Hosea 6 and the apocalyptic times of Daniel 7 and 12.
X Chart illustrating Miller's interpretation of the number of the beast

demonstration of the coherence of Biblical prophecies reaching 7 1843.' B

IX Chart illustrating Miller's interpretation of timeprophecies that he believed to indicate the times relative to the papacy.

Dan 12:11 Dan 7:25

I
508 538

1290yrs

Dan 12:12 Daily Rise of removed papacy

,

I

1260yrs 1798 1335yrs Time of the end

I

1843 Second Advent

Rise of Rome

I

158B.C.

)------1

666yrs

end of Rome "daily"

508A.D.

Miller's text: Rev 13:18

5.13 Number of the beast
Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. (Rev 13:18 KJV) Several of Miller's fifteen proofs relate to the book of Revelation. None of these leads to Miller's year of the end, 1843. They provided supportive structure for what Miller found in the Old Testament. These interpretations gave timing for the papacy and antichrist, dates for Islam, the eastern antichrist, and with Miller's exposition of the number of the beast the times for ancient Rome. Even though these points fall outside the main interest of this research they will be included in a summarized form in this and the following sections. Miller carried on his exegesis of the "time of the end" and the year 1798 by turning the number of the beast, 666 (Rev 15:18)

XI Utda's Dumbering
kingdom

or the
X
II

Greek letters in "the Latin

"

=

8

30

T
L

."

"

= 300 = 10 = 50
8

1

IJ = 2
II

a

&

X
f L II

=1 = 200 = 10 30 =5 = 10
1

Total 666.

'eBsee e.g, Miller 1841/1>, 76-85; Miller Chapter IV" ST July 15, 1841.

"Evidence

--

1B7VOP 18421j, 26.

'·SMv, 30.

138

139 thousands to believe in Christ,172 as well as one that gave the Millerites the first bitter taste of frustrated expectation.l" A perusal of Millerite material shows that neither interpretation matches fully with the facts. The lack of dramatic events at the expected time prevented Miller's and Litch's ideas from growing into a spectacular advertisement for Millerite exegesis.f" neither can the slightly hesitant enthusiasm, with which the "fulfillment" was pronounced, be designated a disappointment. The Millerites did not realize that the events failed to measure up with their assumptions.

This idea of prophetic synchronization is typical for Miller and the Millerites. His view on the 666 was not, however, unanimously accepted by all of his fellow believers. Litch tells how he after initial acceptance later gave up 666 as a measure of time. "I am now satisfied it was an error." Instead he interpreted this time period as in the more regular historicist fashion pointing to Rome."?

5.14 Proof for the year-day theory.
And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth, -- And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months: and their torment was as the torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man. (Rev 9:3,5) And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men. (Rev 9:15) One of the most colorful interludes within the short history of Millerism is the summer and autumn of 1840 when Miller expected the first serious omens of the end. He based these ideas on Revelation 9:5,15. Usually the whole episode is credited to Dr. Josiah Litch, but certainly also Miller is involved as well as the editorial staff of the Signs. 171 This interpretation has been called a prophecy which led

5.14.1 History of Islam
Miller initiated an interpretation of the two verses of Revelation 9 as a time-prophecy which would lead either to 1839 or 1840. In the locusts he pictured a symbol of the Islamic power, the "Mahometans," in particular the remnants of an ailing great power, Ottoman Turkey. This transformed the exegesis of Revelation 9 into a discussion on a political issue of front page calibre - the Eastern question. The Sultan of Turkey and his rebellious vassal, Mehemet Ali, the Pasha of Egypt were engaged in a power struggle with regular involvement of the great powers of Europe. At the end of this period Miller not only expected the fall of Turkey, but also the breaking loose of an Armageddon and possibly the close of probation. "It is done. The kingdoms of the earth and governments of the world will be carried away."175

172Arasola 1955, 233. 170Litch 1842/a, 72. 171The main source is Litch 1842/b, 2: 132-227; See also Miller 1842/b, 115-126; Litch 1838; Bliss 1842/a, 166-176; Bliss 1843/f, 8f; Fleming 1842, 71-73; Fitch 1841, 41-49. For Articles see Litch "Fall of the Ottoman Power in Constantinople" ST Aug 1, 1840; Litch "Events to Succeed the Second Woe" ST Aug 1, 1840; The editorial column "THE NATIONS" between April 15 and Aug 1, ST 1840; Anon. "The Six Trumpet Period" ST May 1, 1840. Litch "Fall of the Ottoman Empire, or Ottoman Supremacy Departed" TGC Aug 4, 1842. Anon. "Blow Ye the Trumpet in Zion Sound an Alarm in My Holy Mountain" ST May 311, 1843. 173Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" Numbers & Butler, 1987, 78. 174Litch lamented the lack of interest people showed in the 11th of August. Litch 1842/b, 2:200. Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in Numbers & Butler 1987, 86. 175Miller was accused of having predicted the close of probation at this time. His only written comments on this subject are ambiguous, even if he was clear on expecting the "Great Battle" in 1839 or 1840. See e.g. Miller "A Lecture on the Signs of the Present Times" ST Mar 20, 1840, and Miller 1842/b, 115-126, which are reprints of older texts. He may have done so in his sermons as Litch is asked "Do you believe with

140
However, his associates, in particular Litch, did research into the history of Islam and at first he defined the time to the month of August and later exactly to the day.178 The prophecy includes two pieces of chronological information. One of these is five months, which in a regular year for day reckoning stood for 150 years. The other is "an hour, a day, a month, and a year" which was believed to lead on for a further 391 years and '15 days to the fall of the Turkish empire. The beginning of the first of the time periods was discovered in Gibbon's history, which told that on July 27, 1299 Osman brought the Ottoman empire into European consciousness by attacking Greece. The first 150 years of the prophecy were concluded on July 27, 1449 177 and the second period was to finish on August 11, 1840.

141 column incorporated news on political developments in the Near East. The August 1 issue included two articles by Litch. These revealed the very day when the "locust" nation of Turkey could be expected to fall, August 11.' 78 XII Chart illustrating Miller's Interpretation of Rev 9:5,15

150+391 1299AD. July 27

1-------1

184OAD . Aug 11

5.14.2 Fractions of a prophetic day
The time required a strictly literalistic application of the yearday theory. An hour was one 24th part of a day symbolizing one 24th part of a year or 15 days. The rest was simple arithmetic, a day was taken .for a year, a month for 30 years and a year for 360 years adding up to a total of 391 years plus 15 days . Beginning in the Spring of 1840 there were frequent reminders of the approaching terminus. In April The Signs began printing a regular column called THE NATIONS. This

5.14 .3 News from the East
When August 11 passed there was an abrupt pause in Millerite periodicals on the subject. The Millerites waited for news from Turkey with keen interest and expectancy of an Armageddon.V" For a time there appears to have been a moment of disquiet.P? No world war broke out. Nothing spectacular happened. The editors promised that Miller would later comment on charges that he had falsely expected the close of probation.!" For a few weeks there was no "THE NA TIONS" column in the Signs of

Mr. Miller that the day of grace will close in the month of August." L[itch] "Events to Succeed the Second Woe" ST Aug 1, 1840. See also Anon. "The Closing up of the Day of Grace" S,T Aug 1 1840, which comments on the events to be expected in August: "This must certainly close up the gospel dispensation -In conclusion we solemnly warn our fellow Christians of all sects and denominations to trim their lamps. " See also Anon. "Sixth Vial" ST May 1, 1840. 178Litch 1838 is the earliest source which indicates the month of August. "Turkish government should be overthrown in AD. 1840 -- some time in the month o.f August The prophecy is the most remarkable and definite of any in the Bible" He did not publish an exact day until August. Litch 111-125. Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in Numbers & Butler 1978, 78-91. 177SMV, 27. Cf. Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in Numbers & Butler 1987, 84.

"Events to Succeed. the. Second Woe" ST 1, 1840. Litch also had another article in the same issue. This is less dogmatic on time. "But whenever it is fulfilled, whether 1840, or at a future period --. "Fall of the Ottoman Power in Constantinople" ST Aug 1, 1840. 17sL[itch] "The Battle of Armageddon" ST Sep 1, 1840. the editors collected some material which reflects embarrassment into Anon. "The Fall of the Ottoman Power in 1840" ST sep 1, 1840. 18tEditorial ST Sep 15, 1840. There appears no clear later comments on the issue, but Miller "Miller's Letters No.8" ST Sep 1, 1840, explains the dilemma with the claim that all that need be said is that mercy must close before the actual advent.

142
the Times. Then steamers from the Old Continent brought detailed information of events in August and "THE NA TIONS" reappeared in the Signs.l82 Litch together with the other editors was able to publish news of prophetic fulfillment around August 11.

143
concluded that he was now "entirely satisfied that on the 11th day of August -- Ottoman supremacy departed."? In spite of the fact that later judgement has failed to single out the Millerite dates as outstanding for the history of Turkey or of Islam, the Millerites experienced this "fulfillment" as a boost for their morale and it certainly proved an effective means of creating interest in prophetic timekeeping.l'" For more than a year the Signs frequently included news on the Eastern question in "THE NA TIONS" column.

5.14.3.1 Wallah, hillah, tillah
At first the reports were given with caution, and only after several months do they ring with a note of triumph. In October Litch entitles his article "The Battle Begun" and but he is not yet able to date the fulfillment to the day. Yet the fighting appeared to seal the prophecy.P" In January it is asserted that on the very day, August 11, Turkey had brought itself to the brink of a war by imprisoning the special envoy of the allied Western nations in Alexandria.!" Mehemet Ali had proven unable to accept the conditions placed on him, instead he had answered: "Wallah, hillah, tillah" (an oath by God) I will not yield a span of the land I possess, and if war is made against me, I will tum the empire upside down and be buried in its ruins. Mehemet Ali l85 The words "Wallah, hillah, tillah" must have appeared exciting to the Millerites as they were repeated numerous times in various articles over the issue.l88 This was the decisive stroke. Litch

5.14.4 Comments on the fall of Turkey
Judgment on the impact of this interpretation must be guarded. It would be a mistake to regard this interpretation as one which converted thousands to Millerism. This idea would not explain Litch's dismay over people's reluctance to accept the events of August 11 as a "convincing" "sign from heaven."189 Likewise it is an error to call it a bitter disappointment. No one was to know that in spite of Turkey's troubles and occasional military skirmishes she was to continue as an independent state and that August 11, 1840 would not later be one of the important days in Turkish history. Subsequently after initial uncertainty the interpretation was promoted with reasonable enthusiasm. The fact that there was no strong challenge to Miller's and Litch's theory indicates that the hesitation and disappointment was not all that serious. In spite of the fact that Litch later renounced his Turkish interpretation it did add credibility to the whole of Millerite exegesis. Miller was able to pronounce his view of the year-day method: "That God has used days as figures of years, none will or can deny."I90 The system of dates and periods was considered sealed and confirmed.

182E.g. 'The Nations" ST Oct 1, 1840 describes vividly how ''The steamship Britannia with captain Woodruff arrived" with the news that "Things are fast tending to a general conflict." 183His article tells about "alarming intelligence" from the Near East. It claims that "Beyrout" is "in ruins" and that on Aug 15, "the Sultan, by his embassador [sic] -- signed the death warrant of the Ottoman power." Litch "The Battle Begun!" ST Oct 14, 1840. 184[Litch] "Turkey and Egypt" ST Jan 15, 1841, Feb 1, 1841. 185Litch "The Fall of the Ottoman Power" ST Jan 1, 1842. 188E.g. fLitch] ''Turkey and Egypt" ST Jan 15, 1841 and Feb 1, 1841. Litch 1842/a, 124.

187Litch "The Fall of the Ottoman Power" ST Jan 1, 1842. 188Litch 1842/a, 115-132. Cf. White 1911, 334f; Smith 1944, 502-7; Arasola 1955, 228-34; SDABC VII, 794-796.

Cry, Jan 20, 1844; Anderson, "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in
Numbers & Butler 1987, 86.

18er-itch 1842/b, 2:200; MC quoted in The Western Midnight

190VOP 18421j, 52f.

144
However, one must agree with Anderson that Litch never allowed events to test his theory. It appears that if Mehemet Ali overthrew the Sultan, "or if the Sultan maintained his throne with outside help, the prophecy was still 'fulfilled.' If a general war broke out, or if it did not, the prophecy was still 'fulfilled.' Whether probation closed on August 11, 1840, or appeared to continue -- the fall of Turkey was still a sign that the door of mercy would close. -- The hypothesis was not falsifiable.'?"

145

Fourthly, some of the proofs are not time-propheciesl'" at all, 94 or their actual intent is turned upside down. 1 The power of religious convictions has rarely followed the paths of logic. Fifthly, Millerites appear to have believed that a multiplication of weak points makes one strong point. Thus the argument was multiplied into 15 points some of which were justly ridiculed by opponents and brushed aside by thoughtful supporters.I'" Finally, one should observe the strong points of Miller's arguments. They were presented persuasively. There were no hidden meanings or occult references. The meaning of every symbol, or every important word was argued with biblical texts, often much to the shame of Miller's opponents.P" The method employed widely accepted principles of historicism. Millerite study of the Scriptures combined skills in calculation and detective work - an enterprise that could be taken up without previous expertise or resources of a library, and yet it provided the hearer with the joy of new discovery. Motivation sprung from the urgent relevancy of the message. The hermeneutic simplified human history into straightforward phases leading up to the present. It may be added further that the nearness of the second advent gave no time for pondering intellectually knotty problems.?" The spirit of Miller's work was one of discovery. The following words describe Miller's experience when he first harmonized Bible prophecies, and it was shared by many of his followers: The Bible was now a new book . It was indeed a feast of reason: all that was dark, mystical, or obscure to me in its teachings, had been

5.15 Observations on Millers chronological points
Without apocalyptic chronology there would not have been a Millerite revival. Chronological exegesis was the driving force of the movement. The "burned over district" found something new and exiting in the complex and intriguing calculations on the date of the parousia. One can give some reflections.

Firstly, as has been stated earlier, the chronology leading to 1843 was based primarily on the Old Testament. The only New Testament calculation leading to 1843 was that of Luke 13:32, and even that was paralleled with the text in Hosea 6. It is possible that the Old Testament, due to its great diversity of historical and prophetic material, suits the Millerite type or prophetic speculation better than the New Testament.
Secondly, the "proofs" rest on technical points like Biblical and historical chronology, which probably gave an aura of learning to the system. Laymen were unable to check the validity of the points themselves and emotional factors and the rhetoric of the argument may have led many to decide in favor of Miller. Thirdly, all of Miller's calculations contain a mathematical error. Miller overlooked the non-existence of a year zero, which indicates that no Millerite before 1844 did his homework thoroughly. 1112

1 93E.g. Proof I, Lev 26. 1IME.g. Proof III, Eze 39. 195There were Millerites who wondered about the legitimacy of Proof I from Lev 26. E.g. Litch "Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel" Me Nov 30, 1842. 198Cf. e.g. White's later reflections on Miller's persuasive skills. White 1911, 405f. 11l7Cf. Harrison 1979, 202.

& Butler 1987, 87.

1111Anderson "The Millerite Use of Prophecy" in Numbers

l112Samuel Snow, the starter of the seventh-month theory was the first Millerite known to have drawn attention to the mistake.

146 dissipated from my mind, before the clear light that now dawned from its sacred pages; and 0 how bright and glorious the truth appeared. All the contradictions and inconsistencies I had before found in the Word were gone; and although there were many portions of which I was not satisfied I had a full understanding, yet so much light had emanated from it to the illumination of my before darkened mind, that I felt a delight in studying the Scriptures, which I had not before supposed could be derived from its teachings.l'"

147

6. FESTAL CALENDAR AND SANCTUARY TYPOLOGY
parousia. In fact it is possible that some of Miller's early
Miller's original exegesis did not provide any exact date for the

5.16 Summary
Miller's exegesis has been generally misunderstood and misinterpreted in literature. For William Miller it was extremely important not to base his chronological argument on one text only. The ultimate "proof" for him was that there were fifteen "proofs". He always preferred to present as many of his chronological expositions as possible. For a modem reader many of Miller's chronological claims appear naive, but in the 19th century they were the logical outcome of the prevalent method. Miller proved himself a master of visual and numerical imagination. He plays with numbers, years and thousands of years, with sevens and multiples of seven. The interpretations have a kaleidoscopic quality in which a little change of angle turns on new colors. Among the ideological followers of Miller Seventh-day Adventists have mainly cherished Millerite views on Daniel and the Apocalypse, while the Jehovah's Witnesses have kept up a number of Miller's other chronological expositions.

comments on the time gave a span of four years. He expected the second advent between 1843 and 1847.1 When he began preaching the definition was narrowed down to "on or before," and "about the year 1843."2 As the time approached Miller specified the time in even greater detail: I believe that time can be known by all who desire to understand and to be ready for his coming. And I am fully convinced that some time between March 21st, 1843, and March 21st, 1844, according to the Jewish mode of computation of time, Christ will come, and bring all his saints with him; and that then he will reward every man as his works shall be," This general position was followed in practically all early Millerite charts, periodical articles, and books." Towards the end

'Ford 1980, A-82. 2E.g. "Miller's Twenty Articles of Faith," ST May 1, 1841. The phrase is also typical of Miller's early comments on the date. Cf. the title of one of the most popular Millerite books: Evidence from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ about the Year 1843 (Editions 1833, 1836, 1838, 1840, 1842). Cf. Bliss 1853, 77-80; PFF IV, 406f, 463, 789; Damsteegt 1977, 35f; Cross 1965, 291.
3SMv, 17f. ST Jan 25, 1843. Cf. PFF IV, 789.

198Miller 1845, 12.

4Por charts see ST May 1, 1841; June I, 1841; April 26, 1843; May 24, 1843; Me Nov 18, 1842; March 17, 1843; June 8, 1843; July 20, 1843; Aug 31, 1843. PFF IV, 794.

148
of the revival new measures were used to define the time exactly to the day. It has already been pointed out that this was no longer Miller's exegesis but rather that of Snow and Storrs. The specific date for the parousia was October 22 in 1844. It is the purpose of this chapter to outline the exegesis, which provided such unequivocal measure for Christ's return. Froom suggests that pressure from opponents forced Miller's scholarly associates to study anew their ideas of the Jewish year," While this may be correct, one should not overlook the possibility that the Millerites had a great personal interest in studying and restudying every imaginable in order to find, if possible, new details on the time. It was no accident that their sixteenth general conference made a decision to place greater emphasis on the time?

149 the new moon nearest the vernal equinox, when the sun is in Aries. The Caraite Jews, on the contrary, still adhere to the letter of the Mosaic law, and commence with the new moon nearest the barley harvest in Judea; and which is one moon later than the Rabbinical year. The Jewish year of A.D. 1843, as the Caraites reckon it in accordance with the Mosaic law, therefore commenced this Jear with the new moon on the 29th day of Apr' , and the Jewish year 1844, will commence with the new moon in next April 18/19.9 The correctness of this information has later been challenged. Without the sources that the Millerites used, it is impossible to evaluate properly their information on the Karaite calendar." At any rate many preferred a calendar that began with barley harvest rather than solstice.11 The law of Moses requires that the passover shall be at the full moon, when the barley harvest is ripe, which varies from the last of march to the first of May. -- This year the first full moon came on the 3d of April; and whether the barley was then ripe, and the true passover then kept; or whether it was not observed till the following moon, we have no certain means of knowing. As the first full moon came so late this year, it is propable the Caraites then observed the passover unless the harvest was more than usually late." Miller was never overly keen on changing his views. After a disappointment in March he wanted to tone down the enthusiasm on the time." He was satisfied simply to keep the

6.1 Two Jewish calendars
As attention was drawn to the Jewish year, the first result was a correction in their previously proclaimed prophetic times. Miller held to the regular Rabbinic calendar with his dates for the termini of the Jewish year, March 21. His associates, Bliss, Litch, Himes, Southard, Hale and Whiting aroused doubts about the correctness of his view. They submitted the proposition that all prophecies should be counted with the Karaite dating, the "original Jewish calendar" which followed a luni-solar year and barley harvests as indicated by the Pentateuch,"
Now there is a dispute between the Rabbinical, and the Caraite Jews, as to the correct time of commencing the year . The former are scattered all over the world, and cannot observe the time of the ripening of that harvest in Judea. They the commencement of the year therefore by astronomical calculations, and commence with

ST June 21, 1843. PFF IV; 796. !!PFF IV; 795.
8Lindtn 1978, 59. 7The Conference was held in Boston in May 1842. Cf. chapter 2.5. l°E.g. Ford 1980. A-81-86. It would be exceptional for orthodox Jews to have the beginning of Nisan later than March and the Day of Atonement in late October. "Cf. Lev 23:5-10. 12E.C.C. "The Seventh Month" AH Sep 21, 1844. 13Miller, Apology 1845, 24.

8PFF IV; 796. Cf. de Vaux 1961, 189-194.

150

151

parousia imminent. However, many of his supporters were not prepared to settle for immediatism. He was unable to keep the movement on his side." From late 1842 the Millerites had been preoccupied with the exact definition of the date, and they passed through a series of disappointments in the spring of 1844. Millerism was ready for its last turn. The final stage of the movement sustained prophetic calculations based on the Karaite calendar.

week is added to this date the 490 year prophecy ends in the autumn of A.D. 34, a year's correction to Miller's suggestion.24. This was the time when the persecution of the church was believed to have begun and the Jewish dispensation came to an end. The Gospel began to reach the Gentiles.

6.2.2 Correction for the year zero
With his AD. 34 date for the end of the 490 years Snow had in fact rectified the mistake that Miller made with the year zero. The terminus of the 2300 years was now moved to the mathematically correct 1844 instead of 1843. Snow does not show full awareness of the simplicity of the problem. He uses astronomical charts which give him the correct result in B.C. to A.D. calculations." Snow's conclusions would in fact have given another full year for the disappointed Millerites. Most of their prophetic expositions could have been improved to extend from spring 1844 to spring 1845. However, after the final disappointment in the autumn of 1844 there was no energy left for further chronological revisions.

6.2. A correction of the calculations
The movement focused now on chronological problems. Among the Millerites there were especially two men who bear responsibility for much of the discussion on the various calendars as well as on typology. George Storrs and Samuel Snow published article after article on these subjects.

6.2.1 The time of the crucifixion and 1844
One of the first changes that Snow and Storss suggested was based on a restudy of Daniel 9 and in particular the date of the crucifixion. (Dan 9.2fi,27) Snow put together Daniel's words, the "Messiah be cut off' and "in the middle of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease." His interpretation was that the ceasing of the sacrifice was a prophecy on the crucifixion. Christ died in the middle of the 70th week and brought an end to the Jewish sacrificial system. The death of Christ was redated into 31 AD. 1!5 Snow's labors with the time of Christ's ministry proved valuable for his exegesis of Daniel 8.14. He believed that Christ began his ministry in the autumn of 27 AD. The crucifixion would then fall exactly three and a half years later to the spring of 31 AD. The confirmation of this, Snow claimed, was found in the chronological work of William Hales, who had contested that the only Friday passover within the years of Christ's ministry was in AD. 31.1 Snow continues that if the rest of the 70th I·Cf. Linden 1978, 6Of.
"Snow MC May 2, 1844, 353. 16TMC Aug 22, 1844.

6.2.3 Autumn speculation
Snow took his dates for the crucifixion with extreme seriousness. If the middle of the last prophetic week of Daniel 9 lies in the Spring, then the terminus a quo and the terminus ad quem must both be in the Autumn. This in turn made it possible for Snow to time the beginning of the 2300 days from the Autumn of 457 B.C. and its end to the Autumn of 1844, into the month of Tishri, on to the Day of Atonement, which Was almost to the day half a year from the time of the passover in Nisan. Snow's God was "an exact timekeeper.t'" He wanted to make the Millerite prophetic system perfect to the detail.
I believe this argument to be based on correct

premises, and to be perfectly sound. What then is the conclusion? It must certainly be this. -- the remaining part of the 2300 days -- brings us to

17Snow MC May 2, 1844, p. 353. "Snow, "Reasons for believing" AH Oct 9, 1844.

152

153

the autumn of A.D. 1844.' 11

6.2.4 Creation in the autumn
Snow got involved also with other aspects of Miller's theory. He was a firm believer in Miller's 6000 year theory. He made the suggestion which now appears curious but which at the time was published in all seriousness. "Now this long period -- the aion of age of this world, began in Autumn." In proof of an autumn creation Show offered three considerations. First, "it has been the concurrent opinion of chronologers, both Jewish and Christian." Secondly, man had to subsist on a diet of fruit and seeds (Gen 1:29), and it was only reasonable to assume that these would be ripe in the Autumn. His third reason refers to an Egyptian calendar which had been held "since creation" and still dated creation to the Autumn. 20 We have the very best of reasons for believing that 6000 years allotted for this world in its present state, began in the month of Tishri."

must be left out of the reckoning. This will necessarily extend down the period of the 2520 years, down to the Autumn of A.D. 1844.22 Snow found support for his exposition of the seven times.23 However, the simplicity of his argument on the seven times reveals a lack of awareness of the complexity of the problems in Biblical chronology.

6.3 Daniel 8:14 and sanctuary typology
All the exegetical corrections that Snow proposed focus on one idea. The parousia must fall in the Autumn of 1844, to be more exact, between the sunset of October 21 and the sunset of October 22. This theorem sprang from a novel typological interpretation of Daniel 8:14 which must be discussed in greater detail.

6.3.1 Development of Millerite interest in typology
The origin of Millerite typological interest can be found in several sources. One, though probably not the most important, is Miller's concept of the prophecies relating to the Jewish rather than the Gregorian calendar. This idea involved technical detail which many Millerites loved. It gave the adherents confidence in the logic and scientifically sound foundation of their faith. Interest in the intricate problems of calendars escalated gradually towards the end of 1843. The Jewish calendars, Jewish feasts and typological and eschatological meaning of various symbols took more and more space in Millerite periodicals . Before Miller had given any serious suggestions on the Jewish Year Himes published a reprint of Spalding's book on

6.2.5 The seven times
Snow extended his chronological work also to Miller's "prophecy of Moses." The seven times of Moses, in Lev 26, amount to 2520 full years. They began with the breaking of the power of Judah, at the captivity of Manasseh (B.C. 671). This is the time that has always been given as the date of their commencement. -- In that year, in fulfillment of the prediction in Hos. v5, Israel and Judah were both broken. But as it must necessarily require considerable time to remove the ten tribes, and bring foreigners to fill their place -- we cannot well date Manasseh's captivity earlier than Autumn of that year. About one half, therefore, of the Jewish Year B.C. 677,
"Snow Me May 2, 1844, p. 353. C.f. PFF W, 799.

22Snow "Prophetic Chronology" AH Aug 14, 1844. "Prophetic Chronology" AH Aug 14, 1844. Cf. Snow "Reasons fo Believing" AH Oct 9, 1844. Rees MS, 1983, 12-14. 21Snow "Prophetic Chronology" AH Aug 14, 1844. 23E.g. E.C.C. ''The Seventh Month" AH Sep 21, 1844 lists with the great enthusiasm every imaginable Old Testament text on the seventh month in an effort to show some mystical union between the seven times of Lev 26 and the seventh month assumed to be related to Daniel 8:14.

154

155 movement. 28 According to this concept the spring feasts, passover and the feast of weeks, met their antitypes at the beginning of the Christian era. This had always been the traditional Christian view: the Passover was accepted as the type of the events related to the crucifixion, and the feast of weeks as the type of the Pentecost. It is a fairly logical step forward to regard the autumn feasts, the day of the atonement and the feast of tabernacles, eschatological."

prophecy." This not only included detailed expositions of apocalyptic prophecy and a skilfully prepared argument for the non-return of the Jews, but it also presented the notion that the Spring feasts of the Jewish year point forward to the first advent of Christ while the Autumn feasts, the Day of Atonement and the Feast of Tabernacles, symbolize the second advent.
There is also a third early source on typological interpretation. This is a detailed series of five articles by "E.B.K."25 These articles speculate on the eschatological meaning of various elements in the Jewish Sanctuary service. They do not include discussion on chronological symbolism which was to become so important for Snow, yet they entice the reader to consider the prophetic significance of Levitical institutions.

6.3.3 The seventh month
Miller had played his role in introducing an eschatological dimension into the autumn feasts. Other Millerites began laboring with the Jewish festal calendar. There may even have been some, who looked with special interest upon the seventh month of the Jewish year in 1843.30 As they did this they were in fact knowingly or unknowingly borrowing an idea which Sir Isaac Newton had asserted more than a century earlier: The temple is the scene of the visions, and the visions in the Temple relate to the feast of the seventh month: for the feasts of the lews were typical of things to come. The Passover related to the first coming of Christ, and the feasts of the seventh month to his second coming: his first being therefore over before this Prophecy was given, the feasts of the seventh month are here only alluded unto." Samuel Snow combined Miller's idea on the meaning of the Jewish feasts with Miller's well known explanation of Daniel 8:14 In the spring Snow did not propose an exact date but

6.3.2 The autumn feasts
In May 1843, when there were several months to the end of the "Jewish year," Miller brought into the open Spalding's idea on the eschatological import of the Jewish feasts. All the ceremonies of the typical law that were observed in the first month, or vernal equinox, had their fulfilment in Christ's first advent -The feasts and ceremonies in the seventh month or autumnal equinox, can only have their fulfilment at his second advent.211 After Miller's discussed and though Miller of the idea comment this hermeneutical idea was frequently elaborated on in Millerite periodicals." Even did nothing to pursue the exegetical implications it is the real inception of the seventh-month

24Spalding 1796, 1841. 25E.B.K. "Theory of Types, Nos. 1-5" ST Mar 15 - Sep 1,
1841.

28PFF IV, 795.
"Letter, May 3, 1843" ST May 17, 1843. Cf. Snow, MC May 2, 1844, 355.

2llMiller, "Letter May 3, 1843" ST May 17, 1843. 27E.g. AH Sep 18, 1844, p. 52; Oct 2, 1844, pp. 70-72; MC Oct 11, 1844, p. 115.

30PFF W, 795.
31Newton 1733, 255; PFF II, 668.

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157

rather the autumn in general.f However, in the late summer of 1844 he had done further research on the festal typoi and he was perfectly convinced that Daniel 8:14 pointed forward to a universal Day of Atonement, the cleansmg of the heavenly sanctuary.P
XIII Chart illustrating Snow's typological interpretation of the Levitical festal calendar

Dan 8:14 included the words "then shall the sanctuary be cleansed" and Lev 16:19 describes one of the rituals of the Day of the Atonement: "And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it [the altar] with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel." Both texts had a relationship to the sanctuary and both texts mentioned a cleansing." Snow was simply suggesting that the OT economy of sanctuary services and especially the feasts were a straightforward prophecy of various aspects of the first or of the second advent of Christ. He described how the heavenly high priest would come out of the cleansed sanctuary and bless the waiting congregation exactly on the day of atonement. The high priest went into the most holy place of the tabernacle presenting the blood of the victim before the mercy seat, after which on the same day he came out and blessed the waiting congregation of Israel. -- Now the importantpoint in this type is the com,:;:on of the reconciliation of the . priest out of the holy at the place. The high priest was a type of Jesus our High Priest; the most holy place, a type of heaven itself; and the commg out of the high priest a type of the coming of Jesus the second time to bless his waiting people. As this was on the tenth day of the 7th month, so on that day Jesus will certainly come, because not a si':Jle point of the law is to fail. All must be fulfilled. Snow's argument had a certain degree of logic. He only needed to ask when the paschal type was fulfilled. Most of his readers would have agreed readily that it was on the regular time of the passover sacriftce in the afternoon with Christ as the passover lamb. During the passover celebration the first fruits of

FEASTS Spring: Passover Feast of weeks Autumn: Day of Feast of Atonement Tabernacles Parousia

-I

Crucifixion Pentecost

1-----1

1-

Millennial marriage feast of the lamb

TYPOWGICAL MEANING

6.3.4 Details of the sanctuary typos
For some reason Snow or other Millerites never realized that they were no longer interpreting Daniel when they got involved with the festal calendar. The interpretation was rather that of Leviticus 16. Daniel's prophecy was only secondary. It showed the year, but the day was indicated by the Jewish festal calendar. Leviticus 16 was presented as the primary interpreter of Daniel 8, while in fact focus was on an eschatological jom kippurim which was timed with Daniel 8:14. Proof for this exegesis was found in the King James translation. 32Snow "Our Position As to Time" ASR May 2, 1844, 125. 33Snow "Reasons for Believing AH Oct 9, 1844.

304KJV translates misleadingly "cleansed." This is propably due to LXX translation The use of a concordance may lead to combine Dan 8:14 with Lev 16:19 which mentions the cleansing [iilt!)' J of the altar on the day of the atonement. 35Snow, TMC August 22, 1844.

158

the harvest were offered on the morning after the Sabbath. This in Snows view was fulfilled with Christ rising from the dead in the morning. Snow tried to prove that every imaginable symbol was fulfilled literally also in relationship to time. Likewise the Christian day of Pentecost with the bestowal of the Holy Spirit and the mass conversion, which was the first gathering of harvest to the kingdom of God, happened on the literal Jewish harvest festival, feast of the weeks with events matching those of the type. The law of Moses contained a shadow of good things to come; a system of figures of types See Heb. x.1; pointing to Christ and his Col. ii.16,17. Everything contamed in the law was to be fulfilled by him. -- Not the least point will fail, either in the substance shadowed forth, or in the time so definitely pointed out by the observance of the For God is an exact time keeper. See Acts xvit.26, 31; Job xxiv.1; Lev xxiii.4,37. These passages show that TIME is an important point in the law of the Lord/" This belief in the exact fulfilment "in regard to time" was taken, were possible, even to the time of the day. From the language of Leviticus xxiii.32 [from even unto even shall ye celebrate your sabbath), I think the hour of the Advent will be at the evening of the tenth day; thus God may design to try our faith till the very last moment; and "he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved .?" However, they never paused to wonder whether the evening was to be Palestinian or North American time.

159 XIV Chart illustrating Snow's view of the typological meaning of the autumnal Jewish feasts

THE TYPE:
Day of Atonement 10th of the seventh month, Tishri Feast of Tabernacles 15th of the seventh month, Tishri

ANTITYPE: Parousia October 22, 1844 Marriage feast of the lamb October 27,1844

Millerite leaders." The Millerite papers admonished their readers to avoid everything foolish and fanatical. While objections to Snow's views were printed in the Advent Herald Snow and Storrs began publishing their own paper. Snow and those who backed him regarded the spontaneity of the revival as a certain sign of the work being from the Lord.Litch published several points to show his disapproval of Snow's doctrine. He felt that there are no grounds for claiming that the decree to rebuild Jerusalem was given in the autumn of 457 B.C. Litch argued further that there was no proof of Christ beginning his ministry in the autumn as John 2:13 shows that soon after Christ's ministry had begun there was the Passover. He had not accepted the typology of Snow. As he pointed out, there was no reason to claim that Christ can only come back at the end of the 2300 days." However valid Litch's counterarguments may have been, they did little to tum the tide. One after another the Millerite leaders embraced the new typological interpretation of prophecy. The people were counting time according to the Jewish calendar. And as the month of Tishri

6.4 Objections to Snow's typology
Snows ultraistic speculation was slow to catch the support of

38Linden 1982, 17. 36Snow "Reasons for believing" AH Oct 9, 1844. 37Storrs "Go Ye out to Meet Him" AH Oct 9, 1844.

38PFF IV, 812-820.
''The Seventh Month" AH Aug 21, 1844.

160 began Miller and Litch also accepted the evidence." Southard published his acceptance in the Advent Herald. The weight of evidence that the Lord will come on the tenth day of the seventh month is so strong that I heartily yield to its force, and I intend, by the help of the Lord, to act as if there was no possibility of mistake."

161 were blown, and in the evening the blessing was received. This formed the final confirmation of the autumn expectation. Morning to evening was half a day, in prophetic time this was half a year . The spring expectation was the blowing of trumpets in the morning and the "midnight cry" led to the preparation to meet the bridegroomlbigh Eriest half a year later in the autumn symbolized by the evening. The exegetical elements, apocalyptic prophecy from Daniel, sanctuary typology, a parable of Jesus, were all put together into a package which aroused unforeseen interest in prophetic interpretation. This exegesis is also the trademark of one of the most memorable disappointments that a large group of people have ever experienced, and even though it differed in many ways from traditional historicism, it marks the beginning of a decline in the popularity of this system of prophetic exegesis.

6.5 Midnight Cry
The final crowning point to prove that the argumentation on Leviticus 16 and Daniel 8 was correct came from Matthew 25, the parable of the ten virgins. Christ was not only presented as the high priest coming out of the sanctuary but according to the parable as the bridegroom. The bride,the church, had been waiting for the arrival of the groom in the spring while he in fact would come in the autumn. 'How long the vision? Unto 2300 eveningmornings.' An evening, or 'night,' then, is half of one of those prophetic days. Here then we have the 'chronology' of Jesus Christ. The tarrying time is just half a year. When did we go into this time? Last March or April. Then the latter part of July would bring us to midnight. At that time God put this cry into the hearts of some of his servants, and they saw, from the Bible, that God had the chronology of the tarrying time, and Its length. There it is, in the 25th of Matthew. 'At midnight there was a cry made, Behold the Bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him.' Here we are - the last warning is now 0 heed it ye virgins. Awake, awake, awake. Even the waiting time of half a year from spring 1844 to the autumn was seen in prophecy. The Day of Atonement was a day of waiting and soul searching. In the morning trumpets

6.6 Excursus, background to typology
Typology has a background distinct from that of general historicism. The Christian church has from its beginning seen many Old Testament ima.§es and passages as types and prophecies of Jesus Christ. As one looks back further one finds a pattern in the writings of the Old Testament. The prophets were the first to use typology. As Israel was facing national disasters "they looked for a new David, a new Exodus, a new covenant, a new City of God: the old had become a type of the new and important as pointing forward to it."46 This

"Storrs "Go Ye out to Meet Him" AH Oct 9, 1844. Cf. PFF W, 799-826.
45Modern Biblical research does not usually agree with the interpretations which were common before the inroads of historical critical scholarship into OT interpretation. See e.g, Ringgren 1956, 7. 46For David see e.g, Jer 23.5; 33.15-18; Hosea 3.5; Amos 9.11; Isa 55.3f. Ps 132.11-17; for Exodus e.g, Isa 52.4-12; Jer 16.14,15; 23.7,8; Hos 8.13; 11.11; Zech 10.10; for a city Ez 45; Dan 9.24-27; Jer 31.23; Isa 60.10. Cf. Rad EOTH, 17-39; Rad "Typologische des Alten Testaments" EvT 12 (19521953); Rad "Typological Interpretation of the Old Testament" Int 15 (1%1).

41PFF W, 820f.
42Southard, editorial

Me Oct

3, 1844.

43Storrs "Go Ye out to Meet Him" AH Oct 9, 1844.

162

163

pattern was taken up by the NT writers who saw the Old Testament as a prefiguration of the Christ-event. The number of types found is vast." This view of the types has not passed unchallenged." It presupposes "the conviction of the unchanging nature of God"49 as well as an assurance that the past acts of God "will be repeated on a scale greater and more wonderful than that of the past."!50 Such conviction was part of the first Christian faith."

his calculations of the day of the end. Some of the clearest examples of vertical typology are found in the book of Hebrews . Modern scholarshig usually dissassociates itself strongly from this form of typology. There is no reason to discuss the vertical typology any further as it was not important for the prophetic calculations in question until the birth of Seventh-day Adventism. The New Testament thus sowed the seeds for both historical and heavenly antitypes. It is not necessary here to cover the background of typological hermeneutic through the centuries.54 The views vary from the illustrious allegories of Origen through the medieval quadrica to the more sober exegesis of the Reformers." During the period of Protestant orthodoxy ''Types were regarded as O'I' facts which were ordained by God to adumbrate or foreshadow aspects of Christ or the Gospel in the NT."58 This view has in succeeding centuries been accepted as the traditional understanding of biblical typology. It is still regarded as the true concept on the subject by many with a Biblicist view on the Scriptures."

6.6.1 New Testament typology
The typology of the NT is both horizontal, referring to historical fulfillments, and vertical, illustrating things considered as heavenly realities. An example of horizontal typology is in 1Cor 10 where Paul regards things from the Exodus and wilderness itinerary as symbols of various things in Christian experience. "These things happened as types [tupoi] for us, that we should not crave evil things, as they craved" and "Now these things happened to them as examples [tupikos) and they were written for our warning, upon whom the end of the ages has come" (vv. 6,11).52 It was this horizontal typology that Snow employed in

6.6.2 Cocceius and Marsh
Within protestant biblicism there were two main lines of

47Rad EOTH 34-36; Rad 1965, 363. 4llRad's view has been contested by e.g. Bultmann, who considers such thinking "almost entirely foreign to ancient Israel," see EOrH 19, and Baumgartel, who regards typology incompatible with modern historical thinking and for whom O'I' views are irreconcilable with NT gospel, EOTH 157. cr. Eichrodt in EOrH 224-245 who in turn gives some justification for typological considerations; or Lampe 1957, 9-38 on "the reasonableness of typology." Also Wolff EOrH 160-199; and Wolff "Old Testament in Controversy: Interpretative Principles and Illustrations" Int 12 (1958), expresses the view that approach is "indispenstble." Cf. Barr "Revelation in History" IDBSup 746-749; Davidson 1981, 59-73. 4"Foulkes 1958, 40. !iOpoulkes 1958, 8. 51Bultmann "Prophecy and Fulfillment" in EOTH, 19.
52Cf. e.g, Rom 5.U-21; 1Pet 3.18-22.

53E.g. Rad 1956, 367. "Typological exposition of the kind practiced in Protestantism from the time of the Reformation down to that of Delitzsch can never be revived. Too much of what it took for granted, not least its underlying philosophy of history, has proved untenable, and the gulf between It and ourselves has become so wide that no great profit could be expected from any discussion of it." 54See e.g. Fairbairn 1857, "book first" for an overview of the history of typology. 55Luther insisted on taking seriously the literal meaning of the Word and from that starting point looked for a Christocentric, typological understanding. He believed that the O'I' "pointed forward to Christ" WA 12:275; Althaus 1966, 96. For Calvin see e.g. Institutes 2.9.3; 2.10.4, Davidson 1981, 31. 58Davidson 1981, 32f. 57E.g. Lockyer 1973.

164
prophetic typolo e. On one extreme there was the so-called Cocceian school with an elaborate and imaginative exegesis "impregnated with typology.1t!58 Sensus allegoricus was so important for Cocceian interpretation of types that Harnack's term "Biblicalalchemy" [given for Origen's exegesis] suits perfectly some of these fanciful expositions.eo On the other extreme there was the Marshian typology representing a reaction from the prevelant undisciplined method!' Marsh looked for Scriptural sanction for each type and gained fair scholarly but little popular support for his method /" However, Cocceian !!lAtter Johannes Cocceius (1603-1669). Fairbairn 1864, 27!llIBrown "Hermeneutics" p. 613, quoted in Davidson 1981, 165 typology was prominent in Britain and North-America until midnineteenth century.83

6.6.3 North American concepts
Even though the scholarly nineteenth-century commentaries promoted the sober Marshian typology, popular books and pamphlets applied typology to any number of aspects within the sphere of Christian life. It turned the Bible into a "vast volume of oracles and riddles, a huge book of secret puzzles to which the reader has to find clues." Often little account of actual history was taken." Another feature of American typology is its interest in the termini technici of the sanctuary, the sacrifices of the feasts types which became so important for the Seventh-month movement and later for Adventism. Yet the literature available for this research has not provided any examples of Old Testament typology combined with prophetic exegesis that would parallel with Snow's typological ideas. Finally it is worth observing that the whole relationship that North American Christians had to the OT in Miller's time would deserve further study. In many areas of life OT terminology was regularly used. Sunday was called the Sabbat h/" Several Pentateuchal laws from tithing to marriage laws, and from the treatment of the poor to the distinction of clean and unclean animals were regarded as normative or valuable by some Christians." With such interest and authority invested in the Old Testament it is to be expected that a detailed typology of various themes would exist.

32. 33.

80fIarnack n.d. vol I, 114f. 8tA Marshian method of typologhy was named after Herber t Marsh (1757-1839), bishop of Peterbo rough. "By what means shall we be able to determine, in any given mstance, that what is alleged as a type, was really designed for a type? The only possible means of -knowing that two distant, though similar histoncal facts were so connected in the general scheme of Divine Providence that the one designed to prefigure the other, is the authority of that book in which the scheme of Divine Providence is unfolded." Marsh himself is pre-critical in his hermeneutic. See Marsh 1828, 372. cr. Fairbairn 1864, 32-44; Davidson 1981, 33-37. Marsh's solution is problematic if one considers the possible "Biblical types": Adam (Rom 4:11; 1Cor 15:22); Melchizedek (Heb 8); Sarah and Hagar, Ishmael and Isaac, and by implication Abraham (Gal 4:22-35); Moses (Gal 3:19; Acts 3:22-26); Jonah (Mt 12:40); David (Ez 32:24; Lk 1:32); Solomon (2Sam 7); Zerubbabel and Joshua CZech 3,4; Hag 2:23); preservation of Noah and his family in the ark (lPet 3:20); exodus (Mt 2:15); the passage through the Red Sea, the giving of manna, Moses veiling his face, the water flowing from the smitten rock, the serpent lifted for healing in the wilderness (lCor 10); Joh 3:14; Rev 2:1 . Fairbairn 1864, 4Of. Some sacrifices and feasts, at least the assover, should be interpr eted as "Biblical types". Franks n.d. [19181, 15f. The OT itself gives no explanation for the various rituals, cr. Vriezen 1958, 29lf; Wallace 1981" 4f.

83See e.g. introductions in Habershon n.d. [liThe Types not Fanciful"]; Taylor 1635, 1-5; White [F.] 1877, 1-3. &4Lampe 1957, 31.

e&rhis is in line with the Calvinistic/Puritan tradition of North America .
eeunilateralism lies behind these concepts. Lampe 1957, 17.

166

167

6.6.4 Examples of sanctuary typology
The spirit of allegorizing typology is illustrated in words that come from a twentieth-entury fundamentalistic handbook on Messianic prophecies. The claim is that the detailed "precise measurements and construction of the tabernacle-- with all the intricate instructions as to the offerings and feasts" repay meditation more amply than any other section of the Bible. "As we prayerfully and patiently study them, we find them full of the deepest teaching concerning Christ and spiritual things, and of the wisest councels for the right ordering of our daily life."81 The hermeneutic presupposed spiritualization, a deepening, ethicizing, symbolizing or dematerializing of fairly concrete religious terms." The importance of sanctuary typology was reinforced with Bengel's observation: "While two chapters in Genesis are given to tell us how the world was created, there are sixteen chapters to tell us how the Tabernacle was constructed. For the world was made for the sake of the Church, and the great object of creation is to glorify God in the redemption and sanctification of His people.'tIl8 The interest frequently led to an ignoring of reality." Earthly occurences and objects were not only regarded as foreknown by God but also as expressions of the details of the atonement, "the plan of salvation," of the exact copy of heavenly things that before the tabernacle and that still continue to exist. 1 "The careful study of the types," claims Habershon, "leaves no room for doubting that the whole Levitical economy was divinely instituted to forshadow the work and person of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself."72 With this 67Lockyer 1973, 343. Cf. White [F.] 1877, 3, "Every part of the sacred structure, from the Golden Chest-- down to the smallest pin or cord which fastened the whole to the ground is replete with instruction." 88Daly 1978, 4. as quoted in White [F.] 1877, 3. 7°Cf. Lockyer 1973, 343-476. 71Cf. Harnack n.d. vol I, 320. 72Jfabershon 1915, 12.

mentality it was natural to combine prophecy with typology. Typological interpretation was also applied to historical narrative." Certain details in the history of Israel or some individuals were thought of the life of Christ or of the whole Christian of as dispensation 4. As a result numerous typological propositions, far fetched, trifling or even contrary to the type and its context were presented. This was due to the fact that the method had no fixed rules to guide its interpretations, which left room on every hand for arbitrariness and caprice to enter." The seventh-month movement of Millerism employed only a very narrow area of typology in its prophetic hermeneutic. Many details of this typology can be compared with the typological schemes that were presented in popular books. Snow's ideas were criticised by Miller and some others on the grounds that the principles did not stem from the Bible, in other words for being in line with the Cocceian method.

6.7 Summary
Towards the end of Millerism a fresh interest in details of Jewish calendar and of sanctuary typology was aroused. The time was defined in a complex way which made it impossible for laymen any more than preachers to control whether the basic arguments were sound. The Millerite message was focused on a few issues only, in fact only one issue - whether the Day

73E.g. Guild found no less than fortynine typical resemblances between Joseph and Christ, and seventeen between Jacob and Christ. One of these was Jacob's a supplanter of his brother which Guild made to represent Christ's suplanting death, sin and Satan. Guild 1626, quoted in Fairbairn 1864, 30. Cf. e.g, Lampe's comments on the interpretation that the scarlet cord of Rahab at Jericho served as a token of the blood of Christ. An example stemming from the church fathers. Lampe
1957, 33.

74E.g. Law 1855 (rep. 1%7), 97-151; Habershon n.d.; White [F.], 1877, 120 and in passim. 711Fairbairn 1857, 31£.

168
of Atonement was a type of the Parousia to be timed with the help of Daniel 8:14. Such detailed prophetic association with the Pentateuchal sanctuary or the feasts has a background in the Cocceian typological school of thought. Various Old Testament types were researched and given historical or theological applications by numerous contemporaries of Miller. Consequently it is no surprise joefiad SnbW wj'ththe:aid ofStotrs bringing the ideas in and the Millerites all prepared io accept them:"

169

7. MILLER'S HERITAGE - CONCLUSIONS
7.1 The power of prophecy
Millerism proves the impact that prophetic exegesis may have. The calculations of a man whose mind was loaded with e\te11ts ' 8.I\d.only to "repeat almost ... "name the exact place, " book," cbipter- and verse" proved convincing to thousands. 1 Miller must be viewed within the context of historicist exegesis. His interpretations were the logical absolute of popular biblicism. This gave the revival enormous potential for growth,"

7.2 The nature of Miller's exegesis
The partisan character of books on Millerism has kept many aspects of Miller's exegesis in the dark. It appears that his imagination was even more fertile than has been recognized. In particular Miller played with one idea: is a prophecy. Subsequently he found time-prophecies in all parts of the Scriptures from the Pentateuch all the way to the book of Revelation. ur Jfts Il .QL t,I1ese prophecies . he called "proofs" of the parousia around 1843. '" A description of these various time-prophecies is the primary contribution of this piece of research. Miller counted the time of the Advent from Leviticus 26, the "prophecy of Moses. " He found the same length of time also in a typological

;f

' Anon. "The Honest Editor again " ST Apr 1, 1841. 2Cross 1%5, 320. Because most of Miller's opponents agreed with his method, and because of Miller's Scriptural and historical information the clergy was careful not to approach him but rather fired "their small guns at a distance." Anon. "T he Honest Editor again" ST Apr 1, 1841.

170 interpretation of the year of release, the prophecy of Gog and Magog, as well as that of Nebuchadnezzar's madness in Daniel 4. The details were filled up with imaginative use of historical and Biblical data. One fundamental aspect of prophetic exegesis came from Biblical chronogenealogies. The weekly cycle was turned into a prophecy of the world lasting 6000 years to be followed by the millcnnial Sabbath. D etailed compositions on chronological detail were part of any Millerite's spiritual diet. There is also another example of a thousand years for a day interpretation in Miller's writings, a pearl lying deep in the waters of prophecy." This cam e from the two days of Hosea 6:1,2 and Luke 13:32. Miller also found a typological interpretation of the second advent in the Jubilee feast. He expected the 50th Jubilee to announce the parousia. Furthermore there were Miller's better known interpretations of Daniel 7, 8, 9, and 12. These prophecies Miller combined with a chronological application of the number of the Beast and turned them into a complex map of prophetic lines all concluding in 1843 .

171

7.4 New ways of prophetic exegesis
What is important to the history of exegesis as a whole is the fact that the whole historicist method appeared to lose much of its appeal as well as its power to kindle revivals after the great disappointment. Very few wanted to take the risks involved in fresh time sett ing and identification with Mill er. Those who did take th e risk found it difficult to arouse interest. T he situa tion in No rth Am eri ca afte r Mill er and In Engl and aft er Irving and his associates made it easy for John Darby to ga in int er est in his dispensation alist views. D arby pr om ot ed immed ia tism referred to as th e d octrine of th e any-m oment coming: the invisible secret rapture first, and th en, 'aft er the literal fulfillment of ail unfulfilled prophecies, the final coming of C hrist. Thi s expec tation of th e imminent ad vent, with no obs tacle in th e way of Christ's return has proved to be the greatest attraction of dispensationalist theology." There is no point in de scribing further d et ails of the d evelopment of historicism or in compar ing and contrasting th e theories rela ted to th ese successive conservative methods of pr ophetic inte rpre tatio n. It sho uld be noted that th e rise of dispensationalism was pr obably more dependant on th e sh ame of tim esett ing than on clearer logic or more faithful adherence to the int ent of the Bibli cal writers .

I
.1

7.3 The Seventh-month movement
When the target year approached concentration on Daniel 8:14 incr e ased with the result that a polarization took place am ong th e Mill erites. The exegesis ch anged from regular historicism int o a combination of typ ology and historicism. The developments that led to the birth of var ious Adventist chur ches , th e Sev enth- d ay Adventist church as well as th e Watchtower society are related to the attitudes that the various faction s within Millerism to ok to the exegesis . 'Of OCtooer ' 1844.2'1Sil. T he . exegetiCal ''0( '$ the varIOUS post-Millente denominations out the future of ]

I
;

7.5 The end and continuation of Millerism
Miller ism had com e to an e nd . With it histor icism gra dua lly ceased to be the only popular method of inte rpretation. It was largely repl aced hy futuris m and pr et eri sm. Ye t one mu st acknowledge th at in fa ct histori cism did not die with M iller. It still lives in a modified and partly ren ewed form with in the g ro ups tha t ha ve so me ro ots in Millerism . Th e fact th at so me o f these groups are growing rap idly shows th at th e met hod still has vitality. \1 ille r's heritage is twofold. On th e o ne han d he co n trib uted to the end o f a dominant system of exege sis, on th e o the r he is regarded as a spir itual fathe r by millions of C hristians who have tak en some pa rts of th e Mill er ite exeges is

"22no

t he historicist method.

.

3Miller 1842/c, 46.

"Sandeen 1970, 63f.

172
as their raison d'etre. Whether he would be happy to be so regarded is another matter.

173

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Millerite sources
Anon. 1842 Anon. 1843 Anon. 1846 A Voice in New HamrShire; or Reflections on Rev. J.Ward's "Brie Remarks on Miller's Lectures," by a Female. Exeter, N.H. [MEA) Address of the Building Commiuee on Opening the Second Advent Tabemacle, May 4, 1843. Boston. [MEA] Address of the conference of Believers in the Second Advent of Christ at the Door, Held in Rochester, N.Y. 2d, 3d, 4th & 5th April 1846. Rochester, N.Y. [MEA] Address of Advent Believers, Being a ReAffirmation of their Faith and a Warning against Certain Defections from it. [Boston] [MEA] Address of Advent Believers, Assembled in Conference at Auburn, N.Y., January 15, 1851, Being a Re-Affirmation of Their Views on the Second Advent - the Millenium - the New Heavens and earth, etc. Boston. [MEA]

Anon. 1850 Anon . 1851

Bates, Joseph 1847 Second Advent Way Marks and High Heaps, or a Connected View of Prophecy, by God's Peculiar People from the Year 1840 to 1847. New Bedford, Mass. [MEA] 1850 An Explanation of the Typical and Anti-Typical Sanctuary, by the Scriptures, with a Chart. New Bedford. [MEA]

174
Bernard, David 1843 Letter of David Bernard (A Babtist Minister) on the Second Coming of Christ. Boston. [MEA] Bliss, Sylvester 18421a Review of Morris' "Modem Chiliasm; or The Doctrine of the Personal and Immortal Reign of Jesus Christ on Earth Commencing about A.D. 1843 as Advocated by William Miller and Others Refuted." Boston. [MEA] 1842/b Review of Rev. DE Dagget's Sermon of the "Time of the End Uncertain," in the National Preacher of Dec. 1842. Boston. [MEA} 1843/a The Chronology of the Bible Showing by the Scriptures and Undisputed Authorities that We Are Near the End of Six Thousand Years from Creation. New York . [MEA] 1843/b An Exposition of the Twenty-forth o[ Matthew; in which it is shown to be an Histoncal Prophecy, extending to the End of Time, and Literally fulfilled. Boston. [MEA] 1843/c Exposition of Zechariah XIV. Boston. [MEA] 1843/d Inconsistencies of Colver's Literal Fulfilment of Daniel's Prophecy. Boston. [MEA] 1843/e Paraphrase of Matthew XXWth and XAYth. Boston. 1843/f Reasons of Our Hope. Boston. [MEA] 1844 Paraphrase of Daniel XI and XII. Boston. [MEA] [1849] Questions on Bible Subjects, Desired for the use of Sunday Schools. Boston. [MEA 1851 Analysis of Sacred Chronology with the Elements of Chronology and the Numbers of the Hebrew text Vindicated. Boston. [MEA] 1852 Questions on the Book of Daniel, Designed for Bible Students, in the Sabbath School, in the Bible Class, or at the Fireside. Boston. [MEA] 1853 Memoirs of William Miller. Boston. [MEA] 1887 Analysis of Sacred Chronology with the elements of Chronology and the Numbers of the Hebrew Text Vindicated. Revised with Notes. Together with the Peopling of the Earth --. Mountain View, Ca . [MEA]

175
Brown, Freeman G. Entire Consecration Second Advent Letters to 1843/a Brother Hervey. Portsmouth N.H. [MEA] Views and Experience in Relation to Entire 1843/b Consecration and the Second Advent: Addressed to the Ministers of the Portsmouth, N.H., Babtist Association. Boston. [MEA] 1843/c A Warning to Watchfulness. Boston. [MEA] Cook, John B. 1843 A Solemn Appeal to Ministers and Churches, Especially to Those of the Baptist Denomination Relative to the Speedy Coming of Christ. Boston. [MEA] Cox, Gershom Flagg 1842 Letters on the Second Coming of Christ and the Character of his Millennial Kingdom. Together with a Reply to the Objections and Arguments of Rev. D.D. Whedon. Boston. [MEA] Fleming, Lorenzo Dow 1842 A Synopsis of the Evidence of the Second Coming of Christ About A .D. 1843. Boston. [MEA] First Principles of the Second Advent Faith with 1844 Scripture Proofs. Boston. [MEA] Fitch, Charles 1841 Letter to Rev. 1. Litch on the Second Coming of Christ with the Sentiments of Cotton Mather on the Same Subject, Approved by Thomas Prince. Boston. [MEA] 1842/a The Glory of God in the Earth. Boston. [MEA] 1842/b A Wonderful and Horrible Thing. Boston. [MEA] 1843 "Come out of Her, My People." A Sermon. Rochester, N.Y. [MEA] Galusha, Elon 1844 Address of Elder Elon Galusha, with Reasons for Believing Christ's Second Coming at Hand. Rochester, N.Y. [MEA] Hale, Apollos 1842 Review of Dr. Pond's L etter against the Doctrine of the Second Advent in 1843. Boston. [MEA] 1843/a Herald of the Bridegroom in which the Plagues that Await the Enemies of the King Eternal Are Considered; and the Appearing of Our Lord to Gather His Saints --. Boston. [MEA]

178
the Negative . Phonographically Reported by las. M. W. Yerrington. Boston. [MEA] Prophetic Significance of Eastern and European Movements; Being a Plain, Literal and Grammatical Construction of the Las't Five Chapters of Daniel, Applied to Events Showing Conclusively that a Syrian Prince, not Napoleon III, is the Antichrist of the Last Days. Boston. [MEA] A Dissertation on the Chronology of Prophecy. N.p. [MEA] A Dissertation on the Second Advent. N.p . [MEA] Dissertation on the Glorified Kingdom of God on Earth, at Hand. [Boston]. [MEA] Ei$.ht Fundamental Errors in Miller's Theory Pointed out by Charles K. True and William C. Brown, in Zion's Herald, March 1840 Reviewed by J. Litch. N.p. [MEA] " Dialogue on the Nature of Man, His State in Death, and the Final Doom of the Wicked. Philadelphia. [MEA] The Eternal Home; Strange Facts Confirming the Truth of the Bible. [Philadelphia?] Vindicated; Being a The . Pre-Millennial Review of Rev. Dr. DaVId Brown's Post-Millennial Advent of Christ. Boston. [MEA]

179
1840 [Evi 1840] Evidence from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ about the year 1843 Exhibited in a Course of Lectures. Boston. [MEA] 1841 [VOP 1841) Views of the Prophecies and Prophetic Chronology Selected from the Manuscripts of W. Miller with a Memoir of His Life by Joshua V. Himes. Boston. (MEA] Dissertations on the True Inheritance of the Saints, 1842/a and the Twelve Hundred and Sixty Days of Daniel and John with an Address to the Conference of Believers in the Advent Near. Boston. [MEA] 1842/b [Evi 1842/b] Evidence from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ about the Year 1843 Exhibited in a Course of Lectures. Boston. [MEA] A Familiar Exposition of the Twentyfourth Chapter 1842/c of Matthew and the Fifth and Sixth Chapters of Hosea. To Which are Added an Address to the General Conference of the Advent and a Scene of the Last Day. Ed. by Joshua V. Himes. Boston. [MEA] The Kingdom of God. Boston. [MEA] 18421d A Lecture of the Typical Sabbaths and Great 1842/e Jubilee. Boston. [MEA] 1842/f Letter to Joshua V. Himes on the Cleansing of the Sanctuary. Boston. [MEA] Miller's Reply to Stuart's "Hints on the 18421g Interpretation of Prophecy" in Three Letters, Addressed to Joshua V. Himes. Boston. [MEA] 1842/h Review of a Discourse Delivered in the North Church, Newburyport, on the last evening of the year 1841, by L.F . Dimmick. Boston. [MEA] 18421i [SMV 18421i] Synopsis of Miller's Views. Boston. [MEA]I8421j [VOP 18421j] Views of the Prophecies and Prophetic Chronology Selected from the Manuscripts of W. Miller with a Memoir of His Life by Joshua V. Himes. Boston. [MEA] 1843 Synopsis of Miller's Views. Boston. [MEA]

1867

n.d./a n.d./b n.d.zc [1841?]

n.d.zd [1841?]

n.d./e n.d./f n.d./g

Miller, William 1833 [Evi 18331 Evidences from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ about the year A.D. 1843 and of His Personal Reign of 1000 Years. Brandon. [MEA] 1836 [Evi 1836] Evidence from Scripture [sic.] and History of the Second Coming Of Christ about the Year 1843 Exhibited in a Course of Lectures. Troy. [MEA] 1838 [Evi 1838] Evitie.nce from and History of the Second Coming of Chnst about the year 1843 Exhibited in a Course of Lectures. Troy. [MEA]

180
1844 1845 n.d.za n.d./b
Remarks on Revelation 's Thirteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth. Boston. [MEA] Wm. Miller's Apology and Defence. Boston . [MEA] Address to the Public. Boston. A Dissertation on Prophetic Chronology . N.p. [MEA]

181 1843
Israel and the Holy Land.' "The Promised Land."

1869 n.d.

Sabine, James The Appearing and Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus 1842 Christ in four letters to an unbeliever. Boston.
[MEA]

In which an Attempt Is Made to Show that the Old and New Testaments Accord in Their Testimony to Christ and His Celestial Kingdom '. Boston. [MEA] The Hope of the Church; History of the Doctrine of the Millennium. Buchanan, Mi. [MEA] History and Doctrine of the Millennium. N.p.
[MEA]

Spalding, Joshua
1796 Sentiments conceming the Coming and Kingdom of Christ Collected from the Bible and the Writings

Whiting, Nathaniel N. 1844 Origin Nature and Influence of Neology, Boston.
[MEA]

of Many Ancient and Some Modern Believers. In Nine Lectures. With an appendix. Salem. [MEA]

8.2 Periodicals
Advent Herald. Vol VII; Feb 14, 1844-end 1844. [MEA] Advent Message to the Daughters of Zion. May-Sept 1844. [MEA] Advent Shield and Review. May 1844 - end 1844. [MEA] The Great Crisis, 1843. July 4, 1842. [MEA] M"uinight Cry. Vols 1·11; Nov 17, 1842-end 1844. [MEA] Signs of the Tunes. Vols I-VI; March 20, 1840-Nov 8, 1844. [MEA] Voice of Truth. Jan 1, 1844 - end 1844. [MEA]

1841

Sentiments concerning the Coming and Kingdom of Christ Collected from the Bible and the Writings

of Many Ancient and Some Modern Believers. In Nine Lectures. Boston. [MEA] Starkweather, John 1843/a A Narrative of Conversion to the Faith of the PreMillennial Advent of Christ in 1843, with Suggestions and References to Aid Serious Inquirers after Truth. Boston . [MEA] 1843/b A Plain Guide to a Right Understanding of the 1844/a 1844/b
Scriptures Pertaining to the Future Kingdom and Coming of the Lord. Boston. [MEA] The Reasoning of True Faith Respecting the 2300 Days in Dan . 8:14. Boston. [MEA] A Scriptural Test of Saving Faith, Exhibited in an Exposition of Dan. 12:10. Boston. [MEA]

,,

8.2 .1 Periodical articles
A Bible Reader A Bible Reader on Mr. Miller's View on the Millennium . The Signs of the Times, June 15, 1841. Allen On the Designat ions of Time. The Signs of th e Times, October 1, 1840. A lover of the truth The Beasts. The Signs of the Times , March 1,1842. Anon . Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, sound an alarm in my Holy Mountain. Signs of the Times, May 31, 1843. Anon . [Litch?] The Closing up of the Day of Grace. The Signs

Storrs, George The Bible Examiner, Containing Various Prophetic 1843 Expositions. Boston. (MEA] Ward, Henry Dana Glad Tidings. "For the Kingdom of Heaven Is At 1838 Hand." This Gospel Is Preached Not As Is Commonly Supposed, Concerning the Church, Nor Concerning the Gospel Dispensation, But Concerning the Future State After the Resurrection of the Dead in the World to Come . New York. [MEA]

182
of the Times, Aug. 1, 1840.

183

Anon. Anon.

Anon.

A Condenced View of the Visions of Daniel. Advent Message to the Daughters of Zion, May
1844.

The Honest Editor again. The Signs of the Times, April 1, 1841. Is Antiochos Epiphanes the Hero of Daniel's Prophecy. The Signs of the Times, December 28, 1842. The Methodists Also on the Road to German Neology. The Signs of the Times, April 17, 1844. Mr. Miller. The Signs of the Times, May 15, 1840.

Anon Anon. Anon . Anon .

Chronology of the Mohamedan power. The Signs of the Times , Aug 15, 1840. Daniel's Testimony. What Shall Be in the Latter Days. The Signs of the Times, May 10, 1843. Daniel's Visions. Midnight Cry, February 3, 1843. Diagram Exhibiting the Events of Prophecy Considered in the Preceeding Article from the Fall of the Papacy down to the Millennium, with Their Probable Order. The Advent Herald, February 21, 1844. Dissertation on the Judgment. The Signs of the Times, Jan IS, 1841. Dr . Jarvis No.4. The Chronology of the Bible. The Signs of the Times, Aug. 16, 1843.

Anon. Anon. Anon.

Mr. Miller. Maine Wesleyan Ioumal, March 20, 1840. Anon. [Eds.] The Nations. Turkey. The Signs of the Times, April 15, 1840. The Nations. Sixth Vial. The Signs of the Times, May 1, 1840. Anon. The Neology of the Church. The Advent Herald, April 3, 1844. Anon. The Ordinance of the Year of Jubilee. The Signs of the TImes, May 1, 1841. Anon. The Promises to Abraham. The Signs of the Times, June 1, 1841. Anon. Prophetic Time. The Advent Herald, February 14,
1844.

Anon. Anon. Anon.

Duration of Earthly Kingdoms. The Signs of the Times, May 24, 1843. Anon. The End of the Prophetic Period. The Signs of the Times, Apr. 5, 1843. Anon. Anon. Anon . Fundamental Principles. The Advent Herald, Feb 14, 1844. Anon. Fundamental Principles. Advent Message to the Daughters of Zion. May 1842. End of the 1260 days. The Signs of the Times , July 19, 1843. The Fall of the Ottoman Power in 1844. The Signs of the Times, Sep. 1, 1840.

Anon. [Eds.] Second Advent of Christ premillennial. The Signs of the Times, Sep. 6, 1843. Anon. The Seven Times of Lev xxvi: Why are they repeated four times. The Signs of the Times, January 24, 1844. Anon. The Sign of the Son of Man in heaven. The Signs of the Times, Oct. 11, 1843.

184 Anon. Anon. Anon. [Eds .) Anon. Anon. Anon. Anon. The Six Trumpet Period. The Signs of the TImes, May 1, 1840. Six Thousand years. The Signs of the Times, November 22, 1844. The Tendency to German Neology. The Signs of the Times, June 21, 1843. The Time of the End . The Signs of the Times, January 4, 1843. The Vernal Equinox. The Advent Herald, April 3, 1844. Watchman's Warning - no. 1. The Image and the Four Kingdoms. The Midnight Cry, June 8, 1843. Cox Coles, L.B.

185

Mr. Cambell on the return of the Jews. The Signs of the Times, June 15, 1840. Mr . to Miller on the Little Horn in Darnel s fourth kingdom. The Signs of the Times, April 15, 1840. The Jews- Romans XI. The Signs of the Times, May 17, 1843. Collins, L.C. Two June Two July Resurrections, No I. The Signs of the TImes, 6, 1842. Resurrections, No II. The Signs of the TImes, 22, 1842.

Return of the Jews. The Signs of the Times, June 1, 1842. Crosier The Law of Moses. Day Star Extra, Feb 7, 1844.
E.B.K.

Who are the Israel to whom the promises are Made. The Signs of the Times, June 1, 1841. The author of "A Clue to the Time" The Endless Kingdom. The Signs of the TIme, May 11, 1842.

Theory of Types, Nos. 1-5. The Signs of the TImes, March 15 - Sep 1, 1841. E.C.C. The Seventh Month of the Jewish Sacred Year. The Advent Herald, Sep. 21, 1844. Evan The Prophecy of Daniel. The Signs of the Times, Mar . 8, 1843. Flemming, L.n. Review of Rev. Dr. Week's Lectures against the Chronology of Wm. Miller. The Signs of the TImes , Apr. 12, 1843. Hawley The D?ctrine of the Second Advent Sustained by the VOice of the Church. The Signs of the Times, June 7, 1843. Himes, Josiah Opposition on the M.E. Church - Zion 's Herald vs. Millennium. The Signs of the Times, January 24, 1844. Jacobs The Millennium. The Midnight Cry, October 5, 1843.

B.

A temporal Millennium a Soul Destroying Doctrine. The Signs of the Times, June 29, 1842. The Return of the Jews. The Signs of the Times, Aug. 31, 1842. The 70 Weeks and 2300 Days of Daniel. The Signs of the Times, June 22, 1842. Six thousand years. The Signs of the Times, Nov. 22, 1843. Bliss, Sylvester A Temporal Millennium. The Signs of the Times, June 29, 1842. The Inconsistencies of Colver. Series in The Signs of the Times and The Midnight Cry, Spring 1843. Cambell, David Mr. Cambell on the Mode of Computing the Time. The Signs of the Times, Jan . 15, 1840; July 15, 1840.

186
Jars, Henry
French, C. Inquirer The Sanctuary. The Signs of the Times , Feb. 15, 1842 & March 1, 1842. The Kingdom at Hand. The Signs of the Times, June 15, 1840. Diagram of Daniel's Visions. The Signs of the Times, March 1, 1841.

187 Review of Cambell on the Captivity of the Jews. The Signs of the Times, Oct. 15, 1840. Rise and Progress of Adventism. Advent Shield and Review, May 1844. The Seventh Month. The Signs of the Times, Aug. 21, 1844

Low, A.D.

[Litchl
L[itch]

Turkey and Egypt. The Signs of the Times, Jan . 15, 1841 & Feb. 1, 1841. The Battle of Armageddon. The Signs of the Times, Sep . 1, 1840. Fall of the Ottoman power in Constantinople. The Signs of the Times, Aug.1, 1840.

Litch, Josiah

The Battle Begun! The Signs of the Times, Nov 1, 1840. Daniel's Visions. Trumpet of Alarm, April 24, 1843; The New York Extra Tribune, March 2, 1843. Events to Succeed the Second Woe . The Signs of the Times, Aug . 1, 1840. Fall of the Ottoman Power in Constantinople. The Signs of the Times, Aug. 1, 1840. Fall of the Ottoman Empire, or Ottoman Supremacy departed. The Great Crisis of Eighteen Hundred Forty Three. Boston, August 4, 1840. Fall of the Ottoman Power. The Signs of the Times, Jan. 1, 1842. Mr. Litch's reply to Rev. Ethan Smith, and others on the Little Horn in Daniel's fourth kingdom. The Signs of the Times, May 1, 1840. Reply. Combination of prophecy with chronology. The Signs of the Times , Jan. 15, 1840. Re storation of the Kingdom to Isra el. The Midnight Cry, Nov. 30, 1842. Review of "Bible Reader" on Miller's view of the Millennium; No III. The Signs of the Times, July 1, 1841.

A Plain exposition of a plain passage- Rev. XX46. The Signs of the Times, June 29, 1842. Miller, William Evidence From Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ about the Year 1843... The Signs of the Times, May 1, 1841. Evidence from....about the Year 1843 and of His Personal Reign of 1000 Years, first published in 1833. The Signs of the Times , April 1, 1841. Evidence ch.IV. The Signs of the Times, July 15, 1841. A Lecture on the Signs of the Present Times The Signs of the Times, Mar . 20, 1840. A Letter from Wm. Miller. Cleansing of the Sanctuary. The Signs of the Times , April 6, 1842. Letter from Mr. Miller, No.3. On the Return of the Jews . The Signs of the Times , April 15, 1840. Letter, May 3, 1843. The Signs of the Times, May 17, 1843. Miller's Letters No.5. The Bible Its own Interpreter. The Signs of the Times, May 5, 1840. Miller's letters No.8. The Signs of the Times, Sep . 1, 1840. Miller's Twenty Articles of Faith. The Signs of the Times, May 1, 1841. Mr . Miller' s Repl y to Cambell and Others on th e Little Horn in Daniel's Fourth Kingdom. The Signs of the Times, March 20, 1840. Mr . Miller's Reply to Cambell, Smith, and Others on the Little Horn in Daniel's Fourth Kingdom . The Signs of the Times, April 1, 1840. Miller's reply to Dowling. The Signs of the Times , Aug. 15, 1840. Mr . Miller 's Review of Dowling. The Signs of the Times, August 1, 1840

188
Reasons for believing the second coming of Christ in Eighteen Hundred Forty Three. From the Chronology of Prophecy. The Great Crisis of Eighteen hundred forty three. Boston, July 4, 1842. Review of "Hints on Prophecy," by M. Stuart. The Signs of the Times, Nov 23, 1842. Rules of Interpretation. The Midnight Cry Nov 17, , 1842. Synopsis of Miller's Views. The Signs of the Times., Jan 25, 1843; The Midnight Cry, June 15, 1843. Plummer, E. The Prophecy of Moses. Signs of the Times, May 17, 1843. R. Second Coming of Christ. No. 1. The Signs of the TImes, April 15, 1840. Snow, Samuel Sheffield Our Position As to Time. The Advent Shield and Review, May 1844; The True Midnight Cry, Aug. 22, 1844. Prophetic Chronology. The Advent Herald, Aug. 14, 1844. Reasons for Believing. The Advent Shield and Review, Oct 9, 1844. Southard Second Advent Believers. Rupp ed . [1844] The Home of Wm. Miller. Midnight Cry, Oct 26, 1843. Stevenson, John Editorial. The Midnight Cry, Oct. 3, 1844. God's measuring Rods. Advent harbinger and Bible Advocate, June 9, 1849. Storss, George Exposition of Nebuchadnezzar's Dream. The Midnight Cry, May 4, 1843. Go Ye Out to Meet Him. The Advent Herald, Oct 9, 1844. Stuart, Moses Review of Hints on Prophecy. The Signs of the Times, Nov. 23, 1842.

189 A Student or Prophecy Doctrine of the Millennium. The Signs of the TImes, Feb 1, 1842.
W.

Pleroma, or Fulness of the Jews. The Signs of the TImes, Sep.l, 1841. Pleroma, or the Fulness of the Gentiles. The Signs of the TImes, Sep. 15, 184l.

Walstenholme, J. The Puritan- The Millennium. The Signs of the Tunes, May, 1842 . Conversion of the Jews. The Signs of the TImes, Aug. 10, 1842. Ward, C.; Jars, Henry; Russel, Philemon Circular - The Address of the Conference on the Second Advent of the Lord, Convened at Boston, Mass. October 14, 1840. The Signs of the Times, Nov 1, 1840. Ward, Henry Dana Prophecy and the JewsSigns of the TImes, Apr.12, 1843. The Restoration of Israel. The Signs of the TImes, Sep. 1, 1840. To the Conference of Christians. The Signs of the TImes, Nov. 23, 1842.

Manuscripts and letters
Miller, William Letter to Truman Hendryx, July 21, 1838. [MEA] Undated [possibly 1842] letter to Br. Copeland. [MEA] Letter to T.E. Jones, Nov 29, 1844. [MEA]

Old historicist literature up to the time of Miller's contemporaries
Anderson, William 1840 An Apology for Mi//ennial doctrine; in the form in which it was entertained by the primitive church. Philadelphia. [MEA]

190 Andros, Thomas 1814 The Place of the Church on the Grand Chart of Scripture Prophecy, or the Great Battle of Armageddon in Four Lectures, the Last Three of Which Were Delivered on the Annual Fast, April 7, 1814. Boston . [MEA] Anon. 1810 The Testimony of Christ's Second Af'Pearing, Containing a General Statement of Al Things Pertaining to the Faith and Practise of the Church of God in This Latter-day. Albany N.Y. [MEA) Anon. 1817 The Return of the Jews to their Ancient City Jerusalem and the Second Advent of Our Lord, to This World, in Glory, Proged to Be Scripture Doctrines by a Citizen of Baltimore. Trenton, NJ. [MEA) Anon. 183? The Cup of Trembling, or the Terrors of the Lord of Hosts ; an Introductory to the Glorious Millennia! Jubilee, Now Ap.£roaching, with Additional Remarks. New York . [MEA] Anon. 1836 Prophecy: a Prominent Branch of Christian Evidence; Being a Review of Rev. Andrew P. Peabody's Essay on the Prophecies Relating to the Messiah. Portsmouth, N.H. [MEA] Anon./a 1840 An Exposition of the Prophecies and Doctrines of the ancient Jews and Christians, Relative to Their Messiah and His Kingdom, Particularly the and Doctrines of the Primitive Christians Relatice to a Second Pers onal Appearance of Jesus in Palestine.-- Danbury, Ct. [MEA] Anon ./b 1840 The Future Destiny of Israel, by a Clergyman of the Church of England. Philadelphia. [MEA) Anon. 1841 A View on the Literal Construction of the Prophecies of the Kingdom of Our Lord and His Saints, Now About to Be Revealed, by a Student of Prophecy. Boston . [MEA] Anon .
1344

191
Review of the Doctrines and Prophetical Chronology of Mr. William Miller, by an Israelite. Toronto. [MEA] The Premillenial Advent. Dublin. [MEA J The Testimony of Scripture about Coming of Christ. N.p. [MEA] the Second

Anon ./a n.d. Anon./b n.d.

Appleby, WJ. 1844 A Dissertation on Nebuchadnezzar's Dream . Also the Rise and Faith of the Most Notable Orthodox Societies of the Present Day. Together with, A Synopsis of the Origin and Faith of the Chur ch of Latter-Day Saints.-- Philadelphi a. [MEA] Ballou, Adin 1843 The True Scriptural Doctrine of the Second Advent; an Effectual Antidote to Millerisrn, and All Other Kindred Errors. Milford, Mass. [MEA J Barbour, Nelson H. 1871 Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873 or , the Midnight Cry. Rochester , N.Y. [MEA] Barrett, B.F. 1843 The End of the World; or Consummation of the Age. Tract no. 6, for the New Church in the United Stal es. Boston. [MEA] Boudinot, Elias 1815 Th e Second A dvent, or Coming of the Messiah in Glory Shown to Be a Scripture Doctrine and Taught by Divine Revelation, by an American Layman. Trendon, N.J. [MEA] Burnap, George 1844 The End of the World. A Discourse Suggested by the Miller Doctrine Baltimor e. [MEA] Burwell, Adam Hood 1835 A Voice of Waming and Instruction Concerning the Signs of the Times, and the Coming of the Son of Man, to Jud ge the Nation s, and Restore All Things. Kingston, Ont. [MEA] Bush, George 1842 The Mil/ennium of the A pocalypse. Salem, Mass.
[MEA]

192
1844
Reasons for Rejecting Mr. Miller's Views of the Advent; with Mr. Miller's Reply. Also an Argument from Professor Bush on Prophetic Time. Boston. (MEA]
.-t

193
Millennium Prior to the Judgment. Providence, R .I. (MEA] 1842 An Exposition of the Prophecies, by William Miller to predict the Second Corning of Christ, in 1843. With a Supplemental Chapter upon the True Scriptural Do ctrine of a Millennium prior to the Judgment. New York. [MEAl 1843 Reply to Miller. A Review of Mr. Miller's Theory of the End of the World in 1843. New York. [MEA] Duffield, George . , 1842 Dissertations on the Prophecies R elative to the Second Coming of Christ. New York. [MEA] ]843 Millenarianism Defended; Reply to Prof Stuart's "Strictures on the Re v. G. Duffield's Recent Work on the Second Coming of Christ. New York. [MEA] Faber, George Stanley . 1808 A Dissertation on the Prophecies that Have Been Fulfilled, Are Now Fulfilling, or Wil! Hereafter Be Fulfilled, Relative to the Great Period of 1?60 Years; the Papal and Mohammedan Apostacies; the Tyrannical Reign of Antichrist, or the Infidel Power' and the Restoration of the Jews. To Which'is Added an Appendix. Boston. [MEA] 1810 A Dissertation on the Prophecies that Have Been Fulfilled, Ar e Now Fulfilling, or Hereafter Be Fulfilled, Relative to the Great Period of 1260 Years. London. [MEA] 1828 The Sacred Calendar of Prophecy: or a Dissertation on Prophecies Which Treat of the Grand Period of Seven Times, and E speci ally of Its Second Moi ety or the Later Three Tim es and a Half. 3 vols. Lond on. Folsom. Nathaniel d 184D A Dissertation on the Second Coming an of our Blessed Lord and Saviour , Jesus Chri st, upon the Earth. Cazenobia, N.Y. [MEA] Frey, Joseph Samuel C.F. 1840 Judah and Israel; or the Restoration and Conver sion of the Jews and the T en Tribes. New York . [MEA]

Clarke, Adam The Holy Bible, Commentary and Critical Not es. n.d . Vols I-VI. London. Chamberlin, Richard 1805 New Discoveries Concerning the Millenium . Pougskeepsi e, N.Y. [MEAl Chase, Irah 1844 Remarks on the Book of Daniel in Reg ard to the Four Kingd oms, Especially the Fourth; the 2300 Days; the Sevent y Weeks, and the Events in the Last Three Chapters. Predicted Boston.[MEA] Colver, Nathaniel 1843 The Prophecy of Daniel, Literally Fulfilled, Considered in Three Lectures. Boston. [MEA] Cramp, J.M. 1868 Baptist History. London. Cuninghame, William 1840/a The Polit ical Destiny of the Earth , as Revealed in the Bible . Philadelphia. [MEA] 1840/b The Pre-millennia! Advent of Messiah Dem onstrated From the Scriptures. Philadelphia. [MEA I Dickinson, Dexter 1843 A Key to the Prophecies, and Sec ond Advent of Christ, with the time of His Firs t and Second Manifestations. Boston . (MEA J Dimmick, Luther Fraseur 1842 The End of the World Not Yet. Re view of a Discourse deliver ed in the North Churc h, Newburyport, on the last evening of the year 184] . Newburyport , Mass. [MEA I Dow, Lorenzo A Hint to the Public, or Thoughts 011 the [18]] j Fulfillment of Proph ecy. IBoston .] [MEA I Dowling, John 1840 An Exp osition of the Prophecies, Supposed by William Miller to Predict the Second coming of Christ, in 1843. With a Supplem ent ar y Chapter U pon the Tru e Scriptural Doctrine o f a

194
Gaussen, Louis [1844?] '0e German Rebuke of American Neology, a DIScourse -- Entitled Popery, and Argument for the Truth by Its Fulfilment of Scripture Prophecies. Boston. [MEA] Gill, John 1809 An Exposition of the New Testament . 3 vols. London. 1810 An Exposition of the Old Testament . 6 vols. London. Gorton, Benjamin 1802 Scriptural A ccount of the Millennium; Being a Selection from the Prophecies Concerning Christ's Second Coming, and Pers onal Glorious Reign on Earth a Thousand Years . To Which are Addesd a Number of Arguments to Show that This Event Has Not Yet Taken Place. Troy. [MEA] 1808 A View of Spiritual or Anti-typical Babylon, with Its Downfall Exhibited, by a Vision of Elisha Peck; As Well As by Sundry Scripture-prophecies and Revelations. Interpreted and Explained, to Open to View for a Warning to Mankind the Certainty of the Near Approach of the Great and Terrible Day of the Lord. Troy. [MEA] Gunn, Lewis Carstairs 1843 This World to Have No other Age or Dispensation. The Pres ent Organisation of Matter, Called Earth, to be Destr oyed by Fire. Also, before the Event Christians May Know about the Time When Ii Shall Occur. Philadelphia. [MEA] 1844 The Age to Come! The Pr esent organization of Matt er Called Earth , to Be Destroyed by Fire at the End of This Age or Dispen sation . Boston. [MEA] [1850?) Tim e Revealed and to be Understood. Concord. N.H. [MEA] Habershon, Matthew 1841 A Guide to the Study of Chronological Prophecy, Selected and Abridged from a Larger Treatise by the Same Auth or Entitled "A Disser tation on the Prophetic Scriptures". Philadelphia. [MEA 1 Hales , William 1809A Ne w Analysis of Chronology, in Which an Att empt Is Made to Explain the Hist ory and

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Antiquities of the Primitive Nations of the World and the Prophecies Relating to Them on Principles Tending to Remove the Imperfections and Discordance of Preceding Systems. 3 vols. London. [MEA] Haven, Kittrtdge 1839 The World Reprieved, Being a Critical Examination of William Miller's Theory That the Second Coming of Christ and the Destruction of the World Will Take Place About A.D. 1843. Woodstock, Vt. [MEA] Hawley, Silas The Second Advent Doctrine Vindicated, a Sermon 1843 Preached at the Dedication of the Tabernacle. With the Address of the Tabernacle Committee. Boston. [MEA] 1845 The Fulness of the Jews; the Restoration of the Jews and Subsequent Probation to the Gentiles Demonstrated from Romans Eleventh. Boston . [MEA] Hazen, James A. 1842 The False Alarm; a Discourse Delivered in the Congregational Church, South Wilbraham, Sabbath Evening, June 12th, 1842. Springfield, Mass. [MEA] Henry, Matthew 1844 Exposition of the Old and New Testament. 6 Vols. London. Henshaw, John Prentiss Kewley 1842 An Inquiry into the Meaning of the Prophecies Relating to the Second Advent of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in a Course of Lectures Delivered in St.Peter's Church, Baltimore. Baltimore. [MEA] Hengstenberg, E.W. Christology of the Old Testament . 2 vols. (Repr. by n.d. McDonald Publishing Co. Florida, n.d.) Hopkins, John Henry Two Discourses on the Second Advent of the 1843 Redeemer, with a Special Reference to the Year 1843. Burlington, Vt. [MEA] Hutchinson, Richard 1843 The Throne of Judah Perpetuated in Christ, and Ascended at His Second Advent; Verifying the Hopes of Israel, with Evidence that This Sublime

196 Event Is Nigh at Hand, Even at the Door. Montreal. [MEA] 1844 The Abrahamic Inheritence; Shewing What It Is, Who Are the Heirs, and When It Will Come, by an American Minister. Nottingham. [MEA] Irving, Edward [1829] The Signs of the Times . [ondon .][MEA] Jacobs, Enoch 1844 The Doctrine of a Thousand Year Millennium, and the Return of the Jews to Palestine, before the Saviour, without Second Advent of Our Foundation in the Bible . To Which Is Added a Paraphrase of Romans 9th, 10th, and 11th Chapters. Cincinnati, Ohio. [MEA] Jarvis, Samuel Farmar 1843 Two Discourses on Prophecy: with an Appendix in Which Mr . Miller's Scheme, Concernmg Our Lord's Second Advent, Is Considered and Confuted. New York. (MEA] Jones, Henry 1839 Principles of Interpreting the Prophecies, Briefly Illustrated and Applied with Notes. Andover, Mass. [MEA] 1841 Dissertation on the Nature and Manner of Christ's Second Coming, together with the Events Attending and Preceding It. [Boston.] [MEA] 18421a American views of Christ's Second Advent, Consisting Mostly of Lectures -- Selected and in Part Given by Henry Jones. New York. [MEA] [l842]/b A Scriptural Synopsis of the Doctrine in General, of Christ's Second Advent at Hand. [New York.] [MEA] 1843/a Compend of Parallel and Explanatory Scripture References on Christ's Second Advent at Hand, with Synopsis, and Principles of Interpretation. New York. [MEA] 1843/b Modem Phenomena of the Heavens or Prophetic "Great Signs" of the Special Near Approach of "the End of All Things ." New York. [MEA] 1843/c A Synopsis Explanatory of the Book of Psalms. New York. [MEA] n.d. Dissertation on the Restoration of Israel. N.p. [MEA]

197 Junkin, George Image; or, The 1844 The Little Stone and the Lectures on the Prophecies symbolized in Nebuchadnezzar's Vision of the Golden Headed Monster. Philadelphia. [MEA] Kalonne, Henry . WIth a 1843 The Book of Daniel Clearly Rational Analysis of the Apokalypsis, Intended as a Good Eye Salve for the Modern Prophet Miller and His Followers. New York .[MEA] KaptT, S.C. 1837 The Coming of the Lord, as Inferred from the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Chapters of St.Matthew, Compared with the Signs of the Times . Translated From the German by a Clergyman of the Church of England. London. [MEA] Keith, Alexander . [1830] The Evidence of Prophecy, Selected and Abndged, with Additional Reflections from a Work -Entitled Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion. New York . [MEA] 1832 Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion, Delivered from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy; Particularly as Illustrated by. the History of the Jews, and by the Discoveries of Recent Traveller s. New York . [MEA] Kenrick, Winslow R. . , 1845 A New Exposition of the Prophecies of Daniel. Framingham. Mass. [MEA] Kinne, Aaron . . . 1813 A Display of Scriptural Prophecies, With Their Events, and the Periods of Their Accomplishment Compiled from Rollin, Pridraux, Newton, and Other Eminent Writers. Boston. [MEA] Labagh , Isaac P. A Sermon, on the Necessity of the Personal Return 1842 and Reign of Christ on the Earth, to the Perfection of the Happiness of the Human Family. New York. [MEA] Lathrop, Joseph . , 1811 The Prophecy of Daniel, Relating to the Time of in Two the End. Opened, Applied, and Discourses Delicered on a Public Fast.

3-

198 Springfield, Mass. [MEA] Lincoln, L.E. 1843 Disquisitions on the Prophecies of Daniel, with an Appendix, Exhibiting the Fulfilment of Prophecy, "In the Third Year of Cyrus, King of Persia, " to the Present Time. Lowell, Mass. [MEA] Mede, Joseph 1650 The Key of Revelation, Searched and Demonstrated out of the Naturall and prop'er Characters of the Visions.-- 2 parts. 2nd English ed . London. 1663-4 The Works of the Pious and Profoundly Learned Joseph Mede B.D. 2 vols. London. M'Neile, Hugh 1840a Prospects of the Jews; A Series of Popular Lectures on the Prophecies Relative to the Jewish Nation. Philadelphia. [MEA] 1840b Sermons on the Second Advent of the Lord Jesus Christ. Philadelphia. [MEA] Morse, Jedidah 1810 Signs of the Times:a Sermon Preached before the for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians and Others in North America, at their Anniversary, Nov. 1, 1810. Charlestown, S.T. MEA Newton, Sir Isaac 1733 Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel; and the Apocalypse of St. John. In Two Parts. London. [MEA] Newton, Thomas, Bishop [1766] Dissertations on the Prophecies Which Have Remarkably Been Fulfilled and at This Time Are Fulfilling in the World . London. 1803 Dissertations on the Prophecies Which Have Remarkably Been Fulfilled and at This Time Are Fulfilling in the World . To Which Are Added Extracts from the Writings of Owen, Usher, Knox, Brown, More, etc. A New ed. in which the Greek, Latin and Other Translations Are Translated into English. London. [MEA] 1833 Dissertations on the Prophecies Which Have Remarkably Been Fulfilled and at This Time Are Fulfilling in the World . -- Two vols. London.
n

199
1836

The Pope, the Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition. A Dissertation on the Prophecy of the Apostle Paul Concerning the Man of Sin. Fayetteville.
[MEA]

Noel, Gerald Thomas 1840 A Brief Enquiry into the Prospects of the Church of Christ, in Connexion with the Second Advent of our Lord Jesus Christ. Philadelphia. [MEA] Osgood, Samuel 1794 Remarks on the Book of Daniel, and on the Revelations. New York. (MEA] Paxton, J.D. 1844 No Future Retum of the Jews Called for by Prophecy; Two Sermons Preached at Mulberry, August, 1844. Louisville. [MEA] Peabody, Andrew Preston [1843] Sermon on the End of the World. Portsmouth, N.H . [MEA] Pierson, Josiah 1831 Millennium , a Poem in Five Books. Rochester, N.Y. [MEA] Plumb, David 1843 The True Heirs of the Abrahamic Inheritance; or Jewish Restoration Disproved. Utica, N.Y. (MEA] Pond, Enoch 1843 A Review of the Second Advent Publications First Published in the New England Pur itan. Boston. [MEA] Porter, Ebenezer 1823 Signs of the Times: a Sermon Preached in the Chapel of the Theological Seminary, Ando ver, on the Public Fast, April 3, 1823. Andover, Mass.
[MEA]

Potter.Ray 1824

A Treatise on the Millennium, or Latter-day Glory of the Church, Compiled Principally from the Productions of Late Eminent Writers upon That Subject. To Which Is Added, Further Remarks and Notes by the Compiler. Providence. [MEA]

Priest, Josiah 1828 A View of the Expected Christian Millennium , Which Is Promised in the Holy Scriptures, and Is Believed to Be Nigh Its Commencement, and Must Transpire Before the Conflagration of the

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Heavens and the Earth. Embelled with a Chart of the Dispensations from Abraham to the End of Time. Albany, N.Y. [MEA)
Pym, William W.

Records, Historic and Prophetic; and the "Signs of the Times,"». New York. [MEA) Skinner, H.B. 1842 A Synopsis of the Views of Those W'ho Look for the Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ in 1843. Asburnham, Mass. [MEA] Skinner, Otis Ainsworth 1840 The Theory of William Miller Concerning the End of the World in 1843 Utterly Exploded ; Being Five Discourses, with Some Essays on the Same Subject. Boston. [MEA] Smith, Elias Sermons, Containing an Illustration of the 1808 Prophecies to Be Accomplished from the Present Time until the New Heavens and Earth Are Created, When All the Prophecies Will Be Fulfilled. Exeter, N.H. [MEA] Smith, Ethan A Dissertation on the Prophecies Relative to 1811 Antichrist and the Last Times; Exhibiting the Rise, Character, and Overthrow of the Terrible Power, and a Treatise on the Seven Apocalyptic Vials. Charlestown, Mass. [MEA] 1814 A Key to the Figurative Language Found in the Sacred Scriptures, in the form of Questions and Answers. Exeter, N.H. [MEA] 1823 View of the Hebrews; Exhibiting the Destruction of Jerusalem, the Certain Restoration of Judah and an Address of the Prophet Isaiah Relative to Their Restoration. Poultney, Vt. [MEA] 1839 Prophetic Catechism, to Lead to the Study of the Prophetic Scriptures, in Questions and Answers. Bostons. [MEA] Spalding, Joshua 1796, 1841 Sentiments concerning the Coming and Kingdom of Christ; Collected from the Bible and from the Writings of Many Ancient and Some Modern Believers, in Nine Lectures . Salem. [MEA] Stuart, Moses 1842/a Hints on the Interpretation of Prophecy. Andover, Mass. [MEA] 1842/b Hints on the Interpretation of Prophecy. With Additions and Corrections. 2.ed. Andover, Mass.

Word of Warning in the Last Days. Philadelphia. [MEA] Ramsey, William 1841 The Second Coming of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, in the Power and Great Glory before the Millennium. Philadelphia. [MEA] 1843 The Millennium and the New Jerusalem Contrasted. New York. [MEA] Rudd, Sayer 1734 An towards a New Explication of the Doctnnes of the Resurrection, Millennium, and Judgment, being the Substance of Several Discourses on the 20th Chapter of the Revelation of St. John. London.[MEA]Sabine, James 1842 The. Appearing and Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ, m Four Letters to an Unbeliever. Boston. [MEA] Scott, Robert 1816 An Antidote for Deism; or Scripture Prophecy That. the Holy Fulfilled. A Scnptures are of DiVIDe Original, Being the First Par.t of the Christian's Humble Plea, Containing Plain Reasons Why the Holy Scriptures Are Recieved As of God. Pittsfield. [MEA] 1834 Free Thoughts on the Millennium or Grand Sabbatical Year of the World . Adchessed to the Candid and Considerate Whether Sceptics Jews or Professors of Christianity. New York. [MEA] , 1843 Christ's Second Coming. Boston. Scott, Thomas 1851 The Holy Bible Containing the Old Testament and the New Testament according to the Authorized Version. London. Sheldon, William 1868 Adventism, W'hat Is It ? Its Relation to Theology and Prophecy. In Two Parts . Buchanan Mich. [MEA] , Shlmeall, Richard Cunningham Age of the World, as Founded on the Sacred 1842 1839

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202
[MEA]

203 Watkins, John 1795 An Essay on the End of the World. Worchester, Mass. [MEA] Way, Thomas Thoughts on the Scriptural Expectations of the 1840 Christian Church, by Basilicus. Philadelphia. [MEA] White, George 1806 The Restoration of the Jews; an Extract from Herman Witsius, London. [MEA] White, Josiah [1823] The Death and the Resurrection of the Two Revelation XI. [Northampton, Witnesses, Mass.][MEA] Whiting, Nathaniel N. 1843 La vou des ecritures saintes touchant l'avenement de notre seigneur Jesus-Christ. Williamsburg N.Y.
WEA] ,

Swan, John 1656

The Standard of Time; or the Measuring-reed Containing an Exact Chronological Computation of the years of the World (from the Creation Thereof, to the Time of the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans). London. [MEA]

[Symmes, L.] 1844 A Directory to the End of the World, by Scripture Testimony, and an Exposition of Part of the. Book of Daniel, Selected and Arranged by a Pilgrim, Boston. [MEA] Thompson, Otis Signs of the Times; a Sermon Preached at 1812 Attlborough, West Parish, on the Annual Fast in Massachusetts, April 9, 1812. Providence, R.I.
[MEA]

Thorp, William . 1841 The Destinies of the British Empire and the Duties of British Christians at the Present Crisis. Philadelphia. [MEA] Thurman, William C. 1864 The Christian Calendar for A.M. 5929. Arranged According to That Method of Reckoning time, Enjoined by Our Heavenly Father, and Put ill Tabular Form for the Convenience of His Children Who, Renouncing the Custom of the Heathen, Wish, in All Things, to Honor Our God. Hausetown, Ind . [MEA] True, Oliver [1834] A Sermon on the Prophecies and Signs of the Times. [Rochester, N.Y.] [MEA] Turrettini, Francois [1981] The Doctrine of Scripture: Locus 2 of Institutio Theologiae Elenctiae.Grand Rapids, Mi. Upham, Charles Wentworth 1835 Discourse in Prophecy as an Evidence of Christianity. Salem, Mass. [MEA] Ward, Jonathan 1842 Brief Remarks on the Lectures of Rev. William Miller, on the Second Coming of Christ. Exeter, N.H. [MEA]

Origin, Nature, and Influence of Neology. Boston. [MEA] Wincell, Horace Great and Soon Coming Events. Of the Order of n.d. Events of Prophecy about the Time of Christ's Coming to Judgment. N.p. [MEA] Winchester, Elahan 1792 Lectures on the Prophecies that Remain to Be Fulfilled. [Norwich?] [MEA] Winthrop, Edward 1843 Lectures on the Second Advent of Messiah, and Other Important Subjects. Cincinnati, Ohio. [MEA]

1844

Woodward, Henry Essays on the Millennium. Philidelphia. [MEA] 1840

Published literature on Millerism and Miller
Boutelle, Luther 1910 Brief History of William Miller The Great Pioneer in Adventual Faith. N.p. B[rinsmead] R[obert] D. 1979 1844 Re-Examined: Syllabus. Fallbrook, Calif.

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Cross, Whitney R. 1950, 1965 The Burned-over District. The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800-1850. New York. Daan, Ruth Alden 1987 The Millerite Heresy, Millennialism and American Culture. Philadelphia. Damsteegt, P. Gerard 1977 Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist Message and Mission. (Diss.) Grand Rapids. Mi. Gale, Robert 1975 The Urgent Voice. The Story of William Miller. Washington D.C. Gaustad, Edwin Scott ed . 1974 The Rise of Adventism. Religion and society in mid-nineteenth-century America. New York. Hoornstra, J. ed . 1978 The Millerites and Early Adventists. A Microfilm Collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts. Ann Arbour, Mi. Linden, Ingemar, 1971 Biblicism, Apokaiyptik; Utopi. Adventismens historia i USA samt dess sv, utveckling till o. 1939 (diss .). Uppsala. 1978 The Last Trump. An historico-genetical study of some important chapters in the making and development of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas. Loughborough, John N. 1905, 1909, reprinted 1973 The Great Second Advent Movement . Its nse and progress. Washington D .C. Mueller, Konrad F. 1977 Die der Siebenten- Tags Adventisten (diss .). Hildesheim. Nichol, Francis D. 1944 The Midnight Cry. A defense of the character and conduct of William Miller and the Millerites, who mistakenly believed that the second coming of Christ would take place in the year 1844. Washington D.C .

. . . Numbers, Ronald L. and Butler, JOl;1ath.an L. 1987 The Disappointed. Millensm and Millennarianism in the Nineteenth Century. Bloommgton and Indianapolis. Sears, Clara Endicott 1924 Days of Delusion. A Strange Bit of History. Boston. White, James Springer 1875 Sketches of the Christian Life an.d Public Labors of William Miller. Battle Creek, MI. [MEA}
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Published literature on typology
Adams, Roy 1981

The Sanctuary Doctrine. Three approaches in the Seventh Day Adventist Church. (Diss.) Berrien Springs, Mi. Andreasen, M.L. 1937, 1947 rev. ed. The Sanctuary Service. Washington D.C. 1948 The Book of Hebrews. Washington D.C. Andrews.John Nevins 1853, 1872 The Sanctuary and the Twenty-three Hundred Days. Rochester, N.Y. [MEA] Andross, Elmer E. 1912 A More Excellent Ministry. Mountain View, Ca. Atwater, Edward E. 1875 The History and Significance of the Sacred Tabernacle of the Hebrews. New York. Bercovitch, Sacvan, ed. 1972 Typology and Early American Literature. Amherst, Mass . Branson. William Henry 1935 The Atonement in the light of God's Sanctuaries. Mountain View, Calif. Brown, M.H. 1894 Christ Our Advocate: His Ministry in the True Tabernacle. Mountain View, Calif. Buksbazen, Victor The Gospel in the Feasts of Israel. Philadelphia. [1954?]

206
Cocceius, Johannes 1648 Summa doctrinae de [oedere et testamento Dei. Leyden. 1662 Summa tehologiae a Scripturis repetita. Geneva . Daly, Robert 1978 The Origin of the Christian doctrine of sacrifice. Christian Sacrifice: The Judaeo-Christian Background before Origen. Philadelphia. Davidson, Richard M. 1981 Typology on Scripture, A Study of Hermeneutical tupos Structures. (Diss.) Berrien Springs, Mich. DeVries, Henri 1925[?] The Lord 's Anointed. London. Fairbairn, P. 1857 The Typology of Scripture, Viewed in Connection with the whole Series of the divine Dispensations. Edinburgh. Foulkes, Francis 1958 The Acts of God: A Study of the Basis of Typology in the Old Testament. London. Franks, Robert Sleightholme 1918 A History of the Doctrine of the Work of Christ in its Ecclesiastical Development. London, New York. Frazee, W. 1977 Ransom and Reunion through the Sanctuary. Nashville, Tenn . Gilbert, Fredrick Carnes 1937 Messiah in His Sanctuary. Washington D.C. Goppelt. L. 1939, reprintedl966 Typos: Die Typologische Deutung des Alten Testaments im Neuen. Darmstadt. Grenstedt, Lawrence William 1929 The Atonement in History and in Life; A Volume of Essays Edited by the Rev. L.W. Grenstedt. New York. Habershon, Ada R. 1915, revised 1974 The Study of the Types. London. [Rev. Grand Rapids, Mi.]

207

Hardinge, Lesley G. Shad ows of His Sacrifice. Studies in the Sanctu ary . 1977/a N.p. 1977/b Outline Studies of the Sanctuary. [Payson, Ariz.] Haskell, Stephen Nelson 1914 The Cross and Its Shad ow. Washington D.C. Heppenstall, Edward 1972 Our High Priest. Washington D.C. Junkin, George 1865 The Tabernacle. Philadelphi a. Lampe, Geoffrey William Hugo and Woolcombe , K 1957 Essays on Typology. London. Law, Henry 1855, reprinted 1967 The Gospel in Exodus. Lond on . Christ is A ll. Th e Gospel in the Pent ateu ch. Four 1862 vols. Western-Super-Mare. Lockyer, Herbert 1973 A ll the Messianic prophecies of the Bible. Lond on . Mackintosh , Charles, Henry 1878, 1880 Notes on the Book of Leviticus. Chicago. Marsh, Herbert 1828 Lectures on the Criticism and Interpretation of the Bible. Cambridge. Moorehead, William Gallogly 1895, reprinted 1957 Studies in the Mosaic Instututions: Th e TaberFeasts of nacle, the Priesthood, the Sacrifices, Ancient Israel. Dayton, Ohio. [reprint, G ra nd Rapids, Mi.) Randles, M. 1877 Substitution: A Trea tise on the Atonem ent. London. Seiss , Jo seph Augustus 1866 Holy Types: or the Gospel in Leviticus: A Series of Lectur es. Philadel phia. Simpson, For ster G. . 1852 Lectures O f! the Typical Character of the Iewisb Tabernacle, Priesthood and Sacrifice s. London . Smith, Uriah n.d. [1897?], reprinted 1979 or Christ in Type a nd Looking unto Jesus:

208 Antitype. Battle Creek Mi. 1863 The Sanctuary: and the Twenty-three Hundred Days of Daniel VIII, 14. Battle Creek, Mi. Vallenkampf, Arnold and Lesher, W. Richard eds. 1981 The Sanctuary and the Atonement: Biblical Historical, and Theological Studies. Washington: D.C. White, Ellen Gould 1969 Christ in His Sanctuary. A Compilation from the Writings of Ellen G. Whit e. Mountain View, Ca. White, F.H. (1877?] Christ in the Tabemacle. With Some Remarks on the Offerings . London. Whitfield, Frederick 1875 The Tabemacle, Priesthood, and Offerings of Israel. London.

209
Linden, Ingemar 1982 1844 and the Shut Door problem . Uppsala. 1983 Adventismen i Skiljevagen. Rimbo. Numbers, Ronald 1976 Prophetess of Health. New York . Olsen, A. V. 1966 Through Crisis to Victory. From th e Minneapolis Meeting to the Re organization of the Gener al Conference, 1888-1901. Washington D.C. Schwartz, R.W. 1979 Li$ht Bearers to the Remnant. Denominational Hist ory Textbook for Seventh-da y Adventist College Classe s. Mountain View, Ca . Neufeld , D.F., ed. 1966{SDAEj Seventh-day Adventist Encyclop edia . Wa shington D.C. Seventh -day A dventists Answer Questions on Do ctrine: 1957 An Explanation of Certain Major Aspects of Seventh-day Adventist Belief. Washington D.C. Spalding, Arthur Whitefield 1%1-2 Origin and History of Seventh -day A dventists. 4 vols. Washington D.C. White, Ellen Gould 1898, 1940 The Desire of Ages. Mount ain View, Ca. 1888, 1907, 1911 The Great Controversy between Christ and Satan. Mountain View, Ca. 1915/a Gospe l Workers. Washingt on D.C. 1915/b, ]943 Life Sketches of Ellen G. White. Being a Narr ative of Her Exp erience to 188] as Writt en by Herself; with a Sketch of Her Subsequent Labors and Her Last Sickness Compiled from Or iginal Sources. Washington D.C.

Seventh-day Adventism and Jehovah's Wittnesses
(ABU] 1971

Aid to Bible Understanding, Containing Historical Geographical, Religious, and Social Concerning Bible Persons, Peoples, Places, Plant and Animal Life , Activities, and so forth . New York . Ballenger, Albion Fox 1914 An Examination of Forty Fatal Errors Regarding the Atonement: A Review of a Work which "Fully Explains the Sanctuary questions as Understood by the (Seventh-day Adventist) Denomination. Riverside, Calif. [192-?] Cast out for the Cross of Christ. Tropico, Calif. Beckford, James A. 1975 The Trumpet of Prophecy; A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Wittnesses. Oxford. Conradi, L.R. 1932 1st Frau E. G. White die Proph etin der Endgemeinde ? H amburg. 1939 The Founders of the Seventh-day A dventist Denomination. Plainfield. Hoekema, Anthony 1963 Four Major Cults. Exeter.

General literature
Ahlstrom, Sydney E. 1972 A Religious History of the A me rican People. New Ha ven , Conn.

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1975 The Evangelicals. Nashville, Tenn . Arasola, Arvo Wilhelm 1955 Maailman Kohtalontie. Helsinki. Ball, Bryan William 1981 The English Connection . The Purirtan Roots of Seventh-day Adventist Belief. Cambridge. Barbour, RJ. 1972 Traditio-Historical Criticism of the Gospels; Some Comments on Currant Methods. London. Barr, James 1977 Fundam entalism. London, New York . Berkhof, Hendrikus 1960, 1977 Principles of Biblical Interpretation; Sacred Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids, Mich. Calvin Jean [1966, 1975] Institutes of the Christian Religion. 2 vols. Philadelphia, London; Grand Rapids, Mi. Carrol, Robert P. 1979 When Prophecy Failed. Reactions and Responses to Failure in the Old Testament Prophetic Traditions. London. Channing, A. 1955 A History of the United States. Vol.V. New York . Clements, R.E. 1976 A Century of Old Testament Study. London. Cohn, Norman 1957 The Pursuit of the Millennium. London. Cox, William Edward 1963/a The New Covenant Israel. Philadelphia. 1963!b An Examination of Dispensationalism. Philadelphia. Dillenberger, John and Welch, Claude 1954 Protestant Christianity Interpreted through Its Development. New York. Dillenberger, John 1960 Protestant thought and Material Science. London. Driver. S.R. 1895, reprinted 1973 The Intemational Critical Comm entary. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deutoronomy. Edinburgh.

Eissfeldt, Otto 1974 The Old Testament, An Introduction. Oxford . Farrar, Fredrick William 1886, reprinted 1961 History of Interpretation. Grand Rapids, Mi. Festinger, Leon; Riecken, Henry W.; and Schachter, Stanley 1956 When Prophecy Fails. A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group that Predicted the Destruction of the World. Minneapolis, Minn. Ford, Desmond 1980 Daniel 8:14, The Day of Atonement and the Investigative Judgment. N.p. Froom, Leroy Edwin 1946-1954 The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers; The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation. 4 vols. Washington D.C. [MEA] 1971 Movement of Destiny. Washington D.C. [MEA] Geisler, Nonnman L. ed . 1980 Inerrancy. Grand Rapids. Mich. Handy, Robert T. 1976 A History of the Churches in the United States and Canada. Oxford. Harnack, Adolf n.d.[1900] History of Dogma. 7 Vols. New York. Harrison, John Fletcher Clews 1979 The Second Coming. Popular Millenarianism 17501850. London and Henley; New Bruswick, N.J. Hermann, Rudolph 1971 Bibel und Hermeneutik; mit einem herausgeg en von Gerhard Krause. Gottingen. Hilton, W., ed. 1958-67 Luther's Works, Ameri can Editi on 55 vols. Philadelphia. Holmqvist, Hjalmar 1931 Kirkkohistoria. 3 Vols. Porvoo, Borga . Hudson, W.S. 1961 American Protestantism. Chicago. 1973 An Historical Account of the Development of American Religious Life. New York .

212
Hutten, Kurt 1966 Seher, Grubler, Enthusiasten. Sekten und religiose Sondergemeinshaften der Gegenwart. Stuttgart. Josephus, Flavius 1886 The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. London. 1926-43 Josephus with an English Translation by H.St.J. Thackeray, cont. by Ralph Marcus. London. Koch, Klaus 1972 The Rediscovery of Apocalyptic. A Polemic Work on a Neglected area of Biblical Studies and its Damaging Effects on Theology and Philosophy. London. Kooinmann, W J. 1961 Luther and the Bible. Philadelphia. Kraeling, E.G. 1955 The Old Testament since the Reformation, New York. Kraus, HJ. 1956, reprinted 1969 Geschichte der historisch-kritischen Erforschung des Alten Testaments. Neukirchen-Vluyn. Lacoque, Andre 1979 The Book of Daniel. London. Ladd, George E. 1956 The Blessed Hope. Grand Rapids, Mi. Lindsell, H. 1976 The Battle for the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mi. Ludlum, David M. 1948 Social Ferment in Vermont, 1791-1850. New York. Luther, Martin 1883-1948 [WA] Luthers Werke. Kritische D. Martin Gesammtausgabe. Weimar. Malachy, Yona 1978 American Fundamentalism and Israel, the Relation of Fundamentalist Churches to Zionism and the State of Israel. Jerusalem. Manuel, Frank Edward 1974 The Religion of Isaac Newton. Oxford. McLoughlin, W. G. 1959 Modem Revivalism from Charles Grandison

213
Finney to Billy Graham. New York. McMaster, John B. 1883-1913 A History of the People of the United States. 8 vols. New York. Menzel, Donald Howard; Whipple, Fred L. and Vancouleurs, G. 1970 Survey of the Universe. New Jersey. Miller, Perry The Life of the Mind in America: From the 1965 Revolution to the Civil War. New York. Paine, Thomas 1938 The Age of Reason. London. Porter, Paul A. 1983 Metaphors and Monsters. A Literary-critical study of Daniel 7 and 8. Lund. Rad, Gerhard von 1966 Deuteronomy, A Commentary. London. (OTL) Ramm, Bernard L. 1967 Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids, Mi. 1970 Protestant Biblical Interpretation. A Textbook of Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids, Mi. Reeves, Marjorie 1969 The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages - A Study of Joachianism. Oxford. Joachim of Fiore and the Prophetic Future. 1976 London. Ringgren, Helmer The Messiah in the Old Testament. Chicago, 1956 London. Roberts, Alexander and Donaldson, James 1950 [ANF) The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Translations of the Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325. Grand Rapids, Mi. Rogers, J.B. and McKim, D. 1979 The Authority and Interpretation of the Bible, An Historical Approach. New York. Rowley, H.H. The Revelance of Apocalyptic. London. 1947 Russell, D.S. The Method and Message of the Jewish 1964 Apocalyptic. 200 Be - AD 100. London.

214 Sandeen, Ernst Robert 1970 The Roots of Fundamentalism. British and American Millenarianism. Grand Rapids, Mi., Chicago. Schaff, Philip, ed. 1882/1910 A History of the Christian Church. 7 vols. New York . Schaff, Philip, ed. 1956 A Select Library of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. 14 vols. Grand Rapids, Mi. Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry, eds. 1956 A Select Library of the Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Translated into English with prolegomena and Explanations. 14 vols. Grand Rapids, Mi. Scofield, Cyrus L. ed. 1917 The Scofield Reference Bible. New York. Seeberg, Reinhold 1%4 Text-Book of the History of Doctrines. Vol I. [Grand Rapids,} Mi. Shea, William H. 1982 Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation, Daniel and Revelation Committee Series, vol 1. Washington D.C. Smith, H.S., Handy, R.T., and Loescher, LA. 1960-3 American Christianity. An Historical Interpretation with Representative Documents, 2 vols. New York. Smith, T.L. 1957 Revivalism and Social Reform in Mid-NineteenthCentury America. New York. Smith, Uriah 1897, 1921, 1944 Daniel and the Revelation. The Response of History to the Voice of Prophecy. A Verse by Verse Study of These Important Books of the Bible. Washington D.C. Sweet, William Warren 1952 Religion in the Development of American Culture 1765-1840. New York.

215 Tyler, Alice Felt . Social 1944 Freedom's Ferment. Phases of Amencan OCI History from Colonial Period to the Outbrake of the Civil War. New York. Walch, Johann Georg, ed. 1881-1910 Dr. Martin Luthers Samtliche Schriften. 23 vols. St. Louis. deVaux, Roland 1961 Ancient Israel, Its Life and Institutions. London. Westerman, Claus, ed. 1%3 [EOTH] Essays on Old Testament Hermeneutics. English Translation Edited by James Luther Mays. Atlanta.

Periodicals and articles
Barr, James Revelation in History, Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible Supplement, pp .746-9. Bultman, Rudolf Ursprung und Sinn der Typologie als hermeneutische Methode. Teologische Litteraturzeitung 75 (1950) Cuninghame, William . Inquirer. The Investigator or Monthly Expositor and Register on Prophecy. Vol1 (1931) pp. 160-163. Dick, Everett N. Advent Camp Meeting. Adventist Heritage, Winter 1977. Ferch, Arthur Judgment Exalts the Cross. The Ministry, April, 1983. Geraty, Lawrence The Genesis Genealogies as an Index of Time . Spectrum Vol.6, no. 1. Maxwell, Graham Preacher of the Advent. The Adventist Review, Feb 11, 1982. The Legacy of William Miller. The Adventist Review, Feb 18, 1982.

216 Rad, Gerhard von Typological Interpretation of the Old Testament. Interpretation, Vol 15, (1%1). Typologische Auslegung des Alten Testaments. Evange/ische Teologie. Vol 12 (1952,3). Reid, George W. From Dispair to Destiny. The Ministry, April 1982. Sprengel, Merton E. Dark Day. Review and Herald, May 22, May 29, June 5, 1980. Vitringa The On the Interpretation of Prophecy. Investigator or monthly Expositor and Register on Prophecy, Vol 4 (1834/5), pp. 157-69. Wheetee, J.P. Letter March 17, 1843. Signs of the Times, April 5, 1843. White, Ellen Gould Notes on Travel. The Review and Herald, Nov 25, 1884. Wolff, Hans Walter Old Testament in Controvercy: Interpretative Principles and Illustrations. Interpretation, Vol 12 (1958) Zevit, Ziony Exegetical Implications of Daniel 8.1, 9.21. Vetus Testamentum, vol 28 [1978].

217

Unpublished manuscripts
Alttala, Wiljam 1967 (Thesis) University of Helsinki. Arasola, Kai Jaakko 1981 Ellen G. White ja Vanhan Testamentin profetismi. (Thesis) University of Helsinki. Arthur, David Tallmage 1961 Joshua V. Himes and the Cause of Adventism 1839-1845. (Thesis) University of Chicago, Ill.

Dederen, Raoul . n.d. Ellen White's Doctrine of the. .Scnpture. Washington D.C. Supplement to the Mrmstry. Graybill, Ronald D. The Power of Prophecy: Ellen G. White. and the 1983 Women Religious Founders of .the Nineteenth Century. (Diss.) John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Hongisto, Leif 1984 The Apocalyptic Discourse in Mark 13: Toward a Hermeneutic. (Thesis) Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Mich. Rasmussen, Steen R. 1983 Roots of the Prophetic Hermeneutics of William Miller. (Thesis) Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Mich.; Newbold College, Bracknell, Berks. England. Rees, Islwyn 1983 Samuel S. Snow and His Contribution to the Development of Seventh-day Adventist Doctrine. Newbold College, Bracknell Berkshire. 1984 A History of the Outside Dates of the 2300 Days of Daniel 8:14 As Interpreted within Seventh-day Adventism. Newbold College, Bracknell, Berks. England. Rowe,David L. 1974 Thunder and Trumpets: The Millerite Movement and Apocalyptic Thought in New York 1800-1845. (Diss.) University of Virginia, [UM!] Shea, William H. . . 1980 Daniel and the Judgment. Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Mich. 1981 The Year-Day Principle. Northern European Division of the SDA Church, St.Albans, Herts. England. Yoo, Keum san 1984 A Comparative Study of Major Current Conservative Interpretations of the Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9:24-27. Newbold College, Bracknell, Berks. England.

1970

[MEA] "Come out of Babylon": A Study of Millerite Separatism and Denominationalism, 1840-1865. (Thesis) University of Rochester, N.Y. [MEA]

218

219

APPENDIX II
MILLERITE EXEGETICAL AND OTHER ARTICLES
Distributioo of topics eoeered by articles in Millerite periodicals, 1840-1843.

APPENDIX I
Example of Millerite hermeneutical rules
Our rules are the following. course must be the best, plainest and simplest that can be given. It is a revelation in human language, to human beings, and must be understood by the known laws of language. 2. The Bible is always to be understood literally, when the literal sense does not involve contradictions, or is not unnatural. 3. When the literal sense involves the in contradiction, or expresses ideas which are unnatural, It is figurative, or parabolic, and is designed to illustrate rather than reveal the truth. 4. When a passage is clearly figurative, the figure is to be carefully studied, and the passage compared with other parts of the Word where the same or similiar figure may be employed. R. "Second Coming of Christ no. I" ST Apr 15, 1840.
1. The Bible contains a revelation from God to man, and of

The following lists are based on articles in Signs of the and Herald [Midnight CIJ1 January 1840 and December 1843. Articles With the length of 1/3 page are included. Subjects are divided into categories 116 (Miller's 15 proofs), 17-24 exegetical articles, and 25-30 other articles.
Subject matter A. Exegesis on Miller's 15 points:
DO.

occureeees

1. seven times of Lev 26 2. The year of release (Dt 15) 3. Seven years of Eze 34 4. 6000 year chronology 5. The jubilees 6. The two days of Hosea 6 7. 2300 evening-mornings of Dan 8.14 8. The time of the little hom, Dan 7.25 9. 1335 days of Dan 12.12 10. Two days of Luke 13 11. Five months of Rev 9 12. 1260 days of Rev 11 13. 1260 days of Rev 12 14. 42 months of Rev 13 15. 666 of Rev 13 16. Combinations of several points Total of A B. Other exegetical articles: 17.MethOd of Interpretation 18.Time prophecies (not to 1843/4) 19.Kingdoms of Daniel 2, 7, 11 20.Symbolism in the Apocalypse 21.Parousia, Millennium, Judgement 22.Signs of the times (Biblical studies) 23.Return or nonreturn of the Jews 24.0ther prophecies Total of B C. Other articles: 25.News items & signs of the times 26.Exhortation & polemics for Millerism 27.News on the progress of Millerism 28.Doctrinal articles 29.Devotional articles 3O.Unciassified Total for C

2' O' O'

1""

23 2"

25···
1"

34

4'
9

25··· 25···

25···

2'

123
46

21

4 21 15 61 25 44 16 232 56 108 95 6 14 51 330

'The low figure indicates that there were few or no separate ar:ticles on the subject. However, some of the 21 articles In category no. 16, Include these points. hCategories 6 and 10 deal with same period of time and are inseparable. '''Categories 8, 12, 13, 14 deal with the same penod of time and are inseparable.

220

221

APPENDIX III - MILLER'S 15 PROOFS
Miller's Proo f no.
2

APPENDIX IV - MILLERITE CHARTS
Proof texts
Lev 26 Dt 15.1,2 J er 34.14 Eze 34.9,10

T ime prophecy

1

3

677B.C

1----------1
6000yrs

2520yrs

1843AD.

1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -I 44157B.C.
5 607B.C

1843AD.

Ex 31.17

I

1843AD. 2001yrs 1843AD.
2300yrs

I

Lev 25.8-13

6

158B.C

I

I

Has 6.1-3

7

457B.C

I

1843AD.

I

Dan 8.14

8

538 AD.

I

l 260yrs

1798A D.

I

Dan 12.6,7

9

508 A D.

I

1290yrs 1798AD. 1335yrs 1843AD. 2001yrs 1843AD. 150 + 391 Dan 12.11-13

I

508AD.

I

I

10

158B.C.

I

I

Lk 13.32

11 12 13 14

1299AD.
l260yrs

I

1840AD.

I

Rev 95,15 Rev 11.3 Rev 12.6,14 Rev 135

538A.D.

I

1798AD. 666yrs

I

15

158B.C508AD.

I-I

Rev 13.18

Summary over Miller's exegesis of time prophecies . Chronological chart over Miller's fifteen ways of providing the second advent in 1843.

223

222

APPENDIX V TIME WAYS PROVED IN FIFTEEN DIFFERENT

by William Miller
PROOF.
Matth : rri . 27 : For the Son of man .ball in the glory of hi. Fa ther , 'trith hi. angds; and tben b. ahall reward eYeTT m.:sn &eCording to his worb. ReT. xxii. 12 :' And behold. I come quickly ; and J't!ward is with me, to gin eTery ID3n aoeording .. his wora &hall be . TDIE
!'&OTtO l!f T ITTrt:t' IHTT U .t ;(T TrIoTS .

&hall fiftieth yur be unto you; nO lOW. ,t neither rear \.h:l.t ",..tUe;:h 0 iteelt tn nO:T 3ther the ;rn.pee in it of thy TIRe undressed. or tt the j ubi lee ; It .hall be hol y unlO you. ye .ha.lI eat the increase thereof O1ltof the field . In year of th is jubi lee , Te shall retum eTery'm.ll bnto ha . ivn." l'ow, if we (2.ft .how &Oy rule we ean find the &Du type• ...-e,can !ell when the people G od v...ll i lDw the mhentanc.e the . pUf'Chue posaeuion . and the redempti.on the lr bocbn.. and the rrum of j ubilee will procllLlm liberty . a gl.onous one. thro!.....h all the land , In order to do thl' we must take of the order of the II Sabbaths ehall be complete. " There us •even ktnds . of S :lbb:u h s, wbich aU hu e seven fur. g1" eo .. umbe r .

It

r:!

1842 and we haTe 2'000 nan, or tw-o dOly.; Peter uys,' Peter iii. 8: u Ifut, be not 191IOftIlt nf .chia one thine, that OM day w "'llh the Lord... ::lwnuaand .,.ears. a.t1d .. thoaaud yean p ooe da,. And 18ii'p sbe 6nt yeaT iA the. "i'J'ifiv (j the Lord. The world bu IIIIlCe 1M 01 2000 ynn under the . 2!* n 3t'7l \lndeT the .A ..!"ri ltl, Bahylml1:1T1 , Medo-Pe1WIU:. : a.nd G recian ; and 2000 under. Rome Pap. Papal and KiDgly. [S... &C . Ad,. L". .. U.) VIl. I ean pyo... it by the leng1b of the 'YWOD . . hidl e D..iel bad, (.-iii. 1-14 ,) of lbe ...... , b...-. ....

rm

."".an

3.,.

-.=-:....

. .. LU,,;U

lonR'.

Da.a.. viii. 13.14 : "Then I heard ua& apnkiDg, ODd another AiDt aid D that oanaia aoiat Dto
whicb

U:LWcJ ......

inionoed ....
the .,..."

d&ya

I . I proy! it by the time giyen by MQfM:s. i.D the 26 th ch apte r of LeTit leO!. beinR' MiT R tim h Ik3t the e peoplt of God are to be in hond:l.£e to the kingdoms of t hi. w orld ; or in Babvlon, -titeral and muuc:l.1; which 8e\"en times cannot" be understood Jese than
1.0

IV . It io ,....-I. aloo, bT ,b ••il:" or the Sobhatb. Exod. mi, 13-17 : U Speak th o a aJao unto the cbildno. of Iarvl. "pDg. V Driy my Sobbathe y. l .h.1I keep : {or it w a . iga bet ... een me and yoa
YOOt gt'Mruiona ; th:n ye 111..:' kn ow tblot I am the Lord tha.. doth ..nctify y ou . Ye ahall k«p the S:lbbath 1.herefore : (or it i. he,ly unto you . ETery oae that dehJeth it .hall urely be put to dea.th ; for whCMlOeyer doethany work therein . that .aul sh.n be cut otr {rom among his people . S ix may work be done , bot ia d ie ....enlb ia the S a btnth of rest , b oly to the Lord : doeth any wor k. in the Sib .

J c::a rs, propneuc , wm cb is . commoo ye-:.rs. Be, rinning u before, .heD Babylon began to epcil IIHl rob them, and wben the,. by the fire oC the truth beflll CO burn ap the weaponJ of their enem ies, in thta moral ...,r ; ·lhiawill.Ddin 1e.3. (&0 MiD..'. Lif.aa 1'" , p. e9 .)

Th. , ... kept bot alI Sahbotba; if lbey bad h", the lMJYev.t.b they .... uld b....e been tnade perfect. c withov.t u ; but u.sy broke the eese nth . I I Therefore tbero .......... cf lb. Sabbolh to the pooplo of God." The Jewish Sabbaths were : . I. The 7th d.y. E.od. nxi. IS. 2. The 50tb dey _ wit. xxiii . 15. 16.

"""pin,

If>1'"en tim es 360 of the eanh in ita orbit, mak ing 2.520 yean . t belie"" t nis beg3n :lccording J eremiah 1 .... . ,- ' . And ] will e1uee them to be remo\"ed into aJI kinf!dona of tbe nnh. bee3u-e of

7: The 7 times 7 and 50th J.bil.. will bring va VI a complete or Sab.. ath.-the b Ju biMe of Jubilees. Thu. I urnes "SO yean &a 4:9 tUne8 M) - USC years. . , It ia ... ry nident nt')yea.r of 171e»e or e was e-rer kept after the reign of J 08 1::Lh, the lut king of Jerusalem that obeyed the commandment:' of the
Lord or kert hi.

3 The 7th week . Deut. xTi . i . . : Tbe ith month . Luil. xxi ii. 25. $ . The 7th year . wlt. x:u , :-t C. , 6 The 7 liu>eo 7 y.... &ad 50tb y..r 'Dbt1 ...

,.biJ...

B . C: llO 7.

See

K ings

This king'. mg-n ended chap«r, Cbroa. 35

the deily AeriDce;&ad lb. to .. belb tb........uary &ad tb< hoot to be troddea UDder foot.. ADd be aid. Wlto me. Unto nro \bollllMd. 'Dd tbree hDDd"", daY' ; th.,. oball the AnCN&rJ be eleaeeed ." And from whieb the iO ween weee QIl off and. folfiUed. the Tn: of Chrilt', death. DaD. iL ro:-27. Then 70 ·... of yean being cot ofl" &om. 2300 d.Y' , mk.. \h... day. y ; aDd 490 yam bein, r.16J1ed in A. D. 33, I 1810 yeva to t1la rl11JiltDeDt or th........ .b",h added to 33 mUa le.3 , .hea the """"''1 will be eJ......d. aocI the peop le Dr God juotibed . (&.. M ill6', L<r:twea" . 73.) Vlll. It ... be p""ed by Daoi.l ri. 6,7 : uAild one M.id \0 the mao dothed in liDen. wl:Ueh W'U a,o. the waknof the ri'reT, How long shall it be to the eed of theee wonden ! A nd I heard tbe man clothed. ia linen, wlUeb .. u upon the wa\en tbe rinT. -.rhea • he held up his hand and , hLS left lund

.pok., H .... loog Ihal1 be

-rUle

uk.

that ."" hie b he did in Jerusalem, " and Ju. vii . 8, . .. For ' the head of Sy ri.1. .ia Dam3Xus , :lnd the hnd of mucus is Res in : a nd \t"it hio three score and liTe yun , b:l.ll E pbnim be broke n, that it be not a Dology, 2 Chron . uxiii. 9, U So jta.na..s.leh mde Judah aDd. the iDh&b itaots of JeTUAJem to eJT. and to do wone tbl.D. lhe heathen. whoID tbe Lord had deatroyed hefore the c.hildreo of Ianel . l t - t h e ei7lh yru B. C . The n take 6;7 out of lea'Y e- A. D . 18-43, wh e n th e pun iahmeot of tbe peop le of G od :-ill end . ( & e M Ilkr'. 25 1.) II . It ia pro... d typieaUy by the year of relea&e. e See DeoL YT. 1, 2 : " At the end of e"'e" .enn Tean thoo .halt make & releue ; and thie is u.e man· of the aNitor that lendeth aught unto his . haJl re lease it ; he wall Dot n:a.et it of h i! neighbol or of his brother. bec&ue it ia eal1ed th e LoTt '. re leue , " Alto Jer . xxxi". 14 : At the I end of 8e"'en yetrs Jet ye go "U1 man his brot he r a He bre", • • hid t hath b«n aold on to thee , and when he h'3th thee aU. yeua , thou ,hllt let him go fTee (ro m thee ; bu t "'o or (ath en bearkent'd not unto me , nei ther inelin ed'thei r ear ." ,\Ve are , by \his type , t:\ught tbat people of God win be from their :10<1 wh en the...- haTe &eT"'ed th eir '; p rop het ic yea nJ.../ 360 ye3.nI U .2520. B f'S!lnlU nll with the ra plln ry of lmel and th t! of 677 B . C o. end in A . D . IS·U , J uda h , th e ctll.ldren of God. will be fro m all oond3.R"e and si;.\"en ' . ( Su &eOftd Ad cenl L ihrtzry, j'o,'o. 14.) , TIL it also plt'T ed th e l!' tTtn 't'e:l r!J ' ..-u of Zion with her given to liS in r:u: kieJ : .:rix. u 9, 10 : .. And that 'd,"ell in the cities of shall go forth, aT\d . hJ.ll eet on fiTe and bum the ' both !ihie lds and buckle"" the boWII and th e aTT O'WS , and the han d!!ltaTes. and the Spe&f'!l, and thn sha ll burn thero w ith fire -e'en Yun : eo that the=' sha n tak e no wood ou t of th e field I neither eut :lnv out of t he fOT the " sh all bum the l"t'e-a pons ' wit h and the'y ,h :LlI those that 1T h t heir en em ies , s potl in 'r lho!(" Ih:lt spo iled it

the

SOD

of Heuk.ia.h.

of J

for

m:::

li . r."

ob.eTYe the Sabbath throu @'bout theiT {or a co"enant . h ta a me :uld th e the children o( Israel fore"eT: j'or in , ix Lord made heaYen and · earth . :lnd on the 8eTen'th du he rll!'Sted &Dd _lUi H eo. jy. 4. 9-11 -: " F or be spake in a tert3in plaee of the d.y on th is wise : And God did}est the 8eTentb d3Y fro m al l hie ..orks ." I I Tbere therefoT i, Tut e to the people of God . F nr he t h:lt is enu:red into hi..Te:!t , he also h at h eeued (rom h is own worn . • • God did from tu.. . us labo r th e- efo re to e nt er int o th a.t r Te'it. les t &.Py aw:I f3l1 afte r the ..me eumple of UDb&-

and 38 chapLen . and eh1pter , After which the nenr ke pt , nen her .(" ould a Tear of re1eue . or Jubilee ; felT .neu her the tr kings. th eir 'Do bIes . the ir people. nr thei r. b.nds eouid haTe been redeemed afle r th is. JeT. :th" . 20-23 . Hue ended the Ju bilees , when the y not kept more than 21 Jubilees. l:lCking ZS of coming to the

l::Lnd w-u to la y

wh ile

peop le of God were in the il ene-min ' LeT tt . : ....-i . 34 . H ow long n a Jubiiee of 49 times 50 yean _ 2-45 :ten,. '''hen did these 0 n ars beg in A ns . \Vhrn the Jew. the keepIng of t he Sabbat hs an d J ubilell!'S. :l.t th e

cea.seu

A. God .... fix daY' ereating the old be....en. and ftMb, .o_d rat.ed on the tltyenth; &0 it is a .ign that Christ will alto Ia.bor .il: day. in Cl'e:Lting the new heu ens and e-arth, and rftt on th e se '·en tb . H ow lon e- is a d3T w ith tbe Lord ! Peter te lls us in his 2 E p1stle iii. 8 : But, be not i.rnonnt of this eme thin g I that one cisy ill with the Lord &! a tbo usand "("un, an d. t bouunJ. r urs as one d:ly, .. !i. the n , a yean ill a day 'VII'ith the Lord, how long b3.S C hris t bef:n \0 w('I k ereating the ne'...' I ans_er. r ,,'e will allo_ the Bible to us a ehronolo,l!'J', we shaH 'find thi. yea r , 1843. the 6000 from Ad:un·. f:J11 will be Then the Anti -typical Sabha t h n of 1 1000 -rean 'W"ill comm euce. Re ". : :. 6: W Bl e:!eed an d holy i.I he that hath part in th e nT':!t reIIur reecion : on u ch the 8eCOnd death h a.th no power. bUL the y ahaJJ be 'pries ta of God and of Christ. and sha ll re ig n w ith him • thousand years. P. ( &e L ife and can pro ...e it by t he typ ical ju bil ee , J.,p:vit. 1:1:T . 8--13 : U And th ou , halt le"eD: S 3.bbaths of yea rs nnto th ee. ae...en ·tim" 8e'f'eD Ye1lf'S'"""; and the space of the .eYen S3bbatl13 of yean .hall u otO thee forty and nine years. T hen shalt th ou th<e tntm pe t of the ju bilee to lOund. on th e tenl h daT of lhe 8eTenth month , in th e daT o f atonemen t ahall ye ma ke the tru m pet aound throug hout :: l d a yout' l:: .nd. And ye . h&!1 ha llow the fiftiet h yen, a nd pT oCb im libert y all th e b nd , unlO all th e inh:Jhitants t het'eof : it shall be • j uhilee unt o you ; :\nd ye sh:t.lI re turn man unt o hi:! posseui('ln . and ye !h:t.1I re lllM'l n eT}'" ma n IInto his f:lm tly . A jubil ee

re i.gn.. B . C . 607 . GO, frn m 2450. _11 leu es ."... D . ; wh en the Ju bilee of Ju bilees """ ltl com. . ( & , &C. Ad v. lA.,No. 14. ) VI. I proTe it by Hosea ...t. 1-3 : II Come ••nd let us return unto th e Lord ; for he hath torn, he wtll heal us ; he b:lLh sm itten. :lnd he will bIRd \d up.

heuen. a.nd Iwe.r by him tha t liyeth [oreTer, thar It be for a tim e . times , .nd a b1.lf; and .. beo he ah:l11 h3Te accom plished to 8C3 tter the PO\\'"et' of the boly peo ple. al l t he-se'things ahall be rinished ," The qu estion is :L "i\.:cd, H ow long to the e nd of ders 1 These wonde... to the re-sUrre<:tlOD . See 2d 3d " enes : .. And m::1ny of them tb:l.l. .leep in the dust of the eanh .h&l1 awake l lOme to eyerluting lif- And lOme to .hame and eTeTI3!ting contempt. theT th.3.t be wUe . sha.l1 erone::l.S tbe brigbme- of the fimmtnt ; .n d they th:l t turtl many to as the .tars fore "e r :lnd e" er. '.' an....er ... glnn by the angel • • ho inforIM Da ntelrt !hall be for • ti me , and a ha lf, and when he ! h31l h....e a.c:r:omplished to antler the po.wer of tb e boly :ill will be finished , Eu. xu. 10- 15 : . l Say un to \hem. Tbl'5 a:aith t he Lo TJ G OD; Thi3 bard en conoernr:th th e prin ce in J eruS:l.lem , and aU the house o f I..and

fl<
d l

them, and robbi.llg those that hJ.ye robbed them. 7

now if we foLl .... OD to know the o ; bill going forth La Prepared u the morning ; d he .h-:U forme r TWJn come untO u. ... \he rain, as the uT\tD the earth ." Thil prophec.-y ) I tw .o of th e R oman Kingdom , ,in ita Impe '. ar:d Pa.pal form. with ita ..t iron and penec uting th e o( God the third day IS the aame u Rn . u . 6 ; H BJeue:d and ) '01" is he th.r hath pa.rt in the tint rerun-ection: oo'.-o:ebthe wcoad dea.th but the!, of God h::oth no of Chris t , an.d .hall wlIfi lho .u&a.nd whe n the of God ., rill li .... lQ . 1ght , liye an d m gn wnh blD'l .. thc;Jttaa.nd re.n . If, then , the third daT is a thouaan d/Tean , then the two day. are of equ:I'l ltngth . Wlten did the- ""0 daY' begin _ ,,-ns. When the Je.a made a league with Rom:ln5. See HMe""'" 13: "WheD EphT3Jm AW , ic'k.neM, and Judah as'" h i.... th en weDt F:phra im to the A Slyrit.n, and sent to kmg Ja re h : co uld he not he:ll you , no r cun you of ynul .. DJ.n . xi. .. A nd the leag ue made Wlth h tm , he wo rk deceitfullv; for he s ha.1l come up . an d people ." 1 Maee3btts sh:l.ll become stm nl! with-a 8th :Jnd 9th chaDte ·n. T hia lea,.ue was eo nfinn e-d and r.llihed .3.nd the Grecia n kingdom to r ule Me r God ·s 'penple H. C . l oSS vears . Then ado 1$8 to

r:::e

..

third d.. h.

that are among them . 'Say, Iwm yom' mgu: like as 1 haTe done, 80 .ball it be done limo them =."th;eJ rem<JT'8 and go into c:aptiTi.1.y. And the pnnce"dtat. arooar them. .hall beu upon hi.a,houlders ill the twi-li ght aDd .hell It" forth : lb.y . hell dig _ g i l the ..all 'to earry out thereb...: be . hall ecn-er his face, d1d he aee Do t the groo nd "'ith hi. eyes. My aJ.o .illI .pr-nd him. and h e ah.ll be taUD m my fRare ' an d I u·ill bri1g him to Baby lon , to the 1aDd of the ch21deans, Tet . haU be not .ee it . thO'llgb ab:aIl die there. ADd. I will acatter \Oward wiDd. aD. that are about him to help him. and a.U hia banda:; aDd. I will <in. ODt the _or<! .n.. th.m. ADd they IIIta1l know t hat I am the wbeD ] .ball ecaner them. among the na tions, and them iD the eomtJeT. :IT . .. : .. And 1 lrill c:1ttM them 10 'be rem o"ed mto all lringdoms of the esrth, beeaae of
Manaaeeh the eon of Hezelriah , 1 adah, ,f« that ....hich he did in Je.T'O.S3Jem . tt Thw beguo , wheo Ian.el wa.s eeanered by w hen the king of J uda h, Man ueeh , euried to B:Jb"l oD. B. C. e7i. Thus th ey continued be a people 8C3tteTcd, by the of the. earth" until they fled intO the wilderness m A . D. 538. makes 12U yUT':!. There they 'in the s time and hal f- whic h bega n A. D. S38, ad A . D . 17:>8. Th e kiDgw the eartJl then h1d power , the tim e , .times. ::Lnd & half of lhe of th e holJ people tS filled yeam, be lDg th e Tema.iJlder .of th e m .king all. 1.2'60 "ean. u nder the o.llons or kinlt'!l, aDd ending m

or

br .5

224
hi.IIwill, aeeordiDg \0 bil fO?d ... be lw.b. purpoeed in himaelf : th:.t 10 \he o( the fulDa. of timea he m ight (':li bel' t or ether UI OM aU thing'S in Christ , both wh icb are in beaTeD, &ad which .re on eertb ; even in him :"- wheo. the people o( God, both among Jew. ud Getltiles, wUl PO more be ___ .. l,i\ ":lLnered ill ODe body in ChriR . (S7. 10 : u Haring made mown unto u the

225
fulDesi Ephe. i . of aioa uno the Gnek -te.rri1oriee, .ecording to f.;ibbou , in tb. ,.ear 1209, on the sr7\b day o( Jol,.. 6 month.
.aund 391 yean and l5 .. in Ra'Y. iI . 15 : · .. And the fear aDJelt wen leeeed , . hieb were prepa.red(oru boor,AAd a d.ay,&Dd I. month,aad a yet.r,
5 X3G-150. Thia tnuDpet ended IUY . And c.he aUth trumpet began to ecund , &ad wu to ... lMl

year iS43 ,-whieh ia the

deTili and doa curts, are the a.me u Hoeea '. t ..... o dar-, at the end of wh ich, the de,..tl " 'ill be chained, and cut oot of the n1'1h. into the pit, and .hat op. Tl>ia will alL. 2000 y..r, of the Ro..... power. RO'. W . 9: U And the great dragon wu eut O'at, that old aetpent, called \he lnTil , and Sa\&D., ... hich dec:eiTeth. 1.b.. wbole wotld : be ..... CU1: 00\ ioto the evth , ud bw angela were e:u\ ODt w jth him." ADd then the peoplo of GDd.. ill be perfecl<d. !\e •. u . 9 : .. Bl..ood ...d boly ia be lhat both pArt " tho lint rooorreetioo :
00 IUch

I I For I know that Ply Redeemu IiTtl h . and that he , hall ataDd at the latter d:LJ upon the tanh ." ( &. Miller ', J.Actv,a. 10K' 100.) X . It can alto be proTed by \he warda of Cbrirt , Luke xiii . 32 : U And be Mid unto thero . Go ye lnd tell tha.t (ox , Behold, I c;wt OQt duit. , and I do CUTn to-day aDd and. the third <in I ,ball be per. feeu-d." Thue two days , in which Christ QSLS out

iniqultJ doth &1ready work : ooly he _ho now lett e1.h will let , unt il he be t.a.keD out of the W3.1 And then . .ball tha.' W ieked. be rne:a.led , ...hom the Lo rd . h:Ll1 conaume with the rpint of hi. mouth . and 'hall de· atroT with th e brigbtneN of h.ia Job xix .

No.8" . 4S .) . aIoo bo p"""od by Dozi.1 xii. 1I-1S : " ADd from u.. tam. \hat the claily -.eri6ce -ball " taka " aDd \he aboa:aiAatiw that maketh deaolate ... 'p, th ohall bo.' tl"S.-d two b.Ddred ud .....,y doy". Bl.-d .. h. lhat loe\h ud .......u. . lO the tho.-d thn>e bnDdred d h. aDd tbitt}' doy". But CO thon thy ...y 1iI1 !be end be : for th"" ,balt Tell , aad .w.d iD t hy lot at Lbe eod of \A. do!",." • The namber 1335 dan, Crom the tam, ..... y of Rome POfUl, A. D: !>Oli, 10 eel up Rome P.paI. oDd the reigu of P,J*ry', ill290 dar-, which .... es.actJy f.lnllod in Iml.o&l1I, bewg fuWlod in 17118. Tbia pro"ea the 1335 .,... to be yean, &ad t Dantel will "Lba stan d in hia lot in A. D. lQ43. For proof te1:U, Me Doz. xi . 31 : " A Dd lU1DO oholl,tand on bia put, ood th.y 011.11 polla'" tb. AnClU'ry of _n!!'h. ud ,ball ..lL .....y the daily _ri6ce , ... d tbey .h.1I plo<e the abomilJaUt'lD. that maketh de.olate ." 2 Thea. ii . 6-' 6 : .. And no. 're know what ,o 1.hholdeth that be mig b.t be J"e'Yealect. in hit time . For myRtry of IX . It
caD

Se.

tion wu gnnled to tbe papal ,ta{n in l 798 . Then the J"'ml&inder hannonizn ...ith the trumpets : -ee ReT . 14, 15 : .. The IJeOOnd wo U pas t ; aDd bebold, the th ird _0 C01Mtb qniekly. And the a.ngelllOunded ; and there,..-ne gTe.t 'Yoieesio hUTen , e:ayia( . The kinJrdoml of thit world ue become the lLingdomeof Olll" Lord. and of his Cbriat; and b••holl reigu (omt:!' and enr. " ..Dd \eml lnatft with A . D. \ 18<3 . (&. Mill,,', L«tvrt', , . 190 .) XUI. h ean bfI preTed by Re"'. xii. G, 14 : .. And the \Tom3.n flel\ in to the .ilderne"A, _here .he ba th pbce prepared o( God, thulhn abould feed tbere a tbousa nd two hun dred and da.,.. . And to the ....oman were ,iTen two win£" of a gr eat eag le, that abe 8y into the wildemess, loto her place , where Bhe nODrUheJ for .. time, and limn. and half

for .. llay the thin! port of _ ; on the 11th of An«a_. Tboa the ..,.{ oaded lSCO" _ _th .......pat beri", _ _ with the f.u- of timeo. !leY. 5 1 : "And !be ... ,.,1 .. bieb I ... otucl apoe the WId apon th. _nh, lil\ed 'Op b:a lwMl to b.Tea, &J:Id ....,.. by him that liTet.h {oreYer aDd. eYer t who ereeted henn, aDd \be thiAr that t.berein are , &Dd the ea.nh aDd the thiors th&t therein are , U1d the 1eI., and the lhinp whicb are thenm, thai there Uaould be lime 'DO lonrr : but in the d.y" of the ...ft:e of th....."th "gel, .beD be aball MgiD to .amid , the mystery of GDd .bonld be finiabed , .. be botb d..1uod 10 hi. lOT. ..... the propb...." ADd with Dooie1 xii. 7 . See If''Ctioa. 7...here it it Ibown to ebd in the you IBU . (&. Miller ', L«twru, p. lPO.) XU . It caD be p"""ed by tbe two ... i....... being elothed ill _kcloth 12llO yan. See !leY. xi. 3 : U ADdI will giTe J'OW"eT 'UDto my two wltHaeS . Ind theyahall prophesy a thousand two hundred ud tbTMICOre dayll, clothed ill au:kdotb ." This tilDe with Papwc,., and ended iD 1798, duriD« which time the Bibl...u onpp.-.-.! from the l" ,y, in . 11 Lhe t:OODtT.ee papacy but power , un til the lawl of the papal hierarcb,. "'ere abolished and frre

to the P ope b,. A .i>. until the Pope wu carried ea pt,""ty . In 18. ...er aboli!hed, in the year 198. See . that leadeth capti.ay .ball go lOto that kille th WIth the muat be f a• .crd . Here is the pa tleDeI: and the ,aJ 0 . .-lAta. U Tbi. it the nme u the little borD lA

Damel 7th, ud I'J"DCbrolliMs wi\h DuMI'. d h01l &Ul........ fluoloU,·, or 1 4 &NIl margillal .-liDJ.) eompazo Dooiel Xl . 31 , ucI ""11 wiLh Re't'. Pi, 3--8 ; -.nd of CO\l1"M b.. POW" • wUh t.'e utl o:f ha.." at ," \be 12ijJ T uen D""",l xu. lij,- B eeeed .. he t b&1.-.it.eLh , aDd. c:osuth \0 the three hUAtired and iTll and thirt y day., .. ....-.:'&me. ua 10 \he 1843. (Set Miller ', 77 .) ... It eaa. be pro.ed. by the D.umhe'D)D ReT. xw.

y.....

rexV.

Led-,,·

18 : U Here '- wllldom. Let him tbu u.Dder&t&Pdiog count the Dumber of th e .for It \& the number of I. ma.a ; aDd his 1 an . . threescore and aix," ...Ith D amel · 12 , U befo re quoted. Tbia \ext ahowl the number (Of yean that Rome 'Would e1is1 un der the u'Laaphemoul bead of Papniam. after h ..u co tLnee1ed wl'..h the of God by lea,gue B . c. & G66 dd will brin us to A. D . s,()d , wh en the ...u t.a\':en · add Daniel xii. 12, the 1335 . 508, makes the yeu 18·U . When the 3nd blS unage ill be wrmen1.ed in the presen ce ul the holya.n ge ls , :nd the Lamh . See Re". I. i\". 9--1 2 ; ••.'\nd .th e th ird angel foUowed them, uymg wilh :L .loud .00ce, If any 1B&D worship beut ano. . lS .unage, &rid h rece in h.ia D1uk. in hia or lr. hiS han d . the ah&ll drink o( t he Wlae of the wn.lR uf GueS , is poured oot without mixture in\.O Ule of hi. indignati on; and be 1halL. be tormented W1th tire aDd brlmalDDe in the pruence of \be h.oIy a.nge an.d ll. in the reeeD08 of \be Lamb : and Lbe MIlO"e of theu MCetlde\b. up foreyer and and \hey DO real. dAy DO!' Dight, who tbe beut.• nd hw imJ,ge LOdwhoaoe nr TeCei't'eth the mark of name . th He te tbe patie nce of the aainl.S: here are tbe.Yh a; keep the eornm<U\dmeDl.S of God , t he 0 J ..... " (S« ,\[ ,II<r', L<aores .1"'g' .G.) ye aeyet"1l wna of prophetic pro the eod in 1843. Now wha.t I.A there l.Q 3.11 Ull.A rec.k-

::b

i.

eartb . 6000 y ean: and the 7000th . the ye3 f Christ will uke posaeuiOD and re ign with his w na, in per feet bli.\!;. ' This dngon power began iu power the .ainu when the made with h!m . B. C. 158 ,-and ... end in l&4.:2. T hen the tb ird da y wil l begin l 8 43. ( &. &C. Ad. Lib. No. 3, 6 1.) Xl. T he trumpeta are also _ N!Telttion of time , I. Se e ReT . ix. •• And to them. ws.s giTen that t heY' s hould oot kill them, but lb.t th e y ahould be tor mented fiTe mon th.a : and the ir torment wu u the tC' ment of a 8eOrpion , when he atriketh .. man . " r T!'l. se fi'Ye moatb.s belt'U when the Turk.. m.a.deincure

dr1.goD stood brefore the woman w hieh wu read y to be de livere d, for to d.yOlU ber chil d .. eooo u it "'loS born ." Thia go't'crameDt will dnw after him oJLC t h • ,J put of whi ch wicked men baTe power 10 \.be

thoy ,bill be pri"" of God ... d of Cbri!t, ood ,boll him a tbouaand. ,.eva. II . This time born with the " greot dn.gon, " Re• . xii. 3 ; "And.. tbere appeam:l another wonder in hea-rea ; &Ad behold, a great red dragon , ba...u.g MlTea. hea.ds &oDd len hOrDa, and .yea UOW'QI 8poD hie b..d.. An d his tail <In.. the thin! pArt of lh. oW"S of heanD , and did cut them to the ea rth : and the
re lQ"O witli

the eeeond. death hath

DO

power, but

'Jt':m.

the kingdoma in the Papa.J knltory. Tbia aJlIO hat'monius with the tC."itMSMs and the trumpd . Comp:a.re Rey . x i. 15, " A nd t he aeTen t b angel lIOunded ; there "ere g-reat T01<:8 in heaTen , u, in R, The kjngdoms of th is wor ld ar e become the kingdoms of nur Lord , and o( his ChrUt; a.nd he .ha.ll reirn fOreYeT and eyer ," with ReT. xii . 10, U ADd I heard a loud Toiee .ying in heuen . N ow is come II.1ntioa , and and the kingdom of our God , and the power of hts Ch rist: for the aceuaer of our bftthren 111 cut down which .lXUeed them oar God day and . ith'." (S« M ill,,', L«tvrtr.p. 20.)

antil & time and t imes and the diriding of time,"-in the na.r A. D. 538 ; &rid wu in "the wildernea 1260 anti! 1i98. wbeD free tolennon wu gT'lDted in

any p',nxla. tirr,e 8inee the ... preached. ; ·and it is TefT ",dt1tt, (or pat, the troe clnm:h hu an outl .... among the kiDgdOlM .bieh a.!'l:lM eat of the Roman Empire. - TM cbureb wu driTen into tho wild ......, ..herathey ..... gi_ mlO the pawn of the Pope.-Doni eJ .n. 25 : And be .boll apeale great word. ·apjnat the -Me.t High, IlQd Jb&1l Wl'!U oat the uinta of the Moet High, ud \biD\: \0 change timet I.I\d l& w.: ADd they abali be @'iTeft into hia hand

that the ('bDreb bot now in the wiJderlH!ll, for if so, "he 1II0at haye Moen there io tbe apoMJee' (en' ahe more now IrDOftg the Dation., than ia

• time , from the

r.ee orthe

oerpont." It io eridrat

ooing of time , that .baWd •• tiJJe

Ollt; 10

sueb

ru'

d.,...

and

...... r iyen onto him a mouth speaking pat thin,. and &lid power ..... E'1Tea unto him to eontiDue fon,. ud two montla ." Thi.l time began aI tb e lamt: time as t he when power W'U riTeD

x:IV . It 18 PJ"O"'"ed b,. Re"'. xiii. 5 :

U

ADd there

.l BIBLE CH RO N OLOG Y FROM ADAM TO CHRIST.

226

-N".

N ..' PAl ft.rt. ...". .""(;1
C rea.t ion Adam Se rb E nos. Cai n un M"h alalcel Jared E noc h Met huselah Larn cch ,
NO:1h

KinJ;_.a: , .

APPENDIX
VI

2. 3.
4. G. 7. S. 9. 10.

I.

1 -1157

5.

11.

15 . 16. 17. 19 . 19. 20. 21.

li': H.

T h. Flood Sh e m . • Heber Pcl cg

130 105 90 70 65 162 65 187 18 2 600
1

130 235 325 395 460 622 G 87 874 1056 IG 56 105D 1694 li24 1i59 1768 1820 18SO
1657

....

. '. '. ,. ' .

2 35 30
:U

4027 .. 3922" 3832 .. 3762 .. 3697 .. 3535 .. 3nO .. 3283 .. 3101 .. 250 1 .. 2500 u 2198 .. 2·103 .. 2413 II
2399 "

GCD . i ' l ii.

=="'3 6 9 12 15
18

..........

I

••

.. .. .. .. .. .. " eii. viii. xi. ..
U

21 25 28 6 To 1M flood. 10 12 1.
16 \8 13

22.
1. 2. J.

Scr ug Nah or . .. .- -- T ernh'a lire E xode, &c. • Wilderness J oshua • • • • .
Elders nnd An nrchy . Un der Cus han . . . Othnie l

Reu

30 32 30 29

2369 23:n 2307

..
It

..
u

I.

..
II

..
co

20 22
3<?

20.')· 2094 207 3

lR'9 2278

Ge n. xi. 24

6.

Jnhin

7. 9. 9. 10.
12.

11.
JJ . 14.

Tal.

Barak MiJ i:m ilea Gid eon Abimelech hir Phil istines

4:l0t 40 25j 19 9 40 19 80 20 40 7
40

T Cf l\h " lh:ll h ; 1"-0 Alwan.l.! l'\ ! 25 11 lli43 Ex .'Il i.4 0,41 Hill3 J osh. T. 6 1'11 . • • 25.9 1578 I xi• .7; xxi•.29 :l597 1,)(10 See Joseph us t 2605 l udg. iii, 8 : J•• hu. ..... ,.ovn, ",.n 1 2615 1512 .. .. II 2GO H 9'1 J " .. .. ClI I'" old tt,... . 270 HH .. " 30 [ iStll, ." "... ..n h. cnle .-...t jy. 3 27t3 1394 • II C.I1IM1l . ntl l l O .. llIro he d iN , , k.". 2$ , ,..... 2303 )354 u T . 31 , h dC" bcCllL 8M Jude.. U. 28 10 1347 .. Ti. 1 7-14.

• n..l:.o."did M4.bt l l" ''''It It ,

.

I

2850

1307

II

17.
18. 19. 20.

15. 16.

J epluhah Ibnn. Elan. Abdon . Phih"i... Eli Samuel, prorhe,
S olomon Reh c boam Abij.m

, ,

3 2953· 1304 23 .2 870 1281 22 2998 1259 18 29 16 124 1 6 2912 1235 7 2929 1m 1218 10
8 2947 1210

u

.. " " u

"

viii. 29 il. 22 x. 2 3 " " 8 xii. 7

..
U

n
II

u

9 11

J4

3.
of .

6.

5.

7. 8.
9.

Jehoshoph.,
Jeh oram
Ahaz iah . • . •

ASQ

10. 11. 12.
14. 15. 16. 17.
18.

J onah • '. • . A rnae inh Interregnu m ] Azar inh . . . J otha m

Atlmliah. hit mother
.

52
29

5 I 6 40 29 II
16

40 40· 24 t 40 40 40 17 3 41 25

2987 3027 305\ :J091 3131 3171 31S8 3 191 32:12 3257 3262 3263 3209 3300 33111 .13 19 :1-.10 1
3417

1170 • xiii. 1 1130 IS.", . i•. 18 • Ttll, ,ntM It. Judl-..=:4.e "'1l1"I.. Act. .hi. 20; .Ieo tIL 1106 ... ii. 2-17 .Iii. 1066 Atl' xiii. 21 t Samuel t_14 not bc... bMft 1026 2 S.", . •. 4 mnI'I thoul n En dltd , l a _t ift, ose I Kin. xi. 42 lhol of I.... Ar k rnn,. tha h 969 2 ehr . xii. 13 'lO , . "'11 t ,nu\. n..r 960 1 Kin. n. 2 road 925 " .. 10 H. "l1M, a., 63 900 II J'l ii..a 2 .heft S. ul madot k ln, _ 895 2 Kin, Tiii .17 994 .. .. 26 888 .. xi. 3, 4 848 .. xii. I

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1f th is Chro nolog y is no t corre ct, I shal l despair of ever gd ting rr(\1'T\ the Bible e nd hi ... tor y. a tr ue accou nt of the nee of the wo rld. At I ny I1Ite, I sh RII re st sAt i,fied here, en d wait th e eve nt; tim e will determ ine. All it respects the tn t in 1 vi. I, it ca nnot be reco nci led with 'he history of 'l ie Judges an d the sta teme nt or 51. Paul ; 1 han therefore follow ed t wo witn esses instead of o ne . As it respect! Samuel, I haye no doubt or al long .. period as 21 reus; but it mar possiLly ha ve exceeded 24 years.