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History of Indian cinema made its journey from the silent era through the golden age. India witnessed the arrival of cinema in the year 1896.
History of Indian cinema dated back to the year 1896. The Lumiere Brothers first demonstrated the art of cinema to the sub continent. Bombay was the first Indian city that screened Cinematography, six short films by the Lumiere Brothers. The success of these films led to the screening of more foreign films, for instance, Vitagraph by James B. Stewart and Moto-Photoscope by Ted Hughes. In other words introduction of cinema in India took place with the aid of the colonisers.) The Indian film industry is the oldest and the largest in the world with over 1200 movies released annually A kaleidoscopic view of history of India includes the pioneering efforts of Save Dada (Harischandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar). He made two short films as early as in 1897. The first short films in India were directed by Hiralal Sen, starting with Flower of Persia (1898). In 1900 the entire Indian entertainment sector underwent huge changes and the emergence of Dadasaheb Phalke took Indian cinema to new heights. Thus the path breaking film of the Silent era, Raja Harishchandra, was released in 1913. During this time and the era of the talkies the main sources for Indian films were the mythological texts. The rapid growth of the Indian cinema led to the end of the silent era and ushered in the era of the talkies. The latter introduced the Indian cinema in a completely new way to the audiences. Now one could hear the actors and actresses talk, laugh, sing and cry. Initially films were primarily made in Hindi, Tamil, Bengali and Telugu and these films proved to be phenomenal successes. 1930s and 1940s witnessed the rise of film personalities, such as, Debaki Bose, Chetan Anand, S.S. Vasan, Nitin Bose and others. Their contributions helped the Indian cinema to grow further. By this time apart from Bombay (Mumbai), the film industry shaped up well in down south too. The Tamil, Telugu and Kannada film industries were making indigenous films as well. By late 1940s films in India were made in various languages but the religious influence was predominant. With struggle for independence the entire scenario altered. Indian cinema now saw films based on the then contemporary social issues. Movies no longer were limited to the periphery of entertainment; they were now potent instruments to educate the masses as well. The golden period in the history of Indian cinema is attributed to the 1950s. Guru Dutt, Mehboob Khan, Raj Kapoor, Balraj Sahani, Nargis, Bimal Roy, Meena Kumari, Madhubala, Dilip Kumar graced the screens. In south India esteemed actors like Rajkumar, Gemini Ganesan, NT Rama Rao and several other actors and actresses entertained the audiences. Besides them numerous singers, composers, scriptwriters, cameramen and other technicians lend a helping hand in making some of the most outstanding films that carved their own niches in the history of Indian cinema. In Bombay while the magic of Guru Dutts and Bimal Roys were preponderant Indian cinema moved one step further with the release of K. Asif`s Mughal-e-Azam in 1960. A trail of romantic movies followed all over India. While the Indian commercial cinema enjoyed popularity
At one hand Hindi cinema was growing in leaps and bounds and on the other the regional films were making their presence felt too.Amitabh Bachchan. international appeal. Gradually the face of Indian cinema was undergoing changes one again. Indian art cinema did not go unnoticed.are intended to educate the mass. Sasi. With romantic films at the helm the Indian cinema ushered into 1990s. The audiences. Rajnikanth. Pipli live. Films such as Sarkar. witnessed dolby digital sound effects. Aravindan.V. Prema Karnath. Hence the contemporary Indian cinema. Balu Mahendra. were getting weary of similar storylines. Romantic. As years fly away Indian cinema betters itself with more number of films making it to the golden pages of its history. Renowned film personalities like Balachander. Tanuja and others. Films. Diksha. Ram Gopal Varma and others made their marks. Adoor Gopalakrishnan. and others explored all possible techniques to enrich Indian cinema with their performances. Waheeda Rehman. Amu. Hrithik Roshan. such as. Kannada. keeping pace with time and technology. too. actions and comic movies were made. advanced special effects. . Juhi Chawla. choreography. The regional films like Malayalam. Rajneeti. Aamir Khan. Stars like Shahrukh Khan. It was also the year when Rekha wooed the audiences with her stunning performance in Umrao Jaan. Even in contemporary India cinema a troupe of new faces came. I. The post generation of the existing stars are making Indian cinema rich in its true sense using their youthful vivacity and talent. Chiranjeevi. Shaji Karun and several other art film directors were making movies that took India to international fame and glory. such as. Phir Milenge. Aparna Sen. thriller. Gandhi. Terrorist. Page 3. Bengali and others produced a number of romantic films. A number of well established Hindi film stars who became a part of the star system in India actually began their career with the Indian regional films.amidst the movie goers. Asha Parekh. further investments from corporate sectors alongwith finer scripts and performances. The aesthetic appeal of cinema became important for the filmmakers. A mixed genre was witnessed during this time. Telugu. Meera Nair and others. Madhuri Dixit. Tare Zamin Par. Mani Ratnam. 1980s saw the rise of several woman directors. By 1970s Indian cinema enjoyed the histrionics of superstars like Rajesh Khanna. This was truly the red letter year for Hindi cinema as Ramesh Sippy`s Sholay proved to be an iconoclast and gave to Indian cinema its new superstar--. Ritwik Ghatak. Hardly did anyone know then that theBachchan era was here to stay for long enough. Sanjeev Kumar. and Fashion reflect the political and social scenarios of contemporary society. Satyajit Ray.
A headline summarises the most important point in a news report. 4 Byline: The name of the reporter who wrote the story. As you know. It is used for momentous events. Editorial: Editorial is the article that represents the paper’s opinion. Anchor: A soft story used at the base of Page One. The headline of such a story is different to the headlines used for hard news stories. Kicker: Kicker is the headline that is written on top of the main headline. It is known as cutline in the US. There is one more definition of column. Jump line: The jump line is used to inform the reader of the page and column number where he can find the rest of the story. the name of the news agency is used as byline. It is set in a point size that is less than the point size used to set the main headline.Elements of a newspaper 1. 17. are called columns. 12. 5 Caption: The text used to describe a photograph. These are ads placed by individuals or small traders. each newspaper page is divided into six to eight vertical rows. Headline: Headline is the title of a news report run in display type to catch the attention of the readers. 6 Classifieds: The advertisements run in small type. 13. Infographic: An infographic is an art form where words are used with charts. day and date of publication. These rows. In the case of agencies. The banner is also called a streamer 3. Masthead: Masthead is the forehead of the newspaper where the title of the newspaper is published. and is set in big and bold letters. which are used to display content. In several newspapers the Kicker is called Shoulder. Dateline: It comprises of two elements: the name of the city from where a story originated and the date on which it was written. Jump: Jump is the part of the story that is continued from the front page to an inside page. Deck: Deck is the term used to describe each line in a headline. Banner: Banner is a headline that runs across all eight columns on the top of the page. 16. 18. It is also called the Leader. publication date etc. Box: A news report that is surrounded by a printed rule. 15. 14. The box is used to display those stories that are important or unusual. Folio: Folio is the line of text placed on top of inside pages giving the page number. 11. 7 Column: A weekly or fortnightly article written by a seasoned commentator. 8. graphs or photographs to tell a news story. It will be more creative and eye-catching. 20. Sidebar: Sidebar is a short story related to the main story and run adjacent to it. Filler: Filler is a short item that is used to fill up space on a newspaper page. who is either a journalist or a specialist. Lead: Lead is the first paragraph of a news report 19. . 10. It also gives the place of publication. 2. who pay according to the number of words used. illustrations. 9.
22. . Sub-heads are generally written in bold letters in the same point size as the body text. Teaser: Teaser is a front-page box placed over or below the masthead. In some newspapers. and is generally used to highlight a new point. It can also be used to amplify the main headline. Strap-line is also referred to as Reverse Shoulder.21. Subhead: Subhead is one or two word headline inserted at the head of a paragraph to break the monotony of a solid column of type. It lists the important stories run on inside pages. 23. or boxes announcing a paper’s inside contents. It is written in a point size that is smaller than the point size used to write the main headline. Strapline: Strapline is a headline written beneath the main headline.
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