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a. “Bambino” 2 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person .For my nephew Jaysen a.k.
educated. informal. Please forward it to others who can benefit from it. that most of the world’s greatest inventions. to provide my students and mentees with the best guidance. Gian Fiero Growth Expert 3 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . Who am I? A former adjunct professor at San Francisco State University A former high school teacher for Oakland School for the Arts A Montessori trained educator More importantly. which is also my goal in writing it. direction. can have this very effect. Robert Sternberg’s successful intelligence theory. and intelligent Bonus articles: Minor Considerations In Choosing A College Major & What Teachers Learn From Teaching I hope you enjoy this e-book. understood. and mastery of Yale’s Dr. and applied. but the science of true learning. Do you have the desire and ambition to become a degreed thinker? Through my empirical observations. I’m a scholar of success and a student of human nature who is passionate about real education. not the rote memorization of facts. As an educator. for decades. and experiential learning. This e-book was created for that purpose. In it you will find: Tips on how to be a better student and a smarter person An analysis of the differences between being smart. As an educator I have worked diligently. I’m also an advocate. innovations. student. I wish you luck and persistence in your efforts to become a better student. or getting “good grades”. I have accurately identified what enables students to improve their intellectual faculties and academic abilities (which are not the same). and cutting edge companies were created by degreed thinkers. ongoing research. observational. academic. and tools that I can offer to facilitate their intellectual. and champion of knowledge application. I’ve always been more impressed with degreed thinkers (which are rare) than I am with people who merely have degrees (which are common). purveyor.What if you were told exactly what you needed to do to become a better student and a smarter person – would you do it? You are now reading an e-book that when read. and personal growth. and citizen. and a smarter person. and research will prove. History will show. which is the process of applying knowledge obtained through formal.
make new things. We are all meant to be “specialists” in something because we all have interests.making you smarter. and to take note. 4 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . When we discover and learn new things. and is one of the largest determining factors in why some students do better than others in school . Curiosity is an indication of a hungry mind that yearns to be fed. and the world in which I live? In other words. To become a better student. and a specialty. my life. Some professors are better at relaying their teachings beyond the classroom than others. Focus ……………………. and a smarter person. and make old things better. Your curiosity will lead you to your interests. people. the trait that once characterized childhood behavior gets defined as a personality trait. Curiosity drives us to explore. This “personality trait” in students has been recognized as being equally as important as intelligence. Ironically. others will stick. thus providing you with focus. Those are the ones that become passions which may consume you. Parents love to see the fascination that babies. New connections between existing neurons occur . my (future) profession. Everything seems to stimulate them. Context = Meaning……………………. This natural curiosity is vital to their learning and development.T o become a better student. embrace the following: Curiosity ……………………. and a smarter person. toddlers. when we grow up. In other words. you have to see how the knowledge presented applies to real life scenarios. and it behooves parents to nurture it. Curiosity enables us to take interest. Curiosity is not what killed the cat. It’s a great time of wonder for them because every experience is a novel experience. These connections only occur through this cognitive process.in every grade level. Feed it daily. does it matter? This is called contextualizing thinking. when those who lack curiosity may overlook. the things that we are exposed to most often tend to stimulate us less. and children have with their environment. As we age. and spark the motivation you need to find out everything you possibly can about a subject. The question to always ask yourself in class is this: how does what we are covering affect me. it’s what made his nine lives more fascinating and rewarding to live. why and how. Habituation is a decrease in behavioral responsiveness that occurs when a stimulus is repeated frequently without a subsequent reward or punishment. structural changes occur in the brain and neurons are built. Focus helps you see what you are curious about more closely. figure things out. How do you maintain the curiosity of a child when your world expands and so many things demand your attention? The reason why focus is number two on this list is because it directs our curiosity. prompting them to investigate everything in sight through their senses. Some will pass. Contextualization helps you see the “big picture” in terms of real life knowledge application. a process that evolutionary psychologists call habituation occurs. The result? Our natural curiosity level begins to diminish.
k. The key is too demand more from yourself than your professor does. We all have our interpretations. schemas. I will address the reading portion later in this list.” Studious means “marked by care and effort. This means to survey. etc. SQ3R enables students to fully embrace and recall subject matter when practiced. This is why it’s crucial to read early. Students who challenge themselves to study more. many educators are trained to teach a method of reading called SQ3R. Read A Lot……………………. which is also the key to being a smarter person. recite what you learned. formulate questions about topics/chapter headings. Prior knowledge is a major component to increasing reading comprehension. and often. which tackles these questions.for class and pleasure . one has to process it cognitively. but not as many studious individuals as you might think. Recite.a great students) do the following: Confirm their comprehension of assignment instructions with their professor Bring questions to class for the purpose of knowledge expansion and context Form study groups to share notes and discuss individual insights There are many students in college. Read. Question. tend to be smarter. 5 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . read the material thoroughly to answer those questions.” that’s the first definition. and reading comprehension. right? I guess it depends on how you define “studious. Challenge Yourself……………………. look over what you are going to read. Review. To comprehend what one has read. Of course no conversation about being smart is complete without defining what it means to be smart.Become More Studious ……………………. The second is: characterized by diligent study and fondness for reading. Comprehension involves constructing meaning. terminologies.). But educators know all too well that they are two separate and distinct skills. and put forth greater effort in the comprehension of what they are studying. This is one is obvious. But are there scientific or universal definitions? And how do they differ from intelligence? And are those who are educated . In academia. and review all notes you have taken. Studies show that students who read . Reading.regarded as both? What follows is my widely read and heavily cited article. so that college textbooks aren’t overwhelming. but it’s the first definition that I must tackle at this juncture. is often mentioned in the same breath. as we tend to build upon what we already know (words.highly educated .excel academically and intellectually. Students who are truly studious do the following: Educate themselves on the requirements for success in any class they take Study assigned materials with the goal of comprehension Document unfamiliar terms and vocabulary and then define and research them Students who truly care and make an effort in the scope of being studious (a. which stands for Survey.
Gottfredson. study. What does it mean to be highly educated? What's the difference between being highly educated and highly intelligent? Does being highly educated automatically make you highly intelligent? Can one be highly intelligent without being highly educated? Do IQs really mean anything? What makes a person wise? Why is wisdom typically associated with old age? My desire to seek answers to these questions inspired many hours of intense research which included the reading of 6 books. but not as smart as we think. They include a wide variety of mental processes used to analyze sounds and images. make associations between different pieces of information. oatmeal. and maintain concentration on particular tasks. recall information from memory. broccoli. intelligence and wisdom. Alfie Kohn. which makes me wonder. Linda S. If that were the case. Halpern whose work is cited in this article. dried fruits. In essence. and tractability than children with higher prenatal iron levels. As a child my mother would refer to me as "smart. or one's environment? Then there are the issues of education. and fortified cereals. seafoods. In time I would discover that all children are not smart. 6 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . COGNITIVE SKILLS Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we use to think. pinto beans. and learn. Thomas Sowell. and Diane F. Cognitive skill strength and efficiency correlates directly with students' ease of learning. Children with low iron status in utero (in the uterus) scored lower on every test and had significantly lower language ability.which we don't. fine-motor skills. proper prenatal care is critical to the development of cognitive skills. They can be individually identified and measured. how do we define smart? What makes one person smarter than another? When do "street smarts" matter more than "book smarts"? Can you be both smart and stupid? Is being smart more of a direct influence of genetics. asparagus. My goal was simple: Amass. kidney beans. nuts. PRENATAL CARE With this in mind. spinach. Educated. hundreds of research documents. smart people . and Intelligent I’ve always been intrigued by the subject of intelligence. There is mounting evidence that the consumption of food that's high in iron both before and during pregnancy is critical to building the prenatal brain. and countless hours on the Internet.The Difference Between Being Smart. and present data on what it means to be smart. Researchers have found a strong association between low iron levels during pregnancy and diminished IQ. which pales in comparison to the lifetime of studies and research that pioneers in the fields of intelligence and education like Howard Gardner. we'd have a world full of beautiful." but I quickly noticed that all parents refer to their children as smart. Richard Sternberg. Foods rich in iron include lima beans. Some of us are smart. just as all babies are not cute. there was not a better (or more appropriate) place to start than at the very beginning of our existence: as a fetus in the womb. educated and intelligent so that it can be understood and used by anyone for their benefit. synthesize. and others are smarter than they seem.
Any interference or disruption in the process could result in abnormal brain function.is associated with lower IQs in offspring at 10 years of age. lasts longer as they try to make 30minute videos of the fetus in the uterus. many more children are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy who do not meet criteria for FAS yet experience deficits in growth and cognitive function. including academic achievement (especially arithmetic). achievement. it's time for conception. researchers hypothesized that it might influence the migration of neurons in a developing fetus. Paul D. and delayed speech. an increase in the frequency of lefthandedness.mistakes." This is a key finding which speaks directly to the (psychological) definition of intelligence which is addressed later in this article. A study in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research has found that even light to moderate drinking . which will be more crucial in the development of its intellect: nature (genetics) or nurture (the environment)? 7 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . adaptive. and impact the intellectual development of a fetus. clinical director of the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit and assistant professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Washington. which have let doctors peek at fetuses and internal organs for the past 40 years. Routine scans." said Jennifer A. improve. Once that baby is born. Deficits in intellectual.THE DEBATE CONTINUES Now that you are aware of some of the known factors which determine. function independently without assistance.. This result was especially pronounced among AfricanAmerican rather than Caucasian offspring. ULTRA SOUNDS Studies have shown that the frequent exposure of the human fetus to ultrasound waves is associated with a decrease in newborn body weight. it's downright stupid. In light of all that remains unknown. The procedure. In fact. assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. expectant women and their families need to know that the long-term effects of repeated ultrasound exposures on the fetus are not fully known.. adaptive functioning. affect the normal cell cycle. and understand the consequences of . The main stream magazine New Scientist reported the following: Ultrasound scans can stop cells from dividing and make them commit suicide. has this to say about the subject: "There are a number of domains of cognitive functioning that can be impaired even in the face of a relatively normal IQ. "IQ is a measure of the child's ability to learn and to survive in his or her environment. having a prenatal ultrasound for non-medical reasons is not a good idea… NATURE VERSUS NURTURE. On the FDA website this information is posted about ultrasounds: While ultrasound has been around for many years. Connor. Neurons in mammals multiply early in fetal development and then migrate to their final destinations. PREGNANCY. AND ITS INTELLECTUAL IMPACT Drinking while pregnant is not smart.DRINKING. however. Willford. and executive functioning could make it difficult to appropriately manage finances. It predicts the potential for success in school and in everyday life. Commercial companies (which do ultrasounds for "keepsake" purposes) are now creating more powerful ultrasound machines capable of providing popular 3D and 4D images. Although a small but significant percentage of children are diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) each year.especially during the second trimester . and executive functions (the ability to problem solve and learn from experiences).or react appropriately to . Because ultrasound energy is a high-frequency mechanical vibration.
Bouchard. The results indicated that the longer children had been breast-fed. schools and other agents of society. Both nature and nurture are equally as important and must be fully observed in the intellectual development of all children. what researchers call "heritability".was significantly lower for poor families. and scholastic ability.the degree to which genes influence IQ . Many people still mistakenly believe that social." But there are reports that contradict these findings.makes a bigger difference for minority children in low-income homes. "Once you're put into an adequate environment. The infants were then followed to age 18. Linda S.. a psychologist at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.sort of. a professor of educational studies at the University of Delaware. In her article she also refers to studies comparing identical and fraternal twins. scientists and psychologists have gone back and forth on this. but as people get older they become more independent and tend to seek out the life niches that are most congenial to their genetic proclivities. Turkheimer said. wrote in her article. I read many comprehensive studies and reports on this subject during the research phase of this article. Her reports states that the heritability of IQ rises with age.Apparently for centuries. they gathered information on how these children were fed.and not genes . mathematics. BREAST-FEEDING INCREASES INTELLIGENCE Rsearchers from Christchurch School of Medicine in New Zealand studied over 1. Over the years. Gottfredson. and relevant to this section of my article: With age. The researchers also looked at the number of passing grades achieved in national School Certificate examinations taken at the end of the third year of high school. published in the past decade by a group led by Thomas J. She found that behavioral geneticists refer to such environmental effects as "shared" because they are common to siblings who grow up together. The study concludes that while genetic makeup explains most of the differences in IQ for children in wealthier families. your genes start to take over. "but in poor environments genes don't have that ability. show that about 40 percent of IQ differences among preschoolers stems from genetic differences. It appears that the effects of environment on intelligence fade rather than grow with time. and I believe that it's time to put this debate to rest. And this is perhaps the most interesting bit of information. that environments shared by siblings have little to do with IQ. A recent study shows that early intervention in the home and in the classroom can make a big difference for a child born into extreme poverty. psychological and economic differences among families create lasting and marked differences in IQ." Mr. environment . the extent to which genetics accounts for differences in IQ among individuals increases as people get older. Bouchard concludes that young children have the circumstances of their lives imposed on them by parents. of the University of Minnesota and other scholars.000 children born between April and August 1977. but that heritability rises to 60 percent by adolescence and to 80 percent by late adulthood. the higher they scored on such tests. differences among individuals in their developed intelligence come to mirror more closely their genetic differences.. 8 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . that is to say. teacher ratings of school performance in reading and math. During the period from birth to one year. and results of standardized tests of reading comprehension. The General Intelligence Factor. the researchers collected a range of cognitive and academic information on the children. Jr. according to Eric Turkheimer. including IQ. Specifically..
While children from professional households typically exposed to a total of 2.250. As you can see. all add up to accumulated advantages that formulate intellectual abilities. author of top-selling book Outliers. all of whom were middle-class professionals. 9 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . And yes. we turn our attention to education and intelligence. classes are condensed. that kind of knowledge is power. and every year. and any information has to be utilized in order to be retained and transformed into knowledge. simply by their exposure to the influential factors which determine them long before they start school. Phoenix. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE WELL EDUCATED? Alfie Kohn.especially those which help the underprivileged . and children from households on welfare a mere 620. Sowell continues: Black children are obviously not to blame for their poor socioeconomic status. author of the book What Does It Mean To Be Well Educated? poses this question: Does the phrase well educated refer to a quality of schooling you received. Elsie Moore of Arizona State University. and a nurturing environment in which to live. but something beyond economic status is at work in black homes. and many educational programs . those in black homes were 13 IQ points behind those being raised in the white homes.and such unfair advantages are everywhere.the constant quest to stimulate intellectual growth and get their child into Harvard or Oxbridge. in part due to socioeconomic factors.150 different words each day.TALKING WITH YOUR CHILDREN MAKES A DIFFERENCE Thomas Sowell. Mr. professional. We tell our children that nothing is more important than getting a "good" education. smart sounding children tend to come from educated. Malcolm Gladwell. studied black children adopted by either black or white parents. or something about you? Does it denote what you were taught? Or what you remember? I contend that being well educated is all in the application. proper prenatal care. schools are closed. some children have unfair advantages from the very beginning. It's the best students who get the best teaching and most attention. education is really just information. IQ. An informed mother. teachers are laid off. "It's the rich who get the biggest tax breaks. two-parent environments where they pick-up valuable language skills and vocabulary from its smart sounding inhabitants. author of Race. due to government budget shortfalls.5 years. Yes.. and facts Liberals Ignore uncovered some fascinating information that every parent should take note of. wrote that "accumulated advantages" are made possible by arbitrary rules. He writes: There is a strong case that black Americans suffer from a series of disadvantageous environments. Until that occurs. Black people have not signed up for the "great mission" of the white middle class . black children are on average exposed to a smaller vocabulary than white children. educated. children from working class households are exposed to 1. that many children are predisposed to being smart. "It is those who are successful who are most likely to be given the kinds of social opportunities that lead to further success.. and intelligent. By the age of 7. and should be fairly obvious to you. Studies show time and again that before they go to school. the use of one’s education. Black Crime. Most people are aware of the floundering state of education in this country on some level.are cut." he writes. ACCUMULATED ADVANTAGES At this juncture in my research it dawned on me. communicative parents." With that in mind. educated.
The test results were then used to prepare special programs to help students overcome their educational difficulties.000 per year.or have they? No discussion of intelligence or IQ can be complete without mention of Alfred Binet. The latter of which are in greater demand by employers and comprise the bulk of the self-employed. the emphasis is not on how to educate the students to prepare them for life or even college. the more intelligent you were believed to be). instead of becoming degreed thinkers. and other demonstrations.. ("Whose perspective does this represent?"). when you look at some the first methods used to evaluate it in the 1800s.. Kohn writes: It's only the ability to raise and answer those questions that matters..000 to $50. it's a calling. Can teachers get a raise? Why should they? The public perception is that teaching is an “honorable profession” that “special” people go into who are not (i. they teach because they want to make a difference. There is some truth to that.. HISTORY AND PURPOSE OF IQ We’ve always wanted to measure intelligence. a French psychologist who was responsible for laying the groundwork for IQ testing in 1904. They are focused on getting "A's" and degrees. It was never intended to be used as an absolute measure of one's intellectual capabilities. where I got my start. should be accompanied by a reference to one's interest or intrinsic motivation to do such thinking. any set of intellectual objectives. is to have the desire as well as the means to make sure that learning never ends.to be well-educated then. than learning from it. political ammunition. which of course. very intelligent. should not be) motivated by money. the amount we spend each year to house and take care of inmates has been raised from $40. and relevance ("Why is this important?"). For that matter. We value it as a business. Things have changed. they were not. an industry. But there are others… At the high school level. supposition ("How might things have been otherwise?"). (all high schools should be college-prep schools.. California allocates and spends more of its state budget on prison system than it does on its educational system. Lack of adequate compensation and budget cuts are the primary reasons. there's usually a test one must take in order to enroll (the SAT or ACT).e. any description of what it means to think deeply and critically. behind Medicaid. connections ("How is this related to that?"). Learning has almost become secondary.. students have faced steep fee increases annually for the past five years at public state universities. The best teachers don't go into the education profession for money." which are: the value of raising questions about evidence ("How do we know what we know?"). Many students are not able to cultivate the mentoring relationships because so many teachers are leaving the profession . Then the controversial "exit" exams were implemented and literally. His original intention was to devise a test that would diagnose learning disabilities of students in France. This explains why so many college students are more concerned with completing a course. point of view. well.The painful reality is we don't really value education. Tactics such as subjecting people to various forms of torture to see what their threshold for pain was (the longer you could withstand wincing. making it the second fastest growing area of state budgets. though.within an average of three years. Meanwhile. spending for prisons quadrupled over the last two decades. This mentality carries over into college.voluntarily and involuntarily . Alfie Kohn advocates the "exhibition" of learning. in which students reveal their understanding by means of in-depth projects. right?) it was about preparing them to excel on their standardized tests. It’s not a job or a career for them. He cites a model pioneered by Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Most were influenced by a really good teacher of their own who mentored them. Meier has emphasized the importance of students having five "habits of mind. Ironically. many high schools were transformed into testing centers. and to add insult to injury. or testing your ability to detect a high pitch sound that others could not hear.. but also the disposition to do so. and as a means to get a “good” job. but not for what it was intended: to make us better people and citizens. The "get-the-good-grade" mindset is directly attributable to the relentless and often unnecessary testing that our students are subjected to in schools. portfolios of assignments. 10 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . According to an April 2011 study by the Pew Center on the States.
intelligence could not be described as a single score.According to Binet. He said that the use of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) as a definite statement of a child's intellectual capability would be a serious mistake.144: Highly gifted (e. Goddard considered intelligence a solitary.S.134: Gifted (e.higher ?: Immeasurable genius *Genius IQ is generally considered to begin around 140 to 145. fixed and inborn entity that could be measured. or less intelligent.g. many of them were denied entry into the U.179: High genius 180 . or were forced to undergo sterilization for fear of populating America with "dumb" and "inferior" babies. Studies show that academic intelligence decreases. translated Binet's work into English and advocated a more general application of the Simon-Binet test. university students) 125 .S. published in 1916 as the Stanford Revision of the BinetSimon Scale of Intelligence (also known as the StanfordBinet). post-graduate students) 135 .the average level of intelligence for a person of a given age. became the standard intelligence test in the United States..164: Genius (e. it merely means that you tested better on one day than another. The fact is that IQ scores are known to fluctuate . intellectuals) 145 ..g.. representing only 25% of the population + 1 in 400. *Einstein was considered to "only" have an IQ of about 160. It’s important to note that the biggest fallacy about IQ is that it is fixed and can’t be changed. Nobel Prize winners) 165 . Many of those who were involved in the importation and refinement of these tests believed that IQ was hereditary and are responsible for feeding the fallacy that it is a "fixed" trait. His creation.119: Superior intelligence 115 . In addition.089: Dullness 090 .g.. The original interest was in the assessment of 'mental age' -. Binet feared that IQ measurement would be used to condemn a child to a permanent "condition" of stupidity. Many immigrants were tested in the 1920s and failed these IQ tests miserably.109: Normal or average intelligence 110 .g. Who do you think would have the most difficulty passing them? Lewis Terman developed the original notion of IQ and proposed this scale for classifying IQ scores: 000 . director of research at Vineland Training School in New Jersey..both up and down during the course of one's lifetime. 11 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . while tacit knowledge increases during one’s lifetime. formed the archetype for future tests of intelligence. middle class Americans.g.124: Above average (e. With help of Lewis Terman of Stanford University. H. Goddard. Unlike Binet.200: Highest genius 200 . the tests were designed for white.154: Genius (e.079: Borderline deficiency 080 . professors) 155 . It does not mean that you become more. If you recall. *Leonardo Da Vinci’s IQ was estimated to be around 220.. H. his final product.070: Definite feeble-mindedness 070 . One more thing to know about IQ tests: They have been used for racist purposes since their importation into the U. the Binet-Simon test (originally called a "scale"). As a result. thereby negatively affecting his or her education and livelihood.
There are also many different forms of intelligence. and learn from one's experiences. This ability is considered independent of learning. The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence. designers. but how they are smart. Gardner. wrote in her essay contribution to Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid that in general. and education. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logicalmathematical intelligence. 12 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . How about that? There's the word environment again. These intelligences are: Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") Not associated with Dr. and others who enrich the world in which we live. Dr. However. (6) solve difficult and novel problems. but equally respected are: FLUID & CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE According to About. some were short. naturalists. He also felt that the traditional notion of intelligence. complex job.. entrepreneurs. based on IQ testing. a psychologist and past-president of the American Psychological Association (APA). Examples of the use of fluid intelligence include solving puzzles and coming up with problem solving strategies. and having the intelligence adapt to it . such as winning prestigious awards or earning a large salary. professor of education at Harvard University. Howard Gardner.and the people who occupy it . Dr. those cited by Dr. therapists. Gardner says that we should also place equal attention on individuals who show gifts in the other intelligences: the artists. dancers.DEFINING INTELLIGENCE Diane F. Some were long. The definition that is most prevalent is the one created by the APA which is: the ability to adapt to one's environment. He believed that it’s not about how smart someone is. and further developed the theory with John Horn. Throughout my research and in the early phases of this article. This adds deeper meaning to the saying.the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.in order to survive and succeed within it. experience. we recognize people as intelligent if they have some combination of these achievements (1) good grades in school. We esteem the highly articulate or logical people of our culture. was far too limited and created the Theories Of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults." It means recognizing what's going on in your environment. architects. Cattell defined fluid intelligence as "." Fluid intelligence is the ability to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. most notably. Halpern. musicians. Psychologist Raymond Cattell first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence.com. (3) a responsible. which include one’s mistakes. I came across many definitions of the word intelligence. (5) the ability to read complex text with good comprehension. Some I didn’t understand. do as the Romans do. "When in Rome. We just can't seem to escape it. (2) a high level of education.. (4) some other recognition of being intelligent.
Situations that require crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. seems to "stick" both faster and better when the lessons have direct relevance to the individual's goals. 13 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . who believes that the whole concept of relating IQ to life achievement is misguided. and evaluate emotions. His Successful Intelligence theory focuses on 3 types of intelligence which are combined to contribute to one's overall success: Analytical Intelligence. "Experience is the greatest teacher. Nonetheless. Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and adolescence. Goleman's assertion begs the question: What accounts for the other 80%? You guessed it. but make a difference.Emotional Intelligence.. and motivates them to apply their education. Creative Intelligence: the use of experience in ways that foster insight (creativity/divergent thinking).only account for 20% of a person's success in life.Crystallized intelligence is knowledge gained from past experiences and learning. Tacit knowledge. and Practical Intelligence: the ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life. Dr. Robert J. He also believes that IQ is a pretty miserable predictor of life achievement. control. This type of intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences.. The colloquial term is "street smarts. They create opportunities rather than let opportunities be limited by circumstances in which they happen to find themselves. Crystallized intelligence continues to grow throughout adulthood. With regard to environment. or that is overly generic and abstract. Daniel Goleman reported that research shows that conventional measures of intelligence . Sternberg writes in his book Successful Intelligence: Successfully intelligent people realize that the environment in which they find themselves may or may not be able to make the most of their talents. but rather must extract the important lesson from the experience even when learning is not the primary objective. mental steps or components used to solve problems. will likely. They actively seek an environment where they can not only do successful work. Using Successful Intelligence as the backbone of my context-driven curriculum really inspires students to see how education makes their life goals more attainable. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE In his best-selling 1995 book. It has proven to be a highly effective tool and mindset for my college students. Knowledge that is based on one's own practical experience. I subscribe to Dr. For example. As you know. Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence and begins to decline progressively beginning around age 30 or 40. common sense is not all that common.. Sternberg. The percentage will vary depending on how we define success. This type of intelligence becomes stronger as we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding.IQ . As an educator. Sternberg's Successful Intelligence approach to teaching. which is sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts. research on IQ and education shows that high IQ predicts 10 to 25% of grades in college.. Tacit knowledge is closely related to common sense. Many corporations now have mandatory EQ training for their managers in an effort to improve employee relations and increase productivity. than knowledge that is based on someone else's experience. SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE Then there's Successful Intelligence. The individual is not directly instructed as to what he or she should learn. That’s pretty low. TACIT KNOWLEDGE aka "STREET SMARTS" You've heard the phrase. What exactly is emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence (also called EQ or EI) refers to the ability to perceive. which is authored by intelligence psychologist and Yale professor." Knowledge gained from every day experience is called tacit knowledge." which implies that formal. Emotional Intelligence. or the lessons obtained from it. be more instrumental to achieving one's goals. and develop their expertise. classroom instruction (aka "book smarts") has nothing to do with it.
but my definition. dynamic executive who consistently chooses men who don't appear to be worthy of her. In the third edition of the text by Robert K. when others can only look at them. erroneous beliefs. Cavanaugh. A shared characteristic among those who are smart and stupid is the difficulty in delaying gratification. I'm sure someone you know comes to mind at this precise moment. But the goal here is not to ridicule. educated and intelligent see things more clearly when we are too busy thinking. or the man who appears to be a pillar of the community. or merely a lack of motivation to enact control strategies even when one has them. and are able to get to the heart of the matter rather than being caught in the superficial aspects (Wink & Helson. They seem to have life figured out. Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the chapter summarized: Sometimes stupid behavior in smart people may arise from faulty expectations. The best definition of wisdom that I’ve come across happened while I was studying Human Development. it's possible to be both smart and stupid. Essentially. What they have is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom. I often use many of her sayings as a public speaker. Wisdom slows down the thinking process and makes it more organic. and a final conclusion. interpret events. The central character in this book that many of these lessons regarding “being both smart and stupid” revolve around is Bill Clinton. feeling. and makes you less judgmental. It happens. They are able to integrate thinking. Till the very end of her life she shared her "crystallized intelligence" with whoever was receptive to it. it states that wise people have empathy. Many of us who are lucky enough to have a great grandparent can testify that there is something special about their knowledge. and what life means. Wisdom helps you make better judgments regarding decisions. Leola Cecil. and acting into a coherent approach to problem. They know a great deal about how to conduct life. well paid. Those are great textbook definitions. and knowing that people are of the utmost importance. but she had what seemed like infinite wisdom. She died at the age of 94. maybe had an 8th grade education at the most.BEING BOTH SMART AND STUPID Yes. Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid. and stupid (ignorant) in another is natural. but why? I found the answer in the book. By no stretch of the imagination was she highly educated. synchronizing it with intuition. 14 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . She was very observant and could "read" people with startling accuracy. I use her philosophies to make sure that I'm being guided spiritually and not just intellectually. but to understand how some seemingly highly intelligent. But sometimes it is an inability to regulate one's affective states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to stupid and self-defeating behavior. 1997). being smart (knowledgeable) in one area of your life. In other words. Wisdom is knowing what's important to other people. ends up being arrested on rape charges. The woman who is a respected. through observation of my great grandmother would be this: Wisdom is the ability to look through a person. or highly educated individuals can be so smart in one way. intellect is domain specific. WISDOM & CONCLUSION My great grandmother. and a knack for helping those of us who are smart. Vail and John C. with a loving wife and happy kids. but most importantly. Turning off one's brain is quite common especially when it comes to what we desire. Wisdom is both a starting point. and incredibly stupid in others.
" Good college professors can always tell when that's the case. and entertainment moguls Walt Disney and Sean "Diddy" Combs .000 in some cities and their job does not require a college degree. it's very unlikely that you will find success and fulfillment in your vocational endeavors once you graduate. I need to make one thing abundantly clear: I'm not advocating not going to college. founder of Dell Computers. obtaining a certificate in a niche area. 2. and motivations. interests. or undergoing specific job training. the value of a college degree. If you drop out of college and make your mark the way they did. Michael Dell. absurd) as this may sound. and vision. this article is an attempt to simplify the process and direct focus to what should be the primary concerns of those planning to attend college. educationally. 15 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . Can those resources be invested elsewhere. Is college right for you? As simple (and to some. but they do require extensive training. These students tend to fair much better. "I'm here because my parents say I have to be. you should honestly . While there has been much said (and written) about the process of choosing a major. expenditure of time. I'm advocating the analyzation of career options for which a college degree may not be necessary. Oracle CEO Larry Ellison. plumbers) make over $100. Simply answer the following questions: 1. Some high school graduates (and I’m speaking from my experiences with those that I’ve mentored) simply lack intrinsic motivation.Minor Considerations In Choosing A College Major by Gian Fiero The month of May is the time of year when thousands of college graduates will receive their diplomas and head into "the real world. 3. If you don't choose a path that corresponds with your values. or possibly greater return? Before you attempt to answer this question. Are you doing what YOU want? Or what someone else wants you to do? Every semester I hear my students say. and use of energy that it will inevitably require. a solid game plan. Have you explored building your own business? Many of our nation's top companies were started by those who did not have college degrees. or pay you to develop? An opportunity that solves problems for consumers? With real determination. lack maturity. Do you have what they had . for an equal. They were all en route to millionaire/billionaire status by 19. should in fact be analyzed. but received some college education including Microsoft founder Bill Gates. Since college loans are this country’s number one form of personal debt (now surpassing credit cards). Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg.all possessed uncanny skill.an idea or a belief in an idea? Extreme focus and discipline in developing your idea so that it can blossom into a real business opportunity? An opportunity that others would be willing to contribute to. the university that you briefly attend may give you an "honorary" degree anyway. talent. and modest financing. need more time for self-discovery. Great college professors inspire students to find their own motivation and career paths. For example: Air traffic controllers and some plumbers (that’s right.and carefully evaluate whether college is right for you in terms of the investment of money. This is a startling reality that those who are at the beginning of their college journeys should pay close attention to when considering their choice of major." Studies have shown that most of these graduates will find work in fields that are not directly related to their degrees. when viewed as a means to a vocational end. and suffer from low academic ability. How ironic. by attendinf vocational/technical schools. and recent estimates are that half of college graduates are either unemployed or underemployed (2012). you too could be on your way to millionaire/billionaire status.
4. Have you thoroughly researched your major? Most students don't. interning. This includes obtaining vital information on the industry. researching salaries. Researching your career means getting as much information on your career choice as possible before committing to it. and investing industry trends and forecasts. interests. Studies show that the number one factor in developing expertise and prominence is purposeful engagement. or volunteer work is always advisable. In addition. 5. They took the motto "Do what you love" to heart and made a fortune. The money was the byproduct.4. The aforementioned people in this article (section 2) serve as shining examples. reading trade magazines and biographies of industry leaders. Most high school students put more thought and research into who to ask (or what to wear) to the prom. After all. and closely match them with the professions which appeal to you. Do you know your greatest strengths? Today it's estimated that most people will change careers four to eight times over the course of their lives. it's not just a degree we are talking about. not the goal. Students who choose a major that speaks to their core competencies (a combination of natural talents and strengths that enable a person to deliver unique value to others) will be happier in the long term with their career choices. That is found through having intense interest in something that your passions allow you to fully immerse yourself in. What do you love enough to do for free? This is perhaps the best question I pose to my students. 16 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . getting real-life exposure to the industry and the professionals that comprise it via informational interviews. and skills in which you are most proficient. The best way to determine your core competency is to closely examine your strengths. Hopefully your choice of a college major will be afforded the proper time and consideration that it rightfully deserves. it's what you are going to do with the degree to make your life more fulfilling. Research can take 6 months to a year (at the very least) when conducted properly.
Mr." What a profound statement. guess again.. He told me to stop wasting my mother's money and take advantage of the opportunity that I have been blessed with. Pacheco. all-boys. What teachers from teaching is that students who take interest in their subject matter and have a plan to apply their education to some endeavor in the immediate future.based upon their ability to regurgitate or recall information on a test. writing and problem-solving skills needed in today's workplaces. It's because of this reason that I was never in favor of multiple choice or true/false tests. I was still offended. What teachers learn from teaching is that those types of exams only test the short-term memory and deductive reasoning skills of students." It was during this conversation that my academic fortunes changed (I ended up winning Spanish honors). it planted the seeds for my career as an educator. How to Get an Ivy League Education at a State University. After all. you would assume that the apathy that I blatantly displayed as a freshman in high school would not be an issue for university students. I took offense at the statement. as a result. For many of them. my Spanish teacher and eventual mentor. than they are in what they can learn from it. are the ones who excel academically and professionally. it behooves us to simulate the circumstances that will be encountered in real-life situations. which more than likely is multiple choice or true/false (which students overwhelmingly prefer). "When are you going to stop pretending to be a muchacho bruto?" Roughly translated that means stupid boy. I'm the one dealing with students who have attitude issues.. Because of my apathetic attitude. It also allows us to accurately gage their ability to think in a solution oriented manner. One day while reviewing homework assignments (which I didn't complete). I failed some courses and barely passed others. Marty Nemko. for underpaid and overworked teachers who often recycle the same exams used year after year for convenience. college-prep school after spending more time dancing than studying the previous year in the 8th grade.and passed . I was simply having difficulty adjusting to life at a Catholic.I'm now a college professor. are lacking the critical thinking. California writes in his book. "Employers report repeatedly that many new graduates they hire are not prepared to work. they become degreed thinkers.. Mr. education does not become knowledge until it is coupled with experience.What Teachers Learn From Teaching by Gian Fiero M y freshman year in high school was my worst year academically in any grade level. students who are degreed thinkers are in shorter supply and 17 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person . The sad reality is that most college students are more concerned with completing a course and getting credit for it. "More paperwork. It's not that the work was hard. looked me in the eye with a stern gaze and said." I once asked my students what they felt was the difference between the two grades and a student replied. and little did I know." Apparently avoiding "more paperwork" is habit forming. this is the exception. Their personal interest compels them to dig deeper and fully wrap their minds around subjects. not what to think. Sadly. Constructing tests or projects that reflect the kind of work that calls upon the education being taught is how teachers should measure a student's true comprehension of the subject matter. Many of today's students aren't being challenged to think. After class he talked to me about my "attitude. or that the workload was heavy. Fast-forward many years later. there is no difference between a "B" and an "A. they are merely being graded . therefore. Pacheco once told me that the real purpose of school is to learn how to think. a career counselor based in Oakland.. not the rule. My mother's decision to uproot me from the public school system (and my wayward friends) would ensure that I would spend more time in the books than on the dance floor. Because "higher" education is voluntary.
What teachers learn from teaching is that students take time for granted. you will be able to breathe freely everyday once you join the workforce. defined as vocational and economic complacency). Somehow people have been conditioned to think that if they compartmentalize the disdain they have for their jobs. and most importantly." It's a proven formula for success that teachers can use to maximize their effectiveness so that struggling or average students who are . and the people you spend time with represent investments that you should seek a return on. is that the real difference between being good and being great is putting forth extra effort. To them I offer these simple facts: There are 8. Institutions of higher learning need to do a better job of teaching students about that correlation. The correlation between obtaining a degree and having a more fulfilling life as a result of opportunities created through the use of education is not trumpeted enough.000 on average). and he in turn would bestow his wisdom upon us. it's about $23. The government uses these stats as marketing tools for higher education. Pacheco always said that "the key to being outstanding in anything is to demand more from yourself than you allow others to. They result in money being squandered (bachelor's degrees are estimated to be $50. based on an 8 hour work day. which is also the difference between a "B" student and an "A" student not paperwork (though there is more work involved). You spend 2. their dissatisfaction will become easier to ignore." It was during these talks that we got a chance to share our life experiences with him. perhaps most importantly.080 hours a lot of time to spend doing something that you hate? If you find out what you love to do as a student before you graduate. and employers love (and reward) them once they've meet the challenge of demonstrating the depth and breadth of their thinking abilities.in Mr.555 hours per year sleeping (a generous estimate based on 7 hours of sleep per night). In retrospect I realize that he was getting to know us better while seeking opportunities and different ways to educate us while breaking down the barriers of resistance. This apathy is the root of the reason why far too many people hate their jobs.greater demand than those with college degrees. What's even worse is that so many people accept and live with their hatred. You have 2. Bad investments are tough to overcome. while they “suck it up” and suffer in silence. It's this very point that today's teachers must speak to especially when you consider that the marketplace is now saturated with workers who have degrees."pretending to be muchachos brutos.760 hours in a year. Pacheco would occasionally have us put away our textbooks so that we could talk about "real life. time lost. What I've learned from teaching. The classes you take. Time spent in college is prep time. defined as vocational and economic gratification). Statistics show that those with college degrees earn more. This hatred stems in part from being misemployed or underemployed. Is 2. Entrepreneurs rise from the ranks of degreed thinkers. In terms of dollars. What teachers learn from teaching is that degreed thinkers are also happier people." can start to really learn what they are being taught. Mr. He made sure that we saw how the subject matter was relevant and useful to the lives and pursuits of every student in the class. the activities that you are involved in. resulting in your passions being neglected and your true talents not being utilized.000 more per year. By some accounts it's 50% more (depending on the job and the degree). Students mirror the nation's apathetic workforce with their mere preoccupation with survival (survival. May he rest in peace. What teachers learn from teaching is that our educational system is designed to maintain the status quo of our nation's discontented workforce. colleges use them to promote higher attendance at their campuses. Mr. Pacheco's words . 18 How To Be A Better Student and A Smarter Person .080 hours (or more) at work each year. while only a minority is driven enough to succeed (succeed.496 hours of weekend time each year. time to prepare you for life. Those with demanding and time consuming jobs predictably offer the prosaic justification of money as an excuse. We spend 2.
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