Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology

Areas of Competence Anatomical Position Planes of Motion Cavities of the Body Body Movements Types of Contractions Muscle Movers Biomechanics and Kinesiology Muscles Joints Dermatomes Nutrition The Six Basic Nutrients Questions Answers and Explanations
• • • • • • •

chapter chapter


Muscle fiber direction Tendons Fascia Joint structure Ligaments Bursae Dermatomes

B. Physiology
• Response of the body to stress • Basic nutrition principles

C. Kinesiology
• Actions of individual muscles/muscle groups • Types of muscle contractions (e.g., concentric, eccentric, isometric) • Joint movements • Movement patterns • Proprioception

This chapter includes sections that correspond to the organization of the NCBTMB exam as follows:

NCETMB (26%)
Same as above with the following additions:

A. Anatomy
• Primary and extraordinary meridians • Chakras

NCETM (26%); MBLEx (11%) A. Anatomy
• Anatomical position and terminology (e.g., planes, directions) • Individual muscles/muscle groups • Muscle attachments

B. Physiology
• Meridians/channels (e.g., bladder, liver, spleen)
(See Chapter 7 for Traditional Chinese Medicine modalities.)



Chapter 2

Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology

Strategies to Success
Study Skills Find a good place to study!
Think about the atmosphere where you study best. Are you distracted by the slightest noise? Do you like a certain level of noise to keep you going and focused? Do you like studying alone or in groups? Also consider your comfort level. Do you find yourself drifting off when you study in bed or in a comfortable chair? Is studying at a desk too uncomfortable? There is no right place or way to study. Some people pace the halls while others find a secluded place where they will not be bothered. We do suggest finding a place that is well lighted. Eye strain can make you tired. Whatever place you pick, make sure it is right for you and study there regularly.

Coronal (frontal) plane

Transverse plane

Sagittal plane

Anatomical Position
When learning and reviewing anatomical terms, remember to view the body from the anatomical position (Figure 2-1 and Table 2-1). Figure 2-1 Anatomical position and planes of motion.
Source: ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by JW Ramsey.

Planes of Motion
Imaginary sections or planes are made in the body in order to examine the internal anatomy and describe body position of one body part to another. These sections are called planes of motion. There are three planes of motion (see Figure 2-1). Sagittal plane: This plane separates the body into left and right. Motions that occur in the sagittal plane run parallel to the plane (or an imaginary line splitting the body into left and right). Those motions would be flexion, extension, dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion.

Chapter 2

Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology


TABLE 2-1 At a Glance: Anatomical Terms
Anatomical Position Superior (cephalad) Inferior (caudal) Medial Lateral Proximal Location Higher than or above. Example: the heart is superior to the pelvis. Lower than or below. Example: the patella is inferior to the pelvis. Closest to the midline from anatomical position. Example: the adductor magnus is medial to the iliotibial band. Farther from the midline from anatomical position. Example: the axillary border of the scapula is lateral to the vertebral border of the scapula. Proximal and distal are dealing with the arms, hands, fingers, and feet. This is because when standing in the anatomical position, the arms are out at an angle. Therefore, they cannot be “superior” or “inferior.” Proximal means closest to the midline or closer to the root of a limb. Example: the carpals are more proximal than the metacarpals. Farther away from the midline in the arms, hands, fingers, feet or farther from the root of a limb. Example: the phalanges of the foot are more distal than the metatarsals. Closer to the front side of the body. Example: the pectoralis major is anterior to the trapezius. Closer to the back side of the body. Example: the erector spinae is posterior to the rectus abdominus. Closer to the skin surface. Also, if you think about a superficial cut, that is one that can be taken care of with a band-aid. Example: the trapezius is superficial to the rhomboids. Closer to the core of the body. Again, think about a cut. If it is deep, it might require stitches. Example: the vastus intermedius is deep to the rectus femoris.


Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal) Superficial


Transverse plane: This is the plane that separates the body into top and bottom. The motion that occurs in the transverse plane runs parallel to the plane (or an imaginary line splitting the body into top and bottom). This motion is rotation (medial, lateral, trunk).

Coronal (frontal) plane: The coronal (frontal) plane separates the body into front and back. Motions that occur in the coronal (frontal) plane run parallel to the plane (or an imaginary line splitting the body into front and back). These motions are abduction, adduction, shoulder elevation, and shoulder depression.


Chapter 2

Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology

Cavities of the Body
The body has two main cavities: the ventral and dorsal cavities (Figure 2-2). Ventral cavity: This cavity is more anteriorly located on the body and contains the following: • The thoracic cavity (heart/lungs and area above the diaphragm)

• The abdominopelvic cavity (organs and structures below the diaphragm) Dorsal cavity: This cavity is more posterior on the body and contains the following: • The cranial cavity (contains the brain) • The spinal cavity (contains the spinal cord and vertebrae), also known as the vertebral canal.

Cranial cavity Dorsal cavity Vertebral canal Mediastinum Thoracic cavity Thoracic cavity

Diaphragm Ventral cavity Abdominal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity

Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Diaphragm

Abdominal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity (a) Midsagittal view (b) Coronal (frontal) view

Figure 2-2 The cavities of the body.

Go to the Online Learning Center at to practice identifying cavities of the body.

Chapter 2

Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology


Body Movements
There are a variety of body movements. Remember, all body movements are from the anatomical position

(Table 2-2 and Figure 2-3). It is important as health care professionals that we understand each movement in order to be consistent with our clients.

TABLE 2-2 At a Glance: Body Movements and Their Descriptions
Movement Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Supination Pronation Medial rotation (internal rotation) Lateral rotation (external rotation) Elevation Depression Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Eversion Inversion Protraction Retraction Circumduction Description a decrease in the angle of a joint an increase in the angle of a joint movement away from the midline movement toward the midline turning the palms of the hands upward, or walking on the outer edge of the foot turning the palms of the hands downward, or walking on the inside edge of the foot rotating toward the midline rotating away from the midline raising the shoulders upward lowering the shoulders pulling the toes upward toward the lower leg (flatten the feet) pointing the toes (remember the “P” in point and the “P” in plantar flexion) soles of the feet away from the midline soles of the feet in toward the midline moving the scapula away from the spine, also called scapular abduction or jutting the mandible forward moving the scapula toward the spine, also called scapular adduction or pulling the mandible backward moving a body part in a circular motion combining flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction

50 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. Elbow flexion Shoulder extension Shoulder flexion Elbow extension Finger extension Wrist extension Finger flexion Wrist flexion Hip flexion Hip extension Toe extension Ankle plantar flexion Ankle dorsiflexion Toe flexion . and Kinesiology Figure 2-3 Body movements. Physiology.

Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. and Kinesiology 51 Figure 2-3 Knee flexion (continued) Neck flexion Neck extension Spine flexion Spine extension Knee extension Shoulder abduction Neck lateral flexion Shoulder adduction Shoulder horizontal abduction Shoulder horizontal adduction Spine lateral flexion Wrist abduction Wrist adduction Thumb adduction Thumb abduction Finger adduction Finger abduction Toe adduction Toe abduction . Physiology.

Physiology.52 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. and Kinesiology Figure 2-3 (continued) Shoulder circumduction Forearm supination Forearm pronation Hip circumduction Hip abduction Hip adduction Foot inversion Foot eversion Scapular retraction Scapular protraction .

and Kinesiology 53 Figure 2-3 (continued) Head/neck rotation Spine rotation Finger circumduction Shoulder lateral rotation Shoulder medial rotation Scapular downward rotation Scapular upward rotation Hip medial rotation Hip lateral rotation Knee lateral rotation Knee medial rotation Scapular depression Scapular elevation Mandibular elevation Mandibular depression Mandibular protraction Mandibular retraction Go to the Online Learning Center at www.mhhe. Physiology.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. .com/massagereview2e to practice identifying body movements.

You feel the muscles contracting in your arms. eccentric Description Stabilizing—both agonist and antagonist exert the same amount of force preventing movement at the joint. and wrist are not moving. but the shoulder. Physiology. in our normal movements. and Kinesiology Types of Contractions A contraction is a shortening or lengthening. However. Concentric—the lifting phase of movement. . otherwise known as the “down” phase. The agonist (primary mover) shortens while contracting. The muscles shorten and contract. The following list includes common contractions. The tension is either external force. otherwise known as the “up” phase. tonic = tension) Movement occurs with this type of contraction. as in a muscle (Table 2-3). metric = length) This is when the muscle is contracting. such as a fifty-pound dumbbell (the dumbbell “tension” will stay the same) or internal force (such as using weightlifting machines where the cam makes some movements easier than others). but the joint/s is/are not moving. The agonist (primary mover) is lengthening while still contracting. The muscles are contracting but lengthening. For example. the muscle tension stays the same throughout the range of motion. elbow. push your hands together palmto-palm. There are two types of isotonic contractions: 1. 2. With internal force. which allows us to put things down gently. Isometric: (iso = same. Movement at the joint occurs 1. Isotonic: (iso = same. 2.54 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. Internal force is generally seen in a gym setting. TABLE 2-3 At a Glance: Muscle Contractions Type of Contraction Isometric Isotonic 1. concentric 2. we generally deal with external force. Eccentric—the lowering phase of movement. so that will be our focus.

Tendons: Tendons attach muscle to bone (for example. Insertion is the moveable end. the anterior cruciate ligament attaches the femur to the tibia). ligaments. Cartilage: Cartilage provides the cushion between bones. Stabilizers: These muscles help prevent motion. origins are the strong non moveable ends of a muscle. Remember. and cartilage. the Achilles tendon attaches the gastrocnemius to the calcaneous). so is the synergist. Ligaments: Ligaments attach bone to bone (for example. Bursa (pl. Antagonist helps the primary mover by moving opposite. and connect other tissues. such as in lifting something off the floor by bending at the waist instead of using our legs. bursae): Bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that provides cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. 2.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. We usually get hurt when our stabilizers become primary movers. the antagonist is in an eccentric contraction. If the primary mover is in an eccentric contraction. origins are closer to the center or midline of the body. Types of connective tissue relating to the muscular system include tendons. An example is the two cartilages between the femur and the tibia of the knee. Generally. Assisters: The assister muscles help the primary movers in one of two ways: 1. Physiology. These are usually the larger muscles since they have to be strong. If the primary mover is in a concentric contraction. Fascia: Fascia is a web of tissue that serves to maintain structural integrity by providing support and protection while acting as a shock absorber. Synergist helps the primary mover by moving the same way. protect. They are filled with synovial fluid. and insertions are farther away from the midline. and Kinesiology 55 Muscle Movers Agonists (primary movers): Agonists are the main muscle(s) doing the movements. See Figures 2-4 and 2-5 for diagrams of main muscles of the body. Connective tissue: The function of connective tissue is to support. If the primary mover is in a concentric contraction. so is the synergist. .

56 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. . Physiology. and Kinesiology Superficial Deep Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis Semispinalis capitis Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Trapezius Levator scapulae Supraspinatus Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Serratus anterior Deltoid Teres minor Teres major Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Serratus posterior inferior External oblique Internal oblique Extensor digitorum Extensor carpi ulnaris Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Gluteus minimus Gluteus medius (cut) Piriformis Quadratus femoris Erector spinae Adductor magnus Biceps femoris Hamstrings Semitendinosus Gracilis Iliotibial band Semimembranosus Gastrocnemius Soleus Calcaneal tendon Figure 2-4 The posterior muscles of the body. to practice identifying muscles of the body.Superficial Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus major Orbicularis oris Platysma Trapezius Deep 57 Temporalis Masseter Sternohyoid Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Brachialis External oblique Pronator teres Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus External intercostal Internal intercostal Rectus abdominis Transversus abdominis Internal oblique (cut) External oblique (cut) Iliopsoas Tensor fasciae latae Pectineus Adductor longus Sartorius Gracilis Rectus femoris Quadriceps femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Fibularis longus Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Figure 2-5 The anterior muscles of the body. Go to the Online Learning Center at www. .

Otherwise. The benefits of using proper body mechanics for massage include the following: • • • • • Increased strength and power Increased pressure Decreased possibility of injury Enhanced quality and effectiveness of massage Increased career and life span as a therapist/ bodyworker junction. The body has muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs to help us with body position (proprioception). thus protecting the muscle and tendon from excessive tension damage. For example. which in turn inhibit the actions of the motor neurons. Muscles Proprioception: Proprioception is the ability to know where your body is in space. See Figures 2-6 and 2-7 and Table 2-4 for the main muscles of the face and head. . moveable end of the muscle. So if we try to lift an object that is too heavy. When too much of a stretch occurs. and Kinesiology Biomechanics and Kinesiology Biomechanics is the analysis of biological systems in mechanical terms. Muscle spindles: A muscle spindle is a stretch receptor found in the muscle that detects a stretching force in the muscles. and kinesiology is the study of body movement. our muscles will respond so that we realize it is too heavy and drop it.58 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. while insertions are the weaker. nonmoveable end of the muscle. if you were to close your eyes and lift your leg up to hip level. the muscle spindles causes a contraction of the muscle to prevent overstretching. They help keep us from over-contracting by sending signals to the interneurons in the spinal cord. Epicranial aponeurosis Epicranius Frontal belly Temporalis Occipital belly Orbicularis oculi Masseter Buccinator Zygomaticus minor Levator anguli oris Zygomaticus major Orbicularis oris Sternocleidomastoid Platysma Figure 2-6 Side view of the muscles of the face. Remember. Physiology. you would know it was at hip level without having to look. See Chapter 1 for a detailed discussion. we end up straining a muscle. origins are generally the stronger. Golgi tendon organs: Golgi tendon organs are nerve endings located within tendons near a muscle–tendon Knowledge of muscle origins and insertions is a must for any massage therapist or bodyworker. This allows the muscle to relax.

com/massagereview2e to practice identifying muscles of the face. TABLE 2-4 At a Glance: Muscles of the Face and Head Muscle Epicranius Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Buccinator Zygomaticus Masseter Temporalis Platysma Origin Occipital bone Maxillary and frontal bones Muscles near the mouth Outer surface of maxilla and mandible Zygomatic bone Zygomatic arch Temporal bone and lateral surface Subcutaneous tissue of infraclavicular and supraclavicular regions Insertion Skin and muscles around eye Skin around the eye Skin of lips Orbicularis oris Orbicularis oris Angle and ramus of the mandible Coronoid process of mandible Base of mandible. skin of cheek and lower lip. angle of mouth. Go to the Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.Superficial Deep 59 Epicranial aponeurosis Epicranius Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major Masseter Buccinator Orbicularis oris Platysma Sternocleidomastoid Figure 2-7 Muscles of facial expression and mastication. orbicularis oris Action Raises eyebrow Closes eye Closes and protrudes lips Compresses cheeks inward Raises corner of mouth Elevates the mandible Closes jaw Depresses mandible (against resistance). tenses skin of inferior face and neck .

clavicle. . Go to the Online Learning Center at www. splenius cervicus tells you there is an attachment on the cervical vertebrae (cervicus). and to practice identifying muscles of the neck. we will take a look at muscles that actually move the head (Figures 2-8 and 2-9).mhhe. anterior. and Kinesiology Now. Physiology. For example.60 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. splenius capitus tells you there is an attachment on the skull (capitus = head). Notice that some of these muscles attach onto the spine. and ribs to provide stabilization as well as movement at the neck and/or head. Deep Deeper Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Splenius capitis (cut) Splenius cervicis Scalenus posterior Figure 2-8 Posterior view of muscles that move the head. See Table 2-5. Scalene muscles Figure 2-9 View of the scalenes: posterior. The name of the muscle oftentimes tells you the location.

spinous process of C7–T3 Splenius cervicus Spinous processes of T3–T6 . inferior nuchal linelateral region Transverse processes of C1–C3 Unilaterally: rotates the head and laterally flexes the neck Bilaterally: extends the head Unilaterally: rotates the head and laterally flexes the neck Bilaterally: extends the head Scalenes posterior Tranverse processes of C5–C6 Rib 2 (superior surface) Unilaterally: laterally flexes the neck. medial one-third of clavicle Insertion Mastoid process of temporal bone Action Unilaterally: laterally flexes neck and rotates head to one side Bilaterally: flexes neck and assists in forced inspiration Mastoid process. and Kinesiology 61 TABLE 2-5 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Head Muscle Sternocleidomastoid Origin Manubrium of sternum. Physiology. rotates the head Bilaterally: elevates the second rib during inhalation Scalenes anterior Transverse process of C3–C6 Rib 1 (superior surface) Unilaterally: laterally flexes the neck and rotates the head Bilaterally: elevates the first rib during inhalation Scalenes medius Transverse process of C2–C7 Rib 1 (superior surface) Unilaterally: laterally flexes the neck and rotates the head Bilaterally: elevates the first rib during inhalation Splenius capitis Nuchal ligament.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy.

62 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. spinous processes of C7–T12 Spinous processes of T2–T5 Spinous processes of C7–T1 Insertion Action Lateral one-third of Upper fibers: extends the neck and head. Physiology. laterally flexes the neck ula at the root Bilaterally: extends head and neck Ribs 1–8 Ribs 3–5 Anterior medial bor. ribs 1–12. and upwardly rotates the scapula process. Shoulder joint muscles only move the shoulder joint and have no action or attachment to the scapula or the clavicle (Table 2-6). acromion scapula. linea alba Flexes the vertebal column. Unilaterally: laterally flexes the vertebral ribs 1–12. downwardly rotates the scapula. and Kinesiology Remember. and assists in forced inspiration Unilaterally: laterally flexes and rotates the vertebral column Bilaterally: flexes the vertebral column Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Internal oblique Iliac crest. superior nuchal lines. posterior sacrum Posterior iliac crest Erector spinae Mastoid process. iliac crest. inguinal ligament Spinous processes of C1–L5. elevates clavicle. transverse process of L1–L4 Unilaterally: laterally flexes the vertebral column and elevates the hip Bilaterally: extends the lumbar spine and anteriorly tilts the pelvis Quadratus lumborum . nuchal ligament. compresses the abdominal contents Compresses the abdominal contents Rectus abdominus Transverse abdominus Pubic symphysis and pubic tubercle Ribs 7–12. occipital head bone Ribs 12 (inferior surface). scapular Bilaterally: extends the head and neck spine Middle fibers: retracts the scapula Lower fibers: depresses the scapula Vertebral border of Retracts the scapula and downwardly rotates scapula the scapula Vertebral border of Retracts the scapula and downwardly rotates the scapula the scapula Rhomboid major Rhomboid minor Levator scapulae Unilaterally: elevates the scapula. thoracolum. or they attach to the clavicle. See Figures 2-10 through 2-12 for muscles that move the pectoral girdle and the trunk. thoracolumnar aponeurosis. the shoulder girdle muscles either attach to or move the scapula. downwardly Transverse processes of Superior angle of C1–C4 the spine of scaprotates the scapula. transcolumn verse processes of Bilaterally: extends the vertebral column and C2–T8.Protracts the scapula and upwardly rotates the der of the scapula scapula Coracoid process of scapula Depresses the scapula. linea the vertebral column alba Bilaterally: flexes the vertebral column Ribs 5–7 and xiphoid process Abdominal aponeurosis. linea bar fascia. abdomi.Ribs 7–12. protracts the scapula. posterior iliac crest. inguinal alba ligament Ribs 5–12 External oblique Iliac crest.Unilaterally: laterally flexes and rotates nal fascia. nuchal ligament. TABLE 2-6 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle and Trunk Muscle Trapezius Origin External occipital protuberance.

and Kinesiology 63 Superficial Deep Levator scapulae Trapezius Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Deltoid Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Latissimus dorsi Figure 2-10 Muscles of the posterior shoulder. . The right trapezius is removed to show underlying muscles. Physiology. Superficial Deep Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Rectus abdominis Transversus abdominis Internal oblique (cut) External oblique (cut) Figure 2-11 Muscles of the anterior chest and abdominal wall.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. The right pectoralis is removed to show the pectoralis minor.

com/massagereview2e to practice identifying muscles of the shoulder.64 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. chest.mhhe. . Go to the Online Learning Center at www. Physiology. and abdominal wall. and Kinesiology Deep Deeper Iliocostalis group Erector spinae Longissimus group Spinalis group Internal oblique (cut) External oblique (cut) Quadratus lumborum Figure 2-12 Muscles of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum.

Note that the rotator muscles are the SITS muscles and are listed in the order that they “sit” on the shoulder.mhhe. notice that some of the muscles also affect the shoulder which would make them shoulder girdle muscles. The others are so to practice identifying muscles of the shoulder and arms. however. . See Table 2-7. Go to the Online Learning Center at www. they attach to the greater tubercle. The insertion can be remembered by the subscapularis—it is “sub” standard and is the only rotator cuff muscle to attach to the lesser tubercle. Superficial Deep Sternocleidomastoid Subscapularis Deltoid Coracobrachialis Pectoralis major Biceps brachii Figure 2-13 Muscles of the anterior shoulder and arm. The origin is the name of the fossa from which they originate. and Kinesiology 65 Figures 2-13 and 2-14 show muscles that move the arm.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. Physiology.

short head Triceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Anterior view Figure 2-14 Muscles of the arm. Physiology.mhhe. long head Biceps brachii. . Go to the Online Learning Center at to practice identifying muscles of the arms.66 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. and Kinesiology Deltoid Pectoralis major Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii.

TABLE 2-7 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Arm Muscle Coracobrachialis Pectoralis major Origin Coracoid process of the scapula Insertion Medial humeral shaft Action Flexes and adducts the shoulder Adducts the shoulder. horizontally abducts the shoulder. posterior iliac crest. acromion process. medially rotates the shoulder. extends the shoulder. and extends the shoulder (sternal and costal fibers) Teres major extends the shoulder. flexes the shoulder (clavicular fibers only). scapular spine Intertubercular groove of the humerus Intertubercular groove of the humerus Latissimus dorsi Deltoid Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Rotator Cuff Muscles Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of the scapula Infraspinous fossa of the scapula Greater tubercle of the humerus Greater tubercle of the humerus Abducts the shoulder Stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Laterally rotates the shoulder Adducts the shoulder. medially rotates the shoulder. stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Medially rotates the shoulder Stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Infraspinatus Teres minor Superior half of the lateral Greater tubercle of the border of the scapula humerus Subscapularis Subscapular fossa of the scapula Lesser tubercle of the humerus Memory Helper Internal shoulder rotators L – Latissimus dorsi I – Internal rotation (the action) P – Pectoralis major S – Subscapularis Memory Helper Rotator cuff muscles S – Supraspinatus I – Infraspinatus T – Teres minor S – Subscapularis Memory Helper External rotator cuff muscles E – both E and X stand for External Rotation X I – Infraspinatus T – Teres minor . adducts the shoulder Anterior fibers: flex and medially rotate the shoulder Medial fibers: abduct the shoulder Posterior fibers: extend and laterally rotate the shoulder Medial half of clavicle Intertubercular groove of edge of sternal body. ribs 9–12. adducts the shoulder Extends the shoulder. ribs the humerus 1–8 Teres major Inferior half of the lateral border of the scapula Spinous process of T6–L5. and posterior sacrum Lateral third of clavicle. medially rotates the shoulder. horizontally abducts the shoulder Adducts the shoulder and laterally rotates the shoulder Extends the shoulder.

com/massagereview2e to practice identifying muscles of the forearm. and Kinesiology Remember. See Figure 2-15a for muscles that move the anterior forearm (Table 2-8).68 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. so bicep has two origins). See Figure 2-15b for muscles that move the posterior forearm (Table 2-8). Generally speaking. or the action (supinator supinates the forearm). Place your hand on the medial epicondyle. and fingers. . many muscles’ names tell you either the location (brachio = arm and radialis = radius bone). and the wrist/ finger extensors are on the posterior forearm. and extend your wrist. The medial epicondyle is the common origin for most wrist flexors. Physiology. or how many origins they might have (bi = 2. Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Pronator teres Brachioradialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Extensor carpi ulnaris Flexor carpi radialis Extensor digitorum Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor pollicis brevis (a) (b) Figure 2-15 Muscles of the forearm. The lateral epicondyle is the common origin for most wrist extensors. and you will feel muscles flexing when your flex your wrist. hand. Go to the Online Learning Center at www. See Table 2-9 for muscles that move the wrist. Now place your hand on the lateral epicondyle. the wrist/finger flexors are on the anterior side of the forearm.mhhe. See Figures 2-16 and 2-17.

radial collateral ligament. and flexes the shoulder Flexes the elbow Flexes the elbow when the hand is in the neutral position Extends the elbow and extends the shoulder Triceps brachii Olecranon process Pronator teres Lateral proximal radial shaft Anterior distal oneeighth of the radial shaft Pronates the forearm and flexes the elbow Pronates the forearm Pronator quadratus . proximal oneeighth of ulnar shaft. supinates the forearm.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. Physiology. and annular ligament Medial epicondyle of the humerus and the coronoid process of the ulna Anterior distal one-eighth of the ulnar shaft Proximal lateral radial shaft Supinates the forearm Ulnar tuberosity Styloid process of radius Insertion Radial tuberosity Action Flexes the elbow. and Kinesiology 69 TABLE 2-8 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Forearm Muscle Biceps brachii Origin Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Short head: coracoid process of scapula Brachialis Brachioradialis Distal anterior humeral shaft Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula Lateral head: posterior proximal humeral shaft Medial head: posterior distal humeral shaft Supinator Lateral epicondyle of the humerus.

posterior radial shaft middle region. and the middle phalanx (MP) joints Longus: supracondylar ridge of the humerus Brevis: lateral epicondyle of the humerus Longus: base of metacarpal 2 Brevis: base of metacarpal 3 Extends and abducts the wrist Extends the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). and anterior ulnar shaft middle region Brevis: trapezium and transverse carpal ligament Brevis: proximal phalanx of thumb Proximal phalanx of thumb Flexes and adducts the thumb Oppenens pollicis Trapezium and transverse carpal ligament . the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP). and hamate Action Flexes and abducts the wrist Flexes and adducts the wrist Palmaris longus Tranverse carpal lig. PIP. and Kinesiology TABLE 2-9 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Wrist. Hand.70 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. interosseous membrane. and MP joints Longus: distal phalanx of thumb Extends the thumb Brevis: proximal phalanx of thumb Longus: distal phalanx of thumb Flexes the thumb Flexor pollicis longus and brevis Longus: anterior radial shaft middle region. and Fingers Muscle Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Origin Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus Medial epicondyle of the humerus Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion Bases of metacarpals 2–3 Base of metacarpal 5. and interosseous membrane Brevis: posterior radial shaft distal region and interosseous membrane Base of metacarpal 5 Middle phalanges Extends the wrist and extends the finof the four fingers gers at the DIP.Flexes the wrist and cups the palm ament and palmar aponeurosis Flexor digitorum profundus Anterior proximal threeDistal phalanges of Flexes the fingers and the distal interfourths of the ulnar shaft fingers 2–5 phalangeal joint (DIP). Physiology. and the middle phalanx (MP) joints Extends and adducts the wrist Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Extensor pollicis longus and brevis Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Longus: posterior ulnar shaft middle region. the proximal interphalangal joint (PIP). pisaform.

Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. See Table 2-11 for muscles that move the ankle. Adductor brevis Adductor longus Gracilis Adductor magnus Opponens pollicis Figure 2-17 Oppenens pollicis muscle. See Table 2-10 for muscles that move the hip. Figure 2-18 Deeper muscles of the right anterior thigh. and vastus intermedialis) all have a common insertion—the tibial tuberosity. and toes (Figures 2-23 through 2-26). Pronator quadratus Psoas major Iliacus Figure 2-16 Muscles of the wrist and forearm. Physiology. for the toes to flex. Remember. and Kinesiology 71 Supinator Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor pollicis longus Look for similarities among muscle groups.mhhe. and knee (Figures 2-18 through 2-22). foot. For to practice identifying muscles of the wrist and forearm. the quadriceps group (rectus femoris. For example. whereas the extensors would be on the dorsal. they never push. vastus medialis. muscles only pull. it makes sense that the flexors be on the plantar aspect of the foot. . Go to the Online Learning Center at www. thigh. vastus lateralis. Think about the action of the muscle to help you figure out its location.

72 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. and Kinesiology Gluteus medius Tensor fasciae latae Gluteus maximus Sartorius Iliacus Iliopsoas Rectus femoris Psoas major Vastus lateralis Tensor fasciae latae Biceps femoris. . long head Semimembranosus Biceps femoris. Figure 2-20 Muscles of the right anterior thigh. short head Adductor longus Gracilis Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Figure 2-19 Muscles of the right lateral thigh. Physiology.

mhhe. long head Biceps femoris. Go to the Online Learning Center at www. and Kinesiology 73 Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Gracilis Hamstrings: Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps femoris. Physiology. Gluteus medius (cut) Gluteus maximus (cut) Gluteus minimus Gluteus medius (cut) Piriformis Gluteus maximus (cut) Obturator internus Quadratus femoris Gracilis Adductor magnus Semitendinosus Figure 2-22 Muscles of the thigh and to practice identifying muscles of the thigh and hip.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. short head Figure 2-21 Muscles of the right posterior thigh. .

medially rotates the knee (when knee is flexed). medially rotates hip. medially rotates hip. medially rotates hip. and medially rotates hip Adducts the hip and medially rotates the hip Iliacus Gluteus maximus Lesser trochanter Glutal tuberosity (25%) and iliotibial band (75%) Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Iliotibial band Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae Anterior iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine Adductor longus Adductor magnus Pubic tubercle Ischial tuberosity. posteriorly tilts the pelvis . and abducts the hip Abducts and medially rotates the hip Flexes hip. posteriorly tilts the pelvis Semitendonosis Ischial tuberosity Medial proximal tibial shaft (pes anserine) Semimembranosis Ischial tuberosity Medial condyle of the Flexes the knee. extends hip Abducts and medially rotates the hip. flexes. medial and laterally rotates the knee when the knee is flexed. laterally rotates the knee (when knee is flexed). flexes. extends the hip. extends hip Extends. Physiology. and extends the hip. laterally rotates. inferior pubic ramus. flexes and shaft (pes anerine) medially rotates the knee Medial proximal tibial shaft (pes anserine) Pectineal line of femur Fibular head Flexes. and flexes hip Abducts. and posterior iliac crest Superior gluteal line Inferior gluteal line Insertion Lesser trochanter Action Unilaterally: laterally rotates the hip Bilaterally: flexes the hip and the vertebral column Flexes and laterally roates the hip Flexes hip. extends the hip. medially rotates hip Adducts. laterally rotates. and abducts the hip. posterior coccyx. and Kinesiology TABLE 2-10 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Thigh and Leg Muscle Psoas major Origin Transverse processes and vertebral bodies of T12–L5 Iliac fossa and anterior inferior iliac spine Posterior sacum. medially rotates the tibia knee (when knee is flexed). and ischial ramus Inferior pubic ramus Inferior pubic ramus Anterior superior iliac spine Pectineal line of pubis Linea aspera Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of the femur Linea aspera Adductor brevis Gracilis Sartorius Medial proximal tibial Adducts and flexes the hip. and medially rotates the hip Adducts and flexes the hip. Adducts and flexes thigh Pectineus Hamstrings Group Biceps femoris Ischial tuberosity Flexes the knee.74 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. posteriorly tilts the pelvis Flexes the knee. extends the hip.

Physiology. and Kinesiology 75 TABLE 2-10 (continued) Deep Six Hip Rotators Piriformis Quadratus femoris Anterior surface of sacrum Lateral border of ischial tuberosity Greater trochanter Intertrochanteric crest. abducts the hip when the hip is flexed Laterally rotates the hip Obturator internus Obturator membrane and inferior surface of the obturator foramen Superior and inferior rami of pubis Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity Laterally rotates the hip Obturator externus Gemellus superior Gemellus inferior Quadriceps Group Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedialis Vastus medialis Laterally rotates the hip Laterally rotates the hip Laterally rotates the hip Anterior inferior iliac spine Linea aspera and gluteal tuberosity Anterior lateral femoral shaft Linea aspera Tibial tuberosity Tibial tuberosity Tibial tuberosity Tibial tuberosity Flexes the hip and extends the knee Extends the knee Extends the knee Extends the knee . between the greater and lesser trochanters Medial surface of the greater trochanter Trochanteric fossa of femur Upper border of greater trochanter Upper border of greater trochanter Laterally rotates hip.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy.

posterior fibular shaft. MP joints. interosseous membrane Distal phalanx of big toe . and bases of metatarsals 2–4 Distal phalanx of big toe Flexes digits 2–5 at the DIP.76 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. proxi. inverts the foot. the tibia. and plantar flexes the ankle Inverts the foot and plantar flexes the ankle Flexes big toe. and interosseous membrane Posterior fibular shaft Navicular bone. Physiology. cuboid.Longus: middle halanges mal two-thirds of fibular 2–5 and distal phalanges shaft. and Toes Muscle Tibialis anterior Origin Lateral tibial shaft and interosseous membrane Insertion Base of the first metatarsal and cuneiform 1 Base of fifth metatarsal Base of first metatarsal and cuneiform 1 Action Dorsiflexes the ankle and inverts the foot Everts the foot and plantar flexes the ankle Everts the foot and plantar flexes the ankle Extends digits 2–5 and dorsiflexes the ankle (longus only) Peroneus brevis Lateral distal two-thirds of (fibularis brevis) the fibular shaft Peroneus longus Fibular head and lateral (fibularis longus) proximal two-thirds of the fibular shaft Extensor digitorum longus and brevis Longus: fibular head. and supports the longitudinal arch Extends the big toe and dorsiflexes the ankle Flexor hallucis longus Extensor hallucis longus Anterior fibular shaft. third cuneiform. PIP. Brevis: calcaneus Brevis: tendons of extensor digitorum longus Calcaneus via the Achilles tendon (aka: calcaneal tendon) Calcaneus via the Achilles tendon Gastrocnemius Medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur Superior posterior one-third of the fibular shaft and soleal line of the tibia Plantar flexes the ankle and flexes the knee Plantar flexes the ankle Soleus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior Posterior tibial shaft-middle Distal phalanges 2–5 region Posterior tibial shaft. Foot. and lateral condyle of 2–5. and Kinesiology TABLE 2-11 At a Glance: Muscles That Move the Ankle. plantar flexes the ankle.

are listed below.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. Another Gastrocnemius (cut) Fibularis longus Tibialis posterior Gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior Fibularis brevis Flexor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum brevis Figure 2-24 Muscles of the right anterior leg. while fibrous. as well as their description. These joints generally do not move. Cartilaginous: In cartilaginous joints. we must have joints or articulations. Figure 2-23 Deep posterior. and Kinesiology 77 Joints In order for muscles to move. . Fibrous: With this type of joint. However. are functionally classified as amphiarthrosis or slightly moveable. They provide for limited movement. articulating bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. The main types of joints in our bodies. articulating bones are fastened together by a thin layer of dense connective tissue. as when the back is bent or twisted. An example is the joints between the bodies of vertebrae and the symphysis pubis (amphiarthrosis or slightly movable). movements. leg muscles. An example is the sutures between bones of the skull. Physiology. making them classified as synarthrosis. and examples. the articulation between the radius and ulna and between the tibia and fibula.

Ball-and-Socket: The ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with the cup-shaped cavity of another bone. 3. Physiology. Go to the Online Learning Center at www. and rotates around . 2. Gliding: Articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved. Figure 2-26 Muscles of the right posterior leg. Condyloid: The oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with the elliptical cavity of another. for example. Synovial joints are functionally classified as diarthrosis or freely movable joints. Pivot: The cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and ligament. and Kinesiology Gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior Soleus Fibularis longus Gastrocnemius Lateral head Medial head Extensor digitorum longus Fibularis brevis Extensor hallucis longus Flexor hallucis longus tendon Extensor digitorum brevis Figure 2-25 Muscles of the right lateral to practice identifying muscles of the leg. 1. 5. joints of phalanges. which is functionally classified as synarthrosis. This movement occurs in all planes and rotations. sacroiliac joint. Synovial: With these joints. joints between ribs two and the sternum and rib 7 and the sternum.78 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. A variety of movements occur in different planes but no rotation. Examples include the shoulder and hip. Hinge: The convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of another. This makes flexion and extension possible. the ends of articulating bones are covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid. Several types are listed here. example is the hyaline cartilage plate between bones. 4. articulating bones are surrounded by a joint capsule of ligaments and synovial membranes. in the elbows. which provides sliding or twisting movements.mhhe. and knees. See Figure 2-27. Gliding joints occur between various bones of the wrist and ankle. An example is the joints between the metacarpals and phalanges.

Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. . and Kinesiology 79 Dens of axis Atlas Axis Pivot joint Ball-and-socket joint Ilium Hinge joint Humerus Radius Head of femur Ulna Carpal bones Plane joint Triquetrum Hamate bone Trapezium First metacarpal bone Phalanges Saddle joint Metacarpal bone Proximal phalanx Condylar joint Figure 2-27 Types of synovial joints. Physiology. Go to the Online Learning Center at to practice identifying these joints.mhhe.

Dermatomes Dermatomes: These are band-like unilateral patterns of peripheral nerves or an area or section supplied by a single spinal nerve. 6. providing a variety of movements. some disease situations contradict that. Saddle: Articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions. the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another. Nutrition The Six Basic Nutrients Six basic nutrients are needed in order for our bodies to survive. those with congestive heart failure should follow the recommendations of their physician as to how much water they should drink. (See Figure 2-28. and Kinesiology a central axis. Physiology.) Cranial nerve (CN V) C2 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T2 T1 C3 C4 C5 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 C5 T2 T1 C5 C6 C5 L1 C6 L2 C8 C7 C7 C8 C7 C8 L1 L2 L3 L4 S4 S5 Co L5 S1 C6 C5 L1 C6 C7 C8 L2 T11 T12 S2 S3 S3 L5 S1 S2 L1 S2 L3 L3 L2 L2 L4 L4 L3 L5 L5 S1 S1 L4 S1 L5 Anterior view S1 L5 Posterior view Figure 2-28 The dermatomes.80 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. Water: Water assists in many chemical functions. An example is the joint between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna. This means that the skin of the body may be divided into sensory segments that collectively make up a dermatome map. For example. . however. That is one reason we feel fatigued when we are dehydrated. Generally it is recommended to drink half your body weight in ounces of water daily. such as the formation of ATP. for example. the joints between the carpal and metacarpal of the thumb.

. Vitamins: Vitamins have no caloric value but play a big role in a healthy diet. our role in nutrition is to provide basic information. and LDL (low density lipoprotein). and legumes. and others are mid/low glycemic (best to eat before a long bout of exercise). Remember. which are the bad or “lousy” cholesterol. If supplemental iron or calcium is taken. Fats: Fats should make up no more than thirty percent of our total diet. D. and K) are not expelled easily. Carbohydrates are our primary fuel source— your brain uses twenty percent of all carbohydrates just to function. Fat soluble vitamins (A. Unsaturated fats are oils or liquid at room temperature and should make up no more that twenty percent of our caloric intake. two minerals of concern to women are iron (important during the menstrual cycle years) and calcium (important during bone growing years of eleven to twenty-five and postmenopausal years). Minerals: Minerals are generally needed only in trace amounts. beans. Some carbohydrates are high glycemic (good to eat after a bout of exercise to replace the fuel used). Excesses are stored in the body fat and can create toxicity. If too much is ingested. Physiology. Protein helps to repair and rebuild muscle. E. Carbohydrates help us to hold onto needed water. and refer to a registered and licensed dietitian or the client’s physician. follow the FDA Food Guide Pyramid (Figure 2-29). . cereals) that benefit our bodies and provide necessary energy. We have simple carbohydrates (refined sugars) that should be limited in our diet and complex carbohydrates (breads. and Kinesiology 81 Protein: Twelve to twenty percent of our diet should be made up of protein. it should be through a physician’s recommendation. pastas. our bodies expel the excess through the urine. It does not build muscle as some think .Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. exercise does! Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates should make up fiftyfive to sixty percent of our total diet. Memory Helper Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: HDL (high density lipoproteins). which are the good or “happy” cholesterol. . Saturated fats are the bad fats that are generally solid at room temperature and should be no more than ten percent of our diet. Cholesterol falls into the fat category. Food sources include meats. poultry. However. We have water soluble vitamins (B and C).

In 2005. which you will need to know for your exam. Physiology.82 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. seen here alongside the previous pyramid. the FDA announced a new food pyramid. and Kinesiology Figure 2-29 The FDA Food Guide Pyramid. .

middle scalenes and anterior scalenes. you might miss the best answer. external oblique. manubrium. supraspinatus and teres minor. D. C. C. supraspinatus and latissimus dorsi D. D. lordotic. 11. bending at the waist to increase leverage B. 5. this means A. D. 6. MBLEx (11%). a posterior pelvic tilt. Physiology. C. but are meant to act as a general review of subjects studied in various school curriculums. 2. D. B. C. a high hip. External rotators of the shoulder are A. rectus abdominus. this means that the A. B. kyphotic. The muscle that is also known as the “six pack” is the A. Your client is internally rotated at the shoulders. hamstrings are tight and the iliopsoas is stretched. 8. he or she is A. Use only the information provided in the question. B. B. coracoid process. and choose the best answer based on your knowledge of the subject. D. When the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) is lower than the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) in postural analysis. rectus femoris is tight and the biceps femoris is stretched. posterior scalenes only. knees slightly bent with weight evenly distributed on both feet D. biceps femoris is tight and the rectus femoris is stretched. 7. A band of connective tissue that wraps around tendons is called A. internal oblique. retinaculum. hamstrings are tight and the rectus femoris is stretched. 9. Physiology. This means you need to focus on what muscles in his or her massage session? A. infraspinatus and teres minor B. Do not make assumptions about the questions and how the writer of the question might be trying to trick you. fascia. post-event stretch. scolitic. supraglenoid fossa. and Kinesiology 83 Strategies to Success Test-Taking Skills No tricks. 10. teres minor and infraspinatus. C. C. posterior scalenes and anterior scalenes. 3. myocardium. hands and arms relaxed to the side of the body C. an anterior pelvic tilt. B. D. D. stretch reflex. D. If you choose an answer too quickly. plastic elongation. and Kinesiology NCETM (26%). mastoid process. medial clavicle. radial tuberosity. Which of the following represents poor body mechanics or positioning? A. D. subscapularis and supraspinatus. B. 4. The insertion for the triceps brachii is A. None of the above are correct. C. transverse abdominus. B. elastic elongation. sternum. The insertion of the sternocleidomastoid is A. If your client has an exaggerated outward curve of the thoracic spine. B. C. olecranon process. shoulders relaxed *Some questions are not directly addressed in this chapter.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. B. just focus! Always read all of the responses to a question before answering. B. C. C. Questions Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. subscapularis and latissimus dorsi 12. teres major and infraspinatus. latissimus dorsi and teres minor C. and NCETMB (26%) 1. . Two muscles that insert on rib 1 are A. sway back. aponeurosis. posterior scalenes and sternocleidomastoid. D. The type of stretching where temporary lengthening of the muscle is the goal is called A. If your client has an anterior pelvic tilt.

gluteus maximus. visceral B. and platysma. mylineated D. the femur and the pubic symphysis. vastus lateralis. comminuted fracture. B. The joint type that allows for the most range of motion is the A. C. D. gluteus minimus. compression fracture. and coracobrachialis B. the femur and infraglenoid fossa. and Kinesiology 13. Your client has hurt his or her ankle. It is very swollen and discolored. 21. brachialis. the femur and the acetabulum. D. The ligament that helps support the femur-tibia joint is the A. iliopsoas. first metatarsal and plantar flexes the foot. C. C. humerus to the radius. and temporalis. Physiology. diarthroses. B. proprioceptors. 29. masseter. first metatarsal and dorsiflexes the foot. B. brachialis. 18. 20. fibrous. The nerve endings located in the tendon that protect the tendon and muscle from overcontracting and are over-ridden in fight or flight are called A. C. a first-degree strain 28. C. fifth metatarsal and plantar flexes the foot. fibula and the femur. stress fracture. 25. 24. and coracobrachialis D. Which of the following muscles does NOT attach to the os coxae? A. 16. temporalis. C. skeletal 15. C. deltoid ligament. internal oblique B. tibial tuberosity. C. C. piriformis. He or she may have what type of injury? A. gluteus maximus. D. stretch reflex. posterior medial tibial condyle. biceps brachii. B. C. vastus lateralis D. lateral ptery goid. sutured. and coracobrachialis 23. D. The anterior cruciate ligament attaches the A. gemellus interior. cardiac C. C. 17. The muscles that perform mastication are the A. Golgi tendon organs. B. a third-degree strain C. a first-degree sprain D. and platysma. biceps femoris. D. posterior lateral tibial condyle. glenoid labrum. ischial tuberosity. Another name for a hairline fracture is a A. A muscle that when tight can cause sciatica and externally rotate the hip is the A. pectoralis major. radius. pectoralis minor. The deep six hip rotators include all of the following except A. 14. D. muscle spindles. A muscle that flexes the knee and extends the hip is the A. a third-degree sprain B. D. The hip joint is made up of A. B. . ulna. lateral pterygoid. The vastus lateralis muscle inserts at the A. D. and coracobrachialis C. semimembranosus 22. fibula. anterior cruciate ligament. B. medial pterygoid. masseter. 27. pectoralis minor. What type of muscle is NOT striated? A. tibia. C. D. medial pterygoid. D. biceps brachii. C. masseter. 19. D. platysma. B. quadratus femoris. the femur and the ischium. synchondrosis. obturator internus. D. anterior side of each vertebrae. femoral acetabulum ligament. omohyoid. D. sartorius C. masseter. What are the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process? A. The medial malleolus is the distal end of the A.84 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. fifth metatarsal and dorsiflexes the foot. B. suprahyoid. B. 26. B. gemellus superior. femur and the tibia. and temporalis. The tibialis anterior muscle attaches at the base of the A. rectus femoris. B. compound fracture. B. pectoralis major.

Which of the following is NOT one of the carpal bones? A. the wrist 41. The ligaments that help prevent rotation of the knee are the A. teres minor. C. biceps femoris. subscapularis. D. B. infraglenoid fossa C. Which specific joint in the body is the most mobile? A. C. ischium. synarthrosis. B. and supinator C. semitendonosis. gracilis. What muscles flex the elbow? A. B. maxilla-mandibular joint C. coracoid process 34. anterior cruciate and the posterior cruciate. 31. lateral one-third of clavicle. four C. The weight-bearing part of the foot is A. long thoracic C. D. the inferior cruciate and the superior cruciate. vastus lateralis. supraspinatus. C. trapezius nerve 33. sartorius. 44. brachioradialis. biceps. The mouth opens in a hinge-like motion due to which joint? A. vastus intermedialis. . brachioradialis. deltoid tuberosity. How many types of synovial joints are there? A. medial collateral and the lateral collateral. glenoid fossa. heads of metatarsal bones one through five. six 45. ramus. brachialis. C. What muscles extend the elbow? A. brachioradialis. temporalis and frontalis C. and adductor brevis. triceps and anconeus B. the metacarpal-phalange D. acetabulum. What nerve innervates the trapezius? A. D. frontalis and masseter 38. ischial tuberosity. Both A and B are correct. None of the above are correct. The meeting of the ilium. hamate B. five D. cuneiform 46. pectoral nerve D. What is the insertion of the long head of the triceps? A. scaphoid C. D. diarthrosis. and biceps femoris. paralysis. brachioradialis. the shoulder B. pronator teres. and supinator C. spinal accessory B. and crest of scapular spine. and brachialis 36. Synovial joints functional classification is A. medial one-third of clavicle. pronator teres. temporalis and occipitalis B. and brachialis 35. B. and pubis forms the A. temporomandibular joint 43. The origin of the deltoid muscle is the A. pubis symphysis. What two muscles are connected by the broad epicranial aponeurosis? A. an abnormal opening. 40. supinator. lunate D. and the line between the humeral epicondyles. brachialis. three B. D. Physiology.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. heads of metatarsal bones one and five. adductor magnus. lateral one-third of clavicle. B. and crest of scapular spine. supraglenoid fossa D. What are the boundaries/borders of the cubital fossa? A. D. C. and Kinesiology 85 30. excessive thirst. 42. temporopteygoid joint B. All of the following are rotator cuff muscles except the A. C. C. D. 32. teres major. and coracobrachialis D. the hip C. biceps brachii. 39. supinator. All of the following muscles form the tendon of the ligamentum patellae except A. D. triceps and anconeus B. ethmoid-sphenoid joint D. C. B. acromion process. prickly. pronator teres. 47. frontalis and occipitalis D. B. acromion process. B. C. olecranon process B. calcaneus. brachioradialis. and crest of scapular spine. and coracobrachialis D. D. 37. B. tingling feeling in a limb. rectus femoris. symphysis. the patellar ligament. Paresthesia is a medical term for A. amphiarthrosis.

C. D. posterior tibalis. lateral flexion. All of the above are correct. slow to heal. flexion and extension D. increased blood flow. No movement occurs here. condylar. The border of the posterior triangle of the neck are all of the following except A.86 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. circumduction 50. What bone is on the anterior neck? A. B. The carotid sinus is located A. middle one-third of the clavicle. hinge. abduction and adduction B. peroneal nerve 59. Physiology. biceps femoris. C. deltopectoral area. hyoid D. brachial plexus area. . rotation. C. medial and lateral rotation C. Movement between C1 and the skull is A. The cartilage that surrounds and protects the ends of long bones is called A. femoral artery 60. B. axis. sciatic nerve B. hip 62. D. 63. latissimus dorsi. All of the following muscles form the border of the popliteal fossa except A. C. fibrous. cricoid C. D. B. and Kinesiology 48. hyaline cartilage. popliteal artery C. C. epicondyle B. semimembranosus. C. decreased metabolic rate. B. thymus 56. Your client has had an inversion ankle sprain. What structure in the popliteal fossa makes this area an endangerment site? A. The class of joints where bones or cartilage are joined only by fibrous tissue are called A. flexion/extension. gastrocnemius. gracilis. 61. B. lateral flexion. B. 52. C. knee D. 51. rotation. D. 54. 64. the posterior thigh nerve D. C. thyroid B. D. syndesmosis. sciatic nerve B. tibial nerve C. D. What anatomical structure should be avoided when massaging around the sartorius and adductor longus muscles? A. C. D. D. attach bone to bone. B. C. fibrocartilage. receive poor blood supply. dialation of peripheral blood vessels. B. 49. The muscle that should be strengthened is the A. sternocleidomastoid. flexion/extension. posterior neck triangle. Which of the following is considered an ellipsoidal joint? A. inferior vena cava D. D. peroneus longus. None of the above are correct. No movement occurs here. condyle D. 55. odontoid. All of the following are general effects of heat except A. fossa 58. trapezius. wrist B. B. 57. atlas. Movement between C1 and C2 is A. D. anterior neck triangle. B. tuberosity C. The bony projection on C2 is called the A. Which of the following is a rounded bony landmark that is for articulation? A. D. 53. increased pulse rate. gastrocnemius. Ligaments are A. None of the above are correct. elbow C. C. tibialis anterior. Hinge joints allow what type of movements? A. periosteum. B.

Golgi tendon organs. to provide mobility. SCM. D. B. rectus femoris. 68. The function of ligaments is A. muscle spindles. elbow. B. trapezius C. B. C. abduction. The ischial tuberosity is located on the A. exchange of gases 74. external oblique. D. Which muscle is the only muscle that moves the head but does not attach to any vertebrae? A. rectus abdominus. B. iliopsoas and biceps femoris. D. B. The most abundant and widely distributed tissue of the body is A. production of heat D. C. C. Which muscle crosses two joints? A. D. arthropometric fluid. circumduction. and Kinesiology 87 65. ischium D. The largest joint in the body A. ulnarcarpal. D. anconeus B. spenius capitus. Physiology. serous tissue. hyoid C. Which of the following is not a function of the muscular system? A. C. connective tissue. gastrocnemius D. 76. C. D. C. 66. radius. D. The anterior superior iliac spine is located on which bone? A. knee. 75. baroreceptors. D. 69. and vein is pectoralis minor and A. scapula. B. None of the above are correct. rotation. tendons. 81. splenius capitus D. C. B. hip. C. to stabilize the joint. 79. pubic bone. ischium. radiocarpal. C. soleus 78. C. sternocleidomastoid 72. C. internal oblique. B. The muscles that might be tight would be A. scalenes. B. iliopsoas and rectus femoris. biceps femoris B. C. intercarpal. rectus abdominus C. gliding. 70. ilium 67. quadratus lumborum and biceps femoris. D. piriformis 80. quadratus femoris and rectus femoris. The sciatic nerve can be compressed and irritated when which muscle is tight? A. serous fluid. 73. 71. This joint allows pronation and supination of the hand A. ulna. B.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. The coranoid process is located on the A. B. synovial fluid. Your client’s lower back hurts when he or she lies flat. ilium. The sensory receptors stimulated by both tension and excessive stretch and activated an inhibitory response in the motor neuron are called A. scalenes B. B. adductor magnus D. epithelial tissue. brachialis C. D. 77. radioulnar. The muscle that can entrap the brachial nerve. B. None of the above are correct. sacrum. shoulder. proprioceptors. clavicle. The type of movement that occurs at the distal radioulnar joint is A. diarthrotic fluid. creating external and internal movement maintaining posture . The abdominal muscle group includes all of the following except A. D. vertebrae B. to cushion. The lubricating fluid that is found in moveable joints is called A. C. artery. D.

acromioclavicular. noreceptors. dense material that has the greatest tensile strength and is found in the intervertebral discs is A. B. A tough. fibrocartilage. This bone is also known as the atlas A. This is referred to as the yes-yes joint A. C1. C. saturated or unsaturated. lateral epicondyle. B. 93. C2. 84. B. osseous cartilage. D. 89. axial skeleton. the semitendonosis is immediately superficial to the A. malleolus. hyaline cartilage. xiphoid process. vascular headaches. D. C. excite nociceptors. B. radial tuberosity. whereas vigorous movements A. From the anatomical position. C. nociceptors. histamine release. B. The pes anserine is made up of all of the following muscles except A. C. 95. rectus femoris. 94. B. coracoid-humeral. skull. The receptors for vibration and touch are called the A. acromioclavicular joint. Golfer’s elbow is irritation on the A. Physiology. B. First stages of healing result in A. 96. solid or liquid. atlantoaxial joint. D. proproceptors. patella. tension headaches. 88. abdominals. B. D. B. C. D. hyoid. semimembranosus. B. glenohumeral. C. Fats are classified as A. C.88 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. The largest sesamoid bone in the body is the A. Winged scapula is weakness in which muscle? A. D. phantom headaches. biceps femoris. C. L2. olecranon process. defense against disease. mechanoreceptors. D. the occipital-temporal joint. C. clotting mechanisms. appendicular skeleton. B. semitendonosis. stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. D. elastic cartilage. B. gracilis. B. medial epicondyle. S1. and rhythmic movements are soothing to the nerves because they produce a low level of excitement to the nervous system. subscaularis 83. B. sartorius. decrease synaptic transmission. semimembranosus. and pelvis make up the A. collagen remodeling. The bones of the vertebral column. water soluble or fat soluble. D. increased fibrin production. 97. supraspinatus B. C. C. plantaris. 87. D. serratus anterior D. The muscles used in forced expiration are A. C. C. B. D. All of the above are correct. 86. 92. ischial tuberosity. The joint that is generally involved in a shoulder separation is the A. nutrient transportation. C. 98. Functions of the connective tissue include all of the following except A. 90. atlanto-occipital joint. D. Migraine headaches are generally A. C. stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. redness of skin. diarthrotic skeleton. D. 91. infraspinatus C. light. and Kinesiology 82. external intercostals and levator scapula. D. internal and external intercostals. B. D. neural transport. humeral-scapular. . Slow. 85. axis skeleton. Both A and B are correct. D. diaphragm and abdominals. C.

100. 104. mandible. C. ectomysium C. chemoreceptors. meniscus. photoreceptors. . B. movement. thermal heat. The ability of a muscle to return to its original shape after being stretched is known as A. 114. D. mechanoreceptors. 115. D. solid or liquid. mono-. Certain massage strokes create minute muscle contractions by A. increasing Golgi tendon organs response. Nerve endings that are pressure sensitive and respond to skin displacement are A. stimulation of the myosin. short C. sesmoid 103. ulnar head. C. 101. PNF. endomysium B. B. B. Which bones are not one of the five classifications? A. C. C. C. B. C. feet. Haversian canals. contractibility. serous. D. B. olecranon. D. 106. 116. radial head. zygomatic. visceral. Both A and B are correct. masseter. D. di-. and polysaccharides. Receptors responding to air vibrations or sound waves are the A. B. What layer of connective tissue wraps around the entire muscle? A. Meissner’s corpuscles. Lumbricles are located in the A. marrow. C. regular D. D. The common origin of the hamstrings is the A. perimysium D. epimysium 102. lateral condyles of the humerus. elastic cartilage. D. increasing lymph flow. irritability. D. ligaments. joint capsule. sacral 112. C. increasing muscle spindle activity. B. and Kinesiology 89 99.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. C. hyaline cartilage. C. B. long B. B. The name of the upper jaw bone is the A. D. cartilage. Cartilage that is found on the tip of the nose and the lobes of the ears is called A. C. hands. insulation. cervical B. lumbar vertebrae. blood. C. lumbar D. B. organs. tissue. Krause’s end bulbs. 110. synovial. Which area of the spine has the most vertebrae? A. B. Pacinian canals. 109. C. D. D. nociceptors. C. PSIS. tendons. All of the following are functions of adipose tissue except A. All of the following are types of connective tissue except A. Fluid found in all diarthrotic joints is A. thoracic C. 111. cartilage. C. medial tibal condyle. Small canals found in the bone that help to nourish it are called A. B. The three main types of connective tissue of the skeletal or muscular system are all of the following except A. saturated or unsaturated. Pacinian’s corpuscles. D. B. free nerve endings. tri-. 113. D. protection. 107. Physiology. plastic elongation. water soluble or fat soluble. The capitulum of the humerus articulates with A. D. maxilla. fibrocartilage. B. B. 105. Carbohydrates are classified as A. Meissner canals. ligaments. 108. ischial tuberosity. D. lateral tibal condyle.

brachialis. 130. C. Tensor fascia latae/ITB 122. kyphotic. MET D. vastus lateralis. abdominas 124. lordotic. A muscle synergistic to the biceps brachii is the A. stomach. seven pairs D. B. biceps femoris D. C. actively B. chest in the prone position. B. knee extension. C. What are the major actions of the peroneus longus and brevis? A. lumbar region. hip extension. B. C. B. gluteus maximus B. biceps femoris. D. 123. Both A and C are correct. twelve pairs B. What is the largest muscle in the body? A. B. hypothermia. Inversion and dorsiflexion of the foot B. D. coracobrachialis. 128. thoracic region. D. None of the above are correct. B. brachioradialis. sacral region. When the hamstrings are acting as an antagonist. 127. heat cramps. The sternum articulates with how many ribs? A. rectus femoris. quadriceps D. A client with lordosis may experience a reduction in low back discomfort if a pillow is placed under the A. sartorius B. In addition to the quads and iliopsoas. D. he or she is A. sliding filament theory. B. The type of heat illness that is a medical emergency is A. passively C. Both A and C are correct. flat feet. D. reciprocal inhibition. normal daily activities. D. heat exhaustion. D. B. 132. C. Eversion and dorsiflexion of the foot 121. liver. statically 131. Physiology. atrophy. sway back. pancreas. hamate C. D. five pairs 118. The pear-shaped sac located on the right side of the body that stores bile is called the A. gallbladder. 126. lost transverse arch. Repetitive motion injuries are caused by A. . D. ballistically. triceps. None of the above are correct. A. C. When the quads receive information to contract and the hamstrings receive information to relax. manual manipulation of tools. Which bone is not in the distal row of the carpals? A. D. 129. Another term for pes planus is A. 133. 125. muscle tone. six pairs C. C. 119.90 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. actively. gluteus maximus C. knee flexion. Eversion and plantar flexion of the foot D. piriformis C. Stretching can be done by the therapist with no assistance from the client or by the client with no assistance from the therapist. B. vastus intermedialis. what other muscle would tilt the pelvis anteriorly if tight? A. heat stroke. If your client has an exaggerated outward curve of the thoracic spine. trapezoid 120. C. Inversion and plantar flexion of the foot C. B. scoliotic. pelvis in the prone position. capitate B. the movement is A. passively. C. PNF. Your client has an anterior pelvic tilt. cervical region. this is known as A. C. lunate D. C. D. The greater amount of rotation in the spine occurs in the A. The quadriceps muscles are all of the following except A. B. repeated flexing and extending of a joint against resistance. and Kinesiology 117. high arches. abdomen in the prone position.

Physiology. and feet facing forward. ethmoid bone. zygomatic bone. B. In placing the bolster under the ankle when the client is prone. 138. The metacarpals are A. Which muscle is not a part of the shoulder girdle group? A. quadratus femoris B. which muscles would be weakened? A. open the jaw. how are muscles being worked? A. low arches. superior to the rhomboids. close the jaw. orbicularis oris D. quadratus teres D. gluteus maximus B. C. Which muscle is also known as the “hip hiker”? A. D. deep C. hamstrings C. lateral C. In lordosis. gracilis. old shoes. Plantar fasciitis can be caused by all of the following except A. medial D. Western anatomical position. D. scapular elevation D. Where is the least amount of movement in the spine? A. the medial deltoid. arms slightly abducted. Which muscle depresses the ribs? A. Which muscle abducts the hip? A. C. bicep brachii 135. T1–T3 D. quadratus lumborum 152. C. T4–T6 C. all of the above 139. When the serratus anterior contracts. B. retract the jaw. 149. D. When the body is standing with the hands supinated. L4–L5 136. external intercostals 146. scalenes B. medial B. The trapezius is A. B. D. flexion of the knee. latissimus dorsi 147. gluteus medius C. pectoralis minor C. D. deltoid D. medial D. lateral to the carpals. proximal B. scapular retraction B. None of the above are correct. pectineus. latissimus dorsi. B. C3–C6 B. superior D. internal intercostals D. B. temporalis 144. trapezius C. iliopsoas D. distal C.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. 141. D. The function of the masseter muscle is to A. When slowly sitting down in a chair. C. C. B. Muscles that adduct the femur include all of the following except A. 151. 142. masseter . proximal to the gracilis. supraspinatus. you are preventing excessive A. dorsiflexion of the ankle. scapular protraction C. quadriceps B. zygomaticus B. The ITB is A. this is known as the A. extend the jaw. 148. C. Which muscle helps us to smile? A. tight peroneals. and Kinesiology 91 134. sartorius. pterygoid. quadriceps eccentrically C. temporalis bone. Traditional Chinese Medicine anatomical position. what movement takes place? A. subscapularis. gracilis 140. C. Northern anatomical position. 150. essential medical position. pectoralis minor B. hamstrings D. adductor magnus. 137. 143. high arches. scapular depression 145. The muscle that initiates shoulder abduction is A. plantar flexion. Another name for the cheek bone is the A. D. B. hamstrings concentrically B. superficial B. quadratus lumborum C. gluteals concentrically D. C.

anterior tibialis. the PCL C. he or she will not be able to A. latissimus dorsi. because the stronger ligaments are on the lateral side of the ankle. the muscle affected is A. buccinator. D. hold his or her arm out to the side. With your client’s elbow bent to ninety degrees. C. retraction. B. B. you apply resistance as he pulls his hand toward the navel. isometric B. In order to strengthen anterior tibialis. D. elbow flexion. rotation. isotonic C. . B. B. orbicularis oris. D. D. subscapularis 158. the medial malleolus is lower on the medial side. scoliosis. 155. What type of muscle contraction is occurring on the biceps brachii? A. kyphosis. D. B. which is now painful and swollen. 164. because the lateral malleolus is lower on the lateral side. B. lordosis. 160. push a grocery cart. internal hip rotatation. 162. depression. B. If the erector spinae is contracted bilaterally. hip extension. walk on his or her heels only. shoulder extension. elevation. the primary muscle mover is A. C. your client can A. 166. infraspinatus C. B. because talo fibular ligament is not in a mechanically strong place. but you will not move. C. B. elbow extension. the patellar tendon 157. 167. pectoralis major. C. C. the ligament B. platysma. D. You get about halfway off the floor and cannot push the rest of the way up. none of the above 159. soleus. perform heel raises. When standing and performing trunk flexion. Which of the following is not part of the iliopsoas muscle? A. All of the above are correct. If a client has torn his or her supraspinatus muscle. this would result in A. C. None of the above are correct. A concentric contraction of the biceps femoris results in A. D. 168. Which end of the muscle has the most movement? A. concentric 156. peroneals. subscapularis. B. The “kissing” muscle is the A. 163. the insertion C. D. the ACL B. eccentric D. Thrusting the lower jaw forward is called A. What structure may be damaged? A. gastrocnemius. C. and Kinesiology 153. open a door. D. erector spinae eccentrically. D. internal/external oblique. Physiology. All of the above are correct. rectus abdominus. You are performing a push-up. C. You struggle to go up. C. None of the above are correct. psoas major C. B. Your client states he or she was running outdoors.92 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. iliacus major 161. the origin D. If a client has drop foot. planted his or her foot and twisted the knee. Pain is felt. supraspinatus B. The most common ankle sprain is the inversion sprain because A. psoas minor D. A concentric contraction of the biceps brachii results in A. hip flexion. teres minor D. walk on his or her toes. shoulder adduction. masseter. C. 165. 154. knee extension. This would be inflammation of A. C. Which rotator cuff muscle does not rotate the humerus? A. protraction. D. the MCL D. iliacus B.

twelve to twenty percent. and Kinesiology 93 169. E. iliopsoas B. B. When stepping down off a curb. C. the stabilizer would be A. meats D. C. and longissimus. . foods best eaten before a long bout of exercise. semimembranosis 173. spinalis. rectus abdominus. more than thirty percent. vastus lateralis C. Guidelines to consider when using herbs or supplements include A. 185. 178. concentric on the quads B. A. vastus medialis D. cervical lamina D. horizontal shoulder flexion. When the sole of the foot is turned outward. K. fats C. carbohydrates 171. D. splenius cervicus 175. and longissimus. eversion. B. pronatiaon. carpals. more is not necessarily better. D. what kind of contraction is occuring? A. this is called A. eccentric on the quads C. D. splenius capitus C. saturated. biceps femoris B. 177. phalanges. latissimus dorsi. D. What muscle initiates walking? A. D. B. Starches belong to which basic nutrient group? A. carbohydrates. 184. 181. An excellent natural antibiotic is A. ten to twenty percent. eccentric on the hamstrings 176. proteins B. 182. and spinalis. C. The three muscles that cause internal shoulder rotation include all of the following except A. B. D. Which muscle is not involved? A. semitendonosis D. B. C.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. C. 186. jojoba. B. metatarsals. D. iliopsoas. licorice. D. supination. 183. Which muscle flexes the knee and attaches to the fibula? A. 170. The most distal bones of the foot are called A. longissimus. B. Another term for scapular adduction is A. D. Physiology. B. B. tarsals. C. sternocleidomastoid B. C. hamstrings. Your client is having trouble laterally flexing his or her head. B. C. concentric on the hamstrings D. retraction. Both A and C are correct. rectus femoris C. The fat-soluble vitamins include all of the following except A. iliocostalis. if the dosage does not work quickly. gastrocnemius/soleus. extension. and iliocostalis. High glycemic foods are A. C. hamstrings 174. infraspinatus. 179. change your dosage. C. iliocostalis. B. inversion. All of the above are correct. The three muscles of the erector spinae in order from most lateral to most medial are A. garlic. The most unhealthy fats are called A. D. cholesterol. basil. In performing a squat. protein. foods that are high in sugar. spinalis. LDL. spinalis. 172. HDL. C. C. B. C. unsaturated. B. 180. protraction. ask friends their dosage since one dosage is suitable for all. D. iliocostalis. The appropriate amount of carbohydrates in the diet according to the American Dietetic Association (ADA) is A. D. fats. subscapularis. foods that are low in sugar. longissimus. D. The basic nutrients include the following except A. pectoralis major. forty-five to sixty-five percent. B.

contributes to obesity. chromium. fat soluble. The following are true concerning sugar except A. six to eight percent. ischial tuberosity will be stretched. 4. vitamin B C. flexibility. can produce an acidic stomach. 2. B Remember. In this case. B The posterior scalenes attaches to rib 2. B When someone is very toned with low body fat. Physiology. and Kinesiology NCETM (26%). less than five percent. D Remember the EX in EXternal. four B. this is an anterior pelvic tilt. Vitamins that can be harmful to the body if taken in huge amounts are called A. broad tendon that attaches skeletal muscle to bone. thus the name “six pack. water soluble. B. 3. Tilt the basin downward in the front. Physiology. vitamin C. Plastic elongation is more permanent. 195. creatine. If the pelvis does the same movement. wild cherry bark. D The origin is the medial clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum. B. . B. B. and the T in Teres minor. A Think of your pelvis as a basin of water. the anterior superior iliac spine is tilted down or lower in front than the posterior iliac spine in back. A Aponeurosis is a flat. and the water spills out in front. C. can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Fats Answers and Explanations Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. D. like the plastic bottle that will maintain its shape. 191. which is the question. 190. Proteins C. Therefore muscles attaching to the ASIS and the AIIS are tight. Vitamins B. 188. B An anterior pelvic tilt means muscles attaching to the anterior side of the pelvis are pulling it downward in the front (the ASIS is lower than the PSIS). D. Which mineral is a concern for those taking diuretics because it tends to be flushed out of the body easier? A. twelve calories. C. vitamin D 192. 194. the sternocleidomastoid attaches to the clavicle and the sternum. Therefore. This is commonly seen in people whose pants are higher in the back on the waist and low in front on the waist. D The other three answer choices listed are origins and insertions for the biceps brachii. 5.” 6. calcium D. 8. D.94 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. vitamin B. aloe vera. is the mastoid process. potassium. licorice. nine D. are one of the six basic nutrients with no caloric value that are needed in the body in small (trace) amounts. and you have EXIT. chromium 193. Minerals D. ten to twelve percent. and NCETMB (26%) 1. can improve the immune system. 7. or to skin. potassium C. Plastic elongation stretch is for post-exercise to help improve. Which vitamin best helps the body to absorb calcium? A. muscles attaching to the PSIS. C. MBLEx (11%). C. fascia is the lining around muscles. the rectus abdominus gives the appearance of separate little muscle bulges. Both A and B are correct. B. more than ten percent. zinc B. rubber bands are elastic and temporarily lengthen before going back to their original length. C. The glucose amount that is ideal in sports drinks is A. 9. ivy. elastic elongation is temporary and more for pre-event or preexercise with the goal of preparing you for exertional movement. blood vessels. and nerves that connects them to surrounding tissue to hold them in place. The insertion. the I in Infraspinatus. in a more permanent way. Organic acid(s) that assist in the production of ATP are A. 189. seven C. A plant that is excellent to use on minor burns is A. to another muscle. vitamin A B. A. vitamin C D. myocardium is the muscle of the heart. and Kinesiology 187. D. not to the ribs. D. One gram of fat equals A.

11. and oracobrachialis flexes the shoulder. Subscapularis. 23. gemellus inferior. 12. minor. Remember muscles pull. and the quadratus femoris. which can lead to wrist/hand problems. 22. it dorsiflexes the foot. and compound is a fracture that breaks through the skin. 32. compression is fractured by a compressive force. 25. the action of Internal rotation. C The lateral malleolus is the distal end of the fibula. biceps. they do not push. and Kinesiology 95 10. 29. The other two choices are attachments for biceps brachii. A Mastication is chewing. B Movement of the tibia anteriorly or posteriorly are handled by the ACL and the PCL. 26. the question asked for the insertion. obturator internus. and the os coxae is on the pelvis. the knee. A By definition. A Bending at the waist not only puts pressure on the back. C The infraglenoid fossa is in the shoulder (scapula). C The anterior cruciate ligament is one of two ligaments situated behind the patella that connects the femur to the tibia. 30. piriformis. All four muscles insert at the tibial tuberosity. B This is the elbow area (anterior side). 19. Proprioceptors assist us with balance and movement in relation to space. 24. B SITS = Supraspinatus. that on which we sit). Gluteus maximus extends the hip. and Subscapularis. A The infraglenoid tubercle is the origin of the long head of the triceps. 14. 18. supinator supinates the forearm. 27. A Brachialis. D The acetabulum is also referred to as the hip joint. proximal means closest to. 28. Infraspinatus. but it also probably means too much pressure is being exerted on an extended wrist. B The deltoid ligament is in the ankle. obturator externus. muscles spindles protect the muscle from overstretching. A Third degree means tearing has occurred—a complete tear. 16. 39. the long thoracic muscles innervate the thoracic region. 33. 37. D One muscle not included is biceps brachii. A The deltoid tuberosity is the insertion of the deltoid muscle. so tightness of this muscle can cause pressure on the nerve and mimic sciatica. A Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis are a part of the quadriceps group that extends. B The vastus lateralis is one of the four quadriceps muscles.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. A While the tibialis anterior inserts on the base of the first metatarsal. or straightens. 13. D The sciatic nerve runs through or under the piriformis. prontator teres pronates the forearm. D Remember LIPS—Latissimus dorsi. C This refers to the top of the head (scalp). the pubis symphysis is in the anterior middle of the pelvis. The patellar ligament attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity and is commonly lumped in with the patellar tendon. the brachialis originates on the shaft of the humerus. These muscles are the internal rotators of the shoulder. A Comminuted is shattered. C The vastus lateralis does not cross the pelvis. 36. 17. Physiology. 34. the stretch reflex is the combined action of the two that occurs when stretching properly. it only crosses the knee joint. 21. A Visceral muscle needs to be smooth in order for organ functions to occur such as digestion. A The shoulder is the most mobile as a ball and socket joint but also the most injured. 40. There is no trapezius nerve. A Golgi tendon organs protect the muscle from over-contracting. kyphosis is an exaggerated outward curve of the spine. . the glenoid labrum is in the shoulder. A The pectoral nerve innervates the pectoral muscles. and brachioradialis flex the elbow. There is no such ligament in the knee as the inferior or superior cruciate. B The six hip rotators are gemellus superior. Blood vessels would also possibly be torn. 35. 20. lordosis is an exaggerated inward curve of the spine (more commonly seen in the cervical and lumbar sections of the spine). which would cause the bleeding and bruising. A The pectoralis major originates on the clavicle and ribs 1 through 6. Distal means farthest away. 15. Pectoralis major. A These joints are also the synovial joints (the moveable ones). and the femoral-acetabulum is in the hip joint. 38. The ischium is the bottom portion of the pelvis (ischial tuberosity. This would also possibly tear the joint capsule causing synovial fluid to spread throughout the joint. Teres 31.

pivot. That means the muscles on the lateral side have been stretched and need to be strengthened. B This is the basic definition of paresthesia—the prickly. and the splenius capitus attaches to C7–T3. blood vessels dilate in order for blood flow to reach the superficial areas. D The femoral triangle is in this area. burning. B Both C and D are made-up terms. A It is both the radius and the ulna that allow for pronation and supination movements at the wrist/hand. 63. 71. A This is the movement as if you are nodding “yes. D Scalenes attach to the transverse process of C2–C7. and Kinesiology 41. A Connective tissue includes fascia. A fossa is not a rounded bump but a rounded groove such as the olecranon fossa of the humerus. A Ellipsoidal joints allow for flexion. 43. 47. 42. tightness in this area can compress these blood vessels. B Although the shoulder can be pretty complicated. Most fibrous joints are synarthrosis (immovable). While the hip is large. B Muscle spindles are stretch sensitive only. D The word “iliac” helps with this one.96 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. 76. C Epicondyle and tuberosity are more for muscle attachments. and other material. the word itself reveals the location. thus causing us to sweat. extension. C This is the movement as if you are nodding “no. 64. 66. 46. B This is also an endangerment site where the carotid artery is located (also where we often take a pulse). C Review muscle anatomy: gastrocnemius crosses the knee joint (originates on the femoral condyles) and the ankle joint (attaches to the calcaneus). 61. A The rectus femoris is a part of the quadriceps group. 44. Cartilaginous joints are amphiarthrosis (slightly movable). 48. trapezoid. the others are part of the quad group. This requires an increase in pulse and an increase in metabolism. which includes the femoral artery and nerve. it is the same feeling you get when your arm falls asleep. 53. trapezius attaches to C1–T12. 77. tendons. A Syndemosis is a type of fibrous joint but not a class. Rotation is not permitted. B Periosteum is the fascia around bones. saddle. 70. 51. Hinge joints move like a door on a hinge. triquetrum. 69. capitate. thymus is a gland. The other carpal bones are the pisiform. C This is also known as the dens. 50. abduction. D An inversion ankle sprain means the sole of the foot has turned inward. 52.” 54. D The temporomandibular joint is a hinge joint. C Biceps femoris is one of the hamstring muscles. gliding are all synovial joints. A Just like it sounds. SCM attaches to the medial clavicle and sternum and inserts on the mastoid process. condylar. B Review bony landmarks. it is not the largest. 75. and adduction. C The others are cartilage. baroreceptors are pressure sensitive. 73. C Latissimus dorsi does not border the neck. 58. 62. 56. B Because of the attachments of the three scalenes on ribs one and two. 72. . B When internal heat goes up. Physiology. coracoid process is on the scapula. and along with the pec minor attachments on ribs three through five. D Cuneiform is one of the tarsals. 60.” 55. ball and socket. D Exchange of gases is the respiratory system. not articulation. and proprioceptors are balance sensitive. B Synovial joints are diarthrosis (freely movable). 49. 68. skin. ligaments. and trapezium. 57. Fibrocartilage cushions between bones. 59. 74. B The nerve located at this point of the leg is the tibial nerve. C The other choices could be ball and socket joints or condyloid (abduction/adduction or medial/lateral rotation). D Gracilis is located on the medial thigh and does not border the popliteal fossa (which is the area behind the knee joint). D Hinge. 67. D Ligaments are slow to heal because they receive little or no blood supply. D The medial and longitudinal arches place the pressure points on heads of metatarsals one and five and the heel (calcaneus). tingling feeling you get in a limb when a nerve is damaged or compressed. the knee is the largest of the synovial joints. 65. also. 45.

breakfast at 7. If the muscle is weak. 98. 97. 106. 82. 109. Remember. ligaments are all connective tissues. Free nerve endings are the pain receptors. C Meissner’s corpusles detect light pressure. rectus femoris (quad). and biceps femoris is a hamstring that. and sesmoid. therefore. B Strokes such as petrissage with the pulling and tugging can activate the muscle spindles for protection of overstretching. B In other words. Diarthrotic skeleton is a made-up term. C The serratus anterior helps keep the scapula flat along the rib cage when they are retracted. balance. lumbar (5). flat. 103. then. The ectomysium does not exist. B Ligaments attach bone to bone and therefore work to create a stabilized joint. B Because of the effect on the blood vessels (vascular). A This allows clotting to occur. Physiology. and other senses. That would mean an anterior pelvic tilt and tightness in the quadratus lumborum. would posteriorly tilt the pelvis. D Remember that parasympathetic has the “parachute” (the “para”) that slows us down. B Saturated and unsaturated pertain to fats. A The problem here is when he or she lies down his or her back arches and is unsupported. . The best answer choice. there is an axis vertebrae and atlas but not an axis skeleton system. which is not listed here). 90. B This is what allows us to move. Fat does not move. B Remember General Manager: Golfer’s elbow is Medial epicondyle. 107. hyaline cartilage is around the ends of bones. D That would be nerve tissue. feet). D Circumduction is flexion. lunch at 12.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. 112. abduction. 84. is “A. 108. it can affect vision. which is why migraines can be so terrible. 94. and synovial fluid helps to lubricate them. D The sciatic nerve runs either through or just under the piriformis (it can be either). C The other bones are not sesamoid bones. 92. semi-Tendonosis. 100. the nerve will be compressed and will create sciatica symptoms. B Atlas holds up the world (Greek mythology). the semitendonosis sits on top of the semimembranosis. B It is also found in between the tibia and femur (also called meniscus) and between the pubic bones. dinner at 5. B The joint capsule holds the connective tissue and synovial fluid together to nourish the joints but is not considered a main type of connective tissue in the skeletal system. the vigorous massage will stimulate the sympathetic system.” Quadratus femoris is a hip rotator. D The endomysium encloses each muscle fiber. thoracic (12). 81. D Blood. 93. 86. 104. D The medial and lateral condyles of the tiba are insertions. irregular. water or fat soluble to vitamins. 105. C Proprioceptors are more for balance. A Skull and C1 moves flexion/extension. if it is tight. nociceptors are for detecting pain. cartilage. B Cervical (7). 99. Pacinian’s detects pressure and respond to skin displacement and high frequency vibration. The perimysium is a fascial layer within the muscle that binds the fasciculi together. and iliopsoas. hands. 91. and adduction. D Fibrocartilage and meniscus are the same and are found between bones. the scapula stick out or look like wings 83. legs. 101. if tight. C The five categories are long. D Water soluble and fat soluble are vitamin classifications. as far as axis goes. A These are your moving joints. 85. sacrum (5 fused). Hyaline cartilage is on the ends of moveable bones. extension. B Answer “A” is wrong because the diaphragm is not used in forced expiration. B Review bony landmarks: shoulder separation is a third degree sprain of the AC ligament (or the sternoclavicular ligament. mandible is the lower jaw bone. 102. short. masseter is the jaw muscle. Gracilis. 80. 89. tendons. and Kinesiology 97 78. and the abduction/adduction does not occur at this joint. C The appendicular skeleton includes the appendages (arms. 87. 110. B Say Grace before Tea—Sartorius. Gliding occurs at the carpal joints. 79. Krause’s end bulbs are believed to respond to cold. C Another name for adipose tissue is fat tissue. 95. 88. so the atlas holds up the head. Therefore. D Zygomatic is the cheekbone. 96. 111.

C The pancreas and stomach are on the left side. the ethmoid bone is part of the nasal/sinus cavity and forms part of the orbital wall. and Kinesiology 113. . and hamstrings extend the hip. A By definition. C Heat stroke occurs when the thermoregulatory system has shut down. and the floating ribs are eleven and twelve. A The “S” in synergist and the “S” in same: the synergist performs the same movement as the primary mover (agonist). 114. the mnemonic device Sally Left The Party . B Quads and abs are muscle groups not individual muscles. partial contraction. The trochlea is closest to the medial epicondyle. the quadriceps are doing the work to make sure the body does not slam down into the chair. C Biceps femoris is the hamstring group. Hamate) is the distal row. then. (Scaphoid. The gluteus maximus is the strongest.” 128.98 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. A Passive stretching means the therapist does the work. 129. Lunate. Pisaform) is the proximal row. Remember. Gluteus max extends the hip. 122. 130. 121. D Because of the TFL/ITB attachment on the anterior crest of the ilium. Old shoes will lower shock absorption. D These are the muscles in between the metacarpals and the metatarsals. the medial deltoid takes over. Trapezoid. To Take Cathy Home (Trapezium. 134. gracilis adducts the hip. B The gluteus medius and minimus abduct the hip. not the girdle (meaning the scapula and clavicle). D Normal daily activities should not create repetitive stress injuries. D The capitulum is on the lateral side of the humerus near the lateral epicondyle. . The other terms are made up. Capitte. 136. 127. it might help you to remember that the rectus femoris is on the anterior side—quads! 123. B Marrow is the soft material in the bone containing blood cells and other material. lordosis is sway back. C Remember. The quads perform knee extension and hip flexion (rectus femoris). and low arches will stretch it. which would be more comfortable. 116. D The bicep only acts on the shoulder joint. 135. The sliding filament theory explains how a muscle contracts via the myosin and actin. 124. 117. B If the hamstrings are the antagonist. 137. the sartorius is the longest. A The nociceptors detect pain. 133. C The true ribs that articulate with the sternum (hence their name) are ribs one through seven. 132. . and/or both antagonistic and agonistic muscles are relaxed. and lordosis is an exaggerated inward curve of the spine (more commonly seen in the cervical and lumbar sections of the spine). A This will help to lengthen the low back and put the client in a more neutral pelvic position. 115. B We have more rotation in the neck than anywhere else in the spine (ninety degrees each direction). Latissiumus dorsi performs adduction. and chemoreceptors detect taste and smell. 140. . . The pterygoid provide attachments of muscles for the lower jaw and soft palate. gravity must be taken into account. Active means the client does the work and/or the antagonistic muscle is contracting to stretch the agonist. 126. it can tilt the pelvis anteriorly if tight. 120. The other muscles either act on the scapula or attach to the clavicle and therefore are girdle muscles. photoreceptors are related to vision. 139. so the muscles stay systemically stimulated. B This is mainly due to the true rib attachments. 118. D The peroneals attach to the base of metatarsals and therefore do not affect the development of plantar fasciitis directly. at about seventy to eighty degrees. Atrophy is the decrease in size of a muscle. and the subscapularis performs external shoulder rotation. Triquetrum. A Think of the Great Plains of the Midwest: they are flat. kyphosis is an exaggerated outward curve of the spine. B Because of gravity. C Muscle tone is a state of continuous. high arches will tighten the fascia. B The supraspinatus initiates abduction. If you remember that the rectus abdominus is on the anterior side of the body. the quadriceps are the agonist. . 131. The false ribs are eight through twelve. It allows us to stay upright. Even though the knees are flexing and hamstrings do that. as are feet that have pes “planus. 138. 119. C Tibialis anterior performs inversion and dorsiflexion. C The temporalis is on the skull by the ears. Body temperature can rise to very dangerous levels and cause permanent brain damage and even death. Physiology. 125.

160. C The medial collateral and lateral collateral ligaments prevent rotation of the knee. external rotation. it lifts the hip upward. lipids and triglycerides are fats. but there is no joint movement (you are stuck halfway up). 149. C The buccinator compresses the cheeks. 161. 153. When the muscle pulls or tightens. C Drop foot means the client is unable to dorsiflex the foot. and supination is a combination of plantar flexion and inversion. Pectoralis major. A Hip flexion is what needs to occur. A The semitendonosis and semimembranosis attach medial tibia. and the platysma is the sheath on the anterior neck. 172. 166. and knee flexion. palms facing forward. and Kinesiology 99 141. The muscle that dorsiflexes is anterior tibialis. and Subscapularis. 156. C Sartorius performs hip flexion. being a part of the quadriceps group. and the iliotibial band is on the lateral thigh. 171. B The origin is the immoveable end. 154. A Retraction is pulling the mandible backward. 155. 169. 162. or pointed. C Scalenes elevate the first and second rib. D The biceps brachii performs shoulder flexion and elbow flexion. and the temporalis muscle elevates and retracts the mandible. A The masseter closes the jaw. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments prevent forward or backward motion of the femur on the tibia. 170. B The gracilis is on the medial thigh. 146. B This would be an anterior pelvic tilt which would mean the hip flexor muscles would be tight (quads. the erector spinae controls trunk flexion in an eccentric way when standing or sitting. B Pronation is a combination of dorsiflexion and eversion. Physiology. B The quadratus lumborum originates on the inferior surface of rib twelve and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. 163. 152. Remember LIPS for Latissimus dorsi. which is why we do not work our abs from this position. It inserts on the iliac crest. D This would affect the lumbar spine the most and cause an exaggerated inward curve of the spine. C Because of gravity. 168. therefore. 147. 167. A Anterior tibialis performs dorsiflexion. everything is in an isometric contraction. Pectoralis major. 148.Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. and the terms distal and proximal are used for the upper extremities. A Because the muscles are contracting. A The trapezius sits on top of the rhomboids. but the deltoid ligament on the medial side of the ankle is also very strong. Both of these help prevent more eversion ankle sprains. the action of Internal rotation. D The movement described is internal rotation. 145. 165. they do not push. and the hip extensors would be stretched and weakened. B Another term for scapular protraction is scapular abduction. C Not only is it due to the lateral malleolus being lower than the medial. Concentrically. our feet tend to be extremely plantar flexed. D The masseter originates on the lower border of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the mandible. iliopsoas). C When lying prone. and the insertion is the moveable end. it makes sense that it closes the jaw. but extends the knee. 157. the pectoralis minor elevate the ribs. D Amino acids are proteins. 164. Remember. B Supraspinatus initiates humeral abduction. opening the jaw is depression. B The metacarpals are further away from the midline than the carpals. the orbicularis oris is the “kissing” muscle (helps us pucker!). A Biceps femoris is a part of the hamstrings group. 142. The other terms do not exist. walking only on the heels will strength it. muscles pull. A The supraspinatus initiates shoulder abduction. it extends the hip and flexes the knee. A Remember LIPS—Latissimus dorsi. 159. 150. and Subscapularis. Closing the jaw is elevation. Internal rotation. 144. The rectus femoris. C Traditional Chinese Medicine anatomical position is with the arms overhead. The external intercostals also elevate the ribs. D There is no iliacus major. so it would not be the hamstrings since they are involved . therefore. 151. the masseter is a chewing muscle. inserts on the tibia. 143. the correct term is superficial. Meats generally fall into the protein category. Ligaments attach bone to bone and have no direct involvement with muscle movement. 158. 173.

therefore. after exercise it is better to eat the high glycemic foods to replace the energy burned for fuel. fat. C Vitamins and minerals both are a basic nutrient with no calories. 176. and minerals. D While many herbs are wonderful for many situations. it is a component in muscle contractions but does not assist in the production of ATP. not a muscle. . Hamstrings are antagonist. the scapula are pulling back toward the spine. carbohydrates. 174. trace amounts. and that is quads!). 186. 180. Iliopsoas at the hip is an antagonist because the hip is extending (but not hamstrings because the knee is extending. the quads are lengthening and contracting in order to prevent you from falling. While five to ten percent is acceptable. but the fat-soluble will not. E. Mid-to-low glycemic is better before exercise. and the “S” in Sorry: saturated fats are the sorry fats. protein. A Herbs should be treated as medicine. it gets stored in the fat. B and C overdoses are excreted through the urine because these vitamins are water soluble. and the carpals are in the hands. B Distal means farthest away. and K are fat-soluble vitamins. meaning the body cannot expel overdoses easily. You would not ask friends about dosages for prescription medicine or increase your prescription dosages if they do not work immediately. 178. which produces ATP (chemical energy). many of them are used as such. D The purpose of the glucose is for energy. Although potassium is a mineral. 193. so when you retract something. B There are six basic nutrients: water. The “S” in Saturated. so a rush of sugar does not enter the bloodstream and cause a spike in energy. The gastroc/soleus is an assister because the foot goes from dorsiflexion into slight plantar flexion. 190. vitamins. 195. which would be the phalanges. C Remember adduction means you are “adding” everything toward the midline (or spine). garlic has been shown to be an excellent antibiotic. B High glycemic foods have to do with the glucose.100 Chapter 2 Detailed Knowledge of Anatomy. 177. 194. D Creatine and chromium are both involved in the Krebs cycle. D Fortified milk has vitamin D. one gram of fat equals nine calories. and unsaturated fats ten to twenty percent. 187. C HDL and LDL are types of cholesterol. so you do not want to do that with herbs. but minerals are the ones needed in small. Too little or too much produces an undesirable effect. C Cervical lamina is an area of the neck. 191. 179. A A. 189. B Because gravity is acting downward on the body. which is wonderful for minor burns. the rectus abdominus (along with the erector spinae) would be a stabilizer in order to prevent trunk flexion. A Too much sugar can actually suppress the immune system. The tarsals are more proximal. Since carbs are the primary fuel source. you take it back. D Remember I Like Spaghetti: ILS are the first letters of each muscle. Some doctors will advise or prescribe a potassium supplement in severe cases or recommend eating bananas or potato skins (plain!). 185. B Stabilizers prevent motion. and Kinesiology in hip extension. B Protein recommendations are twelve to twenty percent. Physiology. Watersoluble vitamins (B and C) will be excreted in the urine if taken in large amounts. 188. therefore. 183. A Aloe vera has an antiseptic cooling effect. which is a simple sugar. 182. 184. 192. movement is taking place there. quads and gluteus max are the primary movers. six to eight percent is ideal. C One gram of protein or carbohydrates equals four calories. D. 175. fats less than thirty percent. B Potassium can be easily flushed out of the body with diuretics. 181. The vastus lateralis and medialis do not cross the hip joint and therefore do not perform hip flexion. C Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. and thus causes cramping.

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